The Global Innovation Index 2011

Accelerating Growth and Development
Soumitra Dutta, INSEAD
Editor

The Global Innovation Index 2011
Accelerating Growth and Development

Soumitra Dutta, INSEAD
Editor

The Global Innovation Index 2011: Accelerating Growth and
Development is the result of a collaboration among INSEAD
and Knowledge Partners.
EDITOR

Soumitra DUTTA, Roland Berger Professor of Business and

KNOWLEDGE PARTNERS
Alcatel-Lucent

Revital MAROM, Head of Market and Consumer Insight
Simon POULTER, Head of Media Relations
Kurt STEINERT, Director of Corporate Communications
Louis WITTERS, Director, Market and Consumer Insight

Technology, INSEAD, and Academic Director, eLab, INSEAD
Booz and Company
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Global Innovation Index, like any innovation project, is a
collaborative effort. The valuable contributions of the individuals
listed below are gratefully acknowledged. We look forward to
the continued input of the broader community of innovation
professionals and experts to further improve the GII and to
make it more useful for policy making and decision makers in
the public/private sectors.

Karim M. SABBAGH, Senior Vice President
Richard SHEDIAC, Senior Vice President
Barry JARUZELSKI, Vice President
Hatem A. SAMMAN, Director, The Ideation Center
Lisa MITCHELL, Principal
Chadi N. MOUJAES, Principal
Joanne ALAM, Senior Associate
Confederation of Indian Industry

INSEAD

Bruno LANVIN, Executive Director of eLab
Daniela BENAVENTE, Senior Research Fellow, eLab
Shellie KARABELL, Director Media Relations & Knowledge
Sophie BADRE, Associate Director Media Relations
Shilpa DODDA, Research Programmer, eLab
Virginie BONGEOT-MINET, Centre Coordinator, eLab

Anjan DAS, Executive Director, Technology
Seema GUPTA, Director
Jibak DASGUPTA, Deputy Director
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Carsten FINK, Chief Economist
Sacha WUNSCH-VINCENT, Senior Economist
The index’s methodology and the rankings do not necessarily present the views of WIPO or
its Member States. Any remaining errors are the responsibility of the authors and not WIPO.

OTHER DIRECT COLLABORATORS

Michaela SAISANA, Senior Researcher, Institute for the
Protection and Security of the Citizen, Joint Research Centre
of the European Commission

Hope STEELE, Editor, Steele Editorial Services
Neil WEINBERG, Principal, Neil Weinberg Design

We are also grateful to the following persons for their help with
specific data requests:
Susan Teltscher, Head, and Esperanza Magpantay, Statistician,
Market Information and Statistics Division, Telecommunication
Development Bureau, International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Karen Treanton, Head of Energy Balances, Prices and Emissions
Section, Energy Statistics Division, International Energy Agency
Cornelius Bubenzer, Financial Markets Executive, and Ifigenia
Poulka, Data and Applications Specialist, Thomson Reuters

The terms ‘country’ and ‘nation’ as used in this report do not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international
law and practice. The terms cover well-defined, geographically self-contained economic areas that may not be states but for which statistical
data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.
© INSEAD 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication can be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by
any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise without the prior permission of INSEAD.
ISBN: 978-2-9522210-1-6
Printed and bound in France by INSEAD, Fontainebleau.

Table of Contents

Foreword: The World Needs Open Innovation

v

By Ben Verwaayen, Chief Executive Officer, Alcatel-Lucent

Foreword: Innovation: Increasingly Global,
Increasingly Vital

vii

By Shumeet Banerji, Chief Executive Officer, Booz & Company

Foreword: Innovation, Developing Markets,
and the Role of the Global Innovation Index

ix

xi

By Francis Gurry, Director General, World Intellectual
Property Organization

Preface: The Global Innovation Index Is a
Collaborative Effort

xiii

Chapter 3: Innovation in India:
Affordable Innovations

77

Chapter 4: Making Cities Smart and Sustainable

87

Chapter 5: The Global Footprint of Innovation

97

By Barry Jaruzelski, Chadi Moujaes, and Hatem
Samman, Booz & Company

xv

Rankings
Global Innovation Index 2011 Rankings

By Lourdes Casanova, INSEAD Strategy Department; Jeff Dayton-Johnson,
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; Nils Olaya
Fonstad, INSEAD; and Anna Pietikäinen, Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development

By Kurt W. Steinert, Revital Marom, Philippe Richard,
Baspar Veiga, and Louis Witters, Alcatel-Lucent

Soumitra Dutta, INSEAD

Advisory Board to the Global Innovation Index

65

By Manisha G. Singh, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; Anuraj
Gambhir, Xpert Media; and Jibak Dasgupta, Confederation of Indian
Industry

By Chandrajit Banerjee, Director General, Confederation of
Indian Industry

Foreword: Why Innovation Is Important

Chapter 2: Innovation in Latin America:
Recent Insights

Chapter 6: Accounting for Creativity in
Innovation: What We Should Be Measuring
and Related Difficulties

107

By Sacha Wunsch-Vincent, World Intellectual Property
Organization

xviii

Appendices
Chapters
Chapter 1: Measuring Innovation Potential
and Results: The Best Performing Economies

Appendix I: Country/Economy Profiles

117

Appendix II: Data Tables

247

Appendix III: Sources and Definitions

333

Appendix IV: Technical Notes

347

Appendix V: About the Authors

353

3

By Soumitra Dutta and Daniela Benavente, INSEAD

Appendix: Statistical tests on the
Global Innovation Index
By Michaela Saisana, European Commission
Joint Research Centre

57

v

FOREWORD

There are initiatives underway that are applying this
model of open innovation to specific global challenges.
One example I like to highlight is the GreenTouch™
Consortium, a group that is drawing on the expertise of
companies and organizations from all sectors of the information and communication technologies (ICT) industry
and academia to dramatically reduce energy consumption in ICT networks, a significant contributor to global
climate change. Together, these varied and often competing organizations are working together to pioneer the
new technologies on which energy efficient networks of
the future will depend. These are not merely incremental improvements, but disruptive technologies that will
change the nature of networks forever.
I am convinced that this same model, where commercial concerns and self-interest are set aside for the
greater good, can and must be applied to the great challenges of our time, from the management of rapid urbanization (which we address in this report) to connecting
the underserved populations of the world and to the
establishment of a more sustainable way of life across the
board.
The Global Innovation Index is laying the foundation
for a global conversation of the role of innovation in
addressing these challenges. By bringing together diverse
parties to explore how innovation is being applied around
the world, and what conditions make for successful innovation, it is making an essential contribution to the promotion of open innovation as a basic operating principal
for the global community.
Ben Verwaayen
Chief Executive Officer
Alcatel-Lucent

THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011

Innovation has always been an important element in the
relative success of societies—economically, intellectually,
and socially. And as we move from a world of independent, lightly linked societies to one of inclusion with a
larger, more deeply interconnected global community,
innovation is more critical than ever.
What is the role of innovation in transforming a
society? How does this transformation happen? It is one
thing to have a great idea—it is another to bring it to life.
For innovation to thrive you need an ecosystem that can
transform an idea into something truly meaningful.
This important work that you have in your hands,
the Global Innovation Index, explores the transformative
power of innovation. Significantly, it identifies the conditions and qualities that allow innovation to thrive, and
highlights the role innovation can play in a nation’s economic and social development.
But there is another, even deeper question we need
to ask ourselves:What is the role of innovation in addressing the great challenges that confront humanity?
We are at a very exciting time in history, a pivotal time, and the global community faces some daunting challenges. The planet is getting hotter. Cities are
expanding at an astounding rate, creating a difficult environment for the delivery of basic services such as health
care, public safety, and education. At the same time, while
the world becomes more connected—there are more cell
phones today than there are people—large segments of
the global community remain completely cut off from
the world of commerce, communication, and information that has become so critical to the establishment of
healthy economies and prosperous people.
As importantly, these changes cannot be incremental—the solutions to our most daunting challenges will
require bold, creative leaps. These challenges require new
thinking, new technology, and new ways of collaborating—an open innovation approach to solving problems
that is based on partnerships among industries, companies, national and regional governments, and research
organizations and academia.

Forewords

The World Needs Open Innovation

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and improving corporate governance. Increasingly Vital by developing their talent base. That fact is reflected in the increasingly global nature of innovation. In the six years that our firm has published the annual Global Innovation 1000 study. the effect of the recession on innovation spending. and knowledge. and access to technology. setting up R&D sites in low-cost emerging countries such as China and India to access global talent and take advantage of their proximity to target markets. which tracks the companies that spend the most on research and development worldwide. As a result. we believe in the transformative nature of innovation. In doing so. and ways that innovative companies are consistently able to outperform their peers. At Booz & Company. developing economies—many of which managed to weather the storm of the financial crisis—must actively develop an innovation environment Forewords vii FOREWORD . information. Multinational corporations are making large investments in research and development (R&D) outside of their headquarter countries.Innovation: Increasingly Global. or nation has a monopoly on innovation. new management practices. The world has reached an inflection point in the evolution of innovation: Whereas economic advantage during the Industrial Revolution relied largely on natural resources. Governments and companies alike must continue to push forward in building their capabilities in innovation if they are to capture and sustain competitive advantage in the coming years. We believe that new ideas can be a catalyst for change at all levels of society. we have gained significant insight into the nature of innovation in terms of the relationship between innovation and performance. At the same time. Developed economies—many still reeling from the impact of the world’s financial crisis that began in 2008—must push forward with innovation strategies in order to stay ahead in critical industries. No single person. introducing or enforcing laws that protect intellectual property. society. national development in the Digital Age depends on smart. company. developing countries are benefiting from new products and services that better fit their needs. ambitious individuals—who can be found anywhere. more job opportunities. We have also seen that innovation will be one of the most crucial elements in the continuing advancement of businesses and governments worldwide. they are incubating the next stage of the world’s economic advancement. And we believe that institutions—public and private—have a mandate to create environments in which innovation will flourish. Shumeet Banerji Chief Executive Officer Booz & Company THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Booz & Company is honoured to contribute to The Global Innovation Index 2011 and to continue to support businesses and governments throughout the world in their pursuit of innovation.

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people are well connected to the global market. and shortening product lifecycles. From big metropolitan areas to remote ones. I welcome all the partners to this initiative and hope that together we will be able to enhance our contributions to the GII. Forewords ix FOREWORD . The outreach of this study. As we look around and observe the whole world embracing innovation in a time of economic downturns. which makes it a readily available guide for national policy makers. which attempts to include developing regions such as India—a country that is fast transforming itself into an innovation-driven economy— has made it comprehensive. the Internet. where it is reshaping the mindset of people in remote villages and towns. and it is why innovation is becoming more and more widely discussed as a way to counter this rapid change in the global order. This is the third consecutive year of the report. thanks to the advent of the computer. the world has become a global village where distances have ceased to affect human interaction and information exchange. shrinking markets. and mobile devices. It is here that the importance of ‘innovation’ becomes evident. This perpetual journey has recently gained unprecedented momentum. On behalf of CII. we see a clear shift towards the developing regions. Chandrajit Banerjee Director General Confederation of Indian Industry THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 It gives me great pleasure to see the flourishing partnership between the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and INSEAD on the Global Innovation Index (GII). The GII and its importance The Global Innovation Index (GII) is one such study. it is associated with various innovation activities within industry and society at large. congratulate its wonderful team. The indexing of countries on innovation parameters will not only showcase the excellence of lead countries but also help in finding the gaps for the laggards. but also more informed and increasingly connected to the mainstream market. Developing Markets. The GII provides insight into the innovation gaps that need be filled. its knowledge of this region complements the GII well. and the Role of the Global Innovation Index Innovation and developing markets People have always attempted to fathom the unknown and discover new paths to knowledge. conducted by experts from INSEAD and its Knowledge Partners to put into perspective the new trends and practices in innovation across the world. This phenomenon creates huge challenges and as well as opportunities for existing businesses if they are to survive this massive change. To use a cliché. and the inclusion of three other partners—Alcatel-Lucent.Innovation. Booz & Company. which are the new hotbeds of innovation and future markets. This rapid connectivity and information flow has had a great influence on developing regions. Because CII is the premier industry body of India. and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)—has strengthened and diversified the team. People are not only more educated today than they were a short time ago. I express my satisfaction at being associated with the GII. In the last two or three decades the world has seen rapid changes in operational efficiency. Some good efforts have been made to capture these evolving economic conditions by various studies at a global level. and wish it all success.

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and other innovations—are now acknowledged as vital. Innovation capability is also the ability to exploit new and incremental technological combinations. The innovation landscape has evolved significantly in recent years. It is the source of improvements to the quality of our everyday life. It evades clear measurement by national statistical offices. the innovation process today is more open. I believe that having the GII makes an important difference in several ways: It seeks to sharpen the eye of policy makers about the importance of innovation and related policies and puts a spotlight on a topic that is otherwise hard to grasp. WIPO. new marketing approaches. and its eminent Advisory Board Members for a fruitful partnership. Measuring innovation. Francis Gurry Director General World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Dhillon Photographics Forewords Why Innovation Is Important . and there is no clear understanding of which factors interact in specific country settings and how to influence innovation. To enable countries to benchmark their policies. Trends in economic growth and patterns of investment in education and research and development foster a multi-polar innovation landscape. and better jobs. thus becoming a tool to assess relative positions and to refine national innovation policies. Third. and fostering adequate policies is a multi-year journey. there has been increased recognition of the complexity of the journey from idea to commercial reality. the number of science PhDs—may not operate in an identical manner across different countries. especially as our understanding has broadened and as a wider spectrum of actors—the service sector.xi FOREWORD Innovation is a central driver of economic growth. leading to a broadening of our understanding of innovation. We at WIPO look forward to taking part in this journey. This undertaking is not without challenges. Many factors—say. And the demands created by the GII are meant to foster the availability of statistical data. despite the policy interest it now garners. GII’s Knowledge Partners. Firms in lower-income countries are no longer only passive adopters of technologies. successful design. First. We are therefore glad to have supported the development of the 2011 GII and I thank INSEAD. development. a willingness to use official data where possible. Even less is known about how new products and processes come about in developing countries. Why an innovation index? Innovation is still a blurry concept. and internationalized than ever. shifts are occurring in the geography of innovation. Nonetheless. contributes to stimulating innovation and economic development. as enterprises from middleincome economies have emerged on the international innovation scene. the Global Innovation Index (GII) provides an integrated metric based on carefully selected and weighted variables. The technological gap between middleand high-income countries has narrowed. I hope readers find the present publication enlightening. Second. and what its impacts are. It helps to create an environment where innovation factors are under constant re-evaluation. and the process by which solutions are found to social and economic challenges. Importantly. from climate change to the fight against deadly diseases. in this setting. Developing an innovation index is constrained by data limitations. and philanthropies—is recognized. Opportunities to innovate can be tapped by all. public entities. innovation-driven growth is no longer the prerogative of high-income countries alone. how innovation diffuses. through developing a balanced and effective international intellectual property system. It is the result of several years of improvement. identifying its main drivers. Non-technological innovations—such as new organizational forms. Better understanding the innovation process is thus closely linked to our mission. and a desire to weight sub-variables in order not to penalize smaller or lower-income economies. It is the key that enables firms to successfully compete in the global marketplace. collaborative.

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a specialized agency of the United Nations) joined INSEAD as Knowledge Partners in the elaboration of the GII. and other stakeholders can evaluate progress on a continual basis. the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). and will participate actively in the dissemination of results. contributed analytical chapters to the GII Report. and Revital Marom and Kurt Steinert of Alcatel-Lucent is gratefully acknowledged. INSEAD a thorough robustness and sensitivity analysis of the GII. whereby policy makers. research centers created. the GII Report underwent major developments. Chadi Moujaes and Hatem Samman of Booz and Company. INSEAD eLab has been producing the GII.The Global Innovation Index Is a Collaborative Effort Preface xiii PREFACE Soumitra Dutta. With the global economy forecasted to grow at a rate of more than 4% in 2011. Bruno Lanvin of INSEAD eLab. Booz & Company. Anjan Das. The excellent research and overall project management of Daniela Benavente for this fourth edition of the GII is also gratefully acknowledged. is a collaborative effort. research articles produced. an Advisory Board was set up. As part of this evolution. We look forward to the continued input of the broader community of innovation professionals and experts to further improve the GII and to make it more useful for policy making and decision makers in the public and private sectors. and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO. The recommendations from the JRC auditing report are presented in the Report and were taken into account in the computation of the rankings. They have provided valuable input to the research underlying the GII. recognizing the key role of innovation as a driver of economic growth and prosperity and acknowledging the need for a broad horizontal vision of innovation that is applicable to both developed and emerging economies. Jibak Dasgupta. for the 2011 edition. like any innovation project. comprising a select group of international practitioners and experts in the realm of innovation (details on the following page). Last but certainly not least. the support of Sacha Wunsch-Vincent of WIPO. In addition. It gathered key players around the project and strengthened the GII as a valuable benchmarking tool to facilitate public-private dialogue. Since 2007. and R&D expenditures. The JRC has researched extensively on the complexity of composite indicators ranking countries’ performances along policy lines. The GII. There are many others who have made valuable contributions to the success of the project this year—in particular. business leaders. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 As this fourth edition of The Global Innovation Index (GII) 2011 goes to the press in the second quarter of 2011. Alcatel-Lucent. A key goal of the GII has been to find metrics and approaches to better capture the richness of innovation in society and go beyond the traditional measures of innovation such as the number of PhDs. the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission performed . innovation is coming into its own as an essential element of resilience as economies aim to sustain their growth while creating new jobs for their citizens. These Knowledge Partners share a common belief in the growing importance of innovation for enabling economic growth in both developed and emerging nations. the global economic recovery is strengthening in most parts of the world. In 2011. and Seema Gupta of CII. patents issued. We are grateful for the time and support provided by the Advisory Board members.

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Advisory Board xv ADVISORY BOARD . and academia). Global Research Alliance. National Chemical Laboratory Lynn St Amour President and CEO of the Internet Society Hamadoun Touré Secretary General of the United Nations International Telecommunication Union (ITU) THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 In 2011. Its members.Advisory Board to the Global Innovation Index ADVISORY BOARD MEMBERS Khalid S. US National Science Foundation R. and assist with the dissemination of its messages and results. The Advisory Board is a select group of leading international practitioners and experts with unique knowledge and skills in the realm of innovation. the public sector. business. Al-Sultan Rector of King Fahad University for Petroleum & Minerals of Saudi Arabia Daniele Archibugi Technology Director at the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and Professor of Innovation at the University of London Irina Bokova Director General of the United Nations Educational. an Advisory Board was set up to advise on the research underlying the Global Innovation Index (GII). while coming from diverse geographical and institutional backgrounds (international organizations. Science & Engineering  Indicators. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Leonid Gokhberg First Vice-Rector of the Higher School of Economics of Russia and Director of the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge Rolf-Dieter Heuer Director General of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Rolf Lehming Director. generate synergies at its development stages. non-governmental organizations. participate in their personal capacity. We are grateful for the time and support provided by the Advisory Board members. A. Mashelkar CSIR Bhatnagar Fellow & President.

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Rankings .

40 41.71 36. China Finland Denmark United States of America Canada Netherlands United Kingdom Iceland Germany Ireland Israel New Zealand Korea.83 34.43 38.05 48.96 56.05 43. Lithuania Jordan Bulgaria Poland Croatia Costa Rica Bahrain Brazil Thailand Lebanon Romania Viet Nam Kuwait Mauritius Saudi Arabia Serbia Russian Federation Oman Argentina South Africa Ukraine Guyana India Greece Score (0–100) Rank Income Rank Region Rank 2010 2009 63.79 53.57 56.66 38.11 36.98 37.10 54.74 47.80 57. Luxembourg Norway Austria Japan Australia France Estonia Belgium Hungary Qatar Czech Republic Cyprus China Slovenia Malaysia Spain Portugal United Arab Emirates Italy Latvia Slovak Republic Chile Moldova.50 61.85 49.18 49.18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI HI LM HI UM HI HI HI HI HI HI UM LM UM LM UM HI HI UM HI UM LM UM UM LM HI UM HI UM UM HI UM UM LM LM LM HI 1 ECS 1 4 7 2 ECS 2 2 3 3 EAS 1 7 5 4 EAS 2 3 12 5 ECS 3 6 13 6 ECS 4 5 8 7 NAC 1 11 1 8 NAC 2 12 11 9 ECS 5 8 10 10 ECS 6 14 4 11 ECS 7 1 20 12 ECS 8 16 2 13 ECS 9 19 21 14 MEA 1 23 23 15 EAS 3 9 27 16 EAS 4 20 6 17 ECS 10 15 17 18 ECS 11 10 14 19 ECS 12 21 15 20 EAS 5 13 9 21 EAS 6 18 22 22 ECS 13 22 19 23 ECS 14 29 29 24 ECS 15 17 18 25 ECS 16 36 47 26 MEA 2 35 24 27 ECS 17 27 33 28 ECS 18 32 45 1 EAS 7 43 37 29 ECS 19 26 36 1 EAS 8 28 25 30 ECS 20 30 28 31 ECS 21 34 40 32 MEA 3 24 26 33 ECS 22 38 31 34 ECS 23 44 60 35 ECS 24 37 35 2 LCN 1 42 39 2 ECS 25 n/a 116 3 ECS 26 39 42 3 MEA 4 58 55 4 ECS 27 49 74 36 ECS 28 47 56 37 ECS 29 45 62 5 LCN 2 41 48 38 MEA 5 40 34 6 LCN 3 68 50 4 EAS 9 60 44 7 MEA 6 n/a n/a 8 ECS 30 52 69 5 EAS 10 71 64 39 MEA 7 33 30 9 SSF 1 73 66 40 MEA 8 54 32 10 ECS 31 101 92 11 ECS 32 64 68 41 MEA 9 65 52 12 LCN 4 75 84 13 SSF 2 51 43 6 ECS 33 61 79 7 LCN 5 113 103 8 SAS 1 56 41 42 ECS 34 46 54 0.01 34.30 46.0 .32 49.42 38.0 8.80 39.63 37.64 36.85 35.75 37.84 38.99 40.0 43.60 50.12 59.02 37.68 52.91 37.43 45.45 46.12 47.25 35.33 56.22 35.96 55.50 26.25 49.10 54.80 37.44 36.47 36.75 52.64 58.75 17.49 38.Rankings xviii Global Innovation Index rankings GII PAST YEARS THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Country/Economy Switzerland Sweden Singapore Hong Kong (SAR).07 44.65 52. Rep.31 55.81 42.69 39.89 54.25 70.75 50.03 53.31 35.50 56.05 38.52 34.51 35.82 62. Rep.83 36.36 35.

78 25.52 27.0 43.15 28.00 32.79 29.74 30.17 31.86 25. 0.88 21.17 30. NAC = North America.41 20. World Bank Regional Classification (January 2011): ECS = Europe & Central Asia.14 28.14 22.51 30.81 27.37 26.25 35.95 26.32 32.34 30.88 26.41 26.89 33.27 24.48 32.33 29.05 27.54 23.36 30.88 28.18 34. SSF = Sub-Saharan Africa.45 30. LM = lower-middle income.41 28.75 26.17 29. SAS = South Asia.75 52.11 33.xix Rankings Global Innovation Index rankings (continued) GII PAST YEARS Uruguay Turkey Tunisia Macedonia Mongolia Armenia Ghana Colombia Trinidad and Tobago Georgia Paraguay Brunei Darussalam Bosnia & Herzegovina Panama Namibia Botswana Albania Mexico Sri Lanka Peru Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Guatemala Egypt Azerbaijan Kenya El Salvador Philippines Jamaica Ecuador Morocco Iran Nigeria Bangladesh Honduras Indonesia Senegal Swaziland Venezuela Cameroon Tanzania Pakistan Uganda Mali Malawi Rwanda Nicaragua Cambodia Bolivia Madagascar Zambia Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Côte d’Ivoire Benin Zimbabwe Burkina Faso Ethiopia Niger Yemen Sudan Algeria Score (0–100) Rank Income Rank Region Rank 2010 2009 34.50 24. MEA = Middle East & North Africa.72 20.35 25.93 30. EAS = East Asia & Pacific.40 33.96 25.41 25.81 23.50 61.44 25.87 31.15 29.79 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 UM UM LM UM LM LM LI UM HI LM LM HI UM UM UM UM UM UM LM UM UM LI LM LM UM LI LM LM UM LM LM UM LM LI LM LM LM LM UM LM LI LM LI LI LI LI LM LI LM LI LI LM LI LM LI LI LI LI LI LM LM UM 14 LCN 15 ECS 9 MEA 16 ECS 10 EAS 11 ECS 1 SSF 17 LCN 43 LCN 12 ECS 13 LCN 44 EAS 18 ECS 19 LCN 20 SSF 21 SSF 22 ECS 23 LCN 14 SAS 24 LCN 25 ECS 2 ECS 15 LCN 16 MEA 26 ECS 3 SSF 17 LCN 18 EAS 27 LCN 19 LCN 20 MEA 28 MEA 21 SSF 4 SAS 22 LCN 23 EAS 24 SSF 25 SSF 29 LCN 26 SSF 5 SSF 27 SAS 6 SSF 7 SSF 8 SSF 9 SSF 28 LCN 10 EAS 29 LCN 11 SSF 12 SSF 30 MEA 13 ECS 31 SSF 14 SSF 15 SSF 16 SSF 17 SSF 18 SSF 32 MEA 33 SSF 30 MEA 6 53 80 35 67 51 10 62 46 36 77 89 11 87 105 37 82 104 3 105 n/a 7 90 75 8 55 65 38 84 98 9 127 118 12 48 n/a 39 116 n/a 10 66 67 4 92 95 5 86 77 40 81 121 11 69 61 2 79 58 12 88 85 41 63 72 42 104 122 13 95 81 11 74 76 43 57 57 6 83 78 14 91 88 13 76 63 15 70 73 16 126 109 12 94 82 13 n/a n/a 7 96 70 3 120 111 17 112 83 14 72 49 8 106 90 9 n/a n/a 18 124 101 10 119 106 11 98 86 4 103 93 12 108 100 13 107 97 14 97 n/a 15 n/a n/a 19 117 114 15 102 117 20 129 123 16 125 113 17 111 96 14 132 94 44 115 112 18 89 n/a 19 118 99 20 131 126 21 122 115 22 123 120 23 n/a n/a 15 n/a n/a 24 n/a n/a 16 121 108 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Country/Economy Note: World Bank Income Group Classification (January 2011): LI = low income.98 28.75 28.21 29. and HI = high income.0 .50 26.75 17.0 8.56 27.08 23. UM = upper-middle income.73 28.47 33.82 24.45 30.32 29.46 25.77 30.78 27.84 30.25 70. and LCN = Latin America & Caribbean.36 19.

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Chapters .

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and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) were considered. As a sign of the increasing validation and importance of the GII project. INSEAD The Global Innovation Index (GII) project was launched by INSEAD in 2007 with the simple goal of determining how to find metrics and approaches to better capture the richness of innovation in society and go beyond such traditional measures of innovation as the number of PhDs. and includes social innovations and business model innovations as well. and contributions from other public. and stage of economic development. The GII project has benefited from the knowledge and input of these partners. population. Second. four key Knowledge Partners have contributed to the project this year: AlcatelLucent. but feedback from experts and practitioners allows the model to continue to evolve. remain hard to identify and harder to measure with objective metrics. combining various metrics into a simple measure of innovation for an economy is fraught with statistical and other complexities. The GII builds on these prior approaches and attempts to incorporate new perspectives on both traditional and emerging views of innovation. the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). the research centres created. Booz & Company. However. takes several important steps in this direction. such as those in the informal economy. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Measuring Innovation Potential and Results: The Best Performing Economies 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 3 Chapter 1 . reaching this goal has not been simple.2 and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO. Finally. Innovation could be and is more general and horizontal in nature.Soumitra Dutta and Daniela Benavente. innovation is important for driving economic progress and competitiveness—both for developed and developing economies.and private-sector leaders who are interested in understanding and improving innovation in their economies will continue to provide valuable input. The GII innovation model. Last but not least. This chapter presents selected findings from a review of innovation literature that has allowed us to refine the theoretical underpinnings of the GII model and guide the revision of pillars and sub-pillars and the selection of indicators. Many aspects of innovation. the patents issued. there is awareness that the definition of innovation has broadened—it is no longer restricted to R&D laboratories and to published scientific papers. recognizing and celebrating innovation in emerging markets is seen as critical for inspiring people—especially the next generation of entrepreneurs and innovators. All available off icial data from international organizations such as the World Bank. and research and development (R&D) expenditures. Many governments are putting innovation at the centre of their growth strategies. There were several motivations for setting this goal.1 especially when considering economies that are often vastly different in size. This continues to be a challenge because obtaining timely and relevant metrics on a global basis is often not possible. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Each of these partners shares a common vision of the importance of a broader notion of innovation in our world today. the number of research articles produced. The chapter also includes details on the innovation rankings emerging from the GII project in 2011. First. A serious body of literature (see the next section) has attempted to outline metrics for innovation over the last several years. although many critical measures of innovation are not covered in the efforts of these organizations. the United Nations Educational. An ambition of the GII has been to maximize the number of economies evaluated in the study. a specialized agency of the United Nations). described in further detail in this chapter.

It occurs business practices. leading to productivity improvements. introduces a product or process to or a new organizational method in a country for the first time. Since this classification applies exclusively to manufactures (textiles. past (OECD/EC. First. we embrace a broad definition that has the advantage of being both short and well suited to capture global innovation: An innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service). In this report.).1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 4 Box 1: Low-tech innovations Although innovations with low technolog- sector in the European Union at 15 coun- ical content have always existed.6 An innovation can be new to the world. Second. in sharp contrast with the 1. According to the OECD classification of innovativeness based on R&D intensity. innovation in the public sector was mentioned as an area deserving further attention.4 In its first editions in 1992 and 1997. Third. The 2005 edition incorporated three crucial developments. where the focus is on impact. or external relations. 17). For this absorption of innovation to be effective. as high-tech industries represent a small proportion of total manufacturing industries. innovation occurs through ‘creative imitation’. wood. This distinction is crucial.8 . the fact tries (1979–2003) and the United States of that innovations do not necessarily entail America. tries have represented around 6% and 10% of the value-added of the manufacturing and covered only products and processes. niche markets. investment in equipment and machinery). Low-tech sectors mainly fall into the first group. the ‘technological’ qualifier was eliminated (see Box  1). innovations in methods were added to the list. Moreover. The breakthrough made after 1997 was to expand the sectoral coverage from manufacturing industries to services.5 In 2010. demand factors. a new process. In short. p. so that low-tech firms provide a demand pull for high-tech firms. etc. although process innovations have more technological content (cf. workplace orga- when other firms imitate this pio- nization. (3) specialized suppliers. 4. or new to an agent. 3. respectively (1979–2004). New technologies often spill over (through acquisition) from other industries. which guides statisticians in their recent attempts to measure innovation. Source Based on Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. low-tech industries are those that have an R&D intensity that ranges between 0 and 0. rather than on novelty. the Manual focused exclusively on technological innovations make minor improvements and adaptations to improve a product or production process. or new to a sector or market. it occurs when the initial or follower firms The modern evolution of the concept of innovation can be sketched by referring to the different versions of the Oslo Manual. It can also be a disruptive innovation. including in developed economies. Product innovations are not intensive in research and development (R&D). (2) scale-intensive firms. a technological component emerges as an Innovation in low-tech industries has important theme in the recent literature particular characteristics: on innovation.7 Most studies agree that the commercial introduction of innovations developed elsewhere constitutes an innovation: Innovation also occurs when a firm THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Prior research in innovation: Selected perspectives Different definitions of innovation have been proposed in the literature. a new marketing method. which included four groups: (1) supplierdominated firms. and (4) sciencebased firms. the Ministerial Report on the Organisation for Econom ic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Innovation Strategy added that ‘consideration [was] being given to extending the methodology to public sector innovation and social innovation so as to correspond to the reality of innovation today’. a different taxonomy was proposed by Pavitt in 1984. pulp. It is more ‘market pulled’ than ‘technology pushed’. a skilled workforce and learning capabilities are required. for the first time. High-tech indus- 2.9% (this intensity is greater than 5% for high-tech industries). and mature brands are crucial to innovation in low-tech industries. 2005. product differentiation. 2009.3 neering firm.

other phenomena in India today. ‘Innovation in India: How to account ‘fairly’ for these Affordable Innovations’ analyses this and islands of progress is a real conundrum. for instance. and discipline-based in nature. and interdisciplinary—task-force teams and tailored processes are created to work on specific projects. 2008. for example. and the transportation and telecommunications infrastructure. By contrast. and governance regimes surrounding innovative activities are of special relevance to their success. 2010. 3 Mashelkar and Prahalad. industry. 2004. they originate in all agents of society: at the level of the firm. the import of machinery and equipment. or industry clusters. the spill-over effects of foreign direct investment (FDI). IBM. keeping in mind the price sensitivity of Indian Notes consumers.com/2009/10/ what_is_reverse_innovation.’5 Chapter 3. markets. A distinction made by Gibbons et al. Cisco. tax laws. 5 World Bank. 6 World Bank. edge’4 have all been recently coined to . around local public research institutions. and government. (1994) has been highly inf luential in the literature on innovation. innovation acquires a strong regional or sectoral component. openness to credit. in part as well as Indian major players such as because the more technologically back- Tata. solar-powered cellular of the two countries’ major cities and trad- phones. where an innovation is developed and/or adopted first in the develop- 2 Mashelkar and Prahalad.The surprisingly low level of overall tech- describe the type of innovation by which nological achievement in countries such technological products are customized at as China and India contrasts with popular low prices and high volumes in and for perceptions. . has set in. p. in academia. In addition. These include the political environment.12 International market linkages foster the development of technological capabilities in developing and least-developed countries because they integrate global value chains through exports. With technological catch-up and market and business sophistication. 3 ‘constraint-based developing countries: ‘Slow diffusion with- innovation’. the presence of competition laws. p.9 Innovation activities by these agents are usually complementary: Prototypes might be developed in a university research lab and the final product introduced in the market by a firm. 91. problem-focused. ing world and then deployed in mature 4 Finger. Examples abound: tive technological sophistication of some Tata’s Nano car. These authors label traditional 19th and early 20th century research as ‘mode 1’: Characterized by a cleavage between academia and society. . and Xerox gies is almost double that of India. A trend of ‘reverse innovation’ 1 http://www. .vijaygovindarajan. such as those of the ‘Triple Helix of Innovation’. or of an industry. or even ‘poor people’s knowl- in countries reflects a nonlinear process. Godrej. Bank notes the technological divide in ‘inclusive innovation’. in governmental services or in the public sector.htm. and in society in general. 1 In a recent publication. the World ‘Gandhian innovation’. 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 5 .10 Other theorists. good infrastructure. A recent study THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Innovations are not restricted to the firm. application-oriented. China’s index of diffusion of new technolo- PepsiCo. [t]he same kind of techno- industry. which is centred mostly around the firm where research is increasingly context-driven. peer reviewed. GE. organizational. micro-spinning in the textiles ing centers. the protection of intellectual property rights. this type of research is academic. . 90. large dynamic firms. institutional. Sub-national systems of innovation might develop. self-sustained. .11 The different legal. i nve st ig ator -i n it i ated . transfers of technology. the treatment of investment and trade. 2008. 2010. is visible within countries as well. ‘mode 2’ refers to more recent forms of knowledge production. and a strong entrepreneurial environment can inf luence the innovative performance of regions. and the hand-held electrocardio- logical diversity observed across countries gram Mac 400 are just a few. which are based on the rela- emerging markets. and licensing. venture capital. have stressed the historical continuities and linkages in the relationship among academia.2 ‘frugal innovation’.6 coming up with frugal innovations.Box 2: Innovation in emerging markets Terms such as ‘reverse innovation’. autonomous. Big mul- The same report gives one clue: ‘The rise in tinational corporations such as Microsoft. and Mahindras are shifting ward regions in China have made progress their focus towards the rapidly expand- in closing the gap with the more techno- ing middle-income group of customers by logically advanced regions on the coast’. Nokia.

needed to be strengthened. Some aspects. The challenge for the research team behind the Global Innovation Index was to find statistics that would gauge the developments and trends of innovation in low-tech industries. and other factors. A key inspiration behind the GII comes from the literature on total quality management (TQM). operation and Development (OECD) and Firms are also being asked about fac- the European Commission have been tors that hamper their ability to innovate. which has a long history in benchmarking and data analysis. The same distinction between enablers and results has been incorporated into the GII. they are vey results across studies are not always asked to respond to a number of questions comparable. productivity. was given in Japan in 1951—this award initially focused on product and process quality. Innovation Inputs are measured by three aspects: fiscal policies. (2) the quality also a number of Latin American. the Deming Award. Innovation Performance is measured by R&D results. these surveys aim to assess the of data on innovation since the first edition effect of innovation on sales. of the Oslo Manual in 1992. of responses varies greatly. The focus of the BCG/NAM Index is on business performance specifically in . The BCG/NAM Index is built on a model comprising two major blocks: Innovation Inputs and Innovation Performance. One general preliminary conclusion in light of this survey was that the GII conceptual framework developed in previous versions was well suited to uncover innovation as it occurs today—it did not require a major overhaul. Some key pieces from prior research are mentioned below. The literature review allowed us to refine the theoretical underpinnings of the GII and guided the revision of pillars. if yes. and so on shows that a limited technological adaptive capacity may reduce the diffusion of future technologies. R&D spending). while at the same time covering the traditional sectors of innovation and enabling environments. After asking firms the country coverage is still very limited. control who is replying to the question- Firm-level innovation surveys seek naire and as respondents have a tendency to identify the characteristics of innova- to overrate their innovative activity. and indicators. Composite indicators for innovation The previous section surveyed important developments in the conceptualization of innovation and a series of recent issues and trends in the realm of innovation. business performance. however. guiding the collection and interpretation Finally. information. which is now in employment. The first TQM award.and nano-technology. to answer certain basic questions (indus- because most developing countries—but try affiliation. and (4) sur- are an ‘innovator’ and. These innovation surveys are a rich Innovation surveys started with the data source for analytical work on innova- European Community Innovation Survey tion. and other countries). (3) tive enterprise activities. However. Innovation today is expanding its focus in a similar way. other policies. Asian. which are difficult to capture with traditional metrics (see Box 2). providing the theoretical underpinnings of the conceptual framework. The GII also draws on other composite indicators in its design.13 The type of innovation taking place in emerging markets presents its own peculiarities. and innovation environment. on the readiness. Subsequent versions have evolved into a broader notion of business excellence that looks at the whole business. of a set of countries to apply recently developed technologies in bio. in emerging markets. The focus in TQM expanded from a narrow technical on to a much broader concept. materials. although it differs in many respects from a host of other indices on innovation. including enablers and results. and public impact of innovation. turnover. its third edition (2005).THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 6 Box 3: Innovation surveys The Organisation for Economic Co- regarding their innovation characteristics. as one cannot African. sub-pillars. and in business models. The Boston Consulting Group/National Association of Manufacturers Index The BCG/NAM International Innovation Index was built in 2009 to establish a ranking among US states and among countries. also some large developed countries—do firms are asked to identify whether they not conduct these surveys. so that innovation outside the busi- wide (mostly the European countries but ness sector is not captured. by 2020. a number of problems exist: in the early 1990s and are now being con- (1) the questionnaires are given only to ducted in about 50–60 countries world- firms.

However. Rarely do they provide data on the aforementioned innovation itself. Moreover. This is particularly true if one considers our broadening notion of innovation. as mentioned above (e. intellectual property protection. A development particularly relevant to the fine-tuning of this year’s GII was the release of the OECD Innovation Strategy Report in 2010 along with its accompanying compendium of close to 100 indicators on innovation (see Box 4). and USPTO. information on innovation inputs / throughputs (such as R&D expenditures and the number of scientists in a country). renamed the Innovation Union Scoreboard in 2010. or certain forms of technologyrelated commercial activity (such as data on high-technology exports). Innovation Outputs are measured by a single indicator: the sum of patents granted by the European. has been in existence for nearly a decade. there are several unresolved issues with these data. and patenting. at best. Until 2007. They are generally not available and comparable for more than about 50 countries. The Joint Research Centre. Only one edition (2009) of the BCG/NAM Innovation Index has been published thus far. Innovation Inputs are measured by direct innovation inputs (six measures. and most of the data used were generated through surveys and interviews.14 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 7 . confirmed the soundness of this approach (details in the appendix to this chapter). and they are often specific to technological and product innovations of research organizations and firms. and intellectual assets). so they provide. Science and technology indicators are not all available internationally. Firm Activities (firm investments. China. linkages/ entrepreneurship. respectively). public entities. such as foreign trade and exchange controls). while dealing with the theme of competitiveness. Innovation is a separate pillar within the GCI that includes metrics traditionally attributed to innovation related to R&D. research systems. and India. includes 12 pillars that overlap on some enabling factors for innovation in the GII. which assisted in the assessment of the conceptual and statistical coherence of the overall structure of the GII. and finance/support). T he OECD I n novat ion Strategy metrics conf irmed the continued relevance of traditional THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 the manufacturing sector. it has been modified to include an underlying model comprising three blocks: Enablers (human resources. which encapsulates non-technological. A trade-off between precision and country coverage was often made in selecting the indicators to be included in the GII model. and US Patent Offices (EPO. Most existing measures also struggle to appropriately capture innovation outputs of a wider spectrum of innovation actors. intermediate innovation outputs (such as numbers of scientific publications or patents).The European Innovation Scoreboard/ Innovation Union Scoreboard The European Innovation Scoreboard..15 The Global Innovation Index of the Economist Intelligence Unit The Economist Intelligence Unit index ranks 41 countries along a model consisting of Innovation Inputs and Innovation Outputs. The balance was struck in favour of selecting a combination of three to six indicators that would capture the latent dimension within each sub-pillar in the best possible way.g. JPO. it lacked an underlying model of innovation and focused primarily on the technological sector. In recent years. with an overall coherence within pillars. they target only innovations at the firm level— broader public-sector and social innovations are not included. and they still do not provide a good count on innovation outputs per country. The focus of the Innovation Union Scoreboard is on the European Union (EU) member states with selective comparisons to a few international reference countries such as the United States of America (US).16 The Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) of the World Economic Forum The Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) of the World Economic Forum (WEF).). and Outputs (innovators and economic effects) and has included a broader set of 25 indicators to measure the above blocks. the generation of data from firm-level innovation surveys (see Box 3) has improved the data situation somewhat. Japanese. softer or local types of innovation (including those in developing countries). Since 2008. such as education of the workforce) and innovation environment (nine indicators. etc. the services sector.17 Statistics on innovation All efforts at capturing innovation confront the same challenge: Direct official measures that would quantify innovation outputs are frequently not available across many countries.

to a large extent.1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 8 Box 4: OECD Innovation Strategy (2010) The Organisation for Economic Co- gaps and propose ways to advance the operation and Development (OECD) issued measurement agenda. which is comprised of 100 innovation indicators grouped by six different topics. and creative outputs (pillar 7). joint venture and strategic alliance deals. investment. venture capital. OECD. In an effort to capture a broader vision of innovation that goes beyond science and technology indicators to accommodate. the type of innovation found in emerging markets. The Global Innovation Index The GII is an evolving project. and (5) Business sophistication. and in view of its holistic approach to innovation. patents. broadly defined as the data on investment in fixed and intan- ‘the introduction of a new or significantly gible assets as a share of GDP is available improved product. pillar scores are calculated as the simple average of the sub-pillar scores (refer to Appendix IV Technical Notes). mathematics and science in elementary education. The Innovation Input Sub-Index is the simple average of the first five pillar scores. infrastructure. process or method’. Each pillar is divided into sub-pillars and each sub-pillar is composed of individual indicators. knowledge absorption and technological catchup (sub-pillar 5. and trade).3 The report is accompanied by a measurement compendium. The statistics that were incorporated only this year to the GII and that were inspired. R&D performed and financed by business. 9. An important objective 3 Includes Machinery and equipment.3746. 2010a. R&D and other intellectual property products. by the OECD measurement exercise and other expert publications include: graduate inbound and outbound mobility and gross enrolment ratios. and labour productivity. scientific and technical journal publications. total tax rate. software spending. firm-specific human capital. metrics on innovation. Four measures are then calculated (see Figure 1): 1. and organizational capital. whenever possible. innovation are complemented by indica- 2 Online measurement guide available at http://www. which builds upon previous editions of the Index while incorporating the latest research on the measurement of innovation. Notes Indicators traditionally used to monitor 1 OECD. Software and databases.2 For example. en_41462537_41454856_44979734_1_1_1 _1. Five input pillars capture elements of the national economy that enable innovative activities: (1) Institutions. The OECD compendium was also an inspiration for the inclusion of new variables. entitled Source Measuring Innovation: A New Perspective. and the share of renewables in energy use. the OECD PISA scores on performance in reading. percentages of graduates in science and engineering. school life expectancy. each built around pillars. 2010a. tors from other domains that describe the broader context in which innovation occurs. . (2) Human capital and research. Chapter 6 describes in detail the particular challenges involved in the measurement of creative industries and copyrightrelated industries. p.html. Sub-pillar scores are calculated as the weighted average of individual indicators. the Innovation Input Sub-Index and the Innovation Output Sub-Index. Although these its Innovation Strategy report in 2010. It includes some experimental indicators that provide insight into new areas of policy interest. 3. Conceptual framework The Global Innovation Index (GII) relies on two sub-indices. This section looks at the GII 2011 framework and considers the indicators that comprise each pillar and sub-pillar. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 of the report is to highlight measurement variables included in earlier editions of the GII. and Brand equity. Two output pillars capture actual evidence of innovation outputs: (6) Scientific outputs and (7) Creative outputs. and 4 on institutions.org/document/22/0. and market conditions for credit. Examples are in the areas of education and R&D.1 only for 16 countries for 2006. to name a few.00. This metrics represent state-of-the-art innova- report includes the findings of a three-year tion statistics. most are developed on a multi-disciplinary effort aimed at propos- prospective basis and/or are provided for ing new perspectives and prospective only a handful of countries. (4) Market sophistication.oecd. the GII also includes statistics on the enabling environment for innovation (pillars 1. (3) Infrastructure.3).

3. and THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Innovation Input Sub-Index 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 9 . for further details). Enabler pillars define aspects of the environment conducive to innovation within an economy. the quality of public and civil services. Infrastructure. survey questions with a dagger ‘†’. policy formulation. The political environment subpillar includes three indices that ref lect perceptions of the likelihood that a government might be destabilized. The Institutions pillar captures the institutional framework of a country through three sub-pillars (Table 1a). Market sophistication. Sources and Definitions. 4. their weight (indicators with half weight are identified with the letter ‘a’). A table is included for each pillar that provides a list of its indicators. The table then provides for each indicator the average values (in their respective units) per income group (World Bank classification) and for the whole sample of 125 economies retained in the final computation. Institutions Nurturing an institutional framework that attracts business and fosters growth by providing good governance and the correct levels of protection and incentives is essential to innovation. and the remaining indicators are hard data). their type (composite indicators are identified with an asterisk ‘*’. The Innovation Efficiency Index is the ratio of the Output SubIndex over the Input Sub-Index. Human capital and research.Figure 1: Framework of the Global Innovation Index 2011 Global Innovation Index (average) Innovation Efficiency Index (ratio) Institutions Human capital and research Infrastructure Innovation Output Sub-Index Market sophistication Business sophistication Scientific outputs Creative outputs Political environment Education ICT Credit Knowledge workers Knowledge creation Creative intangibles Regulatory environment Tertiary education Energy Investment Innovation linkages Knowledge impact Creative goods and services Business environment Research & development General infrastructure Trade & competition Knowledge absorption Knowledge diffusion 2. The overall GII is the simple average of the Input and Output Sub-Indices. What follows is a description of each pillar (refer to Appendix III. and Business sophistication. and the direction of their effect (indicators for which higher values imply worse outcomes are identified with the letter ‘b’). The Innovation Output SubIndex is the simple average of the last two pillar scores. Innovation Input Sub-Index The GII has five enabler pillars: Institutions.

.6.....................19........1 1.................. Education expenditure and school life expectancy are good proxies for coverage.....1 1.6........5 Press freedom*b............3 Rigidity of employment*b.............54......31..................................3 Research & development (R&D) Researchers headcount/million pop..................................754.........9........... The last sub-pillar.....................1....3..............13......15......5..........2.......... on R&D..3 Business environment Time to start a business.......................3 2........................................1 2....41.......13....1 2......2....... with indicators on expenditure....6.....6................21... social contributions and labour taxes paid by the employer.1.. property taxes....7...........5........2 1.............9.........4................19 implementation........2.................4.....0......32.........9.....57....415.....7.23................28... %a...... % GDP................24......1...56.........28......................................0..9...16...... years. and perceptions of the ..39.... the priority given to the sectors traditionally associated with innovation (science and engineering)....4.......5.. %a..18 The regulatory environment sub-pillar draws on three World Bank indices aimed at capturing perceptions on the ability of the government to formulate and implement cohesive policies that promote the development of the private sector... %.7... % GNIa............. Higher education is crucial for economies to move up the value chain beyond simple production processes and products.8.......4...... % profitsb..6...........1.... and the pupil-teacher ratio...... % income/capb.9................2 2..2............2 1.....1................6 Graduates in engineering....3........................0 Tertiary outbound mobility........0 2..23...4....8.... % GDP/capa.........5....5....... (b) higher values indicate worse outcomes...........3.....................................................................................4....29..........0............. %a..........2...... etc......................0..3............................. (†) survey question.9.................30..........8...........2... and the inbound and outbound mobility of tertiary students................. 2.........................12.............1 Education 2.......... THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 tax..11........................2 2.1.......30.... researchers (headcounts).......8. (†) survey question.....3 2... daysb......... 465.........3...84. secondaryb.... The quality of education is measured through the results to the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).2.............3..53...496...............2 Rule of law*.7........0..................1....5 2........25...........8.............8......31..............8..34..........4........5...........11.....6.0.8.......... & sciencea...........26...........13...1.......................7 Cost to start a business...3..19......6 Gross expenditure on R&D....9 Quality research institutions†..................7 Tertiary inbound mobility..........2...........0.....0 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment..........83..4.8 Note: (*) index....26............36............3.9 Tota l tax rate............................2.............667.....5 Government effectiveness*........30........46.......8..........2 Public expenditure/pupil.............. and at measuring the level of rigidity of employment regulations.72....2............... The subpillar on tertiary education aims at capturing coverage (tertiary enrolment)....5.5 2...... at evaluating the extent to which the rule of law prevails (in aspects such as contract enforcement.......4..........1 1........ maths.............6.................4..... This pillar tries to gauge the human capital of countries through three sub-pillars (Table 1b)................12......3....15...........071..... 1...........3...........1.4..9...............53........0..................................5..................0.....................19........46.0............4................16...2.3 School life expectancy......1 Education expenditure................ property rights..99..0........9...8.......9.........................1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 10 Table 1a: Institutions pillar Average value by income group High Upper-middle Lower-middle Low Indicator income income income income Mean 1 Institutions 1.......................15...... (a) half weight.................8...................6.1.7.84.....................8..0..2.....2.. % gross.....8.......4....2.........0... 324.....6....3............9. mathematics.5.....2....3.........37.28............ (b) higher values indicate worse outcomes................4...... (a) half weight.29...7 2......9..5.8.1...3....2......19............................5......2.................25.9...........................14......................12...5.6 Tertiary education Tertiary enrolment........).37..................42...............................23..2.....192.............0....4 2.............4.9 Note: (*) index.....9....37...............44..........9.42...............7..1 1.....3 1........7...2...6... Table 1b: Human capital and research pillar Average value by income group High Upper-middle Lower-middle Low Indicator income income income income Mean 2 Human capital & research 2................58.............3....11........7..............................435...........0 1.......... the police.............3 Regulatory environment Regulatory quality*..........1 2....................................3..42...3....29........................ The first sub-pillar includes a mix of indicators aimed at capturing achievements at the elementary and secondary education levels.........1.............2 1...8 Graduates in science.....2 2..................1.....3 Political environment Political stability*.........10.... Public expenditure per pupil gives a sense of the level of priority given to education by the state.4..... measures the level and quality of R&D activities......2..............2 2..40....... and perceptions on violations to press freedom.1.... and science............... and the courts)........1................................ The business environment subpillar expands on three aspects that directly affect private entrepreneurial endeavours: time and cost constraints to starting a business and the total amount of taxes and mandatory contributions borne by businesses (profit or corporate income Human capital and research The level and standard of education and research activity in a country are the prime determinants of the innovation capacity of a nation.1.63.................... which plays a crucial role in the exchange of ideas and skills necessary to innovation.....3..... which examines 15-yearold students’ performances in reading.........0.............2......3 2.8.......5 Pupil-teacher ratio.3...........2 1.........7....4 PISA scales in reading..43...................11.6.1..6.7....0..5...............2 1...................3......... %..........

............... costefficiency.3 GDP/unit of energy use.. and access to international markets are for businesses to prosper.3 Government’s Online Service*a...... including schools...19.........6...3 3..........7........4..............3...............3.. and equipment purchases.......... railways....1 Credit 4........................2 Depth of credit information*a.........1.... (a) half weight............(2.....2.3........ businesses transact........5.................4..3. PPP$/kg oil eq...............49...............736.....0......... private residential dwellings...............6..8..3 4...48................2. efficiency in energy use....1....1.........5...... drains).................0.......30........ hospitals....1......1..0....... investment funds.............7..........1........9.....1 Strength of legal rights for credit*a.........2......4..........2..13........1... Ecological concerns are also addressed through the inclusion of a measure on the ecological biocapacity and footprint reserve or deficit of countries......................5........677..5) Note: (*) index............. consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets and net inventories of the economy....................25. kWh/capitaa......... % GDP....0....2.... including land improvements (fences...6....4.......... % GDP......5 Trade & competition Applied tariff rate weighted mean....1 Strength of investor protection*................4 4. They facilitate the production and exchange of ideas.......0.4......5.................45....................3 Total value of stocks traded..5.......0...........1).......1.........5 4..11... kWh/capa..3. railroads........39.8 4.......... and better access to markets........7. gross capital formation.2..........g........................1 Imports of goods & services........2...0)....2 3..6..2.2 Electricity consumption..... plant.3.................2..4............................. The sub-pillar on infrastructure includes a composite indicator on the quality of trade.... and sustainability....... 640...............1 ICT access*.. and so on...6.....2....... (†) survey question.5...4...........7....................and transport-related infrastructure (e...3 General infrastructure Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.4.......4..9......7..2..22...............23....59.1..7....8................ This THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 quality of scientific and research institutions (a survey question)...........0.........2. ditches...3.3.............2...... and the backbone of any economy (Table  1c)... (0..6..20...4 3.9 4.... Market sophistication The recent global financial crisis has underscored how crucial the availability of credit..0......... The ICT sub-pillar includes four indices developed by international organizations on ICT access......1)....2....... online service by governments.......4.......................3..0..0..............................2......1........1 Intensity of local competition†..2.................. and the construction of roads.... % GDPa...............14...............2 ICT use*. % GDP.................2.................24..........9...............1...........................................39..... 1............... ICT has revolutionized the way people interact... 5...4 Share of renewables in energy use...22...........3.. and online participation of citizens (see Box 5).....................7..6................2 Market capitalization..............78............ (b) higher values indicate worse outcomes..............4...9.....7......................3......2....5..4.9.34.........1...2...7 Ecological footprint & biocapacity................9.................. and goods and feed into the innovation system through increased productivity and efficiency...0.......1 Info & comm...16.....3 4.......21.............021. energy supply..8.................1..... ha/cap...11...52..............................107....47....1 3........1 Electricity output...... environmental issues....8...........5...........0.........7..6....8......3......... ports......7...... lower transaction costs.........4...........4 E-Participation*a.2.....................2.... % GDP...8...0.....7....... alternative sources of energy...8..0.(0.........7...3...........1................0.......68.....1..................... however.1.................59......... services... 3......b.......24.43.....Table 1c: Infrastructure pillar Average value by income group High Upper-middle Lower-middle Low Indicator income income income income Mean Infrastructure Information and communication technologies (ICT)...2...............13.......6 4.....21 Energy supply is essential to the proper functioning of any economy.4................. 2.......................1...............0..3 4...... (a) half weight.0..7..3 3....4 Microfinance gross loans........2 Energy 3........................3....995.6......3.......5 3..........................2 Investment 4...........................9........ 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 11 ................... energy policy is an area that typically goes beyond energy supply to address a series of elements such as the risk of supply-and-demand mismatch.......4.. ICT use.............4...................6.................4..........4 4......6........4.......22 The second variable of this sub-pillar....0....55.4...4......20 The sub-pillar on energ y regroups three indicators related to energy supply..1..22.....104.............6..... % GDP........2......... %b.....................0...........................................0....0 3......... % GDP.....0.8 4..5...2..............8.. offices..4..0..8 Gross capital formation........... technologies (ICT) 3.. 4.....................7...........3................39.......4 3....................995... 553.....36... and information technology)...............7....9..0.7....2 3.......4.................. (0...............0........................4 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$a.....1..................... roads....4 3..4....6..... 3 Infrastructure 3..... (†) survey question.. Table 1d: Market sophistication pillar Average value by income group High Upper-middle Lower-middle Low Indicator income income income income Mean 4 Market sophistication 4.....................5.................43...... and the like.........1..4..36... and infrastructure are respectively the nervous system..0.6........ %.......4.....45........... and commercial and industrial buildings.......9 4......9..6.9 Note: (*) index............5.......1............0 3..............374..........2.. %a.............2................2 4..... In the past 50 years......................7..................22....1 4.............6 Exports of goods & services....581...........5...........8............3 Domestic credit to private sector.....6...2... and governments serve..........1.............. machinery......4............. (b) higher values indicate worse outcomes......36..0........ the circulatory system.6.....74.7......8 Market access trade restrictiveness*..............033.......4.................5.

Transactions are given by the total value of domestic credit and. fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants.3 is a composite indicator information by governments to citizens developed by the United Nations Public (‘e-information sharing’). This year. enhanced informa- 4. international Internet bandwidth (bit/s) per Internet user. fixed broadband Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitants.1 Indicator 3. The with stakeholders (‘e-consultation’). taking into account a total of 7. It is composed of five ICT indicators (20% each): Development Index together with two indices on telecommunication infrastructure and human capital. Internet users per 100 inhabitants. together with the ‘ICT use sub-index’ and the ‘ICT skills subindex’ (Measuring the Information Society.4 UNPAN on the basis of the UN e-Governwith questions emphasizing quality in the THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 connected presence stage of e-governGovernment’s online service indicator 3.1. mobile cellular telephone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants. information services. proportion of households with Internet access at home site as well as the websites of the minis- ment with points assigned for emerging tion services. These questions focus on the use Indicator 3. 2010). and a teams assess each country’s national webtries of education.937 deals in 81 countries for this variable.1 on information and communication technologies (ICT) ICT access indicator 3. . Indicator 3. and connected approach. The ‘ICT access sub-index’.2 Indicator 3.1. as well as the rules and practices affecting the coverage. health.1.1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 12 Box 5: Composition of sub-pillar 3. and ‘Government’s online service index’ is a the engagement in decision-making pro- component in UNPAN’s E-Government cesses (‘e-decision making’). proportion of households with a computer.2 is the second component in ITU’s IDI. UN Department of Economic and Social 1. is one component in ITU’s ICT Development Index (IDI).24 The last sub-pillar tackles trade and competition.1 is a composite indicator developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).3 ment. The last indicator is a survey question that ref lects on the intensity of competition in the local markets.4 is a composite indicator. ment Survey. transaction services. labour.1. The market conditions for trade are given by two indicators: the average tariff rate weighted by import shares and a measure capturing market access conditions to foreign markets. ITU. E-participation indicator 3. of the Internet to facilitate provision of pillar has three sub-pillars structured around market conditions and the total level of transactions (Table 1d). research 5. of government’s online service develop- 3. The sub-pillar then includes the total value of exports and imports as a percentage of GDP. and the ‘E-participation index’. the interaction Administration Network (UNPAN).1.1. The credit sub-pillar includes two indices aimed at measuring the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws facilitate lending by protecting the rights of borrowers and lenders. The ‘ICT use sub-index’ is composed of three ICT indicators (33% each): content accessibility (with a citizen-centric 1. In addition.23 The investment sub-pillar includes an index measuring the extent of disclosure and of director liability and the ease of shareholder suits. 2010). The survey covers four stages 2. stock market capitalization is complemented by the value of shares traded.1. mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants. and finance for a minimal level of ICT use indicator 3. 2. hard data on venture capital deals have been included. It is constructed on the basis of the United Nations (UN) e-Government Survey (United Nations E-Government Survey 2010 Leveraging e-Government at a Time of Financial and Economic Crisis. a measure on the level of development of microfinance institutions. Affairs.1. The survey was expanded approach). for the first time. scope. To show whether market size is matched by market dynamism. Efforts made at finding hard data on competition proved unsuccessful. in an attempt to make the model more applicable to emerging markets. and accessibility of credit information. developed by 3. social services.

..........................2.........4 5........9..... (†) survey question.......8..........................2 5..............2.............................0..............15........9 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.......1..........7......5.......0...6.... The first sub-pillar includes four quantitative indicators on knowledge workers: employment in knowledge-intensive services....0.............3......9.......... and innovation potential with the employment of highly qualified professionals and technicians...................0........ In emerging markets....26.................5 High-tech imports less re-imports.3............... is an indispensable condition for innovation to take place..42....3............3.......6...........5.....................................8........5....................................3.38........2 6... %..................................6....3 5. In broad terms....0 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$......19........1.....2..Table 1e: Business sophistication pillar Average value by income group High Upper-middle Lower-middle Low Indicator income income income income Mean 5 Business sophistication 5..... pillar 4 on market sophistication makes the case that well-functioning markets contribute to the innovation environment through competitive pressure...................5...................8 State of cluster development†..........36.2.............3.1 Note: (*) index.....1 6..30. The Human capital and research pillar (pillar 2) made the case that the accumulation of human capital through education...2 Computer & comm service exports.....4...................1 6.2..39...7.....0........ %..4.6..........................2.. the share of published patent applications filed by residents through the Patent Cooperation Treaty with at least one foreign inventor is included to proxy for international linkages........... 15–64 yrs.4..............1.... and economies of transaction and by allowing supply to meet demand.5...9..31..0..............5 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$a.....3..... (b) higher values indicate worse outcomes....3..........................13.. That logic is taken one step further here with the assertion that businesses foster their productivity.....5.16........2 6........21.............0.........9......8.............................................5..1 6.2................25 In addition...........3........3............4.......................... Innovation linkages and publ ic/pr ivate/academ ic par tnerships are essential to innovation.8.....4 Knowledge absorption Royalty & license fees payments......3............................3 6..0..3...0.....6.......31......1..6...6.........................1........9.......2.... %.......9 Computer & comm.3......0.....................8........000 pop.............2 5...0..10..........3...........4.0... %a.........0..........7..... 2.....1....1..4....................5..................6. For the first time this year...4.............. with firms headquartered in 95 participating economies.... %..1..................9................... service imports......30..........55...2.7.5. The sub-pillar draws on both qualitative and quantitative data regarding business/ university collaboration on R&D..................................37......4 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$a....2......9............... and particularly higher education and the prioritization of R&D activities.......... (b) higher values indicate worse outcomes..2... the availability of formal training at the level of the firm..8 R&D performed by business.......10.........9.... a measure on the number of deals on joint ventures and strategic alliances is included... % GDP.25........8.......................1 5.......3...1 6.....0.......2.0.................15..0 Computer software spending...1 5............22.0............3....... Open markets to THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Business sophistication The last enabler pillar tries to capture the level of business sophistication to assess how conducive firms are to innovation activity (Table 1e)..............3....2...............5 Note: (*) index...4 FDI net inflows.31..................7.........9...........3..0................5.....1.38......3...2 5......5................6....19......0.26.2 6...0..............1........1.......34.......3..........0.. efficiency gains......1 5... Table 1f: Scientific outputs pillar Average value by income group High Upper-middle Lower-middle Low Indicator income income income income Mean 6 Scientific outputs 6..11.......2....3 Knowledge impact Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker.....0.0..25..........0........3.......... %a.......2..................8.....3.........7............2...........0...........................0...... in 2010.1 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.....1..4....0.................3..1 R&D financed by business.1...............3 6......4.............. %........15.......3..........................4 6....4 Knowledge creation Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.23..2......8...8 6..2 High-tech exports less re-exports.0..........39...3....49...0.......................0......... (†) survey question..3.............13...3.....22.......3.............3....1.2 6....1....... %................0...... % GDPa...... (a) half weight...5.... % GDP...5 5...3....5... the prevalence of well-developed and deep clusters...3...3...........1 FDI net outflows.......6............13.36. % GDP....2...9.3..9..................4 Knowledge diffusion Royalty & license fees receipts...5 Innovation linkages University/industry collaboration†.....31.... %a.....6 R&D financed by abroad......9....................3 5...1 Firms offering formal training............ % GDP....................................... pockets of wealth have developed around industrial or technological clusters and networks in sharp contrast with the poverty that may prevail in the rest of the territory..................9.....3.....8....................7...........24...........5..........1...3....3 6...5........3...........6..............4.............................................3......5...................... (a) half weight.....4 Knowledge workers Knowledge-intensive employment......4......................................3.............3.....1.2 5.2... % firms...........1....2...1. and the percentage of total gross expenditure of R&D that is either financed or performed by business enterprise.........7...14.......... It covers a total of 920 joint ventures and 327 strategic alliances announced 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 13 ....4........26........................................0 New businesses/1...12.....10...........2.2 5.........................9....... competitiveness...............1......3 5...................3.....4.41.............2.32....0. %........0. collaboration in inventive activities..............3 5...... and the level of gross R&D expenditure financed by abroad.26..........6.2.........1.....0..3...3..........1 5......0.........6............2...............

..7 Creative services exports...... The third sub-pillar........9...6.5.......... is precisely that together they will reveal how good countries are at absorbing and diffusing knowledge...........4 Creative intangibles Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.........1.5 Creative goods & services Recreation & culture consumption.. Two UNESCO series for which ........ As new and better statistics become available in the coming years.8.....0....2..2... and to redress an unbalance at the level of available statistics.. this pillar will be strengthened........... Although the Output Sub-Index includes only two pillars.....1............. This is essentially the result of the lack of reliable indicators across many countries on all copyrightedrelated industries and creativity in general (see Chapter 6........000 literate pop... on creative goods and services.... on knowledge diffusion... on creative outputs.....0........................ %a...1. The second sub-pillar.......6 Creative goods exports....1.4.....4...........................4. %...7.... exports of computer.6 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$a........ high-tech exports (net of re-exports) as a percentage of total exports (net of re-exports)..........2 ICT & business models†........5.....1....13......4 7.2 7........................... the entry density of new firms....0...... Innovation Output Sub-Index Innovation outputs are the results of innovative activities within the economy... as well as two survey questions regarding the use of ICT in business and organizational models.... THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 foreign trade and investment have the additional effect of exposing domestic firms to best practices around the globe.. and scientific and technical published articles in peer-reviewed journals........................1 7.4.................2....... It includes four statistics all linked to sectors with high-tech content or that are key to innovation: royalty and license fees receipts as a percentage of GDP..5.............1..................4.6.. This asymmetry.......3 on knowledge absorption (an enabler) and 6.........2. which is only apparent............. 164..............7..... Scientific outputs This pillar covers all those variables that are traditionally thought to be the fruits of innovation (Table 1f ). and other services as a percentage of commercial service exports............a............1........................................ communications.1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 14 Table 1g: Creative outputs pillar Average value by income group High Upper-middle Lower-middle Low Indicator income income income income Mean 7 Creative outputs 7..4. ‘Accounting for Creativity in Innovation’)...3..4.............2 7..1................3 7..1..8.... serves two purposes: to give innovation results the same weight as innovation enablers...1....4.8..... The first sub-pillar refers to the creation of knowledge............................ high-tech imports (net of re-imports) as a percentage of total imports...9. and net inf lows of FDI as a percentage of GDP....a....2..... %...79...9................................... (a) half weight..........1 7.. and spending on software......4.63..................... (†) survey question...........................6.. it is averaged with the Input Sub-Index in the overall GII...4.............3...3 7............2.......9..5.... The first sub-pillar on creative intangibles includes statistics on trademark registrations by residents at the national office and under the Madrid System..9..................6 ICT & organizational models†.....4..1.2............ which is critical to innovation through knowledge absorption and diffusion. Creative outputs The last pillar.........47...31.... It includes four indicators that are the result of inventive and innovation activities: patent applications filed by residents both at the national patent office and at the international level through the Patent Cooperation Treaty (see Box  6)...... and net outf lows of FDI as a percentage of GDP........7 National feature films/mn pop......7......6.1..5......2......2 7.........3.........................9........15..3.. new areas that are increasingly linked to innovation in the literature....2 7...............1......3 Daily newspapers/1......1 Note: (*) index.3......8.....89. The rationale behind sub-pillars 5...........1... (b) higher values indicate worse outcomes....2..4...3 on knowledge diffusion (a result)........0............ includes three statistics representing the impact of innovation activities at the micro and macroeconomic level: increases in labour productivity...............1.....0.........7..............1..2......0... on knowledge impact........3.......1.............4................. Sub-pillar 5....... and other services as a percentage of commercial service imports...4.... has only two sub-pillars (Table 1g).......2.1 7..... includes the share of household expenditure in recreation and culture as a proxy for creative activities in a given country........... two sub-pillars designed to be mirror images of each other.........3 includes four statistics all linked to sectors with high-tech content or that are key to innovation: royalty and license fees payments as a percentage of GDP.. is the mirror image of the Knowledge absorption subpillar under pillar 5......1..... The last sub-pillar.. There are two output pillars: Scientif ic outputs and Creative outputs..40......... imports of computer....304.. utility model applications filed by residents at the national office....... communications.......2.4..

data of one single directly in other jurisdictions. and daily newspapers. only this criticism. is on general trends and includes details of the results for the global leaders and the best performers within each income category (high. applicants tend obtain patent protection and that are most able. pensity to patent abroad.0% of the world’s GDP (in current US dollars). inventors can trademarks are used in different pillars. Since statistics on creative and copyright-related industries’ national output values are not available for a sufficient number of countries. WIPO. as these are the ones that inventors are to file at their national patent office. lower-middle. Data on likely several years old.Box 6: Capturing innovation: The patent system This edition of the Global Innovation Index 4. notably on the publication of books. The emphasis. For example. These are based on the classifications used by UNCTAD in its Creative Economy Report. which facilitates the acquisition of pat- the number of patent applications filed by In addition. the use of statistics on ent rights in a large number of jurisdictions residents at their national patent office (resi- patent applications—rather than data on (142 contracting states) by reducing the dent applications).2% international appeal. the second metric the goal of capturing worldwide innovative resident application for the JPO. To com- good country coverage. reflect the trade patterns of that particu- one country. In addition to filing patents In addition. for each index.4% of total Chinese patent applications in An inventor of a promising technology (GII) relies on two patent-based measures 2008 were filed abroad. patent indicators based on a specific office will introduce a home bias between resident (domestic) and non- National patent office data are fre- resident (foreign) applications because the quently criticized on the grounds that there propensity to patent at the national patent is a lack of international comparability. and comprehensive manner. Discussion of results: The world’s top innovators This year the GII model includes 125 countries that represent 93. an invention through the patent system. 2010. This section provides a general discussion of the GII and the rankings of the related sub-indices. PCT. Moreover. provides the number of PCT international activity. 2011.int/ipstats/en) described below. and low-income THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 The first measure is concerned with 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 15 . statistics on utility models and lar country. a patent patents filed under the WIPO-administered inventive activity and innovation with very application filed with the Japan Patent Office Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT).wipo. of the world’s population and 98. office will capture only a fraction of world file an ‘international application’ through the innovation. Other data series. have been discontinued. which includes data on creative goods and services exports. The use of PCT data sheds light on pat- the first step is to file an application with a data on patent grants reflect inventions that ents that might be most economically valu- patent office. An applica- enting process. It better achieves (JPO) by a resident of Japan is considered a plement national data. This is the result of likely to patent abroad and for which inven- resident patent applications (2009 or latest the lengthy (and increasing) processing and tors are willing to incur the extra costs that available year) capture this patenting activity examination periods that are part of the pat- the process of patenting abroad requires. with a particular emphasis on inven- applications by residents of a given coun- tions in medium. In most cases. This combination of data on national tion is filed with a patent office by an appli- The second patent-based measure IP filings and filings under the PCT system cant residing in the country in which that presented in this report is the number of makes for a strong and timely indicator of office has jurisdiction. The Source office is considerably higher than the pro- use of PCT data to some extent alleviates Khan and Wunsch-Vincent. trade figures were incorporated. of residents in a given country. In contrast. patents granted—ensures that innovative requirement to file a separate application in When an inventor decides to protect performance is captured in a more timely each jurisdiction. Patents submitted with international market potential will wish drawn from the WIPO Statistics Database to one single patent office are also likely to to protect his or her invention in more than (www. mies and inventions that may have a strong In contrast. upper-middle.or lower-income econo- try in 2010. For example. data are available were included: national feature films produced in a given country.

with high marks on key output indicators: resident patent filings at the Patent Cooperation Treaty applications (1st). scientific and technical journal articles (3rd). Denmark. with details on subpillar scores. and includes two Asian economies and two North American countries: Switzerland. Top 10 The top 10 countries in the GII 2001 edition are dominated by Europe. Tables 2 through 4 report on the overall GII and the Input and Output Sub-Indices. Finland.1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 16 groups). and Business sophistication at 4th) and both Output pillars (Scientific outputs at 2nd and Creative outputs at 3rd). the full details of which are available in the country/economy profiles (Appendix I). Energy (5th). the Netherlands. Singapore (3rd). knowledge creation (4th). Although the country does not top any individual pillar. Sweden is ranked 2nd on Creative outputs. and FDI net outf lows (7th). The profiles provide only normalized scores in the [0. innovation linkages (6th). Hong Kong (SAR. and 8th on national feature films. investment (6th). The runner-up. The data tables provide both the raw indicator and the normalized score. It also exhibits high marks on creativity. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 The Global Innovation Index The overall GII scores provide a composite picture of the state of each country’s innovation performance. FDI net outf lows (9th). Infrastructure (9th). Each economy has its own strengths and weaknesses. at positions 7th. respectively. the United States of America (US). with regional and income group rankings. Its many strengths include its top 10 positions on 30 indicators as well as on the following sub-pillars: political (2nd) and regulatory environment (7th). moving up significantly from position 7 last year. Switzerland comes in at top place in the overall GII 2011 rankings (up from position 4th last year) on the basis of its strong position in both the Input and Output SubIndices (3rd and 2nd). Sweden. this outstanding performance is driven by 1st place on Scientific outputs. R&D (4th). with positions in the top 10 on patent filings through the Patent Cooperation Treaty (3rd). A high degree of Innovation Efficiency (3rd among high-income countries) allows Switzerland to translate these strengths into visible innovation outputs. and Tables 7a through 7d report on the Efficiency Index by income group. computer software spending (4th). and creative goods exports. it places within the top 5 in three Input pillars (Institutions at 5th. Education (8th). 94th in the general rankings). where it is ranked 17th overall (Scientific outputs at 15th place and Creative outputs at 30th). and the United Kingdom (UK). Investment (10th) and Knowledge workers (6th). with top 10 positions on seven of the 15 sub-pillars: Political environment (4th). is the only country in the top 10 on all four indices. A knowledge-based economy. Israel (14th). 4th. with six countries. scientific and technical journal articles (2nd). high-tech exports (6th). and the only country in the top 10 in the GII to be among the 10 most efficient innovators (ranked 6th on the Efficiency Index). Its position 5 on the Input side is also one of the best. computer software spending (1st). and creative intangibles (9th).26 A short discussion of the rankings at the regional level follows. and India (62nd). coming in at 1st place on the basis of its strengths in the Institutions (9th). Singapore is at 3rd position overall. Canada. daily newspapers. Chile (38th). along with some additional information on regional leaders by income group. Market sophistication at 5th.27 This section includes a brief discussion of some general results. Singapore’s Innovation Efficiency Index ranking is low (36th among high-income countries. Singapore is ranked . Singapore. ICT (10th). Singapore shows its strongest performance in the Input Sub-Index. to facilitate the replicability of results and provide a sense of the scores with greater leverage for each country. Human capital and research (1st). Market sophistication (2nd). These tables should be read in conjunction with the country/economy profiles (Appendix I) and the data tables (Appendix II). knowledge workers (2nd). with detailed discussions provided for index and income group leaders (in bold). this shows up in its relative weak performance in the Output Sub-Index. knowledge diffusion (10th). energy (7th). Sweden. Tables 5a through 5g provide the rankings per pillar. R&D (9th). China). However. Table 6 shows the top 10 Efficiency Index rankings. and resident international trademark applications under the Madrid system (1st). 100] range. royalty and license fees’ receipts (3rd). placing among the top 10 on four indicators. the US (7th). Leaders in their respective regions are Switzerland (1st). and Business sophistication (1st) pillars. credit (10th). Mauritius (53rd).

it is ranked 23rd on this indicator). followed by Trinidad and Tobago (72nd) and Brunei Darussalam (75th).4%). Human capital and research. 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 17 . and is the only country from this income group in the top 30. where it is ranked 1st on R&D performed and financed by business at 84. they also provide a strong growth in labour productivity (with 4. and 17th on the intensity of local competition (survey question).9% and 84. and on the strength of legal rights for credit and the depth of credit information indicators—positions matched with the country’s level of domestic credit to the private sector (20th.3%. It achieves. from high. and Output). Its performances on the other three input pillars are generally weak. with scores in the top 40 on freedom of the press (25th). and Ghana (70th). Malaysia tops the overall ranking within the upper-middle-income group at 31st position overall. On a less positive note. and its strength of legal rights for credit (19th) and investor protection (34th). On the Input side. relatively good rankings on R&D. Knowledge diffusion. Malaysia also ranks within the top 10 worldwide on the strength of investor protection and market capitalization. These strong points translate into relatively high scores on venture capital deals (41st).4% and 72. with an impressive 8.8% of total imports). including resident utility model (1st). From the same region. with the 5th most dynamic stock market (with the total value of stocks traded reaching 179. however. where the 1st position on the PISA assessment on reading. The country places among the top 10 on the Investment subpillar. and Lithuania (40th) make it to the top 40. however. China tops the GII rankings among lower-middle-income countries. It is 1st within its income group on all three main Indices (GII.3% of GDP).5% of GDP). respectively. as well as on imports and exports of goods and services. and FDI net inf lows (20th). with 5. Among low-income countries.7% of GDP) and among the top 20 on market capitalization (placing 16th with 100. growth in labour productivity (3rd position. with 29. three countries lag behind: Greece reached the median score (63rd). mathematics and science corresponds to Shanghai only. its 14th position overall is well deserved: China gets its leverage from placing within the top 10 on a third of the indicators in pillars 6 and 7 for which data were available.7%. 4th on high-tech imports (at 26. at 100. Ghana’s relative strengths lie in its Institutions. patent (3rd). placing 27th on the Input Sub-Index (1st within its income group) and 35th on the Output one. joint venture and strategic alliance deals (41st).5%.4% of total exports). Malaysia (31st). 13th on FDI net outf lows. Malaysia’s strengths come from the Market and Business sophistication pillars. On the Output Sub-Index. and 23rd on royalty and license fees’ receipts. China ranks 1st on the percentage of firms offering formal training (at 84. On the Output side. 13th on domestic credit to private sector (127. its commendable share of renewables in energy use (with 72.8% of GDP). public expenditure per pupil (34th). and creative goods exports (4th. 7th on the state of cluster development (a survey question). Input. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 40th in patent applications at the national office. China (29th). is the only developing country to be among the top 30. China presents important weaknesses on Institutions (98th) and Human capital and research (56th).8%).3. high-tech exports (3rd. China. the leaders are Switzerland (1st). Moldova (39th).Top performers by income group By income group. and Business sophistication. and 79th in creative services exports. it is ranked 10th globally). Ghana prevails with an overall rank of 70. it ranks among the top 30 in Market (26th) and Business sophistication (29th). and trademark (9th) applications at the national office. 6th and 10th on R&D f inanced and performed by business (at 70. China exhibits many strengths. where it ranks 2nd—after Singapore—on high-tech exports (which represent an impressive 35. On the Input side. Scientific outputs. The Innovation Output Sub-Index The Innovation Output Sub-Index variables provide information on elements that are the result of innovation within an economy. Among high-income countries. at position 29. respectively).9% of total exports). 79th in national office trademark applications. except in two particular indicators where it does very well: graduates in science (8th) and engineering (2nd).4%. Malaysia (31st). Chile (38th).to low-income countries. placing 24th on gross expenditure on R&D and 36th on the quality of research institutions (a survey question).9% of total exports). and percentage of graduates in science (31st). at position 29. Malaysia’s leverage is provided by its 19th placement on sub-pillar 6.

07 44.05 38.0 43.96 55. Rep.36 35.18 49. China Finland Denmark United States of America Canada Netherlands United Kingdom Iceland Germany Ireland Israel New Zealand Korea.83 36.02 37.75 52.31 35.74 47.25 49.81 42.85 35.45 46.63 37.50 61.80 37.96 56.83 34.25 35.0 8.10 54.64 36.25 70.65 52.0 .75 50.85 49.57 56.98 37.79 53. Lithuania Jordan Bulgaria Poland Croatia Costa Rica Bahrain Brazil Thailand Lebanon Romania Viet Nam Kuwait Mauritius Saudi Arabia Serbia Russian Federation Oman Argentina South Africa Ukraine Guyana India Greece Score (0–100) Rank Income Rank Region Rank 2010 2009 63.33 56.49 38.75 37.43 45.05 43.12 59.43 38.84 38.68 52.80 57.11 36.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 18 Table 2: Global Innovation Index rankings GII Past Years Country/Economy Switzerland Sweden Singapore Hong Kong (SAR).22 35.52 34.05 48.91 37.40 41.60 50.47 36.42 38.50 56.01 34.71 36.10 54.69 39.75 17.32 49.50 26.44 36.80 39.64 58.99 40.03 53.30 46.89 54.66 38. Rep.12 47.31 55.51 35.82 62. Luxembourg Norway Austria Japan Australia France Estonia Belgium Hungary Qatar Czech Republic Cyprus China Slovenia Malaysia Spain Portugal United Arab Emirates Italy Latvia Slovak Republic Chile Moldova.18 1 HI 2 HI 3 HI 4 HI 5 HI 6 HI 7 HI 8 HI 9 HI 10 HI 11 HI 12 HI 13 HI 14 HI 15 HI 16 HI 17 HI 18 HI 19 HI 20 HI 21 HI 22 HI 23 HI 24 HI 25 HI 26 HI 27 HI 28 HI 29 LM 30 HI 31 UM 32 HI 33 HI 34 HI 35 HI 36 HI 37 HI 38 UM 39 LM 40 UM 41 LM 42 UM 43 HI 44 HI 45 UM 46 HI 47 UM 48 LM 49 UM 50 UM 51 LM 52 HI 53 UM 54 HI 55 UM 56 UM 57 HI 58 UM 59 UM 60 LM 61 LM 62 LM 63 HI 1 ECS 1 4 7 2 ECS 2 2 3 3 EAS 1 7 5 4 EAS 2 3 12 5 ECS 3 6 13 6 ECS 4 5 8 7 NAC 1 11 1 8 NAC 2 12 11 9 ECS 5 8 10 10 ECS 6 14 4 11 ECS 7 1 20 12 ECS 8 16 2 13 ECS 9 19 21 14 MEA 1 23 23 15 EAS 3 9 27 16 EAS 4 20 6 17 ECS 10 15 17 18 ECS 11 10 14 19 ECS 12 21 15 20 EAS 5 13 9 21 EAS 6 18 22 22 ECS 13 22 19 23 ECS 14 29 29 24 ECS 15 17 18 25 ECS 16 36 47 26 MEA 2 35 24 27 ECS 17 27 33 28 ECS 18 32 45 1 EAS 7 43 37 29 ECS 19 26 36 1 EAS 8 28 25 30 ECS 20 30 28 31 ECS 21 34 40 32 MEA 3 24 26 33 ECS 22 38 31 34 ECS 23 44 60 35 ECS 24 37 35 2 LCN 1 42 39 2 ECS 25 n/a 116 3 ECS 26 39 42 3 MEA 4 58 55 4 ECS 27 49 74 36 ECS 28 47 56 37 ECS 29 45 62 5 LCN 2 41 48 38 MEA 5 40 34 6 LCN 3 68 50 4 EAS 9 60 44 7 MEA 6 n/a n/a 8 ECS 30 52 69 5 EAS 10 71 64 39 MEA 7 33 30 9 SSF 1 73 66 40 MEA 8 54 32 10 ECS 31 101 92 11 ECS 32 64 68 41 MEA 9 65 52 12 LCN 4 75 84 13 SSF 2 51 43 6 ECS 33 61 79 7 LCN 5 113 103 8 SAS 1 56 41 42 ECS 34 46 54 0.

56 27.50 24.32 29.32 32.19 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results Table 2: Global Innovation Index rankings (continued) GII Past Years Uruguay Turkey Tunisia Macedonia Mongolia Armenia Ghana Colombia Trinidad and Tobago Georgia Paraguay Brunei Darussalam Bosnia & Herzegovina Panama Namibia Botswana Albania Mexico Sri Lanka Peru Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Guatemala Egypt Azerbaijan Kenya El Salvador Philippines Jamaica Ecuador Morocco Iran Nigeria Bangladesh Honduras Indonesia Senegal Swaziland Venezuela Cameroon Tanzania Pakistan Uganda Mali Malawi Rwanda Nicaragua Cambodia Bolivia Madagascar Zambia Syrian Arab Republic Tajikistan Côte d’Ivoire Benin Zimbabwe Burkina Faso Ethiopia Niger Yemen Sudan Algeria Score (0–100) Rank Income Rank Region Rank 2010 2009 34.35 25.11 33.77 30.96 25.41 28.95 26.25 35.08 23.75 52.54 23. LM = lower-middle income.74 30. EAS = East Asia & Pacific. SSF = Sub-Saharan Africa.41 20.48 32.41 26.45 30.73 28.89 33.78 27.78 25.51 30. SAS = South Asia. and LCN = Latin America & Caribbean.75 28.47 33. NAC = North America.36 19.0 .0 43.0 8. World Bank Regional Classification (January 2011): ECS = Europe & Central Asia.93 30.15 29.45 30.79 29.86 25.50 26.75 17.17 30. and HI = high income.81 27.27 24. UM = upper-middle income.15 28.33 29.00 32. 0.37 26.25 70.18 34.34 30.98 28.14 28.21 29.52 27.50 61.88 28.75 26.88 21.44 25.14 22.88 26.17 31.17 29.72 20.40 33.05 27.41 25.36 30.82 24.79 64 UM 65 UM 66 LM 67 UM 68 LM 69 LM 70 LI 71 UM 72 HI 73 LM 74 LM 75 HI 76 UM 77 UM 78 UM 79 UM 80 UM 81 UM 82 LM 83 UM 84 UM 85 LI 86 LM 87 LM 88 UM 89 LI 90 LM 91 LM 92 UM 93 LM 94 LM 95 UM 96 LM 97 LI 98 LM 99 LM 100 LM 101 LM 102 UM 103 LM 104 LI 105 LM 106 LI 107 LI 108 LI 109 LI 110 LM 111 LI 112 LM 113 LI 114 LI 115 LM 116 LI 117 LM 118 LI 119 LI 120 LI 121 LI 122 LI 123 LM 124 LM 125 UM 14 LCN 15 ECS 9 MEA 16 ECS 10 EAS 11 ECS 1 SSF 17 LCN 43 LCN 12 ECS 13 LCN 44 EAS 18 ECS 19 LCN 20 SSF 21 SSF 22 ECS 23 LCN 14 SAS 24 LCN 25 ECS 2 ECS 15 LCN 16 MEA 26 ECS 3 SSF 17 LCN 18 EAS 27 LCN 19 LCN 20 MEA 28 MEA 21 SSF 4 SAS 22 LCN 23 EAS 24 SSF 25 SSF 29 LCN 26 SSF 5 SSF 27 SAS 6 SSF 7 SSF 8 SSF 9 SSF 28 LCN 10 EAS 29 LCN 11 SSF 12 SSF 30 MEA 13 ECS 31 SSF 14 SSF 15 SSF 16 SSF 17 SSF 18 SSF 32 MEA 33 SSF 30 MEA 6 53 80 35 67 51 10 62 46 36 77 89 11 87 105 37 82 104 3 105 n/a 7 90 75 8 55 65 38 84 98 9 127 118 12 48 n/a 39 116 n/a 10 66 67 4 92 95 5 86 77 40 81 121 11 69 61 2 79 58 12 88 85 41 63 72 42 104 122 13 95 81 11 74 76 43 57 57 6 83 78 14 91 88 13 76 63 15 70 73 16 126 109 12 94 82 13 n/a n/a 7 96 70 3 120 111 17 112 83 14 72 49 8 106 90 9 n/a n/a 18 124 101 10 119 106 11 98 86 4 103 93 12 108 100 13 107 97 14 97 n/a 15 n/a n/a 19 117 114 15 102 117 20 129 123 16 125 113 17 111 96 14 132 94 44 115 112 18 89 n/a 19 118 99 20 131 126 21 122 115 22 123 120 23 n/a n/a 15 n/a n/a 24 n/a n/a 16 121 108 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Country/Economy Note: World Bank Income Group Classification (January 2011): LI = low income.81 23. MEA = Middle East & North Africa.46 25.87 31.84 30.

33 43.73 52.11 69.15 60.37 46. Rep.88 40.86 54.42 59.12 59.66 62.53 64.93 63.07 65.22 42.25 70.08 45.71 51.43 52.44 55.57 64.10 41.0 8.31 42.86 40.94 45.0 .00 44.38 53.20 43.50 61. China Switzerland Ireland Sweden Finland Denmark Canada Luxembourg United Kingdom United States of America Australia Iceland Norway New Zealand Netherlands Korea.43 59.32 48.75 17.77 66.48 61.97 60.04 58.27 48.34 40.04 50.84 62.94 52.80 41.81 62.0 43.46 46.85 64.75 52.79 44.71 64.50 26.73 40.38 51.46 47.01 42.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 20 Table 3: Innovation Input Sub-Index rankings Country/Economy Singapore Hong Kong (SAR).34 59.41 63.09 47.48 42.29 46.61 54.28 59.29 51.37 40.37 40. Japan Austria Israel Germany Belgium France Estonia United Arab Emirates Czech Republic Malaysia Bahrain Spain Cyprus Qatar Slovenia Hungary Portugal Slovak Republic Chile Italy Latvia Lithuania South Africa Poland Oman China Saudi Arabia Croatia Mauritius Bulgaria Thailand Namibia Greece Kuwait Mongolia Costa Rica Bosnia & Herzegovina Romania Jordan Lebanon Trinidad and Tobago Russian Federation Panama Macedonia Botswana Viet Nam Score (0–100) Rank Income Rank Region Rank 74.23 46.09 1 HI 2 HI 3 HI 4 HI 5 HI 6 HI 7 HI 8 HI 9 HI 10 HI 11 HI 12 HI 13 HI 14 HI 15 HI 16 HI 17 HI 18 HI 19 HI 20 HI 21 HI 22 HI 23 HI 24 HI 25 HI 26 HI 27 UM 28 HI 29 HI 30 HI 31 HI 32 HI 33 HI 34 HI 35 HI 36 UM 37 HI 38 HI 39 UM 40 UM 41 HI 42 HI 43 LM 44 HI 45 HI 46 UM 47 UM 48 LM 49 UM 50 HI 51 HI 52 LM 53 UM 54 UM 55 UM 56 LM 57 UM 58 HI 59 UM 60 UM 61 UM 62 UM 63 LM 1 EAS 2 EAS 3 ECS 4 ECS 5 ECS 6 ECS 7 ECS 8 NAC 9 ECS 10 ECS 11 NAC 12 EAS 13 ECS 14 ECS 15 EAS 16 ECS 17 EAS 18 EAS 19 ECS 20 MEA 21 ECS 22 ECS 23 ECS 24 ECS 25 MEA 26 ECS 1 EAS 27 MEA 28 ECS 29 ECS 30 MEA 31 ECS 32 ECS 33 ECS 34 ECS 2 LCN 35 ECS 36 ECS 3 ECS 4 SSF 37 ECS 38 MEA 1 EAS 39 MEA 40 ECS 5 SSF 6 ECS 2 EAS 7 SSF 41 ECS 42 MEA 3 EAS 8 LCN 9 ECS 10 ECS 4 MEA 11 MEA 43 LCN 12 ECS 13 LCN 14 ECS 15 SSF 5 EAS 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 1 6 7 2 3 8 9 4 10 5 6 11 1 12 13 14 15 2 16 7 3 17 18 4 19 20 21 22 1 23 24 25 1 26 5 8 6 27 2 28 9 3 29 7 10 2 30 31 8 9 3 32 4 33 4 11 0.88 47.79 40.11 52.25 35.44 42.

24 103 LI 8 EAS 15 31.20 96 LM 20 SAS 2 33.18 97 LM 21 LCN 15 33.70 75 LM 7 LCN 10 38.06 124 LM 32 SSF 23 23.40 125 LM 33 SSF 24 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Country/Economy 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results Table 3: Innovation Input Sub-Index rankings (continued) Note: World Bank Income Group Classification (January 2011): LI = low income.85 113 LI 12 SSF 17 29. 0. and HI = high income.37 109 LM 26 LCN 19 30.25 70.65 86 LM 13 MEA 11 36.50 26.08 98 LM 22 LCN 16 32.45 108 LI 10 SSF 14 30. MEA = Middle East & North Africa.73 107 LM 25 SSF 13 30.21 Kazakhstan Ghana Uruguay Ukraine Brazil Kenya Brunei Darussalam Serbia Peru Jamaica Colombia Guyana Georgia Moldova.93 85 LM 12 SSF 7 36.03 111 LM 28 MEA 15 29.60 91 LM 16 LCN 13 34.57 123 LM 31 SAS 4 26.82 99 LI 6 SSF 10 32.81 94 LI 5 SSF 9 33. and LCN = Latin America & Caribbean.0 8.09 71 UM 19 ECS 36 39.86 64 UM 16 ECS 34 39.24 117 LI 15 SSF 19 28.82 122 LI 18 SSF 22 26. Albania Tunisia Turkey Mexico Argentina Azerbaijan Armenia Swaziland Morocco India Egypt Kyrgyzstan Rwanda El Salvador Paraguay Philippines Zambia Indonesia Sri Lanka Guatemala Honduras Malawi Ecuador Algeria Niger Cambodia Madagascar Nicaragua Iran Senegal Tanzania Bolivia Cameroon Syrian Arab Republic Uganda Mali Bangladesh Venezuela Ethiopia Burkina Faso Benin Nigeria Tajikistan Yemen Zimbabwe Pakistan Sudan Côte d’Ivoire Score (0–100) Rank Income Rank Region Rank 39.12 110 LM 27 SSF 15 30.72 74 UM 22 LCN 9 38. UM = upper-middle income.86 112 LI 11 SSF 16 29.57 100 LM 23 LCN 17 32.06 72 UM 20 LCN 7 38. NAC = North America.40 77 LM 9 ECS 38 38.73 90 LI 4 SSF 8 34.50 61.54 76 LM 8 ECS 37 38.24 69 LI 2 SSF 6 39.69 66 UM 17 LCN 5 39.13 105 LM 24 LCN 18 30.48 115 UM 30 LCN 20 29.21 79 LM 10 MEA 10 37. LM = lower-middle income.0 43.29 82 UM 26 LCN 12 37.47 81 UM 25 LCN 11 37.64 114 LI 13 SAS 3 29.44 102 LI 7 SSF 11 31.47 87 LM 14 SAS 1 35.47 68 UM 18 LCN 6 39.59 67 LM 6 ECS 35 39.00 93 LM 18 EAS 13 33. EAS = East Asia & Pacific.19 70 HI 44 EAS 12 39. SAS = South Asia.00 121 LM 30 MEA 16 26.10 84 LM 11 ECS 42 36.64 120 LI 17 ECS 44 27.93 89 LI 3 ECS 43 34. World Bank Regional Classification (January 2011): ECS = Europe & Central Asia. SSF = Sub-Saharan Africa.96 80 UM 24 ECS 40 37.75 52.57 95 LM 19 EAS 14 33.07 101 UM 28 MEA 13 31.20 104 LI 9 SSF 12 31.45 92 LM 17 LCN 14 34.21 83 UM 27 ECS 41 37.0 .72 119 LM 29 SSF 21 27.08 88 LM 15 MEA 12 34.29 78 UM 23 ECS 39 38.29 116 LI 14 SSF 18 29.25 35.89 73 UM 21 LCN 8 38.84 65 LI 1 SSF 5 39.26 118 LI 16 SSF 20 27.75 17. Rep.91 106 UM 29 MEA 14 30.

15 1 HI 2 HI 3 HI 4 HI 5 HI 6 HI 7 HI 8 HI 9 HI 10 HI 11 HI 12 HI 13 HI 14 LM 15 HI 16 HI 17 HI 18 HI 19 HI 20 HI 21 HI 22 HI 23 HI 24 HI 25 HI 26 HI 27 HI 28 HI 29 LM 30 HI 31 HI 32 UM 33 LM 34 HI 35 UM 36 HI 37 UM 38 UM 39 HI 40 UM 41 UM 42 LM 43 UM 44 LM 45 HI 46 LM 47 UM 48 HI 49 LM 50 UM 51 HI 52 LM 53 UM 54 HI 55 HI 56 HI 57 UM 58 LM 59 UM 60 LM 61 UM 62 LM 63 UM 1 ECS 1 2 ECS 2 3 ECS 3 4 ECS 4 5 NAC 1 6 ECS 5 7 ECS 6 8 MEA 1 9 ECS 7 10 NAC 2 11 EAS 1 12 EAS 2 13 ECS 8 1 EAS 3 14 EAS 4 15 ECS 9 16 EAS 5 17 ECS 10 18 MEA 2 19 ECS 11 20 ECS 12 21 ECS 13 22 ECS 14 23 ECS 15 24 ECS 16 25 EAS 6 26 ECS 17 27 ECS 18 2 ECS 19 28 ECS 20 29 EAS 7 1 LCN 1 3 MEA 3 30 ECS 21 2 EAS 8 31 ECS 22 3 LCN 2 4 ECS 23 32 ECS 24 5 LCN 3 6 MEA 4 4 EAS 9 7 ECS 25 5 SAS 1 33 ECS 26 6 EAS 10 8 ECS 27 34 ECS 28 7 LCN 4 9 ECS 29 35 MEA 5 8 ECS 30 10 ECS 31 36 ECS 32 37 ECS 33 38 MEA 6 11 LCN 5 9 MEA 7 12 ECS 34 10 ECS 35 13 LCN 6 11 SSF 1 14 SSF 2 0.83 47.77 43.61 45.85 30.52 35.64 32.29 49.57 29.44 33.14 31.61 29.91 30.89 36.03 35.66 38.49 33.19 35.26 47.30 50.90 42.72 46. China Iceland China New Zealand Hungary Singapore Norway Qatar Estonia France Ireland Austria Czech Republic Luxembourg Japan Cyprus Belgium Moldova. Slovenia Australia Brazil Jordan Spain Malaysia Portugal Costa Rica Serbia Italy Argentina Lebanon Viet Nam Bulgaria India Latvia Thailand Romania Croatia Guyana Russian Federation Kuwait Ukraine Turkey Slovak Republic Poland United Arab Emirates Chile Tunisia Lithuania Armenia Uruguay Nigeria Mauritius Score (0–100) Rank Income Rank Region Rank 59.34 33.67 28.93 31.90 28.25 35.34 32.74 50.30 40.58 28.56 32.96 30.20 45.34 48.95 30.20 50.74 29.93 47.25 70.75 17.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 22 Table 4: Innovation Output Sub-Index rankings Country/Economy Sweden Switzerland Netherlands Germany United States of America Finland Denmark Israel United Kingdom Canada Korea.0 43.04 43.47 33.86 36.52 39.0 8.42 30.53 33.83 29.50 42.77 46.94 48.37 41.17 34.21 41.67 42. Rep.50 61. Rep.52 28.60 33.86 30.75 52.60 29.49 41.50 26.25 29.40 58.20 52.18 44. Hong Kong (SAR).92 38.0 .27 48.

EAS = East Asia & Pacific.38 82 LM 20 SSF 5 24. LM = lower-middle income.44 123 LM 33 MEA 15 11.63 98 UM 22 LCN 16 21.68 108 LI 9 EAS 15 19.50 26.79 78 HI 41 MEA 10 24.20 75 LM 16 ECS 38 25.85 93 LI 6 SSF 10 22.30 90 LI 4 SSF 8 22.11 117 LM 31 SSF 18 17.77 103 UM 25 ECS 43 20.96 84 LM 21 EAS 12 23.91 71 UM 17 MEA 9 25.25 35.79 85 LM 22 SSF 7 23. MEA = Middle East & North Africa.25 70.65 122 LM 32 SSF 23 14. SAS = South Asia.23 Paraguay Sri Lanka Saudi Arabia Pakistan Macedonia Bangladesh Colombia Iran Greece Guatemala Venezuela Georgia Ghana Ecuador Oman Côte d’Ivoire Kyrgyzstan Mongolia Senegal South Africa Philippines Cameroon El Salvador Trinidad and Tobago Mexico Egypt Tanzania Uganda Bahrain Mali Brunei Darussalam Albania Honduras Indonesia Peru Tajikistan Azerbaijan Panama Morocco Kazakhstan Botswana Bolivia Nicaragua Zimbabwe Cambodia Madagascar Syrian Arab Republic Bosnia & Herzegovina Benin Malawi Kenya Jamaica Namibia Swaziland Burkina Faso Rwanda Zambia Ethiopia Sudan Yemen Niger Algeria Score (0–100) Rank Income Rank Region Rank 27.26 107 LI 8 SSF 12 19.47 121 LI 17 SSF 22 14.58 111 UM 27 ECS 44 19.57 68 UM 15 ECS 36 26. and LCN = Latin America & Caribbean.62 95 UM 21 ECS 40 22.47 87 HI 42 LCN 13 23.11 113 LI 12 SSF 15 19.53 96 LM 25 LCN 15 21.75 52. UM = upper-middle income.0 43.50 61.04 118 LI 14 SSF 19 17.65 80 LI 3 ECS 39 24.94 66 HI 39 MEA 8 26.92 70 UM 16 LCN 8 25.90 64 LM 12 LCN 7 27.34 89 LM 24 MEA 11 23. 0.42 88 UM 20 LCN 14 23.94 77 LM 17 LCN 11 24.35 112 LI 11 SSF 14 19.63 109 LI 10 SSF 13 19.51 105 LM 28 LCN 18 20.73 120 LI 16 SSF 21 16.65 104 UM 26 SSF 11 20.67 86 LM 23 LCN 12 23. and HI = high income.82 101 UM 24 LCN 17 20.44 106 LM 29 LCN 19 20.00 119 LI 15 SSF 20 16.13 100 UM 23 ECS 42 20. World Bank Regional Classification (January 2011): ECS = Europe & Central Asia.94 67 LM 14 SAS 3 26.87 115 UM 28 LCN 20 18.35 74 UM 18 LCN 10 25.49 81 LM 19 EAS 11 24.38 124 LI 18 SSF 24 7.99 97 LM 26 EAS 14 21.47 69 LI 1 SAS 4 25.53 65 LM 13 SAS 2 26.05 114 LI 13 SSF 16 18.36 99 LI 7 ECS 41 21.52 125 UM 30 MEA 16 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Country/Economy 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results Table 4: Innovation Output Sub-Index rankings (continued) Note: World Bank Income Group Classification (January 2011): LI = low income.0 .75 17.49 73 LM 15 LCN 9 25.07 83 UM 19 SSF 6 23.87 91 LI 5 SSF 9 22.46 116 UM 29 SSF 17 18.61 110 LM 30 MEA 14 19. SSF = Sub-Saharan Africa.68 94 HI 44 EAS 13 22. NAC = North America.12 76 LI 2 SSF 3 24.0 8.81 102 LM 27 MEA 13 20.89 72 HI 40 ECS 37 25.77 79 LM 18 SSF 4 24.87 92 HI 43 MEA 12 22.

1 16 81.3 55 61.7 32 68.8 59 63.7 63 79.1 23 81.0 106 Greece 67.1 38 77.0 39 70.7 42 82.3 33 84.8 15 Jordan 65.1 2 Israel 72.7 41 57.6 22 Bahrain 74.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 24 Table 5a: Institutions pillar INSTITUTIONS Political environment Regulatory environment Business environment Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Denmark 94. 77.1 12 93.0 50 66.5 53 63.2 10 98.6 4 86.4 33 79.4 49 Uruguay 69.4 11 74.0 7 88.8 26 77.2 68 Mauritius 82.6 5 96.1 41 59.3 19 92.5 40 67.9 34 80.3 36 Slovenia 80.8 52 64.7 62 84.2 6 90.8 25 Netherlands 87.2 52 60.3 34 76.8 34 Sweden 87. China 92.8 29 92.3 14 95.5 49 73.0 47 89.9 47 66.2 39 Latvia 76.2 48 72.6 30 81.3 73 Albania 65.5 65 88.0 11 Hong Kong (SAR).9 44 82.3 35 78.3 9 Estonia 80.6 8 95.8 5 Finland 89.2 36 67.8 92 67.8 61 84.5 2 93.7 52 France 77.1 12 95.7 10 86.6 42 73.9 17 Qatar 83.3 6 92.3 11 96.1 20 85.2 63 55.7 47 70.3 1 85.5 14 Canada 93.4 55 98.1 44 76.5 7 86.3 34 83.9 56 67.1 38 79.5 22 77.8 27 83.5 67 55.6 9 96.4 9 80.1 3 79.3 72 83.3 22 87.2 13 84.8 61 Trinidad and Tobago 71.3 10 Singapore 90.1 6 84.8 69 Germany 83.4 37 80.4 84 Georgia 72.3 31 77.4 41 51.2 46 68.4 16 78.4 29 82.0 28 97.2 55 63.8 62 53.9 58 75.3 16 Australia 91.6 32 75.0 7 Switzerland 92.7 38 65.9 47 .4 18 77.7 5 93.8 17 86.5 102 Armenia 67.8 60 84.4 45 50.8 57 76.7 24 80.2 45 Costa Rica 67.1 49 72.1 30 95.6 29 91.9 75 Kuwait 75.1 18 85.6 53 77.5 13 92.4 1 Namibia 72.1 21 Macedonia 73.1 36 74.1 23 76.9 40 73.0 25 74.5 23 77.2 59 Cyprus 83. Rep.6 44 76.5 28 Iceland 90.8 2 94.4 50 95.0 33 80.8 12 New Zealand 94.1 31 81.5 21 88.1 27 89.4 46 85.4 5 82.5 60 71.2 18 81.5 51 57.5 8 United Arab Emirates 81.6 24 84.5 35 United Kingdom 86.5 60 39.5 44 Ghana 69.8 1 86.6 73 90.9 37 86.8 28 82.2 4 Mongolia 66.5 25 93.3 26 92.3 39 65.3 30 71.6 27 Austria 85.7 39 85.5 20 69.8 37 64.7 4 91.9 64 83.0 42 Poland 76.5 82 Chile 85.7 51 Spain 68.7 8 85.5 15 83.6 43 Malaysia 70.1 46 Portugal 80.7 17 94.3 27 93.8 4 88.4 67 Brunei Darussalam 71.7 58 60.2 21 73.4 51 74.0 2 93.4 48 61.4 16 79.3 32 Belgium 84.7 48 87.5 25 70.3 40 85.1 49 59.7 20 Slovak Republic 79.5 15 80.7 48 Luxembourg 88.5 83 Botswana 76.0 22 86.4 3 Croatia 73.4 32 92.8 20 89.1 63 United States of America 86.5 26 74.0 43 96.8 18 Norway 88.5 54 79.2 7 96.4 28 82.2 9 90.5 66 66.6 85 South Africa 71.9 31 77.1 54 Oman 78.1 13 81.5 58 Hungary 79.1 46 55.8 19 86.8 53 66.0 43 56.1 76 Saudi Arabia 67.3 42 67.9 3 91.1 75 71.4 30 Ireland 91.6 112 Jamaica 69.4 35 73.5 11 96.2 43 85.1 14 80.2 50 73.8 12 86.1 62 64.4 6 Czech Republic 82.8 66 Korea.6 56 Japan 83.3 113 Italy 71.3 3 91.9 56 82.3 61 52.5 45 78.2 19 75.7 54 63.4 10 84.6 13 Lithuania 78.5 64 56.2 53 Romania 69.7 14 97.4 36 74.2 1 94.1 35 74.8 26 Bulgaria 74.1 8 88.6 45 73.0 17 56.2 21 89.6 15 96.6 24 74.9 57 58.8 71 76.

8 95 70.0 110 54.5 112 70.0 88 54.7 114 11.0 87 48.2 84 51.5 116 51.2 111 51.3 80 45.6 120 34.1 97 39.2 72 47.3 93 44.1 94 54.6 115 19.5 122 43.8 124 26.4 120 30.8 97 37.6 80 62.0 74 47.5 71 60.3 94 52.7 91 87.2 95 17.5 81 43.0 103 36.5 116 30.6 117 37.9 102 38.6 75 32.9 84 39.1 78 54.2 100 43.4 118 85.9 119 9.7 83 36.2 101 32.9 114 85.3 65 57.4 68 77.9 99 25.1 121 40.3 109 20.7 70 41.9 107 59.5 125 44.6 81 49.9 70 58.6 77 48.1 106 77.8 84 64.5 83 60.3 37 61.9 98 40.0 75 74.5 81 85.0 88 58.0 61 50.3 114 36.3 94 42.1 69 43.4 74 51.1 122 56.6 89 62.4 105 71.0 121 36.1 64 48.1 90 62.9 77 57.6 107 53.5 57 57.3 118 30.2 101 45.1 41 41.5 63 82.5 76 52.5 78 52.1 67 60.1 73 47.4 117 66.1 87 64.5 110 52.6 110 86.2 23 62.0 101 62.3 59 68.6 118 42.4 92 66.4 117 41.3 104 74.9 57 42.3 79 58.0 89 55.2 98 42.5 113 37.3 124 27. INSTITUTIONS Political environment Regulatory environment Business environment Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Panama Zambia Serbia El Salvador Kazakhstan Turkey Egypt Thailand Moldova.5 113 68.4 121 6.6 59 41.3 106 52.6 68 48.8 51 52.2 72 52.4 62 58.1 69 47.8 107 39.5 29 51.4 94 75.2 103 42.9 33 63.5 71 38.4 50 46.5 93 81.2 82 87.5 80 71.3 92 52. Tunisia Burkina Faso Rwanda Mexico Bosnia & Herzegovina Guyana Azerbaijan Morocco Peru Tanzania Colombia Viet Nam Senegal Lebanon Brazil Uganda Mali Indonesia Madagascar Malawi Sri Lanka India Kenya Ethiopia Russian Federation China Swaziland Guatemala Philippines Argentina Ukraine Kyrgyzstan Bangladesh Honduras Benin Pakistan Syrian Arab Republic Paraguay Cameroon Algeria Ecuador Iran Nigeria Nicaragua Niger Tajikistan Yemen Cambodia Sudan Côte d’Ivoire Bolivia Venezuela Zimbabwe 64.0 97 67.6 123 31.7 108 35.4 123 34.0 98 69.6 114 25.6 115 12.3 102 32.1 93 52.2 100 55.8 125 23.9 119 42.8 82 47.9 79 35.8 67 85.3 86 39.9 120 71.2 69 71.5 104 25.2 123 39.0 77 54.1 123 27.0 115 51.1 111 56.7 100 51.9 91 34.0 104 36.0 88 40.4 31 57.5 91 46.6 76 44.5 119 23.1 81 51.5 88 75.8 95 51.9 78 44.2 65 61.1 87 33.6 105 51.2 93 31.7 106 36.1 74 73.2 100 51.8 96 31.9 79 68.1 92 53.9 90 32.2 74 49.6 109 62.4 112 32.1 104 51.1 125 25.8 56 54.3 86 80.3 72 51.4 58 59.9 111 35.7 98 32.4 90 44.7 82 57.2 97 51.2 108 40.7 96 54.8 99 75.8 64 62.2 109 36.6 111 83.5 109 35. Rep.8 113 37.3 119 24.8 70 56.2 86 56.7 108 20.1 117 36.7 85 51.9 66 69.1 102 55.2 38 53.3 68 53.0 122 46.6 80 43.1 73 44.8 78 48.0 124 34.7 85 77.6 99 45.9 103 80.2 77 54.2 110 39.3 115 67.4 89 81.4 99 37.1 120 43.8 87 85.8 125 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Table 5a: Institutions pillar (continued) 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 25 .8 108 53.0 90 59.0 85 45.0 124 39.0 89 50.7 19 58.2 65 43.2 121 65.2 105 26.7 118 54.9 105 34.8 116 39.0 79 46.9 95 41.3 107 77.1 40 63.1 55 61.2 96 50.6 112 58.3 101 62.6 86 58.3 91 39.3 122 26.5 76 68.4 116 53.0 83 86.9 54 50.2 103 42.6 71 58.1 24 61.5 96 65.2 66 51.1 60 64.9 70 89.3 52 79.

4 96 40.2 20 59.0 51 52.5 27 69.5 65 28.6 29 69.4 13 66.5 39 69.5 23 73.6 44 48.0 60 51.5 28 Cyprus 48.3 19 30.2 6 79.5 3 Iceland 65.2 4 Denmark 60.8 9 71.9 74 19.0 29 United Arab Emirates 52.1 62 Lithuania 47.7 20 64.0 18 67.4 4 58.8 30 43.3 9 36.9 28 18.0 11 Ireland 57.6 41 78.7 16 93.0 49 71.6 16 Switzerland 55.5 70 Ghana 39.0 18 28.3 35 51.4 1 60.3 10 44.3 5 74.1 48 Kenya 43.6 40 63.8 47 69.9 68 38.6 37 70.3 33 38.7 4 78.2 36 35.9 30 Estonia 50.2 55 55.7 32 39.2 45 39.8 27 42.3 2 49.1 12 17.9 21 Mauritius 43.9 79 Serbia 40.5 76 53.7 7 40.0 46 43.4 54 Croatia 43.8 43 42.6 81 46.2 11 26.6 14 61.9 62 53.2 31 67.4 30 59.6 22 50. 43.4 24 57.8 83 19.8 57 62.1 20 United Kingdom 56.1 16 68.8 65 48.7 1 69.5 11 72.8 52 36.1 36 42.4 12 Austria 58.4 24 35.4 53 68.1 38 62.2 22 Belgium 52.0 32 43.9 18 73.3 56 28.6 5 32.3 15 52.3 8 42.4 23 24.3 94 Malaysia 43.7 46 Canada 53.4 73 43.1 7 France 53.0 69 49.7 25 New Zealand 56.7 21 30.8 68 Slovak Republic 42.7 15 37.7 19 Portugal 52.0 23 Hungary 45.4 15 Australia 57.8 4 44.1 6 Slovenia 51.9 51 17.7 96 34.0 8 23.3 25 41.8 26 30.7 11 40.4 61 .9 28 66.9 108 Jordan 41.3 50 Poland 42.1 49 29.7 36 70.4 50 63.9 56 59.9 3 35.6 31 Czech Republic 49.3 18 Qatar 52.2 60 65.1 17 49.0 13 73.8 14 Norway 57.4 33 66.5 42 55.5 12 76.3 50 48.2 45 53.0 13 Japan 53.3 6 22.8 10 79.3 102 42.9 39 56.9 33 33.2 52 51.6 13 41.2 10 Israel 69.1 24 Morocco 38.9 69 Syrian Arab Republic 40.7 1 Finland 66.4 22 50.4 36 Netherlands 47.2 31 55.9 80 36.2 41 68.4 1 37.6 32 70.3 32 Tunisia 39.7 46 70.5 9 Bahrain 54.5 24 56.5 41 36.5 25 52.0 74 24.9 22 73.8 21 56.6 16 28.8 42 29.8 39 24.4 27 12.6 8 Korea.4 2 29.5 17 United States of America 57.8 72 40.3 14 43.8 55 Hong Kong (SAR).9 51 18.8 56 Latvia 42.9 27 Greece 47.4 40 Oman 45.9 31 64.9 3 44.0 30 47.5 43 64.4 55 53.9 42 35.8 2 68.1 38 58.7 63 27.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 26 Table 5b: Human capital and research pillar HUMAN CAPITAL AND RESEARCH Education Tertiary education Research and Development Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Singapore 74.1 48 63.9 67 n/a n/a 24.1 104 51.3 85 Namibia 37.3 26 74.3 47 42.1 47 Ukraine 44.4 41 Iran 39.2 48 21.6 64 Zimbabwe 40.6 29 33.3 25 73.0 44 Italy 44. China 48.2 5 Luxembourg 56.1 43 Saudi Arabia 40.9 14 57.2 43 39.7 34 63.0 21 69.1 17 62.7 28 21.1 42 Spain 48.6 90 Russian Federation 45. Rep.5 12 42.6 82 32.8 17 23.3 54 63.8 6 42.7 92 32.8 46 61.2 66 Bulgaria 39.4 48 68.2 34 Argentina 37.9 19 48.9 37 38.7 26 Germany 57.3 71 Lebanon 41.5 47 16.4 44 24.3 45 21.2 82 37.5 3 76.3 44 46.6 52 Bosnia & Herzegovina 42.5 9 25.5 58 China 39.2 59 59.9 10 33.9 7 64.8 20 39. Rep.2 38 Venezuela 45.2 97 46.0 61 54.5 2 Sweden 63.8 40 31.9 19 65.0 34 67.2 63 59.5 58 44.8 52 68.4 15 76.5 59 Moldova. 59.5 26 48.7 7 24.9 35 52.3 40 70.5 38 38.5 23 94.6 35 21.7 8 69.9 5 49.2 37 40.

9 125 25.2 115 n/a n/a 30.4 60 32.2 94 26.7 113 10.9 110 51.6 81 11.8 119 18.9 111 39.6 70 12.0 85 17.3 88 11.6 121 15.3 72 24.2 102 52.0 107 18.9 104 24.3 106 21.0 87 34.8 124 15. HUMAN CAPITAL AND RESEARCH Education Tertiary education Research and Development Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Botswana Romania Trinidad and Tobago Kuwait Jamaica Guyana Uruguay Chile Macedonia Mexico Kazakhstan Mongolia Brazil Brunei Darussalam Swaziland Costa Rica Turkey Algeria Albania Georgia Panama Viet Nam Bolivia Thailand Armenia Yemen Azerbaijan Colombia South Africa Rwanda Malawi Kyrgyzstan Indonesia Tanzania Tajikistan Cameroon Niger Honduras Sri Lanka Ecuador India El Salvador Senegal Egypt Peru Guatemala Paraguay Mali Zambia Benin Bangladesh Madagascar Philippines Uganda Côte d’Ivoire Burkina Faso Nicaragua Cambodia Nigeria Ethiopia Pakistan Sudan 37.8 86 24.0 121 26.6 83 18.6 93 23.5 121 28.7 93 38.2 117 13.6 95 28.6 116 16.1 69 53.8 116 31.0 64 28.2 122 35.9 87 22.4 101 60.7 89 50.0 100 34.1 114 23.2 99 46.9 103 21.2 122 21.9 70 31.8 77 59.5 113 22.1 75 57.0 91 44.6 123 3.4 120 35.4 95 27.4 118 18.7 88 55.1 78 59.6 83 58.1 111 8.9 80 49.7 99 19.6 74 58.7 96 30.1 79 58.6 117 14.6 80 27.8 57 24.6 96 46.4 78 31.4 105 33.5 83 30.2 109 14.0 63 31.0 98 32.2 108 31.8 89 31.3 65 33.7 85 45.1 100 32.0 111 29.9 101 30.4 75 36.0 115 18.8 123 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Table 5b: Human capital and research pillar (continued) 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 27 .3 123 6.8 116 28.5 72 12.7 108 43.8 56 14.3 53 13.2 59 32.8 120 26.5 77 24.3 39 29.7 72 54.0 67 35.5 57 32.8 62 23.9 105 11.9 51 33.7 82 49.2 60 16.7 73 53.1 92 29.4 90 50.9 104 32.5 64 14.5 89 11.2 120 12.6 100 30.5 101 35.6 97 35.3 114 29.6 63 34.2 109 44.7 80 23.3 122 30.7 112 44.0 84 49.9 74 32.4 77 26.8 62 3.8 35 26.3 110 14.1 53 35.3 103 15.8 105 41.5 50 14.6 58 31.1 118 30.4 84 20.8 106 13.1 61 18.5 113 39.8 123 22.6 114 23.5 119 38.8 112 25.9 95 16.7 76 24.0 124 14.7 87 8.0 87 48.7 66 53.9 90 27.7 111 22.4 107 51.6 54 27.4 97 28.9 71 29.9 105 10.3 58 20.2 109 19.0 103 48.0 61 25.8 76 14.9 29 15.6 85 28.6 119 34.8 33 29.9 92 31.9 107 32.0 84 15.8 65 58.7 84 12.3 73 19.9 66 16.4 93 19.3 122 24.7 69 11.6 34 25.3 97 24.4 88 n/a n/a 28.5 71 8.1 114 30.3 59 8.3 98 8.9 88 30.1 86 29.2 73 34.9 93 46.8 99 25.2 78 10.4 98 47.5 103 24.8 81 57.3 115 9.2 77 18.9 71 50.5 68 58.9 79 10.1 49 31.0 67 21.8 91 23.8 98 12.6 113 14.7 106 42.9 76 54.3 37 29.7 94 30.1 68 21.3 117 27.1 101 40.0 102 33.9 55 13.0 78 34.9 120 18.8 121 15.2 119 8.3 100 5.2 110 10.0 70 54.7 66 26.7 79 18.3 94 15.2 107 12.0 92 57.5 91 29.5 109 14.9 81 27.2 106 34.6 117 43.1 115 38.3 124 28.9 118 29.2 112 14.9 91 11.6 102 18.2 86 56.7 95 51.1 118 18.0 64 66.7 53 16.0 112 21.9 45 24.5 57 19.3 108 18.9 75 20.4 90 17.7 116 30.5 125 8.1 110 24.6 82 36.8 49 29.8 67 61.5 75 40.2 86 18.2 104 23.1 99 24.1 54 17.1 89 30.

8 31 45.5 76 33.5 23 55.7 32 37.0 35 47.2 4 42.4 69 30.9 55 United Arab Emirates 35.1 37 19.7 34 26.5 66 5.8 8 64.5 77 50.9 89 33.1 22 61.2 93 53.7 27 United States of America 44.4 25 54.2 4 49.4 21 32.6 42 33.1 29 36.9 6 30.7 15 25.1 33 25.5 8 52.6 35 Hungary 33.3 55 41.3 104 n/a n/a 48.7 63 16.4 25 27.6 42 44.0 58 27.5 44 Italy 35.5 72 48.2 48 30.5 67 31.6 70 Netherlands 43.4 84 Japan 45.7 57 Uruguay 33.0 32 United Kingdom 43.0 7 41.4 44 41.6 18 68.7 36 45.1 7 Lithuania 35.1 79 18.3 20 62.0 31 Paraguay 36.0 95 Guyana 31.3 14 38.2 40 Spain 43.0 30 22.1 42 17.4 81 22.2 34 38.5 23 37.8 19 37.7 3 Sweden 51.4 62 35.6 2 25.9 11 68.8 52 31.9 52 Germany 43.6 9 41.6 19 23.2 6 81.2 81 38.4 40 40.6 28 Ireland 39.3 15 Korea.6 36 41.9 17 25.6 17 70.5 67 Panama 30.5 19 64.6 13 55.8 76 Malaysia 30.5 66 Qatar 33.4 13 68.2 5 Australia 52.6 54 Greece 32.3 11 .8 39 17.0 7 57.3 28 40.4 43 25.8 62 30.9 30 44.1 56 44.3 6 New Zealand 47.4 33 28.1 50 37.8 27 24.2 46 China 35.8 31 17.8 118 n/a n/a 47.3 8 23.8 26 52.9 9 Chile 31. Rep.0 1 Czech Republic 32.4 12 51. China 53.2 54 15.9 2 70.9 15 39.5 92 63.8 17 Hong Kong (SAR).6 43 31.5 18 36.3 90 Colombia 35.5 38 23.1 47 28.7 114 66.0 42 Kuwait 31.4 29 Austria 44.0 16 58.2 1 46.1 36 25.1 53 44.9 65 35.3 94 18.1 3 66.8 48 9.5 60 33.3 60 25.7 24 32.3 4 70.5 15 57.8 98 33.0 31 47.9 22 34.3 29 17.6 50 20.1 16 Singapore 47.2 11 36.6 14 67.5 24 58.4 44 20.2 39 33.4 54 41.5 14 Saudi Arabia 27.0 5 26.1 3 32.1 50 36.4 79 40.7 16 38.8 18 24.3 79 Romania 30.2 29 19.1 49 Iceland 45.1 48 Latvia 33.8 7 25.9 83 Estonia 38.7 32 41.1 72 Belgium 39.5 36 Luxembourg 43.0 73 47.2 47 India 27.7 4 Denmark 45.1 37 47.6 55 25.7 5 67.3 23 Argentina 31.2 45 30.9 38 34.5 108 42.2 59 Brazil 32.8 11 31.9 26 59.0 19 Tunisia 29.8 66 36.9 12 Morocco 29.5 20 19.1 49 36.0 38 Portugal 34.4 38 28.5 43 Costa Rica 29.5 17 31.0 1 22.5 68 Slovenia 36.5 40 14.6 9 69.6 27 51.8 56 Israel 38.3 5 47.1 49 13.9 59 38. 48.1 16 29.8 87 Viet Nam 29.1 50 Poland 30.0 58 37.5 28 46.7 51 28.0 88 38.4 41 34.5 24 28.7 26 Peru 31.9 33 France 43.5 1 64.4 10 40.7 74 38.2 35 12.8 46 26.7 12 31.3 3 26.7 34 34.1 23 34.5 67 35.7 28 17.6 32 30.4 9 30.4 53 23.9 13 Bahrain 46.2 63 41.7 33 38.0 26 58.9 39 45. technologies (ICT) Energy General infrastructure Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Norway 55.3 78 Cyprus 36.2 57 21.5 13 31.2 21 63.1 107 Mongolia 32.4 52 39.5 46 32.2 40 40.6 12 47.2 30 Finland 48.4 59 14.2 61 22.3 48 39.4 47 24.1 30 40.2 8 Canada 53.2 61 8.3 56 22.9 10 58.3 2 Slovak Republic 35.3 43 57.7 53 Bulgaria 28.2 80 Kazakhstan 28.1 22 35.9 6 56.9 45 42.0 14 26.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 28 Table 5c: Infrastructure pillar INFRASTRUCTURE Info & comm.0 54 35.9 75 Croatia 34.5 45 16.1 24 Madagascar 28.3 2 38.0 63 Switzerland 44.

1 73 23.9 122 15.0 64 26.8 107 9.2 108 29.4 121 23.0 62 24.7 120 24.5 76 13.7 112 26.6 53 30.4 69 22.3 110 7.2 91 22.6 35 24.2 102 18.8 98 22.2 92 25.7 27 24.9 123 14.6 86 38.6 103 27.9 94 15.6 96 29.7 100 25.2 109 28.6 67 17.4 47 28.9 102 48.2 117 17.0 106 9.8 72 9.7 77 20.6 97 21. technologies (ICT) Energy General infrastructure Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Turkey Mexico Oman Sri Lanka Philippines Ecuador Albania Bolivia Macedonia Russian Federation Mauritius Lebanon Bangladesh Nicaragua Thailand South Africa Senegal Indonesia Guatemala Serbia Venezuela Namibia Honduras El Salvador Botswana Cambodia Algeria Bosnia & Herzegovina Iran Ghana Armenia Zambia Jordan Kyrgyzstan Sudan Azerbaijan Egypt Ukraine Kenya Moldova.1 61 31.7 101 21.7 66 26.6 80 11.6 98 22.9 93 11.0 75 25.2 10 30.9 83 27.3 92 32.6 71 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Table 5c: Infrastructure pillar (continued) 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 29 .8 105 n/a n/a 25.3 69 29.9 117 n/a n/a 25.3 105 21.9 122 3.4 98 11.4 124 7.4 84 24. Rep.1 62 9.5 111 24.6 75 23.9 110 16.2 97 19.6 95 18.2 85 25.0 112 8.2 115 17.1 55 21.3 91 27.0 82 24.7 111 19.7 75 36.6 102 11.4 85 8.6 10 26.0 41 23.7 63 13.4 100 36.7 112 16.8 68 12.4 89 18.4 113 19.2 111 19.7 85 36.0 113 34.8 124 17.1 51 24.5 97 21.9 71 22.1 74 11.1 119 28.1 108 20.5 87 18.5 87 4.2 118 18.9 116 19.3 101 8.0 121 n/a n/a 33.3 44 28.5 118 11.9 88 14.3 100 20. INFRASTRUCTURE Info & comm.0 70 n/a n/a 27.3 86 15.1 61 20.6 84 26.3 116 9.4 91 23.5 73 16.7 18 23.3 90 21.2 60 28.4 39 22.4 111 27.8 96 39.2 104 11.4 103 22.5 93 31.3 103 24.0 57 15.9 101 41.2 72 32.4 102 14.7 113 15.0 70 24.1 64 29.0 65 29.5 119 23.4 125 19.8 106 28.5 82 23.7 90 13.6 89 11.1 57 40.8 89 11.9 90 42.4 94 42.9 117 6.4 70 21.5 114 14.6 109 23.7 106 23.0 99 22.1 60 20.1 110 16.8 20 30.6 121 8.9 69 25.3 37 22.5 107 25.6 124 n/a n/a 33.0 71 6.6 34 24. Mali Cameroon Nigeria Benin Uganda Jamaica Niger Georgia Ethiopia Côte d’Ivoire Pakistan Brunei Darussalam Tajikistan Malawi Swaziland Trinidad and Tobago Tanzania Rwanda Burkina Faso Syrian Arab Republic Zimbabwe Yemen 27.3 104 21.0 82 30.5 37 31.5 68 22.7 123 17.7 97 33.0 105 10.1 51 14.0 81 20.4 21 27.5 46 31.9 91 31.0 25 35.2 109 n/a n/a 31.1 93 21.1 105 27.8 119 19.9 86 18.8 76 12.9 107 28.3 114 25.7 51 34.9 65 10.0 109 19.9 115 17.5 64 30.3 114 24.5 101 27.4 113 22.7 88 22.8 49 14.8 115 34.3 41 15.5 58 9.7 99 15.8 41 39.4 58 26.0 74 21.4 68 25.8 108 8.6 88 22.1 110 22.4 77 14.3 100 26.6 52 34.3 71 18.4 85 9.9 25 26.4 78 23.8 73 31.6 21 26.9 65 25.2 95 14.8 120 8.7 74 24.4 56 11.3 120 n/a n/a 26.8 116 16.1 95 32.4 115 38.6 99 30.8 84 38.2 45 24.4 125 n/a n/a 31.4 125 7.5 83 26.3 64 11.6 96 23.3 78 29.9 87 20.9 92 20.3 77 18.1 104 42.4 122 8.9 86 22.4 99 23.0 94 22.8 79 20.3 96 13.0 59 36.8 80 36.3 82 15.2 106 21.7 20 25.3 83 22.8 80 14.5 81 16.4 22 24.3 123 20.0 112 40.6 103 45.0 78 21.

9 37 32.0 11 58. China Singapore United Kingdom United States of America Switzerland Ireland Denmark South Africa Canada Malaysia Netherlands Korea.4 3 96.4 64 41.2 101 57.8 3 46.6 45 38.5 1 74.6 49 48.0 26 52.7 52 42.2 49 60.9 51 48.3 22 19.2 89 62.9 8 64.3 87 57.6 68 63. Belgium Germany Sweden Australia Israel New Zealand Japan Iceland Spain Luxembourg Austria Bahrain Finland China Norway France Estonia Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Cyprus Thailand Czech Republic Albania Hungary Chile Latvia Viet Nam Kuwait Mongolia Portugal Slovak Republic Jordan India Brunei Darussalam Azerbaijan Lithuania Nicaragua Bulgaria Bosnia & Herzegovina Peru Italy Panama Trinidad and Tobago Mauritius Cambodia Georgia Poland Slovenia Kyrgyzstan Macedonia Kenya 87.9 23 25.7 73 43.2 7 47.7 14 51.1 48 47.7 28 25.3 4 77.3 4 49.7 16 67.7 2 78.7 53 56.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 30 Table 5d: Market sophistication pillar MARKET SOPHISTICATION Credit Investment Trade and competition Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Hong Kong (SAR).7 16 58.5 94 47.8 18 49.3 12 47.7 52 48.6 103 49.1 34 31.6 8 49.3 88 52.7 8 45.4 28 70.4 5 52.4 32 57.7 67 53.0 5 34.8 25 42.0 50 52.5 30 58.6 46 26.3 3 26.6 83 70.0 11 91.7 43 17.1 56 44.0 79 46.3 10 67.8 44 40.7 24 52.3 19 46.9 40 40.7 15 46.9 15 57.3 51 58.8 6 64.4 1 74.1 33 19.6 41 48.4 9 68.7 28 31.6 13 68.4 36 42.4 4 44.8 52 74.3 11 61.7 2 65.3 42 50.6 18 59.9 19 79.4 39 60.0 1 78.7 25 30.1 24 53.3 34 53.7 112 65.4 21 57.1 30 29.7 80 22.6 57 39.6 17 47.3 31 48.8 29 40.7 39 19.7 48 38.8 56 40.5 75 44.5 7 89.1 36 63.5 27 49.8 16 71.5 47 22.3 60 34.8 9 56.0 13 76.9 43 38.5 69 53.4 26 59.8 22 52.8 11 71.1 8 64.5 49 48.4 56 20.7 12 38.5 75 57.4 31 51.0 39 64.9 59 39.1 34 44.4 29 59.6 19 42.5 23 85.3 41 47.1 5 56.1 10 58.1 51 28.2 70 47.1 15 65.5 25 55.2 62 41.0 31 73.4 40 33.5 80 75.2 67 49.1 5 78.7 81 42.2 53 54.4 43 46.0 116 85.0 3 56.0 5 22.2 90 64.8 27 53.4 62 27.1 62 45.8 38 33.8 66 58.8 68 58.1 63 47.4 37 43.3 47 48.0 7 54.8 56 69.3 6 61.5 44 58.2 59 43.1 86 33.9 18 79.3 54 51.9 20 88.6 89 42.8 12 66.3 17 40.0 75 54.0 35 57.1 46 24.6 33 63.5 42 40.9 99 54.5 2 92.3 17 43.5 29 56.0 55 49.5 54 47.4 1 91.8 28 68.8 12 49.3 14 85.7 24 56.0 33 44.1 25 76.4 22 91.1 58 48.7 34 46.9 13 54.2 32 75.2 108 62.7 7 39.0 40 47.2 2 44.7 44 29.7 60 62.1 20 78.2 58 42.0 16 40.7 28 53.3 95 58.9 61 53.5 37 46.1 47 35.9 36 42.7 14 43.2 61 45.8 14 49.6 27 58.3 19 62.6 17 61.5 22 35.7 17 49.6 57 70.2 52 41.3 9 48.2 71 57.9 48 50.3 9 49.1 72 70.4 14 43.2 32 37.1 88 44.5 35 44.4 55 33.9 74 45.2 20 56.7 65 55.3 38 62.7 30 48.4 45 62.5 32 56.5 21 71.4 66 14.3 6 81.1 26 49.2 42 31.9 20 61.5 54 24.3 47 46.0 102 57.7 97 .0 72 42.9 13 52.9 4 88.3 42 56.7 35 15.4 10 60.6 23 48.9 37 77. Rep.7 59 44.5 44 30.5 10 59.5 31 46.1 64 35.8 21 77.1 38 44.8 24 58.8 27 63.

2 94 48.3 100 61.7 77 33.3 85 34.0 30 32.4 104 32.0 76 38.4 85 28.4 66 50.9 114 13.8 74 36.9 76 50.1 117 36.0 67 46.7 89 36.8 113 22.8 109 36.5 84 22.2 87 43.7 82 32.2 66 25.0 124 10.3 122 22.6 90 37.4 46 35.7 113 46.5 84 30.9 69 39.7 69 39.1 111 62.4 123 31.7 109 53.1 23 35.2 111 35.8 106 32.9 41 39.2 40 43.6 61 38.6 122 22.1 124 53.7 69 13.1 110 16.7 105 38.1 112 30.6 98 34.8 82 53.8 115 38.6 60 26.4 112 35.9 119 12.6 120 46.0 104 33.3 122 16.4 51 38.1 98 36.5 115 21.4 84 38.9 125 38.5 102 33. Guatemala Turkey Mexico Colombia Kazakhstan Russian Federation Paraguay Botswana Croatia Brazil Rwanda Oman Egypt Morocco Tunisia El Salvador Serbia Swaziland Zambia Armenia Guyana Algeria Bolivia Costa Rica Tajikistan Greece Indonesia Philippines Ghana Nigeria Zimbabwe Bangladesh Uruguay Ecuador Jamaica Sri Lanka Malawi Argentina Senegal Cameroon Pakistan Madagascar Uganda Mali Tanzania Ethiopia Iran Yemen Syrian Arab Republic Burkina Faso Côte d’Ivoire Benin Niger Sudan Venezuela 39.0 105 27.0 112 5.5 110 20.7 121 26.4 120 15.5 39 55.3 47 39.8 120 22.5 87 31.7 26 33.5 95 32.7 94 35.4 92 17.6 75 33.7 59 42.3 99 34.3 72 16.0 60 37.0 98 21.0 91 34.9 71 11.5 50 52.6 50 35.9 68 44.8 124 7.4 65 16.2 105 25.5 107 28.2 97 17.5 107 47.3 100 26.0 118 10.8 103 33.3 109 18.1 81 44.3 33 38.0 114 28.8 117 45.8 118 26.1 102 28.2 83 32.4 53 18.4 65 39.3 53 33.7 110 26.1 99 36.8 101 30.4 86 23.7 90 42.1 96 30.7 107 17.3 81 31.7 62 39.0 87 29. MARKET SOPHISTICATION Credit Investment Trade and competition Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Ukraine Namibia Qatar Lebanon Honduras Romania Moldova.4 58 38.4 123 10.8 102 23.7 62 31.0 119 52.5 116 24.8 94 36.6 85 35.0 35 43.1 96 45.8 88 35.0 104 60.2 118 39.1 68 22.7 83 11.1 111 29.4 103 33.0 113 33.7 49 32.8 106 18.8 82 14.7 78 42.0 100 19.7 116 24.2 97 23.1 74 35.4 92 17.4 85 27.3 108 29.4 78 13.3 95 15.8 125 26.7 70 40.4 78 33.8 117 23.0 88 23.9 80 34.4 110 54.7 70 48.6 104 25.4 77 28.7 78 32.5 101 15.7 106 30.2 123 26.0 38 38.2 55 14.5 91 21.3 79 30.0 58 14.1 100 21.9 93 22.2 73 33.4 109 28.4 41 38.3 124 15.1 82 25.4 114 44.8 118 24.2 57 38.3 114 30.4 91 32.3 96 26.7 117 34.5 125 6.0 67 35.4 76 29.6 46 58.5 119 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Table 5d: Market sophistication pillar (continued) 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 31 .2 73 17.0 91 31.5 81 24.8 63 36.0 108 24.5 122 29.6 121 11.5 86 42.0 97 46.3 42 47.4 93 47.6 70 24.8 116 20.7 111 28.0 83 33.1 119 10.5 121 46.7 106 41.0 45 41.3 64 53.7 80 31.9 115 24.3 91 42.8 77 47.4 90 29.2 45 13.1 95 32.3 115 43.6 64 41.0 21 39.4 50 20.1 107 24.1 125 32. Rep.0 101 20.7 78 37.1 84 54.4 76 9.5 120 35.4 103 40.5 123 38.0 97 52.0 73 51.8 99 29.5 74 35.8 121 28.7 79 36.1 54 36.4 71 40.9 61 16.4 70 21.0 89 12.3 96 37.2 77 38.9 55 33.1 65 31.0 91 30.0 105 28.0 35 40.1 113 28.0 72 29.3 92 33.2 86 41.3 108 31.2 57 23.2 93 34.1 63 26.

8 7 44.2 80 66.2 93 43.0 4 88.6 21 32.4 16 80.6 48 35.7 92 42.8 69 47.2 49 31.8 4 37.2 13 n/a n/a United Arab Emirates 49.2 53 Argentina 38.4 13 Netherlands 61.7 44 31.0 1 Switzerland 68.7 33 33.9 98 49.7 38 32.9 6 84.7 61 46.5 27 44.3 33 Saudi Arabia 41.8 40 Thailand 50.8 88 Jamaica 38.8 49 Swaziland 48.8 87 46.8 32 46.9 56 41.3 1 81.0 32 57.1 12 50.1 57 33.1 1 87.6 4 37.9 20 31.8 27 27.6 22 Spain 43.2 57 46.6 83 43.5 16 54.7 50 39.1 11 82.5 6 54.7 63 n/a n/a 41.1 17 76.9 37 64.8 33 56.5 58 26.9 15 55.9 25 43.9 40 59.5 28 35.8 34 67.9 41 41.0 31 Oman 44.4 19 45.5 56 Ukraine 41.9 117 69.3 2 61.0 71 Sudan 40.3 50 41.4 55 35. Rep.2 25 39.0 24 Austria 51.0 60 Namibia 40.3 22 63.5 39 60.4 56 41.3 11 Hong Kong (SAR). China 66.7 6 Ireland 73.3 39 39.3 30 44.9 29 61.3 21 46.8 23 71.6 11 90.1 7 83.7 34 24.3 59 52.2 42 53.4 52 34.7 31 66.3 60 51.5 28 69.8 19 75.9 26 41.5 60 49.9 28 Peru 37.3 53 41.8 67 22.2 8 75.7 9 49.0 14 49.4 5 15.2 46 United Kingdom 57.5 45 Cyprus 43.7 40 48.3 10 53.3 3 68.8 34 Poland 41.0 2 92.3 104 49.7 62 27.6 21 66.7 15 .0 27 43.3 20 Brazil 41.7 21 Japan 55.9 55 46.4 8 Qatar 49.6 28 34.5 22 37.1 23 Israel 56. 49.1 18 46.8 26 57.5 61 58.6 23 36.0 60 38.0 37 35.0 13 33.3 27 United States of America 54.8 24 35.3 8 41.8 12 74.6 9 50.8 68 36.4 10 71.7 72 Slovak Republic 37.8 46 47.8 47 Belgium 54.9 5 65.4 47 56.3 43 48.3 45 34.9 18 38.1 12 Malaysia 58.6 16 Iceland 52.6 8 77.3 36 25.8 1 67.8 3 Finland 63.7 3 35.4 68 Ecuador 36.9 70 32.2 112 South Africa 42.1 11 31.3 19 Hungary 48.2 41 46.3 24 72.2 24 35.8 66 68.8 16 55.1 17 53.7 35 33.7 50 Czech Republic 53.1 43 32.0 31 27.6 55 France 50.2 35 44.0 94 Germany 51.8 18 Latvia 37.9 52 48.3 62 42.6 82 63.4 35 34.8 13 86.0 5 57.7 42 77.8 15 40.1 32 26.6 124 China 49.8 15 76.7 63 35.7 75 43.6 48 Lebanon 44.6 10 27.0 42 Bosnia & Herzegovina 43.9 58 29.7 39 41.7 37 Slovenia 47.6 29 59.3 17 38.1 10 Korea.9 33 49.6 57 45.0 98 37.9 55 45.3 26 Denmark 58.9 14 82.7 35 Kenya 39.8 56 49.2 25 52.2 36 65.2 54 45.2 40 32.0 23 44.4 57 Russian Federation 44.6 2 61.3 48 42.5 45 45.2 31 36.6 73 Australia 54.7 47 30.8 3 75.5 51 44.6 7 53.4 48 31.4 64 32.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 32 Table 5e: Business sophistication pillar BUSINESS SOPHISTICATION Knowledge workers Innovation linkages Knowledge absorption Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Singapore 79.5 46 48.9 6 54.1 41 Norway 50.3 77 22.3 49 35.4 44 42.5 9 69.4 32 Chile 41.7 34 16.2 19 39.1 30 Croatia 38.1 69 23.4 53 25.9 44 55.7 5 New Zealand 48.0 36 Niger 45.5 51 31.1 93 Kazakhstan 37.8 62 50.0 70 Portugal 37.0 46 36.0 17 Philippines 36.5 25 Estonia 51.3 4 Costa Rica 47.9 54 54.1 14 51.6 22 69.2 58 Italy 45.0 18 76.2 108 Ghana 35.6 20 66.6 59 38.3 63 Viet Nam 37.6 7 Canada 58.9 14 Sweden 63.0 20 59.9 30 46.8 30 35.3 29 64.8 49 39.7 2 Luxembourg 74.

0 83 26.3 76 39.4 104 26.6 119 29.8 70 36.7 75 34.2 77 19.7 99 27.2 26 28.6 121 28.7 100 22.3 97 39.9 86 34.4 72 26.3 68 37.8 113 25.0 88 n/a n/a 21.4 102 27.7 80 22.3 80 26.5 72 54.6 114 33.8 106 25.8 71 34.1 82 20.3 87 38.5 120 23.3 77 24.6 93 30.8 36 36.8 110 24.1 111 21.7 112 33.5 122 25.9 122 14.8 93 29.9 121 19.7 51 27.9 122 19.4 76 23.8 114 31.9 110 22.0 43 33.4 91 30.3 125 18.6 53 24.9 104 23.4 90 26.4 103 26.0 123 25.6 87 27.1 82 31.9 105 30.6 119 n/a n/a 17.6 90 21.5 59 24.9 97 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Table 5e: Business sophistication pillar (continued) 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 33 .9 95 25.0 114 14.6 41 28.8 117 23.1 85 20.6 63 28.2 81 28.5 113 25.3 103 35.1 39 31.8 12 27.0 66 30.0 81 36.6 74 34.6 79 19.5 85 18.2 97 23.0 86 32.8 80 16.0 116 14.1 110 20.8 84 24.7 108 32.7 106 34.4 77 31.1 101 28.8 95 46.4 118 19.7 116 25.3 91 30.7 109 31.3 96 21.4 113 32.9 98 16.0 85 29.9 102 39.2 116 32.2 79 36.3 64 25.4 38 34.3 92 35.8 123 21.4 96 27.4 117 22.6 38 24.9 74 24.8 90 26.7 54 27.1 45 28.4 66 37.8 51 30.4 65 41.7 89 32.5 114 21.6 122 23.0 87 28.1 101 20.9 79 25.5 95 35.2 81 27.6 47 24.4 73 30.7 99 28.5 91 34.0 65 14.1 84 33.2 68 22.4 61 32.5 118 36.4 67 19.2 94 7.5 75 24.4 104 34.2 115 24.6 64 24.8 120 15.5 37 23.8 52 33.6 78 18.6 42 27.2 29 33.1 89 18.7 9 35.9 121 12.7 89 32.6 76 21. BUSINESS SOPHISTICATION Knowledge workers Innovation linkages Knowledge absorption Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Cambodia Bulgaria Colombia Guyana Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela Panama Romania Malawi Serbia Lithuania Kyrgyzstan Greece Jordan Bahrain Mongolia Azerbaijan Rwanda Ethiopia Mauritius India Bolivia Egypt Armenia Uruguay Mexico Turkey Sri Lanka Botswana Paraguay Indonesia Macedonia Brunei Darussalam Moldova.6 101 26.8 66 26.6 50 27.5 106 25.6 71 16.1 83 26.2 65 40.7 109 30.4 90 41.6 38 35.2 65 30.7 119 36.8 103 54.7 109 18.5 105 26. Tunisia Nicaragua Guatemala Nigeria Honduras Georgia Cameroon Yemen Benin Algeria El Salvador Pakistan Morocco Uganda Zambia Burkina Faso Iran Kuwait Madagascar Mali Syrian Arab Republic Zimbabwe Tanzania Bangladesh Tajikistan Albania Senegal Côte d’Ivoire 35.1 97 40.4 116 13.1 61 21.3 73 38.8 118 29.5 71 35.4 69 30.2 83 22.2 109 26.4 101 23.9 94 19.6 100 19.8 112 16.1 102 18.3 64 28.2 107 27.3 74 51.0 99 16.7 75 28.1 107 25.7 91 56.1 88 29. Rep.6 54 22.9 111 32.0 69 45.7 70 26.5 99 19.3 123 30.6 98 21.2 73 38.2 107 32.6 96 23.2 78 25.9 58 32.7 118 34.2 78 37.8 115 29.4 43 31.9 74 24.7 76 25.3 110 29.4 121 15.7 62 22.1 115 23.7 107 43.9 111 16.8 94 33.1 103 29.2 84 38.1 88 26.5 102 28.5 120 22.6 52 25.4 72 27.6 115 19.5 44 35.3 67 23.8 119 21.4 111 29.6 84 29.3 78 26.9 82 26.2 92 32.4 120 20.0 105 38.5 100 24.3 100 30.7 85 36.2 59 31.0 124 40.7 67 30.0 81 33.0 112 24.5 79 14.6 123 19.9 113 35.7 86 39.9 108 31.9 95 30.7 108 29.4 124 14.0 105 33.9 89 37.9 117 28.4 106 25.2 86 28.9 92 19.1 96 29.

8 27 25.6 45 Portugal 24.7 49 Lebanon 31.4 2 33.0 2 73.4 31 Georgia 30.9 32 38.3 105 35.4 43 3.4 28 37.9 74 25.5 88 55.7 59 25.5 4 51.9 9 Canada 42.1 49 n/a n/a 46.9 97 40.4 38 8.9 65 n/a n/a 60.2 51 35.8 21 32.9 33 Ghana 24.0 27 33.9 32 Norway 37.0 26 42.5 51 13.6 76 39.7 56 40.0 47 32.4 11 39.6 61 4.9 15 32.0 39 Austria 35.4 74 Brazil 25.0 31 36.7 24 34.9 46 Croatia 25.4 12 Netherlands 53.8 87 31.1 35 Belgium 37.5 64 33.5 26 40.9 47 Tajikistan 27.5 55 3.7 32 23.1 72 Sudan 24.2 12 55.1 9 48.4 30 40.8 25 Hungary 45.2 1 Qatar 50.5 77 Denmark 46.6 12 1.1 29 Bangladesh 28.5 2 37.7 33 82.4 62 24.4 42 24.0 28 France 41.9 66 India 24.1 19 Paraguay 30.1 23 5.1 43 Mongolia 27.6 40 69.8 53 34.5 30 Moldova.0 13 Ukraine 29.1 58 62.7 34 38.2 19 46.5 4 77.8 13 72.5 18 22.9 40 30. 53.0 118 n/a n/a 59.0 3 Hong Kong (SAR).7 47 13.2 23 32.8 1 26.0 39 1.2 11 33. 36.9 17 34.3 66 24.5 36 22.1 63 54.5 95 58.9 80 29.2 44 2.0 62 Czech Republic 36.6 60 23.8 28 43.0 35 34.9 40 34.9 7 Cyprus 43.3 10 35.4 83 Slovak Republic 26.8 59 16.6 68 39.8 76 Bahrain 25.8 14 69.1 22 36.5 68 Italy 27.7 82 Bulgaria 27.9 47 27. Rep.4 17 22.9 22 Romania 30.2 7 26.0 1 n/a n/a Japan 49.8 13 69.7 10 23.1 45 39. Rep.8 63 30.3 50 75.5 109 Tanzania 25.7 25 37.1 77 57.2 29 25.2 71 41.7 19 14.4 6 21.1 33 34.9 29 36.9 10 Finland 58.0 2 New Zealand 47.3 31 7.0 35 15.6 30 25.8 60 10.8 35 78.3 56 2.1 57 Kyrgyzstan 26.7 7 80.1 52 61.0 119 Mauritius 27.5 21 38.4 26 38.0 14 55.2 58 11.9 22 24.9 22 39.6 77 53.1 30 26.7 11 Slovenia 33.6 15 Ireland 51.4 6 Korea.3 70 Russian Federation 32.1 20 35.8 6 55.8 16 26.2 34 40.4 15 40.8 46 27.2 14 43.1 16 37.9 52 44.6 37 32.0 8 United States of America 57.1 64 .9 5 35.3 52 7.9 61 Macedonia 26.5 78 53.6 55 Costa Rica 28.6 8 54.9 51 69.2 85 39.3 13 63.3 114 Viet Nam 25.9 34 33.6 16 64.6 21 United Kingdom 52.0 36 Guyana 34.0 25 27.0 108 57.1 25 33.2 50 14.4 58 30.4 66 42.6 17 Iceland 53.8 6 17.4 27 34.1 5 Israel 57.6 18 Singapore 48.7 36 11.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 34 Table 5f: Scientific outputs pillar SCIENTIFIC OUTPUTS Knowledge creation Knowledge impact Knowledge diffusion Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Sweden 62.1 5 22.9 98 55.5 16 Kuwait 38.3 17 58.4 65 52.7 20 Estonia 38.5 14 Germany 49.3 7 18. China 38.6 54 38.4 48 38.9 21 25.2 63 0.1 24 40.3 84 Malaysia 30.1 76 34.6 54 2.4 9 52.4 62 6.4 124 46.6 23 Iran 28.7 41 24.7 39 32.7 38 44.5 11 59.6 20 29.8 12 61.9 60 Australia 33.3 29 71.2 95 40.3 34 Azerbaijan 24.5 3 70.4 4 50.3 10 45.1 24 5.7 9 54.1 53 21.7 3 46.2 45 32.3 24 Luxembourg 43.3 8 56.7 18 n/a n/a 16.8 37 46.2 20 33.4 37 50.2 31 27.6 48 29.2 52 Armenia 29.4 5 60.5 84 30.2 15 26.9 4 Switzerland 62.7 28 66.5 33 46.2 38 China 52.3 23 39.2 8 49.8 67 Spain 29.1 3 39.2 57 20.1 1 75.2 114 100.2 49 2.5 49 30.

8 94 16.3 76 3.1 106 35.4 114 19.5 87 5.9 73 16.8 118 6.0 80 16.6 100 20.4 96 19.9 108 0.6 103 21.3 44 21.6 44 22.1 97 17.6 124 19.9 93 20.6 57 25.1 113 14.9 81 21.4 104 24.4 120 14.3 122 11.3 60 33.9 84 18.6 110 18.7 122 3.3 38 24.3 42 17.0 113 18.7 39 0.3 93 35.6 107 n/a n/a 9.1 86 15.0 107 21.8 112 33.7 113 35.5 86 11.7 58 22.1 115 13.1 114 2.5 101 26.1 116 18.9 105 21.7 72 20.6 86 n/a n/a 30.9 88 15.7 88 20.3 91 29.1 80 15.9 101 22.3 117 14.2 118 14.7 69 18.5 94 23.3 111 2.5 69 17.2 121 0.3 91 29.4 81 15.1 125 2.7 66 18.5 84 4.6 37 19.6 119 1.5 79 16.4 89 4.3 88 1.5 62 18.0 124 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Table 5f: Scientific outputs pillar (continued) 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 35 .8 53 18.1 77 22.4 96 18.5 100 21.1 98 22.2 59 16.7 123 19.8 78 11.3 56 17.7 107 21.2 40 23.7 106 18.2 97 18.9 64 8.5 67 18.7 85 23.9 32 19.3 75 20.0 119 n/a n/a 43.5 92 5.5 71 5.1 67 23.6 27 22.0 65 15.6 101 11.0 117 n/a n/a 37.4 55 20.7 95 21.4 110 12.5 61 0.5 78 19.7 65 20.2 83 37.1 71 33.1 46 28.1 86 23.5 80 10.8 19 21.0 63 19.9 41 23.5 79 13.7 50 23.3 123 12.0 87 22.5 83 19.1 69 35.5 113 18.7 68 32.5 110 1.6 89 22.0 105 28.2 55 32.0 120 33.6 64 27.6 97 3.7 99 17.7 106 21.5 41 31.3 92 19.2 92 30.1 100 22.8 122 11.4 99 3.8 112 17.6 46 24.1 72 26.7 61 35.2 43 17.9 110 44.3 104 18.0 96 0.0 92 18.1 56 23.0 73 36.3 93 2.0 104 4.5 51 18.8 54 20.9 75 19.0 42 0.7 89 23.1 79 33.6 43 23.9 121 35.3 68 22.4 36 21.0 70 19.6 81 23.5 54 20.4 102 29.2 112 21.3 57 20.4 116 2.2 112 0.1 41 15.3 74 3.9 121 6.0 67 19.1 89 4.6 82 17.6 108 8.9 109 43.8 73 25.7 102 3.4 91 8.8 75 29.5 48 27.4 73 2.7 106 2.8 111 35. SCIENTIFIC OUTPUTS Knowledge creation Knowledge impact Knowledge diffusion Country/Economy Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Thailand Serbia Poland Argentina Latvia Côte d’Ivoire Trinidad and Tobago Cameroon Mali Venezuela Oman Swaziland Philippines Jordan Lithuania South Africa Uruguay Kazakhstan Sri Lanka Greece Syrian Arab Republic Chile Tunisia Morocco Brunei Darussalam Ethiopia Turkey Ecuador Uganda Saudi Arabia Indonesia Yemen Albania Niger Pakistan Zambia Egypt Botswana Mexico Bosnia & Herzegovina Senegal Kenya Madagascar El Salvador Benin Cambodia Peru Burkina Faso Guatemala Namibia Colombia Bolivia Nigeria Malawi Jamaica United Arab Emirates Nicaragua Honduras Rwanda Panama Zimbabwe Algeria 23.3 94 1.2 117 6.8 105 5.2 95 1.9 101 3.5 98 3.4 120 3.6 82 27.7 103 6.3 103 15.1 96 2.9 90 17.3 94 n/a n/a 19.5 91 1.4 103 17.1 109 2.1 108 5.1 53 16.1 104 14.1 78 n/a n/a 25.6 102 43.7 70 1.4 123 3.4 90 25.0 115 0.9 69 1.8 26 22.4 90 30.4 90 14.8 42 22.6 48 22.1 109 35.3 59 23.4 79 22.3 75 1.8 98 6.2 71 15.5 111 21.5 72 1.3 107 26.5 87 20.2 18 22.8 99 18.1 115 26.9 82 6.5 99 21.1 85 14.2 100 7.1 115 3.3 70 13.5 102 20.2 44 18.6 93 30.8 81 33.9 50 n/a n/a 13.1 111 13.6 83 17.4 85 11.8 74 28.0 116 23.9 45 17.

7 49 41.9 5 52.7 51 40.7 44 33.3 18 42.7 54 39.4 34 44.1 28 50.1 46 51.1 49 32.1 19 54.6 39 39.1 32 55.7 19 40.8 45 69.6 36 51.9 11 55.1 76 29.4 30 41.8 80 38.7 17 58.7 42 32.2 25 42.4 12 5.4 36 36.2 24 48.0 9 58.2 40 35.3 123 36.9 40 55.7 58 45.1 4 27.1 104 33.2 91 28.7 52 63.4 24 26.5 3 21.7 2 7.3 10 10.7 56 42.9 40 50.8 20 51.7 15 25.9 50 73.4 23 36.0 92 38.0 59 36.3 53 41.8 44 65.7 2 59.3 25 56.7 117 42.4 45 32.8 54 36.7 41 29.4 3 63.6 1 54.5 29 41.2 29 53.3 31 46.7 48 42.3 14 54.0 51 38.0 38 29.9 21 27.6 52 37.7 6 56.2 44 34.2 7 43.3 55 37.1 37 30.2 49 48.9 60 25.0 105 35.2 58 40. China Sweden Switzerland Canada Denmark Germany Norway Netherlands Austria Jordan Estonia Brazil Czech Republic United Arab Emirates New Zealand Hungary France United Kingdom Portugal Slovenia Nigeria Argentina Serbia United States of America Iceland Belgium Korea.1 84 28.9 8 11.5 28 33.7 21 41.5 9 44.8 6 2.9 10 70.1 41 39.2 26 24.7 47 49. Finland Turkey Singapore Viet Nam Moldova.5 84 33.2 19 30.8 35 24.0 34 44.0 17 31.5 2 49.7 43 54.1 4 54.3 18 49.8 21 57.4 6 50.2 38 40.7 47 48.6 13 46. Rep.1 63 38.3 37 43.0 15 48.0 46 .2 62 61.6 29 50.3 67 37.7 55 54.8 18 29.1 54 46.0 4 54.0 52 26.2 71 46.9 43 40.1 3 51.1 35 44.1 20 10.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 36 Table 5g: Creative outputs pillar CREATIVE OUTPUTS Country/Economy Hong Kong (SAR).4 115 34.5 42 42.5 96 50.4 26 41.9 79 32.8 55 66.6 51 42.2 22 39.5 9 45.6 7 5.1 31 37.6 93 39.8 34 28.8 47 25.6 14 71.6 7 50.4 16 44.1 23 47.3 11 54.3 97 35. Latvia Spain China Australia Israel India Thailand Malaysia Tunisia Luxembourg Italy Chile Costa Rica Bulgaria Colombia Cyprus Lithuania Qatar Croatia Guatemala Pakistan Poland Uruguay Lebanon Saudi Arabia Ireland Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Honduras Panama Slovak Republic Creative intangibles Creative goods and services Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank 57.4 50 36.1 45 40.5 60 33.9 12 56.7 25 43.1 14 33.2 23 43.7 53 20.2 22 37.4 1 56.0 16 40.4 22 57.2 27 58.2 87 36.6 28 36.0 12 42.9 35 53.6 15 60.6 86 38.9 27 41.3 38 51.2 43 39.9 39 50.2 8 50.0 42 43.4 48 42.8 13 47.0 33 49.4 30 50.7 33 35.4 5 50.1 59 47.8 61 57.5 10 46.7 30 28.5 5 8.8 17 38. Rep.6 8 46.8 27 60.3 24 35.2 48 39.8 72 36.6 41 71.9 16 43.4 37 51.6 1 0.6 83 44.0 78 31.1 13 31.6 57 68.3 26 40.5 20 46.7 73 32.

9 124 0.6 91 42.0 67 25.0 89 25.4 65 7.3 112 14.2 94 25.0 94 39.9 53 28.0 107 24.3 81 34.5 60 9.7 101 8.2 31 4.2 105 45.0 123 0.2 110 0.6 73 24.2 95 22.3 74 23.5 88 10.5 72 43.6 102 29.3 57 32.7 89 48.7 70 22.7 120 5.1 77 26.2 124 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Table 5g: Creative outputs pillar (continued) 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 37 .5 100 25.9 98 25.6 79 29.9 95 43.3 66 18.8 121 25.2 113 29.7 96 35.9 83 40.4 118 22.6 81 31.6 82 21.9 117 33.5 87 16.0 70 40.5 107 30.3 56 12.9 113 17.6 90 21.4 90 7.1 71 44.0 125 5.2 103 5.8 78 20.4 114 10.2 75 17.7 99 19.2 58 0.2 82 52.3 57 0.1 77 10.3 92 44.7 64 5.7 80 15.6 79 45.8 106 38.6 11 4.6 85 45.5 111 31.9 121 23.1 69 29.9 119 15.8 99 13.0 94 5.2 91 26.0 109 31.6 110 38.3 99 38.2 68 16.6 74 24. CREATIVE OUTPUTS Country/Economy Romania Japan Senegal El Salvador Ecuador Greece Ukraine Mexico Egypt Nicaragua Mauritius Russian Federation Peru Venezuela Armenia Guyana Uganda Albania Oman Bolivia Macedonia South Africa Côte d’Ivoire Brunei Darussalam Paraguay Indonesia Philippines Ghana Rwanda Cameroon Malawi Jamaica Bangladesh Botswana Cambodia Trinidad and Tobago Iran Benin Madagascar Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Mali Namibia Bosnia & Herzegovina Kenya Morocco Mongolia Tanzania Bahrain Kazakhstan Georgia Burkina Faso Syrian Arab Republic Azerbaijan Zambia Tajikistan Swaziland Ethiopia Yemen Algeria Niger Sudan Creative intangibles Creative goods and services Score (0–100) Rank Score Rank Score Rank 33.8 67 52.0 64 35.6 96 24.2 124 n/a n/a 5.7 112 16.3 77 40.8 114 34.2 69 30.2 119 13.1 61 1.1 89 19.9 72 26.3 80 50.4 121 24.9 61 27.7 116 24.1 74 39.7 65 27.1 56 23.9 39 2.4 102 30.7 100 13.6 82 24.2 46 4.0 116 3.8 88 44.2 76 24.0 98 16.7 81 13.2 101 21.3 104 22.0 66 29.8 95 2.1 93 10.0 119 27.6 86 50.2 32 2.5 83 19.1 92 6.6 109 14.4 85 23.6 122 9.1 78 39.4 97 35.0 123 18.2 112 37.0 106 5.2 64 23.7 122 20.4 68 44.4 59 30.1 62 8.8 65 42.6 36 32.7 115 35.3 107 18.3 108 27.9 69 15.6 88 27.2 86 25.0 110 13.9 75 33.4 73 46.0 33 11.3 108 38.8 111 25.6 100 32.1 118 31.7 90 41.6 101 46.1 111 29.2 102 13.2 75 9.9 104 13.1 109 35.0 108 2.2 117 26.8 68 28.8 66 61.5 103 46.8 114 10.9 120 22.8 122 0.9 32 31.8 84 39.2 118 2.1 125 9.4 63 31.8 76 53.6 50 2.3 98 34.1 93 44.5 97 22.3 115 12.7 71 23.7 85 13.7 63 5.0 62 28.0 87 36.6 105 19.9 120 23.3 116 26.2 103 4.4 106 28.3 70 6.6 113 20.

and Brunei Darussalam (94th). With a poor 68th position on the Input side bringing it down. ranked 23rd and 25th). Denmark. Jordan. Malaysia. Brazil’s strengths on the Output side come from a good overall balance. Germany’s position is interesting because it has an excellent performance on the Output Sub-Index (4th). despite its 16th place on the Input side.5%).9%). and positive credit and investment environments (ranked 4th and 3rd. and Nigeria (62nd). This excellent result allows it to be ranked 9th in the overall GII. topping the Output rankings among middle-income countries. it still achieves 47th place on the overall GII. and Argentina all achieve rankings among the top 40. Switzerland. The Netherlands comes in 3rd on the Output Sub-Index. the top-ranked countries in the Innovation Output Sub-Index are Sweden (1st). as well as on the use of ICT on business and organizational models (two survey questions.8% of GDP spent on R&D (7th). a poor share of renewables in energy use (78th). In position 14. daily newspapers’ circulation.1% of GDP). like the overall GII. such as a very low rigidity of employment (1st. Bahrain (92nd). China (14th). moving up from 11th position last year. but this does not compensate for its relative weaknesses on the Input side (21st). The best-ranked economies within each region are Sweden (1st). China again is the only non-high-income country in the top 30. and creative services exports. total computer software spending. Moldova. its performance across most of the other pillars is uniformly high (Institutions at position 15. The country attains positions within the top 30 on utility model and trademark applications by residents at the national office (24th and 23rd. Brazil (32nd). respectively). as it is wellpositioned in practically all indicators included in pillars 6 (14th) and 7 (6th). a share of 2. For the second consecutive year. royalty and license fees’ receipts. Brazil (32nd). But it also has several key strengths. and 1st at the regional level). The US has a high ranking among all Input pillars (11th) and an even higher ranking among all Output pillars (5th). Human capital and research at 13. Trinidad and Tobago (87th). the US. India (44th). Top performers by income group By income group. the Netherlands. the Republic of Korea (11th). Germany. which has a remarkable showing (8th on Output. Finland. the US also is very robust in new innovation metrics such as ICT and new business model creation (ranking 9th) and ICT and organizational models creation (2nd). 14th on the GII. While its biggest strengths are in resident patent applications both at the national patent office and at the Patent Cooperation Treaty (ranked 4th and 9th. computer and communications service exports (15th at 57% of total commercial service exports). or least rigid worldwide). and Bangladesh (69th). The US’s high position is very commendable when one considers that it is the only large country (in both size and population) in the top 10.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 38 Top 10 The top 10 countries in the Innovation Output Sub-Index are Sweden. and Canada. The Output Sub-Index. a performance driven by marks within the top 10 in international Patent Cooperation Treaty applications by residents. Brazil achieves a remarkable 32nd position on the Output SubIndex. respectively). Although measured through qualitative surveys. However. and includes two North American countries and Israel. The United States of America (US) comes in at position 7 in the GII 2011. the UK. growth rate of labour productivity (26th at 3.1 ha per capita on ecological footprint and biocapacity (108th). Greece (72nd). the US (5th). respectively). Infrastructure at 14. share of renewables in energy use (24th with 44. Israel. Israel (8th). Oman (78th). Business sophistication at 15. scientific and technical journal articles. These results are commendable in the face of Brazil’s weaknesses on the Input side (68th). where several indicators are nevertheless within the top 30: gross expenditure on R&D (30th at 1. Serbia. Germany is not among the top 10 on the GII (12th). Brazil. is dominated by Europe (seven countries). high tertiary enrolment (5th at 82. and a deficit of 4. its score is due to a good balance. ecological footprint . welldeveloped government online services (2nd). The strongest pillars for the US include those of Market sophistication (4th) and Scientific outputs (5th).9%). all of them in the lower half of the rankings. and Creative outputs at 24). and creative service exports (2nd at 20. benefiting from a high level of Innovation Efficiency (9th among high-income countries). the good quality of its scientific research institutions (4th). Costa Rica.9%). The US does have several weaknesses—such as a low number of graduates in engineering (ranking 73rd). Highincome countries with weak performances on the Output dimension are Saudi Arabia (66th).

particularly on Business sophistication (121st). ranked 70th. at 11. Israel (20th). its gross capital formation (38th at 24.1 ha per capita). the country’s relative weaknesses are on the Market sophistication and Creative outputs pillars. Switzerland (3rd). Top performers by income group By income group. and 83 on the Efficiency Index (32nd among high-income countries). China) has an interesting profile. Human capital and research (114th).2 PPP$/kg oil eq. firms offering formal training (13th. although with a deficit of 0. its positions on the Input pillars are rather weak. particularly in the areas of high-tech imports (19th at 15. Although scores on the Input and Output Sub-Indices might differ by substantial amounts leading to important shifts in rankings from one Sub-Index to the other for particular countries. depth of credit information (25th). Chile (36th). rule of law. Malaysia is the only country in the top 30. Lithuania. Bangladesh is yet another case of a country achieving more with less. With the exception of Singapore (1st). and exports of computer and communications services. Bangladesh. The Innovation Efficiency Index While the GII is calculated as the average of the Input and Output THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 and biocapacity (7th with a reserve of 6. China) is ranked 4th on the GII and is the runner-up after another Asian economy. and Ghana (65th). These two relatively low rankings mean that it reaches only 27th place on Efficiency among high-income countries (66th overall). in descending order of income.8%) and the 71. reaching position 69. 5th on the GII. Finland comes next. total value of stock traded (27th). Hong Kong (SAR. China (43rd).2 ha per capita). with 52. Its relatively better ranking on Infrastructure (76th) is leveraged by its positions within the top 40 on efficiency in energy use (where it ranks 4th. Sweden. Ireland. they are the same countries leading in the overall GII rankings by income group: Malaysia (27th). Den mark. market capitalization (23rd). it lags behind on the Output Sub-Index where it ranks 22nd. Switzerland. 6th. The result for Ireland is driven by its excellent marks in Institutions and Market and Business sophistication (ranked 6th. a low-income country with a GDP per capita of 1. as shown by Figure  2. and the UK. Hong Kong (SAR. and South Africa in the top 40. South Africa (40th). on the Input Sub-Index. Regional leaders are Singapore (1st). is the only high-income country in the lower half of the rankings.9%). The country’s stronger points on the Output side are its growth rate of labour productivity (29th at 3. 6th on Output. and 35th on Efficiency (12th on the latter among highincome countries). and its ecological footprint and biocapacity (39th. Canada (8th). attaining positions 13 on the GII. followed by Chile.8% share of computer and communications service exports of total commercial service exports (2nd globally). Finland comes in 1st on three indicators: freedom of the press. its share of renewables in energy use (34th). China). Although Ireland presents a good environment and potential for innovation. a survey question).). Business soph ist icat ion. and 3rd. and Market sophistication (102nd). The data seem to confirm that efforts made on enabling environments are rewarded with increased innovation outputs. and the state of cluster development (30th. at 49. Hong Kong (SAR. Fin land. Top 10 The top 10 economies on the Innovation Input Sub-Index are Singapore. and India (87th). tops the Output rankings among low-income countries. Human capital and research.4% of GDP). respectively). In effect. and Scientific outputs. placing 6th on Input. as it has positions within the top 5 in all pillars except the two that are traditionally linked to innovation: Human capital and research (30th) and Scientific outputs (24th). Institutions (105th).416 in purchasing power parity (PPP) dollars. Brunei Darussalam. Canada.7% of total imports) and computer and communications service imports (16th.4% of total commercial service imports). Brazil is also taking important steps towards technological catch-up and knowledge absorption. Luxembourg. Infrastructure.The Innovation Input Sub-Index The Innovation Input Sub-Index variables provide information on indicators that measure elements that must be in place to foster innovation in an economy. Singapore (discussed above). the best performers present no surprises. Finland is also ranked among the top 10 on five pillars: Institutions. Among nonhigh-income countries. there is a positive relationship between the two. 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 39 .

3 Figure 2: Innovation Output Sub-Index vs. and Efficiency rankings.90 0.1 184.4 1.7 1.854. the In novat ion Efficiency Index is calculated as the ratio of the Output over the Input Sub-Indices.203. Sweden Brazil Argentina India Bangladesh Efficiency Input Output Rank Rank Rank 1.1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 40 Table 6: Innovation Efficiency Index rankings: Top 10 Rank Country/Economy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Côte d’Ivoire Nigeria China Pakistan Moldova.354. Although this index is designed to be neutral to the countries’ stages of development.6 10. Table  6 provides Innovation Efficiency Index rankings for the top 10.8 3.4 40.412. Sub-Ind ices.1 1. To facilitate comparisons.828.701. Output.0 2.92 0.06 1.6 9.214. Innovation Input Sub-Index 60 High income Upper-middle income Lower-middle income Low income Innovation Output Sub-Index (score) 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Innovation Input Sub-Index (score) THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Note: Countries/economies are classified according to the World Bank Income Group Classification (January 2011).89 125 119 43 123 77 5 68 82 87 114 Income Regional Income Rank Region Rank 79 LM 1 SSF 62 LM 2 SSF 14 LM 3 EAS 67 LM 4 SAS 29 LM 5 ECS 1 HI 1 ECS 32 UM 1 LCN 40 UM 2 LCN 44 LM 6 SAS 69 LI 1 SAS 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 Population GDP per capita (US$ millions) (current PPP$) 21.3 3.3 6.02 1. Rep.6 2.608. valuable insights can be obtained from an analysis among countries with similar levels of development.538. together with the Input. Top 10 The top 10 countries in the Innovation Efficiency Index are 0 50 0 10 0 150 0 20 0 250 0 30 0 350 0 40 0 .3 37.416.904.89 0.3 195.270.3 1.01 0.03 1.1 14. Tables 7a through 7d give the scores per income group.2 2. as shown by the discussion of the top performers below.6 158.01 1.5 164.91 0. these tables also include the difference between the Input and Output rankings. as well as the population and GDP per capita of each country/economy.

4 39. Brazil.8 32.6 16. 9.168.8 11.462.76 0.7 30.672.1 31.4 37.1 127.2 45.78 0.7 22.714. and Bangladesh.69 0.7 23.2 36.1 38.86 0.8 29.76 0.9 62.8 GDP per capita (current PPP$) 37.75 0.67 0. with the fourth.764.5 45.5 7.8 24.0 4.223.004.6 25.945.230.758.6 4.663.7 2.204.249.278.41 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Sweden Hungary Switzerland Netherlands Germany Qatar Israel Korea.0 5.174.77 0.8 19. The country 0 20 0 40 0 60 0 80 0 10 0 0 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Rank Country/Economy 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results Table 7a: Innovation Efficiency Index rankings (high-income countries/economies) .495. its overall performance is poor. leaders are Sweden (6th). Côte d’Ivoire (1st).363.7 10. Sweden. Jordan (16th).81 0. Bangladesh.61 0.2 83.89 0.3 45.86 0.569.65 0.70 0.4 51.76 0. India.72 0.0 15.57 0.805.8 41.3 55. By region.3 48.77 0.1 4.5 29. Rep. Moldova (5th).4 4.759. Pakistan.80 0. India.70 0.8 19.631. the best performers are Côte d’Ivoire (1st).7 82.6 19.3 50.85 0.1 1. and Bangladesh (10th).4 33.451.9 3.69 0.5 317. China Portugal Belgium Latvia Spain Ireland Luxembourg Poland Slovak Republic Singapore Greece Australia Saudi Arabia Brunei Darussalam Trinidad and Tobago United Arab Emirates Oman Bahrain Efficiency Efficiency Input Output Score Rank Rank Rank Difference 0.058.908.7 37.3 4.6 0. Brazil.7 36.4 5.1 Brazil (7th).9 2.58 0.76 0.1 36.43 6 11 12 13 15 18 22 25 26 31 33 35 37 39 46 47 48 50 51 54 57 59 60 63 64 65 66 67 71 72 74 83 84 85 92 94 95 97 98 101 103 109 110 122 Côte d’Ivoire.4 60.62 0.395.5 0.68 0.61 0.65 0.64 0.71 0.2 0.356.73 0. and Nigeria are all among the 10 most populous countries in this year’s sample.303.83 0.88 0. and China) are in this select list.0 34. Moldova.7 2.6 32.7 57.92 0.4 1.4 44.761. United States of America Estonia Czech Republic Finland Cyprus France New Zealand Denmark Iceland United Kingdom Slovenia Canada Kuwait Norway Austria Italy Japan Croatia Hong Kong (SAR).9 8.68 0.719.655.7 25. This list includes some of the most densely inhabited countries in the world: China.595.1 10. the Russian Federation.452.54 0.59 0.2 21.4 36.267.8 27.78 0.7 27.571.9 0.4 91.2 19.3 10.5 38. India.4 7.5 26. By income group. coming in only at 52nd place. in descending order of income. China (3rd). Pakistan. and the US (26th).76 0.544.632.59 0.6 1. Argentina.69 0.232.072. Brazil (7th).116.79 0.0 7.6 48.3 10.378. Nigeria.54 0.4 25.2 27. Three BRIC countries (Brazil.3 5.9 40. China.904.3 61. and 5 33 3 16 21 31 20 17 11 24 26 6 30 23 15 7 13 10 32 8 51 14 19 37 18 45 2 34 22 38 29 4 9 41 35 1 50 12 44 70 58 25 42 28 1 16 2 3 4 19 8 11 5 20 24 6 27 21 15 7 13 9 30 10 51 18 23 39 26 48 12 36 28 45 34 22 25 55 54 17 72 31 66 94 87 56 78 92 Population (US$ millions) 4 17 1 13 17 12 12 6 6 4 2 0 3 2 0 0 0 1 2 –2 0 –4 –4 –2 –8 –3 –10 –2 –6 –7 –5 –18 –16 –14 –19 –16 –22 –19 –22 –24 –29 –31 –36 –64 three of them place 1st on Efficiency in their regions.412. Pakistan (4th).989.3 4.1 35.0 33. Although Côte d’Ivoire tops the Efficiency rankings.743.3 0.

4 40. The main leverage on the Output score comes from some progress on two indicators marked by a year of global crisis: with a small growth in labour productivity of 0.322. On closer inspection.67 0.838.6 3.9 2. Among upper-middle-income countries.62 0.9 11. Argentina.4 GDP per capita (current PPP$) 10.84 0.5 11. Top performers by income group Among high-income economies.1 7.373.6 21.82 0.330.8 13.747.7%).538.1 8. at the bottom of this indicator. and with zero FDI net outf lows.5 3.9 75.384.49 0.2 8.1%. communications.189.105.0 11.0 10.3 27.1 14.6 6. the Europe and Central Asia region dominates the top 5.66 0. East Asian and Pacific countries have rather weak performances (New Zealand comes next at position 15).9 10. it is ranked 91st—a result that is possible because it is compared with countries with high levels of divestment.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 42 Table 7b: Innovation Efficiency Index rankings (upper-middle-income countries/economies) Rank Country/Economy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Brazil Argentina Venezuela Serbia Iran Lebanon Turkey Costa Rica Romania Russian Federation Bulgaria Uruguay Colombia Malaysia Macedonia Mauritius Mexico Lithuania Chile Albania Azerbaijan Peru Kazakhstan South Africa Botswana Panama Jamaica Bosnia & Herzegovina Namibia Algeria Efficiency Efficiency Input Output Score Rank Rank Rank Difference 0.2 35.5 13.278.0 9.412.7 4.012.4 7.3 12.1 16.558.7 3.59 0. its top rank on Efficiency and its 79th position on the Output Sub-Index are praiseworthy indeed.9 29.62 0.74 0.57 0.0 18.7%) and Bahrain (–8.1 3.7 12.335. and other services (ranked 13th globally).52 0.86 0.51 0.52 0. With such feeble and fragile conditions.5 2.47 0.332.2 14. where it ranks 64th and 91th. coming in among the bottom 25 on all five Input pillars.1 14. it achieves position 77.8 50. and Oman and Bahrain are at the bottom. while Middle Eastern and North African 195.5 countries present mixed results: Qatar and Israel are ranked 6th and 7th.172.3 75.23 7 8 14 17 19 23 28 29 49 52 55 58 75 77 78 89 90 91 93 96 104 108 112 113 114 115 120 121 123 125 is ranked a low 117th on the overall GII and last on the Input Sub-Index.069.410.2 11.4% of its commercial service exports in computer.86 0. 68 82 115 71 106 57 80 53 55 59 47 66 74 27 61 46 81 39 36 78 83 72 64 40 62 60 73 54 49 101 32 40 74 38 71 41 53 37 47 50 43 61 70 35 68 63 88 59 57 95 100 98 103 83 104 101 115 111 116 125 Population (US$ millions) 36 42 41 33 35 16 27 16 8 9 4 5 4 –8 –7 –17 –7 –20 –21 –17 –17 –26 –39 –43 –42 –41 –42 –57 –67 –24 such as Belgium (–16. The real strength of Côte d’Ivoire comes from the share of 57.5 2.638.7 29.0 3.6 8.76 0.7 8.490.91 0.4 46.72 0. ranked 8th.632.822.1 4.63 0. Serbia.629.5 15.76 0. and Costa Rica make it to the top 40 on the Output Sub-Index.90 0.80 0. Twenty-four out of 44 high-income countries have lower rankings on Outputs than on Inputs.66 0.62 0.4 13.7 13.509. Apart from the Republic of Korea.3 110.2 140. Côte d’Ivoire presents rather mixed results on the Output side.959.1 8. respectively.0 1.057.43 0. respectively. surmounting lower positions on the Input 0 50 0 10 0 150 0 20 0 .0 9.6 13.8 2.7 14.51 0.7 13. This is coherent with the relatively good scores assigned by the World Economic Forum survey on the use of ICT on business and organizational models.885. some show a capacity to achieve more innovation outputs from less favourable conditions: Brazil.4 14.2 8.3 17.55 0.962.80 0.277.719.

89 0. China.68 0. India Jordan Viet Nam Sri Lanka Paraguay Guyana Senegal Cameroon Armenia Tunisia Ukraine Guatemala Ecuador Thailand Philippines El Salvador Honduras Bolivia Egypt Nicaragua Indonesia Georgia Syrian Arab Republic Mongolia Morocco Sudan Yemen Swaziland Efficiency Efficiency Input Output Score Rank Rank Rank Difference 1.77 0.2 2.6 2.204. Within this income group.01 0.06 1.77 0.5 2.2 7.7 7.5 89.522. Among low-income countries.771.4 45.6 10.9 5. and Jordan are among the top 40 on the Output Sub-Index (at positions 14.272. with the major differences found in Swaziland (which shows a drop of 32 positions from Input to Output scores).86 0.1 3.3 4.816.3 4.998.1 5.354. The same analysis among lower-middle-income countries leads to encouraging results. and India comes in 9th.1 184. 29.7 2.68 0.203. and Morocco (16 positions). only 7 out of 33 countries have lower Output rankings than Input rankings. Nigeria. and South Africa (40 and 83)—all four countries in the top 40 on the Input Sub-Index have lower (worse) ranks on Output. Mongolia (a difference of 29 positions).641.6 4.522. and 35 on Output).953.209. The other four countries have their Input and Output ranks less than two positions apart.83 0. 17 countries out of 30 have lower rankings on Output than on Input.214. Zambia (–26).77 0.83 0.995.6 4.6 6. 125 119 43 123 77 87 56 63 96 92 75 107 110 84 79 67 97 100 48 93 91 98 109 88 105 95 76 111 52 86 124 121 85 79 62 14 67 29 44 33 42 65 64 49 82 85 60 58 52 73 77 46 84 86 96 105 89 106 97 75 110 81 102 122 123 117 46 57 29 56 48 43 23 21 31 28 26 25 25 24 21 15 24 23 2 9 5 2 4 –1 –1 –2 1 1 –29 –16 2 –2 –32 Population (US$ millions) GDP per capita (current PPP$) 21. respectively. The bigger negative differences are found in Kenya (–45).66 0. While other countries with excellent Input scores lag behind— Malaysia (position 27 on Input. Rwanda (–29).53 0.8 4.49 1 2 3 4 5 9 16 20 21 24 27 30 32 34 36 40 41 44 56 62 69 70 73 76 79 80 81 82 102 105 107 111 117 side.78 0.672.5 4.68 0. respectively).67 0.1 4. and Ghana (–11).0 20.79 0.278.267.43 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Côte d’Ivoire Nigeria China Pakistan Moldova.5 0.854.02 1.088.3 6.3 1.4 and Moldova take the first five spots. Six of the top 10 countries in the Efficiency Index come from this income group: Côte d’Ivoire.3 1. Niger (–22).2 1.6 2.5 8.79 0.8 4. Malawi (–14).841.0 84.65 0.8 232.0 3.8 68. Moldova.0 2.6 158.65 0.541. Chile (36 and 57).9 20. Bangladesh takes the lead (and makes it to the top 10 on Efficiency for all countries combined).8 12. Rep.0 2. Ten out of 18 countries within this income group have Output scores lower than their Input scores.81 0.0 3.1 4. In this income group.3 5.57 0.597.3 3.629.469.719.01 1.80 0.701.3 3.58 0.65 0.2 1.4 6.56 0.5 3.1 93.270. Lithuania (39 and 59).7 32.419.828.1 10.4 2.4 14.7 6.774.5 6.5 5.494. all of them Sub-Saharan African countries except for Cambodia (–5 positions).6 2. and 33.608.8 3. China.03 1.317.2 22.5 6.70 0. Pakistan.4 13.2 24.77 0.9 8.198.74 0.4 43.6 1. 0 20 0 40 0 60 0 80 0 10 0 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Rank Country/Economy 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results Table 7c: Innovation Efficiency Index rankings (lower-middle-income countries/economies) .6 4.730. at positions 114 and 69 on the Input and Output Sub-Indices.

which is ranked 11th on the GII regional rankings).28 the Netherlands and the UK are in the top 10.1 16.6 5.63 0.7 1. Market and Business sophistication. The US. in descendent order.6 1.507.4 1. Canada is in a commendable 8th position in the GII. Output.0 12.416. Finland (5th).77 0.58 0.915.71 0. Iceland (11th). Croatia (44th). THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Regional rankings The next section considers the rankings of countries by region.0 13.7 500. Canada also has lower.36 10 38 42 43 45 53 61 68 86 87 88 99 100 106 116 118 119 124 Figure  3 plots the GII scores against the Innovation Efficiency Index scores.3 15. and Norway (18th) have very strong performances globally as well as regionally.1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 44 Table 7d: Innovation Efficiency Index rankings (low-income countries/economies) Rank Country/Economy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Bangladesh Tajikistan Uganda Mali Tanzania Zimbabwe Kyrgyzstan Benin Ghana Cambodia Madagascar Burkina Faso Malawi Ethiopia Zambia Rwanda Kenya Niger Efficiency Efficiency Input Output Score Rank Rank Rank Difference 0. positions on the sectors traditionally linked to innovation—Human capital and research (19th) and Scientific outputs (21st).6 674. Within the European Union (EU).8 13. in 7th position.2 24.552.186.77 0.3 1. North America Only two North American countries are represented.355. The figure also shows that efficiency is not related to the level of economic development of nations. and Input Indices (except Norway.6 1. and Creative outputs pillars.4 7.9 15.56 0. The f ive Nordic countries Sweden (2nd). correspond to high-income countries (down to regional position 24).3 15.069. among the 15 original EU countries (EU15).9 1.6 9.4 1.89 0. The top positions. as expected.048.6 Europe and Central Asia A total of 44 economies from Europe and Central Asia are represented in this year’s GII report.0 1.2 934.1 20.3 10.5 1. but still performing. For reasons of space each country profile and region cannot be discussed in detail. Poland (43rd). Regional trends are further discussed in the concluding remarks to this chapter.9 GDP per capita (current PPP$) 1. and illustrates the relatively better performance of lower-middle-income countries.49 0.76 0.3 40.2 1.3 45. Infrastructure.217. Figure  4 presents in a bar graph average pillar scores by region.1 1. not surprisingly.7 85. implying that more efficient countries achieve better GII scores. but snapshots are provided for the main countries that lead in the rankings. 164.63 0.77 0.1 33. The relationship is positive. It places among the top 10 on the Institutions. 10th in Output and 8th in Input. where they are within regional top 10 positions on the overall GII.58 0. followed 0 50 10 0 150 20 0 250 .185.972.49 0.68 0.572. and Greece (63rd) lag behind. To put the discussion of rankings in perspective.77 0. Regions are 114 120 112 113 108 122 89 118 65 103 104 117 99 116 94 90 69 102 69 99 91 93 90 107 80 112 76 108 109 118 113 121 120 119 114 124 Population (US$ millions) 45 21 21 20 18 15 9 6 –11 –5 –5 –1 –14 –5 –26 –29 –45 –22 discussed following the sum of average scores. Denmark (6th).63 0. Among highincome countries.49 0. is discussed among the leaders of the Output Sub-Index.0 2.283. which are for the most part located in the bottom quadrant to the right.9 858.3 1.428. 19 of which are within the top 30 and only one—Tajikistan—among the bottom 25.

Moldova’s main assets are on the Output side: it has a dynamic intellectual property system (placing among the top 10 positions on indicators for resident patent. Spain (32nd). Figure 4 shows that this region is almost tied with Europe and Central Asia in its innovation performance. Albania (80th). Upper-m idd le -i ncome countries are all in the second quintile: Lithuania (40th). Luxembourg (17th). the Czech Republic (27th). lower-middle-income Moldova (39th) leads.1%) and creative goods exports (5th at 5. Latvia (36th). In addition. Hungary (25th). it is the only European country ranked in the top 10 on Efficiency (5th). With Sweden. utility model. Armenia (69th). and Poland (43rd) have relatively low scores. and Georgia (73rd). and Romania (50th).2 0. East Asia and the Pacific Fifteen economies are represented from East Asia and the Pacific. and Slovenia (30th). high-income Croatia (44th) and upper-middle-income countries Serbia (55th).and lower-middleincome countries—Malaysia and China. The score of lower-middleincome Moldova is admirable. Russian Federation (56th). even though in terms THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 by Germany (12th).8%). and Bosnia and Herzegovina (76th). seven of which are within the top 30 and only one of which— Cambodia—is in the bottom 25. Bulgaria (42nd).2 Innovation Efficiency Index (score) Note: Countries/economies are classified according to the World Bank Income Group Classification (January 2011). and Azerbaijan (88th) in the fourth quintile.6 0. respectively—come from this region.8 1. surpassing 14 wealthier countries in its region.4 0. Italy (35th).29 The EU12 group is led by high-income countries Estonia (23rd). Tu rkey (65th). the Slovak Republic (37th). and France (22nd). and trademark applications at the national office. Austria (19th). and Greece (63rd)— have lost key positions to some of the 12 countries that recently acceded to the EU (the EU12 group). Among non-EU countries in the region. a nd Macedonia (67th) in the third quintile.45 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results Figure 3: Global Innovation Index vs. in the same highincome group. ahead of . Kazakhstan (84th). Ireland (13th). The country places 25th in the regional rankings and 39th in the overall GII. The remaining lower-middle-income countries show relatively good performances as well. Innovation Efficiency Index 70 High income Upper-middle income Global Innovation Index (score) 60 Lower-middle income Low income 50 40 30 20 10 0 0. the top ranked countries among upper. The rest of the EU15 countries—Belgium (24th) and the four Mediterranean countries. it also exhibits strong growth in labour productivity (4th at 8.0 1. and all are ranked in the third quintile: Ukraine (60th). Cyprus (28th). and on trademark applications through the Madrid System). Portugal (33rd).0 0.

The Republic of Korea tops the regional rankings on the Output Sub-Index. and Australia (21st)— all high-income countries—and China (29th).30 In East Asia and the Pacific. the first two economies are in the global top 10: Singapore (3rd) and Hong Kong (SAR. only Brunei Darussalam lags behind at position 75. achieving positions among the top 10 on an impressive further 14 indicators (refer to the country profile for details). where it places 11th worldwide. ICT and knowledge creation. with commendable 1st place positions on two sub-pillars. Among the regional high-income countries. Malaysia.1%). Like the Netherlands. and knowledge absorption. and Viet Nam (51st and 42nd). Among the lower-middle-income group are some of the world’s most efficient global innovators: China (1st on all three main indices within its income group. ECS = Europe & Central Asia. tops the income group globally on both the GII and the Input SubIndex (it is overtaken by Brazil on the Output Sub-Index). high-tech exports (4th with 28. and on five indicators—gross tertiary enrolment (with an impressive 98. the government’s online service index. and SSF = Sub-Saharan Africa. Four of these are Output indicators: resident patent applications through the Patent Cooperation Treaty (6th). and Indonesia (99th) lag behind. Thailand (48th and 46th). Further details about Malaysia can be found in the discussion of the country under the GII section.43% of total exports). resident utility model applications at the national office (5th). e-participation. . LCN = Latin America & Caribbean. MEA = Middle East & North Africa. Within their income groups. the Republic of Korea is among the most efficient innovators among high-income countries. the depth of credit information. NAC = North America. China. of economic development it is much closer to the Middle East and North Africa. and the survey question on the use of ICT on business models. the only upper-middle-income country in the region. and resident patent applications at the national office. Germany.Figure 4: Average scores for selected country groups 500 n Institutions n Business sophistication n Human capital and research n Scientific outputs Creative outputs n Infrastructure Normalized scores and averages (0–100) 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 46 400 n Market sophistication 300 200 100 0 EAS ECS LCN MEA NAC SAS SSF THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Note: Countries/economies are classified according to the World Bank Regional Classification (January 2011): EAS = East Asia & Pacific. investment. and the US. the Republic of Korea (16th). 4th). Mongolia (68th) the Philippines (91st). middle-income countries Malaysia and China reach the regional top 10 on all four indices. SAS = South Asia. Japan (20th). Five more are in the top 30: New Zealand (15th). and in the general rankings it is 29th on the GII and 14th on Output). The country has important strengths across the board. It also places among the top 10 positions on three other sub-pillars: tertiary education.

Jordan’s leverage comes from Creative outputs. of which only two—Israel (14th) and Qatar (26th)—are ranked among the top 30. and resident trademark registrations at the national office (6th). Three countries from the region are within the bottom 25: the Syrian Arab Republic. government online service (18th). Israel tops the regional rankings on all three main indices. where it is ranked 16th regionally and 93rd globally. Chile’s standing is supported by a good overall balance. Chile presents one of the lowest Efficiency Index scores of all the countries in the sample. and 37th. Panama (77th). Bahrain is at 46th. and Brazil (47th and 6th). Costa Rica (45th and 5th). Jordan is also among the top 20 on the percentage of graduates in science (ranked 9th overall) and on tertiary inbound mobility (14th). Saudi Arabia at 54th. the second country in terms of GDP per capita after Argentina (with a per capita GDP of PPP $14.0%). while Algeria scores lowest among the countries with sufficient data to be included in the sample. Latin America & Caribbean Twenty countries from Latin America and the Caribbean are included in this year’s GII. Input.the lower half of the GII rankings. Argentina (58th). Nicaragua. with a strong dynamism at the level of residents’ trademark registrations at the national level (where it reached 1st place) and a relatively high level of creative goods exports. 58th on the Input SubIndex. Scientific outputs (where it ranks 4th). and is ranked 4th on Efficiency at the regional level. it is 3rd on Output.331) at 38th place is the only country in the region to have reached a position within the top 40. and Jamaica (92nd) in the fourth. and Bolivia. applied tariff rate (7th at 1. Tunisia. This region does not have any low-income countries represented in this year’s GII rankings. and neither country is among the top 40 overall. because its major weaknesses are precisely in the two areas traditionally linked to innovation: Human capital and research (71st. Mexico (81st). Costa Rica is the only country in the region to be among the regional top 3 on the GII and the Input and Output SubIndices (ranked 45th. and Oman at 57th. Egypt (11th and 87th). with Syrian Arab Republic (14th and 115th) and Yemen (15th and 123rd) among the bottom 25. Chile. market capitalization (11th at 128% of GDP). Kuwait at 52nd. its strengths are in FDI net outf lows (12th at 4. and Venezuela (102nd) is down among the bottom 25. The country is among the top 20 on market capitalization and stocks traded as well. and 87th on the Output Sub-Index. and Colombia (71st) are in the third quintile. at 41st overall. and Morocco (12th and 94th)—are all in 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 47 . with a disappointing 89th ranking on elementary education) and Scientific outputs (85th). The position of Jordan. Chile’s strengths are in its Input Sub-Index (36th). is ranked a disappointing 72nd on the GII. and Output). the only high-income country in the region in the sample. The other five highincome economies in the region have rather disappointing positions: United Arab Emirates is at 34th place. with good showings in knowledge creation and knowledge diffusion (2nd and 8th). On the Output side. The other lower-middle-income countries—Tunisia (regional 10th.8% of GDP). The country also scores within the top 10 on resident filings at the Patent Cooperation Treaty (4th). high-tech exports (8th). scientific and technical journal articles (1st). 53rd. and FDI net inf lows (18th at 7. is notable because it is more than 25 positions ahead of its closest competitor in the same region and income group. None of them reach the top 30 on any of the three main indices (GII. Although Jordan is only 8th in the region on Input. Jordan. and computer and communications service exports (5th).88% of GDP). an exception. overall 66th). they are also both highincome countries. Peru (83rd). Three upper-middle-income countries from Latin America and the Caribbean hold top positions within their income group: Chile (38th overall and 2nd in its income group after Malaysia). two statistics that ref lect the regional attractiveness of its higher education and its relevance to innovation. and three are ranked among the bottom 25: Venezuela. respectively). Uruguay (64th). Lebanon (regional 6th. ranks 4th in the region and 41st overall. tax rate (19th at 25% of profits). Trinidad and Tobago. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 The Middle East & North Africa The GII includes 16 countries from the Middle East and North Africa. Yemen. both of which demonstrate the dynamism of its economy. overall 49th) and Iran (regional 13th and overall 95th) present weaknesses in both Input and Output indicators. Three upper-middle-income countries come from this region. with a commendable 18th position on the Institutions pillar and positions in the top 20 on six indicators: regulatory quality (18th). Israel’s strength comes from pillar 6. and Algeria.

5 million combined). at 6. But the country has high marks—within the top 40—on R&D (35th). Ghana (65th). and Côte d’Ivoire. and 8th in its income group—after China.8 PPP dollars per capita (Namibia. India is ranked 62nd on the GII. not a single country from this region is classified as high-income.2 billion inhabitants. A lower-middle-income country. On the Input side. South Asia The four countries from South Asia in the sample show mixed results. Regional leaders on the GII and the Output. 1st in its region.34% of GDP) and FDI net outf lows (38th.410. followed far behind by Namibia (regional 4th and overall 78th) and Botswana (5th and 79th). South Africa. While only Mauritius and Nigeria achieve positions within the top 70 on the Output SubIndex. it ranks 39th on national feature films produced. In this year’s edition. it is also eleventh in GDP.310 billion. These four countries. its score is leveraged primarily by its new business density score (11th globally) and by its relatively high level of creative goods exports (ranked 16th. 9th on creative goods exports. with 1. Viet Nam. Its achievement on investment protection is one of the stronger globally (10th). Namibia (49th). elementary education.5%) and computer and communications services exports (4th globally. Creative outputs. where it achieves 8th position on the business environment sub-pillar. and 17 of which are ranked within the bottom 25.2 million and a GDP per capita of 12. however.1. and investment (15th). India’s position. depth of credit information (1st). and Guyana. In effect. Guatemala (86th). On the Output side. 22nd on daily newspapers. With a population of 1.838 in PPP dollars. This island in the Indian Ocean is the only country in the region with rankings in the upper half of all three main indices. but it is also ranked 3rd in per capita income.7%. it comes second after Sri Lanka in GDP per capita in PPP dollars in the region. however. Mauritius (53rd overall) achieves the top regional spot on the GII. the result of positions within the top 10 on the strength of legal rights for credit (7th). Guyana (61st) and Paraguay (74th) are in the third quintile. Sub-Saharan Africa A total of 24 countries from SubSaharan Africa are included in the rankings. while South Africa (59th overall) is the runner-up.08% of GDP). Ukraine. they rank between 44th (India) and 69th (Bangladesh) on the Output Sub-Index. is the least developed of the four). none of which made it to the top 30. respectively).4% of total goods exports).277. ranked 62 overall. leading to deep stock . at 1. by far. a result driven by a deep and dynamic stock market. tertiary education. and Pakistan (105). It also has positions within the top 40 on two knowledge diffusion indicators: high-tech exports (32nd. with 145. it is followed by Sri Lanka (82). and Nicaragua (110th) and Bolivia (112nd) are among the bottom 25. a result driven by its 9th position on gross capital formation (at 35% of GDP). India. India comes in at 44th on the Output Sub-Index. is dragged down by its poor performance on the Input side (ranked 87th): India is in the last quintile on sub-pillars business environment. South Africa tops the regional Input Sub-Index (40th globally). On pillar 6.5 million inhabitants (the other three countries have less than 5. at PPP$6. so its top regional position is not entirely surprising.0% of total commercial service exports). with 50. its major strength comes from the Institutions pillar (ranked 25th). with US$1. general infrastructure (11th). tops the regional rankings. El Salvador (90th).1%). with 29. Bangladesh (97). Mauritius is the second least populous country in the region (after Swaziland) and the second wealthiest (after Botswana). Thailand. The Input score is driven essentially by an 8th position (in the global ranking) on market sophistication. Input. and domestic credit to private sector (9th. and knowledge workers.6% and 7. with 10. Its 6th position on tertiary education is driven essentially by excellent rates of outbound mobility and gross enrolment of tertiary students (ranked 9th and 4th. Mauritius (46th). and 29th on creative services exports. and Efficiency measures are Mauritius. and Honduras (98th) are in the fourth. with Efficiency Index rankings ranging between 4th (Pakistan) and 21st (Sri Lanka). and Kenya (69th). Ecuador (93rd). It is not only the most heavily populated country within this income group. India is the second most densely populated country. Jordan. Botswana (62nd). After China. Nigeria.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 48 Among lower-middle-income countries in this region. with 70. Among upper-middle-income countries. it is noteworthy that six countries achieve this threshold on the Input Sub-Index: South Africa (40th). Moldova. within the top 30 on labour productivity growth (21st with 4. have their strengths on the Output side. although they rank between 87th (India) and 123rd (Pakistan) on the Input Sub-Index. at 3.

and has the second-best Efficiency Index score globally.Figure 5: Average scores by income group and by pillar (0–100) Institutions   High income 100   Upper-middle income   Lower-middle income 80 Creative outputs Human capital and research 60   Low income 40 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 49 20 Infrastructure Scientific outputs Business sophistication Market sophistication markets (2nd on market capitalization and 8th on stocks traded. Ranked 83rd on the Output Sub-Index. and Niger are in the last quintile (the bottom 25) in all three main indices (GII. Zambia.5% and 119.55%). Of the remaining countries in this income group and region.9% of GDP). Madagascar. Côte d’Ivoire. respectively). where it is ranked 62nd. Nigeria scored 47. with 246. Tanzania. This is again a country with positions in the bottom 25 on all Input rankings. and FDI net outf lows (80th. Nigeria’s leverage is similar to 1st place on the Efficiency raking.1%. Côte d’Ivoire (18th and 117th). in the overall low-income group. Senegal (8th and 100th). this country obtained the top regional position on the Output Sub-Index. Côte d’Ivoire. Burkina Faso. and Mali fare relatively better on the Output Sub-Index (their ranks are in the fourth quintile). and Output). Uganda. Of the rest. Cameroon (10th and 103rd). while the scores of Rwanda. although it attains relatively high scores on two measures extremely sensitive to the economic recession: growth in labour productivity (41st at 2. Low-income countries Ghana (70th) and Kenya (89th) get relatively high scores—both within the regional top 10—reaching 1st and 3rd place.8% of GDP. Conclusions Innovation is a global phenomenon: it is not only OECD countries that THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Note: Countries/economies are classified according to the World Bank Income Group Classification (January 2011). and Sudan (24th and 124th). Input. respectively. with 0. South Africa achieves placement among the top 40 in only two areas: resident patent applications through the Patent Cooperation Treaty and computer software spending (8th globally. Zimbabwe. . These are Nigeria (7th regionally and 96th overall). Nigeria is ranked 5th globally on the production of national feature films per million population. Benin. Nigeria also obtained relatively high scores from the survey questions on ICT use on business and organizational models (45th and 70th). Lower-middle-income countries all have poor performances. Although Nigeria’s position on the GII is rather low (96th). and Malawi are driven by somewhat better scores on the Input Sub-Index (ranking in the fourth quintile). but at a level of 0. Ethiopia. Swaziland (9th and 101st). On the Creative outputs pillar.5 over 100).

89 53.73 36.76 Regions East Asia & Pacific 42.40 64. Asian.27 0.96 94.60 27.53 27.23 26. Countries evaluate their performances by comparing themselves with other countries within their region.73 25.66 29.76 United States of America 56.87 87. which this Report has adopted. innovate—innovation leaders are found across the world.70 27.63 49.96 74.63 70.41 42.12 52.80 40.00 54.89 26.47 22.60 61.19 33.69 31.50 69.97 30.05 0.71 79.97 48.61 Country/Economy Input Output Creative outputs Scientific outputs Business sophistication Market sophistication Infrastructure Human capital and research Institutions Table 8: Heatmap for GII top 10 economies and regional and income group averages (1–100) GII 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 50 Hong Kong (SAR).78 Denmark 56.82 24.51 34.37 35.59 49.44 36.43 55.61 28.48 58.85 69.62 78.43 49.77 38.66 58.06 50.11 57.69 47.60 43.26 52.65 38.39 21.13 63.34 0.28 0.20 0. All regions show potential as leading hubs of innovation (all are represented in the upper half of the GII rankings).70 Middle East & North Africa 34. but in this Report we assess results on the basis of the development stages of countries (captured by the World Bank income classifications).56 47.36 63.08 23.04 36.37 44.78 63. Identifying the underlying conditions of a country and comparing performances among peers is the key to a good understanding of the implications of a country’s ranking in the GII.53 42.44 43.42 45.75 Netherlands 56.93 41.27 0.33 93.18 18.77 48.17 35.51 54.27 63.42 55.82 33.82 92.42 74.30 0.40 0.93 34.91 54.93 63.46 29.27 51.91 Sub-Saharan Africa 26.27 44.83 20.54 25. On average.27 48.15 23. and North American economies in the GII top 10.80 Canada 56.46 47.40 30.01 48.13 64.33 0.50 34.37 56.64 60.14 56.06 63.58 50.64 90.88 33.07 62.46 47.00 32.11 48.06 43.73 59.45 89.65 21.78 42.96 34.18 0.29 31.92 54.17 66.98 39.16 26.27 27.34 49.84 57.64 46.87 64.32 39.64 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Note: Darker shadings indicate better performances.02 66. as is evident from the presence of European.61 63.92 Singapore 59.16 20.00 19.12 87.43 21.86 0.19 0.10 41.08 82.92 50.89 35.42 53.17 45.83 0.71 58.26 0.47 34.09 36.34 0.06 47.98 54.48 57.48 41.14 44.85 62. The worldwide relevance of innovation capabilities and results highlights the need for a global perspective in understanding the concept and underlying premises of innovation.40 47.81 50.57 86.88 55.06 49.32 28.68 18.16 31.56 22.71 Upper-middle income 33.50 70.24 60.02 37.38 53.90 64.81 42.45 62.77 South Asia 29. In this light. high-income countr ies outpace developing .91 50.66 0.59 52.55 38.70 Europe & Central Asia 42.20 0.10 54.88 Sweden 62.44 57.95 33.80 92.93 44.50 89.65 North America 56.96 86.65 74.13 0.36 0.88 39. This Report attempts to abide by this underlying principle in the analysis of the GII rankings.69 Finland 57.88 67.87 28.73 Latin America & Caribbean 31.37 0.40 58.83 20.Efficiency Switzerland 63.64 Income levels High income 48.34 31.96 29.29 0.57 46.45 30.17 50.29 40.98 56.62 35.28 53.66 52.11 74.36 58.08 68.06 24.00 66. the results of the GII confirm that average rankings decrease monotonically with income levels.07 64. Countries/economies are classified according to the World Bank Income Group and Regional Classifications (January 2011).07 56. China 58.60 55.65 Lower-middle income 30.51 31.63 48.31 87.82 62.63 28.86 United Kingdom 55.81 61.76 Low income 25.42 51.

3 R&D financed by abroad. the gap between high-income and low-income countries is the second biggest (after Institutions). This shows that significant efforts have been made worldwide towards increasing political stability.2.2. the higher its score. And. and four pillars (Institutions. upper-middle-.1. firms in the private sector are doing their part by participating more fully in the financing and execution of R&D projects.2. But in 39 occasions this is not the pattern (see Tables 1a through 1g. on average. where income group and regional averages are all above 50. in turn. Looking more closely at the indicators. increased employment in knowledge intensive services.3 Domestic resident utility model applications.3. 2. lower-middle-income countries outperform upper-middle-income countries (albeit by only a small margin of 1.5 Tertiary outbound mobility. and low-income countries are monotonically decreasing. in order to take advantage of the potential that innovation represents for their citizens. and Scientific and Creative outputs).and middle-income countries is higher than the mean of the average of scores for upperand middle-income countries: 2. notably in the Institutions and Creative outputs pillars. we see that in 41 of the 80 indicators selected for this year’s GII. regional comparisons show that Europe and Central Asia lead on the GII. 3.or lower-middle-income economies stand out or of biasing results in favour of small countries.making venture capital available. trade and competition—all crucial elements for the fulfilment of innovation capabilities. and 6. For three indicators— 2.1 (this score comes in 3rd. average scores for high-. Governments have recognized that.2 Gross capital formation.1 Growth rate of GDP PPP$ per worker (labour productivity)—the order is reversed. But some gaps are closing among developing countries in some areas.3 Ecological footprint and biocapacity. In this group of enablers to innovation. The sample includes only two countries from this region. these concerns affect only the count statistics on utility model and trademarks applications.15 points).3. the biggest progress has been made on the Institutions pillar. lower-middle. the wealthier the country. and 7. In six other cases.1 Domestic resident trademark applications (the last two are scaled by GDP PPP dollars). and then only after two or three generations.4 Share of renewables in energy use. which lead on all categories except on Innovation Efficiency. North America is not truly comparable to the other regions. and so on. included in the description of each pillar). 4. At the regional level.2 Graduates in science. by 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 51 . which is encouraging. the Output SubIndex. the higher average score corresponds to low-income countries: these are indicators 3. Although the average score across countries is 39. In the Scientific outputs pillar. Human capital and Research. at 24. among the indicators listed above. and 5. which is remarkable. while East Asia and the Pacific lead on the Input Sub-Index and the three remaining pillars (Infrastructure and both Market and Business sophistication).2. credit. East Asia and the Pacific and the Middle East and North Africa have similar income structures in THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 countries by a wide margin across the board (Figure 5). they must adopt policies that are friendlier towards technological catch-up and the absorption of knowledge so that firms can build global innovation networks and so that they can foster trans-border f lows of knowledge and intellectual property. Canada and the US. The only indicator from the Human capital and research pillar on which low-income countries do better on average is the percentage of graduates in science. after the Institutions and Market sophistication pillar scores). Upon closer inspection.9 points. The main cause for alarm comes from the Human capital and research pillar. the mean of the average scores of low. all regional and income group averages are greater than 30 on the Innovation Input Sub-Index (scores range between 0 and 100).2 Public expenditure/pupil over GDP per capita.1.1. and through joint venture and strategic alliance deals. A skilled workforce is essential to economic development. This decrease implies that. and enhancing environments for business. without exception.4 Microfinance gross loans. However. improving regulatory environments.1.2. These findings also imply that some laggards are driving the scores down. 3. In two other instances. the heatmap in Table  8 shows that. It could be argued that some aspects dictated by the nature of available statistics —the prominence of trade-related variables over output variables and the importance of count variables over value variables— may have the effect of making low. Otherwise. dynamic stock markets. 6. and deficits in this area have longstanding effects surmountable only after consistent improvements have been made. investment. and on the Market sophistication pillar (where all averages are above 30).

on average. Some countries demonstrate a strong input performance but fail to translate their enabling capabilities into tangible results and vice versa. India have achieved encouraging results. and make better use—through international trade. Moldova. however. Analytical chapters included in this year’s Report illustrate the richness of innovation. and. Guyana. It cannot be claimed.0 and 14. BRIC countries are improving their innovation capacity dramatically: China. Chapter 3 illustrates how these countries are confronting their development challenges with the example of India. Societies and individual citizens also have to look at different aspects that help them create a broader capacity for innovation. while South Asian countries prevail on the Output Sub-Index and pillars. Jordan. Low-income countries frequently have difficulties in taking off. differences range between 7. However. Western firms are setting up centres of innovation and learning in these BRIC countries now. linkages. the leverage for countries from Latina America and the Caribbean comes from the Input Sub-Index and each of its pillars. products. On all the other pillars. In this respect. Companies will have to adjust to these new models of innovation. Viet Nam. and the adoption of ICT—of innovations developed elsewhere. not just as threats to domestic industries or competitiveness. In the rankings. and Nigeria all achieved rankings in the upper half of the Output Sub-Index. what can be done to help it thrive in developing economies? This Report offers important avenues for action in this regard. Large populations in countries such as India and China will demand a different type of products and services— those that provide high quality but at affordable costs while respecting sustainability in the environment. which is difficult to define. Governments have a role in setting the right environment and policies. China. Chapter 2 provides insights on innovations taking place across sectors. Since innovation can potentially expand everywhere. Multiple success stories and best practices worldwide demonstrate ways to advance innovation. much less to encapsulate in a particular metric. But they lag behind on everything else. processes. with uneven and nonlinear improvements. that the GII model captures all dimensions of innovation across continents. High-income countries. and business models in Latin America. and yet. Ukraine. and although their institutional environments show improvements. which come next in terms of innovation efficiency (and which are far ahead in Output scores) enjoy a stable position at the top of all main rankings. It is important—and feasible— to take action. The rise of innovation in the BRIC countries will change the face not only of innovation but also of global dynamics. Some ‘weak pillars’ need strengthening: In more than . Firms have to improve their innovation readiness and innovation results—they must protect and leverage their intellectual property. beyond the scope of this Report.1 points. which has pioneered promising avenues in the areas of frugal and inclusive innovation. Upper-middleincome countries seem to be finding difficulties in translating their favourable enabling conditions into innovation results. Sub-Saharan African countries overtake South Asian ones on the Input Sub-Index and on the Institutions. and by an insignificant margin (less than a point). Other nations will need to learn to treat BRIC countries as sources of knowledge and learning for innovation. to a minor extent. Thailand. this Report provides a snapshot from which particular insights can be obtained. even taking into consideration that they are beginning at a low level. Innovation efficiency is important. Innovation is a multi-stakeholder effort. Innovation capabilities might progress in waves. Brazil. perhaps lacking in this global picture is SubSaharan Africa —a continent where more progress could be made. Tunisia. increase their investment in R&D.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 52 the GII sample. and Business sophistication pillars. At the regional level. Armenia. India. and they can be studied and drawn upon. is required to explore in depth the linkages and dynamics between development stages and innovation phenomena in depth. and it varies across regions. they lack the human resources and capabilities to achieve their full potential. Human capital and research. leading to multiple equilibria. More formal analysis. followed by South Asia and SubSaharan Africa. the latter region prevails only on Human capital and research. Lower-middle-income countries now fare better than those of all other income groups in efficiency. Latin America and the Caribbean comes next in terms of overall development. with many different roles for the different actors. Although these regions achieve average positions in the GII in accordance with their level of development. All of these stakeholders must collaborate in order to foster and sustain innovation. especially on the Output side.

to reach consumers. 16 EIU. 13 Silberglitt et al. computation of geometric averages instead of arithmetic averages (the former are less compensatory). Head of Energy Balances. Head. To ensure the credibility of the whole exercise. 14 BCG /NAM. We hope that this work makes a small but concrete step forward in 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 53 . 1994. Telecommunication Development Bureau. 2010. median ranks after 4. p. 1996. expert opinion was more appropriate. 4 OECD/EC Oslo Manual. 24 We are grateful to Cornelius Bubenzer. the measure included was the average loan balance per borrower (over GNI per capita). and 2005 editions. 2010b. 23 In last year’s edition of the GII. 2009. among others (refer to the appendix to this chapter). see Christensen. and involved the imputation of missing data. 15 EC. particularly in the areas of innovation linkages and creative outputs. It is linked to some of the ongoing work by other organizations such as the OECD. Notes 1 Archibugi and Coco. a relatively poor performance on pillar 2. 2006. p. for his assistance with the extraction of data from the Thomson One database. 3 OECD/EC. 2005. results were submitted to a statistical audit by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. 6. Mode 1 is a construct. we followed the World Bank in taking the reciprocal of that variable to provide a measure of efficiency in the use of energy resources. we have only scratched the surface of the challenge of fully capturing the richness of innovation. p.000 runs of Monte Carlo simulations differed from the GII ranks by less than five positions. International Telecommunication Union for sharing their data and for a useful discussion regarding the GII framework. goes hand in hand with low levels of Scientific outputs. for the top 40 and the bottom 14 countries. 1997. The Press Freedom Index is calculated by Reporters Without Borders (it is included in the Voice and Accountability Index. 5 OECD/EC. 2009. Indeed. These authors point out that mode 2 ‘is the original format of science before its academic institutionalization in the 19th century […] Mode 2 represents the material base of science. and Leydesdorff and Etzkowitz. Based on the Audit. A more formal analysis is required to infer causality. the highest correlation of the Scientific outputs pillar is with pillar 2. In addition. The Audit assessed the robustness of the GII rankings to other modelling techniques. how it actually operates. The computation methodology adopted for the Report. 11 Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff. built upon that base in order to justify autonomy for science. needs to come directly into houses and businesses. We are grateful to Susan Teltscher. which has the advantages of being transparent and replicable. Statistician. change the structure of the market. Human capital and research. 7 OECD/EC. Market Information and Statistics Division. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 one country. 20 ITU. 17 World Economic Forum.. create new markets or render existing products obsolete. 1997. is extremely sensitive to modelling choices and missing data points. What worked in theory implied a real challenge in terms of data collection. however. 21 We are grateful to Karen Treanton. Hard statistics on infrastructure are available. Box 1. Disruptive innovations can. but it was deemed that for the purposes of assessing infrastructure as an enabler to innovation. The 2010 edition is based on 2008 statistics. http:// www. The challenge is to translate these intellectual ideas and ranks into action—to connect with different stakeholders engaged in innovation in different economies and become part of the evolving dialogue around innovation. one of the two World Governance Indicators of the World Bank not included in the GII). p. Readers are invited to contact INSEAD if they wish to explore some of the insights of the Report in more detail within their own contexts. especially in an earlier era when it was still a fragile institution and needed all the help it could get’. It was replaced by the gross loan portfolio over GDP to complement indicator 4. 2005. 6 OECD. Financial Markets Executive. 2011. Despite our best efforts. 2000. 1. 2 The Confederation of Indian Industry has been a partner of the GII since 2009. The first task was to adopt a definition and a model of innovation that would capture innovation efforts in emerging economies. 146. and principle components analysis. random weights. 19 Ease of Doing Business Data Notes. 10 Gibbons et al. 2005. and Esperanza Magpantay. Thomson Reuters. 8 UNCTAD.doingbusiness.improving our understanding of the broad phenomenon of innovation in firms. 2004. 22 The surveys are conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics (refer to Appendix XX Sources and definitions for details). and societies. 1992. for example. 2007. the Audit confirmed that.1. We intend to work collaboratively with them to enhance our common understanding of this phenomenon. p. 9 OECD 2010b.2. 12 OECD/EC. 18 The first two are part of the six World Governance Indicators (GII) constructed by the World Bank. While the International Energy Agency reports on the level of energy use as a percentage of GDP in constant PPP terms. Electricity consumption per capita is typically used as a proxy for infrastructure.org. as the power grid. 38. five countries with unreliable rankings were dropped from the Report. 2010. 58. governments. Prices and Emissions Section of the Energy Statistics Division of the International Energy Agency (IEA) for sharing the IEA series.. also known as the Oslo Manual 2005. 2005.

The Economist. Cyprus. Sub-Saharan Africa: 24 countries. 15 April 2010. ‘Innovation Metrics: Measurement to Insight’.0% and 6. Thomson Reuters. 1994. Emergence of a Triple Helix of University-IndustryGovernment Relations’. London: Sage. Fagerberg. itu. available at http://www. The groups are: low-income. National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning. References Archibugi. for her assistance with the extraction of data from the SDC Platinum database. J. 2009. upper-middleincome. and highincome. ITU (International Telecommunication Union). Esteban M. M. Science and Public Policy 23 (5): 279–86. US$996 to US$3.bcg.gc.ias.196 or more. In The Oxford Handbook of Innovation. Box 3. 18. Finger. EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit). 2010. available at http://www. available at http://www. Malta is not included in the GII 2011 edition. 16. M. South Asia: four countries. Accenture. 20031012. as have the variables that are included and particular countries covered.0% coming from these income groups. ‘Varieties of Systems of Innovation: A Survey of their Evolution in Growth Theory and Economic Geography’.945. D. Portugal. P. Dutta and I. lower-middle and low-income economies.itu. Schwartzman. and S. and M. Earl.7%.europa.economist. ‘Innovation’s Holy Grail: India’s Quest for Inclusive Growth: Achieving High Performance through Inclusive Business Models: A Research Report’. C. C. and H. Caution should be exercised in directly comparing ranks across years because the model has evolved since the first GII. which is why only a count variable has been included in the model.pdf. 1996. 55% uppermiddle-income. a score equivalent to 1/n.com/pdf/innovationmetrics-nii. Mashelkar. Vonortas. Innovation Union Scoreboard 2010: The Innovation Union’s Performance Scoreboard for Research and Innovation. S. Centre for Technology. L. Germany. ‘Poor People’s Knowledge: Helping Poor People to Earn from Their Knowledge’. 2001. 2010. D. 40% lower-middle-income. Countries are classified according to the World Bank classification.946 to US$12. UK: Oxford University Press. 2003. We are grateful to Ifigenia Poulka. Limoges. M. Estonia. J. Italy.statcan. C. Leydesdorff. An Economist Intelligence Unit report sponsored by Cisco. Nr. 2009.com/PDF/Cisco_ Innovation_Complete. E. ed. and C. Research Policy 29 (2000): 109–23. The Innovation Imperative in Manufacturing: How the United States Can Restore Its Edge. 2003b. Webersik. K. The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. 2004. Malta. A. and 58. Mia. 2004. available at http://www. 1 (2nd Draft. 5% high income. and L. available at http:// ec. 21st Century Innovation Working Group. and D. of which 46. 1 February 2011. The EU15 group includes Austria. Fagerberg. A New Ranking of the World’s Most Innovative Countries. 20 September 2004). Denmark. Report prepared by the Maastricht Economic and Social Research and Training Centre on Innovation and Technology (UNU-MERIT) with the contribution of DG JRC G3 of the European Commission. Edquist. Yokohama: United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies. the Netherlands. 25% lower-middle income. and R. per deal. Trow. the Slovak Republic. Data and Applications Specialist.com/ documents/file15445. Lundvall. February. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 25/2007. Finland and Sweden. available at http:// www. H. and N. Poland. 2000. Latvia. University of Oslo TEARI Project. 2011.pdf.195. In The Global Information Technology Report 2010–2011. A count variable was created: each participating nation of each company in a deal (n countries per deal) gets. only 184 deals had any indication of value (disclosed or estimated).pdf. Fifteen countries come from East Asia and the Pacific. Leydesdorff. H. White Paper Prepared for the National Innovation Initiative. and the UK. ‘The Dynamics of Innovation: From National Systems and ‘‘Mode 2’’ to a Triple Helix of University–Industry–Government Relations’. available at http://www. Christ.com/ node/15879369.accenture. R. and Slovenia.-A.5% and 0. EC (European Commission).. Boston: BCG. Milbergs. Nelson. pdf. com/SiteCollectionDocuments/PDF/ AccentureIndiasQuestforInclusiveGrowth. 2005.pdf. US$995 or less. . 37. 6. France.7% upper-middle income.eiu. Prahalad. ‘Capturing Innovation: The Patent System’. Mowery. M. University of Oslo. All India Management Association. ———. 2010.unu. Innovation in Responding to Climate Change: Nanotechnology. Report No. World Development 32 (4): 629–54. Of these. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Romania. available at http://www. US$3. aspx?catID=111&ddlID=738. The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Greece. 2007. The EU12 group includes Bulgaria. Spain. 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The discussion excludes Nordic countries Denmark.7%. S. Ocean Energy and Forestry. Leary. the Czech Republic. ed.8%. Geneva: ITU. J. 2003a.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2009/ index. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Hungary. . All country scores add up to 1247. available at http://www. ———. Gibbons. 2009. Ireland. 40. ‘Innovation and Change in the Public Sector: A Seeming Oxymoron’. Working Papers on Innovation Studies No. Belgium. Economies are divided according to 2009 Gross National Income (GNI) per capita. Innovation and Culture. ‘A Special Report on Innovation In Emerging Markets: The World Turned Upside Down’. 200201. L. BCG /NAM (Boston Consulting Group / National Association of Manufacturers).ca/ bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=88F0006XIE2002 001&lang=eng. C.8%. ‘Systems of Innovation: Perspectives and Challenges’. Washington DC: World Bank. 25% low-income.html. 1997. ‘What Do We Know about Innovation? Lessons from the TEARI Project’. 2008. innovationtools. Centre for Technology.1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 54 25 26 27 28 29 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 30 Query on joint ventures / strategic alliances deals announced in 2010 from Thomson Reuters SDC Platinum database. Lithuania. and A. Etzkowitz.. Christensen.7% are high-. Etzkowitz. the total number of deals. P.eu/research/innovation-union/ pdf/iu-scoreboard-2010_en.edu/sub_page.

Ispra. M. Oxford. Anton. Presented in Brussels. ’The Triple Helix and New Production of Knowledge: Prepackaged Thinking on Science and Technology’. 2010. CA: RAND Corporation. World Bank. Silberglitt. A. 2009.spp. 3rd edition. Tarantola (EC/JRC).edu/ faculty/workingpapers/wp31. Howell. In-Depth Analyses Bio/ Nano/ Materials/ Information Trends. Creative Economy: A Feasible Development Option. Cambridge. P. 2010. D. and V. 2006.html . Paris: OECD.ec. Jackson. 1990. and A. 2010a. P. 2010. WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization). UNCTAD. IESE Business School Working Paper No. M. M. ’Innovation in “Low Tech” Industries’. E. Italy: EC/JRC. R. MA: Harvard University Press. Geneva: WIPO. The OECD Innovation Strategy: Getting a Head Start on Tomorrow. 2005. Paris: OECD and Eurostat.pdf. The Global Technology Revolution 2020.pdf.europa.eu/papers/08_IPTS_WP_ JRC50919. R. Wong. M. ———. EPO (European Patent Office). The Journal of Political Economy 98 (5.Miller. Schmidt. The Least Developed Countries Report. ‘Sectoral Patterns of Technical Change: Towards a Taxonomy and a Theory’.gatech. A. ‘R&D in Low-Tech Sectors’. A.pdf. available at http://unpan1. J. 1: Measuring Innovation Potential and Results 55 . 2010. M.org/docs/WEF_ GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2010-11. United Nations 2010. Oxford UK: Oxford University Press. Nelson R.pdf. 2002. Research Policy 13 (1984): 343–73. 2008. K. Brankovic.org/ dataoecd/51/28/45326349. N. UK: Oxford University Press. available at http://www. Newton. 2004. 2005.org/intradoc/groups/ public/documents/un/unpan038851. P. JRC Technical Notes: IPTS Working Papers on Corporate R&D and Innovation No. org/pubs/technical_reports/TR303. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Science and Public Policy 31 (4): Developing countries. ‘Endogenous Technological Change’.org/en/docs/ ditctab20103_en. available at http://www. Chapter 15. Statistical Tests on the Global Innovation Index (GII): Detailed Report. M. 2007. New York and Geneva: United Nations. 2010. ‘Building a “Creative Culture” for Sustainable Innovation’. 1934. and F.rand. 2006. 30 September 2010. Technological Learning and Innovation for Development. Holbrook. Patents and Clean Energy: Bridging the Gap Between Evidence and Policy: Final Report. A. Landree. Global Economic Prospects Technology Diffusion in the Developing World 2008. D. T. UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development). ’Normativity and Innovation: An Approach to Concepts of Innovation from the Perspective of Philosophy of Technology’. Part 2): S71–S102. Gassman.pdf. 2007: Knowledge. available at http://www. Mowery. C. Drivers. L. Georgia Tech Ivan Allen College School of Public Policy Working Paper No. 31. by Nardo. J. 1984. Enhancing Agricultural Innovation: How to Go Beyond the Strengthening of Research Systems. Saltelli and S. Social Studies of Science 32 (4): 599–614. Giovannini (OECD). 08/2009. Saisana. Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data. 2008. Pfleeger. World IP Indicators 2010. R. available at http://www3. and Social Implications.pdf. 2011 (in progress). p. Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators: Methodology and User Guide. 2008. 2010. 136.unctad.epo. ———. E. Potters. Wu. Quarterly Journal of Economics 70 (1): 65–94. 2010b. S. Geneva: World Economic Forum. National Innovation Systems. Barriers. N. In The Oxford Handbook of Innovation.jrc. OECD and EC (European Commission).weforum. 1993. OECD and EC/JRC (European Commission. Hoffman and E. Joint Research Centre). S. Schumpeter. Salazar. OECD publication Code: 302008251E1. Ministerial Report on the OECD Innovation Strategy: Key Findings. May 2010. 879. United Nations. 1956.Washington DC: World Bank. The Theory of Economic Development. available at http://www. Luxembourg: EC/JRC. September 2010. and R. ’A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth’. Santa Monica.oecd. and A. ———. J. L. ‘A Debate on Innovation Surveys’. available at http://www. Washington DC: World Bank. World Economic Forum.org/ en/docs/ldc2007_en. The Global Competitiveness Report 2010–2011.pdf.unctad. Acha. B.un. available at http://www. Saisana. European Commission Joint Research Centre. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development).. Von Tunzelmann. Fagerberg. Solow. New York: UN. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme).org/news-issues/issues/ clean-energy/study. Creative Economy Report 2010. Romer. Nelson. United Nations E-Government Survey 2010 Leveraging e-Government at a Time of Financial and Economic Crisis. Shinn. available at http:// iri. Pavitt. ed. and ICTSD (International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development). C. R.

.

this issue was dealt with by treating the pair as a single indicator (by assigning half weight to each normalized score): this was the case for 3.1.4 These involved variables 1.3 with 7.0 interquartile range were checked for reporting errors. total exports. whose methodology has been used for the present analysis.2. or other units) as appropr iate and where needed. and finally 7. Countries were included if data availability was at least 63% (i.1.2.1.2.. Step 2: Data checks The most recently released data were used for each country. Step 3: Statistical coherence Few cases of strong collinear ity (i.3 with 5.. To represent a fair picture of country differences. and potentially guide choices on priority setting and policy formulation. by GDP. Electricity output and consumption. In this way.1 and 3.1. with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The Econometrics and Applied Statistics Unit at the European Commission Joint Research Centre in Ispra (Italy) has experience in assessing composite indicators. .e.2.57 APPENDIX 1: Appendix Statistical tests on the Global Innovation Index Michaela Saisana.2. and the impact of key modelling assumptions on its scores and ranks. with a cut-off at year 2000.1 with 1. 50 out of 80 variables) and at least two of the three sub-pillars in each pillar could be computed (the latter is a flexibility that was granted by the strong correlations between sub-pillars within each pillar found during the JRC Audit of April. Pearson correlation coefficients greater than ~0.2. Modelling the versatile concepts underlying innovation at a national scale around the globe.1. up to the level where skewness and kurtosis entered within the specified ranges) or by taking the natural logarithm (in case of more than five outliers). Ispra.e.1 with 3. indicators were scaled (e. raises practical challenges related to the quality of available data and the combination of these into a single number. and for THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 The assessment of conceptual and statistical coherence of the Global Innovation Index (GII) and the estimation of the impact of modelling assumptions on a country’s performance are necessary steps. a Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators: Methodology and User Guide. 5. Italy Conceptual and statistical coherence in the GII framework An earlier version of the GII model was assessed by the JRC in April 2011.2.2. This section will consider these refinements and provide an additional assessment of the conceptual/statistical coherence in the final GII model. which were taken into account in the final version of the GII model.4. The GII was assessed along two main avenues: the conceptual and statistical coherence of its structure. They ensure the transparency and reliability of the GII and enable policy makers to der ive more accurate and meaningful conclusions. 3.4.2 Potentially problematic indicators that could bias the overall results were identified as those having a skewness (absolute) greater than 2 and kurtosis greater than 3. as attempted in the GII.. Fine-tuning suggestions were made. Data values outside the 2.1. For some indicators.3 and were treated either by winsorisation (where country values distorting the indicator distribution were assigned the next highest value.2.2.1 with 3.5. population. which was based on a sample of 98 countries with scores on all sub-pillars). European Commission Joint Research Centre. the development of the 2011 GII moved from a one-way design process to an iterative process with the JRC with a view to laying the foundation for a balanced index. 3. The entire process followed four steps (see Figure 1): Step 1: Conceptual consistency Candidate indicators were selected for their relevance to a specific innovation pillar (based on literature review and expert opinion) and for their timeliness.g.1 It has co-authored.92) were spotted.

Qualitative review • Internal qualitative review (INSEAD) • External qualitative review (JRC.1. total exports) THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Source: Saisana. remains. survey questions on ICT and business/organizational model creation. A decision on the eventual treatment of 7. which are both correlated strongly with the Output Sub-Index (Pearson correlation coefficients are 0.1.2.46. Lastly. This analysis could not be carried out on the Creative outputs pillar because it is composed of only two sub-pillars that are not significantly correlated to each other. Principal component analysis confirms the presence of a single latent dimension in each pillar for the first six pillars (one component with eigenvalue greater than 0.90.1 and 1. if available. to Sub-Indices. as the Pearson correlation coefficient of either sub-index with the overall GII is 0. population.90 and 0. respectively).1 and 3. this analysis could not be carried out on the Innovation Output Sub-Index because it is made of only two pillars — Scientific outputs and Creative outputs. and led INSEAD to reduce the number of sub-pillars in the creative outputs pillar from three to two until new and better statistics become available. Statistical coherence • Assessment of grouping sub-pillars to pillars. full weights were kept on theoretical grounds in order to get a proper balance within the respective sub-pillar: this was the case for 1. GDP. Our recommendation on this pillar would be to populate it with additional and relevant variables.3 and 5. results confirm the expectation that the sub-pillars are more correlated to their own pillar than to any other.83. ICT access and use.9) that captures from 54% (Infrastructure) up to 76% (Institutions) of the total variance in the three underlying sub-pillars.2.4. building the GII as the simple average of the Input and Output Sub-Indices is also statistically justifiable.3 with 7. no strong collinearity is present at the sub-pillar level. which suggests that building the Input Sub-Index as a simple average (equal weights) of the five pillars is statistically supported by the data.1. 5. Conceptual consistency • Compatibility with exisiting literature on innovation and pillar definition • Scaling factors per indicator to represent a fair picture of country differences (e.4. where the average bivariate correlation of all significant correlations is 0.1. which justifies the use of equal weights during aggregation to pillars. Data check • Availability requirements per country: coverage > 63% and at least two sub-pillars per pillar • Check for reporting errors (interquartile range) • Outlier treatment (skewness and kurtosis) Step 1. Again.2.1.g.1: Appendix 58 Figure 1: Conceptual and statistical coherence in the GII 2011 framework Step 4. The five pillars in the Innovation Input Sub-Index also share a single latent dimension that captures 80% of the total variance. Nevertheless.2. and for 3.1. So far. Further. For the others. European Commission Joint Research Centre. The five loadings are very similar to each other. All sub-pillar loadings within a pillar are of the same magnitude. results show that the conceptual grouping . Regulatory quality and Rule of law. This latter implies that the Output Sub-Index is also well balanced in its two pillars.. This fine-tuning issue had already been spotted in April. and to overall GII • Assessment of equal weights assumption • Assessment of arithmetic average assumption Step 2. international experts) Step 3. 2011 (in progress). R&D performed and financed by business.

Step 4: Qualitative Review
Finally, the GII results, including overall country classification and relative
performance in terms of Innovation
Input, Output, or Efficiency, were
evaluated by INSEAD and the JRC
to verify that the overall results are,
to a great extent, consistent with
current evidence, existing research,
or prevailing theory.
Notwithstanding these statistical
tests and the positive outcomes on
the statistical coherence of the GII
structure, it is important to mention
that the GII model will continue
to evolve as better data, more comprehensive surveys and assessments,
and new relevant research studies
become available.

Impact of modelling assumptions on the
GII results
Every country score on the overall
GII and its two Innovation SubIndices depends on choices that
include the composition of the
seven-pillar structure, the selected
variables, the estimation or not of
missing data, the normalization of
the variables, the weights assigned to
them, and the aggregation method,
among other elements. Some of these
choices are based on the opinion of
experts in the field (e.g., selection of
variables and equal weights within
pillars), or common practice (e.g.,
the min-max method to normalize
the variables in a 0-to-100 scale),
driven by statistical analysis (e.g.,
treating outliers) or simplicity (e.g.,

Table 1: Uncertainty intervals for the GII weights

GII Sub-Index
Pillar

Innovation Input




Innovation Output

Reference value
for the weight

Institutions
Human capital and research
Infrastructure
Market sophistication
Business sophistication
Scientific outputs
Creative outputs

Distribution assigned
for robustness analysis

0.2
U[0.1,0.3]
0.2
U[0.1,0.3]
0.2 U[0.1,0.3]
0.2
U[0.1,0.3]
0.2
U[0.1,0.3]
0.5
U[0.4,0.6]
0.5
U[0.4,0.6]

Source: Saisana, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 2011 (in progress).

no estimation of missing data). The
aim of the robustness analysis is to
assess to what extent these choices
might impact the GII results. We
have dealt with these uncertainties
in order to check their simultaneous and joint influence with a view
to fully acknowledge their implications. In the present analysis, the
data are assumed to be error-free
since INSEAD already undertook
a double-check control of potential outliers and eventual errors and
typos were corrected during this
phase (see Step 2 in Figure 1).
The robustness assessment of
the GII was based on a combination
of a Monte Carlo experiment and
a multi-modelling approach. This
type of assessment aims to respond
to eventual criticism that the country scores associated with aggregate
measures are generally not calculated under conditions of certainty,
even if they are frequently presented
as such.5 The Monte Carlo simulation related to the issue of weighting and comprised 1,000 runs, each
corresponding to a different set of
weights of the seven pillars, randomly sampled from uniform continuous distributions centred in the
reference values. The choice of the
range for the weights’ variation has
been driven by two opposite needs:
on the one hand, the need to ensure
a wide enough interval to have

meaningful robustness checks; on
the other hand, the need to respect
the rationale of the GII that the
Input Sub-Index (five pillars) and
the Output Sub-Index (two pillars)
are placed on an equal footing when
building the overall GII. Given these
considerations, limit values of uncertainty intervals have been defined as
shown in Table 1.
The multi-modelling approach
involved combinations of the
remaining two key assumptions on
the ‘no imputation’ of missing data
and the aggregation formula at the
pillar level. The GII developing
team, for reasons of transparency
and replicability, opted not to estimate missing data and instead calculated sub-pillar and pillar scores
using only available information
for each country. The ‘no imputation’ choice, which is common in
relevant contexts, might discourage
countries from reporting low data
values.6 To overcome this limitation,
we opted to use the hot-deck imputation method within each pillar.7
Regarding the GII assumption on
the aggregation function (arithmetic
average), and despite the fact that it
received statistical support in the previous section, decision-theory practitioners have challenged this type of
aggregation because of inherent theoretical inconsistencies and because
of the fully compensatory nature, in

THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011

of sub-pillars into pillars, sub-indices, and an overall GII is statistically
coherent, has a balanced structure
(i.e., is not dominated by any pillar or
sub-pillar), and gives further justification for the use of simple averages at
the various levels of aggregation.

1: Appendix

59

1: Appendix

60

Figure 2a: Robustness analysis (GII rank vs. median rank, 90% confidence intervals)

1

l  Median rank
—  GII 2011 rank

GII 2011 ranks and interval of simulated ranks

11
21
31
41
51
61
71
81
91
101
111
121
131

Countries

THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011

Source: Saisana, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 2011 (in progress).
Note: The Spearman rank correlation is 0.991.

which a comparative high advantage
of a few variables can compensate a
comparative disadvantage of many
variables.8 Hence, we considered the
geometric average instead,9 which is
a partially compensatory approach.
Consequently, we tested four
models based on the combination of
no imputation versus hot-deck, or
arithmetic versus geometric average.
Combined with the 1,000 simulations per model to account for the
uncertainty in the weights at the pillar level, we carried out altogether
4,000 simulations for the GII, and
an equal number of simulations for
either the Innovation Input or the
Innovation Output Sub-Indices.

Uncertainty analysis results
The main results of the robustness
analysis are provided in Figure  2,
which shows median ranks and

intervals computed across the 4,000
Monte Carlo simulations for the
overall GII and the two Innovation
Sub-Indices. Countries are ordered
from best to worst according to their
reference rank (black line), the dot
being the median rank. Error bars
represent, for each country, the 90%
interval across all simulations. GII
ranks are rather robust: the median
rank is close to the reference rank
(less than five positions for 75%
of the countries). Results for the
Input Sub-Index are more robust
(75% of the countries shift less than
three positions), while the Output
Sub-Index is more sensitive to the
methodological choices (75% of the
countries shift less than six positions). The Output Sub-Index is
more sensitive to methodological
changes for two reasons: there are
only two pillars and they are only
moderately associated with each

other (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.51). However, it cannot
be ruled out altogether that the
correlation could improve as more
data become available, as suggested
by theory. The currently observed
moderate correlation might be to
the result of: (1) the fact that missing values are particularly distorting;
(2) the use of count and not value
variables; and (3) the use of proxies,
which is due to the lack of statistics,
particularly on 7.2 (expenditure on
recreation and culture, and exports
of creative goods and services as
proxies for creative outputs).

Sensitivity analysis results
Complementary to the uncertainty
analysis, sensitivity analysis has
been used to identify which of the
modelling assumptions have the
highest impact on certain country

61

1: Appendix

Figure 2b: Robustness analysis (Input rank vs. median rank, 90% confidence intervals)

GII 2011: Input rank and interval of simulated ranks

1

l  Median rank
—  GII 2011 Input rank

11
21
31
41
51
61
71
81
91
101
111
121
131

Countries

Source: Saisana, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 2011 (in progress).
Note: The Spearman rank correlation is 0.996.

Figure 2c: Robustness analysis (Output rank vs. median rank, 90% confidence intervals)

l  Median rank
—  GII 2011 Output rank

21
31
41
51
61
71
81
91
101
111
121
131

Countries

Source: Saisana, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 2011 (in progress).
Note: The Spearman rank correlation is 0.984.

THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011

GII 2011: Output ranks and interval of simulated ranks

1
11

Figure 3a: Sensitivity analysis: Impact of modelling choices
(GII rankings versus imputation)

Figure 3b: Sensitivity analysis: Impact of modelling choices
(Geometric average)

Global Innovation Index 2011

Global Innovation Index 2011
Rank based on geometric average
1

130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110

Innovation Input Sub-Index 2011
1

Rank based on geometric average
130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

1

Rs = 0.987

120
130

Innovation Output Sub-Index 2011
1

1
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110

Rs = 0.939

Rank based on geometric average
130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

120
130

Source: Saisana, European Commission Joint Research Centre, 2011 (in progress).
Note: Rs = Spearman rank correlation; kNN=2, imputation based on Manhattan distance and two (k) nearest neighbours (NN).

1

1
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110

Rank

Rank based on imputation
130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

120
130

Rs = 0.995

Innovation Output Sub-Index 2011

1
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110

Rank

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110

1

Rank

Rank based on imputation
130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011

120
130

Rs = 0.991

Innovation Input Sub-Index 2011

1
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110

120
130

Rs = 0.971

1

Rank

1

Rank

Rank based on imputation
130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Rs = 0.991

120
130

Rank

1: Appendix

62

estimation of the Efficiency Index
and the overall GII.
The recommendation for the
future would be to apply the 63%
criterion for data availability within each of the two Sub-Indices, so
as to avoid drawing a better picture
for countries with poor data quality on one of the two Sub-Indices,
especially the Innovation Output
Sub-Index. For this year, drawing
upon the analysis made by the JRC,
the recommendation is to drop the
countries for which indices were
found to be unreliable.

at times have undesirable impact on
aggregate scores, with the additional
negative side-effect that it may discourage countries from reporting
low data values.

Notes
1

JRC auditing studies of composite indicators
are available at http://composite-indicators.
jrc.ec.europa.eu/ (almost all audits were
carried upon request of the Index
developers).

2

The interquartile range is the difference
between the upper (75% of values) and the
lower (25% of values) quartiles.

3

Groeneveld and Meeden (1984) set the
criteria for absolute skewness above 1 and
kurtosis above 3.5. The skewness criterion
was relaxed to account for the small sample
(130 countries).

4

High collinearity can be problematic when
analysing the statistical coherence of a
framework and may result in aggregate
scores that are dominated by the highly
collinear indicators.

5

Saisana et al., 2005; Saisana et al., 2011.

6

Note that here ‘no imputation’ is equivalent
to replacing missing values with the
average of the available data within each
sub-pillar.

7

The ‘hot-deck method’ (also termed ‘nearest
neighbour method’) involves substituting
missing values for a given country with
available data from ‘similar’ countries,
similarity being measured by a certain
distance (Little and Rubin, 2002). For the
GII, after cross-validation, we selected
Manhattan distance and two nearest
neighbours.

8

Munda, 2008.

9

In the geometric average, pillars are
multiplied as opposed to summed in the
arithmetic average. Pillar weights appear as
exponents in the multiplication.

Conclusion
The JRC analysis suggests that
the conceptualized multi-level
structure of the GII is statistically
coherent, has a balanced structure
(i.e., is not dominated by any pillar or sub-pillar), and has offered
statistical justification for the use of
simple averages at the various levels
of aggregation from the sub-pillars
onwards. Country ranks are in most
cases fairly robust to methodological
assumptions (estimation of missing
data, weighting, and aggregation formula). Consequently, together with
other fine-tuning suggestions made
in the sections above, a key recommendation for future years is to
apply the data coverage criterion for
countries’ inclusion not at the overall GII level, as currently done, but
within each of the two Innovation
Sub-Indices. The JRC also recommended that this year the GII drop
the five countries for which ranks
were found to be unreliable. This
has been done, so that the GII 2011
considers a total of 125 countries.
Furthermore, the ‘no imputation’
choice for not treating missing values, which is common in relevant
contexts, as justified on grounds of
transparency and replicability, can

References
Groeneveld, R. A. and G. Meeden. 1984. ‘Measuring
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Analysis with Missing Data, 2nd edition.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011

ranks. Detailed results are available
in the main JRC assessment report,
but the primary conclusion is that
the impact of the imputation alone
is noteworthy for some countries,
although this may be moderated
when consider ing a geometr ic
aggregation and a variation in the
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all countries have data coverage
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countries have data coverage below
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unreliable efficiency scores (this had
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see Figure 1). Sensitivity analysis, by
assessing the impact of the modelling choices, has given more transparency to the entire process and
can help to appreciate the GII
results with respect to the assumptions made during the development
phase. Volatile ranks are a worrisome concern primarily for countries with poor data coverage on
the Innovation Output Sub-Index,
an impact that propagates to the

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Munda, G. 2008. Social Multi-Criteria Evaluation for
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THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011

Saltelli, A., M. Ratto, T. Andres, F. Campolongo,
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Lourdes Casanova, INSEAD Strategy Department; Jeff Dayton-Johnson, OECD Development Centre; Nils Olaya Fonstad, INSEAD eLab; and
Anna Pietikäinen, OECD Development Centre

There are many examples of promising policy reforms and flourishing
innovations among Latin American
governments and businesses. Today,
‘innovation’ means more than catching up by imitating innovative firms
from more developed economies.
In several revealing cases, Latin
American businesses are redefining global business by developing
new business models. Latin America
can offer lessons about innovating
with scarce resources in volatile
and unpredictable environments—
indeed, innovators in countries leading in research and development
(R&D) increasingly face similarly
challenging conditions.
However, business leaders and
policy makers must do more to
encourage productive risk-taking,
multiply the success stories, and
ensure that micro-level innovation is scaled up into more productive economies at the macro level.
Innovation matters for economic
growth and social development: it
plays a critical role not only in promoting private profits, but also in
advancing the frontier of well-being.
Recent reforms to innovation policy frameworks in Latin America are
promising. These need to be continued and strengthened in order to
translate the wealth of innovation
in the region into better economic
growth and social well-being for all.
In this chapter, we high light insights from InnovaLatino,
a collaboration between INSEAD

and the Development Centre of
the Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development
(OECD), funded by the Telefónica
Foundation. We conclude this chapter with recommendations for
strengthening the contribution of
innovation to social and economic
development in Latin America.

The case for innovation in Latin America
Today, in Latin America and the
Caribbean, innovation—the adoption of new products, production
processes, marketing methods, and
business models—has risen to the
top of the agenda for decision makers in government and business alike.
Productivity has lagged in Latin
America relative to OECD countries and other emerging economies,
and the region’s policy makers recognize that investing in and promoting innovation can help to close
that gap.1 Innovative practices will
also be necessary to make growth
cleaner and more environmentally
sustainable in the future. There will
be a rising need for institutions and
policies that support and orient the
transition to new growth models.
Enhanced budget transparency,
the adoption of fiscal rules, and the
wise use of countercyclical macroeconomic policies—all examples of
innovative policy making—allowed
Latin America to resist the global financial crisis better than many

other regions of the world. But
to achieve sustainable growth and
development at a rate sufficient to
address social needs in the region,
structural changes in economic development strategies will be
needed. The window of opportunity
offered by the rapid recovery from
the crisis and fiscal space needs to be
seized for more sustainable investment in innovation.
As the Western world struggles
to recover from the global financial crisis, new players are emerging
in the innovation arena, challenging decades of primacy of a small
number of high-income OECD
countries. For example, China has
dramatically increased both expenditure and employment in R&D.
Brazil, India, the Russian Federation,
and South Afr ica are likewise
increasing their presence in global
science, technology, and innovation.
Latin America is both a protagonist
in the expansion of global innovation and is challenged by the emergence of new actors such as China
and India.
At the same time, decision makers in Latin America face the same
challenges as their counterparts in
many OECD economies—consolidating existing innovation processes,
supporting investment in innovative sectors (such as green technologies), and creating the conditions to
bring more players into the innovation game. Although the challenges
for Latin America are specific to its

THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011

Innovation in Latin America: Recent Insights

2: Innovation in Latin America

65

CHAPTER 2

supported by the Telefónica Foundation. policy makers. the range of activities embraced by these four types of innovation is remarkably broad. Commission. 2011. This InnovaLatino survey provides recent data on firms’ innovation strategies and trends in innovation investment in the context of the global economic crisis. successes and failures in policy and business practices can be identified and imitated. in particular from the Ibero-American Network of Science and Technology (RICYT). The objective of the InnovaLatino project (Box 1) is to contribute to and inform these debates. the experiences of other countries can be relevant to the region. Box 2 provides a Latin American example of each type of innovation. Profits for owners Social benefits Primary type of benefit sought analysis with 50 case studies of innovators throughout the region. united by the notion of novelty: a new product. and experts.Figure 1: Six different innovators based on two dimensions Box 1: The InnovaLatino project InnovaLatino is a joint project of Large (>50 FTEs) 2: Innovation in Latin America 66 the OECD Development Centre and INSEAD’s eLab. innovalatino. and improved literacy.. the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The first dimension is the size of the organization (e. a new process. The objective Large firms (e. the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). such as poverty reduction. social justice.. the number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) in the organization). In particular.500 manufacturing firms Source: Casanova and Dayton-Johnson et al. as well as case studies of innovative firms. Global Latinas) Corporate social responsibility the aim both of drawing attention to and learning lessons from innovation experiments underway in the region. The project team worked in collaboration with key stakeholders. Small to medium (10–50 FTEs) ness sectors in Latin America with Size of organization of the project is to research innovation dynamics in the public and busi- Public institutions Social entrepreneurs SMEs and entrepreneurs and of advocating greater policy attention to innovation in national Customers and users The findings of the InnovaLatino report are based on original research combining economic and statistical Individual development strategies. The project website (www. Size both enables and constrains how effectively and efficiently an organization engages in innovation activities.org) provides country- Who are Latin America’s innovators? THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 level information and indicators of economic performance. It also influences the kinds of resources—such as credit—it can access. Far from being limited to products generated by laboratory research. in eight of the region’s countries.. and a new way of organizing the workplace. The second dimension distinguishes between organizations dr iven pr imar ily by maximising profits and those driven by maximising social benefits. a new way of selling something. Innovators can be differentiated along two dimensions.g. and the European context and history and are shaped by the heterogeneity that characterizes production structures across and within its countries. health care for the poor.g. By participating in the global debate on how to foster innovation for growth. the report includes results of a survey of 1. yielding six varieties of innovators (Figure 1). Understanding the benefits that an innovator seeks enables analysts to . InnovaLatino examines four types of innovation.

000 today. Colombia.320 screens worldwide. differences in economic structures can lead to obvious disparities in levels of R&D. Cinépolis entered of necessity it had to innovate and share India. This inter- had its own supply of excellent engi- national firm employs 15. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 assess more accurately what critical success factors correlate with different outputs. In Latin America. Costa ly did not have the resources to invest in Rica. Box 2: Latin American examples of different types of innovations These examples of innovation in Latin expectations and common practice. Cinépolis reached an agreement Alpargatas. natural resource–based sectors such as agriculture. the oped by Costa Rican astronaut and phys- firm’s management radically changed icist Franklin Chang Díaz. and R&D may increase firms’ capacities to adapt new technologies more generally. When interpreting these figures. Guatemala Panama. This was its main competi- the aeronautical industry at large. and therefore aggregate R&D investment rates in Latin America could be expected to be lower. space transport. During the 1990s. However. this model of risk sharing has with a digital sound systems and enor- become a globally accepted ‘standard’ for mous screens. and also plans to enter the Chilean risks and returns with partners from devel- and Argentinian markets. Although Brazil movie distributor in the world. mining. these help define different types of innovators. It is necessary for certain kinds of product innovations. tive advantage when entering India. The brand has gone from 44 different pulsion that may one day be used for models in 1993 to over 6. economic sectors with lower R&D intensity— for example. making it the zation in which it shares risks with and largest film distributor and theatre chain outsources production to partners in in Latin America and the fourth-largest developed economies. In June 2010. and petroleum extraction—account for a larger share of GDP in Latin Amer ica than in OECD countries. is a textbook its strategy. Havaianas were The Variable Specific Impulse considered a cheap sandal for low-income Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). it must be highlighted that R&D investment measures only a part of the innovation economy. Going against all emas with digital quality. Poland. and demonstrate the range the low end of the market to the high end. some OECD countries (such as Greece. of innovations taking place in the region. have become a globally suc- with FIFA for exclusive rights to broadcast cessful brand. Today. The VASIMR is an elec- wear among consumers in Europe and the tro-magnetic thruster for spacecraft pro- US. Cinépolis today owns manufacturing process and organi- 2. As such. At the same time. thanks to the firm’s mar- the football World Cup matches in its cin- keting innovation. specific examples of each type of innovator are provided in Box 3. all kinds of entertainment can be enjoyed The Brazilian airplane maker Embraer collectively. and Turkey) exhibit R&D investment rates similar to those seen in Latin America. one Havaianas flip-flops. America illustrate the various categories of Alpargatas repositioned the brand from the concept. After opening its first cinema has built its success on an innovative in Mexico in 1993. There are also differences within the region: it is heterogeneous and characterized by the coexistence of different production structures. During its first 30 years.Measuring Innovation: From the old to the new Possibly the most frequently cited indicator of innovation performance is public and private R&D investment in innovation as a share of gross domestic product (GDP). 2: Innovation in Latin America 67 . based in the United business model innovation: The firm States of America (US) and Costa Rica. Brazilian footwear and textile company In 2010. oped economies who designed parts Cinépolis introduced the concept of mul- of the plane for Embraer in return for a tiplexes with modern equipment that share of the returns generated from the include stadium-sized cinemas equipped sales. the company initial- has a presence in Mexico. Latin American economies are well below the OECD average for R&D expenditure and the regional average is barely above a tenth of the R&D expenditure of Korea (Figure  2). to has successfully adapted the traditional develop the VASIMR and other advances movie theatre venue into a space where in rocket propulsion technology. devel- consumers in Brazil.190 people and neers in aeronautics. and El the production of airplanes. Chang Díaz has founded Cinépolis is a good example of a company (Ad Astra). investing in advertising and example of product innovation that is exports to make Havaianas high-end foot- new to the world. Hence out Salvador. produced by of the biggest film markets in the world. Peru. Taken together.

THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 2: Innovation in Latin America 68 Box 3: Five different types of innovators in Latin America Large firms: Since 1984. stationery. the company has grown into and compare various NGOs. CDI provides the teachers with storage services to farmers and produces pated in Causas.800 small and Volunteering Awards given by the govern- CDI franchises in 753 schools in Brazil and medium agricultural suppliers. Gustavo Grobocopatel. If a client wants a new innovate new solutions for efficient growth. corn. it has developed into a com- more than 11. Paraguay. and provides feedback on the designs of to the Middle East and North Africa region. websites. and Adolfo Franco. offering them. revised Grobo.650 NGOs. and they implement the CDI doctoral students. 3. and flash and nication and collaboration. awards scholarships to administer their own websites. Argentina. Colciencias funds research in uni- tographs.g. finance.000 people from low- seeds. Adolfo’s son and now president of Los days). and no harvest- as Axtel. former President Causas. When CDI mobilized five internal technologies such as GPS and agricultur- ways not previously seen in concept-to- working groups from different disciplines to al simulation models to help the network design processes. Los Grobo provides logistical and grain Scotiabank. no tractors.org gives each civil organi- Social entrepreneurs: In 1995. Los Grobo’s innovative business employees. Causas. In 2009. there are ogy facilitated network of 3. has explained: ‘We are not big . Colciencias in Colombia. Causas. Coca-Cola Femsa. plan. Time magazine named Baggio one ees from corporations looking for volun- instructions for different techniques and of ‘50 Latin American Leaders of the New teer opportunities with the organizations advice from their interactive creative direc- Millennium’. 100 abroad with 1. and helps set up regional ☞ .org Corporate Volunteering training on the use of computers and pays soy.org was one of average salary of a teacher in the Brazilian model consists of an information-technol- the winners of the National Solidarity and public school system). then will enable the client to evaluate new services with business plans. launched public programmes to address society.org received main tool to initiate. Causas. 1. Cinepolis. and classified over 9. performance indicators.000 designs and a total mem- ber of Latin American governments have prehensive online directory of Mexican civil bership of 6. Participating NGOs can also they are self-managed. A num- Consequently. . implement. With the sup- Corporate social responsibility: 3D designs. With a US$200 million action.. CDI Community budget. which generated more than them higher-than-average salaries (US$200 hectares in Argentina. Brazil. and an online platform for commu- global recognition and awards. reg- tor. This unique approach requires Grobocopatel founded Los Grobo in place on the Web where they can search that by the end of each four-month course. the sale and Argentina. At its head- ment of Mexico. CDI is in the process of expanding Franco.000 Programme. These companies also partici- same time. Currently. technology. of farmers manage soil resources and deal logo or webpage. and wheat on a total of 300. logos.000 clients. companies. innovation. At the ers. as well as blog. A section of the site allows users to to be followed by India and other parts of Internet to more efficiently link employ- get exclusive tutorials. is a public entity that a simple website where an NGO can com- founded the Centre for Digital Inclusion promotes science.org has verified. hosts exhibitions of their work online. and technical devel- it volunteers. the community includes Public institutions: Public institu- istered. Causas. and the deployment of services by leveraging crowd sourcing in tified.org tainable. post videos and pho- ple to help themselves. Causas. and at changing an aspect of their lives.org is an non-governmental orga- designers to interact and learn from each of the World Bank and the Wolfensohn nization (NGO) created in 2005 by Arturo other. with step-by-step Africa. founded in 1995. and 3. and cultural service providers in the world—yet financial support from companies such complete a ‘social advocacy project’ aimed it owns no land. a design contest for a fixed period (e.000 social action opportunities for their per month. which is more than twice the Uruguay.036 volunteers. Guerra Creativa provides design income communities who have been cer- marketing of crops. but many’. when Adolfo provides people looking to volunteer a pedagogy. Institute. technical advice. .1 Los Grobo has received significant entries (often over 100). and—most importantly—solic- Centres have three principal objectives: versities. to select a winner. they are self-sus- opment centres. Vidal Cantu. In the first stage students will have used technology as the one of the largest grain producers and agri- of the programme. a former Intel executive. 21 media learning environment. and 600. and inno- municate its mission and vision and social (CDI) based on the concept of helping peo- vation activities. a new monitoring Guerra Creativa uses this process to design process. zation in Mexico a free domain and hosts Rodrigo Baggio. Currently. 100 people provide inputs such as Small and medium-sized firms: In educators.726 quarters.400 designers who have already uploaded tions are also significant innovators. Guerra Creativa also enables port of James Wolfensohn. whose initial intention was to use the others. Guerra Creativa will host the result was the creation of a new multi- with climate risk. new courses.

is productivity.161 research groups have received funding from the programme. and China represented 76% of all patent filings. R&D expenditure as a share of GDP (percentages) Box 3 Five different types of innovators in Latin America (continued) information technology projects. equipment. This corresponds. 1. Chile’s TFP growth exceeded that of the US over the last half century. the gap between OECD (averaging at 4. Rep. Latin American countries are less specialized in high-tech exports than OECD economies: on average.215 in 2009) and Latin American (44.0 3. etc.) used to produce a country’s GDP in a given year. and 203 companies Korea. the Republic of Korea.5 2. in Mexico (19%). United States France Spain Portugal Greece Poland OECD Latin America Brazil (2006) Chile (2004) Argentina Mexico Costa Rica (2004) Uruguay (2006) Bolivia (2002) Panama (2005) Colombia (2006) Ecuador Peru (2004) Paraguay (2005) Guatemala (2006) Nicaragua (2002) Honduras (2004) 0. even the top Latin American performers— Brazil and Mexico—are well below the OECD average. If one can quantify all the inputs (types of labour. Source: Main Science and Technology Indicators (2010–12). Germany. But for many countries in the region. albeit a broader one. Note: All OECD values are for 2008. most of them co-funded by the firms. Again.0 2. In fact. and there is no change in inputs but an increase in GDP the following year.5 1.5 3.2 The share of high-technology exports as a share of all manufacturing exports can also be taken as a proxy for technological specialization of production structures. the case of Costa Rica (39%) is basically explained by Intel’s share of activity in the country’s relatively small economy. in the same year) countries is wide. . and there are some caveats regarding its interpretation. and Brazil’s nearly matched the US rate (Figure 3). the large number of assembly plants (maquilas) has a similar effect on statistics. Since 2006.5 have received funding for scientific innovation activities. to the efficiency with which inputs are combined. However. the United States of Amer ica (US).69 2: Innovation in Latin America Figure 2. 1. 2010. 22 technological development centres have been created.0 1. The average for Latin America is computed for the Latin American countries in the graph including Mexico and Chile and using World Bank data. the difference in growth is attributed to TFP. Japan. Note Other more traditional indicators for the innovation intensity of an economy include patent applications. there is a high level of concentration: in 2006. including the OECD average. which should allow an economy to produce more output from a given quantity of labour and capital. roughly speaking. World Bank. except Mexico and Greece (2007). The entity is focused on creating an attractive research environment for scientists in Colombia and has been active in establishing collaboration with research institutions in Europe and the United States of America. OECD Statistics. infrastructure.045 doctoral students have received scholarships.3 A fourth commonly accepted measure for innovation. Changes in productivity at the macroeconomic level are typically measured using the concept of total factor productivity (TFP). 8% of Latin American exports are characterized as high-tech. the productivity gap with the US is widening at the same time that other emerging markets are closing their productivity gap with respect to the US. against 14% of OECD exports. At least part of TFP growth can be explained by innovation. World Development Indicators 2007.0 0. The statistical evidence provided above characterizes some aspects THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1 Viswanathan. this indicator does not capture the effective value-added generated in the country. For example.

and Uruguay) covered. Costa Rica. Colombia. the bar shows the ratio of TFP in 2005 to TFP in 1960. combines variables used to monitor innovation performance to include those more relevant to emerging economies. This survey gathered upto-date infor mation on innovation activities from a large number of firms in the region. The survey was implemented between November 2009 and January 2010 in eight countries. launched in 2010. it has declined. 2010. of innovation in Latin American economies. Prominent examples of new measures for OECD countries are those focusing on investment in intangibles and data from firm innovation surveys. the project developed the 2010 InnovaLatino survey. as well as trademarks and immaterial assets for which customers are ready to pay (such as design).5 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Source: Daude. By developing a set of additional indicators. Many of these measures are introduced and explained in the OECD Innovation Strategy.0 1. by design. If the ratio is greater than one.5 1. not representative of the entire population of firms in the eight countries (Argentina. the initial sample is. and structures. Chile. meanwhile. In order to provide fresh insights into different manifestations of innovation in Latin America. including information regarding the impact of the 2008–09 economic cr isis upon firms’ innovation projects. Therefore the InnovaLatino survey results do not always coincide with those from other surveys. while the ‘intangibles’ cover organizational and human capabilities and software. The ‘tangibles’ include machinery. INSEAD’s Global Innovation Index presented in this report. Note: For each country. Peru. As a result of the restriction to manufacturing and the emphasis on larger firms.5 allowing for uniformity of what is meant by ‘innovation’ across different firms. otherwise.0 0. TFP has increased over those 45 years. including the percentage of firms that introduce new-to-market products and marketing and organizational processes (to measure innovation at the firm level). (The scope and methodology of the survey differ from those of national innovation surveys implemented by national statistical agencies in many of these countries. equipment. Brazil. and post-stratification weights based on firm size and sector of activity were implemented to better reflect the . the multidimensionality of innovation can be better understood and measured.2: Innovation in Latin America 70 Figure 3: Total factor productivity ratio (2005 versus 1960) Nicaragua Honduras Venezuela El Salvador Paraguay Costa Rica Argentina Mexico Latin American average Jamaica Peru Colombia Bolivia Uruguay Ecuador Dominican Republic Brazil Panama United States of America Chile 0.4 Efforts are under way to develop and adjust such indicators for Latin American countr ies as the basis of a better understanding of their innovation performance. 3 classification).) The survey targeted firms in the manufacturing sector (comprising categories 15–37 of the ISIC Rev. Mexico.

a public research institute. as well as to simultaneously encourage the development of emerging sectors. or the firm 1. The former illustrates that emerging markets introduce a majority of innovations that are new to the market and to the firm. Recently. Firms introducing product innovations that are new to the world. the national market. Some results worth highlighting are presented in Figures 4 and 5.4 n Firm n National  Global 0.8 0. Firms and sectors are rising to the challenge of boosting innovation in natural resource–intensive sectors. an example of this is provided by EMBRAPA. rather than the world. These weights were constructed with reference to firm size and innovation-intensity of the firm’s sub-sector. Innovation in a natural resource–abundant economy. 1. The InnovaLatino survey provides a rich perspective on the broad diversity of innovation in Latin America in the critical manufacturing sector. 2011. and the choice of sectors has been pragmatic: to support the strengthening of competitive clusters around natural resources.6 0. In the field of policy initiatives. at 36%. the market. . Their analysis may also offer important lessons for countries seeking to strengthen their innovation agenda amidst similar conditions. Learning from Latin America Five characteristics of Latin American economies must be kept in mind when seeking to strengthen their innovation capacity. strategies have been developed with a clear sectoral focus. A key challenge for Latin American economies is to define how to promote innovation in the natural resource sectors that currently dominate the economy and. Note: Percentage of manufacturing firms reporting product innovations to the world. in parallel. The InnovaLatino report presents the results to these and over a dozen questions for eight countries and distinguishes responses between smaller (fewer than 50 employees) and larger (more than 50 employees) firms. Chile’s Development Agency (CORFO) has launched focused programmes to promote process innovations in the mining sector and to introduce new species of fish in the aquaculture THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Source: InnovaLatino: Fostering Innovation in Latin America.2 0. how to further develop other sectors that offer higher productivity gains (diversification).0 0. Brazil presents the highest proportion of innovations that are new to the world.71 2: Innovation in Latin America Figure 4.0 Overall Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Mexico Peru Uruguay population of firms in each country. the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation. or the firm.

accordingly. cooperation is very important for the development of their innovation activities. Successful innovation policy must. Colombia. businesses increasingly recognize the benefits of partnering. Given the complexity and high cost of many forms of innovation.This begins with formal schooling—starting from early-childhood interventions all the way up to doctorallevel university studies—but also extends to the context in which educational institutions interact with the business sector and the way that information flows among them in the innovation system. Similarly.2: Innovation in Latin America 72 Figure 5. clients. Human resources are vital to innovation. other firms Private institutes and consultancies Universities Source: InnovaLatino: Fostering Innovation in Latin America. Sources of information used for innovation 100 n Small n Large 80 60 40 20 0 Internal sources Providers. in Mexico—can play an important role in this area. 2. A large share of firms included in the InnovaLatino survey drew upon varied information sources: In addition to information resources internal to the firm.This has been the case. such as the Arranjo Productivo Local programme carried out by SEBRAE in Brazil. and about the same proportion (41%) actually engage in some form of cooperation. for example. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 sector. or looking for innovative solutions to . a number of Latin American governments implemented policies to promote clusters for different purposes: fostering SMEs. Policies to build innovation skills by enhancing formal education and linking universities and the business sector in Latin America and beyond. be grounded in measures to help people acquire (or upgrade) and deploy the skills and creativity they need to innovate. The InnovaLatino survey highlights that cooperation with education institutions and firms more generally is increasingly recognized as important. and other firms. in Argentina the development of dynamic clusters linked to natural resource–intensive sectors has received public funding (from FONTAR— Fondo Tecnológico Argentino) to execute both individual and associative innovation projects. Partnering and cluster policies. promoting regional development as in the case of the cluster programme of Antioquia. of the agricultural machinery cluster. clients. During the last decade. Universities in Latin America— such as Tec de Monterrey. For more than two in five firms (44%). 2011. 3. information was received from providers.

In contrast. Grupo Islita. and business models. as well as offering adequate retraining opportunities. Examples of green innovation. Based on these practices and on the aforementioned key aspects of the region. which in recent years has created an innovation incubator and venture capital vehicles to promote innovation. the InnovaLatino survey found that in Argentina. patentable innovations and fail to capture non-technological innovations and new-to-market or new-to-firm innovations. As countries pursue these educational goals. though perhaps isolated at present. and trademarks— are undoubtedly of great importance. is that existing measures are ill-suited to monitoring the innovation economy of middle-income countries such as the majority in Latin America.g. Other cases of experimentation can be found throughout the region. Brazil’s institutional innovations include the widely praised activities of FINEP. or greater than. During the last decade. but they focus on technologically oriented. the capacity of any other emerging or developing economy. we recommend leaders from the public and private sectors to consider the following: Strengthening innovation in Latin America begins with strengthening people—researchers. entrepreneurs. their size and whether their primary objective is to gain profit or enhance social well-being). Among the shortcomings of current innovation indicators. Innovation is centrally important to combating environmental degradation and can be a key factor in making green growth possible through the development and deployment of environmental technologies. and generate new ideas and technologies. occupational skills.4. as pointed out above. Chile has created a National Council for Innovation and Competitiveness to ensure that ministries and departments coordinate their actions and take a suitably long-term view of innovation policy. as in the case of the Technology Consortia Program implemented by Corfo in Chile. whereas significantly fewer participating small firms (less than 30%) conducted projects with foreigners. and optimum environmental stewardship. For example. with Colombia a distant second. A second group of actors in an innovation system are fir ms. employees. managers.6 Key public policy tools for fostering innovation With regard to critical success factors for fostering innovation. scientists in the population. and global knowledge economy skills. and customers of firms. Adequate infor mation systems.. This involves developing different types of competences: basic literacy skills. the federal innovation financing agency. The development of new and more comprehensive indicators as advocated by the OECD Innovation Strategy will help improve innovation measurement and policy assessment. over 50% of participating large firms were conducting projects with foreigners. adopt. leads a group of Costa Rican enterprises with the common goal of promoting responsible tourism practices that foster cultural authenticity. and should foster actions and instruments suited to the characteristics of the economy. adapt. Latin America is the second-largest biofuel-producing region of the world. Innovation policy should recognize the diversity of firms in terms of size and sectoral specificities. the first. significantly more participating small firms (35%) reported conducting projects with foreigners than large firms (18%). The country is also using the increased revenues from commodity exports to support innovation. producing ethanol from sugarcane. Businesses are the place where knowledge and ideas are translated into new products. 2: Innovation in Latin America 73 . 5. Frequently cited variables—such as R&D expenditure. International organizations should also recognize the diversity of countries in terms of their portfolio of industry sectors and the distribution of different types of firms (e. Empowering people to innovate calls for more and better education for all. Some Latin American governments and firms are already shifting to more green growth models. they will equip their economies to become better able to absorb. a member of the World Heritage Alliance for Sustainable Tourism. In particular. Brazil’s capacity to move into ‘second-generation’ biofuel production—with net lifecycle greenhouse gas emission reductions—is probably as great as. extend well beyond biofuels in Latin America. suppliers. services. Innovation and green growth. in Colombia. economic opportunity. several Latin American countries have institutionalized good practices that create a better environment for innovation. for example. patents. Brazil dominates the region’s production. targeted THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 challenges faced by a sector or group of companies.

I n a d d i t i o n t o c o h e re n c e among ministries. 3). 2010. References Casanova. No date. It requires investment and the provision of adequate regulatory frameworks. L. Detailed structure and explanatory notes: ISIC Rev. 2 Patent applications to the European Patent Office. ———. As innovation is an inherently risky undertaking that requires long-term financial commitment. 288. L. the latter include smart regulations. including policies to promote more and better innovation. Madrid: INSEAD/OECD.. and other levels of government. policy measures to unleash and support entrepreneurial creativity in Latin America cannot ignore policies directed toward the informal sector. Global Latinas: Latin America’s Emerging Nultinationals. and in some countries a majority of middleclass households work informally. innovation policy implies greater coherence between supply. 4 OECD. Carmen PagesSerra. Rev. 2011. but these are also important for providing basic public services such as health and education to disadvantaged sectors of the population. ed. calling for improved means for designing and implementing coherent policies. Latin American countries—like other emerging economies—illustrate that our conception of innovation can no longer be limited to the activities of laboratories and investment in R&D. See also the InnovaLatino background paper by Daude (2010). Dumas.and demand-side policies.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 2: Innovation in Latin America 74 support to micro. 3 (International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities. High-speed broadband connections. Dutta. A tangible and intangible infrastructure for innovation is crucial. pricing. Notes 1 IDB (2010) exhaustively reviews the Latin American productivity gap and the policy measures that might help to close it.asp?Cl=2&Lg=1. CEPA: Secretaría General Iberoamericana. Castellani. Latin American Economic Outlook 2011.oecd. 2010a. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Ariel/ Fundación Telefónica. J.org/unsd/cr/ registry/regcst. consumer education. 2009. in particular. Dayton-Johnson. and C. accessed by 20 May 2011. S. Fonstad. How can the considerable creativity and innovation reported by firms be translated into better economic and social development? With the new measures and analyses included in the InnovaLatino report.innovalatino. even as most R&D expenditure in the region is largely publicly financed and quite low by international standards. Available at http:// www. standards. Daude. Special Issue Multilatinas 25 (first quarter 2010). 2008.un. A. L. Strengthening institutional and infrastructure capacities for scientific research and developing incentives to support the diffusion and application of scientific outcomes to production development are also key elements of success in innovation policies. F.org/unsd/cr/registry/ regcst. 2010. 6 OECD. and tax measures. available at http://unstats.org/document/41/0. actors. ‘Innovation. ‘Corporate Social Responsibility and Latin American Multinationals’. DEV Working Papers No. No date. and medium-sized enterprises is vital because of their importance for employment generation and also because of their vulnerability to failure in their early years. Paris: OECD Development Centre. 5 See http://unstats. 2010. OECD Patent Databases. offer an important platform for boosting entrepreneurial activity in many countries of the region. Naciones Unidas. ———. ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean) (CEPAL)/SEGIB. Casanova. en_2649_34451_40813225_1_1_1_1. Paris: OECD. and policy domains. The InnovaLatino report’s original firm-level indicators and data show that small and large firms in the region are innovating in this broader sense. . which focuses on the productivity-innovation link in Latin America. 2010a. United Nations Statistical Databases. public policy must encourage adequate financing to enterprises. as well as coordinated action among ministries.00.3746. Roughly one out of two workers in the region is part of the informal sector. Effective innovation policies cannot overlook this part of the economy. agencies. IDB (Inter-American Development Bank).. Espacios iberoamericanos: La economía del conocimiento. Paris: OECD. InnovaLatino: Fostering Innovation in Latin America. 2010a.un. N. Finally.org/. 2009. The Age of Productivity: Transforming Economies from the Bottom Up. and A. 2010b. Productivity and Economic Development in Latin America and the Caribbean’. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Latin America can be better armed to tackle the challenges posed to lagging productivity and to seize the window of opportunity to launch a ‘Latin American decade’. The former typically include funding basic research or increasing levels of schooling. 3 World Bank. Successful innovation policy requires a long-term commitment from legitimate institutions with clear mandates. small.asp?Cl=2&Lg=1. C. see the OECD Patent Database. Paunov. Universia Business Review. Washington DC: Inter-American Development Bank. Houndmills. Santiago de Chile. html. The OECD Innovation Strategy: Getting a Head Start on Tomorrow. 2008. Casanova. available at http:// www.

R.’ The Financial Express (India). 2010. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank. 2008. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Viswanathan. 1 August 2010. ‘Agri Process Outsourcing by an Argentine Patel. World Development Indicators. 2: Innovation in Latin America 75 .

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world-class companies such as Microsoft. Technology. for taking time out to go through the manuscript and contribute in terms of editing. Head. India—with a population of 1. the scarcity of these necessities has combined with India’s mind-boggling diversity (of religions. A systematic innovation management philosophy follows through the entire process from ideation. Because of its inherent environmental and social constraints. and cultures). Executive Director. and the advances brought by science and technology that work so well in the West do not really apply to the vast majority of people in India. GE. and so on are using India as their research and development (R&D) base to pilot next-generation business models and organizational structures and to develop affordable and sustainable The authors are grateful to Mr Pradeep Kashyap. Nokia. its relative liberty (India is the world’s largest democracy and has a rapidly expanding free market economy). In effect. Singh. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. MART. analysis. and with reason. IBM. These days. and growing connectivity (India is adding over 15 million mobile telephone subscribers every month) to turn it into a large-scale. India is a place where the need to get more value for less cost has been felt for a long time. The authors also thank Ms Shalini S. In this chapter we assay some recent affordable innovations in India. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 The buzzword in the 1990s used to be ‘globalization’. Innovation in business models Innovation in India has so far been largely product centred. The challenges for the Indian rural population are different from those of the West or any other developed nation. Higher Education. This need is often a matter of survival. Founder and CEO of the Consultancy and Knowledge-based organization on Emerging markets. and Jibak Dasgupta. Xpert Media. B u t w h a t i s i n n ova t i o n ? ‘Innovation’ is one of the most commonly used and misused buzzwords in the corporate world and beyond. In the second decade of the 21st century. with the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) Knowledge and Innovation Initiatives. Increasingly. From academia to industry. INSEAD. This focus is now changing. more than any other country in the world.Innovation in India: Affordable Innovations Manisha G. the word that has gained sudden prominence. for her contributions towards making the piece more structured and readable.1 It is a means to realize the potential of an invention by commercializing it so that the customer is willing to pay for it. but also in other global markets.15 billion. and whether they meet the key goals of sustainability and inclusivity.5% a year— faces scarcity on a grand scale across the board: from water and food to oil and gas and to primary education and basic health care. or services. CII. This leads us to the next question—why this sudden focus on this word now? The answer to this lies in 3: Innovation in India 77 CHAPTER 3 . everybody is busy chanting this new mantra as though it were some sort of magic word. Not much thought has been applied to innovating business. In simple terms. highlighting commonalities. Cisco. the role played by key enablers in executing those innovations. for sharing his vast experience on innovation in rural markets. These inventions have relevance not only within the Indian context. ‘innovation’ is the conversion of information into valuable knowledge and ideas and subsequently into a significant benefit that may take the form of new or improved products. is ‘innovation’. for providing the platform and necessary contacts for getting relevant data. PepsiCo. the authors thank Mrs Daniela Benavente. processes. marketing. Xerox. languages. living laboratory where a large number of people across the social spectrum are daily coming up with inventions that are both affordable and sustainable. Last but not least. which keeps growing at 1. The authors are grateful to Mr Anjan Das. and prioritization to implementation and monitoring. the mere pronouncement of which would rid one of all problems. Anuraj Gambhir. The President of India has declared 2011–20 to be the ‘Decade of Innovation’. but predominantly to the urban class in India. Sharma. and delivery processes that would give superior benefits to consumers. Confederation of Indian Industry the realization that the progress that science and technology has made and that has brought prosperity and better standards of living in the West is useful.

it persuaded the existing agricultural mandi (market) agents to be e-Choupal sanchalaks (operators). the promotion of new ideas. gaining trust among farmers.2 the majority of Indian innovation efforts are focused on the countryside. with a sizeable bottom-of-the-pyramid market and grassroots-inspired ideas. and e-learning more accessible. Unilever provided a guarantee against default.7 The biggest IT-enabled innovation project in the world is the building of a unique identification (UID) for all Indian citizens. But that is only one part of the story: innovation in India is largely driven by Indian entrepreneurs. There are major developments in the areas of microfinance that foster uplifting the role of women in rural emerging markets. price. these firms are synergistically integrating their India R&D operations into their global innovation networks. Honey Bee. Project Shakti. The sales of Unilever products by SAs represent 20% of the company’s total rural sales. NIF has a newsletter. thus validating the viability of the business model. accessibility. With the Society for Research and Initiatives for Sustainable Technolog ies and Institutions (SRISTI) and Grassroots Innovations Augmentation Network (GIAN) programmes. Locally the Indian government has been playing a major role in uplifting the 600. to effectively increase the reach of fast-moving consumer goods in rural areas. thus maintaining and working with existing rural relationships. it now has over 45. The company established an information technology (IT)-based exchange that provided information on agricultural pr ices. advanced by the building of new innovation infrastructure. the strengthening of networks and small and . the development of human capital. in turn. place. weather. and it invites visitors who want to learn more about local innovation by providing a rural immersive visit called shodhyatra to spread best practices and learn about locally developed innovative solutions. ‘[The] unique identification project was initially conceived by the Planning Commission as an initiative that would provide identification for each resident across the country and would be used primarily as the basis for efficient delivery of welfare services. and the e-Choupal initiative of the business conglomerate ITC are pioneering examples of innovative delivery and procurement models.5 T h e N a t i o n a l I n n ova t i o n Foundation (NIF) is leading several initiatives for rural innovations. promotion) into the 4 As: awareness. Tens of thousands of self-help groups— such as those comprising artisans in remote villages—are being enabled with mobile services so that they can market their offerings optimally and obtain an appropriate return on their time and effort. In Project Shakti.6 NIF has taken grassroots innovations to a new level. Project Shakti began with 50 Shakti Ammas (SAs. women from existing microfinance groups were hired as the last-mile distributors for Unilever household products and links were established for credit from banks via the microfinance mechanism. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Inclusive innovation to integrate rural communities With 71% of India’s population (742 million people) living in rural areas. e-banking. There have been projects to boost the livelihood of rural communities.000 villages with tools such as the Universal Services Obligation Fund. T h e s e i m p rove m e n t s a re. This is evident in its centres that display outstanding frugal innovations. Connecting the unconnected has been pushed globally by the GSM Association with programmes such as the Emerging Market Handset development (ultra low cost).3 ITC’s e-Choupal initiative is aimed at selling agri-products as well as sourcing raw materials. has converted the 4 Ps of traditional marketing (product. Reverse innovation (a concept addressed later in this chapter) plays an important role. Success in the rural market depends on bringing the total cost of ownership down for the package solution offered by the firm that may comprise all or some of the 4 As. the increasing of commercialization by ideators/inventors.000 SAs across 12 states. targeted offerings to allow rural enterprises and farmers to enrich their productivity through ICT-enabled techniques that provide useful information at the click of a button. co-created by Unilever and MART. author of the famous book Chindia Rising. or rural female partners). and so on. affordability.4 Jagdish Sheth.3: Innovation in India 78 solutions that can then be marketed on a global scale.’8 This is poised to bring about a revolution for Aam Aadmi (ordinary people) in India. In doing so. and acceptability—all of which are essential for rural market development. whose transformation into e-nagrik (e-citizens) will improve the quality of their lives and livelihoods by making services such as e-health. Further. It would also act as a tool for effective monitoring of various programs and schemes of the Government.

and the measur ing and indexing of progress in innovation. the Rs. and IT services to lesser-known sectors such as drinking THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 medium-sized enterprise (SME) clusters. is a phenomena that emerging markets such as the BRIIC countries (Brazil. even ahead of the curve in many cases. Indian resourcefulness is embodied in the Hindi word jugaad—to find an effective solution. Existing Mahindra are venturing into developing templates of cars were looked at and new small cars.Tata’s Nano (at US$2. Some examples of frugal innovations include GE’s US$1. India.000–25. Ginger budget hotels. It is felt that a direct replication would not be feasible. the world’s cheapest car) and its Swach (one of the world’s most inexpensive and widely available water filtration systems). its US$15. Yet only 9% of them are estimat- called the ‘Europa’ is being developed for ed to own a car. Conceiving and launching affordability One mega-trend we observe in the re-invention of innovation is that of reverse innovation. The successful devel- car were quite possible. Nano production facility. That image sowed the seed in his mind of securing social and political support were making a car that the middle-class could some of the other major challenges faced. pharmaceuticals.000. India is home to over 28 mil- Today. opment and launch of the Nano has A team of 500 people was set up created a new image of India as a hub to develop such a car with the guiding capable of producing small cars. It is an interesting trend that is bringing a whole new meaning and perspective to innovation.500 ChotuKool refrigerator from Godrej. Source IBEF. Indonesia. 3: Innovation in India 79 . Obtaining the concurrence of sup- Tata in the Indian economy and abroad. pliers (including international players). A feature-rich version country. US$25.500. The ‘reverse brain drain’ is doing wonders for India. 3. We see this happening as multiple industry segments.The development of clusters An interesting discussion has centred around how a Silicon Valley–type phenomenon can be replicated in India. There is also a lot of potential for breakthrough innovations with this approach. first in the developing world then deployed in mature markets. government. but the culture of entrepreneurship and open knowledge sharing with collaborative minds can achieve wonders. Volume sales of a peoples’ the export market. the car that resulted from these lion middle-class households (those with innovations is selling in five major states an annual income of US$5. or 13% of total households in the has not stopped. and academia are increasingly joining together with a reverse innovation approach to give a whole new meaning to ‘GLocal’. afford to buy. transforming traditional innovation into something new. a lot of global talent is returning home to the motherland. The youth in urban India are now more global than ever. With the youngest population worldwide—over 54% of its population is under the age of 25 (and 45% under 19)—India is poised to witness some game-changing innovations. Ratan Tata saw a family of five their manufacturing plants near the Tata precariously perched on a two-wheeler.000 PC-based ultrasound machine. or and making headway in other states. The innovation cycle parity).000–125. and. Several principle of keeping costs low as well as multinational corporations—such as Ford adhering to regulatory requirements and Motors and Renault—along with other performance targets such as fuel effi- Indian business groups such as Bajaj and ciency and acceleration capacity. and they are quite in tune with new technologies. Thus a Silicon Valley on a new scale and with a different dimension awaits us. as early ‘adapters’.000 at purchasing power That is not all. ‘Reverse’ or ‘frugal innovation’ occurs when an innovation is developed and/or adopted Box 1: The Nano Looking out of the window of his house convincing suppliers to set up (co-locate) one day. Being tech-savvy and up-to-date with the latest and greatest along with high aspirations and thought-provoking ideologies is changing the face of the country. and a wide array of products in sectors ranging from the known automobiles. and China) are increasingly exhibiting. 2010. Russia. although not innovation in the true sense but rather an inspired adaptation of existing solutions using low-cost technology. finally. Thus the Nano has helped major changes incorporated at the design spawn innovation beyond the house of level. even if it is makeshift and short-term.500 hand-held electrocardiography (ECG) machine. This approach.

lack of regular electricity supply. It reduced irrelevant functions on the basis of community feed- Automobile The Nano—the car pr iced at US$2. accounts. 8% of households own a refrigerator—a proportion similar to the country’s 9% car ownership. Godrej plans to sell about 1 million units of its ChotuKool refrigerators in the next three to four years. The result is the higher click-through rate of 2. Nonetheless. This innovation reduced product parts from 200 to 20. In these conditions. the company Godrej followed a threestage process that focused on the community first.500 or Rs. The penetration of the Internet in India has deepened the use of IT-enabled services domestically as well. customer relations. Source IBEF. and to the economy as a whole as productivity benefits are realized in the informal sector and as the benefits are distributed across the millions of SMEs employees. and so on. 2010. back. by the company Ideacts. The talent pool fostered by the IT industry is targeting ITES delivered via the Internet. The reasons include the high cost of IT investment. IT services Developed by Infosys. education. The innovators exploited the facts that about 37% of Internet usage in India is routed via cybercafés and that the bulk of the users are youths. is piloting a service called ‘IT-as-a-Service (ITaaS)’ as a comprehensive IT solution for SMEs. to their employees. a well-known brand of the Indian IT service industry. and the Internet has become important for marketers within the country. Building from the ground up with a deeply value-driven approach is an essential component of success in innovations in these areas. and entertainment sectors where organizations are embracing IT not only for internal administration but also for management of external relations. Tata Consultancy Services (TCS). Clinck is targeted at cybercafé operators and includes a free application for managing cybercafé operations such as inventory. The product has applicability in the local hospitality sector (hotels. a vast segment of the country’s businesses—its SMEs—has a low IT adoption rate. public administration. utilities.0—this translates into more effective advertising and thus higher advertising revenues. another big Indian IT player. health care. and economical sourcing of auto components through co-location with the main Nano plant helped in making the Nano an affordable or people’s car (see Box 1). a back-mounted engine.11 . and agricultural machinery. consumer goods. Finally. The two main reasons for this low rate are water. the Global Delivery Model has put the Indian IT sector on the global map. versus the industry average of 1.10 ITaaS is a customized. SMEs can reduce their IT investment and have greater IT management control. hardware. and a lack of awareness of the potential returns.3: Innovation in India 80 Box 2: ChotuKool In India. ‘Clinck’ has an advertising inventory built into a desktop application refreshed via connectivity to Ideact’s servers. utility management. restaurants. The presence of businessto-consumer (B2C) IT services can be seen in the banking and other financial products. and made a refrigerator that is cheaper and lighter than the conventional ones. health. education. The productivity benefits will accrue to SMEs.5. and finally the business model. 100. to TCS for the success of its initiative. eliminated a freezer. then the product. and maintenance are all offered on one platform as a monthly subscription service. In developing a low-cost alternative to the conventional refrigerator.000—produced by Tata Motors is already an iconic product. the affordability of conventional refrigerators and irregular power supply. It is an efficient mix of on-site and offshore services that delivers superior performance at substantially reduced costs. The person in charge of the project involved rural women and built a product that had awareness and acceptability of the target group built in. flower shops. Among the several solutions offered. low-cost service based on a cloud computing model wherein software. and included a laptoptype built-in battery to maintain cooling capacity during power outages. Product design involving over 30 patent applications.9 The IT industry in India is growing at a compound annual growth rate of about 20%. the distribution drivers were to be NGO partners and not sales employees. public administration. It runs on a 12-volt DC supply. telecommunications. and food stalls in rural areas) and also abroad in areas where affordability or irregular power THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 supply is an issue. adopted a thermo-electric cooling process instead of using a compressor.

This enables rural households to cool drinks and store food for some time. It is an effective means of transport for short distances. addresses this problem specifically for heart care.000 to 30. The Soleckshaw’s supporting infrastructure for ecofriendly batteries and convenient charging stations (at metro stations) is a product of a collaboration with other national laboratories. The lighting solution is a complete package that includes the product. serviced and financed about 100.000 PV solar systems. through its CSIR-800 project.000). Effective land use will improve agricultural productivity and rural incomes. promoted by the Narayana Hrudayalaya Hospital. To address the important issue of power for rural households without connectivity to the grid. Drinking water solutions in India include personal water purifiers at a considerable cost—ranging from one-fourth of average annual per capita income for basic filters to total annual per capita income for reverse osmosis systems—clearly out of reach of low-income households. owning a refrigerator is both too expensive and ineffective.000). a manually operated tricycle for two passengers. A basic solution consists of four 7-watt compact fluorescent lights. light-weight refrigerator that is both affordable and effective. The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Health and education The poor often go into debt because of healthcare expenses. the supply is irregular. it enables girls to attend school who are otherwise drafted for this task.Widespread use is expected not only as a cheap manual cab but. well-educated population.12 Transport The lowest rung of the urban transport system in India is the rickshaw. The less educated and the illiterate. Not only does Swach provide convenient and safe access to drinking water. For households that find even the relatively small amount of US$200 to be a barrier to adoption. leaving their small land-holdings untended and unproductive—is a brain-child of the Indian multinational corporation the Mahindra Group. commercial partners for production. which is a fossil fuel–powered vehicle that contributes to urban pollution. The access to surgery at a top hospital with a low annual premium of US$1.5 is socially transformative and represents a big leap in providing access THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Water. food. It has sold.000 to 100. Inadequate supply of electricity in rural areas is a challenge for both bulk and personal food storage. Tata’s Swach is a low-cost solution for dr inking water. as a feeder transport to mass transport systems (e. came up with a Soleckshaw (priced at approximately Rs. and in the process empower rural women. The Yeshasvini rural health insurance scheme. a photovoltaic cell mounted on the rooftop. They have created photovoltaic solar power systems (PV-SPS) to provide off-grid lighting in rural areas. One of the 37 national laboratories of CSIR. One of India’s premier consumer goods companies.. comprising the lowincome groups. energy The B2C initiatives target the middle-income. ends up being wasted in India because of the paucity of storage facilities. 80. Further. and a lead acid battery for storing the electric power generated by the PV cell. 25. a metro subway). Combining locally sourced materials with nanosilver particles for the filters helped enhance performance (90% elimination of germs) while reducing cost. being perishable. conceived and developed the Soleckshaw—a solarelectric pedicab that can also be run using pedals. In another example. For most rural households in India. The company’s annual revenue is about US$3 million. The system costs about US$200 and is customized. This pedicab has a zero carbon footprint. also stand to benefit as more products are developed for them. and the financing. it saves time for rural households that otherwise would have to spend it in procuring drinking water from distant sources. set about addressing this problem by adopting a solutions approach.g. SELCO helps arrange financing from local banks or microfinance institutions. The product that emerged is ChotuKool—a portable. the Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI). Godrej. the 16-year-old company SELCO has devised a solar power system for household use.both food and time for women (see Box 2). and non-governmental organizations with the aim of helping adoption by rickshaw pullers and by commuters. tractors designed to be operated by rural women—in the absence of men who might have migrated to cities. It improves the lives of the rickshaw pullers by reducing the physical effort needed for operation and increasing efficiency. saving 3: Innovation in India 81 . the service. Where the electricity grid is present. The second rung is the auto-rickshaw (priced at approximately Rs. aimed at empowering 800 million Indians via science and technology application. more importantly. particularly surgical expenses. Food.

Given the right to education. 2010. Typically in India. This organizational innovation reportedly reduces both leakages of funds and resources and the time needed for implementation. achieve the required scale. the chances of India realizing its demographic dividend are improving. who The Narayana Hrudayalaya aims to are charged more for rooms with better expand its number of beds from 5. The cost gap between to 30. not a policy that might be diluted by future central or any state government. instance. Shared risk The actual cost is US$3. The SSA is financed by an education cess over and above the income tax. called ‘Yeshasvini usual 8 hours. such access is now a right guaranteed by law. The cost gap Cost control by the hospital and incen- between the Yeshasvini insurance charge tives per surgery have reduced the cost and the average hospital cost is subsidized per surgery and kept it affordable. and offers discounted rates Insurance’.14 Education got a big boost with the universal primary education programme Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) of the Government of India (GOI).000 within India over the next Narayana Hrudayalaya and other hospitals five years. magnetic res- able health care. ums and world-class benefits. per annum. is guided by top cardiac hospitals. by the hospital’s premium patients. twice that of other provider to Mother Teresa. The NRHM breaks ground in the way its implementation is designed.g.15 . Such PPPs encompass the buildoperate-transfer model employed by several infrastructure projects constructed by a private company in India. The attention paid by taxpayers to this additional tax expenditure leads to greater scrutiny of the programme.000 personal amenities. this cess may well be absorbed by general taxation. which exemplifies a private-sector health service delivery model. shared risk. provides insurance for cardiac during late evenings). The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is a central government programme that relies on strong central leadership coupled with local committee oversight. machines for 14 hours as opposed to the This solution.5 The Yeshasvini Insurance Scheme. The local committees are hybrid in nature. and is considering setting up is the result of tight control on construc- healthcare facilities in Malaysia and the tion costs and higher asset utilization (for Cayman Islands.000.000. central government programmes are implemented via the state governments by local administration. while the through insurance has provided access to benchmark cost for cardiac surgery in critical health care to the under-privileged. to health care for those at the bottom of the pyramid (see Box 3). and the government provides the financing as well as enabling conditions and incentives to achieve the social goals.200. Since 2002. drawing members from both government and civil society. it uses computer- her philosophy of thinking about afford- ized tomography scanners. For example. a specialized cardiac hospital. India is about US$5. the cost reim- aimed at covering the rural population bursed per cardiac surgery in Narayana for surgical procedures with low premi- Hrudayalaya. This operational structure is part of a broader pattern of publicprivate partnerships (PPPs) where the private sector provides expertise and executes the project. heart surgeon and care 30 surgeries in a day. Some state governments (e.13 It builds upon existing government schemes and mechanisms to treat diseases such as tuberculosis (TB) in rural India by engaging local youths to cater to the needs of the uneducated and underprivileged (see Box 4). and cost-control. There is also an emphasis on integrating vocational education with secondary education. He has built his solution onance imaging equipment. has helped under the Yeshasvini scheme is US$1. Along with the right to education. surgeries at an annual premium of US$1. Narayana Hrudayalaya performs Source THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 IBEF. the GOI has pushed hard to provide access to primary education for every child between the ages of 6 and 14 years. There are now initiatives to improve the quality of schooling provided so that the access issue is largely achieved. With quality and employability being addressed. and other around scale..3: Innovation in India 82 Box 3: Yeshasvini Surgery Insurance and Narayana Hrudayalaya Devi Prasad Shetty. Delhi) are drawing up plans to extend this right to secondary education as well. an innovative outreach programme launched by Novartis. Another example of innovative health care in rural areas is the ‘Arogya Parivar’.

affordable innovations will not achieve large monetary values. local rural youth Source Kashyap. the time taken from commercial launch to value generation and scale-up is variable. a health services delivery model in ment process—conditions that frequently rural areas.. The result in a relapse of the disease. motivate them to seek number in any country. medi- even discontinue treatment because they cines are also sometimes out of stock. ly and cost effectively. access The value proposition for the to doctors and availability of medicines patients is that they receive complete remains a challenge. and government and non-government non-profit bodies—that are affordable by middleincome and low-income groups and thus inclusive in nature. First.000 TB patients. If formal ideation was impeded by the fear of failure. early-stage funders. as is evident in the innovations described earlier. Educated. For most others in the making (e. has already treated 12. but it is incomplete without value generation. The discussion earlier shows that some of the Indian innovations (e. and venture capitalists have grown. the World trict health centres. However. and reduction in polluting emissions—any innovation is incomplete. a central government body under the Ministry of Science. their commercial and economic success.g. and some- service providers. 2011. and monitor their Health Organization (WHO)–recommend- medication schedule till they were com- ed Directly Observed Treatment. Two major issues with treating TB are early detection and completion of The company plans to expand it across 11 states in the next five years.. new companies. This has helped ideators and inventors present proof-of-concept and secure initial funding. are unaware of the enormity of the health In 2008. Activity in R&D that leads to breakthroughs is gaining momentum in India. and the prototype development. The health educator is an course (DOTS)—an ambitious nationwide entrepreneur who earns from the sale of programme to treat TB patients efficient- medicines to a 30-patient case load. both grassroots and organizational. time-use savings. These innovations economize on resources and use more local materials and renewable resources than do existing products. In 2008–09. and diagnostic centres already in five states covering 30. in 1997. Short pletely cured. the number and quality of incubators. indirect socio-economic benefits (access gained to products and services. employment and gain in livelihoods.000 applications were filed and about 2. Innovation starts with the idea. accompany them to dis- of India launched. economic value-added. more than 36. TB patients have to treatment at an affordable.16 Over the last few years.000 villages. treatment. Although there is reason to applaud the emergence of new ideas and their embodiment in solutions. including those from the Department of Science and Technology (DST). The main gap in Indian innovation is weak value generation and low scale-up. The programme has been launched chemists. SELCO India). fixed price travel repeatedly to community health through a dependable network of health centres or district hospitals. The Government early treatment. corporations.The above examples are a small subset of a growing number of innovations—developed by grassroots innovators. In 2004–05. wages). able. in partnership with MART. without scale and the consequent volume of sales. and present locally.000 applications were filed and more than 16. the invention. This is a convenient solu- times have to pay for diagnostics because tion for rural patients who delay and often testing equipment is out of order. quality enhancement). The ideas generated under these conditions have a bearing on the end-use conditions and build solutions around it. Novartis launched Arogya problem and are not aware of the treat- Parivar.000 patents granted. Thus scaling up is both necessary and the key link THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Measuring value and scaling up: The key link 3: Innovation in India 83 . The two are linked in India. more than 17. However. Without value generation—commercial gain (profits. has been bottomup. it received a substantial boost from key interventions (see the following discussion on strengthening the ecosystem). Ideation. Project Shakti) are sustained value generators.000 patents were granted. model created an umbrella network of pri- The model is self-sustaining and scal- vate health service providers—doctors. there is also a need to determine Box 4: Arogya Parivar India is home to one-fifth of the tuberculo- were appointed as health educators to sis (TB) patients of the world—the biggest identify patients. the value-generated numbers are fairly low and the scale-up stage is not yet reached.g.

MART helps devise effective solutions for the poor in emerging markets by working with the existing physical and social infrastructure on the ground and with the government machinery at the local level. Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of MART. Third. and spawn demand-driven collaborative R&D activities and an overall ecosystem subject to organic growth. India’s National Innovation Council (NInC) was set up in 2010 to focus exclusively on innovation in every sphere of economic activity. and industrial innovation. the NInC .18 Second.THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 3: Innovation in India 84 for affordable innovations to be profitable. including support in the commercialization of select innovations. the solution is quickly rolled out and can readily be expanded. For university and industrial innovation. private players and now the National Innovation Council are building such networks and promoting exchanges to allow innovators to build capacity for such scaling up and to give a boost to the vibrant innovation environment in India. Accessibility is a big issue. For new ventures. and the strategy for scaleup appear to be sequential but are not fully integrated from the beginning. university. or doing the job with minimum resources. scale-up after commercialization is slow. the commercialization. The CICs would be networked with each other so that ideas could be dynamically shared and resources optimally deployed in order to increase visibility and to spread the knowledge across the ecosystem. which is organized in collaboration with the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and Agilent Technologies. institutions. MART. (2) there must be buy-in at the top from each of the key stakeholders—the CEO of the corporation (strategic buyin). For that. develop new business models. Fear of failure and an education system based on rote learning are partly to blame. and a board member or member of the senior management to head the initiative/venture (operational buy-in). several initiatives have been proposed. CII’s Yi or Young Indians body provides wider outreach. create new markets. These initiatives increasingly try to provide support through the later stages of the innovation process. Precise measurement of different benefit indicators would help in a more complete valuation of the project and would therefore help in obtaining both funds from commercial and non-profit sources and guidance on the way forward. Scale is built in to the solution and tested in the pilot. To facilitate the progress of innovations through the pilot stages for various initiatives. Innovation infrastructure initiatives: Strengthening the ecosystem Jugaad. Thinking of achieving scale is important from the project inception stage itself. Pradeep Kashyap. research organizations. Nonetheless. To aid ideation and promote grassroots. is part of Indian DNA. NInC—chaired by the Adviser to the Prime Minister on Public Information Infrastructure & Innovations and with members from the academia. financial valuation alone will be low. the NInC’s favoured approach is the development of new networks in the form of university innovation clusters and industry innovation clusters to use existing resources optimally. identifies three requirements for scaling up innovations to the point where they are commercially viable: (1) the scaleup must be strategically and operationally built into the innovation and tested in the pilot. provides incubation support. The DST has several schemes and funds to foster innovation in the ecosystem. One of the prime movers of Project Shakti. and (3) it must involve the community. Thus the number of consumers and households served must also be a metric for affordable innovations. The CICs would connect the universities with industry. One such project is the India Innovation Initiative (i3). and government to share their ideas. Gleaned from learning over two decades of innovating. When successful. measuring value and monitoring the progress of innovation in India requires metrics along with financial value. develop them. cost has to be low. The purpose is to create cluster innovation centres (CICs) where all stakeholders and innovators are connected in symbiotic relationships based on cooperation and collaboration. create intellectual property rights.17 practises scaling up in devising solutions. the Indian Institute of Management. and the industry—is devising mechanisms to tap grassroots/industrial/educational/societal innovations and then take the promising ones through to commercialization and/ or scale-up stages. With low costs. The weakness may lie in the design of commercialization and the delivery model where the solution. there is little formal ideation and experimentation. Ahmedabad (IIM-A). advise entrepreneurs and innovators. the pilot. India’s premier business school. The i3 has no age-related focus and is open to all. The objective of the i3 programme is to foster and harness ideas and inventions by grassroots innovators. the chief minister of the state government/s (social buy-in).

Innovation is as much about execution as it is about creativity. Innovation can manifest in several forms—from operational efficiencies and business model optimizations to product. ‘True THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 proposes setting up an Innovation Fund with buy-in from the government and private stakeholders such as key social venture capital funds. the country is poised for tremendous growth and for being at the forefront of a new wave of globalization that will make the world even flatter. learning centres. However. namely. and other venues. India is an emerging hub for conceiving and delivering innovative products and services in a profitable or value-generating manner to the underserved and the poor. and so on.19 3: Innovation in India 85 . labs. with end-use conditions considered at the forefront of the process. Several of the new innovations—such as the Nano car—have global potential. Innovation now abounds in India. Collaboration among stakeholders will be key to taking this forward. a key that is underscored in India where there is a need to form optimal alliances to build powerful propositions and find a win-win for all stakeholders. are working on numerous initiatives from eco-friendly power to base-stations to unified offerings similar to Ericsson’s Tower Tube design. for example. The NInC’s attempt to create networks and foster an active exchange of information is a step towards addressing this issue. Progress is significant in terms of ideation. The passion to innovate must eventually originate from the heart. and it has had some stellar successes. Traditional strengths. education.The way forward The Indian innovation ecosystem is acquir ing greater granular ity. The Innovation Fund would provide an overarching umbrella (a fund of funds).21 With an increasing focus on reducing its carbon footprint. and such solutions will be more emphatically demanded in emerging markets. and commercial launch. and there is also a need to foster a new culture that encourages risk-taking along with enhanced creativity. A greater number of initiatives in green innovation are shifting to these fast-developing nations. and monitoring value generation are also necessary steps. The interesting new term of ‘polycentric innovation’ has been conceptualized at Cambridge Judge Business School as an emerging business paradigm. India needs to cultivate innovation as a habit (or attitude) so that every single individual is responsible for contributing his or her part. there may be significant overlap with respect to managing the innovation process. A growing number of these are affordable innovations across several sectors.and service-related novelties. manufacturing and competence centres being established in India. medicines and health care. IT services. companies should invest in an array of skunkworks projects. This extension of the innovation infrastructure would expand the reach of innovative products and services as well as facilitate cooperation and collaboration among various clusters. The need for sustainable solutions has been felt in developed nations. measur ing these. Vendors in the wireless industry. mentoring networks. research organizations. It encapsulates the synergistic global collaboration formula of ‘1 + 1 = 11’. academic institutes. To genuinely innovate. automobiles. proof of concept. The list is expanding to include education and skills. and entrepreneurship groups. innovation hubs. Innovation in India is increasingly becoming local. where we can turn our dreams into reality without losing the essence of its unique and emotional selling properties. Similarly. have been expanded to underserved markets beyond India. innovative people. and pilot. e-governance. An open innovation concept is essential. With R&D centres. centres of excellence. These encourage collective experimentation by creative. We will see a great deal of emphasis on sustainability and eco/ clean tech–based solutions that will be pillars for the next wave of innovations in emerging markets. development of solutions. drinking water purifiers. developing appropriate parameters and measures. As Mahatma Gandhi had said.20 This type of innovation designates the global integration of specialized R&D capabilities across multiple regions to co-create novel solutions that no single region could have completely developed on its own. India needs to prepare itself to work with an open concept in a close collaboration from seeding the idea to rapid prototyping (embracing a philosophy of fail faster to succeed sooner). within which existing innovation players as well as networks would operate. and so on. But there is a great deal of work to be done. institutes. such as affordable medicines. This increase in local emphasis is reflected in the availability of an increasing array of products and services. cellular phone services. production. and partnering with customers (to do early pilots for beta offerings). the market will open its doors to numerous innovative technologies.

2011. available at http://nrhm-mis. Universal Service Obligation Fund of India.gian.org/ (retrieved 2011). Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.org/cms/about_sristi (retrieved 2011). com/who_we_are. No date. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.sristi. ‘In Support of Grassroot Innovations. sristi. ———. and reward creativity at grassroots levels. 2 The Mother and Child Health and Education Trust. available at http://uidai. 2010. Innovations from India: Harbingers of Change. Interview with Manisha G. 2004.htm (retrieved April 2011). National Innovation Council. Oslo Manual.in/usof-cms/home.in/.org/. MART. 2011. 8 GOI. 2004. MART’s expertise lies in its understanding of the Base of the Pyramid (BoP) segments. ‘Who We Are’ and ‘What We Do.3: Innovation in India 86 innovation happens when what you think. 2011. available at http://www. 2005. recognize.asp (retrieved April 2011). 20 Radjou.’ MART Innovative Solutions in Emerging Markets. CEO of MART. 13 See http://www. Gujarat.’ National Innovatoin Foundation – India. 10 IBEF. economically poor people by adding value to their contemporary creativity as well as to their traditional knowledge.nic.corporatecitizenship. Cambridge. Unique Identification Authority of India. 2011. available at http://www.gov. Ministry of Communication & Information Technology. available at http://www.usof. 2011. Radjou. Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data. P. 2011. 3rd edition. corporatecitizenship. ———.nic.org.gov. 2001 and http:// www. No date.in/index.’ India seems well on its path to some kind of innovative harmony. April.’ GIANs have been set up at Ahmedabad and Jaipur to provide incubation support to grassroots innovations and traditional knowledge from West and North India. Department of School Education & Literacy. No date. 21 See http://www. what you say. See SRISTI. UK. Department of Telecommunications. Ministry of Finance. 2009. gov. 5 Sheth.jsp (retrieved April 2011). Unique Identification Authority of India.ericsson. References Ericsson. 12 IBEF. available at http://hetv.shtml. 2011. NIF (National Innovation Foundation). GOI (Government of India). available at http://www. ‘Welcome to Citizenship Novartis’. Singh. 15 GOI.nif. 2011. ———. 2005. About SRISTI. available at http://www.com/ campaign/towertube/.htm (retrieved 13 April 2011). Novartis. 2008. Study prepared for IBEF by Zinnov Management Consulting. available at http:// www. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and Eurostat.org/cms/. 2010. 6 ‘SRISTI’—which means ‘creation’—was developed in 1993 to support the activities of the Honey Bee Network. 2010.in/. Paris: OECD Publishing and European Commission. 2010. New Delhi: GOI. and what you do are in harmony. No date. ‘The Ericsson Tower Tube’.org/india/population-2001. Department of Telecommunications. An understanding that has been built over years of interaction and engagement with rural as well as urban low income communities. MART is a pioneer in the rural domain and over the years has also developed as the Leading Consultancy and Knowledge based organization on Emerging Markets.gian. N. 19 National Innovation Council. See GIAN. 2001. SRISTI (Society for Research and Initiatives for Sustainable Technologies and Institutions). 11 IBEF.shtml. ‘Established in 1993. 9 IBEF. 2011. GIAN (Grassroot Innovations Augmentation Network). 2010. available at http://www. SRISTI is a registered charitable organization that is devoted to empowering knowledge-rich. N. 2010. Grassroots Innovations Augmentation Network. 18 Kashyap. 14 GOI. GIAN is ‘an incubator of grassroots innovations and traditional knowledge. their eco system and behaviour. No date.martrural. available at http:// www. 2009. 4 GOI. novartis.in/ssa/ssa_1. NRHM Health Management Information System (HMIS) Portal.com/ news/2009-02-12_rmai. Based in Ahmedabad. No date. 2008. available at http://www. Chindia Rising: How China and India Will Benefit your Business. 16 GOI.com/news/2009-02-12_rmai.’ See MART.php?option=com_content&v iew=article&id=141&Itemid=164 (retrieved 2011). National Innovation Council. education. About UIDAI. 7 NIF. Economic Survey of India 2010–11. IBEF (India Brand Equity Foundation) . Ministry of Finance.novartis. 2010. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: A Programme for Universal Elementary Education. J. Department of School Education & Literacy.ericsson.in/. which aims to respect. Framework for Implementation. ———. 17 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Notes 1 OECD and Eurostat. The Mother and Child Health and Education Trust. innovationcouncil.com/campaign/ towertube/. Kashyap. Sheth. No date. available at http://www. respectively. Ministry of Communication & Information Technology. ‘Managing the New Trajectory of Global Innovation’. . Health Education to Villages: RuralUrban Distribution of Population India and States/Union Territories: 2001. 3 Kashyap. Presentation to the Cambridge Judge Business School.

This general ageing of the population means that the need for healthcare and elder care infrastructures to serve the elderly . a new marketing method. The rapid urbanization of the past half century has been the primary driver of global climate change. cool. small and mid-sized cities in emerging markets have been driving the acceleration of urban growth for some years. and Louis Witters. Alcatel-Lucent will increase markedly. and so on. The rapid growth of cities has in many cases been accompanied by the aggravation of many of the challenges associated with urban living—the protection of public safety. particularly as people live longer and the percentage of the population working to support them decreases. and general liveability of cities. Innovation and smart cities Innovation—which is broadly defined here as ‘the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service). industrialization. The concept of smart cities goes beyond the purely technological aspects of urban development. largely because of the increasingly broad geographic distribution of many families. upkeep of public infrastructures. private-public partnerships. Philippe Richard. safer health care and to help ensure an improved quality of life.3 billion over the next 40 years. urbanization in developing regions was characterized by the emergence of new cities that did not exist prior to 19902—the point being that urbanization is a pervasive trend. Between 1990 and 2000. This conclusion is based on simple math: Cities consume 75% of the world’s energy and produce 80% of its greenhouse gas emissions. and technology—will be absolutely critical in this process. terms that encompass social and environmental dynamics. and consumption associated with cities brings with it a transformation of the physical and natural environment that. and light our homes and to run electrical appliances and other technology. and that trend is expected to accelerate as cities expand. The concept of the smart city is a framework for a particular vision of modern urban development that recognizes the growing importance of information and communication technologies (ICT)—broadly characterized here as ‘networks’— in driving the economic competitiveness. Revital Marom. and as much as 70% of the world’s population will live in cities by 2050. Each year. or a new organizational method in business practices. are daunting challenges. published in 2009. environmental sustainability. They are typically referred to as ‘digital’ or ‘intelligent’ cities. Smart cities by definition address all of the challenges noted above.3 and will outnumber children under 15 for the first time in human history. for the most part. the percentage of people over the age of 60 increases—by 2050 the number of people over the age of 60 is expected to triple. waste disposal. Gaspar Veiga. Clearly the question of how best to manage the use of resources in cities and address the needs of a growing and ageing population. This situation is complicated by the fact that the ability of families to care for ageing members is decreasing. workplace organization or external relations’5—will in many ways form the foundation for the establishment of smart cities and the realization of a more sustainable approach to growth. Technology is required to provide better. Innovation—particularly in the areas of regulation.1 This growth is not limited to established urban centres and ‘megacities’ in developing markets—in fact. all while reducing the urban carbon footprint. Accompanying this growth in population will be a dramatic shift in demographics. with the remainder committed to the generation of electricity to heat. indicate that urban populations will grow by an estimated 2. or process. This is because the increase in economic activity.87 CHAPTER 4 4: Making Cities Smart and Sustainable Making Cities Smart and Sustainable K urt Steinert.4 The vast majority of this comes from the burning of gasoline and diesel fuel for automobiles and trucks. traffic and transport management. Making cities smarter has become a necessity. cannot be undone. delivery of basic public services. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Data from the United Nations report World Urbanization Prospects.

• Smart economy: Creating business opportunities. improving overall access to governmental services on the part of average city residents. political. and easier access—via the Internet— to social services of all kinds.6 including smart governance (democratic processes and inclusion). Figure 1: Smart cities/smart services interconnection model Public services Smart city operational control centre Smart public safety Smart cities broadband network Citizen engagement • Smart mobility: Promoting more efficient and intelligent transportation systems—effectively leveraging networks to ensure more efficient movement of vehicles. smart people (education). smart economy (regional/global competitiveness). local officials. people. eliminating obstacles to communication and collaboration.). and business environment that is supportive of innovative approaches to . etc. e-auction). and smart living (health care. and using electronic means in business processes of all kinds (e. and promoting new ‘social’ attitudes such as car sharing. • Smart environment: Dramatically reducing energy consumption through the application of novel technology innovations while promoting energy conservation and material re-use. e-shopping. This foundation requires two primary elements. in a variety of ways. • Smart living: Access to highq u a l i t y h e a l t h c a re s e r v i c e s Smart infrastructure (including e-health or remote healthcare monitoring). car pooling. improving community access to services (first responders.g. and car-bike combinations. smart environment (environmental sustainability/energy consumption).. home automation. Examples include: THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 • Smart governance: Efficiently interconnecting governmental organizations and administrations. jointly leading the European Smart Cities project. thus reducing gridlock. • Smart cities public-private partnerships: The establishment of a social. and goods. electronic health records management. Innovation can be applied to the development of smarter cities in all of the above dimensions. social services).4: Making Cities Smart and Sustainable 88 A team of researchers from a number of European universities. Enhancing the urban lifestyle through innovation The vision of the smart city is based on the notion of leveraging ICT and public-private partnerships to lay the foundation for a range of innovations. smart mobility (transportation). e-banking. providing broadband access for all citizens and businesses. • Smart people: Increasing inclusion by delivering a more consistent educational experience in both urban and rural areas through the use of e-education solutions (remote learning and collaboration) to help eliminate rural/urban educational disparities. suggests that smart cities can be defined by measuring relative progress in a number of categories. and improving organizational processes to be more efficient. both technical and sociopolitical. helping maintain population in rural areas by leveraging networks to expand business opportunities outside the city centre. smart home and smart building services. and service organizations.

Ultimately. healthcare and public safety providers. Furthermore. music. businesses. independently or through creative collaborations. Although networks get more and more sophisticated every day. TV. first responder. educational institutions.• Smart cities broadband networks: The implementation of an open broadband network that the entire community—organizations. mechanisms for public-sector intervention. Just as importantly. exactly? Today most urban centres. are webbed by a latticework of networks of all kinds. particularly those in developed markets but increasingly those in high-growth environments as well. resiliency. the establishment of a smart city depends on ubiquitous connectivity. It is critical that smart cities leverage the range of ‘last mile’ options (the connection between the network and homes and offices). The first challenge is to move from multiple networks (mobile. companies. the smart cities broadband network is the ‘brain’ of the smart city. coupled with the increased intelligence needed to support the rapid creation and delivery of a wide variety of new services quickly and easily. such as Australia’s planned NBN Co. These enhancements will make them smarter than networks currently available. educational. The interconnections among the network and city services are illustrated in Figure 1. In some parts of the world suburban and rural areas are also increasingly connected. including an open broadband regulatory framework. all services offered from a common infrastructure—that operates using Internet Protocol (IP). so that they are easy to customize in order to address requirements from different strategic government and industry sectors. The third challenge is to move from multiple service control and management processes to a single. and more. All this must happen while consuming a small fraction of the energy they consume today. In the truest sense. Individuals. all fed by and interacting with the Internet. copper (xDSL). to share data and content safely and securely. smart cities need networks with the stability. converged network and policy management function. or wireless (2G/3G/4G). educational institutions. 4: Making Cities Smart and Sustainable 89 . companies. the vision for the smart city broadband network is a central hub that houses a range of fundamental network capabilities. How is the smart cities broadband network different? Today’s networks lack key elements that would support features that could be described as ‘intelligence’. private enterprise) to a fully converged network—that is. combined with the software-driven programmability of the Web. in real time. and security profile of telecommunications networks. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 city planning and management. social services (e-health. How technology can help: The smart cities broadband network Fundamentally. In essence. be they delivery of content (movies. It is vital that there be a methodology to ensure that the services that are absolutely essential get the highest priority in terms of routing and resource allocation. from both fixed and mobile broadband access systems to optical transport and metro networks to private business. The second challenge is to ensure consistent. governmental and non-governmental organizations. educational services). high-quality broadband connectivity for individuals. it implies establishing close interconnections with a variety of private or public networks that are currently owned and operated by governments. and methodology for encouraging and fostering partnerships that can deliver innovative solutions to the community. the language of the Internet. and governments alike. there is enormous potential that can be tapped by embedding a range of instrumentation into networks and employing more finely tuned management and control capabilities. and that can then be accessed—via ‘spokes’—by organizations and institutions that are supporting various public and commercial functions. sensors. objects (buildings. public utilities. and Singapore’s OpenNet. networks can and should become much more efficient so that they are less costly to operate and require less power. wireline. to develop innovative approaches to particular social challenges and/or to establish new businesses and business models. whether that connection is over fibre. institutions. games). But what does this mean. and governmental networks. and individuals—can use. What is needed is a network that can deliver the level of bandwidth required by any given service or application at the absolute lowest cost per bit. All of this implies a major transformation that can encompass commercial service provider networks and municipal or regional networks. and fixed and mobile devices of all kinds) and utilities—and all the various processes associated with a city—need to be able to interact seamlessly. business models to support the required investment.

and remote communities have equal access. and the business models to support the required investments. smarter community ser vices such as e-health. • increase the use of broadband to improve public safety capabilities for emergency and disaster response both within and across territories. Governments have understood the need to boost urban economies in a sustainable way and to help foster more favourable economic and technological environments in rural areas. real-time information to fuel the abovementioned services. e-business. including capabilities such as closed circuit television systems. managing. parking systems). THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Innovating regulation to drive urban transformation The shift to smart cities broadband networks creates a range of issues for all stakeholders—industry. and • create a more favourable environment for innovation by enabling the development of new.7 These incentives: through e-education and e-learning services so that regional. government.Figure 2: Conceptual network architecture of smart cities broadband network Customer Premises Converged Access Network Converged Backbone Community Operation Control Centre Command & control centre PMR (TETRA. transportation (traffic management. SDH/SONET. • put in place smarter ‘infrastructure’ to provide accurate. OSS = operational support systems. IP/MPLS = Internet protocol/multi-protocol label switching. Microwave Mux = microwave multiplexing. and sensors of all kinds. and constituents. SDH/SONET = synchronous digital hierarchy/synchronous optical networking. WDM = wavelength division multiplexing. and intelligent transport. and financing . The issues can be related to the regulatory framework. A proposed architecture for the smart cities broadband network is illustrated in Figure 2. P25) Multi-service backbone (WDM. deploying. They have reacted by launching a set of broadband stimulus incentives intended to spur innovative projects. smart metres. and so on. Ethernet) LAN/WAN Microwave Mux OSS: Network management centre Business & government Converged wireline access Digital home Converged RAN Resource management centre Service providers Data centre Integrated network management I N T E G R AT E D N E T W O R K M A N AG E M E N T 4: Making Cities Smart and Sustainable 90 Note: Converged RAN = converged radio access network. traffic congestion monitors. regulators. LAN/WAN = local area network/wide area network. IP/MPLS. rural. e-government. the need and mechanisms for public-sector intervention. train signalling. Governments—particularly Chief Information Officers for local authorities—are actively exploring the benefits broadband can bring to a wide array of public services as well as exploiting their use as a driver for economic development. • create a more favourable environment for citizen engagement and inclusion by extending access to information and knowledge G ove r n m e n t s a l o n e c a n not address or implement all the challenges inherent in designing. P25) = professional mobile radio (used by police and other first responders). PMR (TETRA.

and wireless coverage. the availability of wireless spectrum. • Active infrastructure sharing: This is the sharing of the ‘active’ elements of a network. the economic recovery plan pursued by the Obama Administration has encouraged local authorities to engage in the roll-out of broadband networks and has provided funding packages to facilitate this effort.9 and whether to allow local authorities to fund—partially or wholly—next-generation fibrebased access networks even in areas where the market already delivers classic broadband services. it is difficult to establish and implement because it requires close integration and THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 such networks. a combination of federal.) and to ensure their availability to citizens through the Internet. particularly the small to medium-sized enterprises that are drivers of economic growth. cell sites. and governmental authorities. A number of different approaches have been proposed by national and regional governmental bodies and various industry stakeholders. regional. the EU Commission is examining the legal framework of state aid. one of the biggest challenges is the financing (capital and operational costs) of the smart cities broadband network. In northern European countries. for the simple reason that they typically have neither the knowledge (particularly ICT skills and experience) nor the financial resources to take on these kinds of large-scale. Infrastructure sharing helps to reduce the expense of providing services by minimizing capital and operational costs. and regulations concerning these networks are changing at a very rapid pace and in a fairly irregular fashion. including retail and wholesale telecommunications companies. ducts and conduit for optical fibre. In a recently launched ‘public consultation on state aid for broadband networks’. shelters to house the equipment.8 and local businesses and civic organizations that can access the network and create the framework necessary for smart cities. those directed towards giving local authorities the ability to take an active role in broadband backhaul and access roll-outs have been most prominent. operation. while local government authorities take the lead in developing new services applications and in identifying and realizing broadband coverage and bandwidth needs. innovative approaches are required. Unsurprisingly. As a result. The success of smart cities will depend on innovative partnerships among various parties. Local authorities also have a direct interest in broadband coverage to attract enterprises. and local governmental and regulatory bodies (to drive the establishment of an open broadband regulatory framework). electrical power supplies. e-health. the need to provide more consistent guidance to local authorities has been recognized by many federal and regional governments around the world. physical access to homes and office buildings. Open broadband networks are a relatively new phenomenon. This practice is already in fairly widespread use today. national or regional bodies are creating the regulatory environment and funding stream needed to support the development of smart cities broadband networks. and maintenance of the network. Innovating business models: Smart cities’ public-private partnerships The ability of smart cities to offer broadband connectivity—and associated smart services—to all city residents is limited by factors that include the cost of the deployment. such as radio access network (RAN)—for wireless base stations and antennas—as well as data transport and backhaul systems and fibre optic lines into homes and businesses. Among these measures. In each of the instances noted above. large enterprises. The primary approaches proposed are: • Passive infrastructure sharing: This is the sharing of physical assets among service providers. Local communities are considered by many experts in the field to be in the best position to aggregate public services (e-education. complex projects. in the United States of Amer ica. and more. These typically involve sharing some resources—in some kind of public-private partnership arrangement—among various types of service providers. improved broadband connectivity. Although active sharing provides the biggest benefits in terms of cost reduction. and cooling systems. covering such things as cell phone towers. such as: a trusted technological partner(s) to implement and fund (in part or in whole) the deployment of the network. For instance. municipalities and utilities have invested heavily in backhaul and open access networks to increase very high speed coverage 4: Making Cities Smart and Sustainable 91 . To overcome these challenges. etc. National governments are increasingly taking steps to encourage increases in broadband coverage. utilities.and to foster competition among telecommunications service providers.

and by extension at the heart of the smart city.10 the ICT sector can cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 15% (i. Although some may be tempted to portray economy and environment as mutually exclusive tradeoffs. The passive and active network operators will offer only wholesale services. In some cases. the beneficial impact of ICT is more than 10 times its footprint Indirect application examples Smart utilities Smart transport Smart buildings Source: Alcatel-Lucent analysis of GeSI SMART 2020 data. dark fibre roll-out) and mapping available infrastructures in the region. ICT industr ies hold unique potential in the drive towards sustainable growth. According to one recent study. Also. as would environmental initiatives that fail to make economic sense.Figure 3: Potential savings from ICT application to energy savings in other sectors If b u s in Gtons CO2 4: Making Cities Smart and Sustainable 92 ess-as -usual Potential direct telecom equipment energy savings by 2020 Zero growth line 2002 2007 2020 Tackling the other 98% By enabling emissions reductions in other industry sectors. laws against anti-competitive practices. More than any other industrial sector. The environment: Smart cities’ sustainability In today’s world. and indeed must. which then can be accessed by retail service providers (and presumably governmental or quasi-governmental organizations) on a nondiscriminatory basis. they can. national or regional governments have gone so far as to deploy their own network infrastructures—operated on a model similar to that of public utilities—that can be used to deliver a range of public and private services.8 Gtons CO2e) by 2020—five times the . while operationally separate retail companies and public institutions will deliver services to households and businesses. be seen as a single imperative. regulations. Growth that is noxious to the environment would be clearly unsustainable. • Full separation: A central element of many proposed smart city initiatives. and network capacity limitations add complexity to the challenge of active sharing. 7. full separation involves the establishment of independently operated passive networks and active networks. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 collaboration among independent companies that are often competitors. sustainability increasingly means reducing carbon emissions as well as achieving durable economic growth. ICT industries sit at the intersection of economy and environment..e. Others have taken the less radical step of encouraging cooperation through measures such as adopting master plans that can facilitate more widespread broadband access (duct installation in waiting mode. spectrum availability. not only as engines for employment and creation of wealth but also as enablers of a lowcarbon economy.

Examples of smart ICT innovations and their low-carbon effect So where are the areas that ICT can offer dramatic energy efficiency improvements? A few particular sector examples are explored below. and innumerable business process streamlining efforts.03 Gtons CO2e. • Smart grids: These grids comprise software and hardware tools that enable electricity generators to route power more efficiently. reducing energy use.8 Gtons CO2e) in 2020 Network-related savings (53%) Industrial processes (12%) Transport optimization (8%) Other (8%) Smart logistics (19%) 7. far-reaching opportunities exist for the ICT sector to be a critical element in the drive to lower emissions’. t h u s re d u c i n g p e a k c a p a c ity requirements and enabling real-time. travel substitution.8 Gtons CO2e  Smart grid (27%) 4: Making Cities Smart and Sustainable 93 Smart buildings (21%) Teleworking (3%) Video conferencing (2%) Source: Alcatel-Lucent analysis of GeSI SMART 2020 data. electricity generation. support environmentally responsible behaviour. the transport sector is the secondleading source of global GHG emissions. These emission improvements are illustrated in Figure 3. making it easier to mix transportation modes and select the most energy-efficient type of transport. smart grid technologies could reduce carbon emissions by 2. ICT solutions can improve logistic networks. transport and logistics. interactive information exchange with customers. product dematerialization. ICT companies can further help organizations from other sector s and individual consumer s reduce emissions by increasing energy efficiency. Globally. ICT solutions can help reduce transport needs and streamline logistics. The combined environmental and economic benefit can be achieved through innovative communications applications and solutions in areas as diverse as building design and maintenance. ‘With nearly 70% of businesses with revenues of US$1 billion or more planning to increase spending on energy efficiency and environmental sustainability within the next 12 months.Figure 4: Savings potential: 15% of global emissions (7. ‘virtualizing’ activities that currently require physical resources. They can also help by providing the information and analysis tools that . notes the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). They also help THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 sector’s own footprint—with collateral economies of up to US$750 billion. • Smart logistics and transport optimization: After energy.11 An analysis of potential emissions savings from smart ICT solutions is found in Figure 4. For example. worth €79 billion. distribution and consumption. and managing other scarce resources.

Even more troubling. and other collaborative efforts have arisen. and government labs around a shared goal: to make communication networks 1. building management systems that run heating and cooling systems according to occupants’ needs or software that switches off all personal computers and monitors after everyone has gone home. To benefit from the extraordinary leverage offered by ICT— beyond developing sustainable networks—government leaders will need to define policies that support the ICT sector’s potential as a driver of sustainable growth. with energy savings worth €280 billion. A global research consortium. GHG emissions savings from smart logistics could total 1. Globally. industry groups. They are absolutely central to their successful implementation. represent an enormous opportunity. government and public authorities play a crucial role. following the natural inclination to improve their economic circumstances. such as Internetdelivered documents and MP3 music files.000 times more energy efficient. Policy makers. partnerships. worth €216 billion. • E-substitutes: Communications technologies such as teleconferencing and videoconferencing are helping greatly reduce GHG emissions from business travel. GreenTouchTM will lay the groundwork for tomorrow’s sustainable networks. logistics companies will accelerate their adoption of ICT-based energy efficiency solutions. As importantly. The challenges of driving down energy consumption in ICT and leveraging ICT to advance green advantage are areas around which a variety of research consortia. and can encourage more energy-efficient driving. construction. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 • Smart buildings: Technologies to help make the design. Annual net savings came to at least 53. An example of these efforts is the GreenTouch TM energy efficiency initiative. All of these ICT innovations. collaborative.494 face-to-face meetings. the increasing concentration of humanity in urban environments is bringing about profound. and many others. academia. innovative approach prevails. which will have a huge impact on reducing their emissions. Building energy management systems can reduce energy consumption by 5 to 40%. GreenTouchTM brings together leaders in industry. regulators. and ICT industry leaders must work together to define the right framework and conditions that will support the ongoing development of innovative ICT solutions. Both as investors modernizing public services and as pioneers and supporters of those innovative initiatives that require broad collaboration and incentives to succeed. and operation of buildings more efficient. which involves replacing material documents such as paper documents or CDs by electronic ones or media. standards bodies.552 tons of CO2.52 Gtons CO2e by 2020. ICT-dr iven solutions include. The smart city offers a vision of how to resolve some of these vexing challenges by applying ICT to mitigate the impacts of rapid urbanization and the associated follow-on effects. both regionally and locally. ICT can also help businesses greatly reduce carbon emissions through dematerialization. by making cities smarter. we have the opportunity to reduce energy consumption in a truly dramatic way. Conclusion People around the world are moving to cities in greater and greater numbers. it is essential that an open. The success of smart city initiatives will require the creative application of technology coupled with novel public policy initiatives.4: Making Cities Smart and Sustainable 94 optimize routes and reduce inventory needs. for example. Because climate change and the eco-sustainability challenge are too broad for any single organization. the report shows that each teleconference economized by at least 55 kg of CO2. Current rates of growth and resource consumption are fundamentally unsustainable. smart building technologies could eliminate 1. Worldwide. As the population in cities increases—and ages—it gets increasingly difficult for municipal governments to deliver basic services. It also presents an opportunity to rethink how we manage growth.68 Gtons CO2e of emissions. largely damaging changes to our biosphere and climate. let alone ensure a high quality of life for city residents.12 With each conference eliminating an average total of 267 miles of travel. for both existing and new properties. Research by the University of Bradford and Sustain-IT showed that the use of teleconferencing solutions by BT eliminated 717. are the lifeblood of the smart cities. By reinventing the network. It also requires the extensive . It demands levels of collaboration among private and public institutions far deeper than any seen to date. As fuel prices rise.

educational and research institutions. 2009. 8 European Commission.R. World Urbanization Prospects. 5 OECD and European Communities. ICC Commission on E-business. 2003.. This is the right time to fashion a more sustainable. ‘ICTs and Environmental Sustainability’. and governance. 2009a. and civic organizations. Kalasek. 2009. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1 The Climate Group. OECD and European Communities. 5 March 2006.org/_assets/files/02_ Smart2020Report. 2010. There is a tremendous opportunity before us. R. Let us take advantage of it. 2009b. H. 11 ICC. ‘Sustainable Urbanization: The Role of ICT in City Development’. available at http://www.org/unpd/wup/index. Creative Commons. and E. World Urbanization Prospects. Discussion paper. 3 United Nations. (2009). Fertner. 9 European Union.. 2009b. World Urbanization Prospects. inclusive. entrepreneurs. 2007. ICC (International Chamber of Commerce).pdf. available at http:// ec. 2 Harter et al.and creative application of innovation in terms of technology. 6 October 2010. IT and Telecoms. 4 United Nations. Harter.eu/regional_policy/ consultation/telecom_en.europa. 4: Making Cities Smart and Sustainable 95 . SMART 2020: Enabling the Low Carbon Economy in the Information Age. available at http://esa. Australia’s National Broadband Network. 2010. C 15/1. 2007. Guidelines on Criteria and Modalities of Implementation of Structural Funds in Support of Electronic Communications. Sinha. Singapore’s Next Generation of National Broadband Network. 2005. Official Journal of the European Union 22 January 2009. European Union. 2010. ———.eu/competition/state_aid/ legislation/atf_en. 2009.europa. the United Kingdom’s Digital Britain. engaging the active participation of governments (regional and local). 10 The Climate Group. J.htm. Meijers.europa. 2003. finance. SEC (2003) 895.pdf. private companies. S. The smart city vision offers an opportunity to chart a more sustainable course and to potentially eliminate some of the inequalities in broadband access that exist today. 2009a. R.smart-cities.pdf. Pichler-Milanovic..pdf. eu/competition/consultations/2009_ broadband_guidelines/guidelines_en. United Nations. References Notes Giffinger. 6 Giffinger et al. G. 2010. 7 Some government initiatives around broadband include the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. ‘Community Guidelines for the Application of State Aid Rules in Relation to the Rapid Deployment of Broadband Networks’. C. Booz & Company Inc. Smar t cities by definition will involve strong public-private partnerships. European Commisson. available at http://www. ‘Smart Cities: Ranking of European Medium-Sized Cities’. 2008. H. and China’s Social and Economic Development Plan – III. United Nations. report produced by www. Paris: OECD and European Communities (Eurostat). A report by The Climate Group on behalf of the Global eSustainability Initiative (GeSI). Kramar. 12 Alcatel-Lucent analysis of GeSI SMART 2020 data. A. un. Sharma.booz. Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data. eu. available at http://ec. and economically vibrant approach to urban growth. 3rd edition. 111th Cong.com/media/ uploads/Sustainable_Urbanization. ‘Information from European Union Institutions and Bodies: Temporary Community Framework for State Aid Measures to Support Access to Finance in the Current Financial and Economic Crisis’. 2009. 2008.. 2005.smart2020. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 version. public policy. among others. N.htm. if we act smartly (and quickly). available at http://ec. Urbanization cannot continue on its current path. and Dave.

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7 Going forward. part of the innovation challenge for MNCs will be to find other sources of cost savings in order to remain globally competitive. for example. alongside governments and research institutions. In 2007. and H atem Samman. focusing on three key drivers:4 Lower costs It is hardly news that outsourcing to emerging markets is an effective way to reduce costs. the average annual wages of Indian and Chinese engineers are approximately US$6. as well as big-ticket items such as leasing and infrastructure. other factors such as access to talent have become more relevant in global R&D. therefore. Within the next five years. For example.2 Importantly.000. However.1 The 2008 Innovation 1000. . companies are recruiting more automotive engineers in India and electronics engineers in THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 As companies’ operations have become steadily more global.5 However. In doing so. and is expected to reach 77% in 2012 and 90% in 2020.800 and US$18.6 In Malaysia’s Kuala Lumpur. for example. Access to talent As the cost advantage slowly fades. Multinational corporations (MNCs) are making significant investments in research and development (R&D) outside of the countries where they are headquartered. companies headquartered outside of the United States of America (US) channelled about US$43 billion dollars into that country. it has increased measurably over the past few decades. the flow of innovation activities is not unidirectional (see Figure 1).600. so has their approach to innovation. In fact. To effect such goals. a Booz & Company study of the 1. Chadi Moujaes. simply going global is not enough. making them important contributors in global innovation. overall costs have risen precipitously. it is expected that Kuala Lumpur will be as costly to live in as London. recent Booz & Company analysis shows that 35% of decisions to move local R&D overseas have been driven by wage levels and not by productivity. Many MNCs are opening up R&D sites in emerging countries to reap the talents and ideas of skilled scientists and engineers and to seek their specific expertise at the various stages of the innovation value chain. which entails not only reducing R&D costs but also finding local talent who can offer insight into new markets.3 This growing trend reflects MNCs’ need to compete with fastgrowing local and regional enterprises. English-speaking workforce. a city that is cited as relatively inexpensive and often targeted for R&D because of its technically skilled. In 1975. while those of the United Kingdom (UK) and Canada are over US$60. international firms are moving their R&D sites abroad.97 CHAPTER 5 5: The Global Footprint of Innovation The Global Footprint of Innovation Barry Jaruzelski. the wage rate of high-end service workers grew from 53% of the equivalent rate for US workers in 2005 to 65% in 2008. are relatively inexpensive. this number reached 66% by 2005. foreign R&D sites represented about 45% of all sites. For example. but it remains a key consideration for MNCs. respectively. from ideation and research to product development and testing. The most successful companies are those that take a coherent approach to innovation by aligning their R&D strategies with their overall strategy and the business environment in which they operate. Booz & Company Innovation going global Although the globalization of innovation is not a new phenomenon. they must understand their global customers and recruit international talent who can channel their ideas and help them gain global market share. This explains why they have pursued R&D in markets where scientists and engineers. This trend is driven by the need for companies to compete on a global scale.000 companies that spend the most on R&D. shows that 91% of them conduct innovation activities outside their headquarter countries. cost advantages in these markets are slowly eroding: In India.

7 France 19. 9 r i c a s to b ill i E M E A $ 4 6 . 11.0 Ireland 4.1 Japan 71.7 United Kingdom 18. US$ billions (by home country of HQ) Billions of US dollars $1 $5 $20 $50 US$ bn.1 Canada 9. United States of America 108.8 India 13. Rep.8 Korea. Rep.0 Italy 7.4 Germany 27.8 Sweden 7.3 Spain 4.5 Japan 40.5 Australia 4.8 United Kingdom 23.2 i Pac sia/ to A n illio .1 Switzerland 16. li o n United States of America 146.8 b 7 2 fic $ Australia TOP R&D ‘IMPORTERS’. US$ billions (for economies generating less than US$1 billion in R&D) Country US$ bn. 2008.8 China 24. Thailand India Egypt Malaysia THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 US$ bn.7 Sweden 6.1 b illio P / n Asia acific to EMEA $1 4.3 France 19. icas Amer TOP R&D USERS. Africa) Asia/Pacific Total R&D spending in that economy Domestic R&D dollars that remain at home Portion imported from other economies EMEA to Asia/Pac ific $2 2.5: The Global Footprint of Innovation 98 Figure 1: A globalized innovation trend LIGHT CIRCLE BLACK CIRCLE R&D dollars generated by companies headquartered in that economy Portion exported to other economies Americas EMEA (Europe.4 Brazil 2.7 Singapore 3.5 b illio n Denmark Belgium Canada Sweden Netherlands Finland Russian Federation United Kingdom Germany United States of America France Ireland Switzerland Spain E ME Mexico Ame A to A m e ric a s $ 2 8 .2 Finland 7.2 Chinese Taipei 2.0 Israel 6. 4 bil Italy on Poland Czech Republic Hungary Serbia Austria Israel Korea. China 24.3 .6 Germany 30. the Middle East.2 billion Country Japan China Brazil TOP R&D GENERATORS. US$ billions (includes domestic spending) Country Chinese Taipei Philippines Viet Nam Singapore Asia/ Pacific to Americ as $19.0 Russian Federation 3.1 Netherlands 9.7 India 13.8 Source: Jaruzelski and Dehoff.

% 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Product design. in 2007–08— an overwhelming number compared with the 22.3 million university-enrolled engineers and 2. Therefore. to meet local needs: mobile phones fitted with flashlights. what Booz & Company’s 2008 Innovation 1000 study has found is that companies from different industries face their own set of challenges in their decision to globalize their R&D footprint (see Box 1). of the 184 top spenders that Booz & Company studied in 2008. multiple phone books. engineering.000 UK engineering graduates in 2009–10.0 million engineering graduates. Indeed..000 Canadian engineers in 2008–09 and the 46. more and more MNCs find it necessary to conduct R&D closer to these markets to gain insight into customers’ needs. to be successful in these new markets. but would spend money on a phone like those developed by Nokia. In the Indian cellular phone market. so that they can build new models from the ground up that are customized for that market. In particular. India and China boasted more than 1. MNCs need engineers who understand what customers really require in a car and what is extraneous.9 The automotive industry is another case in point: The demand for high-quality. many consumers are not looking for a standard cellular phone. . access to talented individuals has been cited by the majority of MNCs as the key driver of global innovation-related functions (Figure 2). Market proximity and insight Because many emerging markets have witnessed tremendous economic growth and rising demand for products and services. R&D Information technology Administrative back office Call centre Procurement Business functions being offshored Source: Couto et al.8 Indeed. low-cost cars is rising in many emerging countries.10 The global innovation dividend Companies that make intelligent investments in global R&D—with the right mix of low-cost sites. and consumer insights— are able to secure a better return on their R&D investments than those that invest their R&D exclusively in their home countries. among others. respectively. and various languages that cater to low-income Indian consumers who experience frequent electric power cuts and share their mobile phones with relatives and friends. 2008. quality talent. those that deployed more than 60% of their R&D outside their home countries THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 China as these countries gain specialized skills in these fields.99 5: The Global Footprint of Innovation Figure 2: Access to qualified personnel Responses citing ‘access to qualified personnel’ as ‘important’ or ‘very important’. for example.

to work on auto. the corporate When it comes to sending R&D off- were in Asia. sug- why the C&E sector is motivated less by of their clinical testing and development in gesting the importance of emerging auto demand and more by the search for tal- low-cost emerging countries (LECs). Consider the research of total spending in the industry. only three were they can be found. not cost driven. have chauf- we’ve moved much of our work on ges- sent nearly 70% of all global R&D in 2007— feurs. has just 3% facilities worldwide in 2007.5: The Global Footprint of Innovation 100 Box 1: Global footprint challenges of the top innovative industries The decision to globalize R&D activities and where Visteon’s customers. Despite its long-time connection to er status belongs to development. not driven. Brazil. you pick up only when you’re in China and India working with local engineers. enue on its R&D in 2007. India. India. as well as from data and in interviews with key executives the front seat. HP Labs spends just 20% of its research. attraction of talent. the US and Japan. when the company sold a Among the 50 C&E companies Booz care’s global research footprint has been significant portion of its operations back to & Company analysed closely. Germany. and one was in Mexico. all over the world. primarily because Silicon Valley. and Asia with the balance tilting takes place in those two countries.’ 1 Health care: Breaking down barriers Auto: Driven by demand Computing and electronics: Bright ideas industry covers primarily the research side. Israel. five footprint of HP Laboratories. Much of the sector’s money evenly divided among North America. first-mov- Visteon’s strategy has been demand (HP). billion in 2007. its geographic distribution became the sector’s R&D spending originates in just autos or C&E. Visteon’s vice president of corporate strat- ‘it is difficult for researchers in Palo Alto or access to markets and market insight. needs: cost reduction. Yet 60% of total R&D spending without significant differentiation. and especially to LECs.’ 2 (see Figure 1). fully 70% of significantly less diverse than that of either Ford. The com- is spread among more than 20 countries. research arm of Hewlett-Packard Company shore. money is spent on clinical trials and the rest number of cars are being made and sold goes to process development. developed and emerging markets. in the US. health-care companies we analysed were pany’s global R&D footprint is even more This degree of diversification arose in part as based. board for India’s 23 different languages. and the owners sit in the back seat. Companies in and India a lot of people who own vehicles. while conducting more and more took place in those three countries. ture-based keyboards to India. To that end. such as markets in every auto company around the ent and new ideas. By comparison. whereas nine were in Europe. and egy Asaf Farashuddin points out: ‘In China Cupertino to imagine the need for a key- operational improvement. Of its 18 R&D scientists and skilled engineers—wherever LEC among the top 10 locations. and facilities in the UK. revealed by our trolled from the back seat. worldwide are spreading their R&D resourc- Despite the sector’s high level of the US auto parts maker. The rest world led by the US. the Russian ment. the auto- Local demand does motivate part of for any company in any industry involves motive manufacturers. We estimate that about 70% of the facilities and engineers in the emerging budget in the US. in both investment in R&D—which reached US$109 Visteon’s revenues once came from Ford. the rest is spread among health-care R&D is devoted to develop- markets—such as China. More than 90% of es across a wide swath of the globe. Fully 83% of the industry’s R&D spending came from com- Unlike the automotive industry.7% of sales rev- THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Although our analysis of the health-care both research and development are wit- But after 2005. and Japan. about two-thirds of the development the Czech Republic—where an increasing Federation. which is the only enue sources would suggest. This is research. One example is Visteon Corporation. So the three industries that collectively repre- especially the larger vehicles. director of HP designed to respond to specific business their growing emerging-market base. ucts can be sold in just about any market look to promote open innovation in pure and Japan. China. second only to C&E—health The auto industry spent 3. at 53% of the industry’s total spend- heavily invested outside the US than its rev- a result of the industry’s quest for talented ing. yet only 40% of spending continues to be spent in the developed Europe. As Labs and senior vice president of research. computing and electronics (C&E). in part because we tion footprint challenges. regulatory ☞ . That’s a piece of insight that believe our researchers there are best suited to work on these problems. companies China and India. C&E prod- nessing significant growth as companies panies headquartered in the US. a combination of business strategies ing and technical development support for According to Prith Banerjee. demand engineer- the footprint strategy in C&E companies. China. world. and So you have to design audio systems and the best user interface for accommodat- health care—face their own set of innova- climate control systems so they can be con- ing all those languages. where 58% of the heavily overseas in recent years.

see Jaruzelski and Dehoff. percent of R&D spent 1a: Auto Thailand 1% Chinese Taipei 1% India 2% Australia 2% Korea. For methodology. Rep. 3% China 4% Japan 16% Mexico 1% Brazil 1% Canada 2% United States of America 30% Russian Federation 15% Israel 9% Spain 4% Belgium 3% Sweden 2% Italy 1% United Kingdom 1% France 1% Germany 1% 1b: Computing and electronics Canada 2% United States of America 23% Italy 1% Finland 1% Belgium 1% Russian Federation 2% Ireland 2% Sweden 2% France 3% Germany 4% Israel 5% United Kingdom 6% Others 5% Japan 16% China 13% India 6% Korea. by country and region. for the 50 top spenders on R&D in each industry. 2008.5: The Global Footprint of Innovation 101 Box 1: Global footprint challenges of the top innovative industries (continued) Figure 1: Global footprints of the top three R&D industries by country. Others 5% United States of America 40% Canada 4% Americas EMEA Asia/Pacific ☞ THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Singapore 1% India 1% Australia 2% China 3% Japan 8% . 2008. 2% Malaysia 2% Chinese Taipei 2% Singapore 1% Thailand 1% Australia 1% 1c: Health care Netherlands 1% Denmark 1% Austria 1% Ireland 2% Belgium 2% Italy 2% Spain 2% Sweden 3% Switzerland 4% Germany 5% France 6% United Kingdom 9% Source: Jaruzelski and Dehoff. Note: This figure shows R&D spending. Rep.

total shareholder return. The same holds true for other companies in the Booz & Company study that work to ensure that their R&D footpr ints are more global than their sales footprint—those whose percentage of research and development sources invested overseas is higher than their percentage of sales overseas. The globalization of R&D has also benefited the countries that have opened up their economies to R&D investment. and increased foreign investments. for instance. but not surprisingly.11 However. of course. too. access to Novartis AG. as these Company Inc. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 cerns are waning in significance. on several performance indicators. Then they must execute those strategies through careful management of their farflung R&D empires. Europe. has because they need access to people lish collaborative efforts with universities willing to participate in clinical trials of new and other entities in emerging markets Notes drugs. three-year market capitalization growth was 50% higher than for those who underinvest globally. They also take advantage of economies of scale to leverage critical factors such as training. market capitalization growth. in itself. a global R&D footprint is not. with 25% higher three-year sales growth and up to 67% better on three-year market cap growth. 2008. That. however. To succeed. bets in a few areas of technology research. als cost effectively. has been working with INBio. China is a case in point: MNCs’ entrance into China created jobs. At present. and improve communications and collaboration. In addition. is changing as the skills base in The effort to globalize this process will cer- Companies’ clinical efforts have other countries improves. . until recently the skills promising areas of medical research. While it is true that companies can save money on labour costs in LECs.5: The Global Footprint of Innovation 102 Box 1: Global footprint challenges of the top innovative industries (continued) filings. companies must develop R&D strategies that are carefully aligned with their overall corporate strategy and that suit the business environment in which they operate. manage their R&D networks more effectively. about 15 to as countries such as China and India estab- Ultimately. intellectual property. Finally. 1 Jaruzelski and Dehoff. companies that invest more than 10% of their total R&D spending in LECs do better. spent in the US. Meanwhile. and they need to perform those tri- to take advantage of that improvement. er new drugs in a calculated number of and Japan. Companies that approach their innovation footpr int in such a coherent way tend to perform better on a variety of performance indicators. a guarantee of impressive performance. for such companies. information technology (IT) support. over the previous three years. emerging markets is becoming an impor- a major R&D facility in Singapore to conduct tant factor for health-care companies research on tropical diseases. tended to perform better. the knowledge they acquire by serving these fast-growing markets is equally important. In that been much slower. Europe. the research side has Furthermore. This box is adapted from Jaruzelski and Dehoff. it is not unlike HP’s plan to make big the money going into drug discovery was care research did not exist outside the West. to gain access to also inhibited pure research. Western health- tainly bring more new good ideas to an moved faster offshore than pure research care companies are beginning to estab- industry that is actively looking for them. And Merck & Source choosing where to locate R&D. this shift in focus 20% of the money spent on clinical work is lish stronger mechanisms for protecting is designed to improve health—to discov- going to countries outside the US. 2008. close to 95% of and capabilities to perform basic health- sense. markets become wealthier and their middle a nonprofit group dedicated to maintaining classes grow in size. and 40% better on three-year market capitalization growth (see Box 2). and return on assets (Figure 3). Indeed. boosted demand and trade. and lab facilities. they can make better use of resources. including operating margin. and the like. in 2007. 2008. Our study suggests that those companies with more concentrated and focused global R&D footprints perform 30% better on three-year operating income growth and total shareholder return. Because these companies deploy their R&D energies more carefully. and Japan. Those con- promising natural compounds. Piracy concerns have biodiversity in Costa Rica. recently opened 2 Jaruzelski and Dehoff.

than those of companies in the bottom two-thirds. knowledge. Focused global footprint Companies with a more concentrated and focused global R&D footprint perform better than those with a more dispersed footprint. They must closely align their strategies and their capability sets—a combination of talent. Note: 100 is a normalized figure. the profit margins of companies in the top third in terms of coherence were 22% higher. the influx of foreign capital that began to take shape in 1992. and processes that enables their innovation efforts. reaching US$11 billion in that year. that focus on the set of capabilities that drives performance in the marketplace. selling state-of-the-art telecommunications equipment around the world. Companies that achieve a high level of coherence—those companies that have their innovation strategies and capabilities aligned with their corporate strategy. 2008. creating products and services that can be successfully delivered to their target markets.14 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Source: Jaruzelski and Dehoff.12 The coherence premium Global R&D spenders are more likely to succeed over the long haul if they develop a coherent approach. jumped to record highs of more than US$90 billion in 2008. Broad allocation in low-cost countries Companies that invest more than 10% of their total R&D spending in LCCs such as China and India do better than other companies. when normalized. team structures. tools. The bars show relative performance in each area by companies with a global driven footprint. and that excel at the execution of those capabilities—have consistently and significantly outperformed their competitors on several financial measures. compared with 32% in 1995. Overweighted global footprint Companies that invest a higher percentage of R&D resources than sales abroad also outperform others.Figure 3: The performance payoff from global R&D Global-driven footprint Companies that deploy 60% or more of their R&D outside their home countries tend to outperform their less-global peers.13 For example. . Foreign-funded enterprises’ share of total exports reached 55% in the same year. on average. Local driven = 100 Local overweight = 100 Dispersed footprint = 100 Limited LCC allocation = 100 5: The Global Footprint of Innovation 103 150 100 50 Sales Market cap Total shareholder return Gross profit Market cap Total shareholder return Operating income Return on assets Market cap Total shareholder return Operating margin Return on assets Market cap Operating margin Total shareholder return 0 For example. we found that. and that the coherent companies achieved 18% greater market capitalization growth as well (Figure 4). Global R&D has also helped Chinese companies such as Huawei innovate and compete internationally. The average performance of companies in each instance = 100.

123 5. TSR of almost 50% shows that it continues Apple topped the group.437 15.010 2 $58. We asked respondents to evaluate the innovation capabilities they believed were most important across the value chain. but by the way you spend tion between R&D spending and innovation it. Yet companies outperformed their industry it invests only 3. enabling us to associate their survey answers with their company’s performance. as well as their own performance in each of these capabilities.843 44 $23.002 10 $109. as creating new products and bringing them of 2010.1 The 3M has been seen as a highly innovative Note company for many years.029 2. 1 To better understand the relationship between innovation strategy and capabilities. nies across 10 industries and asked them to and Internet industry as a whole. or 40% of the total Innovation 1000 R&D spending for 2009. reiterating the lack of correla- spend on R&D. Some spend more than others to (TSR) of 63%.333 81 $42.1% 2 Google $2. and 3M as the most innovative companies. the results show that success in innova- and Samsung—also appear among the top tion is determined not by how much you 10 spenders. followed by Google with 49% Only three of the companies on the and 3M with 20% (Table 1). Importantly.822 4 $204.651 12. the iPhone. are those companies— With R&D intensity (innovation spending as such as Apple. a large portion of the respondents identified themselves. the compa- results. ☞ . and its five-year result was in line with popular perception. Table 1: Top 10 most innovative companies.5: The Global Footprint of Innovation 104 Box 2: The 10 most innovative companies Booz & Company surveyed 450 innova- a percentage of revenue) at 12%.6% 8 IBM $5. with recent record highly innovative are clearly successful in revenues in the first quarter of 2011 and. a five-year total shareholder return to market.1% Intel * The ranks in this column are the result of a 2009 Booz & Company survey of innovation executives. The companies participating represented more than US$150 billion in R&D spending. and 15% from the rest of the world.127 16. receiving 79% to spend R&D money ‘coherently’. it is just innovate successfully without breaking the tion executives in more than 400 compa- 1. Google.5% 10 $5. Third-place name the three companies they considered to be the most innovative worldwide.8% 6 Microsoft $9.044 58 $79. Booz & Company also compared the ny has a long history of bringing innovative overall financial results of the most innova- and stylish products to the market. who voted overwhelmingly for Apple. 10 most innovative list—Toyota. 2010. 33% from Europe.293 84 $23. Although company names and responses were kept confidential (unless permission to use them was explicitly given). and the iPad today. from its tive group with its list of top R&D spenders. Google. we conducted a Web-based survey of more than 450 senior managers and R&D professionals from more than 400 different companies around the globe.1% 9 Samsung $6.820 12 $95.300 35 $155. peers on three different indicators of finan- less than half the average percentage of cial success (Figure 1). Microsoft.759 6. Second-place Google’s five- accomplish this goal. first Apple personal computer in 1976 to the The results are clear: The most innovative iPod.777 2.905 3. 2009 R&D Spending THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Survey rank* $US millions Sales Rank $US millions Intensity (spending as % of sales) 1 Apple $1. Apple’s financial perfor- Companies that are perceived to be mance has been stellar. financially speaking.3% lower than the average of the software bank.0% 3 3M $1.6% 4 GE $3.4% 7 P&G $2.541 5. at 102%. and 3M—that can Source This box is adapted from Jaruzelski and Dehoff. Apple is a striking example. the C&E industry. Responses were analysed using a variety of statistical methods to allow us to distinguish the capabilities most important in pursuing each of the three innovation strategies we defined in our 2007 study.653 13 $35. year TSR is even more impressive. but the real winners. Respondents came from all 10 industry sectors: 52% came from North America.1% of its revenue in R&D.1% 5 Toyota $7.363 3. of the vote. Votes for the next seven were much more modest.

taxes. CAGR = compound annual growth rate. taxes. depreciation. Figure 4: The coherent innovator’s premium 50 0 n  Highly coherent companies n  Slow to moderately coherent companies Highest possible score Industry peers normalized performance Lowest possible score Market capitalization. EBITDA = earnings before interest. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 100 .Box 2: The 10 most innovative companies (continued) Figure 1: Financial performance of most innovative vs. 2010. Note: Industry-normalized scores reflect the average percentile against industry peers. 5-year CAGR EBITDA as % of revenue. Note: CAGR = compound annual growth rate. and amortization. biggest spenders 100 50 0 Highest possible score n  Top 10 innovators n  Top 10 spenders 5: The Global Footprint of Innovation 105 Industry peers normalized performance` Lowest possible score Revenue growth. 5-year average Market cap growth. 2010. EBITDA = earnings before interest. 5-year CAGR EBITDA as % of revenue. depreciation. 5-year CAGR Source: Jaruzelski and Dehoff. 5-year average Source: Jaruzelski and Dehoff. and amortization.

there is much to be gained. Dehoff. The rising number of talented. available at http://www. ‘Innovation: Is Global the Way Forward?’ A Joint Study by Booz Allen Hamilton and INSEAD. 2010. Dehoff.com/ article/08405?gko=87043. and G.strategy-business.strategy-business. 2008.economist. E. strategy + business 61 (Winter) 2010. and K. To have a greater chance of success.htm). for example. 2010. New York: Basic Books. The China Strategy: Harnessing the Power of the World’s Fastest-Growing Economy. Although the benefits to be gained from global R&D are real. 14 Jaruzelski. Jaruzelski. and V. and China’s National Bureau of Statistics (2008. B. 2010. A Special Report on Innovation in Emerging Markets.com/media/uploads/ OffshoringtheBrainsasWellastheBrawn. Financial performance was normalized by industry to compare the impact of capability coherence on corporate financial performance both within strategies and across all companies. ‘Five Factors for Finding the Right Site’. B. 2010.com/ node/15879369. 11 Jaruzelski and Dehoff. Mehta. and K.. available at http://www. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Notes 1 Doz et al.ca/l01/cst01/EDUC62A-eng.. Sehgal. References Chamania.com/1/e/ wealthmanagement/wealth_management_ research/prices_earnings.ubs. 2008. 2010. ‘Beyond Borders: The Global Innovation 1000’. . statcan. Dehoff. ———. and V.stats. 2008. pdf. B. Wilson. Y. A. T.com/ article/10403?gko=e029a. 9 The Economist. 2008.booz. India’s Ministry of Human Resources Development.htm. Altman. 3 Jaruzelski and Dehoff. 10 Jaruzelski. They must also consider the other challenges they face overseas. 2008. 2006. H. Booz & Company and Duke University Offshoring Research Network.pdf. skilled. Companies seeking new or larger shares of the growing global economic pie will gain from understanding these new markets and developing more products locally if they hope to remain competitive with increasingly sophisticated players at both the global and country levels. Goldbrunner. 2008. UBS Prices and Earnings. 17–23 April 2010. available at http://www. Zurich: UBS.. Mani. K. Sehgal. A. Note: These are industry-normalized scores that reflect the average percentile against peers. 2010. 2007–08.booz.gov. ‘The Global Innovation 1000: How the Top Innovators Keep Winning’. UBS. Chamania. strategy + business 61 (Winter) 2010.pdf. Tse. and K. and Sehgal. 8 Statistics Canada (available at http://www40. available at http:// www. such as operational issues in performing R&D. 12 See. available at http:// www. Lewin.com/media/file/Innovation_ Is_Global_The_Way_Forward_v2.. and sophisticated researchers and engineers in emerging markets will help develop these markets so that they become more attractive locations for global R&D. 4 This section is adapted from Jaruzelski and Dehoff. 2010. 2008. V. so is the need for companies to develop coherent strategies that can allow them to realize these benefits.boozallen. 2 Jaruzelski and Dehoff.com/media/file/sb61_10408-R. strategy + business 53 (Winter) 2008. Y. 2006. available at http://www. S. ‘The World Turned Upside Down’. M. companies must be selective about the talent in which they want to invest and the markets they want to enter. 2006. 6 Jaruzelski and Dehoff. B. Veldhoen. The Economist. 2010.5: The Global Footprint of Innovation 106 The future of the global R&D footprint When multinational companies globalize their R&D in a coherent manner by aligning their strategy and their capabilities. 2008. 7 See. Booz & Company analysis. ‘Offshoring the Brains as Well As the Brawn’. available at http://www. Couto.cn/english/ statisticaldata/yearlydata/). and K. Dehoff. available at http://www. 5 UBS. Doz. Mehta. UK’s Higher Education Statistics Agency Limited (2011). Tse. for example. 2010. 2006. Copyright 2010 by Booz & Company Inc. 13 Jaruzelski.

in turn. innovation is often equated with factors that seem to matter most: technology. innovation indices have seldom encapsulated indicators that are traditionally used to proxy creativity.’2 According to these definitions.Sacha Wunsch-Vincent. and economic performance are only slowly being untangled. These have. Unlike the underlying Global Innovation Index. factor in the importance of culture and an environment that nurtures creativity. innovation. is usually associated with topics such as entertainment. A few examples illustrate: The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Intellectual Property Organization or the views of its Member States. Creativity. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Accounting for Creativity in Innovation: Measuring Ambitions and Related Challenges 6: Accounting for Creativity in Innovation 107 CHAPTER 6 . Thanks go to Dimiter Gantchev (WIPO) and Daniela Benavente (INSEAD) for valuable comments. and growth. The interaction between creativity and innovation is particularly crucial at the sub-national level—in particular. social.1 and as ‘a mental process involving the discovery of new ideas or concepts. is an essential ingredient in the process of finding solutions and providing new products and services.5 Yet. fuelled by the process of either conscious or unconscious insight. To address the problems. too. New measures of well-being and economic performance. or a new artistic object or form’. All errors and omissions are the responsibility of the author. Studies carried out in different countries show their increasing importance in terms of economic growth and employment. creativity is an important and inseparable factor in the process leading to inventions or innovations. or new associations of the existing ideas or concepts. creativity and managerial talent are an important component in enterprise performance. patents. whether a new solution to a problem. the linkages among creativity and culture. Specifically. Furthermore. On the one hand. creativity. water) and services (health care). on the other hand. and creativity are still mostly treated separately in policy discussions and in related country rankings. in regions and cities—where clusters of talent. and technology concentrate to produce economic and social value (see also the many rankings of cities that designate those that are considered the ‘most liveable’). and access to essential goods (food. however.3 At the level of the firm. World Intellectual Property Organization The world is entering a phase that demands novel approaches to solving problems of environment. culture and the social sphere. This is a welcome development. garnered significant attention in the economic literature and from policy makers (and thus in the related construction of innovation indices). the topics of innovation. there has recently been an increased recognition of the economic contribution of the creative industr ies themselves. Little attention has been paid to the need to measure culture and creativity or to construct relevant indices that can shed light on this complex relationship. economy. a new method or device. it is not well understood. the focus is increasingly on innovation in statistical fora and policy circles. Measuring creativity ‘Creativity’ is variously defined as ‘the ability to make or otherwise bring into existence something new. culture.4 Finally. Creativity. Issues of perception might be one reason for this relative lack of statistical or economic studies relating to creativity and for the shortage of related data in composite indices. employment. notably pillar 7. While this is undeniable. The latter concepts are harder to measure and their contribution to economic growth has traditionally not been at centre stage. cultural innovations is increasingly acknowledged. although the interaction between creativity and different forms of economic. the role of creativity in the process of innovation and how to foster it is still largely ignored in measurement exercises and the innovation policy debate. No international index makes a serious attempt to measure culture or creativity across nations.

THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 • Although innovation indices use patent data. More effort has been put into measuring culture than measuring creativity directly. in the arts and culture. Creativity as defined above will be found in any stream of public and private life. such as feature films. and elsewhere. and their outputs and economic contribution. Finally. and framework measures are even less available for creativity and culture than they are for innovation. In particular. audio-visual and interactive media. one can argue that creativity is a process relying on many ambiguous or unknown inputs and similarly undefined framework conditions. Prominent examples of exercises that measure this contribution are . few attempts are made to encapsulate innovations associated with trademarks. Clearly. to capture its broad essence. in educational systems. This is the case even if the measures are confined to cultural industries and products alone. these data are seldom available for recent years for a broad set of countries. Although coverage is improving.g. or in other knowledgeintensive services are not. books and press. Nonetheless.6 The available data set provides data on the international trade in creative goods. to empirically capture creativity and culture via an index is a task at least as challenging—if not more—than producing an innovation index for the following reasons: • There is no clear framework to select and arrange sub-variables to assess how conducive an environment is to creativity. and design and creative services. the measurement of creative (copyright-based) industries and their contribution to economic output have also drawn considerable resources. • The UNCTAD Creative Economy Report shows data on international trade in creative products (based on a classification applied to UN COMTRADE). Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). these statistics relate to cultural outputs such as films.6: Accounting for Creativity in Innovation 108 • Although innovation indices use data on trade in high-technology products. The different sectors treated in this framework are cultural and natural heritage. It aims to gather data on more than 200 countries and territories through surveys on a range of different subjects. • On a separate track. • Official direct input. the UIS has also. Availability of statistics on culture and creative industries The ongoing measurement efforts are focused primarily on developing statistics related to culture and copyright. and the related industries. no internationally recognized statistical definition exists for creativity. Clearly. creative services. no attempt is made to integrate the number of artists or the number of films produced. neither in these organizations nor elsewhere are there any ongoing efforts to create a composite indicator on culture or creativity on an international scale comparable to innovation indices. a statistical definition or measurement approach to creativity would look across the economy and society to identify the different sources and ramifications of creativity. industrial designs. efforts of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). in services supplied by creative professions (e. output. architectural services). Furthermore. and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) described below seek to gauge the economic significance of the creative industries and to quantify the number or value of creative outputs. newspapers.. • Although innovation indices use data on the number of researchers or the number of scientific publications. While there are various definitions in dictionaries. Moreover. Usefully. and libraries. or copyrights. the United Nations Educational. none would help with the systematic identification of the different forms of creativity or with ways to approach the topic from a measurement point of view. broadcasts. especially for a broad set of countries. in the economy. in recent years.7 • The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is responsible for collecting and disseminating culture statistics. data on the production of and trade in cultural products. visual arts and crafts. performance and celebration. The other reason is that creativity is even harder to define and measure than innovation. notably by developing a Framework for Cultural Statistics in 2009. Yet measuring culture and related (entertainment) products and their consumption alone only remotely captures the broader phenomenon of creativity. aimed at improving cultural and related statistics. the related content industries. as noted earlier. and does not indicate what might be needed to spur innovation.

91 8. It assesses the value of the cultural infrastructure. their relative growth.49 4.80 3.00 Source: Based on internal WIPO database on copyright-based industries. See http://www.00 5.31 5. the European Creativity Index).g.40 7. new versions of well-known UN classifications. 2003. past measurement attempts have relied on existing measures applied to the cultural sector or the creative (copyright-based) industries. is one of the first explicit creativity indices.03 6. there is no international effort in place for developing a creativity index with Table 1: The economic contribution of copyright-based industries Contribution Country to GDP (%) United States of America Singapore Canada Latvia Hungary Philippines Bulgaria Mexico Lebanon Jamaica Russian Federation Romania Croatia Peru Ukraine Korea. significant.90 8. technology. They indicate that the contribution of copyright-based industries to GDP and employment is roughly 6% on average in the studied countries. a specific set of measures for creative outputs and industries (e.30 5.. however. WIPO.12 8.80 7.92 4.49 5. A small number of creativity indices.50 5. Currently the WIPO project covers 24 countries and studies are ongoing in another 12 countries (Table 1). constructed for Silicon Valley.67 4. and cultural participation as well as cultural policies THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 the WIPO Project on Measuring the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-based Industries and relevant national projects. OECD data for the creative economy also show that.wipo.00 4. 4 classification of economic activities and the COIPOC classification of consumption (formerly known as ‘SNA 93’ on household expenditure) are moving in that direction. social connectedness.65 3.50 5.06 7.30 8.17 4.g.10 6. These may provide data and exper ience on which further attempts can build. The data are not produced on a yearly basis but are largely comparable across countries. cultural environment. In particular.35 5.g. • The Creative Community Index.42 4.80 5. Several creativity indices exist and are described below. that resemble the work behind innovation indices do exist.html and Dimiter Gantchev (WIPO).9 6: Accounting for Creativity in Innovation 109 . human capital.55 4..50 3. depicted in Figure 1: 1. Rep.54 4.92 11.54 4. size of creative industries).26 6.60 2. such as the ISIC Rev.80 10.01 4. openness and diversity. to one or a few countr ies.73 6.80 6. and their generation of employment and trade. number of creative works. international country coverage. all existing creativity-related indices build on certain measurement pillars.UN classifications have begun to single out creative industries only recently.95 6.77 11.90 4. and more than four times that of manufacturing.32 3. although all of them are one-off exercises that are either limited to one region.80 5.30 5.10 4.8 Results demonstrate the substantive economic contribution of the creative industries in terms of their share in gross domestic product (GDP).20 4.51 3.75 4. copyright-based industries have been growing at an annual rate more than twice that of the service industries overall. a broad set of variables for measuring the environment and conditions influencing creativity (e.41 6. institutional environment). as is the International Labor Organization classification of occupation ISCO08 on employment.. Although there is no recognized conceptual framework that would help with the measurement of creativity. To compensate for this lack.10 Existing composite creativity indices and their methodologies To the best of our knowledge. and 2. Malaysia Colombia Netherlands Australia Kenya China Slovenia Panama Average Employment (%) 11. or that have not yet been car r ied out (e.int/ip-development/en/creative_industry/economic_ contribution.50 7.47 1. in high-income countries.

and diversity Human and social capital Enablers Institutions & regulatory incentives to create (finance and intellectual property rights) Infrastructure & technology and investment in promoting and sustaining creativity. None of these indices measure creativity in the broad sense. often with innovative statistical proxies. When it comes to .. A search for international statistics on book production in the respective database of the UIS. They also rely on the greater availability of existing metrics for certain creative outputs (i. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 • Another was developed for Singapore. shows that the latest data are available only for 1999 and only for about 50 out of 200 countries. tolerance. which was commissioned by the government. freedom. a creativity index was developed for Hong Kong (SAR). there is some work on ‘Creative City’ indices. • Finally. • Later.12 Apart from many indicators that overlap with those used in innovation indices. the above creativity indices rely heavily on data from the cultural or creative industry sector or their outputs. China.11 This index at first focused primarily on US regions (more than 350) and Canada. including one developed by Renmin University of China (Beijing) that is focused on ranking the cities of China.6: Accounting for Creativity in Innovation 110 Figure 1: Pillars of creativity indices Measures for creative outputs • Value-added of creative industries • Turnover of creative industries • Number of creative works • Number of design applications Output proxies Cultural environment (cultural participation and offering) Openness. Even simple metrics for creative outputs are frequently not available for all UN countries. Even if one agrees that indicators on cultural output are representative proxies for creativity as a whole. Data on creative products and services and/ or cultural performances and artefacts are often used as direct output measures. the products of the creative industries and/or the cultural sector).e. and then later it added some European countries. the availability of data is limited. As compared with innovation indices. • The KEA European Affairs Consultancy contracted by the European Commission has proposed the construction of a European Creativity Index that will focus heavily on the cultural sector. which benchmarks Singapore against a set of other countries. The most significant creativity indices that currently exist or have been proposed are shown in Table 2. creativity indices place an even greater emphasis on trying to measure the framework environment. for instance. • The creativity index that has received the greatest attention was developed by the academic Richard Florida as part of his book on the ‘creative class’.

eu). tenacity for potential growth and development. Surveys were conducted in 2002 and 2005. The Euro-Creativity Index comprises the Technology Index. trade value of the creative industries. Finland. Hong Kong Creativity Index 2 University of Hong Kong (commissioned by the HKSAR government) 2004 (one-off exercise) Hong Kong (SAR). United States of America and Canada (also respective regions). United States of America. a Talent Index. 3 IP Academy. the social environment. This Creativity Index is based on the combination of a High-Tech Index. Denmark. conducted for the European Commission in 2008–09. and a Tolerance Index. technology. a measure of the size of the Creative Class. Details of the index have been provided to the WIPO Economics and Statistics Division by the Head of KEA. 2002. 2004 data Singapore Creativity Benchmarking Index 3 Creativity Index 4 Proposal for a European Creativity Index 5 Richard Florida (book on creative class) KEA European Affairs Consultancy for the European Commission 6: Accounting for Creativity in Innovation 111 Key areas covered: Economic contribution of creative industries. and openness and diversity. the current stock of manpower. and others. China The Hong Kong Creativity Index includes 88 indicators. 2008. size of working population engaged in the creative industries. .keanet. the Talent Index. Singapore IP Academy 2007–08 (one-off exercise). and creativity activity (non-economic indicators) in the creative sector and in arts and culture. inventive ability of business sector. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 1 CPANDA. California. Australia. adaptability to change. economic contribution of e-commerce. Indicators include the availability of resources. 5 KAE European Affairs. The Creative Community Index is a research initiative that developed quantitative measures of cultural participation and creativity in the Silicon Valley. and Singapore The Singapore Creativity Benchmarking Index comprises 138 quantitative and qualitative indicators. 2004. 2002 and 2004 Proposed in 2008–09. Japan. innovation activity in terms of applications of patent. 2002. and a Melting Pot Index). no follow-up since Iceland. 2 Centre for Cultural Policy Research. 2009. and contribute to the business and technological innovation of the place. the economic and regulatory system. the institutional environment. the sustainability of these resources. an Innovation Index.Table 2: Sample of existing international creativity indices Title Source Latest year of data Sample Measures Creative Community Index1 Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley (closed in 2006) 2005 Silicon Valley The Creative Community Index is largely compiled on the basis of opinion surveys that measure how the arts and culture operate in Silicon Valley. 2005. the full report can be accessed via KEA’s website (http://www. 4 Florida. This briefing note is a summary of key messages of KEA’s report ‘The Contribution of Culture to Creativity’. Europe The European Creativity Index proposes 32 indicators on the cultural dimension of creativity in five pillars: human capital. later also 13 European countries. Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley. Sweden. Switzerland. United Kingdom. a Bohemian Index. and the Composite Diversity Index (this last includes sub-indices of a Gay Index.

The Economist.com/ blogs/gulliver/2011/02/liveability_ranking.eiu.ipacademy. On this basis. 11 See also Florida. exports. creativity.economist.org/unsd/cr/registry/ regcst. ———. available at http://www. 8 The WIPO Guide on Surveying the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-based Industries was published in 2003. available at http:// www.com/ public/topical_report. 2009. Creative Community Index: Measuring Progress Toward a Vibrant Silicon Valley. and innovation interact with one another.oecd. 2002. In addition. The University of Hong Kong. asp?Cl=5. Creative Community Index: Measuring Progress Toward a Vibrant Silicon Valley. This situation will improve through the new surveys and activities of the UIS (on cinemas. 19–21 June 2006. org/sections/ditc_tab/docs/cer2010_ userstat_en. ———. en_2649_34245_37151785_1_1_1_1. data for only about 75 out of 200 countries exist. and OECD Project on the International Measurement of Culture. 2010.10 and http://www. 5 See WIPO. 2004. In part this is because of the lack of existing. A Study on Creativity Index.fusic. San Jose. culture.pdf. Beilby-Orrin. Princeton. 2010. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Conclusion Undoubtedly there are a strong links among innovation.org/unsd/cr/registry/regcst.eiu. EUI.un. Gordon. 2007. J. 2005.cpanda.aspx?campaignid=Liv eability2011.pdf.sg/site/ipa_cws/ resource/executive%20summaries/ASAT_ Executive_Summary_Oct%202008. ISIC Rev. employment rates. Gordon and Beilby-Orrin. 2011. available at http://www. the UN Classification of Individual Consumption According to Purpose (COICOP) is available at http:// unstats.pdf. available at http://www.00.ci-sv.6: Accounting for Creativity in Innovation 112 the production of films. California: Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley. is available at http://unstats. 3 See http://www. 2009. 2008. available at http://www. R. IP Academy.com/EBchecked/topic/142249/ creativity. Further measurement efforts such as those being conducted at UNESCO. UNCTAD. Creative Class. and WIPO are needed to foster the availability of such data. aspx?campaignid=Liveability2011. library statistics. reliable measurement frameworks for creativity and the absence of broadly available data. 2002.’ Paper presented to the OECD/CRELL-JRC Workshop on Measuring Well-being and Societal Progress. Gordon. Notes 1 Encyclopædia Britannica.un. commissioned by the Home Affairs Bureau. California: Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley.unesco. San Jose. 9 Gordon and Beilby-Orrin 2007.int/ ip-development/en/creative_industry/ economic_contribution. Even in the case of measuring creative outputs or the size of entertainment or creative industries alone. ISCO-08. available at http://www.com/creative_ class/2009/04/09/creativity-index/. Paris: OECD.org/wiki/ creativity. 2011. that innovation and creativity are usually treated separately. 2002. The publication outlines a methodology for measuring the contribution of copyright activities in economic terms hence providing the basis for undertaking a comparative analysis between countries on the size of their creative sector. This chapter has shown. See the Mercer. 2007.org/document/41/0.com.unctad. data are scarce. 9 April 2009.ilo. Singapore: IP Academy. Creativity Index.org/pdf/ Index-2005. Creative Community Index: Survey of Cultural Organizations.pdf. 2006. 10 The ILO International Standard Classification of Occupation.org/documentacio/ siliconwci_creative_index. 4 Gordon. fn.P. J.pdf. growth areas and recommendations as to what policy measures are needed to sustain and/or stimulate growth. Executive Summary’. Gulliver blog. available at http:// www.creativeclass. 2003 and http://www.asp?Cl=27&Lg=1. New Jersey: CPANDA. html.htm. 2006: ‘The Importance of Culture to the Well-Being of Societies.html. 2011. EIU (Economist Intelligence Unit). Cultural Initiatives Silicon Valley. more recent data are available for 2006—but again. 21 February. The Rise of the Creative Class. aspx?sRF_ActivePath=P. 2011. ‘A Creativity Benchmarking Index: An ASAT Model. it is currently very difficult to even factor in creative outputs or the size of creative industries for measurement or ranking purposes. and EIU. com/creative_class/2009/04/09/creativityindex/. 12 Other existing rankings on the most ‘liveable’ cities such as the ones produced by Mercer Consulting or The Economist greatly rely on culture-related variables to proxy Recreation. available at http://unctadstat. Studies also demonstrate the linkages and interdependence between economic sectors.org/stage/studies/a00217. International Measurement of the Economic and Social Importance of Culture. 2 Wikipedia. such as revenue created. is available at http:// www. Milan. available at http://www.economist. 7 See the UNCTADstat Database on Creative Economy. 6 UNCTAD/UNDP. available at http://www. the phenomenon of creativity both in the workforce and as fostered in educational systems might need to garner more measurement and analytical attention (including in standardized scholastic aptitude tests such as the OECD’s PISA rankings). Apart from the Global Innovation Index. New York: Basic Books. The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. and creativity.org/public/english/bureau/stat/ isco/isco08/index. The Liveability Ranking and Overview February 2011. .com/blogs/ gulliver/2011/02/liveability_ranking and http://www. however.10&sRF_ Expanded=. The Economist.creativeclass. http://en.uis. and H. almost no other innovation or technology index uses creativity-related measures either as a measurement pillar or as significant measurement variables.com/public/topical_report.org/template/pdf/ cscl/Cultdiv/Hui. References Centre for Cultural Policy Research.wiktionary. ‘Liveability Ranking: Where the Livin’ Is Easiest’. http://www. broadcasts). Of significance in these exercises are the determination of economic variables/indicators.2340. studies could be designed to better apprehend the way culture. The UN International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities. 4. available at http:// www.wipo. 4.org/ReportFolders/reportFolders. CPANDA (Cultural Policy & the Arts National Data Archive). Still. and what associated policy conclusions could emerge. britannica. Florida. unctad.

23 40. 2009. No date.pdf.org/en/docs/ ditctab20103_en. available at http://www. WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization). 2010.pdf. mercer. Geneva: WIPO. available at http://ec. UNCTADSTAT Database on Creative Economy.en_2649_34245_37151785_1_1_1_1. available at http://www. No date. 6: Accounting for Creativity in Innovation 113 UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development).org/sections/ditc_tab/ docs/cer2010_userstat_en.oecd.europa. wipo.’ Presentation at the Conference Can Creativity be Measured? Brussels. 2010. 2003.unctad. Guide on Surveying the Economic Contribution of the Copyright-based Industries. ‘Towards a Creativity Index.10&sRF_Expanded=. UNCTAD/UNDP (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and United Nations Development Programme). . ‘Mercer 2010 Quality of Living Survey Highlights: Global’.00.int/ip-development/en/creative_ industry/economic_contribution.unctad. available at http://www.aspx?sRF_ ActivePath=P.org/ ReportFolders/reportFolders.10. html. OECD Statistics Directorate. available at http:// www.P.pdf. New York: UN. available at http://www.KEA European Affairs. available at http://www.int/copyright/en/publications/pdf/ copyright_pub_893.wipo.com/articles/quality-of-living-surveyreport-2010. ‘User Guide of UNCTADSTAT Database on Creative Economy’.html.org/document/41/0.unctad. available at http://unctadstat. 28 May 2009. Mercer.eu/ education/lifelong-learning-policy/doc/ creativity/kern. WIPO Program Activities: Economic Contribution & Mapping. Project on the International Measurement of Culture. THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 ———.pdf. Creative Economy: Report 2010. ———.

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Appendices .

.

I Country Profiles .

.

......4 ICT access*.1 1...........6......n/a 35......000 pop............23.......0..... % GDP .1 3......... and the Innovation Efficiency Index... ..n/a Total value of stocks traded.....3..................n/a..................... kWh/cap ................ and OECD National Accounts data files.............4 86 60 26............... % profits..1........... Original values and years are reported.................3.1 GDP per capita in PPP current international dollars..............7....4.........2...........2 3........n/a Daily newspapers/1..............116 6...5. % ..1.3 7.................... with higher values indicating better outcomes.2 19. % .................1 6.............3 81 7...7..3 6......2 2...66..............5 99 5....0 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index ....1...79 R&D performed by business...3.....4 2. population in millions.n/a.................. The GII includes three types of data................37 Exports of goods & services.........64 Rule of law* ..5........ the three ser ies were extracted from the World Bank World Development Indicators database in April 2011.....3 Trade & competition 4......4 5.....................n/a....... 100] range....................3 5.41......9 64 72 1.7.......49 High-tech exports less re-exports.....1 4........74 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$ .............................78 Press freedom*.... 7] range and are therefore not readily comparable and not reported).....6 . They are constructed around three sections... % GDP .19......... & science ..3 47 32..3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..... %..... .................n/a School life expectancy......2...... % GDP ..... indicator 1.5........2 17 4.. I: Country/Economy Profiles Country/Economy Profiles .71 Computer & comm service exports.....................38 Creative services exports...........3 Business environment Time to start a business.................5.....73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor................. Composite indicators are identified with an aster isk ( * )....31.......96.............................58..........2..................3.....................1.. 3   The normalized score and the rank for each pillar (identified by its single-digit number)..99 Gross capital formation...........1...............1..3 4....3..........1.............1........9.......3........2 Creative goods & services 7.... which in turn appears under pillar 1..................2 Knowledge impact 6....... is calculated as the ratio between the Output and Input Sub-Indices)... except for the Efficiency Index....................0 59 64 4 Market sophistication 47........4 Knowledge-intensive employment.....n/a..... % GDP .1.8 24......1.... % GDP..................77 Intensity local competition† ...2........... Notes 1 World Bank estimates based on various sources.........0.............n/a Creative goods exports.....2.0 114 Innovation linkages 14.n/a National feature films/mn pop.....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.....3 Researchers headcount/million pop....4 Royalty & license fees payments......1....................... % .............................................n/a..3 3.......n/a Gross expenditure on R&D..1 7.3 Regulatory quality* ....... When data are either not available or too out of date.5 63 Political environment Political stability*...........9.................... % GNI..121 State of cluster development† ................9.... % firms ...5 2...........1 5.... International Comparison Program database.............2...............1 2......................1 7.2..2 5............ THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 The following tables provide detailed profiles for each of the 125 economies in the Global Innovation Index 2011......105 70 5 Business sophistication 5..3.............. % income/cap..75.. Business environment.... 96 Global Innovation Index 2010 .........n/a 5......9 121 6...............56...........61 56.7 82 49.......2..3.. kWh/capita .....7............... 3 World Bank national accounts data.65 Human capital & research 83.............2 55....0 36..... % GDP .3....101 Public expenditure/pupil.....1...2 4..............7..58 Pupil-teacher ratio.... % GDP ....7..39 3.......6......65 112 7 Creative outputs 27.....13.............. and the remaining indicators are all hard data series.................. % GDP............6....36 19.... % ...8.3 17....................................21 Ecological footprint & biocapacity......6...................................................1.....2...119 70 Albania Key indicators Country Profiles 1   Three key indicators at the beginning of each profile are intended to put the economy into context.....................1.2 and GDP in US$ billions....5 University/industry collaboration† ................. % ....3 2.......3....0............86..0...1 Education 2.....................................1.......47...5 35 44.........63 2.. 22...........2..............3 83 3.. the Innovation Output SubIndex.....0 12..2 3.......................3 5............14..1 2......2. % .........6 105 7............2 7.. appears under sub-pillar 1. only the normalized values in the [0...90 PISA scales in reading...3 2........0..62 Computer software spending.8.... % GDP/cap ..............45......72 Tertiary outbound mobility....... in the data tables (Appendix II)........7.4 Strength of legal rights for credit* ............... % GDP ..................102 Computer & comm...4 Royalty & license fees receipts......2..3 5. ‘n/a’ is used..2..2...... maths...3................. service imports.......................45.5... 30.35......66 Microfinance gross loans........ % .......................... PPP (current international $) GDP (US$ billions) 3..........9.3................1 6.............5 2.2....1 Creative intangibles 34...................2.........1..2......................7..3.............70 22.n/a Quality research institutions† .....2.......... % GDP .....33... years .........3.3 6..n/a.............2 7..........n/a. see Appendix III.103 R&D financed by abroad........... % ........1 3........ survey questions from the World Economic Forum’s Executive Opinion Survey are identified with a dagger (†)................ 15–64 yrs.... .........1...........90...........................12........2 2..1.......2 5.......1 1.......69 48...23 Share of renewables in energy use.....2........1 1......... % ..........n/a.......n/a.......... and indicator (three-digit number) are reported...... 121 1 2 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 65.............62 ICT & organizational models†..2.3......1....................2 Energy 3............................7 Depth of credit information* ... %.........58........................30............Time to start a business..............2...............48..2 8......2..........43....70 Imports of goods & services........1.5.....1............000 literate pop..........................n/a...................... The Innovation Input Sub-Index score is calculated as the simple average of the scores in the first five pillars..87 Tertiary inbound mobility......73 6 Scientific outputs 18......2...28.....2......2 5..........5 122 5... 80 Innovation Output Sub-Index ..2 6........6 49 4. Scores are normalized in the [0......6.....5 Education expenditure......3 ..............3..4.4 2..1 2.......3 Knowledge absorption 25...............2 3........76 Government’s Online Service*.....77....4.................83 Electricity consumption...6.......13 4......1......n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$ ........1 4..............9..2 1............. % ................. 2 World Bank...8 91 2.. for which scores evolve around the number one (this index Institutions 1....2 4........1.....1..1.......n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$...........7.5 .....2......................26.. % ........................................11 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.............3.. % .........6...........................2 Regulatory environment 1............n/a......1.....7.....................66 Domestic credit to private sector............64...... secondary ......65 1...... 3 While coming from different sources.....49 7..13......6 .......... For example........3 2 2   The next section provides the economy’s scores and rankings on the Global Innovation Index (GII).....................1.. scores were normalized in the [1...10...58................9...........73............3...........16.2...14 5....21..............0......1 3.3 Research & development (R&D) 2.8 42 6.. sub-pillar (two-digit number)..... 100] range are reported in the country/economy profiles.....7 49....2. % ..........0....39.........................................71.........................................................87 Rigidity of employment* .......2.....................2.1.3....... 78 Innovation Efficiency index ......7....373.............................1..3........44 Market access trade restrictiveness*........ % ..................2 Tertiary education 2.......3 4..........2......1........81 Graduates in science......3....5..... % GDP . GII rankings for the 2009 and 2010 editions follow (in the past.............1 6...........34.......81 Total tax rate..............0............9 Cost to start a business. 38...... technologies (ICT) 3.......3.....1 Knowledge creation 0...2 6...2 2.......................................................2..81.n/a..4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$ .................3 7...52......0 96 6.......n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$ ...........2........5.....................n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$ ...........................3........................89 Graduates in engineering.....1 Knowledge workers 5...........................3.2...1 5....1 4......4..........5 Recreation & culture consumption..........1.........9.............0.......n/a............................1 Credit 4...........2 1................6 Tertiary enrolment........113 FDI net inflows......................n/a.....3 General infrastructure 3........... % gross ........1 5...16.....1 Info & comm...0........... 0....4 7..................23.........0.......................... Sources and Definitions....67 Government effectiveness* ..............1.24....2 6......2....................... %.93 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$ .....4 70 21....... For further details...... % ..... % ....3.. % GDP .... .........5........n/a.....4 Strength of investor protection* .32...........81 GDP/unit of energy use.......12 New businesses/1...89.......3 4....... days..............n/a Firms offering formal training.............9...2 Investment 4....6 123 19........0..............0............69 E-Participation* ............. ha/cap ..............1............116 3 Infrastructure 23....1.............102 FDI net outflows.............. PPP$/kg oil eq... Institutions..1.........1......n/a R&D financed by business...19......1 1........ while the Innovation Output Sub- 1 Population (millions) GDP per capita....4......7.........................3.......................2.........3... % GDP ......4.....3 Knowledge diffusion 6....6..................................1...60 High-tech imports less re-imports................ together with these normalized scores.4 4.. 81 Global Innovation Index 2009 ............2 4.....................15 Market capitalization............3 1...4 Electricity output.....6..............42............................ %...2 1..............1....3 3......................89..........68......20.......... the Innovation Input Sub-Index....1.............9 61 Index is calculated as the simple average of the last two pillars...........3.4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$ ........0.. 95 3 Innovation Input Sub-Index .........................80 ICT use* ............... To facilitate the replicability of results.........2.........54 ICT & business models† ....1....3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure* ....76 3..... % ...............0.....

.

............................................................................................................. 175 Qatar...................................... 197 Tunisia........ 192 Syrian Arab Republic........... 124 Ghana......... 224 Denmark....................... 225 Ecuador............ 209 Zimbabwe..... 155 Mauritius........................... 148 Lithuania.................. 201 United Arab Emirates....................................................... 245 Botswana................ 198 Turkey.... 150 Macedonia.......................................... 136 Israel. 241 Belgium.......................................................... 158 Mongolia.......... 164 Niger............................ 187 Sri Lanka.................... 208 Zambia.................................................................................................................................. 210 Brunei Darussalam............................................ 142 Kenya..................................... 132 India........................................................................ 233 Algeria.......................................... 212 Burkina Faso................................................................................... 204 Uruguay.............................................. 176 Romania................................................ 203 United States of America................ 244 Bosnia and Herzegovina.... 181 Serbia................................................................................... 127 Guyana................... 182 Singapore........ 219 Costa Rica......................................... 183 Slovak Republic............................ 226 Egypt. 163 Nicaragua.................................. 191 Switzerland..... 217 China.................................. 151 Madagascar............... 194 Tanzania...................... 246 Brazil. 216 Chile............................... 220 Côte d’Ivoire........................... 173 Poland......... 235 Armenia.................................................. 122 Georgia................................................................. 215 Canada. 196 Trinidad and Tobago...... 149 Luxembourg.............. 237 Austria........................................................................... 189 Swaziland.................................................................................................................... 145 Kyrgyzstan................................................. 230 Finland............ 207 Yemen......................................................................................................................................... 186 Spain. 228 Estonia............................................................. 141 Kazakhstan.................................................................. 133 Indonesia............................................................................................................................................... Rep............. 211 Bulgaria........................................................................................................... 162 New Zealand.......................................................................................... China.................... 129 Hong Kong (SAR)........ 221 Croatia...... 170 Paraguay..................................................... 227 El Salvador............ 147 Lebanon............................ 157 Moldova.. 128 Honduras......................................................................... 195 Thailand....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 234 Argentina................................... 242 Benin................................ 174 Portugal.......... 152 Malawi............................................................. Rep......... 202 United Kingdom..................... 236 Australia........................................................................... 131 Iceland........................................ 165 Nigeria....................................................................................................................................... 179 Saudi Arabia....... 222 Cyprus............... 188 Sudan............................................ 156 Mexico. 213 Cambodia........................................121 Country/Economy Page Country/Economy Page Country/Economy Page Country/Economy Page Albania........................................ 167 Oman...... 243 Bolivia.................................................................................. 172 Philippines.... 218 Colombia............................................................................ 232 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 I: Country/Economy Profiles Index of Country/Economy Profiles ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 135 Ireland................................................................................................... 126 Guatemala................ 178 Rwanda........... 153 Malaysia.......... 169 Panama..... 229 Ethiopia........... 139 Japan.................................................................................................... 193 Tajikistan... 144 Kuwait.................................................................................................................................................. 206 Viet Nam.......................................... 200 Ukraine.................................................................. 240 Bangladesh............................................................................................... 199 Uganda................................................................................ 143 Korea...... 214 Cameroon...... 185 South Africa.. 161 Netherlands..................................... 180 Senegal............................................................................................................. 177 Russian Federation...................................................................................................... 166 Norway..... 238 Azerbaijan............................... 160 Namibia................................................ 171 Peru.................... 140 Jordan.............................................................................................................................................................. 205 Venezuela..................... 137 Italy.............................................................................................................................................................. 130 Hungary..... 134 Iran...................................................................... 239 Bahrain........... 231 France.. 223 Czech Republic............... 123 Germany..................................................................... 190 Sweden.......................................................... 154 Mali......................................... 138 Jamaica............................................................................................................................................................................ 184 Slovenia.... 168 Pakistan............. 146 Latvia..................................................................................................................................... 125 Greece................ 159 Morocco............................................

81 GDP/unit of energy use......................16.........1.........3 5....0.......1.... %............... days.. % GDP..............65 1...............1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 65.....................................................................11 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment........3.....n/a.......................3..75.........n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$....2..............................2 Investment 48.................... 95 Innovation Input Sub-Index................. % GDP...............................70 Imports of goods & services...............2.......34..........41..........102 Computer & comm...................................... %..................71.....1 6.......2.................14.2.. 121 1 Institutions Political environment 1.. % GDP....7.1..........2 ICT use*..........58......1..12..........8 24....35...4 Royalty & license fees payments............... %....n/a..24...........................3 6.........................45... % GDP.................1 3.....................23..................... %....3 Political stability*.... %..1 5..2.............................2 7........1.......................................116 3 Infrastructure 3.n/a Firms offering formal training....6....0 96 6...... 81 Global Innovation Index 2009....38 Creative services exports.......2 Energy 22.....2............. % GDP....................................9 32...26..........4.... % GDP/cap....49 7...2 1...........5......6..........4 Electricity output.3 Knowledge absorption 5..........................1 Education 55......3 4.................3 3......................7.........2 6..............2.......2 6...........3 6... %....4 70 21...1..............0 59 3..3 Trade & competition 4.. % GDP.........15 Market capitalization...6....7................39 3......................................................8...6 123 5... secondary..n/a.90..... % firms...................66 Domestic credit to private sector........3.......................93 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...............................73 5.1 1........................4....3 7.......7 64 72 47 82 49...........0 64 4 Market sophistication 4........n/a Creative goods exports.............16................................1 5..........2 4..1 1...............................2...86...................6......1 Info & comm....9 61 ..6.5.......102 FDI net outflows.........3 81 7..............................1.....7.76 3....9..........................5.1 2..........2.....23 Share of renewables in energy use.....5.........9...0........5..2....54 ICT & business models†...............5 2.....................................39..89..3 5.............8.............n/a......9 Cost to start a business......................90 PISA scales in reading.....................4 Knowledge-intensive employment.1..2.6......... %.............1.58..105 49.0 GDP (US$ billions) 12.....5........30.......1..........................68......7.4 5......3 83 3............1......1 Creative intangibles 34.............2 2.................n/a..n/a..........................................80 3......58........................1................................9 121 6.. % GDP.....0... %......3 2..1 6..............6.....87 Tertiary inbound mobility........1..3.... % gross....2 4....89 Graduates in engineering.....................69 3............. 78 Innovation Efficiency Index........................1 4..........4 86 60 26...2 70 5 Business sophistication 5....................6 105 7.............. % GDP......................2 6....1........ %............83 Electricity consumption...........0..4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..89.3.....1...... PPP (current international $) 8...................0..1............6............37 Exports of goods & services..............1....78 Press freedom*..............................................61 1...3...6......6........... % income/cap....2 Regulatory environment 1.0...........................2......43... & science........3 Government’s Online Service*....1........................2......36 19............... % GDP..................n/a.................1 7.....6 Tertiary enrolment......0...........1...................3 Researchers headcount/million pop........2 5.......3....2.33..............48......64 Rule of law*.2.....n/a 6.....1.......I: Country/Economy Profiles 122 Albania Key indicators Population (millions) 3................3..........2................7...........n/a.....0...............2 GDP per capita.........13.19............2 1...............2 5....................7...........13..........4 47..2...10...73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor..12 New businesses/1...........5.... % profits....000 pop.......101 Public expenditure/pupil......2.....2 Creative goods & services 7..1.......1 Knowledge workers 19.......................14 19...........3....... %....1 Credit 4.................. %.....................79 R&D performed by business................n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.66.2....81 Graduates in science............2.........58 Pupil-teacher ratio.. 15–64 yrs...............n/a Gross expenditure on R&D........................73.........................5 114 122 99 6 Scientific outputs 18.....n/a Total value of stocks traded.............. years..........................................96...103 R&D financed by abroad..3.....2 63 1............1......................n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.......87 Rigidity of employment*......2 5...............1 1............2 1.........5 Recreation & culture consumption........31...........1 5.............................13 4...........3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..........0.2 2............3........116 6..2 Knowledge impact 6.......................0........3 Research & development (R&D) 2.........5...................7.4.................0..2....1..n/a........3 Business environment 1.....81 Total tax rate....9.........71 Computer & comm service exports.. 38.........3.2............5 2...3 Time to start a business...n/a........ technologies (ICT) 23.............................1........67 Government effectiveness*..............n/a..4 E-Participation*.7.........................1 4............0 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.......9................21.....3.... kWh/cap.....................3....................................... 80 Innovation Output Sub-Index........... %.....47.3 7....9.....3............ % GDP...........1...70 36.3. % GNI................................................7............................7....2 4..32.... %... 22..4 7.........373...1 7.........65 2 Human capital & research 2.2........4 Strength of investor protection*................... %.....3 83.........8 42 112 7 Creative outputs 27.........6....................2............1......3...81............. % GDP.....................3 Knowledge diffusion 6........ %....45............. 0.3 4......1.........0.....1...2 3.........20..1..1 2......3..............n/a..1 ICT access*............... 30. %........44 Market access trade restrictiveness*......60 High-tech imports less re-imports..72 Tertiary outbound mobility.....1........3.5 25.....4 2........................3 4..1..0..113 FDI net inflows...........3...........56.....0....2.....23.5.....................................9.................................... %.4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$................66 Microfinance gross loans......28........4 2..........................4 Royalty & license fees receipts...1.2..3.............2.......n/a R&D financed by business...........................5 56....5 35 44.76 3...............2... %..2 7........77......9.. %...............1...............4...........n/a...4 4..........2..2..4.. 96 Global Innovation Index 2010.....1....n/a.......1 2.............2...........3......3..1.......5.6 49 Strength of legal rights for credit*.. %....000 literate pop.................19..... ha/cap.3.................3 5..........................2 2.62 ICT & organizational models†.. %. service imports........7................3 Regulatory quality*.......74 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$...................................1 Knowledge creation 0.........2.....2....62 Computer software spending.........................5 Education expenditure..........n/a Quality research institutions†.1 4...3 2...7 Depth of credit information*.....3.............42.........1........64...........63 2.........2..........n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$......65 35..2.. PPP$/kg oil eq.........77 Intensity local competition†...........n/a National feature films/mn pop............................ kWh/capita...1..8 91 2.......1 6...9..............121 State of cluster development†...........99 Gross capital formation....69 4....1.........49 High-tech exports less re-exports....3 17...n/a 5......................1..2 Innovation linkages 5............ % GDP..3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*......1 3............4.....2..52...............2 3.......... maths.n/a School life expectancy...n/a..........7 17 4.........2 Tertiary education 2.......................................21 Ecological footprint & biocapacity..5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.............5 University/industry collaboration†.... % GDP........3..n/a Daily newspapers/1......................3..................3 General infrastructure 3..............0 14..............0.........

1..........68 Exports of goods & services.........4 Royalty & license fees receipts...............3 4.....4 5.......87 47.....3 Business environment 1...n/a................... kWh/cap...3........................69 4....... 0...97 Depth of credit information*.....12.........6 103 3......... 15–64 yrs....2 3...........45........2 4....5 12............ %..9........n/a.......44. kWh/capita....................0....66 Graduates in science..106 3.....1 5..............3 4.......115 Rule of law*.7.5........1 6..............2........3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker.. % GDP..1 Info & comm.3........ % gross..............8....... PPP$/kg oil eq.........7......2 5...9......3............1.........5 University/industry collaboration†....................1...1..........5...... 125 Innovation Output Sub-Index.........................................9.............000 literate pop...3.121 2 Human capital & research 2...........................2 2................5......................8...........................33.......................7 18 4 Market sophistication 4................... %.................1 5...1....................3 6..............4 Electricity output. %..73 2..............................1.......68 25.....................................n/a..........1............2.............49.9.1 Political environment 1...................5 Recreation & culture consumption..2 Tertiary education 2...3 Ecological footprint & biocapacity......3............... %.......3..........n/a.9...9.......3 Imports of goods & services..52................5....3...............3 42 4.............1 Knowledge workers 25.......15..1 18...2 7.............1....71 Total tax rate.77...............34.....1 3......8 31......3 Researchers headcount/million pop.8...2 ICT use*..................5 68.9....88 Quality research institutions†.......................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean........................ service imports................................. %.........................................2 Investment 35....2.....................................................0....................2 5......1 7...3 5............2...................1............n/a Creative goods exports.....2 1..........n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$...3..................3 2...........1.....98...n/a...... %.......1..1.....4....2.3............64 5.............................6 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.4 Strength of investor protection*........34........6 Tertiary enrolment.......0...54 ICT & business models†......2 Innovation linkages 5......... % GDP.. %...19 Graduates in engineering.......2 111 Strength of legal rights for credit*...0 64 2................ % profits..........2 Regulatory environment 1..2. % GDP...68 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.....3 Time to start a business.....9..2..n/a.3...119 Creative services exports......4...................1...2 3..........82 Cost to start a business................1..... 32. % GDP.3.......26...............106 Computer & comm service exports.................54 Intensity local competition†....... %........................0.... % GDP......1............2...1.........116 3.....3.0......3 Research & development (R&D) 2..41 Tertiary inbound mobility.4................n/a.......................1 ICT access*.................55 Market capitalization.....n/a Pupil-teacher ratio...7 90 13....Algeria Population (millions) 35..8 109 113 98 81 57..64 Computer & comm..n/a...... years.......................4 Royalty & license fees payments.............78 Computer software spending.........2.7..33.... % GDP.....2.................51..........0..............4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.....0.5....2 Energy 11.........n/a High-tech imports less re-imports...5.....................n/a Total value of stocks traded..............37...................2...7....3 Knowledge diffusion 6..........1 2......3 7.............................5 102 114 75 6 Scientific outputs 6.......2.............3...34...3......0.......................................6..................7 77 5 Business sophistication 5..... % GDP...........1...................36.n/a...............54 Public expenditure/pupil........3......66 PISA scales in reading.............0...........1 2.....n/a 5.90 6.......1...........18.26........1.n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.........8.n/a...... %.................5 35......4 92 17............4 7...........n/a FDI net inflows.............3......................... %..2 6.53 Share of renewables in energy use..3...........9............109 Government effectiveness*...........2..........................6 102 3.........2 Creative goods & services 7......2.........1.........3 3................1...........71 Firms offering formal training........ % GDP......79 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...............1 Credit 4. %.............................73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor....30......0.....3 Knowledge absorption 5..9 72 107 23...........1 Creative intangibles 18..................0.........20......... %................89 GDP/unit of energy use....84 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$..2 4........66.......1 6..2.....1 6...2...........4 Knowledge-intensive employment..4 33..................8.......34.... % GDP/cap.................................3 Government’s Online Service*...19............. & science........31....122 7...3...... % GDP.......................8..94 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...n/a FDI net outflows...........5. %...n/a National feature films/mn pop...............2..........n/a........1 2...82 R&D performed by business...9....................................2...............108 Microfinance gross loans...................2 2....92 Press freedom*....5......65 6..67 Gross expenditure on R&D..82 Tertiary outbound mobility...4 2......n/a......................7...................n/a...n/a High-tech exports less re-exports.95 1..........4 4.........................1....3.........0.............108 State of cluster development†.....2.....21......0............................... 7............1 Knowledge creation 2.......................3.....115 3................................................ %.......9....................0 123 7.2 5..................................n/a Daily newspapers/1.................5 2..91 3.........69 45.108 Gross capital formation..........................4 112 1...........................2 Knowledge impact 6.2.........n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$......3 2. maths..2 6.........4... PPP (current international $) 8...........3.......3 4......6.........0................3............ 125 Innovation Input Sub-Index...8.... %.................2 7..........30.......115 R&D financed by abroad.......1.. secondary..........33.........................................2... 108 1 Institutions 45.................... 19....26.............................. 125 Global Innovation Index 2010.................................172.........................0...............2 1.....................89......59.........2.......0...3 6..n/a......0 7.....3 6.n/a....0..............2 4......2....96 1. %....9............0 103 108 124 7 Creative outputs 9.......2.......1..29..3 Trade & competition 4.................88 3..3.....3 7................31...9............1 1....... % GNI...........1 107 5.............3 General infrastructure 3......n/a...2. days.....2.....4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..............2.........1..........................48...........0.............2........... % GDP....................1 7.......4.........0 123 125 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 123 ......n/a....1.2...1.......120 ICT & organizational models†.1 5.. % GDP.................................n/a R&D financed by business.............1 4......76..................................1 Education 32..................89 New businesses/1.........7.........0.............1..0.3.1 125 6.........................................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*......84 Electricity consumption.........4......................1.......1 4.................................3 Political stability*.............n/a 0...3......................2 1...........25.0...................3 5.......90 2.......2 6..3.......2..............2....1.. %........3......................9..........1.....000 pop....95 Domestic credit to private sector......0.......... technologies (ICT) 28.................5..... ha/cap....6..........................53......................6......................4 E-Participation*..........4 GDP per capita................2 2.. %.............................2............. %...1 1.................1... % GDP......3 5...............100 Rigidity of employment*....3 Regulatory quality*............3.....1......0............... %.............7......n/a School life expectancy.................................3.......1 3....58.............2 32.................2......4 2...1 4........110 Market access trade restrictiveness*..5 GDP (US$ billions) 140.89 3 Infrastructure 3.... % GDP........n/a 4...1..............1 1... % firms...............5 Education expenditure...n/a 15......................9.........1....... % income/cap.. 101 Innovation Efficiency Index............................................n/a...............9 0.................. 121 Global Innovation Index 2009... %................30......3.

......1 6.6.2 65 100 115 63 59..................... 40 Innovation Input Sub-Index........0....89 29......9......2..9.....4 Royalty & license fees payments.. %...14..............20....... %..3 Government’s Online Service*..10..........5 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.2..42 3...1...............000 literate pop.....3 5...........6 50 3.......7 93 50 7 Creative outputs 43.......3 7..1...50..................1......1...............43 3 Infrastructure 3.............. %........................2 5.2 3................................4 Royalty & license fees receipts...6.....9..2 2...n/a...........3.......9.7...............3................................2..11...............69 21............... %........2 Regulatory environment 1.......9.............1...41. % gross.....53 High-tech exports less re-exports........3 4..................4.........1 1.n/a......2 ICT use*.....................3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....1.. %...........................49 Gross capital formation..7...4 74 61 31................................2 Investment 17.......... %...2...........3....................... years........... 15–64 yrs......................24.9 29........ 58 Innovation Output Sub-Index................................................67...................... % profits....................87 Creative services exports......................1... %................ kWh/capita..................7..............3 2..............2...46.............2..........................3.....11.......1........3.............................2 55.......9 5....................2...9....52 Quality research institutions†.....3..........2...6 30..........1....2........n/a Tertiary outbound mobility.86 Market capitalization..3 7..54 6..16..................... %......88.......538...................5.4..........1 3........... 100.......5.4............3 2.......... % GDP.........1..3.1 4...3......................62...... 33... days......38..5......................52 Computer & comm service exports.1.................82..... 84 1 Institutions Political environment 1........122 Exports of goods & services.. PPP (current international $) 14..........0........9..4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$................1.1 Knowledge creation 18...................4..............1..43.......... %.......2.....68 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.. % GDP.............3.................1 1........87 Press freedom*..2.......................2.................................40 Gross expenditure on R&D..3 44 6........9......................1 102 1....................n/a...........0 42 ..79 ICT & organizational models†.6.2.................................83 Tertiary inbound mobility...............77 Computer software spending.........................8... %.2....................5..2............2.........26 Share of renewables in energy use..1 6..............................44 2.4 4.............2......2...........1 ICT access*...........3..............2.9..2 2........ % GDP......................48 State of cluster development†......51.....5.....5........4........6.......1 7..........................2 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.......................... 75 Global Innovation Index 2009..........5.....7......1 3..3 3.6......................I: Country/Economy Profiles 124 Argentina Key indicators Population (millions) 40.1...2.n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.47 6.. 0................42...........5......4 Strength of investor protection*.....3 GDP (US$ billions) 307..5......4.....................................31.............5.....2 43........................4.......................................... % GDP...3........7...52 Public expenditure/pupil.... technologies (ICT) 28........3 6..77 Firms offering formal training...19 Graduates in science.........1 Domestic credit to private sector.......................................3...41..0..........9...........9.......55 Graduates in engineering..................1..16 R&D performed by business.............................2...2 Tertiary education 2........................................0 37..............2..7 GDP per capita..................79......73...................7 105 4......47...........40........68.........10 41.............106 Microfinance gross loans... %..............106 Intensity local competition†....48 58 5......3........0...............18..3 Research & development (R&D) 2...8......3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*..5 Recreation & culture consumption............................63 7..................................1.......3..........................1...................3.........3..3.....67 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...............2...............................2 3......5 46 32....0.........4 Electricity output.......2..........................................................3 4......................... %........................1 113 5 Business sophistication 5.3 Time to start a business............... secondary......................n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.......76...........47 1.52....1....59 FDI net inflows..........................7 43...2.4 2...........0..2 Innovation linkages 5...0.......4 Knowledge-intensive employment......2 5.. %.........53 Pupil-teacher ratio...8....34.................21.................n/a National feature films/mn pop.. 82 Innovation Efficiency Index..............4 5..........7....4 28..3.............................1..... % GDP. kWh/cap........77 Total value of stocks traded.2 63 3............................. % GDP/cap....55 3..........3...................5 67 6....7........... %............1 Knowledge workers 38..............0....3 4.........................2.3 Trade & competition 4.........1 5...7....................1 4................... 37......................000 pop...2 97 Strength of legal rights for credit*.....1 2...........54.4 E-Participation*.........83 Depth of credit information*...0......1........ %.........1 2...................n/a ICT & business models†....................2....n/a 5.42........2 Creative goods & services 7..........1.....................77 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..................71 School life expectancy.......2 Knowledge impact 6.........................3 108 29......... & science..................1.....1.....8.....2 4... %.2 1.2......1..1...... % income/cap.......................................3..........1 7.....2............1 4..1....... % GDP.................. %.n/a.15 Computer & comm......1 Credit 4....2..49 1..............13....32 Daily newspapers/1....................42..2 1..............................................54...................................7 26 4 Market sophistication 4.......................2.68 4......n/a......2 4....97 Rigidity of employment*......62 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor...................125 2 Human capital & research 2......1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 51..2 6..........3 56 2.................74 4....8 18 7..35.....15....4 2.2 7.......n/a Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.....101 38..47.............................20 High-tech imports less re-imports.....0...49 Creative goods exports.....1 75 30 6 Scientific outputs 23....3..1 Education 55...............................46 3...............2............2 1...... % GDP........3 Knowledge diffusion 6...............................................4 22 7................28............. % GDP....................9............ 35.....21.... %..1 5.1..........3 Business environment 1............. % GDP........42 New businesses/1........3 Regulatory quality*.............2 5.......................1.49......0 24.......84 Cost to start a business.26.1.....................................3 Knowledge absorption 5.74 R&D financed by abroad.. ha/cap................. %..1 Info & comm....................6....3 General infrastructure 3.........1..43.......... % GNI....8....39.1.......2 6...........................4................. % GDP.3....24..........n/a....9......3.......... % GDP........... PPP$/kg oil eq....56..........51........5 University/industry collaboration†...3...5 Education expenditure....56 3. % GDP.... maths..8....1 1...........2 Energy 20....... % firms................6......0...........................3.............29..... %.....3 Political stability*...2.......1.5 2...3..........3. 8 Global Innovation Index 2010....2 7.....23 FDI net outflows............5. %................................4 7..73 3.87........14.........47.......1....6 Tertiary enrolment...n/a............................................3 5...........2........2 2.......3.80 Market access trade restrictiveness*...48 R&D financed by business..............1 6..2............0...............2..67 Imports of goods & services....1 5...............3 5.2..0............. service imports.... % GDP....................3 6.................3......68.89 2...3 53 41...............2 4.24 PISA scales in reading............7.......................76 Total tax rate.........59...3...1...4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$......2...45.......................2..3 Researchers headcount/million pop.........118 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment...5..............3.2 6......68...3..........1 2.56 GDP/unit of energy use..114 Rule of law*.........1 Creative intangibles 57..........5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean......3.64 Government effectiveness*.56 Electricity consumption..

.......................27...........55 R&D performed by business...5..............................2..75 GDP/unit of energy use..43..000 pop....................................3....1 Info & comm....7 58 61 45 88 55..1...81 Tertiary inbound mobility...................2..............1.................1 Education 58..............5 87 7.....45 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.2 2...3.....2........ % income/cap............. % GDP..................80 School life expectancy.................n/a R&D financed by business.....2....52 Share of renewables in energy use......0................................................... % GDP....8 96 3..60................33 Creative services exports......1...............9..........2.........................41.8.......112 ICT & organizational models†....42..4 2...7 90 42..n/a.........35 ICT & business models†..... %.2...............58..........2.......................5 Recreation & culture consumption....7....n/a High-tech imports less re-imports..35 6.........3 4....52 Firms offering formal training......... %........3...............1.............................................0.....1 5......4 Royalty & license fees payments.............3.9 57 1........4 39 4 Market sophistication 4................3 15............0..2 Creative goods & services 7..................3............29....3 5.............90...... 15–64 yrs..............98 7.27...8 84.........................................1..3.....25 Domestic credit to private sector.......1 4...2 55 Strength of legal rights for credit*.............2 3........ technologies (ICT) 21..........................2........ 0..................2 1.......................................................6 25............7.5......98 Microfinance gross loans...73 5.......3 5..5 University/industry collaboration†..77 Electricity consumption.........14 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.....................59 Cost to start a business.79.3 4...................1 2... ha/cap.32......8....n/a.......3.2....8.1......... PPP (current international $) 5.41 2.........n/a 3......1 2...1 Knowledge workers 30.....121 44........n/a.........9.....................................5..3 87 38...........1 2.....76 Computer & comm service exports.........9 32...........9..1 Creative intangibles 39..7 94 96 22.....45 Gross expenditure on R&D.. 82 Global Innovation Index 2009.....................7 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index..........3 General infrastructure 3...................30.......................0..2....3 Political stability*..................1......................99 Total value of stocks traded.....2 30.47 1...59 Rule of law*..........0..................0........2 6..............15..3.43..............4.....7......2 7........ 33.3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*....7 New businesses/1.........1 68 2.............4 114 4..2...9.114 FDI net inflows.1.......... PPP$/kg oil eq..........3........1 GDP per capita..........6 Tertiary enrolment......2...3 Knowledge absorption 5.....66 2 Human capital & research 2................................000 literate pop...................................2 Energy 13................. 84 Innovation Efficiency Index........7 111 67 6 Scientific outputs 29...........4...........2 Innovation linkages 5..............4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.........1. % GDP/cap....0.....3....................2...20.1............3 Time to start a business................0.........33....1 6......................................... %.76 1.....14........................................5.............3............2..........2..............60..........3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..........1 1...........4 Knowledge-intensive employment................ %.1 Knowledge creation 24...2 Regulatory environment 1...2................3 3.1 Political environment 1.....0................ maths......................74....... % GDP....................3.8.....3.......3 Researchers headcount/million pop..3 96 3..................7............... secondary...2.........278...................3 Trade & competition 4.......... % firms.2.............2 4.....................0....30...........47 Market access trade restrictiveness*..69 4..1 ICT access*. % GDP....1 6... service imports........ %.7 34 6.2 Tertiary education 2............2....3...7 41 6....48... % GDP....................................106 3.......0............................ % GDP......4 E-Participation*......9..84 Computer & comm.....86 Gross capital formation..............1. %.3......3 2........3.7 60............2....0.................. % GDP..2.5.......1 4..102 R&D financed by abroad........... %....2 2.................2.2 3.....3 7...............7 4........ 60 Innovation Input Sub-Index...............3..........0......4..............12.....4..... %...44.......2....4. %...............7 65 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 125 ...........3 Government’s Online Service*.........0.1..........2 6....0.............3................................1....................20. years......51.....2................ % GDP.....2 4.....1.1 4...............1........112 Public expenditure/pupil...................0..1 5....18 Imports of goods & services.......2......................3 Research & development (R&D) 2.....2.........8...50..3..................3........n/a...............71 39...............21...........5 2.....................1....................2.........29...............4 4........0...............2 Investment 14....47................57.70 Quality research institutions†...n/a.47 38......... %....n/a.1 1.....................3..3 5.............Armenia Population (millions) 3.......3 4..... % GDP...1.....2 5...3.........9....................1..6....................23 Daily newspapers/1............3 7.................1 1...............................26...........................................1......105 3...4 Electricity output..........2 7.83 FDI net outflows...............83.. %......13 19...1 7.4 2....... %..........................4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.........2 2.........30 Total tax rate...........113 State of cluster development†.........120 Intensity local competition†.............1 3...........................8................57 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment... 69 Innovation Output Sub-Index...2 ICT use*.1.8..... %..2 4.....1 3.....75 Rigidity of employment*.......3 6....57 Government effectiveness*... 34 Global Innovation Index 2010................ % GDP............1.2....8 30 67 7 Creative outputs 28..1...4.........................70 Market capitalization.....1....33.50.......................42 Tertiary outbound mobility...............9 GDP (US$ billions) 8........0..2.........2...... %...........................................9.................57 Depth of credit information*..4...2...67 Exports of goods & services...... %......1 6......3.............................6...........4..14 Ecological footprint & biocapacity............................9 94 15.............0.......................1...........n/a...... % GDP......5 Education expenditure...............96 3 Infrastructure 3......39..........9.49.............n/a 67 5....1........2........59 Creative goods exports.....2...50 Computer software spending......44..........4.2.........35.................................11.............68..74 3......0.......1......33...................66 National feature films/mn pop.... days..............................1 5.............99.............2 2... kWh/cap................3 Business environment 1.......1............. % profits..........70.....1......73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor................4 5........1 7...............3...........40 16................4 33........2 1.n/a 6.....4..1...3 Knowledge diffusion 6...... & science... kWh/capita.....1.. % gross.2 5.......3 2...19......3...... % GDP....................2.................3.....................4 Royalty & license fees receipts.........10......................20 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$....................1................3....88............1 Credit 4............................................n/a High-tech exports less re-exports.2.3..............0..... %.......2.......102 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..............n/a Pupil-teacher ratio..........................2.....45...19 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..........6..............3....................................................... 28.................................3 6.....................2 1....0........................67........6........18..4...2................. %.76 PISA scales in reading........3.. 37.......1..8.9...3.1................15 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$......64 Press freedom*.........4 7.......6...............4 Strength of investor protection*..............1........80 3.1 78 7....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean..........................2 6....................1.........4 5... %..3......92 Graduates in engineering............2... %.... %........... % GNI.1....9...................0........... %...3 Regulatory quality*...................................2 5...............2 Knowledge impact 6... 104 1 Institutions 67........45 Graduates in science.............34............3........ % GDP..9.......97...86...........4.1...............3 92 5 Business sophistication 5.....................

..... 15–64 yrs.......1............37 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.............2..1........2 59.........................7 Tertiary outbound mobility...........1.......1..2...2..........4 5..2 3....1.........1........3 Trade & competition 4..........61..3............9....9 49...1........2................................2 1.... PPP (current international $) 39.....7 Depth of credit information*..22 7......................1.................1.........7..........2.......2 Energy 26...................................................2 4..1.70 2........................76................................0......n/a 4.5..3 Research & development (R&D) 2......55.......................34..... %....68...............6 Tertiary enrolment... 36... % GDP...............27....n/a Gross expenditure on R&D.....29.2................2 Investment 54......2.......25....000 literate pop.......9 13 Strength of legal rights for credit*.......... ha/cap.....8..............6................1 3......................8...........6..............230......95....3...3..........0 20 11 52........4 Royalty & license fees receipts....................1....29 ICT & business models†................8....8 12 4.......5..........7 Total value of stocks traded...........1....2 38 ........36 Daily newspapers/1........... years..9 Pupil-teacher ratio...2..14 39.........9....000 pop.78...........2 6..................16 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$......2 5........................n/a..........9.......43.................87....... %........................11 Electricity consumption...12 State of cluster development†.....3 Researchers headcount/million pop. % GDP........70 FDI net inflows...............................7 6.............................42.......................7 GDP (US$ billions) 924......2..............................I: Country/Economy Profiles 126 Australia Key indicators Population (millions) 21....8 25............................67.......................2 Regulatory environment 1.............. PPP$/kg oil eq..........3..... kWh/cap................. days..3 2.......3...8......... % GDP.....10 Press freedom*....................5.........2 2..2 1.......8.... maths............................................5...............4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...................9.1...1......9.....6...................7..............1 2..7 Total tax rate..9...........1 5....2.............68..3 Business environment 1...........3 6.8.6..3 23 6.8 66 5 Business sophistication 5......................1 2... %.......1...1 Education 88..2...2 3..........26 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$............4 58....78...................1 6..1 37 7....4 Electricity output......2 Tertiary education 2..82.........................19 30...........7....2... 21 Innovation Output Sub-Index........3.................... 100........1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 91... % GDP...........2.........................2..9 26 3.................3 5.....4 7...1 1....................1..2.25....3 4.......9......2........11 Firms offering formal training........2..... % GDP..2..1.........4 4.........................34 Public expenditure/pupil.3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.76 FDI net outflows...8..3................................8 3.6.49....................... % GDP...22 Graduates in engineering..4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.......0 7 1.7......................36....................... % GDP/cap............................ %.......... % gross...........................3.....3 Knowledge absorption 5...49............22 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.... technologies (ICT) 43..........7 3 4 Market sophistication 4............. %.18 Gross capital formation.3 5..27 ICT & organizational models†..........3...67...............1 5..........4. % GDP....5 59.....1..........0..0 5.......6.....................7........................... % GDP.............. 62.3.............2 Knowledge impact 6.......3 27 70 7 Creative outputs 40.................4 Royalty & license fees payments........24 3............3................73 School life expectancy....2....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...............5 2............7 97...2 7............1 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor..........25 Domestic credit to private sector....................................2....4..........23 Ecological footprint & biocapacity....................34..6 36.........3 4 70..8 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index...71............................... secondary.1 3......30................................11...........32 High-tech imports less re-imports........65 Share of renewables in energy use........n/a R&D performed by business.... 31 Innovation Input Sub-Index............................................ % GDP....2.... %........8..... service imports.... %..5...............1............1.................1 Knowledge workers 54................3 Political stability*..........5 57............57...1 2.25 6.....5 Rule of law*........1 1........1..1.......2.........2...7........8................... 22 1 Institutions Political environment 1..1.............................. 49.....3.....26 Government effectiveness*.............. %.2 7.5........2....... 12 Innovation Efficiency Index................. %........n/a...........1 PISA scales in reading.1.56 49..3 4...... 18 Global Innovation Index 2009........41.....99.....................1 Info & comm............2 3................... %........0......................18........................46............1 6......3 7............99....3.31.........3............9...................2..... %...............44.7..........8...............................3... % GDP.5 University/industry collaboration†..2. %...44 Market capitalization.................8 86.............56 Computer & comm service exports.......................5 3.....3 4.....0....83.................0..81 Creative services exports......................... % GNI.........1 Creative intangibles 51...........76..... 100...............2.2 Cost to start a business....1....3......................68............2.......2....... %........1 6..............2.....................12 GDP/unit of energy use......... %...........1.....4 Strength of investor protection*........................................................9......6........................ % profits.......98..76.. %.....................1.......91......0.5 Recreation & culture consumption....1....................1........................40 Imports of goods & services..........12 Graduates in science..n/a...... & science.....55................1 17 76.....1 1..3 Government’s Online Service*.........17.......95.....56............21......................3 2....................n/a... kWh/capita................................. 100...................................3 Time to start a business..3 7...............................0..........110 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.3.......2...............................................................25 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..........5 GDP per capita............17 1.3......2......3...3.....3.........................12 Microfinance gross loans..3.68.3 14 2........ 97 Global Innovation Index 2010.........n/a.....8................1 4.9....0.....1 7......4..3...........3.......... % income/cap.............81 3.......90.........2.......2 4......................2 6................3 3 3........76.2....... % GDP.............2 2......3 Knowledge diffusion 6..............1.....2 1...0..3...........4...6....................3 General infrastructure 3....4 Knowledge-intensive employment...2 Creative goods & services 7.7 23 50 6 Scientific outputs 33. % GDP....................................39 High-tech exports less re-exports..1......5......2 5.............4 National feature films/mn pop....1 1...................77.........17 14 5.....1.................10 3 Infrastructure 3....3 3......34..3 5....2 4...........45....0.................1..24 Computer & comm... 0............5 Education expenditure...49 Market access trade restrictiveness*.. % firms....70..68 Tertiary inbound mobility..3 6........83............2....1...22............4 2...... %..2 6...1 33 6..0.3....................................8 16 71.......................3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..........................3 Regulatory quality*........19....1 4..................1 Credit 4......2........2 Innovation linkages 5....85..........6 36 7........1 Knowledge creation 34.... %...8......57..............3.2.............2..36 5..............................25 4.......3..........23 R&D financed by business.13 Quality research institutions†.....................11 Rigidity of employment*...4 E-Participation*......2...1 4..n/a Creative goods exports.94......29...........9............4 2...........59..........7....113 Exports of goods & services.......8 14 1 28 9 71.........7..2 ICT use*............. %...................4...................13 Computer software spending......1 5..............67......1 7................ %.........57.........n/a 2...90 2 Human capital & research 2................................60 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.69......................... %...................5...... %.2 5..................................109 Intensity local competition†....1 ICT access*.. % GDP.......2.........4......4.2 2.82 New businesses/1..36 R&D financed by abroad..

3 Research & development (R&D) 2.2 National feature films/mn pop........2....................363..4 21 3....23 Computer & comm service exports......33 Intensity local competition†....2...................9 19 2.2...............n/a 4........3 7............. kWh/cap........14 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$....... %...2.......24 Graduates in engineering................................88 Cost to start a business.......................93.........64.....49..........................4 5...........6....................... %.56 1........................... %........20 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.......6..2...............32 2...3............20 6..80 New businesses/1...........7 1...................1..........2........1 ICT access*.................4.......0 15 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 127 .2.....76.....1 25 41 6 Scientific outputs 35....1 Education 94.........................2 ICT use*..........3 4....72 Computer software spending....2.......................30 Public expenditure/pupil................2 6......5....................3........2......3 Political stability*..........33................7........12 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$...n/a.....................2................1...........4 56..2...1 Creative intangibles 58...37 3....57 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..5 2......0 32 4 Market sophistication 4........................3........................2 Creative goods & services 7...61...1.................2 1......2.......................9..................4 Royalty & license fees receipts........n/a...1.4 74..13 Tertiary inbound mobility............ %.......6 22 69.....3 5.......................4...24 Electricity consumption....59.....2 4....................96.......4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.....3.5 University/industry collaboration†....2 4........................ 19 Innovation Efficiency Index..........81 Total value of stocks traded............................1 5..1 7.........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..............1..1 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.1.........7....56 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.21 Gross capital formation..................2.3 General infrastructure 3.......2... 100...............22 3.....6 Tertiary enrolment.1 88.....1 Knowledge workers 51...................................45 Exports of goods & services.. %..2..............................103 Market capitalization.28...5 23 85...1 7.................7 8 11 82 8 69... %........................................2.............68.................29 5...8 Tertiary outbound mobility.......... maths..3.. PPP$/kg oil eq........2 39.6 39..............3 Government’s Online Service*......3.3..........80........9.....................3 Time to start a business...........3.................37 2..............3........5................................................0....40..18 R&D financed by abroad............2 6..........................................3.2 6..............2.3..4 GDP per capita....2 Regulatory environment 1....49..........1...3..27................... %........1...33 26....49..1......4 2........1........................14 Daily newspapers/1.12 3.......40 FDI net inflows....................3 4...6 9 3.........1. 59...........1 4..................13 Press freedom*.45....5 58............................... % GDP...1................15 3.............. % GDP...56.9........12 6........4..............................9.26..0 16 58................0.......3....................3 ICT & business models†...2............2 Innovation linkages 5................. 100.............1................1..........................4....1 6.1 3.......... % GDP.............19 3 Infrastructure 3................................... %..........2 89 4....6..1..3 Researchers headcount/million pop.........1 5...4....3.....33 21 5..................................0.......11 R&D financed by business. %....57.......4 Knowledge-intensive employment.........67 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor........................4 7...7.....2.... 15–64 yrs...4 4........ %..............0 16 7..1...........1 Knowledge creation 40...2...........................74..........2 Energy 32...........51.. %....................7..15 Creative services exports. % GDP....16 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$........1..........5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.... %.....29 Pupil-teacher ratio.....76....1...................73 40... 15 1 Institutions 85.........................54.1 6.......2.......1..9..40 FDI net outflows.......2............. kWh/capita. % GDP............... % GDP.........1 2.0.....28...43..............26.3. days........67...........................................3.............000 literate pop.....17.....................35.........92...89 41........8...............2...2 5....10 Quality research institutions†...43 Total tax rate...................2 7..................95.........000 pop.....55....1 4. 0..................................................3 Regulatory quality*................4 30 6....26 Firms offering formal training...3 6........32.................................3...... 23 Innovation Input Sub-Index..........1 GDP (US$ billions) 381........8.....0...................2............8.....9.......3... % GDP/cap........99..... % GDP............52.3 3........43.....1.....20 ICT & organizational models†...2.2..............................0...........4........................ 42...........Austria Population (millions) 8..4 Royalty & license fees payments.43.3 Knowledge absorption 5.....33 3........1 1...........4.............5. secondary. %..........3................2 Tertiary education 2...45....3......54..37 Depth of credit information*. % GDP. % income/cap............................8...............66..6..... % GDP....................................2....................65 Ecological footprint & biocapacity....................25.............................................5............18......49............2 3.........3 5.0...2 2.................1 1....2 1......3.... ha/cap..2 20 5 Business sophistication 5.53...............3.2 1........0 9 7......3 4..8 16 6........... 50.7....2..83....2 3.107 2 Human capital & research 2.....2 5....59.4 E-Participation*...... %... years...........4 Strength of investor protection*.....0........1......0...........38......2..........1.......37 7.53.40 Computer & comm..6..8 Creative goods exports....25 Share of renewables in energy use......1 3.............3.......9.................1.......1 6............. %...........................89............2....30..............2..... PPP (current international $) 38............ service imports..................................11 School life expectancy.....12 Market access trade restrictiveness*........0.............1 1...n/a..9 57................5 Education expenditure...............3 6........................ % profits......2........70......48.......................9..........n/a R&D performed by business..... % GDP...................................0 76 36 7 Creative outputs 49............6..................... % gross.. % GDP.................1 Credit 4.5....3..2........9................................1 2............73.........2......3 2..................91....7 17 1...........3................................1 4.....5.......8............ %......1..2...4 Electricity output..................................3 Business environment 1...0.......2 2.....2 4.....2 Investment 22. %........... % GNI.....9 Rigidity of employment*......77.....5 Recreation & culture consumption.......1.............................46..0.3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....2 Knowledge impact 6.........54 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..........................2. % GDP....n/a Microfinance gross loans.........1....... % firms...................3......................4..........44.3 5.3....................................3 5.............3...........94........... %.52.........65.........25..1....................1 5...1..36 Graduates in science...........1......................5 62...........57..1 Info & comm......1.. % GDP........0..3........18 GDP/unit of energy use.......0....................2 2.3....0.................36 4..........................................5....................4 14 15 44.....................1....3................................1.......2.0 5 Strength of legal rights for credit*......1 Political environment 1..........................3.............33..... %..... 21 Global Innovation Index 2009.....................................................................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*..2...............50....28 High-tech imports less re-imports..........8 Government effectiveness*....3 Knowledge diffusion 6.....2 5.17.2.......17 State of cluster development†...........3 Trade & competition 4...9......................87...15 Rule of law*.1 Domestic credit to private sector... 19 Innovation Output Sub-Index..3.47......................... & science............3........ %...... 60 Global Innovation Index 2010....8...3 7....1 2......2 7.9 Gross expenditure on R&D.19 High-tech exports less re-exports......n/a..3 2.......32 PISA scales in reading..............1......59 46......................40........4 2...... %................... technologies (ICT) 48....2..70......7....n/a Imports of goods & services...

............5 FDI net inflows. PPP$/kg oil eq.....2........1...4 2.....................40..........1 1................... %.1 Creative intangibles 17.30 Computer & comm...61 Electricity consumption...3 2......9 25....I: Country/Economy Profiles 128 Azerbaijan Key indicators Population (millions) 8.....4 Strength of investor protection*..................0.............0..4......... %............3....................1 Knowledge creation 6..5..............82 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$..4 2..2 6......2..............2 59 5 Business sophistication 5......57 Depth of credit information*....0...................107 Exports of goods & services...............71 R&D financed by abroad..................50.................6........4 Royalty & license fees receipts...............1.............1 6..............3................. %.0..................... %......27 Cost to start a business...22....... % GDP....................90...0..................................................3..........31........3....................................................2.......5 University/industry collaboration†........... service imports.3 General infrastructure 3...4...1 47 35.......74 30............1.......5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean..........4... %..3...................0...10.............3 4......... % GDP..19 Market capitalization...0... days. % GDP.......77 Tertiary inbound mobility..2 New businesses/1.......9.............. % firms....4 Royalty & license fees payments......4 4...........1..4 5..................1.........2..0..........1 21 72 7 Creative outputs 7..000 pop.3 Researchers headcount/million pop.........................................3...8..........3........2............... % GDP.........7 24 4.3 5.64 3............... %......3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*. %.67....4.....72 High-tech exports less re-exports......3..... % GDP.................93....2.3........9 87 2...2....3................ 88 Innovation Output Sub-Index........98.....24......... technologies (ICT) 22.....................19....................... % GDP...1 3...84 State of cluster development†.........2..........4.3 Government’s Online Service*...............0 2.......2.65 3......................16....................................7.........................1 5................49.......1..................27.....87 Rule of law*..............2.0. %......7.............2.......... ha/cap..44 Gross expenditure on R&D...............1.......4 17.....77 Quality research institutions†..0...0..3 Trade & competition 4......8................3.1........................1........63 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.... %....3 Knowledge absorption 5.....1.......................18 5..............3 Political stability*.............3.............. 0..2 2.......4.....66 2.....7.................5.3.3 5.........8....2...88 School life expectancy...1 Credit 4.2 GDP (US$ billions) 43. 100 Innovation Input Sub-Index..................2.......0......4.1 Knowledge workers 31.............3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker........... % GNI...10....2 3......41 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..............................3 7........... % GDP....3 3.......... %.............3 Research & development (R&D) 2........................25..37....... PPP (current international $) 9.2 5........................97.......72 3 Infrastructure 3...................32........88 R&D performed by business.... % GDP.......2 1......5.......4.........4 62 6..0 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.................20 4..9...........40........... % GDP......2.2..........5............3..........91 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..............43....80............. %..0 99 22................70 ICT & organizational models†......5.........5 75 Strength of legal rights for credit*...2....8 76 3..................1...000 literate pop..................................4...............2 3..................33...............1 65 39 6 Scientific outputs 24.......103 Computer & comm service exports....25....0..............4 E-Participation*.................0................1..............638.....1 2...3 Business environment 1.................80 Government effectiveness*........ % GDP/cap........114 Creative services exports...................120 52......51 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.......... % GDP......58 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...........0...2 7.1 2.1 6................................3 52...4 106 83 31 90 50....1 7....................1. 15–64 yrs......36......63 GDP/unit of energy use......................6.........2...83...........................3..........1 Imports of goods & services................2........................................1.3...................................7 108 112 .....0....30 Intensity local competition†. 57 1 Institutions Political environment 1.....................................6............................................87 High-tech imports less re-imports...4.......3 5...1......7.. 100... % GDP..............33.........1 4..2..........2......8.......................3 6.....2..3...........55 Creative goods exports.. maths.3 Knowledge diffusion 6.........2 5........3...........99 Public expenditure/pupil.......36..........1.......n/a. years....94 Gross capital formation................n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$......17.2......62 R&D financed by business.....110 1...3............... kWh/capita.4...8...... %....... % gross..............................................2 ICT use*.84 PISA scales in reading......................1 1...........................0.......30 Total tax rate.......................................1 Education 35...2..............1...........................................3....6...3............2 1.5 Recreation & culture consumption........1 5.....95 Press freedom*......8.....5....2 6..........2.........65 7.........1........2...70 33...1...........3 7......2 6...................n/a Total value of stocks traded..3......1 1....9 GDP per capita............63 National feature films/mn pop. % GDP...........3...........50..69 4.................4 Knowledge-intensive employment...........1..............0..n/a 6.0...........2 2............................. %..4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$. % income/cap.......1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 57..........2...............2 Energy 12..2 40............................................2..........68 Share of renewables in energy use......... %.............1.50...33 Graduates in engineering.........................38 FDI net outflows....................4 44...3...37 Tertiary outbound mobility..................1 Info & comm.....................17........7 108 5...2 4..64 Firms offering formal training.......... %...............2 Tertiary education 2................48........................1........51 ICT & business models†................99 3........2 Investment 44.....1 6..... kWh/cap. 29..9 90 88 22............17........7 80 22......................1....1.......7................3...........2 71 6...............1.......6 Tertiary enrolment.......1.2 4........9..............................3 Time to start a business.............3 4............6.........0....................40.....................65 Daily newspapers/1.........................................3....4.....8....24.8.......27...1 4.........2...5....43 41.2.....2 1................ 104 Global Innovation Index 2010.2 Knowledge impact 6........2...................2.........................68..1..............2......................................4 Electricity output..5 Education expenditure..............1 ICT access*.... %.....................4 7..................6 97 4 Market sophistication 4....30.................7.....57 5...........0 86...............2....1..4...............7............1....82 Graduates in science............32.3..................7......1............3 2........n/a..3...2 Regulatory environment 1................4......... %........106 Rigidity of employment*.................47 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.........5 2......n/a.........58 Computer software spending.... % GDP....60........95 6....1 2... %......2.......................75 3.....3.1......3.................3....18 1......1 4..2.........1 5....1 3......100 Microfinance gross loans..............2...32........6........5..............3...........2...39............................................... & science.... 57 Global Innovation Index 2009.6...74 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$...........14................3..1 7...2 2........ %.6 99 3.......3.......45.. % profits...25 Domestic credit to private sector.....69 Market access trade restrictiveness*........1................1........................25.....9................3 6...3 Regulatory quality*.....12........................ %.... 37......81....................9.2 5..................2...........55 Pupil-teacher ratio.2 Innovation linkages 5.......56........7......................... 83 Innovation Efficiency Index...........3...........2 Creative goods & services 7...................2 4.........9 79 1..............0......2....76...1...73 3...........3 4.....4.......................34.........2 7.......0.............. 21.4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...95 32....2........... secondary... %.9 117 7....................6.....45...........4 30..67 2 Human capital & research 2.......6 2.....................1.

..........................54 ICT & business models†........................9...............4 Royalty & license fees payments.1......0.45 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$............50.4 2.4 54.....4........1 Knowledge creation 2... %..n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.....1 3.................2 7......3 4...........................11 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.............3 Knowledge diffusion 6................................109 FDI net inflows...............n/a..........................6 54 6..... %..3...........1..2..............................2...n/a High-tech exports less re-exports...........4 5............. %.........3...0.......8............2 7.......................67............... % GDP......1....3.................n/a. %..67...n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$......3 Regulatory quality*.... 40 Global Innovation Index 2009.66..............1.........3....2..........................................n/a.15 Microfinance gross loans.......11 Exports of goods & services.................0.............n/a.........n/a Tertiary inbound mobility...3.73....................1 5................. % gross......1 2...6.1.................8 GDP per capita........1...... % GDP................................................ secondary...........2 Tertiary education 2.......2 Energy 24.1 6......3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker.............85 6........n/a.....1 24 53..................... %........1 4...............n/a 71 5.................70..3 2.......81 State of cluster development†.....3...................1.6 2 Human capital & research 2.......... % GDP.. 28 Innovation Efficiency Index..........................47 7.....3 3....1 7....................1....1 Creative intangibles 20............2 1.....2......34 4....n/a Daily newspapers/1.................174.......... % GDP....0........2.1............................ service imports.....6.........73 5....41 Graduates in science..5 Education expenditure......66 Domestic credit to private sector....1..................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*....................18 1............2..........8 76............... % income/cap.............1 7.......... 100.................8 3.......... % GDP........3 Trade & competition 4...................n/a......1 5.........3 5................. technologies (ICT) 64..........4 56..... 37....n/a............1.................. %.....2....3.........................3 Business environment 1........................................3..........n/a National feature films/mn pop....1.................................0...3.......... % profits...................9..............32 3...... years.......................8...................2.23 R&D financed by abroad.....n/a..6....................................2 6....n/a Computer software spending...45 Press freedom*..........4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$................8 5......................58.....8 2................110 Share of renewables in energy use...................3..............6....7 4 4 Market sophistication 4.........52...........56.n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.............3.....................4....1.. % GDP.............3 Knowledge absorption 5.7........n/a 4......................................118 55.............1 4..............................1 Knowledge workers 32..............5.......1.........57...........n/a..........................2 4.....0.........n/a...n/a 6.... 15–64 yrs...14 Imports of goods & services..9 31 2...7.....0 71 30 3 18 67..8. %..............1............2.....90.....5 Recreation & culture consumption............29 Gross capital formation................................. kWh/capita.....3.................4 4..7 Electricity consumption....6 Tertiary enrolment...........8..............0......110 3 Infrastructure 3........1 GDP (US$ billions) 20................9 37 4....n/a Pupil-teacher ratio........72..0.....................1..............2 1.1.....1.......66..........76 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$. days. % GDP......7..................2 6.......39 ICT & organizational models†.......3 Time to start a business......2 5..3 6...................n/a School life expectancy..........................21 3...................................40 Rule of law*..............1 Political environment 1..........2 5.....n/a..........n/a 57.................56.............57.4...........1........5...3 Government’s Online Service*...2.000 literate pop..7 2 46 46..................... 92 Innovation Input Sub-Index.3..2.......4.104 Computer & comm service exports............3......... %...............14.... 34 1 Institutions 74........0...........37...................10 GDP/unit of energy use. % firms.......2..............47 Rigidity of employment*..3..........1 1....2 2..........2.............1 2...9 98 6.....n/a........3 5........................93 Public expenditure/pupil.......40...4.................3....111 3................2..........................2..n/a.7....n/a......1 6.. %.n/a..........................3............2..1 2..92........3..................0. %.......3 General infrastructure 3.40..................4 41 1........5.......................90 34............. %.50.............99.... %.5 Tertiary outbound mobility.2 3.....1 5 5 Business sophistication 5...2...1 5.............4 29........ % GDP..............n/a Creative goods exports...............n/a...............2.....4 E-Participation*.1 1..4 Strength of investor protection*.5...1 95. 52................2 Knowledge impact 6.....2 Investment 37..0.................3.....0...n/a.........................2.....1. % GDP........14 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment........3..............1............................................3.4 Knowledge-intensive employment....................2 5..1........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..58 Market access trade restrictiveness*.13 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.........3 43 3.................89 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.......3 4...3 7................................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...3 2............1 4.......69.........1......4.n/a....87..................2 4.....2 112 7.34 Cost to start a business....29.............3..............2.... & science........99 Creative services exports. % GDP........2 1...n/a.. % GDP/cap.....8 2...........3...1 1.....n/a R&D financed by business...............1 Credit 4....106 1.....................7..3............1 Info & comm......4 Royalty & license fees receipts............... %.3 Research & development (R&D) 2.3 5............. % GDP..........................n/a..........................3...19 New businesses/1........1......................................................32........1 ICT access*....39...3................. %.....n/a..................................................1.......................1.4 Electricity output........4 2.....0.....5 7 109 7 Creative outputs 7.....n/a High-tech imports less re-imports...........3..n/a Gross expenditure on R&D..6..........2..................53.........92..............0............ %.......3 7.......1.........2 3...........1 3..55...........0.....1.....3 Researchers headcount/million pop...2 6..2 Regulatory environment 1....64..................55..... %...............................68 Government effectiveness*......................2...................... %.......3...................................45......................................n/a Quality research institutions†....1 Education 51........33........2 2..3...........10 Total tax rate......6...............................2.....3..........2 78 37..........3...54............................. % GDP.............1....................2...6 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index....97......... ha/cap....2...................0....................0. % GNI...... kWh/cap.......66 FDI net outflows...8...............................................59. 0.....7.........0.....0.......... %...3 Political stability*..2.2...................n/a Graduates in engineering.n/a......... %.63 Firms offering formal training.................8 18 3........4 7.. 122 Global Innovation Index 2010..............n/a...........5 Intensity local competition†..2 32 Strength of legal rights for credit*.2 Innovation linkages 5. maths........ 22..2.................2 4.......17 Total value of stocks traded....2..6 24............5 University/industry collaboration†.......82...6...17......83 Depth of credit information*.....n/a PISA scales in reading......2 Creative goods & services 7. % GDP.......................46 2..3 6..........74......... PPP (current international $) 35.1.............................22..4........6..44 Market capitalization.......0.000 pop..........37 77.3 4................2 2........3 18............... %........70 Computer & comm............... PPP$/kg oil eq....................................4..1.................29..94.2.2 ICT use*.........12 3................2............1 6.....................41.Bahrain Population (millions) 0..............n/a 37.....1...80...........6 95 113 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 129 .....................37.... 46 Innovation Output Sub-Index...... %..5..4....................................n/a R&D performed by business.......2................5 2......8..2 53 107 6 Scientific outputs 25..........9 10 58.........

................92....104 12....3 Government’s Online Service*....................5...................92 Tertiary inbound mobility................8....n/a........ %....n/a.....5 University/industry collaboration†............... 111 1 Institutions Political environment 1...2 3.............103 Graduates in science...1................3... %...........n/a.1 6................2 Regulatory environment 1..n/a.5 102 33....... % GDP......1 7............................ % GDP......3 GDP (US$ billions) 89.........2......4 Share of renewables in energy use..96 High-tech imports less re-imports......... %...........................3 5.................1.....7....................2 2....................3..8........119 Government effectiveness*.......3....0..109 3 Infrastructure 3...........1 Info & comm...14. secondary............................................2................... % income/cap................1.1.. %...............................74..27.............2...47 2 Human capital & research 2.4 2.n/a Creative goods exports.......... % GDP..3.....1 4...2................. % GDP...0......9 65 4 Market sophistication 4...37.1 2.......41 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$................2 120 2...........................3........115 FDI net inflows.........................2 3...............................0.....4 5.61 Microfinance gross loans. maths..............2..........1........................3 Trade & competition 4...1........3...3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker.....0..1....14..............1 Knowledge creation 2.......................110 Intensity local competition†..................61......n/a 5.............. % GDP.............. %........106 GDP/unit of energy use...1 7...84 R&D performed by business.5.....11................................................................. % GDP.31............51..........2 4....2. % GDP......................n/a..........0.2 7.........3.5 76 13.....2.........2....000 literate pop.........3............ years...........2.........I: Country/Economy Profiles 130 Bangladesh Key indicators Population (millions) 164........................47................5.....6 Tertiary enrolment....................9 121 5........................................45.....0............n/a......... 15–64 yrs.........2..1.....2.......3 3..............5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean................2 5..2 5............89 Total value of stocks traded...4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.................................3 Time to start a business.........4 7.2 Creative goods & services 7.........56 3......3 5.....1.4 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index...6 37 23 7 Creative outputs 24..n/a Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.....55 Creative services exports.63 Imports of goods & services... 26......3.....................51...............2 4.................................. % GDP....2 1...............95 Domestic credit to private sector..........8..............1 114 30..........2 FDI net outflows.......n/a...........1..4.4 GDP per capita....2....5............416........3.7...............n/a Gross expenditure on R&D.......................1 5.............3 6..................3 5....... ha/cap....................3........69 Gross capital formation....0............2...1 3........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.................6 73 ................8...3.........3...........37 13........2...............107 2...........28. % GDP...0.........1 1.....3 7..................49 Daily newspapers/1.........0.......... 69 Innovation Input Sub-Index.9.......1.. % firms...3 30.....................33....................4 41.....0 25 3.. %.............................74........1 Creative intangibles 35.83 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.........................................................3...............1...............................8............ % gross.......................................4 2.............1 5..1..... kWh/cap.........9..7......2 Knowledge impact 6....3....2.................9 123 71 121 6 Scientific outputs 28....n/a................... %.......... technologies (ICT) 12................3 Researchers headcount/million pop..................n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$...... kWh/capita......3 Research & development (R&D) 2...9..... service imports...........6 85 4.................1 2.....................14...........0 117 106 74 24...1........6..70................17.........116 State of cluster development†. %..4 Royalty & license fees receipts..........39 35.....6......... PPP$/kg oil eq......29............2...1.....69 4...........3....2.....1......1.... 114 Innovation Efficiency Index.....61 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...........2 2.1...3 General infrastructure 3..................3 7..9..............9 114 45 25...................116 Market access trade restrictiveness*.2......1....1....3 Regulatory quality*............7......2...3 Knowledge diffusion 6.....................12.....................................4 4..n/a R&D financed by business............3...1 77......................................55.2......................................5... %...........2 1........................n/a..............n/a.....2 1.....n/a Tertiary outbound mobility...1 5...n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..............4 E-Participation*.....................2 5.....3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*......42... % GDP...........................1........... %..15.....2.......................39..2 4.1...........2.....2.. %.............................. days.........................35........87 3.................................113 Public expenditure/pupil....6.......... %.1.....1 Knowledge workers 19................... PPP (current international $) 1..70 Cost to start a business....1 Credit 4....4 Strength of investor protection*........ 97 Innovation Output Sub-Index.......8 99 7.2. % profits............5..98 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.........10...3 Political stability*....3....................8..................4.29 New businesses/1.....................2....1...1..1.......1...6 103 3..2................107 Electricity consumption..........2 ICT use*........2..........33...................................8...............1............2 Investment 22.n/a..1....... %...................0.................36.....5 2....2.7......................23.........3 Knowledge absorption 5....2........ %........................................... %......1.89 High-tech exports less re-exports.91 35...........48 Graduates in engineering..................5 Recreation & culture consumption.....3... & science........38 Ecological footprint & biocapacity..94 ICT & organizational models†.......................1.................96 Firms offering formal training..100 Exports of goods & services...................7.. %..n/a National feature films/mn pop...7.1 2...2...3......................3............................37 Depth of credit information*..n/a ICT & business models†..............67.........2...........2 2.........2.....34 3...10....n/a..n/a Pupil-teacher ratio...3...................... 0.......1...3 6......1.n/a Computer & comm...........3 4...........2...................n/a...16........................2..3....102 6...........1...1 1....5........ %..2 6......90 1......3.... %..................113 Rule of law*......1 6..3 4............2 Innovation linkages 5....113 PISA scales in reading.....................n/a Quality research institutions†.........0........... 120 Global Innovation Index 2009..5..3 4...9....1.......................3............2 105 1..2 Tertiary education 2..........................11................. %...n/a...................9..........3........6 16.............15.............. % GNI..............................2...1 ICT access*...........................98 Total tax rate..........3...........................3.............16 4.77 35...........0...3....49............................................60 R&D financed by abroad...........................2 7....1....1........3......7 96 7...67 1.......................3 114 5 Business sophistication 5..3..99 Rigidity of employment*................6.9............3 Business environment 1.1 4......57....... % GDP............0.........1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 48............... % GDP/cap...........124 3......1.................2 6.85 School life expectancy......1 4..2...111 3....2 Energy 27...0.1 3..7.3................ 10 Global Innovation Index 2010.........n/a 5....3 29......................72...1 Education 26.....2....5............ %... 28..........2... % GDP.....000 pop............19 Market capitalization........23.........2.....................17......107 7.4 Electricity output........................5 Education expenditure........3...1.108 2.....34...4 Royalty & license fees payments...1 1... %....4 30..............5 84 Strength of legal rights for credit*.......3 2..69 6..48 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor...60..n/a Computer & comm service exports..2 44 6.......n/a....................................2 6......1.........1...3 2................8 46...12.....n/a Computer software spending..........................118 Press freedom*.....2..............4 Knowledge-intensive employment...19.............41.............n/a.1 6..............3 105 6.......82... 29....... % GDP.16...........................................

................................19 Electricity consumption...22.......1......... secondary... %....................3 73..........95.9....1 5.2.......3 4........1...........93..15.54 ICT & business models†......................................... technologies (ICT) 33..............2...2...........2 5.......3 Regulatory quality*...1 2..............30 Government effectiveness*............2..................2... service imports.. % profits..................... %..........64....16 5.......3.....000 pop...6 19 3............3...25 Graduates in science.....16 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$......4........2........000 literate pop....................................75.. kWh/cap................................7......................1 6...........................90....4 16 80.....33... %...6...............5 10 5 Business sophistication 5.....35...........3 7........9 Firms offering formal training.....2 ICT use*...3 17 Strength of legal rights for credit*....................2 Energy 23............7.....18 FDI net outflows....n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$....4 Knowledge-intensive employment.............0 31 4..1.....18 3..21 Rule of law*............................10 State of cluster development†.............. %...............................1....1...28................................1.1...1 Knowledge creation 33.......70......2 51....29 R&D financed by abroad.......3 Political stability*...............15 Quality research institutions†......0........................31..81..........47..3 26 7.. % GDP......................72 Graduates in engineering.64.........2....2.......... 0................2 Creative goods & services 7. % GDP.4 60............2..........0.. 39......6.........1...........4 4............4 2.............2 6..n/a Imports of goods & services.................................3 2.......66 Domestic credit to private sector................2 7.7.....4.2.....2 6.......................2 2........16 PISA scales in reading..............3.......8 56 4 Market sophistication 4....1....3 2........3........... 28 Innovation Input Sub-Index......3........86.12 Market access trade restrictiveness*.....6 83 7................................2.......2 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index..9..........................20 3...........3............................5. %...........................2 4.......................14 9 5....1 3...................7....................... %....3.....23..............13 6.2 Innovation linkages 5..............2 1....4 Royalty & license fees payments....2 1.3.....77 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$........10....................29........ %..........42..................18 Creative goods exports.27 7..............0 GDP (US$ billions) 471.............14 1...............8............1 4.............. % GNI...........2.0.............4 Strength of investor protection*.....3....54 Tertiary inbound mobility...1 Education 86...2 Knowledge impact 6......45 Total tax rate............6................ %.......n/a.....................................0.......7.......5 2.1 7......2 40.............22 Computer software spending.....64...........................4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$........0.. 71 Global Innovation Index 2010........1...52.2.6.........7...............35 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..66..5 24 58....0....5...1......... % GDP....................3 4..22...70...........................................................85 3...........5....11 Intensity local competition†.2 Tertiary education 2.......58................... %..............................1......94...................1.......... %....72.249......................2.................... maths..................3.................9 17 13 56 22 73.....5.......3 Research & development (R&D) 2......8 86...................0 27 6........ 58.......................19..2..............8 19 1.... %......................1.............2 2.....66.............20 FDI net inflows..7...... % GDP.......2 1......2.33 Total value of stocks traded...2.....1 Info & comm.. years..........................9 31.....71.................... % GDP.............................3......................0..3 6...43.......3 Time to start a business...........3 3.62...................3 6.3........34 1.............1 4.................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.70...........1.......................................................20 Rigidity of employment*.......................33.....3......2..1.....83.....16 Gross expenditure on R&D...................5.........Belgium Population (millions) 10............1.............119 37....... % income/cap...........110 2 Human capital & research 2................84................46 2...................19........8.....0......... days....45 Creative services exports.. PPP$/kg oil eq.14 R&D financed by business...2......... %.......1...9 10 2.....0....67....5 University/industry collaboration†... %..39..........4.123 50........................5.62...............3..27 Computer & comm service exports..............4 2.................2........5 34 30 7 Creative outputs 42..49.......2.....................88.......16 Exports of goods & services...71 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment..........3.......... %....4 Daily newspapers/1...........2...4 Royalty & license fees receipts...................1 81.....................................1.........2................................2.....3...2 2.................4 Electricity output..............3 Government’s Online Service*...............55 Share of renewables in energy use.............51....... 24 Innovation Output Sub-Index........97.. % GDP..................11.................................. %..........3..30.....2.2.......1 3.....................1 1...2 3................................7 52 19 39.......1......2 7............0......3.3.....1 Credit 4................3.......2.....2 4.1..18 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$..n/a R&D performed by business.18 Public expenditure/pupil......53..0......1 Political environment 1....1...4 28 6...23 2................ % GDP.......2.1........ % GDP......2............0...............4 7..7 GDP per capita...........73 Ecological footprint & biocapacity... % GDP.2..........8......2...1 5..............1 6.......4.5..9................42..3 Researchers headcount/million pop..............n/a.72.....1..5 Education expenditure........17 Press freedom*................1 2.....................9 School life expectancy.............1................... % GDP............n/a Microfinance gross loans...n/a.3 General infrastructure 3........ PPP (current international $) 36.......3...................28 4..........71.......9............................1 4...........2.........9......... %.......21..12 Gross capital formation............4.......54.........2..........................1 1...........6..0.....1.4 E-Participation*......117 36........1 1...2 6.0 12 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 131 ... ha/cap....................6 20 73 6 Scientific outputs 37..................2..7.....1.........................45................2 Regulatory environment 1..4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....3 Business environment 1. % firms.....91 New businesses/1.....3.......2 4............2.5 Recreation & culture consumption..66.....0...6 5...........0..1................. % gross.. %..........13 6................7............................4..14 Pupil-teacher ratio..... %.....1 Creative intangibles 40...16 Market capitalization.....18 Tertiary outbound mobility.......55 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.............61 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor........61. 17 Global Innovation Index 2009.....1................ % GDP................ & science................7 3 Infrastructure 3.. % GDP..1...41 ICT & organizational models†....3...........1......2...................3.....33.....................60 Computer & comm...2.3 Knowledge diffusion 6. %..................... %.....12....n/a 4....3 7....1 49 3.2 5...1........1...........6...74.......20..... % GDP....1 5............2 Investment 40.....23 3................... 22 Innovation Efficiency Index....3 5.1 7...0....1......3.................27 National feature films/mn pop.......... kWh/capita..3.12 High-tech exports less re-exports..............2 5........1.............18 High-tech imports less re-imports.....2...................8.95................16 44........................................................1 ICT access*.. 18 1 Institutions 84...........3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker.........6 Tertiary enrolment..............37 Depth of credit information*..4 5........54..........n/a......... %.20...6 52...........2...........9.3 Trade & competition 4... 15–64 yrs..........36..............4.....................3 5...1 6............................1 Knowledge workers 54.......... % GDP/cap.........19 GDP/unit of energy use.87......1 2.........................7..........7 Cost to start a business.................81.............9.............................3.3 Knowledge absorption 5.......45......3...............5....5.......0.73.........................................17 3................70............5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.....................2...........3 5.....78. 49.............n/a.......2.....2 3.......................6 13 68.........3 4....

........................1 1.73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor..0......5.........................8 113 Strength of legal rights for credit*....3.4 4...............5 109 2.....91 Exports of goods & services.1......3....2 5.......4......9 GDP (US$ billions) 6......3.n/a....3 6............1....5.. 118 Innovation Output Sub-Index....1 Education 59....... % GDP................. service imports..............................1 4........5... PPP$/kg oil eq......................3.............3.......n/a.................................................7.1..........1 Info & comm.......3.3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....2...108 7.......5.....6 101 7...........1 6...........n/a...4 E-Participation*.......3... %.n/a.. % gross..................6.........26...............86 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$..........2...507........ 112 Innovation Input Sub-Index........0............ % firms.3 2......2 Regulatory environment 1.....n/a....2. 118 Global Innovation Index 2009.......0....... %................. %....2.........3 Time to start a business...................5 2...000 literate pop...25........1............2..............1.......2 GDP per capita...........1....... % profits... % GDP..3 7............1 ICT access*.......90 Microfinance gross loans..1....9 38..1.....................n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$......70 Gross capital formation............. 19...5.......31 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment......2........4 23..............4 Royalty & license fees receipts..23.2.2....5....8........... % GNI........7.......0 57 102 122 24..........n/a......0.61.........87 Public expenditure/pupil..........2 2.28.1....................1..1 2.4 2.............2 7.................n/a..2 6......................................0................1 6..71......2.......1 108 6.................................. % GDP..................................0............ %....3 Research & development (R&D) 2.............3 4.. technologies (ICT) 14.......29.34........97 Depth of credit information*.................2 4...............3 Trade & competition 4......3..........0.....28......2 3...3 5........... %.1 Creative intangibles 23....................71....1.............5.1 1.3.......7....4 78 115 106 6 Scientific outputs 6........ % GDP................88 High-tech imports less re-imports.............16...8 80 3..........0...2.......1......2....3.....................19................. %.........................................7..8.......................0..2..........1 4.......2 24......5........ %......................11......................................1.......... days........0.....2 7.....2 1................................................n/a Graduates in engineering..... ha/cap.2 4...........3 122 5 Business sophistication 5.....47..............0....2 Creative goods & services 7.......1............................1 5.... %......n/a....73 5.........85 Gross expenditure on R&D.............3...........3 Political stability*..8.......0..93 1.........n/a..................93 Cost to start a business.......2...n/a....................2.....................................................1....9............114 GDP/unit of energy use......................9.0..........0...............3........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.............5...1.........113 Market capitalization.............n/a.................62 6..115 3... %....9.2 ICT use*...........9 107 1...16 3.....0.........2....................................59..................................1 6.......................12............7...n/a Computer software spending.4..3.................n/a...............33 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...71 31.....0...3.....1............3 4.33...115 Electricity consumption...89 Press freedom*.1..3 Government’s Online Service*.......5.....2 6......97 3.........23.n/a Quality research institutions†..92 Rule of law*....2.....5........2..9 42.2 19......3 5.....97 State of cluster development†....................37................ % GDP........0.1 4......n/a.............1 3..................n/a.....................1 2.4 Electricity output.......................n/a Computer & comm service exports..........1 Knowledge workers 25.3 Business environment 1..... %.....36......5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean........35......................30.2 Tertiary education 2........... % GDP......0...8 107 9...........111 Creative services exports.................4..........3 0..............6 Tertiary enrolment.....................60......1..........79.....13.38..........8.n/a New businesses/1.....1.........................2 5..... % GDP.........1 7...3.3 Knowledge absorption 5.......1 5.............1 5.......1.63................0..................... 28.n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..............43 Government effectiveness*......1 2............. % income/cap....n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.......2.......... %..................8..3 Researchers headcount/million pop.......1.. 99 1 Institutions Political environment 1..................106 3.2.n/a R&D financed by business.................................................1 Knowledge creation 15....1...........6 18....... maths...........1. & science......2...........3......n/a 6...................2 6..2...........1 n/a 25.......................................................................2 Energy 16...............................................2.4 Royalty & license fees payments........4................................................I: Country/Economy Profiles 132 Benin Key indicators Population (millions) 9............37....n/a Total value of stocks traded....3...4 5...2 78 n/a 71 7 Creative outputs 7....3 4..............7 109 76 20..... %...... % GDP....3 122 16...7.................000 pop........................... kWh/capita...38...121 Market access trade restrictiveness*.........89 Share of renewables in energy use..23 4......40...................91 High-tech exports less re-exports.............32..........n/a Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$......0........8....n/a......0 91 4......................................4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$........... 23.......3.....2 1......................n/a Tertiary outbound mobility...105 Domestic credit to private sector..................3.................................3.................3 7..................4 Knowledge-intensive employment...... %......... % GDP....... years.......5 Recreation & culture consumption...53... %.69 4.........1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 46...... % GDP..............2........ %........................84 34....................... %......................................0.....................5 113 39..................112 R&D financed by abroad............2 2............1 Credit 4.2.....34........2...1.............2 5..2 Innovation linkages 5....8.................3 Knowledge diffusion 6....................28..2 Investment 22..3 2.n/a National feature films/mn pop..................0......6....2 3.n/a.............10..n/a ICT & business models†..... kWh/cap.............n/a Pupil-teacher ratio..n/a.79 FDI net outflows...........................4 Strength of investor protection*........2 4................n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.. %....n/a 5........80 46......................1 1.....3...3 3.......................... % GDP.3...............2....1...........3...50 R&D performed by business.......0..........8................n/a.........49 Imports of goods & services.....9 57 121 ........3 6...................5 University/industry collaboration†.................48 36...1.................0....1.............n/a Tertiary inbound mobility.3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.0..................2......4 2..........1 61 4 Market sophistication 4.................n/a Computer & comm..........................................1.........................................................112 3............. 0.............0.........40............ 15–64 yrs..2 Knowledge impact 6.2............ %.5 Education expenditure.............................3. %.92 FDI net inflows............56 1.......2...............112 5.....1 7..2.............................................0...1...2 2....6...............n/a.............78 3 Infrastructure 3................................4 7..n/a....................3... % GDP/cap.................2.............2.98 Rigidity of employment*..................1......................................3........ secondary.9..................7 112 3....... 68 Global Innovation Index 2010...........n/a..86 ICT & organizational models†.................41......................n/a..........................108 Graduates in science...............39.......101 2. PPP (current international $) 1......n/a Daily newspapers/1.........7 106 5.....6........76 2......................................0......3 Regulatory quality*........ %.. % GDP.........106 PISA scales in reading...1 3..............42.3 General infrastructure 3.....................7 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index..........61 Creative goods exports......0.........1..1..2 1.0...3 5.... %....... % GDP.2...1. 118 Innovation Efficiency Index....0.116 Intensity local competition†.118 2 Human capital & research 2....124 Total tax rate...........n/a Firms offering formal training..........68 School life expectancy................

n/a....4......................117 Rule of law*.2 4.....3.............9 83 7......65 School life expectancy.93 3.....4 Royalty & license fees payments.1......... days....2.......n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.........5.......1.4 Knowledge-intensive employment...............n/a Pupil-teacher ratio.......2 7........3 Time to start a business..........4 E-Participation*..1 6.......2 6.....7 81 7..................3 5.11 R&D performed by business.1..................3...n/a.........3....5... 20......11..2.0...............0........n/a.. secondary.2..3...................5 Recreation & culture consumption......2 Regulatory environment 1.........3........ maths....6 10 4 Market sophistication 4......................1 1...........26...................... % GDP/cap............64 High-tech imports less re-imports...........1.......................27..........1 Political environment 1....1 Credit 4.... 129 Global Innovation Index 2009..3.4............ % GDP.......419.........................3....6..........4 4.97 6.................1 77 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 133 ...................................3 General infrastructure 3...................................5...2 ICT use*............................39 New businesses/1. & science........2 1..............................................2 1.....16.........2..................5 2.......0......56 3....0......................56 R&D financed by business.....1..........3 2....50......2 6...... %....................29.....................17....5......1.... %...........0.........68 6... %..0........4............3 Regulatory quality*..n/a Tertiary outbound mobility..................2 3.....................0......3...3 71 18....1 6......2 Investment 13..1 3............1........................1 1......3..... %....56 Creative services exports..........................3.........49...9.....................1....... 100..4 81 91 6 Scientific outputs 6....101 R&D financed by abroad..5 20.........113 Cost to start a business...1............................. %........ % GDP......3.........83 Imports of goods & services.3.........105 Press freedom*........................................61.......n/a.........3........... %... % income/cap..0..........1...........................2 118 4...... % profits...2..............................1 1.........5 Education expenditure..............3........1...2..101 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..2...... %......5..1.......0...................48........28.............................80 Gross expenditure on R&D............... technologies (ICT) 26...................2 1.3 6...57 2.............9............1.3.....n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.............................2...1 Education 39............3....3 Business environment 1..... 15–64 yrs..............1 Knowledge creation 14............3 Political stability*.............................4 Strength of investor protection*......50 3.............1 87 99 111 7 Creative outputs 26..22...............6........57...2.3...3 31.....125 1.......2.. % GNI...........30.4 7......................3....3 6....93 Gross capital formation..3........................................2 2........26.....44.2................................... %.......1.......79......0..............2.....31...1.............78 Exports of goods & services..1 ICT access*...9.2 27....30.............4...2 4..............2.......... years.....2 Energy 11.........93 3.................................2 95 124 124 86 56......................2 Innovation linkages 5.............. % gross..64 High-tech exports less re-exports... %.........1.............................2...86 Firms offering formal training......2 2.2..................26....... kWh/capita..........9..6 Tertiary enrolment....1.................13..........3 4........................n/a Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.0 GDP per capita... % GDP........3 GDP (US$ billions) 17.3 4......3 Trade & competition 4..................1........1..86 3.............................1 115 6............1.........20...5 University/industry collaboration†...............57 28......27..........2.......46......2..............0..119 Rigidity of employment*...2 3.......1 5. 0......14......................124 Depth of credit information*.....5.......9...........................63 Intensity local competition†.................79 Graduates in engineering..........31....8.........................1 48..73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor...........12...............3...9.70......1 6.. %.2..... % GDP..................................2. 73 Global Innovation Index 2010...........000 literate pop...............6.0....8...................1 4.3 Government’s Online Service*.................5........21...Bolivia Population (millions) 10.............4 93 47.......................... %.........1 7........4 5....2..3 Knowledge absorption 5...........18...........6.............52 PISA scales in reading........1 2...3 5..............17 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$....3...................1..........2.4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$....... service imports...61 75 5.4.....................4 33..... % GDP...........0.....94 FDI net inflows...........1 3......8 18.............n/a...n/a..................0...........3 7.. 25.................10.................3 4....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean......1 7................ %.................. %........... 109 Innovation Efficiency Index....103 Market capitalization............................3....................................9 102 3.1..4......71 Market access trade restrictiveness*.3..........19.....1 Creative intangibles 40.......... %.......73 3..... %.........................3.1.......3 Researchers headcount/million pop......5..........n/a Creative goods exports.....................70 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment............1.......3.....47..............n/a ICT & business models†. 100............0.8..20....... %....... kWh/cap............3...................4 2.....2............ PPP (current international $) 4... % GDP............. %........ %.......2 7......................................................... PPP$/kg oil eq...................n/a National feature films/mn pop....................32.....1 4.........8.4 Royalty & license fees receipts......n/a 13.........3..............................2 17..........6 89 3..2 5. 112 Innovation Output Sub-Index.. % GDP................3 7....................................3........1.........2...............................90 7.2....2.........98 GDP/unit of energy use.21..3 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.................69 4....118 Total tax rate................46 Public expenditure/pupil...................... % GDP...........1...3 Knowledge diffusion 6.......46 Daily newspapers/1.............1.... % GDP....1......3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*......11...........96 Electricity consumption.2 6......................................................4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....................... % firms......................2................n/a...2...3 5............7........9.2....2..24.....2 Knowledge impact 6....4 2...2 Creative goods & services 7.....0....48 Tertiary inbound mobility.................................2 4....40.79 Computer software spending.............................2 5........2....1..........2 45 Strength of legal rights for credit*....7 5........................... % GDP....1 4..115 State of cluster development†...7.........52.................0..9........7 85 36........90 Computer & comm service exports.4 Electricity output..7.4...3 2....................................29.....1 Info & comm.......0.................0...... %.....2 10. %. 100..0.........113 3 Infrastructure 3.68 Microfinance gross loans.. % GDP.........1........1................. % GDP................9......1 2....123 2 Human capital & research 2..8............................5....90 FDI net outflows..................2 Tertiary education 2......46....................000 pop........2.........2 2......78 1..................2 5..........9......n/a......5.........................107 ICT & organizational models†........6.........0..8....0 34.......2 4.................1 Knowledge workers 30..............3...... % GDP...1.n/a..............2.........................1 2...3.3............ 123 1 Institutions 30....3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...............24.......1...... 30..1........15......18.....64 Quality research institutions†.........2.3.........7 66 2......56 Graduates in science.......1 Domestic credit to private sector.38............................23................5.........29....2.......................3.............. ha/cap.............2 123 1...41 Computer & comm................99 Ecological footprint & biocapacity....2........8 106 5 Business sophistication 5........... %.....................73.....n/a..n/a 5..75 Total value of stocks traded........................2.......1 5.....4............ 105 Innovation Input Sub-Index......3 Research & development (R&D) 2..............46..........82 2.............3.3 3................8 78 116 26....77 Share of renewables in energy use.............................115 39.........99 Government effectiveness*.............4......3............1 5.....25 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.6...

..85 Total tax rate...............3..1.......3..................4 4....................40 Microfinance gross loans..3 2.......71 Depth of credit information*.........................................2........3 6.............. %...............4 91 23......................18 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment...4 42.......3.....3........n/a Tertiary inbound mobility........... % GDP......... 76 Innovation Output Sub-Index.1 4....7 103 6.26 ICT & business models†....................................4 Royalty & license fees receipts............................................7....... % GDP...................5..........3 Business environment 1.......59 GDP/unit of energy use........2 ICT use*....45...4.... %....0.. %............6........30............ % income/cap..............7......69 4.48.......4........................43 1.2......2........... %.........1.1.....8.........25........3 Research & development (R&D) 2...........4............1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 58.. 121 Global Innovation Index 2010.89 High-tech imports less re-imports...n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$......................4 2...75 FDI net inflows...n/a Creative goods exports..........97 3 Infrastructure 3................n/a..........................n/a.....50 2...........31 Exports of goods & services.................................................................n/a...7....38.............1 7............. % GDP..3 2................23.. maths.....................4...............27....6 Tertiary enrolment..........6 42.....2..............9............ % GDP..5.1.................. % GDP............n/a Tertiary outbound mobility...........1 5.. %.3...3...3 Government’s Online Service*..3..3 Trade & competition 4..............2...........0......... %.....3..n/a.2 7..............3...........n/a 2. % gross.......9.0.....97 Press freedom*..............................1 3.......40.............2............37 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$...........................3 General infrastructure 3..113 ICT & organizational models†...2 Energy 16.......53 FDI net outflows.....56.n/a Firms offering formal training..1......... kWh/cap..........57 Share of renewables in energy use.... 42...1..8 38 Strength of legal rights for credit*..........................................................7 112 70 .......................5 University/industry collaboration†........3........5........3.. PPP$/kg oil eq.....I: Country/Economy Profiles 134 Bosnia and Herzegovina Key indicators Population (millions) 3..86 6........9........7...... % GNI.....7............24 5...73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.....54 Electricity consumption..................2 Knowledge impact 6............1..........................32........n/a...78 R&D financed by abroad......n/a.0.....1.... % firms.................8...2.......73 Computer software spending...........0.000 literate pop..1.2................2 6...31 Creative services exports...................................9.................. technologies (ICT) 41...27.3........ %.....2.....67...3..............9........1..................3 Political stability*..4.6.........1............................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.2............................... service imports......................n/a 11 5............25 Domestic credit to private sector...... % GDP/cap......27..1 73......................................2 6..............2 Innovation linkages 5......52 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....3 Time to start a business........6 13 2....63...........2..2 2..................n/a.47.................n/a.................n/a Imports of goods & services..............7 18................2..81 30.....5...........2........000 pop.............................32.............n/a.............69 Intensity local competition†...............n/a.................1.........6..............2..1........n/a.. % GDP.1..................3......56 PISA scales in reading....n/a.....................0...6 GDP (US$ billions) 17... % GDP.1....................38 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$......3 5..3 Knowledge diffusion 6...2 67 112 6 Scientific outputs 6.....5..111 6.........3...................n/a.70 Market capitalization...3 6.......9 51 48.....n/a R&D financed by business...........1 Education 48.............................................................n/a 6....................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*..................1.......61 3................................ %........76 1.................14.......1.......................3..2..2.........................5..96 Gross capital formation..2 4...........1 5............2 4.................6......2.n/a....5.............................7.....................3 4.1 ICT access*........... % GDP... days...33.....10.. %................................ % GDP.......2........0.....56 3...36 High-tech exports less re-exports... %. %................37......49......21.......1 5............55 Gross expenditure on R&D...............9 69 104 73 7 Creative outputs 7.32.....106 State of cluster development†...5......... %.............1 2...0...9...n/a School life expectancy.0 82 3.....3 7.........7.2 2.....7 42 77.................................1 2...................................2......27...........85 31...6 4..9............3..1.........1 3..............6 R&D performed by business..........2.....2 Investment 33...n/a................................1 Knowledge creation 16..........87 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.......3.............................55 Ecological footprint & biocapacity..1.................5..4 Royalty & license fees payments......1 5..............102 7...................2 1.......................................1..........n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$...........................................0........... 54 Innovation Efficiency Index....4.....2 Tertiary education 2.... 19...........1 6.41.5......1.......3......................1.................................43........6.... years................0..................1 Knowledge workers 43..2.................100 Quality research institutions†.5 107 7...........4 Knowledge-intensive employment...... secondary........2......62 Computer & comm service exports.......4 24.....1...............6.2 1....... 0..8....6 77 1..75 Market access trade restrictiveness*...... %........1.75 30.2 Creative goods & services 7......42....86.1 Creative intangibles 22..............3 47 4..........4............3............... ha/cap..........59 Graduates in science....... % GDP. %...2.....n/a Graduates in engineering....4 E-Participation*...........3 Regulatory quality*.............2.2.....2 1............114 Cost to start a business..............1 Credit 4........1 4.... 116 Global Innovation Index 2009........... 15–64 yrs....2..................74 Rule of law*..........................1 Info & comm....2.................3 Researchers headcount/million pop.....1 1....2 3.......4 Electricity output....2 7................2 4...2.1.......93 Computer & comm.....1...........................14 2 Human capital & research 2...... %........1 6... 111 Innovation Input Sub-Index....................................76.3 14........................................84 3.............2..8 GDP per capita.......2....... %...... kWh/capita........3...9.43.........1..3 Knowledge absorption 5.....86........2 5.............5 2............................... %......3....3 4.0 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.............3...n/a.........3 4........9 27 108 23...................490....89 Government effectiveness*....................... %....32..18.........................4 7.........n/a Public expenditure/pupil....... % GDP...............6 98 4 Market sophistication 4....1........50.......2...0 54.... %...............2 5. 30.............4 5........2... % GDP....2 6.............4............................3.3...........4... %.............5 Education expenditure....0..2..9.2 Regulatory environment 1..........2 3......9.83........2..........73 Rigidity of employment*.2 2.......93 New businesses/1.....................3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....n/a.......0..... % profits..106 3..3 5.... %.......................2 5.n/a Total value of stocks traded.............................1 1........................3 5.....4 2....1 1....................65 3......1 7................n/a................3 7............0 77 74 86 49 71........1....32...................n/a Pupil-teacher ratio.......28......................1 6......1.........3 3..........3.........9.5.1.....................7.........41.4 Strength of investor protection*...........2...7 81 5 Business sophistication 5.5 73 3.3.........n/a National feature films/mn pop...... & science....50.......1 4.....1 2..............119 46..4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...........2......1...........................4 12...............................................1.................n/a Daily newspapers/1...............................1........11...............37...........85...........3...........................3.51......37....0................1...................3.......... % GDP..4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..........n/a 1 Institutions Political environment 1..................................77................ PPP (current international $) 8....5 Recreation & culture consumption...86..8 22.....................

............ service imports.....106 7....7.....................69 4.......4 Royalty & license fees payments.........................9.12....................1....11.....41.....384.......1 73 4 Market sophistication 4..1 86 n/a 53 7 Creative outputs 24........ %......6........n/a Daily newspapers/1.......4 7.....6 34 2........2 6...........0.....60.....26.............3.....10.1 7.........2 Regulatory environment 1....................2.......1 6..............1 38 1..............4 35.6. %.......3 105 64 6 Scientific outputs 6........ maths..............2 4.............4.................1................. %.........1..............104 Gross capital formation..........................0 35 34 75 64 66.... %.....3...... % GDP......2 6............4 4....3 Regulatory quality*...39 R&D performed by business.....................................1..........................000 literate pop............1...............................................5.....................95......................10 2 Human capital & research 2...........................0...........3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....3 4...............9 101 6.....1 Knowledge workers 29...... % profits.......1 5.....6........... % GDP..43............ %........n/a Creative services exports..... %... % gross.n/a 6.......44.. % GNI............n/a.......3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*...2 2.......................3.. %.....3 6.................................73 PISA scales in reading....2.....................................3 2........2......2.....0......2.............2 ICT use*.....32..... %...1 5...1..3...........................8 98 3...2......15 Share of renewables in energy use. PPP (current international $) 13.........n/a Computer & comm.92 3.............4 70 Strength of legal rights for credit*..........n/a Pupil-teacher ratio...1.. % GDP/cap.......................8........1. 30......... secondary.... % GDP.41...1.....104 Graduates in science.........1 Education 77............0..9...10......1 4....1....75 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$....3..2.79 Firms offering formal training......25 Total tax rate...6.....2...................n/a.47 Exports of goods & services...........1 5.2 Knowledge impact 6.....7.37 Depth of credit information*....0.....2 Tertiary education 2.....9 88 14.............48 FDI net outflows................. & science...54 ICT & business models†........... 15–64 yrs... %.....3......3.......1 4........1...........3 7...3...............62 State of cluster development†...................2 5.98..2 6.............4 Royalty & license fees receipts........................................................2 Innovation linkages 5......84 R&D financed by abroad........3 3...................n/a.....1......57..7...9.........1 2.........71 High-tech exports less re-exports......n/a.............3..20....1..52 1...0..........................30........................................................ % GDP...............2 Creative goods & services 7......4 Knowledge-intensive employment..2............6............................1 6............. % GDP.........3 General infrastructure 3...3 Research & development (R&D) 2...73 5............... ha/cap.15...............2..........................3.........5.2...5.......83.......2 76 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 135 ..................................0..........................................5 University/industry collaboration†.........3 5.. %.....9 37...n/a Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...............2.......51 Gross expenditure on R&D........................................................................................................5....42...43 Press freedom*........1......66.....1 2.......2...21 Government effectiveness*......67 High-tech imports less re-imports......n/a.....2............ % GDP.......................0........2 3.....3........1 Knowledge creation 16...........1 7...1...6 79 82 23............ 20. %.... %........................................... 104 Innovation Input Sub-Index....1.....1..41..............1.....6.2...........2........66 Domestic credit to private sector......... 79 Innovation Output Sub-Index......27....34 Market capitalization.................32.....3.............6....... %..3 5..2......1............3 Political stability*...............81......................n/a...........3 2..........70.........0.......2...76 3 Infrastructure 3......2..................n/a 4.........n/a................................3.6..60.....2............6 Tertiary enrolment......n/a Computer software spending..................85 Tertiary inbound mobility..........7.........5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.........2...3............27 1.5 GDP (US$ billions) 11............1..........7 Imports of goods & services...................18.....0.4 Strength of investor protection*.0 GDP per capita..2.........2 2.118 Cost to start a business.......................................53 Quality research institutions†.......4.........3 4..................0..........87....3 Trade & competition 4....... %....2........ %..............1 Political environment 1..4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$......n/a.....7 18...........1............3 7...6 n/a 30..1 1.0....3.5..47............13.......47 Rule of law*.....76 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$........................n/a........2 Public expenditure/pupil......................2 5....5......0.....n/a.4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$........ 77 1 Institutions 76.5 74 5 Business sophistication 5.3...... 0.............n/a Computer & comm service exports........................................1 2...7 100 7.. 62 Innovation Efficiency Index..............3........50..9.....1....................................76 GDP/unit of energy use...........2 4......... % GDP...4.................3 6....................................................................... kWh/capita.......13...............5 Recreation & culture consumption......20 34..............3..............7.....57 2.....38........................2........0... kWh/cap.........2..................98 3.........87 3..1.2 Investment 21............4 E-Participation*.........70.......n/a.3.............1.......................1 3....9..........1 ICT access*......70........ % firms........2 2....................4.0.7.0.....................16 2..n/a National feature films/mn pop..........n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$...........n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.....n/a....0.................1...2 Energy 22.....0..........................................9...........................1 Creative intangibles 35.....41 Rigidity of employment*......93 Microfinance gross loans.........................1................103 Market access trade restrictiveness*.2 92 32.................0 33................10 School life expectancy........ % income/cap................ %....1 Info & comm....3 4.........2 1...............53 Total value of stocks traded......................... % GDP............4 2.. %..3.......90...42.........1 Credit 4.........43.....2.0....69.........68 Intensity local competition†. %....90 3.3 Researchers headcount/million pop.....n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$............... % GDP.........................87...000 pop......35...1.........42 Ecological footprint & biocapacity........4 5...........................2..............3...............3 Business environment 1..2......3....3 Knowledge absorption 5.2 3..........................2 4.1 3....67...................... %.........3...31 Tertiary outbound mobility. % GDP.......65 22.............n/a....7 78 37.......7......... 40......1 4......65 R&D financed by business.4.....................0..................1.......2 5..42 Creative goods exports.39 13......3.............................47...0................................8 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index........44 Graduates in engineering..........1 1.13....................... 114 Global Innovation Index 2010......n/a....................5 Education expenditure.2...3.......3..................73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor......2 7.....9.3 Knowledge diffusion 6...27...................1.3 Time to start a business.............7....... technologies (ICT) 25....1 74......42...2 1.. PPP$/kg oil eq............... days...............2 94 4.........Botswana Population (millions) 2..3 5.....2............................n/a 83 5...49.........3 Government’s Online Service*...103 3.............4 Electricity output.0.................9..2.......................5....47........................75 6................4 2.....2.................. % GDP...... years.......6..... % GDP....................1.........84 48.............1............1.............. %.........57 FDI net inflows..3 76.....................................0........102 ICT & organizational models†................4 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment....5................1...3................................7..79........7.........................7 51 3.................103 Electricity consumption............n/a New businesses/1... %........1 1................2 7.......43 3...... 86 Global Innovation Index 2009.3.......4 97 7.........................1...26.............3.................... % GDP..2......3....7.9...........n/a........................2 5....5 2.2..1 6...............2 1......

.........2..3........1 1.....1 2..3 5...3....2..49 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$...................2.52..9 12 7.....28............ 39.....6 Tertiary enrolment...............5.....................2.... %..............18.....35 45 5..... service imports...............3............54.....3 4..1 ICT access*..............................1 Education 64........8 56 34 6 Scientific outputs 25..........3 5.9 95 51 32...........................n/a National feature films/mn pop........... % GDP/cap....................53 High-tech imports less re-imports..25.........................30..54 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.......3...4 5..5........120 2 Human capital & research 2.........n/a ICT & business models†..4 2..........90 Market access trade restrictiveness*....................4 GDP per capita.............45...........50 Pupil-teacher ratio..2 2........61... %..............0.....2...................5 University/industry collaboration†.................2.2 4...5.............55 High-tech exports less re-exports.......29..3 2.....................................................8.................79 Creative services exports..8....3.....2.... maths.................4 2..70 Firms offering formal training.........1......3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.......1......... %...............1 3....................15 FDI net outflows.... % GDP...........3 Research & development (R&D) 2........13..................1.....11.......................75......................4 35.0.3 5.4........7.................0....23..2 Investment 37...5 46 48...............42 Microfinance gross loans.38 Computer software spending........9.......4 E-Participation*..... 15–64 yrs.8.....28..2...3...........................................73.......5.................................. % GNI...................56 Total tax rate...3 Government’s Online Service*...5 2..............3......5....5......3 Business environment 1.. % GDP.....0........8................................1 6................3..............1.3 Time to start a business....................1.....2 37...............1 2...2 4.. %..2........63 School life expectancy.....................................1.............64.2 7......2....7.....2........66 GDP/unit of energy use........3...124 Cost to start a business........3 23 4 Market sophistication 4.........8......... technologies (ICT) 19.1 5..........24 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.............4 Royalty & license fees payments...5 33...1 1.................4 4............4 41..................... & science..........2......2.........52............ %......3.54............2 1.000 pop.....1......3 6.4 112 5 Business sophistication 5.......3.....2.................63 Press freedom*..............2.57.......125 Exports of goods & services..........3 7.......................000 literate pop..12.41 Public expenditure/pupil...........................3..........................3 2..0.... % GDP.............1............25 7............................................. %.............6.......23 Total value of stocks traded............. 68 Global Innovation Index 2009................5................43 R&D financed by business.........1..................... 0.......6.......1 4....4............2.............................1.......3......1.............................3......24 3...70.1.........83...............0.......................4 7..................2...47 38......3 General infrastructure 3....0....68 Rule of law*.......6 90 Strength of legal rights for credit*. PPP (current international $) 10..103 2....82.......3........ 36.........8... %.84 Tertiary inbound mobility...1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 54.......2 2.. % GDP.3.........3..... % GDP...3....50 3...................3.2 Knowledge impact 6....................7........... %.......6.13............9.............3 73 2.....48 Gross expenditure on R&D............................46 Computer & comm service exports..........47.........0.................... 47 Innovation Output Sub-Index..................45 Creative goods exports.....7 80 31......2........1............................2 2....2...5...2.......................3 Political stability*..........2 5.......66 Electricity consumption.1 4.............16 FDI net inflows..3.........8.............4.........2.......34................................1.............64...39.......44 Share of renewables in energy use.........54..................0.......2 Energy 23.....1 2.........3.n/a Tertiary outbound mobility..2 1.4 Electricity output..............3 Researchers headcount/million pop...1 87 1.......0.2 6....I: Country/Economy Profiles 136 Brazil Key indicators Population (millions) 195.......50 1........................13 R&D performed by business...2 1......59...... 68 Innovation Efficiency Index........9.3...6 64 45 7 Creative outputs 46.0.....n/a.....3 4...0 38 4............19 Computer & comm.7.. kWh/capita.......................8....3.23 ICT & organizational models†.........................3 Knowledge diffusion 6..........27 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.42..............5......n/a...4 Knowledge-intensive employment........1........3 6.................2 Tertiary education 2..3...............2..3 7..............27.......117 30..........46 6...41 3....49 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...........412..5...........2.36...........45 4.9...23 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.. % GDP............... % income/cap........0....................0.........3.....39 3 Infrastructure 3..........47...4...1 4.. %......................4 53 3....................3 4....2 58 6.....6.......1 7..3..............1........1.7...........3........2 5..67 5.... %........2 3................1.....55 Market capitalization.....59 4....1..............................................2 22 7... %.................1........................... % GDP........3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker.8 52.......1.............................3.........42.........21......1.........55...........33....68 Daily newspapers/1....................1 Knowledge creation 11.....2..................32............. % GDP...................................18.......... days...........4............. 32 Innovation Input Sub-Index..0..... % profits..... 100..2............3 Knowledge absorption 5..............................58 Graduates in science..........3 5...68........97 Depth of credit information*.........60...... ha/cap..........7 33...5 20 ................... secondary.26 New businesses/1......2.........0..........1 Knowledge workers 41...122 Intensity local competition†.............38......9........ %............3....................2 3...........2 Innovation linkages 5...........2.................................................. %....................................2 Creative goods & services 7......71...............1 1..............................3 3....... %............................2 6.49....60 Graduates in engineering...............................2..94.n/a......................... % GDP...........................1 Info & comm...........105 Ecological footprint & biocapacity..6.............9.. %.............3 Regulatory quality*..77 2......36 Gross capital formation......4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...52.......573....25 Domestic credit to private sector.2..... % firms..3....51 Government effectiveness*.........................5 Recreation & culture consumption..........................2...4 58 6............ %.. %.......1 7......... % GDP.9..............2 4......2............4 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.3 Trade & competition 4....30 Quality research institutions†...............................9 51 78 118 76 54..7..3......2..1 Credit 4.5...........0.32 State of cluster development†..........................5 Education expenditure.1 5..........52 Imports of goods & services........53............30..22.............................4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.............1....45 PISA scales in reading........4...........9 45 3... %...... %.............1 6......................................................5.1.66......52 3.. kWh/cap....1.............5......2 ICT use*.................n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$..........58 3.................3..............................4 27..2 6.2 Regulatory environment 1.................2.............9........ % GDP.......12.2.............2 7.. % gross..................30 R&D financed by abroad........................4....................1....................7 42...5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.........2.2 5...................................1.... years.........2. % GDP.................16..2..1.....0........53.106 1...4 Strength of investor protection*.1...... % GDP.n/a.12......................... 50 1 Institutions Political environment 1........................................2..........16....2 45 30.............117 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.....75 34......2.......1....52.........8..........................9..42.............46 6.1 6....1.1 Creative intangibles 56..1 3............1 5... %..3............................... 7 Global Innovation Index 2010............3....6.....................1 GDP (US$ billions) 1.... 37.2....4 Royalty & license fees receipts...............66 Rigidity of employment*.....9 44...... %.........................5................ PPP$/kg oil eq..6..11.1...51.............

..2 6.....1 46 24.......27........ %.......0..0 87 7.4............84 3 Infrastructure 3...2.1....1....................25 Rule of law*............2 5..87 Graduates in science........2 1..................... %...............3....2 1......3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*...... technologies (ICT) 27...123 Cost to start a business...........5 2............n/a...4 Royalty & license fees payments..........3 88 6.6 Tertiary enrolment..........0..... %...................1.....1 Education 72.0..............70.................37 Depth of credit information*.....39...............78 R&D financed by business...2 2..........1........n/a Pupil-teacher ratio........64 Tertiary inbound mobility................. %...................3 7..................8 5..............0..................2 3....35 Rigidity of employment*.72.4.........1 Info & comm.......5....0.........................2................1...8..............n/a.... kWh/capita...2......1..0...9.......................1 3................ % GDP..2 7......................000 pop............4 2.n/a.........77 ICT & organizational models†............. years...........43 PISA scales in reading........94 Exports of goods & services...3 General infrastructure 3.............................15 GDP/unit of energy use.......0...8 43 17 113 77 59..98 Quality research institutions†...4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...n/a...2...2............3 Business environment 1.............2 1.....................7...............82....................... %.........3 4....4 78 102 6 Scientific outputs 19.54....2 7..............3 5............n/a...2 Investment 49........n/a R&D performed by business...................... % GDP........ %...3......................2 4..........3..........2 Tertiary education 2..........................6....8. 100............ % income/cap.....3 3..3.1..............5 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment...... %....9.....79................ days....54 State of cluster development†....105 Share of renewables in energy use.................89..............n/a Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$..............3 Government effectiveness*.............1........ %...........................31 4.....n/a Computer & comm..........3 5.111 3. PPP (current international $) 51..................3 6...................58 58....5..........1 5..........36.......28...........18....... % GDP..........3.........2......0...17 Electricity consumption..........37.........................76 High-tech imports less re-imports.......n/a.....................32............2..................1.........................................6 54 2.......34 3.......................3......204............2 4........2................1...........Brunei Darussalam Population (millions) 0..............1 6........2........1...2 3.......n/a 5.104 1....3...............................................1 4...................1 7....1...................2......1......2................17.93 Market capitalization....................... % GDP.........1....5.......3..................2.97 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$......................n/a..4 2......................1 7...... %.................9.........1.3. %.........3..1..................5.2..n/a.......2 Energy 15.. %................6 103 Strength of legal rights for credit*.....4 4.....................6.1..........3...0..................................2 48 1........n/a National feature films/mn pop...... 15–64 yrs..n/a.....3 33...................28.....2 Innovation linkages 5..n/a..1 2....4 E-Participation*. 75 Innovation Output Sub-Index........72 93 5.....................2..........0............n/a 6..0 67 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 137 ...........1 1...n/a......2 ICT use*.....1 6..............28 2 Human capital & research 2.3 Research & development (R&D) 2.......1 3..... 101 Global Innovation Index 2010..............35 Press freedom*...........0 76 102 19.............................92..64.......1 Knowledge workers 27......2 6..........................1. % GDP.. 39...............2...........3 Researchers headcount/million pop......3..........5...... %..1 2........44......... PPP$/kg oil eq...74 n/a 37........0...n/a............. %......3 Government’s Online Service*.....................3...n/a.................................n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$...n/a Gross capital formation.............3 4...n/a.......0.......2 Regulatory environment 1....4 Strength of investor protection*....... %........3.2....1 4.......97 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$........2 2.2..............3.........1...............3....................2... % GDP. %..121 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...66.0.....3 Political stability*..................................................43....1 4.1 Creative intangibles 36.......5 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.................................1.....75................2.....................................................................000 literate pop.4 96 27..0 98 7..............75 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$. % gross..................................................2 Knowledge impact 6..n/a High-tech exports less re-exports.........3 7..........................1.54 Graduates in engineering......1......2...5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...69...............2........2...n/a.................2..1 6..........1.......27.........................1 Political environment 1............................9........................1..1... ha/cap...........1...6.......1..........2 5..59.......2.................5 Recreation & culture consumption...................n/a Computer & comm service exports.............. 0.......................n/a. 70 Innovation Efficiency Index..n/a................................5 87 3...........29 2..19 Intensity local competition†.....4 Electricity output... % GDP..1 34 5 Business sophistication 5....6 GDP (US$ billions) 11............. 94 Innovation Input Sub-Index..................3.2 85......................n/a..2 6.........111 Domestic credit to private sector....................0 117 6..1 Credit 4.81 3........................ 22..................n/a ICT & business models†..................4 44.3......7........... %...1 ICT access*. % profits..3 2............3................2..........0........................1....3 41 3.......109 6..3 5.....2................n/a 2....................3.......59 R&D financed by abroad.2......4 7.................22....0.............3 Regulatory quality*................ 30......0.......1 1... %..... %......73 Total tax rate.....................2........94.. maths...................4 5......3....2...2.........64 Microfinance gross loans...... & science.....2........59....5 Education expenditure.6..............n/a New businesses/1........16.......n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.................... % GDP.........87 Market access trade restrictiveness*........45............n/a...................0.2.................84 FDI net inflows........42..........57 7......n/a......16................... % GDP.... %..................8 Imports of goods & services........4 Knowledge-intensive employment.................2.............0.................1..7 16 4.............2.......... %.................................8 14............................ % firms................1 5................0.....n/a 1 Institutions 71.41 3........6 n/a 37 7 Creative outputs 26.............4 115 38...73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor....................4 125 4 Market sophistication 4...................81 FDI net outflows................1.1........9...........................................................2 25..28 Tertiary outbound mobility..................47.......3 Trade & competition 4....................................8...........0.................59 Gross expenditure on R&D....103 29............4 Royalty & license fees receipts.n/a...............35 Creative goods exports.1 2...n/a.......n/a Daily newspapers/1....14.....................2.................2. % GDP.................. % GDP.1..........................................5 University/industry collaboration†.............1...1...........2.....34........46...........2 4.....1 Knowledge creation 1......43 Firms offering formal training.........5.....0..4 GDP per capita.........3.0 56....3..............0....17.65 3.............2.....52.... 48 Global Innovation Index 2009. % GNI..3 4..1....... kWh/cap.3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker........1 1...2 2..................4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...........3 Time to start a business...... service imports.n/a Computer software spending........7..1.2 5......2 Creative goods & services 7..........6....5.............................................3 6..n/a 4......n/a 16.....13.......8...........1 1.........................1........ % GDP/cap............4....... % GDP.....3..............3 2................87 School life expectancy...3...............4............7..........................95....4..75 Public expenditure/pupil........................1 5..3 Knowledge diffusion 6..2........ % GDP...........................53.n/a Creative services exports..........n/a Total value of stocks traded.1......5........3 Knowledge absorption 5.......n/a 4.........63......................2.... secondary.1.................................... %...........70.

.. 44..77 Computer & comm.................12.......... % firms.......5..........6..37 Electricity consumption........... %....3 6.18 Total tax rate..................... %.............31 24...1 33 Strength of legal rights for credit*...................38 Intensity local competition†..............7........6.........2 5.............3 4................3.2....................7 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index................1 6..... ha/cap..4 17 83 7 Creative outputs 38......................5 GDP per capita....1 2.............3.....2............n/a....59.................. 0.......................7 87.......3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..000 pop................38 High-tech imports less re-imports.............12.....................45......................1...................... technologies (ICT) 36............16.........4...........3.......4 Electricity output.......41.................................................2......39 Creative goods exports.......6...........3 Regulatory quality*......3 2.........5 45 70 28...21 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..........6....1 Knowledge creation 14........10 24. 74 1 Institutions Political environment 1.....2 2....38 3...................1 3......40 2.......19...3......... maths..............................43 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.............78 Total value of stocks traded.......................3..2..................6......58.........1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 74......... kWh/capita....2 2.........2.......62..........10 2.........1...1 46 7....5......30 4.........................1....98........2....... %..77 FDI net outflows........1..........................................12.46..........000 literate pop..2 Tertiary education 2.......45 Computer & comm service exports.........................2....4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$........3 5................................46 R&D financed by business.............. % GDP................................24 2 Human capital & research 2......1...................2 3.....81........................... 43 Innovation Input Sub-Index............. % GDP........12 Market access trade restrictiveness*.....................74 ICT & organizational models†.......................3 4............80....1..59 Rigidity of employment*.....2..3 Time to start a business.........33 National feature films/mn pop..............0.57.42...1..25........1....... % GDP................42 3...2.......2 1..................1 6.9 36 5 Business sophistication 5.3..........3 21......2 6..............3 3....1...........7.....................42 Firms offering formal training.....7..2 6..........60 High-tech exports less re-exports....................3.....3...........7.......................................... % income/cap......3..........................17........2......9....4.....3. %...2.. % GDP/cap....4..7......1...................94...5.0........................3......30 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.........15.....79....... %.....88 Gross capital formation............................ %.......1......... %..........2 Innovation linkages 5................................. PPP$/kg oil eq............3 Researchers headcount/million pop.......1 7...5...............1 1...................................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...........0...38 6...............14........ %.....2................2.........0.......32.35 Exports of goods & services..................1.............9..28.17..2 3..........30..2 4... % GDP.2 4.........................................................62 Public expenditure/pupil............... 15–64 yrs.......1...............3...............9..7..............1...................46......8...........3... % GDP..................1 2.......2 6...2.. % gross......30.8..................24....4 Royalty & license fees receipts...9.........89 R&D financed by abroad.1 ICT access*.........................3 4.........1..............51 Creative services exports..1.58..1 4......12 Computer software spending.100 State of cluster development†.....40.......................1....4 Royalty & license fees payments..2..6....43 1........3 Government’s Online Service*......................42 59 5... 55 Global Innovation Index 2010..........53......6 Tertiary enrolment.......4..........2...45.......................2...83..2 Regulatory environment 1..1.......10....0...36.......................6 97 38 6 Scientific outputs 27. % GDP..3.....36 Tertiary outbound mobility....... % GDP............30........... %....7.......3.9 52 6..2 2........ PPP (current international $) 13.. % GDP.. service imports....................2.......1 7...................4............1 1. secondary...2 Energy 14.3.....3 Knowledge diffusion 6....... %...............7 ICT & business models†.....2.................n/a Imports of goods & services........3.......4.................17................. 42 Innovation Output Sub-Index................................42 Graduates in science... %...1 3.4..42..8.1.........3 7.....1 Education 67.........26...14.........1.27 Tertiary inbound mobility....68 3 Infrastructure 3.............. 47 Innovation Efficiency Index..................34 Market capitalization...3...36 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$....1 6...3..........2 80 4 Market sophistication 4...........4 22...54 PISA scales in reading..............3......9..........2 7........9 89 3. %.........2 5........2 Creative goods & services 7.79 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$....5.2...0......9....3 2.......42 Rule of law*............ 49 Global Innovation Index 2009..12..2.........3 5.....85 Share of renewables in energy use.......................55...............1 2.5 40 3.......................... kWh/cap........5 2...2 ICT use*..2...1...............1.3........5 Education expenditure... %..56..332.56.1 5.2 Investment 19.........2........................................1.2 50 6......... %....... % GNI......... days. %...............89......35...42...............52......... % GDP.......1 Info & comm..1 4...........88 33...1 Creative intangibles 51.....3.5..........2...............40.114 44.2 1..................1 5...37 Daily newspapers/1.....................4........5 Recreation & culture consumption...........2.........6.....8............... years.1..........1 4...........................54 Quality research institutions†..........4 4............2....... % GDP........71.....4 65 41.. %.....56 1.............4 2...............2 7...................4 E-Participation*........... % GDP....19 Depth of credit information*..............1......9 59 38.............5 5........ %..............9....6..3 5................................34.................1 40...33......0 102 4...................37 New businesses/1.........7.....69 4.7 GDP (US$ billions) 48.....................76.2......... %..0.........7...........2......3 Trade & competition 4......52................5..................................38 Gross expenditure on R&D...68 Cost to start a business.........2 5...... %......... % GDP..... % profits...................5 40 1.....................3....46 FDI net inflows.......79 3...........................2 68.....I: Country/Economy Profiles 138 Bulgaria Key indicators Population (millions) 7....0.....83 Graduates in engineering...................6..45 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..42 3...5 University/industry collaboration†..4 7.......4.................... %......31....59 5........32 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment..1.....3 6.................................2............... 100......... %....43 Pupil-teacher ratio.....................................3.....3 55 .38 6.1 Knowledge workers 35.....42 Government effectiveness*...9....................................4 43..............2....60 Press freedom*........4 Strength of investor protection*..1......2 4...................1 Credit 4......1 1.59 7....................................0......0 50 52.........................15......6 39.18..........3 Political stability*...31 Microfinance gross loans...2 Knowledge impact 6...8 35 7...............43 3...............3 General infrastructure 3..... % GDP......24..................................8................36.4 Knowledge-intensive employment.........0....... & science.....3....................................................................................4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.........3..23.....2................2 46 48 22 59 59..2.........4 2...............32...3.....9.1 5........................1.1 Domestic credit to private sector.....3 Business environment 1....8 52 2.....0..2...........1...............2 1.88 57.............5........2......1.3 7.......51..3..1........20 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..44 GDP/unit of energy use..........4....................80.............................2.0........ 32.........1.....53...1.................3.........1......2................4...............6..34....4 5.. 38..................1.......1.........0.....................7.0......................40.41........................54 R&D performed by business........................................3 Knowledge absorption 5.......3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.....8.........2..............7....60....3 Research & development (R&D) 2...........................58 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.79......................31 School life expectancy....

...... % GDP........................ ha/cap...Burkina Faso Population (millions) 16.....7....1 7......6 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$......................3......3.........2 5.....1 Info & comm....................................9.........64...... % firms...3.......8................................3 5..95 2.......................121 Intensity local competition†..66 25......99 Exports of goods & services..2.....3.........8.......5 21................7.....................2..3 Trade & competition 4....................................... 115 1 Institutions 60..3.......n/a 5.6 Tertiary enrolment... %........3 Knowledge absorption 5. % GNI........1 99 96 104 7 Creative outputs 7...........1...2 Investment 24..........3 2.....................2....n/a.43....... %..1..........n/a.........2...0.................1.........0............0 70 69 90 20.................7....3 4..98 Press freedom*..............2................2..0..9 GDP (US$ billions) 8..121 3...n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..........4 120 15.........2 6.......n/a Firms offering formal training...n/a 3......4 Royalty & license fees receipts..........80 Creative services exports......................... secondary.......0...2.........7 116 Strength of legal rights for credit*.. kWh/cap......... 15–64 yrs.................6.........1......96 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$............2....3 111 6........n/a.5 University/industry collaboration†.. % profits......2 4..73 5.......3...1 5.............................2...3 5.... 117 Innovation Efficiency Index................1........................0...... %.. % GDP......65.......2..........4 Electricity output.............0................................31 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.3.....9... %...... 0............................................................105 Domestic credit to private sector.........1.....6..3........15...........................102 3............3..........3 6...4 School life expectancy.....2.........2...............................................38...... % GDP..........3..3 7........86. %.............2............2 71...........2 5.....9 117 3..4 Royalty & license fees payments........5..... % income/cap.........2.9....22.......... % GDP.7......1 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index... %....... %.............................6...............8 16......2 6.......... 120 Innovation Output Sub-Index.2 2.3 Government’s Online Service*.............2 2.....2.............9..3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*..6........47....8.........2..69 35......................................6 16..2....3 GDP per capita.......1 1.....2 7.............1...........7.2 5...........1.......1...................2 4........32 25............ kWh/capita................3...1..8 117 5 Business sophistication 5... % GDP.........68 R&D performed by business.... %....3 Political stability*...1 6..1......1 Knowledge workers 23.......71 6..........96 Microfinance gross loans.4 24......3 6..0....1........................................2.....17.....2 4.......11.n/a...1 6.......4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$......1 2.......................54 ICT & organizational models†.....n/a................4. %..7.3.......n/a......3.n/a 6........115 Graduates in science.....................186.1..1 1.....3 Business environment 1..1 5....1....83 Quality research institutions†......108 Total tax rate.....................n/a.2.........3....3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...................8..........n/a..............................56 New businesses/1.1 3....... days......0.5......8 116 4 Market sophistication 4...................1.........3 Researchers headcount/million pop.n/a Tertiary inbound mobility.................0................1 4.....4.....000 pop....... %............114 2.....94 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.2..n/a...........................3 7. years.......2 Innovation linkages 5.........n/a GDP/unit of energy use..0.....0...4 2.........44........3 2...........75 Imports of goods & services......7 113 2..........1.....3 Knowledge diffusion 6..65...............3 4......12..............101 Computer & comm service exports.......2.......37..........106 3..........0..........1 5.4 5...... % GDP.......7 115 7..........0.......4 116 93 17..1....2 3....69 4..........47 1.........n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..1 Political environment 1....3....43.0... service imports.....1..........2 3...2........3.. % GDP..1.....0.........................1........3.....................3..3 5...1 Creative intangibles 19................1....... 17....1 1......... & science.....115 Gross capital formation........2.......4 19........n/a..................3.................15..5 Education expenditure....2.........................2 Creative goods & services 7.....................n/a.2.................1 2.92 Market access trade restrictiveness*.......89 Computer software spending..............7.5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.n/a........ %......2................1.....................6 101 80 122 6 Scientific outputs 6............... maths...........n/a R&D financed by business.. PPP$/kg oil eq........................ % GDP............3..6.3 Time to start a business.87 High-tech exports less re-exports....... %..2 ICT use*......2 1..............................3.....4 2.......97 Depth of credit information*.0...49........1 Knowledge creation 14....... 118 Innovation Input Sub-Index...............................................n/a Creative goods exports............2 7........ % GDP.0...............................n/a ICT & business models†..2.....5...................4 Strength of investor protection*.............................54 Cost to start a business...............................0...........43 Tertiary outbound mobility.........2 6.......... %..................4...7...........2 1..1..................3 103 107 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 139 .........1.......48 2................... 23.......................4 Knowledge-intensive employment..1........21... % GDP...54 3 Infrastructure 3......79........................ %.2 4.....39.......121 R&D financed by abroad..........2 2..1 28....2..n/a Share of renewables in energy use........4 4...16......114 3....86 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$....117 PISA scales in reading.... technologies (ICT) 10........80 2 Human capital & research 2............39 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment..........3.......88 Public expenditure/pupil............2.........2.....n/a Total value of stocks traded....98 Gross expenditure on R&D. %...................1..........................1 4.n/a Pupil-teacher ratio...4 7........44 1...............................................2....2.........3.......3.....................4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.................................1 6........................1... 29.....................2................78 Rule of law*......3.....4 E-Participation*.....25...........................6.......22....... %............................3 Research & development (R&D) 2......000 literate pop................0...................3..2 1............n/a..9 58........................n/a....107 Computer & comm. % gross...2.............66 Daily newspapers/1.......1.....2...............4 74 1.....7..........................................................6...........4..........n/a.........1............ %.103 High-tech imports less re-imports..........76 State of cluster development†.............2..........................37....................1 Education 51...... %..... % GDP.........7..47..........1..........5 113 5.............2 Regulatory environment 1.......22........0................. % GDP/cap..........2.....1 4............1 3..............................3 3.32...n/a.............................. %................2.......................4 122 8.....3...........................3....................................................87....1....1........1 7...........8.....2.......3 General infrastructure 3. 122 Global Innovation Index 2009.....................6.........42..............3........................1 2....................n/a National feature films/mn pop.......1....31.......69 Government effectiveness*.............49.....94 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...............2 Knowledge impact 6......... 99 Global Innovation Index 2010...46.................84.............. % GDP......61...................................................1................1 Credit 4..3.............2 Energy n/a n/a 3...........n/a............116 32.......................9..........2 Tertiary education 2.....................30...........7..........................5 2........11......82 FDI net outflows......n/a Graduates in engineering........................2....3 4..3..........................8.27..15......................1..1.............................34.......6 119 34...........n/a Electricity consumption...........7 78 4......0.................1................................1 ICT access*........61............. % GDP......38.2...............3.......25 4..100 7............ PPP (current international $) 1..3 Regulatory quality*.1......... %.106 FDI net inflows............................... %........5 Recreation & culture consumption........111 Market capitalization...70 Rigidity of employment*.............

3 6..n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$........................1....................107 Press freedom*..2 Innovation linkages 5..................2........................ days...........3 Research & development (R&D) 2...8...............................41...........7...............2................n/a......47...83 Computer software spending.. ha/cap.......n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..............000 pop..................82 1...........54................3...4 7........2.......3.... 0.........5...3 4.....4...9......... %.....113 7....1 Knowledge creation 15..........................4 Knowledge-intensive employment.............3.............8 89 11..............................1.....................1 Info & comm.......0..........98 2..........0......95 Graduates in science............ secondary........ maths...6.112 Market access trade restrictiveness*.3 Government’s Online Service*......101 Firms offering formal training.......................0..........................................6................ 100...........1 6.........2....................1 4..6.........2 5..13 Daily newspapers/1....2 108 3...5.....20 Share of renewables in energy use...n/a 5...1..........3...............................1.........1....................37....8.....25...90 Government effectiveness*.....0............. %.....0.0............................. % GDP.25.....2 4.5......6 121 2......0...4 Royalty & license fees payments............................n/a ICT & business models†...7..8 27......... %...................4 2...102 3..3 Trade & competition 4...2.......................1 6........3....0..........46..........................................3....... %........0 105 115 23........ service imports........3 2......1 6...............34..1.3.....3.......3.................6....105 PISA scales in reading.3 Knowledge absorption 5.........7.13 2 Human capital & research 2................n/a 5...55 Market capitalization...............3 4........... % GDP.............n/a Imports of goods & services... % GDP/cap.......3.......1.....3..................0. %..0....2........................2 6.................121 Cost to start a business......3..........1 3........... % GDP.n/a Pupil-teacher ratio..........11......915.3...4 64 5 Business sophistication 5....5...3................4 Electricity output.......73 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment....... % GDP............. %.............2...1........1 GDP per capita............... technologies (ICT) 15..1.14....23 Intensity local competition†...n/a............3 98 7.........................0...111 Domestic credit to private sector...7.............0 GDP (US$ billions) 9....................................... % gross. % GDP..2..2...2..53..55......6....................0.116 Public expenditure/pupil...3 General infrastructure 3......4..99 3 Infrastructure 3..8 20 3.........92 Gross expenditure on R&D...........1......71 FDI net inflows.84 ICT & organizational models†................. %....1 7.......................... % GDP.........1.....17........37............................... %...............6........3 5...1 5..............................7.......2.................. 87 Global Innovation Index 2010....................3 Time to start a business............. %.....1 Credit 4..2..............54...1 1.............2 5......................0...............2..4 107 108 123 18.................3 5..........9...........9 104 7..............88 13....88 Microfinance gross loans.....................0.39............3......9........6 Tertiary enrolment.....................n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.....3.............1..............n/a............ % GDP.................2 5..60........................1 7........... years...000 literate pop...1..................1......1 4.....3.111 2..25..2.1.............................101 Computer & comm.....3 Regulatory quality*...5.n/a...3 4.............1..........2.... % GDP............. %. %.1.1 5.....32.....1.........................2 7......................................0.3.........6..........................2 Regulatory environment 1................................102 Gross capital formation............................... 111 Innovation Output Sub-Index...............................1 1..5 2...............................88 High-tech exports less re-exports...............................1.......3............2 7.................1.......0.1.............................3 6.......6 57 39......3..........n/a.1.. & science.n/a National feature films/mn pop........2.4....53......4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.....2 1.....2.. PPP$/kg oil eq.n/a Creative goods exports........3 7....116 3.....122 Total tax rate...13..3...1 64 Strength of legal rights for credit*..4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.........2... % firms........4 41....37......2.................98 Computer & comm service exports..... %............... kWh/capita...4 Strength of investor protection*.......................19 Depth of credit information*........3 2.....0....n/a.... % GDP........91 Tertiary inbound mobility....................2 4.4 4..0........33...........2 6............................37 30...2 ICT use*..............................3 Knowledge diffusion 6..3.3 Business environment 1................................22 Exports of goods & services..... % income/cap....................16.............7 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.0.1...........100 50...............1 2...3.......2 Investment 35............9......9.....6.......n/a.1 3.1 5.............................0...........................1 4.............0.............1..........33...........26 54................................................3 Researchers headcount/million pop.9 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index...................2 1......2 2..1.........1........2.4.....46.... % profits....n/a Total value of stocks traded..2...............5 121 28........n/a Tertiary outbound mobility.................1 Knowledge workers 35...........................3 5.7.7 35....2...19......... 25...............10..9......50..............73 R&D financed by business.......... 102 Global Innovation Index 2009........113 Electricity consumption..n/a..............7.....................86......4 E-Participation*......................1....7. %........4 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.....3 Political stability*...8.......11 3................................ %....13..85 3...........8 103 5... % GDP............................................. % GDP.................1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 36............................... %............4................5 University/industry collaboration†.....4 Royalty & license fees receipts.2 1..2..................4 99 4 Market sophistication 4.........9........112 Rigidity of employment*...5 Recreation & culture consumption......2 2..8 39.104 School life expectancy.2............4 5.... 19...n/a...... %..2...71 High-tech imports less re-imports............................. %............ PPP (current international $) 1.................3...............5 26.......5..........................80.........................................1.....3.... 15–64 yrs...n/a 6..53..1...2 3....0..6. %........................3.2 4.105 State of cluster development†...... %.........n/a....35 Graduates in engineering........2 3................1.........0...4.0....2..............................71 2..2 Knowledge impact 6.22 R&D performed by business.9 11..74 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$............8..........110 3.... %....1 Education 34...................3 7....3 4.................6 74 ..1 2.............1 1...................3 12 92 6 Scientific outputs 6..................3.............1 109 6......... % GDP..........0...........5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.2 2.......47......3....................64....2.....2.1.....0..........6 120 1....... %......1 ICT access*............28...I: Country/Economy Profiles 140 Cambodia Key indicators Population (millions) 15. 117 1 Institutions Political environment 1................92 1......3 3............ 108 Innovation Input Sub-Index......................................6 64 24..........n/a...n/a............................................4 2........................................n/a Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.....3...........2..3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*........... kWh/cap..............1.2...............5 Education expenditure............94 Rule of law*.....1.............93 Quality research institutions†....43 R&D financed by abroad............... 31.93 Creative services exports.....................7........3..2 101 79 118 7 Creative outputs 24............63 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...2........2 6..20.......................1 2......n/a...................98 FDI net outflows.............69 4..............................................57..42.1 Creative intangibles 34.111 GDP/unit of energy use...2 Tertiary education 2...2... 103 Innovation Efficiency Index......2.........5 16.......67.....51.... % GDP.......5......0.............................n/a.............2 Energy 29....2....106 6......................2 Creative goods & services 7..........2.............2.....3 42 4.. % GNI.....20....... 100...2.....................0........................2.......27 New businesses/1.......4.....

......22 FDI net inflows..............1........ ha/cap.0 114 Strength of legal rights for credit*...6.n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$..93 Market capitalization..1 33...8.....................3.......1 3...........0..........3..........2.8.........5 36..............................2 Energy 24..2.........1.................2 7...5 107 5 Business sophistication 5.....1 5..................1 1...9 34.......2.1 6. %....2 4....................... 119 Global Innovation Index 2009.........14......11..8......103 Gross capital formation.. % GDP.....0..1 110 16..................Cameroon Population (millions) 20....71 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.n/a Quality research institutions†.... %.15..0......4................1.....1...2....4 Royalty & license fees receipts..........3....1.........................79 26..........4 E-Participation*.........7............33.....3.1......71 2................2 3........2.....................92 Public expenditure/pupil..............19....52 5.........2..52.............n/a......n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....2.........000 pop...........3......0 105 10..3... service imports.....................111 Press freedom*............................................5.....30.......81 School life expectancy..........33.....5. % GDP....... technologies (ICT) 24.2 4...............................n/a...2 Regulatory environment 1................7......0..3 97 2........ %......2.......n/a.........................2.. maths..................60 6...........9..9...1..3 Political stability*...2 2.....1 Creative intangibles 44.............96 2 Human capital & research 2..................15.................78..66 New businesses/1............n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.......13...........................1 7............1.........2 ICT use*.........1.... %........22 28...............67 6.........39..... 30.....3...97 Gross expenditure on R&D.....2 Tertiary education 2.....................9 111 1.............46.............. % profits..4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..................2...111 Rule of law*.................... % GDP......7..........................................................9...........4 2......5... 0..........................................3......3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..2 Knowledge impact 6..1......34.....................42......15................................0.......3.......1.....109 Total tax rate................3...........................3 Knowledge diffusion 6...2 1.........73 5........................0. kWh/capita.....4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.n/a Computer & comm service exports..... 23.n/a......29..........9...............1................0.....88 Intensity local competition†..71 3......... 110 Innovation Efficiency Index.n/a Computer & comm....104 PISA scales in reading...3.........73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor........2 3........... PPP$/kg oil eq.......9..n/a...............8..93 1...2................. %.......................90 3 Infrastructure 3...........1 2.................... kWh/cap......8 3..........0...........5 University/industry collaboration†................3 Government’s Online Service*..............3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*...........................5........... % firms...2....0.5 85 91 21.n/a Firms offering formal training........... %.......1 4..................3 Knowledge absorption 5...3 7.....n/a ICT & business models†.6 99 118 52 6 Scientific outputs 22.........2.................n/a.....0.......8 74 6........0..............................3 44 3...........4 Royalty & license fees payments.....1.......3 5.......2...1...............................0.24.........................................3.....1......................0........0.......................34.....3 6. %.............. % GDP/cap..................117 R&D financed by abroad........2..........n/a............................... %......................3.....1 3..........0 17.........2.. 32 Global Innovation Index 2010..59.......1 Credit 4......3............................ %...n/a....104 Electricity consumption......31 4....5 2.2.1...............3............54 39............1.......................78 High-tech imports less re-imports............120 Market access trade restrictiveness*..............n/a R&D financed by business......0 16...........................69 4..............................1 2.81 Government effectiveness*......108 3.........3....3 5....3..........n/a...................................54.........3 2......... %.2....83 Exports of goods & services.........2............... %........ % GDP....2 105 115 99 99 46..31...1.........n/a Pupil-teacher ratio..............23...........2.........2 2......0..n/a......... % GDP........n/a..5 100 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 141 ......48...........3 Trade & competition 4.........96 Ecological footprint & biocapacity..7.....0 GDP per capita...3.................80 High-tech exports less re-exports...n/a.........2 6....104 GDP/unit of energy use....1............. % income/cap.4 Strength of investor protection*..........61.....n/a Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...1............1.....1 7....................115 7.........2.............3 2........1 Knowledge creation 5.....3.....2............6 Tertiary enrolment.................6.1 4...............2...........2. %........46..............2......2 4........42 FDI net outflows..............16...97 Depth of credit information*..........3...3............. %.3 4..113 Creative services exports.............................1.................0.......................4 7....2...............1......2............2 5....98 Graduates in science..67 Share of renewables in energy use............3 Business environment 1......................3........0..................2 2...............3 3.....................7..2..........4............... %........2 7....2.... 85 Innovation Input Sub-Index.... % GDP..113 Rigidity of employment*.1 ICT access*....2 5.2 5.. years.......................................4 28......9 GDP (US$ billions) 22.......58 National feature films/mn pop...............1.n/a Creative goods exports....82............. % GDP.........0.....103 State of cluster development†...n/a Total value of stocks traded...6.4....0.........29 28....... % GDP....4 Knowledge-intensive employment...................1 5..................................n/a 5...............3 104 4 Market sophistication 4...........60...2 6....2....1.................................36............. % gross.....77......71 Tertiary outbound mobility.... %...................................................3 5........62 Daily newspapers/1.. %..4 4....27.....3 4.......... 106 1 Institutions 45..1 Info & comm.15..................6 29....70 Cost to start a business. & science.....000 literate pop.........111 3........11......... 27.....2...90 1.3......................204....... % GDP....... days............................1 4.1................59....................................10 Graduates in engineering.....n/a......43.......... %............6 71 44 7 Creative outputs 25..2 1..7 64 7......9........................n/a Computer software spending....2...............5 111 3............1 93 7..... % GDP.................... secondary...............0....... % GDP.......1.....2..3 4.5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean..... % GDP.... 103 Innovation Output Sub-Index....................1..4.....3 6..... %.....2.......................1..........5 Recreation & culture consumption.......3....6...1....4 5.....................40..1 6.....111 Microfinance gross loans.............4 104 5..............1 5.......................2......1 Knowledge workers 26....2.........3 Research & development (R&D) 2.....2 6..88 Tertiary inbound mobility...............2... %...1........................3...1 6.................3........................2 Innovation linkages 5.6....1 1...........26.................26....3........ % GNI.......12.....8...............6.1 Political environment 1......1.25....n/a......3......................... PPP (current international $) 2...............5 71 6..53........................4.....................7 62 4.........37.................1.39 Imports of goods & services.4 Electricity output...7......3 7..................... % GDP..4..........1........................ %....1................................1 1.....................................95 Domestic credit to private sector...n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..............3..................4 2...........3.............6. %.................2........0...59..3.......................................67......2................3 Researchers headcount/million pop......................5 Education expenditure........1 Education 35.......22 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment........66 R&D performed by business........2 Investment 28..........n/a... 15–64 yrs.0...............................3 Time to start a business..9...2.....2 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.....................................................18...........1...118 3.3 General infrastructure 3............3 Regulatory quality*.............75 ICT & organizational models†.....3 67....2 1........2 Creative goods & services 7..8.3................1 2.........59 2.............................n/a...................

.....945..8..3 4.....5 Electricity consumption..3 Total tax rate..76 Intensity local competition†..2.................2 Energy 36.....2 1.....................6..1... % GDP.80 59............15............n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$...1 4.......................................n/a Creative goods exports...........0.................... % profits.. % GDP.1 6..... %........1 58.......3..42.......4 2..........................................3..................4...............................85 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.... %.............4 Knowledge-intensive employment......26 20 5..................1....83...18 54... % GDP/cap.....................3 Business environment 1....3.............2 4...............4 Royalty & license fees receipts....8 44.........2......3..2 3........2........2......89............................ % income/cap.........3................1..........n/a......................2 6.......3 7.20 1.........8.................2.....6..6 GDP (US$ billions) 1................7....................1...............11 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$........3...n/a..3 Knowledge diffusion 6......8 ICT & organizational models†...1......7........57...1.... %...3..............5 Market capitalization............. % GDP...n/a...............14 6.................... maths..........26 Graduates in science. %.1 Creative intangibles 54..........n/a Gross expenditure on R&D.75........ %......99...78.....0...96....7 16 Strength of legal rights for credit*......0 4 7...11 Microfinance gross loans.......3 Political stability*.......................... secondary.58.1 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.....................19.33............9 GDP per capita..............2.......96..48 FDI net inflows.........................9... %........80.................3 4................7.............1 7....2 Investment 67...............25.....1 5..3 2...........28 Computer & comm service exports................. %...3 5.2..27 Tertiary outbound mobility.1 4........9.68........8 Rigidity of employment*. %....................................... & science............4 56............................3..........2....21...6.....................85 Exports of goods & services..........3...............4.........5 Education expenditure....................0............4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...........52......1...................3 7 26 6 Scientific outputs 42......1..2 7.............1 1.........6.......2..........2...56.......9 6 3.....9 Rule of law*..............2 Knowledge impact 6.5 University/industry collaboration†....... 64....4 45 5 Business sophistication 5.........37...1 1................................................ 100...............2 5..................................63...........1 Credit 4.......2........6........8..........2 3......60.............9 5 .2......1.......................96 New businesses/1.28 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$...........................3 Government’s Online Service*............2...........................................2......... 12 Global Innovation Index 2009.....336..........3...1........ 15–64 yrs.........2..4 4...2 5 4 Market sophistication 4...18.7.7...2.........2.......42..............8 3......2 2......1....97.2 4......... % GDP...51 3.29 R&D financed by business....3 92.3 53........................22......................... %......6 Tertiary enrolment......3 3.......5 38 2................n/a................... % GDP.........2..55........3 6...........3.....66 Ecological footprint & biocapacity....................25 2 Human capital & research 2.........................1 Knowledge creation 38.. % GDP.................76......26 Daily newspapers/1............2..............32......4 2.....73......................2 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor..5. %.3 6....... % GDP..........1 1...9 6.................2 2.....10.......3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..............71. %...........................2....25..................................3..2 11 3...........25 5...................83 Share of renewables in energy use.............1......2 5.4 9 68...10 Gross capital formation.3 2..............8 1................4 Electricity output.............8 3 Infrastructure 3....2.........0 5................23 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$....7...........75..............3 7......43 Creative services exports.................................................... %.9...6 Market access trade restrictiveness*........3 4...........6.... 8 Innovation Output Sub-Index..........1...3 Trade & competition 4..............5 Recreation & culture consumption...2 29 7...............2 5. 56............4..............1 Education 91......32..............n/a..3 5.........1 6...3......................3..........................63.......1................ 8 Innovation Efficiency Index....... %.....72..1............... % GNI.55.........................................19 46...7..........18 National feature films/mn pop...1... % GDP..1..3 Time to start a business...............2......... service imports....2..........2 Tertiary education 2.... kWh/capita.......................4 Strength of investor protection*......96......3 Regulatory quality*...38.....1 Domestic credit to private sector................2.........2............84 2.......5.............1..................n/a 4.....................................................................................................................7....................... 100.......9.................6.......................5 21 6............3..2 19 6..27 Graduates in engineering........... % GDP.............................21 3........2 1.3..............1. days....... % GDP...78.. %...................43..................3.............n/a ICT & business models†.................1....24......2 43..27..........4 E-Participation*.......15 R&D financed by abroad.........13 Firms offering formal training....6.31.1 Info & comm...........................................71....2.......2.......2....... %.....51.2....1....4 7...3 3 1........88..................96............9 Cost to start a business.......1 2..................1.........3............53 Tertiary inbound mobility.........2......3..6.33 2.......................1 ICT access*....3.........1......3.......9.....3.1 2......4 5......6...............96.....45........... % gross.. %...3.....2.7 Press freedom*.........18 3.............0......3 Researchers headcount/million pop.............................7...8 Computer software spending......................72.......5 96...............................13 High-tech imports less re-imports...................18 PISA scales in reading.............1..7 State of cluster development†....1 7.......... 0.2 1..........................2......17 Quality research institutions†............30............12 Total value of stocks traded.....1.9....28 Computer & comm.4.............3.. % GDP......9.........34 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..................................3....................1 5......50....96...1....1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 93..... years..6......................80.1............33 School life expectancy......000 pop........1 6...............................4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.2 7...0.63.... % GDP..........3 5....... %..............18 High-tech exports less re-exports................48 Imports of goods & services.....................0 14 28 7 Creative outputs 54.... PPP$/kg oil eq............................................59..51.3 3.40 Public expenditure/pupil...........1..95............................6 7....2 6.....................................23..........................2 2..........6.1 4.... %.1 3 66............3 Knowledge absorption 5.....85.....4......4.0.2..9 11 6 11 19 65.........1 2..................... 10 Innovation Input Sub-Index....4 63....2........1...3.....................2................................2....30.......70.......2 Regulatory environment 1.4...I: Country/Economy Profiles 142 Canada Key indicators Population (millions) 33..4. ha/cap............n/a R&D performed by business.... % firms.....2 4.........12 Government effectiveness*............... kWh/cap..............................0.....................9.....82......2.....4..67.........2 Innovation linkages 5...1 3.......1 Knowledge workers 58. PPP (current international $) 37.............1 5....................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.............................................74....18.2 Creative goods & services 7...... technologies (ICT) 38.0 53............ 11 1 Institutions Political environment 1....4.....4 10 71.................. %.......57 Depth of credit information*............. %................64 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean..1.....3.3....4..... %....... % GDP..5 GDP/unit of energy use.........n/a............1..7.....3........................1.................. 48............................8.0.....2 ICT use*............................3............21 FDI net outflows......2 6.1...0.. 54 Global Innovation Index 2010....1 3...92.......5...3 General infrastructure 3.............39.......2 4.......7 Pupil-teacher ratio..64...1...0 38 13 53.000 literate pop..............3 Research & development (R&D) 2.4 Royalty & license fees payments.....6.......................................5 2..0 7 4......................

....5 29 4....1 5........................34 4. % GDP..3........9............6.....2 4.....1 1.............................42....................7........82.6 Tertiary enrolment...63....... 93 Global Innovation Index 2010..............1.........3.................30 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.2..1.....................n/a.......2 Regulatory environment 1.. % firms.......1 2.....63...2. service imports.......... %.........3 7..40..46 Share of renewables in energy use............91 Creative services exports..50 3.... % GDP..... %.........2....0....2. days.....n/a ICT & business models†............2...............................1.........................4....................................41 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$................................................1...9.......4 Knowledge-intensive employment......2.......................... %.7..48 Daily newspapers/1...10..2 ICT use*...8.0..............0...1 5..2..........13..........46.2.......... % GDP..............13........48.............28........4 Royalty & license fees receipts......7.............22 Microfinance gross loans.3.8 23..... % GDP.....2.2 4.1......1 4...3 3.......8 86.....60.......34.......5 Education expenditure............16..................1 5.......41 6.............3.........................2 6..............52 High-tech exports less re-exports.. %.................................................3 Knowledge absorption 5..........3 Political stability*.6 57 6...........2.........1......95.............2..............3 34..............4 44 3..........53 GDP/unit of energy use....................4 2.62 New businesses/1....57 11.....111 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.....33 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.2....5 49 56 6 Scientific outputs 20................... 48...................1 2...............2........2.......1 4..91 FDI net inflows............40..9.....45............5..2 Creative goods & services 7.......3.........25 Domestic credit to private sector..................1........55 Imports of goods & services.....12.............3 Researchers headcount/million pop.......4.............. % GDP....................................38 Firms offering formal training...............2.... % profits....2....2...................1..63.......................53 Electricity consumption....... % GDP..2.... technologies (ICT) 30.................30...............3 5.........................................1.......................3 35............2 Knowledge impact 6.3 4..18.......8.6.....................3..2 7.................7..6 62 63 31..........3 2......31 1..3 Trade & competition 4....3 4..........1.. % GDP...1..................1 7.....34 Government effectiveness*.....5.......2...............48 3.... %.... PPP$/kg oil eq..................3 87................................1 6.25 ICT & organizational models†....3..5 2......5....83.... 38.9.......47 5...............1.....................8...3 4................. % GDP...2 7..4 Royalty & license fees payments.............1 3.....8.........1 6.....1 1....3 5....22 Rigidity of employment*..........75....19 2 Human capital & research 2..........14 Rule of law*..........4 85 6.....68....2 5...3...4 47.......2 3...35 Graduates in science...2.......6..... 36 Innovation Efficiency Index...................................1 Education 81.......................2...1...... 38 Innovation Output Sub-Index.........41 Computer software spending.4 37 43....................................... years.....8............3... 0.....1 6.....8.....13.48...18.4.....3 Regulatory quality*.....5 University/industry collaboration†...1.....3 Time to start a business..........4..24 R&D performed by business.0.......1.........8.5...3.61 Graduates in engineering...1 3.20......2................. %.8..3...2 5...3.39 National feature films/mn pop.....15....9 22 12 32 71 50.0...8.2 4....2.......3.....1.........................................8.... % gross......3..........................................................4......2..........................1 Knowledge workers 41.......83 Depth of credit information*.1 Credit 4. %...................1 1........37 PISA scales in reading............13......23 Press freedom*....3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....4...............35 3................. 42 Global Innovation Index 2009......1.25 35..........20......7.........2................86 Exports of goods & services......18 3..63.....3...........3 6.......12 25....1 7........42..................................8 44 7.......................Chile Population (millions) 17.........1...2 2.1..................... ha/cap.......................22 Tertiary inbound mobility.......20.7 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index..3............3............. %..1.3......................... %...............7...2 1..........3........47 Gross expenditure on R&D...9.....9....3 7............................29 37 5. kWh/cap.32....................6 23...........4.....1.....2 Investment 42............3 Government’s Online Service*.........3....31 7............0 40 5 Business sophistication 5.............11 Total value of stocks traded....2 6.............................2......................3.. % GDP...4.............44 3..1 Creative intangibles 65.......1.... %..........................28........1 GDP per capita........84.......................3.....3........ 29................7 Market access trade restrictiveness*..4 7.....44 R&D financed by abroad...2.4 2..25..........0.... % GDP/cap......69...............1...........2 Energy 20..........4 Strength of investor protection*.5...............16 35.....2 1............3 Research & development (R&D) 2........ %.......1........43 6................34 High-tech imports less re-imports........2....6..........40..........36 R&D financed by business....... secondary...................................3........48 Gross capital formation.7....... % GDP.........37 State of cluster development†....1 ICT access*.......................... %.......9 81 75 7 Creative outputs 38..............78 Computer & comm service exports.....2...49 4.......... 57 Innovation Input Sub-Index...........47.....2 2......000 pop..........7.....4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.2.36..........................52.....7.....54...... %..............1... 15–64 yrs.3....2 5....................2..............................98 2.............3................3 Knowledge diffusion 6.........49.....1 89 2.....................88..........3 2...........2.................51...6..1..............................4 62 3.87..................................... % GNI... maths.2...69................8..........21............61.............. %.....1 Info & comm......7......5............................0 5.2............1................2 1....6..........4....5.....4.......66 Computer & comm....1...........1 Knowledge creation 11.......23 56...................9 8 7.....3 5.........59 Tertiary outbound mobility..........2 2........ %...........41 Quality research institutions†............... %...4...............58.....................6..........000 literate pop.......3 General infrastructure 3.... & science.........................................................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.....0........70....46..24..9 44 55.....4 5...........39 1.... % income/cap......2 Innovation linkages 5............42 Pupil-teacher ratio.........3 6......... %....16..........77 2..........1 50 37........................ %....................... %..................84 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.1........54 Total tax rate...........................................7 52 Strength of legal rights for credit*.....6 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.............2..3................... % GDP....47 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.....................330..................0.............16....... %................. %.........3.52..78 Cost to start a business..............0....3....3................78 FDI net outflows...................7 GDP (US$ billions) 163...........77 School life expectancy......3 Business environment 1...4 Electricity output..........35 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$...........36 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.............10........13......94..79....................93....3......................1 2.... PPP (current international $) 14......53............9........2 18 1....7...........1.......5...... 39 1 Institutions 85.......................................................3..1....5......3............44 Creative goods exports.............4 4...........................56 Intensity local competition†....27 Market capitalization...6.......2 Tertiary education 2..... % GDP......1 Political environment 1.....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean....51 3 Infrastructure 3.............31.....8 80 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 143 .2............4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...............61.....2....85.............4 E-Participation*.6.............................................1 4.... kWh/capita..2 3.77 Public expenditure/pupil.....4.5...........2.................55.................. % GDP..5 67 4 Market sophistication 4.....1......1...............5 Recreation & culture consumption..........................2 6......................................................................................1......

......4 33 28................1......72 Rigidity of employment*...... 43 Innovation Efficiency Index....354.1.........0.......7 9 6...2................n/a......3 2.1 3................2..2......1 R&D performed by business.....6 8 4.104 Cost to start a business.......................3 2 4 Market sophistication 4...n/a.........2.............4..24 Quality research institutions†........73 1......28 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$....4 Strength of investor protection*.........3 46 19 6 Scientific outputs 52......................................16...........17 49..3 Knowledge absorption 5..1..........64 Electricity consumption.40.........7...78 35...3 3................1 Creative intangibles 53......3 Researchers headcount/million pop....... 15–64 yrs.......2 Tertiary education 2...62 Press freedom*.2 5........1 7...... kWh/cap.......................3........ service imports.37...5.1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 51.2 2..1 26 49...2.9.....1.115 2 Human capital & research 2................1 1..2 7.....1 Knowledge workers 49....3 4....10.............3 7......8 39......... % GDP/cap......1 5........2 ICT use*...60....7.............87 PISA scales in reading................. % GDP.....77..... 46.........2 3............1 48..0.............................................. 46.................5 Education expenditure......................................1 3.....985.............67 3................2........7 98 1.............. 100..........2....1 1......................2 4.........2........2..........68 Market access trade restrictiveness*......3.0.......2 Investment 63............. 3 Global Innovation Index 2010.........1 Knowledge creation 54..3 29 64. % GDP.79..............................68...1..............................3...... %..2....17...5. % GDP.....n/a National feature films/mn pop......2 1.....7...1 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.......1 5.................2..........60 GDP/unit of energy use.....4 2........1.....70 Market capitalization....8...................................8..83 Rule of law*....5....5 Recreation & culture consumption.39 Total tax rate.........1......3..............................2 7..................70 Daily newspapers/1..........2 2................ %...4.1....1 Pupil-teacher ratio...........................7.................1.........5 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index..............2.1...2..2..78 63..3 Political stability*..32....2........3 5........5 68....3 Regulatory quality*.... %............................42 Imports of goods & services.45.................n/a Graduates in engineering...2 3...........1 4. %................5...............................5 92 3.....................4 Royalty & license fees receipts.........3 Research & development (R&D) 2................ % GNI.4..............................9.13 Microfinance gross loans...............0..........1.............. 100............9...............2 6...2.3 Trade & competition 4..........................93..3 6...........................45.........3 5.3.. %............................................77 Graduates in science.....4 5............................9..............24 State of cluster development†............8..........2..............1 6.17..................... %..........1 1....n/a.5........4 7..........3.4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..... %......23...24...........................3 Knowledge diffusion 6.... %..........0............1............3......0.7..10............8.. days.2....6.. %........ 37 1 Institutions Political environment 1............. % GDP..1..65 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.......................n/a Gross expenditure on R&D...... PPP (current international $) 6..................7.............................3 Business environment 1...0...3 6.....................0... %................................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...3.........3....33 3.........................................9...........................96.....................37 ICT & business models†..............3 4.........6..2.3.......5.........10...........85 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment..............8.... secondary......... %.......71................................2 2...........n/a School life expectancy......................4 E-Participation*...........67 2.....2...22 FDI net outflows....5 University/industry collaboration†.......9 51 2...................6........7.66.......1..3 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...........1.2 Knowledge impact 6......29..........0.......5.3 7..........1 45 ......44...12.3..........45...2.......63.......7 67 5 Business sophistication 5......80.......2 Creative goods & services 7..1 36 Strength of legal rights for credit*.........2.....2 4...........8........34 ICT & organizational models†................2 5.1...............8 47....2......4 54..8........1..36.......................................... % profits.5 2.......................1..55... 14 Innovation Input Sub-Index.............................56 3.............25 Gross capital formation.2................8.......2.......36 Creative goods exports....2 6.......69........1 6. % GDP.1.... 100........... %..3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*...63...................58........4 Knowledge-intensive employment.....n/a.................... 43 Global Innovation Index 2009.......61......3........9..................1 4............42............45 FDI net inflows......2.1 2.................n/a... %.....3 4........3.................9..3 New businesses/1....4 Electricity output......828.....83.3.......10..........4..............1......0....................3 Time to start a business...................5...................... % GDP... years..................................................56..............1 Credit 4...............................0.......... %.....................................................2.........3....3......50....................2 1.......2........ % GDP...........................22.......2 4...................2. %.. 46.............1........2............8...4 Computer & comm.....5........n/a Tertiary outbound mobility. % GDP.....1....3 2.30 6......... % GDP.................3......0............1 GDP per capita..2.............64.37........1 2.............5........................7 R&D financed by abroad.2 Regulatory environment 1.1....1.................1...... PPP$/kg oil eq.....7.....42 4..3 102 32 35.................4...........10 R&D financed by business...........n/a...................000 literate pop....................80.22...... % income/cap.......2 5........n/a...7. % GDP........8 5....2 6.......... 100...... % GDP..2 12 6.......40 6.......1........3.... % GDP......29..3 42.....................68 5................3.........................................3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....16 Total value of stocks traded.6............64..69 Share of renewables in energy use....... 100...............112 Exports of goods & services........................................................ % gross.1 7..........................2 Innovation linkages 5......1 2..............4 4.........2........ ha/cap..8 53.......000 pop........................................24....... technologies (ICT) 17....2... %........8.................... %......75.................6 Tertiary enrolment...1 ICT access*.....3.......67 High-tech exports less re-exports...........30 4......4 Creative services exports................5 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.........49........40 55...................2........3 5...................... %.................... %.....122 1....46 28....3.......3 Government’s Online Service*..............................1.15.85...52 3........95 Firms offering formal training........................1...........2.. %.........6..3..59......... & science..3......1 Education 32.......2 1.0....36 3 Infrastructure 3......2 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...2..........................3....................1 6.......64..4 2...... % firms...............................2.0 GDP (US$ billions) 4............ kWh/capita.................1.........................1.......................... %.9 35 7......................I: Country/Economy Profiles 144 China Key indicators Population (millions) 1...........3.54..64...............3............4.1.......6 30 5....................n/a Tertiary inbound mobility...........1 5..................1......46.........................................5.......1.13...........66 Domestic credit to private sector......36 7..4 Royalty & license fees payments.....4 59 3......1 Info & comm..........83 Government effectiveness*..6 9 21 7 Creative outputs 40...3.41 High-tech imports less re-imports..1 4..................1..2 Energy 14....82 2.........7 30 7.n/a Computer software spending.1.......87 Intensity local competition†.......3 General infrastructure 3.......77................. 29 Innovation Output Sub-Index....... maths...37 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor................57 Depth of credit information*. 1.66 3....1.............19........1........115 Public expenditure/pupil.........2............................9 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..................3.2...........................................................3...3 Computer & comm service exports.............................. % GDP....................3..........9 108 76 95 56 59....

...1 1.....3 General infrastructure 3........ & science.........88 GDP/unit of energy use.34 2................3 18.......2........... %.............3.1..................39.......0 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index...0...........2............................69 Microfinance gross loans..................................63..............2......................4..4 E-Participation*....n/a Tertiary outbound mobility......120 Government effectiveness*...........1....24.............................................................1.................. % GDP..4 5.1.1. % firms.....5........0.......................................................9.....62........68 Computer & comm service exports........5 14.1 6..........6 21...............3.................47 30..... % GDP.......................... % GDP.1.......3..70 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor...1........3.....3 7.........29....54 Cost to start a business.. % GDP/cap..5......56.64 4.....1................................3 Regulatory quality*...959...3..2......3 4.2 2...... PPP$/kg oil eq.................3 62........3 6.90 Graduates in engineering............2 1...37 R&D financed by abroad........... 70 Innovation Input Sub-Index...........5 2..Colombia Population (millions) 46..........8........2 GDP (US$ billions) 234........29........................5..................... % GDP..23.......4 Knowledge-intensive employment...........................6.......... 74 Innovation Efficiency Index..........................75 Daily newspapers/1.1.1.......4 7.......... 75 1 Institutions 55.....49......1 5........2 Innovation linkages 5........ %......82 Electricity consumption....... %..17......0....................81 Rigidity of employment*..... %. % income/cap....2.....62 High-tech imports less re-imports.......3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...6 43 3....................58 High-tech exports less re-exports....0.3...6....000 literate pop....42.................... %..........2.........1 4.................88........83............41..1.....................5 73 44 6 Scientific outputs 6.............1 5.......61 Firms offering formal training...................113 Intensity local competition†.........n/a..........75 FDI net outflows.......1................................................................0................3........................3....................7.............1 3............2.26...46 Creative services exports.38 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.. %.....................0....1 6..............................................7..1 4..59 R&D financed by business.................. %................2........................................2 5..7..........71 Gross expenditure on R&D.............8....... %.83 New businesses/1................3................. % GDP................................3..........7..9........2..2.......1...........4 2........50 73 5..........49 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.3 Share of renewables in energy use........ 71 Innovation Output Sub-Index...0....................7 32 37.......................................................2..............................3 GDP per capita............3.........86........7........................2 4..............3........121 Exports of goods & services....................2.....39...0.....51.............1...1...............4 66 37......2..................................................... %........... % GDP................4 Strength of investor protection*.........3 5....3.......2 Energy 31..................7 30.....3......2................75 3 Infrastructure 3....14 38.......................................2 Creative goods & services 7.....................44.2 7...32 Total value of stocks traded...............3 5.........1 3...............51 Pupil-teacher ratio..1 Political environment 1......n/a..57 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.............2.............2.......90....... kWh/capita.......2...21................60 Graduates in science.....1..................... % GDP....38 3.........1....................3 4........6 Tertiary enrolment.......2........62 3........................ % gross..4 4...27 3...66 Press freedom*. 90 Global Innovation Index 2009.....5 Market capitalization....................0........65 Rule of law*........1..78 Quality research institutions†....5...........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$........5...0..................5..........4 41 4.......15........6....4 5.. PPP (current international $) 8.... %...............................2 1.......49.............1 74 Strength of legal rights for credit*...2 6....3 Time to start a business....107 1......70 School life expectancy..79 2..............................................53 Creative goods exports.......... %....................52 5.............7..107 2..................2 4........1 1...........1 6.. %.......... 32.2.......2... % GDP........2...................4 2...0....2 46 4 Market sophistication 4.1 5........1.......3.....50.............................0.....2 Regulatory environment 1.....9 101 2...........1 2........80 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$............... %... %......1.3........... % GNI.............26 4....................2 5.....2 Tertiary education 2..1 114 6.29..........78 38.....57..2...5 Recreation & culture consumption.....1.........1 1.........1 7.....................1 4........ service imports....3 Research & development (R&D) 2.37............8 47 7......4...2............8 109 5 Business sophistication 5...99 6..34.2...6 64 100 35................................2...1 2...........4...1 Info & comm.......4 36............3 Knowledge diffusion 6.....3 Knowledge absorption 5.........45..............1....1.....3.......8...........7 83 1............25 Domestic credit to private sector. %.3 6..........3 3...................2.14.....1.... 0...2.......3 Government’s Online Service*............4 Royalty & license fees payments.................................. 15–64 yrs..........15 25...3 Business environment 1..... % GDP.............55 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$....2.2 3....66 Public expenditure/pupil..2 5.....................................1.31.........................46 ICT & organizational models†.................4..........6............................ %...50..........................3...2......1 7...2 6..3.....3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*... %........1.................2 Knowledge impact 6............ % GDP............................... %...2 Investment 35........................1.................1.1 Knowledge workers 35.2.........21..3.4 Electricity output..................5.29.........2 2........4 Royalty & license fees receipts..1............... technologies (ICT) 30..2...77 Total tax rate...........................1 Knowledge creation 14........2.......44 State of cluster development†.....1..............26 Imports of goods & services................3 68....1.35 7.2 3.......2 1.....2........2 4...2...... %...................7.8...............................3 Researchers headcount/million pop....14...................................1............2.........3 14 3...................3............ 25..3 2......4...........................60 Gross capital formation.................4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.... %..45.........3..2...122 2 Human capital & research 2......................48...........45........35 R&D performed by business......6..8.....3 Trade & competition 4.......5.1 2...1........ % profits.....000 pop............104 Market access trade restrictiveness*...61....3 7...............2.........1 Education 36.4..4 104 103 90 7 Creative outputs 37.....39......................1........ % GDP.......23.................1 Creative intangibles 49.......1.5.....3.5..........7........ kWh/cap...........3...3 Political stability*....12....9.. 38.39...........71......3.........................1.5...12...5.............5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.........83..................71 Depth of credit information*............6...2.1.3.......2................39..9...........43...................5 Education expenditure..60 FDI net inflows......2..................................71.............0 101 59 96 91 44..................... maths.......8..... years..............6 52 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 145 ..1....1 Credit 4..........0. days.3..............................3 2...8....9......100 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment...1................53 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$......... % GDP.........62 6....n/a ICT & business models†....8 74 36...2....3 5..........5 University/industry collaboration†...3.52........................0...... secondary.......2 ICT use*..........................34 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$............ 75 Global Innovation Index 2010.........3....29...........87............2...57 Computer software spending..........5 Tertiary inbound mobility......................3................1.............1..1.......................9. % GDP......7 47 7...............................1 ICT access*...........8..53 3...................18 1........5...... %....57.........3...2 7......40...1................3 4..2 2...56.9...3....53 PISA scales in reading.......9.12......... ha/cap.............73...9 3..................8....6...9 Computer & comm.2 6..45 National feature films/mn pop...2.................2 38...................

.. 33.... PPP$/kg oil eq..................2 60 2...............2.65 FDI net inflows............1....4 Royalty & license fees payments...1..n/a ICT & business models†..........................3..................2 Regulatory environment 1................3 2.......30 ICT & organizational models†......5....9 58 1....2.62 Quality research institutions†....0................................12..................4 Knowledge-intensive employment............1...................6...4...... % GDP..24....1.............6............50 Rule of law*.....1 6.77 Ecological footprint & biocapacity... %. % GDP.........................................8 5......65.69 Graduates in engineering..................... %...........64 3................. % income/cap................... % firms.5................. %..... %.......54....65.................8 45 7..........77 High-tech exports less re-exports.6 Tertiary enrolment...2.....5 103 57 29......37...2 6............3 7..................3 2...........n/a Pupil-teacher ratio.....2 7.....14 Computer & comm.................................1 4...........78...7...6........1.........................3 Time to start a business...................n/a................79..1.2 5..5..........3..5 5 7.........30......................3 5.........5......3 Knowledge diffusion 6........2 Innovation linkages 5........7 94 35.37.........2.......n/a............n/a.....................26 R&D performed by business................................. 48 1 Institutions Political environment 1...1... % GDP..2..................3...7....3........n/a........3..0..10......3.......................0....1 Creative intangibles 69...0........... % GDP............................70...5 Computer & comm service exports............ % gross...................................1..............3.......5 13 3......................1 6..2................1 2...........1............................ 29 Global Innovation Index 2010.......................58.......1.......27 1.............81 6......2 Tertiary education 2....6.. %......3........16.....3 Business environment 1... % GDP..2.117 Cost to start a business.....................70....8..............................................n/a..9... %.4 7......65.................3 Research & development (R&D) 2..n/a Daily newspapers/1..................1...1 Education 75..1.....................................86 PISA scales in reading.. % GDP..................... %...........6...3 4.......27..............73 Electricity consumption.......3...3.....1........................4 5..33....2...............0.....9.......73 3...............2 Knowledge impact 6...... % GDP.1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 67........4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$....4 32........21.........................7..71 Depth of credit information*..........3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....................6.......9 33 49.4.......1 4......4 4................2......4 Strength of investor protection*..........67 Market access trade restrictiveness*.....1 3....................4 Royalty & license fees receipts.8..........46 Firms offering formal training...2 7..4 Electricity output...........4 43 6...65 Total tax rate....69 4...60...3.... %............2 4...2.....3... % GDP...........................................4.....................................2....... % GDP/cap...0 42........55........................6..........1......58 School life expectancy..105.............2 3. % GDP.........2 5.......7 49 5 Business sophistication 5............ %...........51..............61........................................ %.....9..................3.......3 Political stability*..1 37 54 106 79 58...........0............................7...............61..2.........0...........65 31.2......7..71 GDP/unit of energy use.............47..69 2................1........ % GNI........2...n/a..............30 53................80 2....3 4.14........66....3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*........................2 4.....69..........1 7......5 University/industry collaboration†.............7.....32 Government effectiveness*.....56 53....1................................I: Country/Economy Profiles 146 Costa Rica Key indicators Population (millions) 4.......0.....2.......... days.........51 4..n/a.......0.........3.3.......................................83...1.8.......1.......1 2.....6 55 25.....1.3 3..93 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$................47 Intensity local competition†.....9.......27 State of cluster development†.32 FDI net outflows.... service imports............................. % GDP.......2...9.......38 Creative goods exports.....57 6.............2....................3 6.3........n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$....................6 GDP per capita....3...................2 4..................1.......... 37 Innovation Input Sub-Index.......43..........2 6..5..1... technologies (ICT) 16....1 6........ 0.85 40......1.........1.............5 67 3......2........51............67........1........2 6....46........2..3............3.........63 3.1....2....3.............4 E-Participation*..............................................1 5...92 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment............................. %...50..........3................ kWh/capita..13 Public expenditure/pupil........49 Press freedom*.1...........8 87 4 Market sophistication 4...........90 8...1........5.......2 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index............3............4......n/a....7 GDP (US$ billions) 29.................2 2......8 40.68..........12..1 Knowledge creation 3...n/a 42 5...2.......3.....1 7.......54 Gross expenditure on R&D....25..........0 92 ..2....5...........1....2.............3...........................4 76 Strength of legal rights for credit*..1 Credit 4.....2 95 6........8.........................91..............29....45.................3........................................................3 4........1 2. %. 45 Innovation Output Sub-Index...................... % GDP...........1 5....... 53 Innovation Efficiency Index.....1 1........25 Domestic credit to private sector..........101 New businesses/1.................000 literate pop......2 5...................000 pop.2 Investment 9........7....4 2.........................1.2.0................................20...1 4.............5 24.....44 Rigidity of employment*. 15–64 yrs.......................................................3 Trade & competition 4......62 Tertiary outbound mobility................7 63......8......7 15 37 6 Scientific outputs 28.39....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$... %.......... % GDP............3..2........2 Energy 31.........30 3 Infrastructure 3...................1 124 4.........................1......2...2 1...3 Regulatory quality*..............9........................n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$...2 1.. % GDP. %........3.0.5 Computer software spending.1 Info & comm...........1 ICT access*..3 7.........1.........79 Tertiary inbound mobility............................52..68 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$....................96 Total value of stocks traded....................1 26 29 7 Creative outputs 38................................3 Government’s Online Service*....................... %.............0...47........... & science.................... PPP (current international $) 11..........................................................................2.....7.3 6.....0 33............... %........63 Gross capital formation.....1 Knowledge workers 47.............2 1..............1.3 Knowledge absorption 5................0........106 2 Human capital & research 2..4..2. kWh/cap.........3........ 41 Global Innovation Index 2009..............2...... ha/cap.............................................90 1.....................61.............8.....2.8.1..1....2 Creative goods & services 7.3 5.......2 3...........1.............. %........................3........5.............1 3..2 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$........6.....0......................22.81...4 2......2 2..21......9........20.......... 37.................41 7............8.5...2...............47 R&D financed by abroad.... 42...................119 Market capitalization.....2 5........2.........5 Education expenditure.60 Imports of goods & services....0...................4.....64 Creative services exports................75 Graduates in science............2...n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.................1 5.....................................38.........34...83......54 Exports of goods & services......8 64..........0....... secondary...55.........................2 ICT use*.......1 1... maths........... %............45 R&D financed by business.........39........................91........14..............3 General infrastructure 3................... years..... % profits...3 Researchers headcount/million pop.......56 3....5 Recreation & culture consumption..... %.......... %..................46 Microfinance gross loans....1.7..........n/a National feature films/mn pop.......3..............73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor..3..... %..42 High-tech imports less re-imports.2...30..........5.....5 2.............1.......2....20 3.....................13 Share of renewables in energy use..........6....................5...1 1................2 2.........1.8.3 5.

............36..... % GDP.........47 4...1 ICT access*....2.........6.....0..............27...... & science...1 3.n/a 2.........1..5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.................5 Education expenditure............8......................73 5........26...... %.................0........2.....97 Share of renewables in energy use..............3.5...................8.....1 Political environment 1...................3.................4 7... % GDP.................3 Political stability*..5 Recreation & culture consumption....3..3.... 23...................3.6.n/a........ %................7 113 6........2............n/a....2................65 2...... % GDP...1.2 2.....3 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.......1.....5....2 5...................1 2........2...........3....9...2...........n/a Creative goods exports....122 Rigidity of employment*..............0....2 3...........1....79 Gross capital formation....... %.n/a Tertiary inbound mobility.......4 5......2 4.44..73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.................1.......................... 125 Innovation Efficiency Index........4 Strength of investor protection*................. 89 Global Innovation Index 2009............2........67...........3 4....4.......60 Total value of stocks traded.....1...........n/a Tertiary outbound mobility.......4 108 84 19........11.1 Credit 4.9.....3 6..........2....... 15–64 yrs.........6 121 11..118 State of cluster development†...........49.n/a Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...... %...............................2...5..............9 39 7.........69 4.5 University/industry collaboration†.......8.2 1.3.......1 4............1 Knowledge workers 19.5 121 4...... 24....3................9......0...8....6 86 7...............2 6.......76 1...........2 7.122 Press freedom*............................... %.79 Computer & comm.123 Total tax rate......... % GDP.4 Royalty & license fees payments..................103 6.............83 Gross expenditure on R&D.1 1...........3.........3.......3..........................1....... % GDP....2..... % GDP....n/a...............1 Education 26.............................................1.. years........99 Microfinance gross loans.......24 24..... kWh/capita.........3...5..........................4........................4 2.......n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.80 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$...... % GDP...1..........................68 Imports of goods & services....... %. %....................1..1 5..............3 4......3 5...............69 FDI net inflows.....1..........0....0..n/a..1...n/a...............3 7....n/a................0.6 117 2........ %...1 4....... %........0 25..3 Researchers headcount/million pop....2 4...n/a.64 3................3 Regulatory quality*.. % income/cap...1.......74 18..............32......1 2.....1........9.....9.....................1.......Côte d’Ivoire Population (millions) 21.1 Creative intangibles 50..0......6 GDP per capita.... %........4 Electricity output....n/a Quality research institutions†...................4 2........3...7...7 113 15.................1..............................2...8 119 4 Market sophistication 4.....................5........n/a.....80 R&D performed by business..... % GDP..............0...............n/a....3 Business environment 1................2.....113 Market capitalization.......................................1 2....2.....2 Investment 12.n/a 5.............................. %.......3.................n/a National feature films/mn pop....n/a ICT & business models†.........................................5..................1..0.0........17.............................3 Research & development (R&D) 2.....74.1..89 Market access trade restrictiveness*..3..... % firms....2......2.... % GNI.1..5........................2.......2 1..................3 2.......................................3 7.....52 Intensity local competition†....2 2............3..............................3..........2 7.............2 Knowledge impact 6.........3 125 5..1...............3 General infrastructure 3.................................................................................n/a..........1 1........2 Regulatory environment 1..4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$........4 86 5 Business sophistication 5............ %.........0....2.. %......106 Electricity consumption................... days...2........... % profits........2 Creative goods & services 7.....1............n/a 2.112 3.....84 1............1..4..........64....5 30..........2.........2........1...9......................83 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$...62..........3..........91 35.....2 5..........2..........10...............85 3 Infrastructure 3.......3. 117 Innovation Output Sub-Index...............3.........1 6.....103 3..2............................4 E-Participation*...........................1 5...........2 ICT use*....67...n/a.10.3.....1.......0...................116 Rule of law*................16............ %..3 Knowledge diffusion 6..19.....................2..124 Ecological footprint & biocapacity..........64 ICT & organizational models†.......... %.........n/a...............2...n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..1 Info & comm............18....2.............................2........65 3........2 3............ 1.........2..2 Tertiary education 2.... % GDP......1 1..............46......701............................3 116 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 147 ...3 18.6...... kWh/cap..........n/a.....................................1...0.......................97 Depth of credit information*.....n/a R&D financed by business................n/a......4 23.........2 5..............0.....4 Knowledge-intensive employment...1...0.........................3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker.....2..................14 School life expectancy.2 1............n/a Graduates in engineering..n/a 6....1..0 70 3........0...........................3 6..............35....................30......1.........6 Tertiary enrolment..36.........n/a Computer software spending............22......2 4.1.....3 2..........................120 R&D financed by abroad.....3......n/a...n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...............3..35.........9.............n/a Firms offering formal training........ %............................4.....4 116 119 120 21...........................9 3...............n/a...... technologies (ICT) 14.....1................6.n/a Daily newspapers/1........1 118 30................................1 5.....2.....1.....7.............0....108 Cost to start a business....50...............5 31............... % GDP........... 24..................77 New businesses/1.......3 Time to start a business....1 4.......73 46...3 4...............................33.................3............42.....7....................0...3.40........1.....101 Graduates in science..1........3 5..45 Public expenditure/pupil.......3 122 1.... secondary.......0 14. % GDP..103 Creative services exports...1............................. PPP (current international $) 1.19..........3 Knowledge absorption 5........1.................13 FDI net outflows.....................n/a.............0........ %..........9 119 Strength of legal rights for credit*....9 42.........................4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.77 2 Human capital & research 2..................9 69 6....................1..................................................n/a Pupil-teacher ratio......................... 1 Global Innovation Index 2010............ maths.....0..............2 6..........1....1 6.....................n/a 1 Institutions 33.....4 Royalty & license fees receipts.15....................3..........................3............107 GDP/unit of energy use..69 High-tech imports less re-imports........................1.......3.n/a.8..... %.3..................3 Government’s Online Service*...................................1................61......................................8.......1 7..3 3.......2.......4...............1............... % GDP...47.........3 Trade & competition 4..............3......................34............2......................................2..000 pop...... ha/cap.............. % GDP/cap..3 5................ %...5 2....................9 116 123 97 6 Scientific outputs 22........2.n/a............1 7... service imports................2 97 3.........6...............................1 Knowledge creation 1..............0.2...... %.......6.....6 41 48 7 Creative outputs 26....2 GDP (US$ billions) 23.1 6..........1 3...........0................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.......4 4..55 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment....2 Innovation linkages 5.118 Government effectiveness*.....0..0.....................................62......................0..2 6......... PPP$/kg oil eq.........91 7.... %..........116 PISA scales in reading.....................................2 Energy 19...18.............47.................82 High-tech exports less re-exports..........n/a....................000 literate pop.60 Computer & comm service exports.105 Domestic credit to private sector....... % gross.......................... % GDP.0.......2 2..............................9................................76 Exports of goods & services. 79 Innovation Input Sub-Index.....57......4........

..........60 R&D performed by business......................... %.59..2.............10.......1 1............2 Knowledge impact 6..9......................................................1.......................1......2 1......... service imports.3 Knowledge absorption 5....................2 ICT use*.1 Info & comm..........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.8 29..........................40................49 Rule of law*........0........9 40 6.2 Investment 16................70 4.................1...81 Gross capital formation................29.......................................I: Country/Economy Profiles 148 Croatia Key indicators Population (millions) 4....40..2........3....26 3.66 Domestic credit to private sector.......3................................29.............................. % GDP..........3 7............39 3....21 Cost to start a business........3...2.......... 38...................47 High-tech exports less re-exports.....................94.6 Tertiary enrolment......2....................60 Electricity consumption..................................5........24 30................6...........29 25..........................76..2.50.............53................56....................1......12......2..........................3..19.4............5 Education expenditure...21 Imports of goods & services........38....61 Exports of goods & services.........2.. % GDP.....................0............81........................................ % GNI...3.......40 2 Human capital & research 2...............5.....60 Total tax rate.......27.2 7.. % GDP.........................35 Pupil-teacher ratio..5....35 Quality research institutions†...........3....2.....2................3....................89................42 Press freedom*.......... % profits.......2..50 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.......16 National feature films/mn pop..40 Firms offering formal training.........................1..24 Creative services exports.....1 2.. 62 1 Institutions Political environment 1...3................66..3....... %...8..................2 29 3.1....39...0..............................2........4 Knowledge-intensive employment.........................................3...............35 School life expectancy.........805.1.........69 4..................4 4....3 4....3 5.1........7.........2.....4 66 74 7 Creative outputs 36..............................93 FDI net outflows...4 Royalty & license fees receipts......110 1..... 44 Innovation Output Sub-Index.....45.....2................1.......... % GDP........2....n/a 6..........................2 4.62 Computer & comm.............................40.3........................4.....1 Creative intangibles 40..............2............1......................................27............................................................. %.......2.61 5....6..........4 110 4...000 pop.. %....36.19....2.......11.....0...............3....3......... 31. % firms... maths.3 5.............2 1..................1 4.....2 2.........67.................9 79 7..3..5 Recreation & culture consumption....20... %.1..................65 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.....1 6...........29 6..............3 6........3 2..........1 5............1.....35 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$..19........ 45 Global Innovation Index 2009....................1......3 6. %...................0....3 Research & development (R&D) 2... 0................5......... years......4 2.....1...1..... & science.....68. % GDP.........4 7...........6......4 5..........3................38....................37 3......................1 Knowledge creation 20...1 2........1.. %................32 Share of renewables in energy use.3.................40 Tertiary outbound mobility.....23 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$...3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*...9.................... PPP (current international $) 19..................52..........3 4................1....0..........64 New businesses/1...3 4.....46..................8....1...3 Trade & competition 4.......52 Rigidity of employment*....2........................6 28 .......6...41 Graduates in engineering..................1................ kWh/capita......1 7....3.......0..........3.3................................2.......3 72 Strength of legal rights for credit*.......................0..........18........0...2 1.......1...........46 GDP/unit of energy use.... days.......................7.................0...................1............106 54........0..4 Electricity output....................1 59..................1 2..........2..2 Energy 19.0.............3............4 GDP (US$ billions) 63......................43.................49........0 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.........2 6......1.61 Intensity local competition†............31.79 7...................... %.......3... % GDP.... %......................2 2................34 Tertiary inbound mobility...........32......n/a......................... % GDP....... %..2......3 Knowledge diffusion 6...2 4...5 41 65 21 43 64.............47 3 Infrastructure 3................4.29 Computer & comm service exports..38 53 5.................... technologies (ICT) 36.................3........1 4.27 32..52...95.9 93 28 6 Scientific outputs 25...4 46 5 Business sophistication 5................................1 1.4 Strength of investor protection*..69 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$............5..45 Total value of stocks traded...........19.1.....66...........5 University/industry collaboration†...3 Researchers headcount/million pop...7.....3 General infrastructure 3....2 54 45...........................103 Market capitalization...2..... %.........6.27 High-tech imports less re-imports.....86 R&D financed by abroad....2....27..22...............57..51......5 88...2 Innovation linkages 5... %..3 2.............1.......67...........2 Regulatory environment 1...n/a Creative goods exports.....................2 5...3.. % GDP...14....1....... 45..........4 2..... %....................48.......1...........2 Tertiary education 2.......1............46 PISA scales in reading. %........3 7...........2. %............................0............ % GDP........58 Public expenditure/pupil.....44 Graduates in science........1........72.................000 literate pop..........2..................3 Government’s Online Service*.......38 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$........................3.. %..................5 66 4 Market sophistication 4.....n/a........68 State of cluster development†.......1....... 65 Global Innovation Index 2010.5.....2..2..7...1...........2 4.........2 6....8.2................................. ha/cap......39...16..52 1...........57 Depth of credit information*.......93 ICT & organizational models†.........0....30........2 43.......13 FDI net inflows....................................70................................5 2.1 42 48 34.............2 5.....2.3...........50.1...............................1......3 3....1 Knowledge workers 38.....3............0.........3..5...........4 35......................8............36 Computer software spending.....38 Microfinance gross loans........2 2. %..........0.73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.4 GDP per capita.......2...........6.7....2.............6...6 42 1.............1....1 43....... %.................3...14..7.........16.....34.......7 79 36........2...7 51 7.........11 2.2.......1 ICT access*....4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$....5..4 Royalty & license fees payments.... % GDP........65..37 R&D financed by business........28................................1 1................. %................5.............8.......9 ICT & business models†......4 E-Participation*... PPP$/kg oil eq...........1.....4 5..............1 Education 73.3.60.................1 3...................1 7.......... % GDP.....35.................1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 73... % GDP...........58.2 3.....0.2 5..5.......................................3 Political stability*............................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.........2.......................1 5.......2 57 6....18.......3............ % income/cap.79 35..........2.............1 37 47...........1 6.................... 48 Innovation Input Sub-Index...............2.....2 Creative goods & services 7.34 Gross expenditure on R&D.........9 Market access trade restrictiveness*....33 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$....................37 Government effectiveness*....3 5.....3 Time to start a business.........2.....1..0.................3......0..2 7......1 6..............2 3.........8...5......93.......2......28 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.. kWh/cap.29 2......29......................2........1 5.......... %..8.....1 Credit 4.................................................5 67 3......1.................69 3........................1 4.....1......5......... % GDP/cap. % GDP.42......3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker......94......3 Business environment 1.... % gross.5 41 2.....9................................2 6............. %..59 Daily newspapers/1............2..........................9........ secondary.8.......1 3......................3 24.............0...... 45 Innovation Efficiency Index...........0........46.....5.... 15–64 yrs...60..33...............................30 3..........3 Regulatory quality*...........

......2 5..1......................3..........1...23.......000 literate pop.............50 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$... %........................2................4..2 2........ % GDP..77............1 30 Strength of legal rights for credit*.2................ % GDP.....................7.....3...........41 1..7 Microfinance gross loans. 46.1 4....2 7........1........4 Knowledge-intensive employment.......................n/a Imports of goods & services....7.....2 5.........................30.....44 Gross capital formation.......4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.......3...9 GDP per capita..1 2.2....2 6......0 31 4 Market sophistication 4.................. 15–64 yrs.......3 4....3 7.....................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.....3..7....64.. % profits..1........42 State of cluster development†........9 48...4..0.......23 Rigidity of employment*..1......72.6 34 21 17 29 69...........41 PISA scales in reading.......................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.........15 National feature films/mn pop.....9....3..7 73 7..3 7.........3 Knowledge diffusion 6......85......2.0..1 1.........................................58 R&D financed by business.......70 Total tax rate.........36......4 GDP (US$ billions) 24...............88 3...............2.............22...........9..........................5 Recreation & culture consumption...........3 2............3.4 2.................1.....................48.... PPP (current international $) 30....... %.........0.................n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.1.2 2..................6...............59........... 52....................................2..........3 5....6.......................1...88.......0.....................3 5.... PPP$/kg oil eq......................................6......9 5......19.n/a...........0 30 3....2..............................n/a....................................1..3 3 24 7 Creative outputs 37.............2 2.4 Royalty & license fees payments..9.........37.5.9 41 41.........................8.....2..6 22 2.48 Government effectiveness*......................35........ 100..3......1................94.2 3..... 27 Innovation Input Sub-Index..................1 4..... days..............20 ICT & business models†....................0...........................1 31 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 149 .......................... technologies (ICT) 50...........40 Share of renewables in energy use......................3..5 25...................3.......n/a 4........2 ICT use*................38 3 Infrastructure 3.....90..... %........................0..................................2 Tertiary education 2............2............1 6..............4 48 7..n/a...1 7.........56 Total value of stocks traded........4 4.....30 GDP/unit of energy use.. secondary...................1 2...........1 Political environment 1......2.9 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index..........3 3.....11 Public expenditure/pupil.....3 6.....78......2.1...97 FDI net inflows..........7................................3 General infrastructure 3............................72..3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...50........2.....1 Computer software spending...3 5..................................64 FDI net outflows..0...1 1........................50..3 Regulatory quality*...3 51...... 45 1 Institutions 83......... % GDP...2..........1 6.3 6...... 100.......31 Electricity consumption.........81.....5...37..........61..........5...3 4.... maths....12........................6...1 2.1...7 Depth of credit information*.......76..2.................5......................3 Researchers headcount/million pop...... 100.85.............3.......4.....6.....6.32..............1....n/a.6...... service imports........................1 3.........0 19 42 6 Scientific outputs 43..........1..........................0...0.............2..86....7 60 4...3 4............................. % GDP.15... %....n/a 41......9..............90 Tertiary inbound mobility....26.................5 University/industry collaboration†.....93........... % GDP..................n/a Pupil-teacher ratio......53.......................... % GDP.......................2...............2.................0...24 3.56 1..........73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor...7..............18 4..1 Knowledge creation 14...........1 4..8....2 1............1.0...........2.......2 1....................3 2....2 Energy 22..................................3.70 Market capitalization............ %... ha/cap...4 Strength of investor protection*.....2...Cyprus Population (millions) 0.......0..90.....5....1.5 28 46.1 Knowledge workers 43......................1...........50.......2.....15 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.........37.. 32 Global Innovation Index 2009....20 Press freedom*......0..............1............50 32.....................7.......8.............6..................... kWh/capita.................... %.......... 100..........4 E-Participation*..1 7..5................3 Knowledge absorption 5.......17.2...........3 Business environment 1..........25 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.........3 55 3...................45 6......................6.................. %.52 High-tech imports less re-imports..... %................2.5 22 1....... 37 Global Innovation Index 2010.....................................3........1 Credit 4.2..3............1.... % firms.. % income/cap.............................5.......0............ 40......27 Cost to start a business.4...................50 Graduates in science....36 Gross expenditure on R&D...... %..........6 Tertiary enrolment...............n/a.......1.2 Investment 29....2 39.30 Exports of goods & services........33 3..........2 Innovation linkages 5.8..2...............33............................2. % GDP/cap.........3 Government’s Online Service*.................... %.............................3.......1.n/a.........2...........1 2.....3 Political stability*.... % GDP....3.4 49......1...... %.4................34 R&D financed by abroad.............1 1....4 2........4 Electricity output......68 7........n/a...3.......................3....8.....................81 Computer & comm...............2 6.........2 3....... % GDP.. % GDP............2.........................12 Market access trade restrictiveness*..2.14 Computer & comm service exports....82 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.57......... 100.................................43......5 2....................9.....................4 Tertiary outbound mobility........1.........3......1..........5 Education expenditure..........2...........3 Time to start a business.n/a 6........67...0............ %..............5.1........ kWh/cap..2.......1.56 Quality research institutions†............4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$................ 30 Innovation Efficiency Index.............223.2........................................3..........2...............65............................................14............43.........1 Creative intangibles 42.......... years........9 Daily newspapers/1................ % gross.................... %..2 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment...............3...3 Trade & competition 4..............................42...2 6..........................................39.36 Graduates in engineering.....7 46....4... 0......75........................1 5............1....1.......................6....60..2 Regulatory environment 1...... % GDP.......87.......................1 5..........3......9........... % GDP........3 5..3 69.2.n/a R&D performed by business...............................2...9....4 Royalty & license fees receipts..........................4...................2 89.....4 7.3....48 Creative services exports...................................43 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.....50......3..9 51 6.36 3.... % GDP.8 9 55 36.................1 ICT access*....20 Rule of law*...7....................2........1 3...67 New businesses/1.........51 3...................2 1.....................................................3...... & science..... %........1.....................................1.....2..............................................................0..................1 Education 77............30...................... % GDP................... %.28 2.....2......n/a. % GNI... %......1 5.................2 Knowledge impact 6......000 pop..........48...24.......2....................8 18 5 Business sophistication 5..2.............60 60 5..............1.......1 6.............5 32 56.18.....................................1......56 ICT & organizational models†................37 Firms offering formal training.... %.................16 2 Human capital & research 2....92.....4 5.34.19...... 28 Innovation Output Sub-Index..6......3..............16 62..1...5.....n/a Creative goods exports...25........1........2 5.............................2 4.............1 Info & comm....40 School life expectancy..111 Domestic credit to private sector.1.................2... %.............51..2 4..7 19 6.....46 High-tech exports less re-exports...........3 Research & development (R&D) 2....3 83..2 7.. %.........................0... %.7......2 4...2 Creative goods & services 7...........40 Intensity local competition†.....1.40 Ecological footprint & biocapacity... %........................

........3.9.............3 Regulatory quality*..... 41...............3 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index...3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker................2 4..... 27 Global Innovation Index 2009.......2.......8.......1.......4 2........2 5.9......22...2 Knowledge impact 6...65......................9............61..............................2.. kWh/cap....62.....4 7.......1..............2 Tertiary education 2............2..8......................................96.. %..........232.......0.3...3 Knowledge diffusion 6..........3 2..18.......68..........3...................n/a.....5 33 6...7 34 46.......7.....2..........1.........3...2....2.......43 4...........41................... % GDP.25..........72 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.......44 School life expectancy... technologies (ICT) 40...17 Computer & comm service exports...........42........2 6..... % GNI.....4 2...33 Gross capital formation.5..60...3 Political stability*....... % GDP....1 5......77.......................2 2......40............................. %......75 Cost to start a business..........10 70........... & science........................6 24 1...... %...5 10 .....2....9 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$......61 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.............................2 7...............................................8.............................26..... %........1 2...............18 Government effectiveness*.....7.............3 4............1........................4.......24 High-tech imports less re-imports..............................4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...............1.....................................48 High-tech exports less re-exports..3....1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 82.......11......2....................1...2.................2 Regulatory environment 1......1...................................................90.....................2....1...............20 Tertiary inbound mobility...........4 4.......89....................................n/a 4..........2 6.7...1.....5........3........3 4..1 Knowledge creation 25....4........3 3..........3.........................12....3............................ %...35 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.n/a.0 5........1 4. % GDP......92..2..........2 ICT use*.....0 43.........3 Trade & competition 4.....76 3........8 13 7.........70 Market capitalization...............58........49 2........60 7..........................................19 13 5...80.........................9....2................1 2...................2...........2............................. service imports......4 78..............1 72 4..............................................4. % profits................3 4..........6.......1..........................50 New businesses/1.95 2 Human capital & research 2.... %.......1.28 State of cluster development†............7 National feature films/mn pop.........................3 7..............7.................67.........2..............2.......36 FDI net outflows.0...59..........3........25..............6....2...........33...3 Research & development (R&D) 2.....................8 66 3....1......2 5.....3 12 5 Business sophistication 5.......17 Daily newspapers/1.......1 1..8.......... 0.......0...................1 Credit 4..33 3...79....15 Creative goods exports................52.....4 47. % GDP.....1 4.18......1...2.....................39 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.9 FDI net inflows.......3.............5 2...21.............47.......4...........................1...............38.....2 3...1 7........... % GDP/cap...2 3.81........1........3 5...0....20 Tertiary outbound mobility.1 Education 84...............25 1...3 Business environment 1.....................82...60....2..2....36....................1....3....................3 General infrastructure 3.1 Creative intangibles 47...2 1............. %................ 33 Global Innovation Index 2010.................2....2......1............4 Strength of investor protection*.......57 Public expenditure/pupil..3..1.......25 Electricity consumption............. % GDP...4 R&D performed by business..........................55 ICT & organizational models†.....5 32 28 32.......6.....2......3 5.7.3 Researchers headcount/million pop.....................1 Knowledge workers 53.......1 5........2..................0. years.. % firms.....8.....47 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.........5 Recreation & culture consumption..27..... % GDP...1 3..... 15–64 yrs.........36.........5 University/industry collaboration†. maths....5...........1 1..................2 29 6........5........... %............................3........................22 1...... %.....0........74 Share of renewables in energy use....I: Country/Economy Profiles 150 Czech Republic Key indicators Population (millions) 10..1 6........1.......66..............................46.........................70.1 5..........31 GDP/unit of energy use.......2 6.. % GDP.........................2 59 4 Market sophistication 4............. secondary......................32..... %.....17.......2 4........9............92..............75 3..3........9....2.....0 18 76...2 2.......1......46.......................2 49..1 2..4 GDP per capita.1 4........................1...............4 Electricity output.......................................3..... %.......2... kWh/capita.........3......................4 5...........18 Firms offering formal training...1.6.......2.......6 46 Strength of legal rights for credit*...............24 6..... % GDP.......12 46.........................27 PISA scales in reading.....8... PPP (current international $) 25..3 5...........2 Energy 19.......... PPP$/kg oil eq.............1......1.........1 54 7...3..................2..50..............47...20...............1.86.......n/a Imports of goods & services........................51 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$........... 24 Innovation Input Sub-Index..40.3.............................9.....45 46............0............... % GDP...1 85....................83 33....5 49.7......3...............2 37 2......1......................................38 3.........1.........................3.............................................1 Info & comm......... %...6 60 16 6 Scientific outputs 36........37 2.........................61.4........ %..... %............17 Creative services exports................. % gross............43........49.....8................................39 R&D financed by abroad........ %.....3.....3...........78........4 44 41..5...31 Graduates in science...42.....5..10 ICT & business models†.......... % GDP.......2..1......... 47..............2........ %..............................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...................................4 E-Participation*...3 Time to start a business...51....8.........35.........................58 Total value of stocks traded....0...7.... 33 1 Institutions Political environment 1.........64 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor...........1..2...........3..2 6..49.....23......72..9......1 ICT access*. days...................................2 2...............2..................5 Education expenditure. 26 Innovation Efficiency Index.29 Rigidity of employment*.....1...46..................000 pop.23 Quality research institutions†.....................4 Royalty & license fees receipts..............................................2 1.....3...21 R&D financed by business......1.... %...13 Intensity local competition†.....1 3..............................44 Microfinance gross loans..31 Press freedom*....1......0 16 39 7 Creative outputs 46......... %.29.......1 7.3......2....57 Depth of credit information*.0......13 Computer & comm..9.................37 Graduates in engineering....9.......3.........47 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.......20 3 Infrastructure 3..3 Knowledge absorption 5.....................................3.35 3....................3....81........2 Innovation linkages 5...1 37 3.......4 Royalty & license fees payments...20..56..............9 18 16 68 28 66.........1...................3.......83...........0........0...48 5..................15.2 7.................62 Total tax rate.....0.....1 1............... %......4 Knowledge-intensive employment.2...... % income/cap........9.......3...8............... % GDP.22 Rule of law*.2......6 Tertiary enrolment..1 37..... % GDP..................3 7.0 GDP (US$ billions) 190.1.......................... %..33.............................. 53.........2 1..........2..........3 2...............................7............6...22 Gross expenditure on R&D..............12 Market access trade restrictiveness*....................................4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$....2 Creative goods & services 7.1...21 Exports of goods & services......................... ha/cap...........60....................0.........3....45. %..94...3 6......3.........1....3...31 Computer software spending.000 literate pop...........0...1 6.......97 36.........42..2 5...................3...........................26 Pupil-teacher ratio...1 6.9.................................2 4..51. 27 Innovation Output Sub-Index.....2 Investment 26...3..25 Domestic credit to private sector....3 6.................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*..81...... % GDP........................3 Government’s Online Service*....4.....

........2.....2 5...............11 6.............1 Knowledge creation 58.........................12 R&D financed by business..10 4... % GDP............. 0...2 ICT use*.....1...........7 91.. % firms.3 3.....3 Regulatory quality*.. %...9...2 2..... % gross.....4 E-Participation*.26.............2 7.......................................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*........ % GDP.2 2 Strength of legal rights for credit*........13 3....99........5 University/industry collaboration†.2 Tertiary education 2....................8 38 25 7 Creative outputs 52..................1 2.... PPP (current international $) 36.4 2..........24.2.............4.....2................3 7................ % GDP.99 53......11 Government effectiveness*..1 6..........7 Depth of credit information*....98 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...........67...3. 5 Global Innovation Index 2009.. %......1 49 4 Market sophistication 4.67..2..............3 2.......2 Microfinance gross loans......3 Political stability*............0........2.......49......2 4..............6..........2.............................80.......47 FDI net inflows.......... ha/cap........1.8.....2.......2.6 Tertiary enrolment........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..............6................4 4...87.....................................1....3.............13 Cost to start a business...................12.....3 5.. % GDP...........3 5...1 Political environment 1..3...............2...9. %.............1 1.... % GDP.... %..........40..3 Business environment 1........................1 ICT access*............1.... 47 Global Innovation Index 2010..11 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor....6..............................40 Tertiary inbound mobility.3 7...............................36 ICT & organizational models†................13 Creative services exports.............1..................................7 GDP (US$ billions) 309......1.55....3.. 100... %.66...64.............................................25..........1 Total tax rate...... days.... technologies (ICT) 37.....................1 5........4 Royalty & license fees receipts.....47.6 Creative goods exports....43 FDI net outflows............6.33..... % GDP....................3....94.5 Gross expenditure on R&D................14..76............................6..........9 6 3...............2 Energy 30.7 16 3........n/a.............1...................................0. %......2.............1 2.6.1..................................................................0.11 1.............................72........................14 3...............4......6 40 8 45.....1 5..2.......... %...................4 7....4 1 2...n/a High-tech imports less re-imports...............................1 3 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 151 ..............1 4..............1.......4.15 7 5.66 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean................n/a R&D performed by business........1 4......69..............5 Recreation & culture consumption.........................8....38....0............2......... % GDP......2 1.....1 Education 94......................................3 Research & development (R&D) 2.........1.8 3.26...3........26.....n/a High-tech exports less re-exports..............................................47 3................67.1....................4...... %....10 1........23 7......3 6.............. & science....3 General infrastructure 3.........55....25 2 Human capital & research 2.......2..72...1 Knowledge workers 58.........................100 38..........79............ %....1....53...........5..........8 27 5 Business sophistication 5......2.....3.....1 6.....44 Tertiary outbound mobility........26 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.................................34...........8 60..6 6.........1 5.......2 Regulatory environment 1.... 100.44 2...1.93........48....................26 5.......3 6.......... %.....2...........2.........2..................................................4 Knowledge-intensive employment........ %...............000 pop................5 Education expenditure...30 Electricity consumption.1.75...0........Denmark Population (millions) 5...........82.3 4....1 Creative intangibles 50........2 Investment 44.......... 64.........5...4 Strength of investor protection*.....2 Knowledge impact 6..................3................1....4 5 7...2...20 National feature films/mn pop..6...17 R&D financed by abroad...98...............n/a..1....1 Info & comm.95......5 GDP per capita... %..............3.....21.............3....2 5.....3......................................2 Innovation linkages 5... 7 Innovation Efficiency Index....22 Computer & comm service exports.................3.18.....5 7 89....... service imports.................0....2.1 1................................3 17 6.......2..... % profits....................................3 4....... kWh/capita..........3.......69........3..................3....50.........6.............. 6 Innovation Output Sub-Index...6 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index........ % GDP/cap.5....2 1....2........1 6..56...........................3 Trade & competition 4.......6.............1 3.....2 4...n/a 54........................12 3 Infrastructure 3.....3 2.3 Knowledge diffusion 6......76..n/a...2....1 7.............2.......... PPP$/kg oil eq....................7 44.....................7..................................1..1.................1 2..........66 Domestic credit to private sector.....3 10 6........29...............761..........103 New businesses/1......2 Creative goods & services 7..............39.5 2....0......3 Time to start a business...........36 Computer & comm............................6 5......74....2 1 1..............2 3....n/a Imports of goods & services...30 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$....................8 State of cluster development†.................................. % GDP...............1.2.....2...... 15–64 yrs.. %......6.......3 Researchers headcount/million pop.................... secondary.8.............9....... kWh/cap...19 Computer software spending.....................75..1.....................3 4.........2 6...n/a.................0............2................................0...........................................................77....... % GNI....6..0............59....2..........63..........................1 1..n/a 4.......... %............50 Exports of goods & services..5 School life expectancy.........24....4.....1........................... %........ %.........35...................1.9.. % GDP.........................................7 43 7.................1.3 Knowledge absorption 5.................2.39 Intensity local competition†.................3 Public expenditure/pupil..1 7...2 5.....56 Graduates in engineering.................3..93..........................15 Gross capital formation..................57........4 2.... 57............. %.......n/a............................4 Electricity output........59...........................2 Press freedom*......2..... % GDP.2 6......12 Market access trade restrictiveness*....99......2 6................12 ICT & business models†..........1......36...............................59...............3.......................................2 2.............2...............6..........3...................70...8.....17 Share of renewables in energy use....1................................2 17 46 6 Scientific outputs 46.................3..................3...1............3..........3 Rule of law*..83....... %.........19 Pupil-teacher ratio..15 Daily newspapers/1.90........... %...........3....4 Royalty & license fees payments........3 Government’s Online Service*......83..............3........................................................2..................29 GDP/unit of energy use.26.....2.14........... 49.......75 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment....8................3..............1 4................4 26 4............. % GDP.......6............5 Rigidity of employment*.........2.............6 3.....9 Graduates in science...87.......2.7 PISA scales in reading.....3........6........... maths...1...24 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..3..........5....1 11 82....1............................2 1.6 63..............................9 11 68........4.......................5.....30 Total value of stocks traded..1 Credit 4...... years.........24 2...........n/a.....2 3....34..45...2 7 4 12 6 79.....3..9..3....4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.................85.......1............... %.........27 Market capitalization..4 64...............1........6......2.7..... %.4.........10 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$......................23 35............3 5....................1.............. % GDP......................2 7............5. 7 Innovation Input Sub-Index..0.............8 Quality research institutions†..1........5 Firms offering formal training.2 4...2..........21 59.........................2.. 8 1 Institutions 94.2 96..............1......4 5...000 literate pop.....3 38.....42...............8...........1............3..............3.1 3..........16 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..........4..97.1..........1.... % income/cap........3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...........3.......1....1....2 2.......5.............. % GDP...56..

............n/a School life expectancy...........1..................71.........6 21 4 Market sophistication 4.........1 2.........115 Cost to start a business.......3.... % GDP.................72 High-tech imports less re-imports....3 62 42. % profits..............1..........88 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.........2 2..........8.... %...........0......108 46........5.......................... maths..................................................... % GDP.............2 6..1 1.......55 56 5.............3 General infrastructure 3......80 Quality research institutions†....................................................62.......84 GDP/unit of energy use............................47.........3........ %....2.......2...................................4 E-Participation*.........8.......................1..3...................2....2..3.......94.........1 ICT access*. % GDP...2.........2 7.......3..20 18.....29.......2....3 6.....73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor..........................1.55.......5............................30...84 Microfinance gross loans.....2...................0.42 Exports of goods & services.......15...........................2 2.n/a High-tech exports less re-exports...............27 42.1..... 126 Global Innovation Index 2009.........6........ %..1 1...2.........1 5...0.......2..... PPP (current international $) 8..............1 Education 37............................3...2....................................30.......I: Country/Economy Profiles 152 Ecuador Key indicators Population (millions) 13......1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 42...........4 5..........6 Tertiary enrolment....2 1.........34................7.....4 Royalty & license fees payments.........2 3....3 3.....................4 2.. % gross.............0........................57 PISA scales in reading.........................n/a National feature films/mn pop......3 Political stability*.............2........7....25....3...2 Regulatory environment 1...............118 Public expenditure/pupil..............4.........1.............2 Investment 12....................... 32..1.9.....8 113 1.......31..........2................6............71 Tertiary inbound mobility.....47.......................4 57 96 7 Creative outputs 31...2 5.97 Depth of credit information*........ %........122 Rule of law*.............3..................4 69 22.....3 Research & development (R&D) 2..........n/a Computer software spending........................n/a.............2 1....3 5.9..............4 2... % GDP......................0......7. %....1........1.... %....7 GDP (US$ billions) 57..106 R&D financed by abroad................... % GDP.....1....53......25.......4 Strength of investor protection*.......32.........n/a Imports of goods & services.. 44 Global Innovation Index 2010....................49....8..39 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$...................27..... %........2.................n/a ICT & business models†....67 3....n/a......4 104 32.............0.....44 Computer & comm..3 Business environment 1...38............................................4 77 3......1 2........3....64 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$....3 4.....74 Graduates in engineering...3................24...66 6......................1.... kWh/capita....................................3 Regulatory quality*........1....2...8. 15–64 yrs.3..........50 2 Human capital & research 2.............................84 Gross expenditure on R&D...............19 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..0...6 120 4..........69 2.....................72 3........................2.21........7 R&D performed by business.......25 Domestic credit to private sector.........n/a.4 7.......45....1....2....84 1.........2.........3... & science. kWh/cap..............2 4....1.. 77 Innovation Input Sub-Index...........0.... % GDP...1...............5.9......3 Trade & competition 4............................3.........4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.....1 5.73..25..1 Info & comm.........5 91 6.......3 7...........................2 65......... % GDP....77 3.................2 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.3 20......2 1.....98 FDI net inflows....... %...3..3 Time to start a business.......83...3 Researchers headcount/million pop..............3..............1......2 34 108 6 Scientific outputs 18.........52 3.. 0..6..........6 93 2..........9 5....3 66 7.......................113 Press freedom*. %.n/a.............5 2..............4..........1...........2..3..........1 6....0..........n/a..3 4. secondary..............3.7 24........38.........................3......... % income/cap....... % GNI...1 3.............2. technologies (ICT) 23................................2 7.5 5. %....20......34.................. %.2 2..........0....................4..3...15.........1 Knowledge workers 36....................3.......1.......6.47...2................3.....................................1....................42............ %..77 Gross capital formation.......n/a Pupil-teacher ratio...................8............0....... years.........2 Tertiary education 2...........2........... 109 1 Institutions Political environment 1.....2 ICT use*...............8 112 6......................n/a Creative goods exports...............4 68 7....1......39..................81 Electricity consumption...........104 FDI net outflows...................................8...........13. % GDP..40....... 24...8 GDP per capita.........7................. % GDP/cap........ %.n/a.2.......2 Knowledge impact 6.........1 7........2........0 89 Strength of legal rights for credit*.....................1...........5 Education expenditure...........0.....8..23...... %...........................19...................4 94 3..........2..59 Share of renewables in energy use.....3. % GDP.....4 4....5 University/industry collaboration†..........4 Knowledge-intensive employment......................1............3 6.7.....8.........n/a........................3 7.......8.............................................1.1...............7 8....85 Computer & comm service exports.......85 7............1......0...3 4................................97 ICT & organizational models†..96 Total tax rate......1......52 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$............................n/a Tertiary outbound mobility. ha/cap.........................................................61 R&D financed by business..........................108 41.......... PPP$/kg oil eq...................1. 93 Innovation Output Sub-Index....103 Market capitalization.....5................1..................76 Firms offering formal training..............3 Knowledge diffusion 6.2.....3................1 6...5 Recreation & culture consumption......2 99 121 103 27.......1........0 103 48........... %.....1......120 Rigidity of employment*...1...3.........13 Ecological footprint & biocapacity......................4 30...............1 Creative intangibles 44............3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...........1.................1............................91 33.000 pop......6...33........................2...8..1...........9......4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....................97 Creative services exports...........98 Government effectiveness*.....1 6......111 State of cluster development†.................3.............................000 literate pop.2 6.6........3... % GDP..............3 2.... % GDP........2 3......3 5.1..2 4.......................2 6....2 Energy 14............1................................2.....................73........113 6.. 100 Innovation Efficiency Index....6.........71 3..31........74..8....9......... %..........2..... %......................n/a......................62.9.....3........2................2..... %........4 Electricity output......1.81 Market access trade restrictiveness*............n/a Daily newspapers/1......2.....3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.................51 Graduates in science...................29... % firms..1 4....5.........................9...8....2 5............ %.....46 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.....70......... service imports........1 2.......8......7.1 3..........2 Innovation linkages 5........................3 Government’s Online Service*..69 4...1 5.........1 Knowledge creation 1.............................1 1.8..................1.........................7..2 5....1......................1.......91 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.......9....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...........1 Credit 4...............4 63 ...... %...2 4..........9................18 4...........................2..3.............................2........6......3 Knowledge absorption 5...6....5 84 5 Business sophistication 5..7.............n/a. 28.......... % GDP...90 Total value of stocks traded..4 Royalty & license fees receipts.n/a.......3 5......2 Creative goods & services 7.52.....1................3......................35 New businesses/1...0.3.............8 87 120 26. % GDP...........2.............. %......................8............2.0.....3 2..............1......20.......................267.......59 Intensity local competition†..4.....3....119 3 Infrastructure 3........2..1 7.......... days...........9..................76 1...4.....23...1 4....................29..............................96 2.......3....9 25.....................1 4.......

.....0..n/a 64 5..3 Time to start a business.......................7..................2 1....1 1..... % profits...... % GDP..............3..................3 3.......63 Tertiary outbound mobility..31...54 High-tech imports less re-imports.1 4.......6 Tertiary enrolment................2...64 1.............30......2......................3 88 67 37 26........1 5...15....... % GDP...........3 5.. % GDP..........68 Quality research institutions†...................50....2........72 28.....3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..............2 5....n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.............................1 4......... 88 Innovation Efficiency Index..............................1........2 6.......16.....1. % GNI.. %.............2 Innovation linkages 5..............3 Researchers headcount/million pop..............6.......1.........................2 1......0 83 33..... years...2..........2.............................7...........66 ICT & organizational models†.......8.................................71 Share of renewables in energy use.......................46 Gross expenditure on R&D.. % GDP... 100...79 Rule of law*.5.20............ 76 Global Innovation Index 2010.................................... %...............................................................61 School life expectancy...... %....7........66...2........8..n/a....2 6......73..................5 University/industry collaboration†..........1.............n/a National feature films/mn pop...............................23 3...2..............3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*..3...................1 Political environment 1..6.3....0 87 Strength of legal rights for credit*........1....57...........1 Creative intangibles 43...................... %.......7.48 ICT & business models†...................................2...3 2...........n/a Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..............1.........12....31....2 100 6......0..2 5..3...3..39 Firms offering formal training.....47.........22.58 Rigidity of employment*..........3.53................................28....................64 7..1.....3...................3 Research & development (R&D) 2........... 74 Global Innovation Index 2009.............94......44..... 35.59......9.....2..................57........41.....4 35...............3 4.............93 PISA scales in reading..........6 GDP (US$ billions) 188....1....45 Daily newspapers/1... 76 1 Institutions 61.......................29 Creative services exports........1 Knowledge workers 30........5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.........n/a....1....2 3...... %...................n/a Tertiary inbound mobility.......... % GDP......4 Knowledge-intensive employment.....................16.1 6.1 3......................3.............000 pop...6...........1 Knowledge creation 17....7....................2 4........... 15–64 yrs................2 2.85 42..... 23..2 5.................. %.........58 6.9 69 7..78 Electricity consumption........................4....7.....3 105 4 Market sophistication 4.....................................1 4.........9........1.........73 2 Human capital & research 2.8 85.2....4 2....................0.............3 Knowledge absorption 5..7 59 4.....97 Depth of credit information*.1............3............. %.......................21.......5......2...............51.......1...72...................1.1.3 4............................................ 89 Innovation Input Sub-Index........ %...........................3...54....4.............1 1.... maths..........................8.3.3.....2 Investment 29.28...........29........2 Regulatory environment 1...32.......2..80 GDP/unit of energy use................83 Ecological footprint & biocapacity................9 65 3.............3.......8 113 99 21.109 State of cluster development†..................n/a Graduates in engineering...1 2............................2.................... ha/cap.....n/a...............5......2.70 Graduates in science.............1.1...........4....33...60 6.......4........ %..3.64 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$......87 3...................8......................9 90 95 6 Scientific outputs 6......................................................56 Public expenditure/pupil.....9.....2..............................4 Royalty & license fees receipts.......4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.54............... % income/cap...2 1.......1...........4 5...3 Trade & competition 4...2...........3 Business environment 1...........n/a............................ %.n/a........30 High-tech exports less re-exports...1..........4 107 51......4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$....3.....3 6.......2... % firms...............3 Regulatory quality*.1 2..7.. 0.9.4 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index... %.n/a......78 FDI net inflows....................1 1....2...............2 4........3............................96 Gross capital formation.6....2 6............................2.8 67 88 94 7 Creative outputs 29........................2 Knowledge impact 6.....3.............5 72 7.................0.... % GDP/cap.........17..86 Computer software spending..0.........22 New businesses/1.............1 6......................2.1............4 2...................................8...60.....4 Royalty & license fees payments.........3.... %...2...........48.. days............2 7.......... %... 87 Innovation Output Sub-Index.............. & science.......2 Tertiary education 2...................1 7..................................2 Creative goods & services 7.................7 84 2..1.....0..13.........1.................28.. % GDP.....2..............24..3 4............3....41 3..........2........1.4 7.......62 15.........7 70 1....75..9.....3 Government’s Online Service*.....2.2..........2.1.. % GDP...1 23.....6.....1.........8...n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.....76 2.............2..5 GDP per capita.......0............103 3 Infrastructure 3............1 Info & comm.3......19......................3.....2..........3.21 Cost to start a business..... 29.................2......8 106 3... %..2 4.......51 Total tax rate........... PPP$/kg oil eq..0.66 7..........2.......3 2.. %....000 literate pop......16...... PPP (current international $) 5.. %.4 E-Participation*...............1 5.....2................2...n/a......4..........90 3...91 FDI net outflows....6.............1 69 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 153 .............4 Electricity output.......9............. % gross........ % GDP.......1......0.............30.......5......... %.............34 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.......79 3.3 Knowledge diffusion 6...91 Government effectiveness*..................91 Computer & comm..................672.............41 Total value of stocks traded....... % GDP............................................. % GDP.................................3.8...........1...........................7 20............0...2............47 Imports of goods & services.......n/a................. %.......21...........................0 58......2......................1 ICT access*....1 Education 41..............75 R&D performed by business.61 4...... technologies (ICT) 12.........3............98 Market access trade restrictiveness*..........2 ICT use*.............4 4.....1 7...1........... % GDP....7 100 25...1 5...................1..............1 6.........1..3 Political stability*.......6..............................2....................1..1 2........4...48.....2 2..............1...8 26.....2. %... kWh/cap...n/a R&D financed by business...........92 Intensity local competition†.........3 5..............3......1.........54........2 7.....53...62 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$....................................7 86 39..................................n/a Pupil-teacher ratio................................9........... % GDP........2................. %...................Egypt Population (millions) 84......3 7...2..........................2 Energy 10..83 Press freedom*......1...6...91 1..............1.........................................................3...7.........4 Strength of investor protection*...80 Exports of goods & services.....5 Recreation & culture consumption.......14.....1......5.............. %....3 6..66 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor...............57 Microfinance gross loans...3..5..................7..119 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.......1.....n/a Creative goods exports.......2 3.......51 5..................3.41 25..................5....1.................................3 5...1 Domestic credit to private sector............3.....................1......1.........................3 99 5 Business sophistication 5............. secondary...1....4.............n/a..........3...5 Education expenditure...........2.95.......84 Computer & comm service exports...5...........1 Credit 4........n/a......................3....42..........................55 4..5.......... kWh/capita... service imports.................2 2.1 3....29...........55 Market capitalization.........2....................3....3 General infrastructure 3..........3 5...........6 14.................2.....58 R&D financed by abroad........3 7..5 2................................................................................30.2........5......................0...105 2......... % GDP...6.......................

.9 80 5 Business sophistication 5..........................4 Knowledge-intensive employment...............6.........................5 Recreation & culture consumption................1....3 6............6 Tertiary enrolment........................2.......119 Ecological footprint & biocapacity..........................0.................n/a........3 3.................3 Knowledge absorption 5.......23............16...........1 1........... % income/cap..............1 2...........52..5 2..37 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.....n/a Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.......1 5...1 Knowledge creation 15...............2.....7 113 4. 88 1 Institutions Political environment 1......54 Computer software spending.2 GDP per capita..................n/a 6....2...3...............54 Rule of law*.......4 5.3........................................29.1..6 84 3.....10.......3................3 5.................2.................3 Graduates in engineering....8 105 41....................1......68 Total value of stocks traded........ %.........50..................3........2 2...........2........1 Education 60.............0................12..............................7............20 R&D performed by business...8.n/a..22........... %. % GDP.....n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.2...................2........9 n/a 112 88 7 Creative outputs 31..90 GDP/unit of energy use...... % profits..0...................71 Depth of credit information*........... kWh/capita.......21...........4................ 0.........1.....0 58 Strength of legal rights for credit*.............2.8 67 7.........17..9.2 1..............3 Research & development (R&D) 2.........1 Credit 4............83.......3.......105 FDI net inflows................4 Electricity output.......n/a.....1...3....... %....n/a Daily newspapers/1.........3................ PPP$/kg oil eq......... %........58 Microfinance gross loans..63..88 Electricity consumption.........39............1 4............... & science... %.............2 4....2............2 6.85 Quality research institutions†............I: Country/Economy Profiles 154 El Salvador Key indicators Population (millions) 6....3 Time to start a business................33..........4 4.....56.2..................2...................n/a..3 4..........................4 121 4 Market sophistication 4............................ days.........0.... kWh/cap.... technologies (ICT) 31..............5.................................1.......................2 2. % GDP..............51 Market access trade restrictiveness*.....2.........................4.............37.0..........8.................2.6......2 1...26.............1.............6....74.2 Energy 26.........1 Domestic credit to private sector............8 85 110 110 6 Scientific outputs 6......3....7............3 6............2...................105 Total tax rate.........45................1.........000 pop........... % GDP.. %.. %..............38 3...............1......000 literate pop..69 7...... 23.....2..............................4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$......................0 59 121 23.....2 7..3 Business environment 1........2 5.3.....n/a... 29.....................79 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment....32...80 24..................... % GDP..............6.93 Market capitalization..........................4 Strength of investor protection*................... % GDP..3............1 7....8...9 87 20.2.....50 Tertiary inbound mobility..................1..........36......0...............................2.3...1....70...2..............3 7.....................3 Regulatory quality*..6 81 ........2 2.....76 Graduates in science..............2...................3 Political stability*.......4 Royalty & license fees payments.....1 4.........3.........2....1... %.................. %..3......................1.....................75 PISA scales in reading...46 1............0............1.............. %....86 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$......................0..............66 Exports of goods & services...5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean. 86 Innovation Input Sub-Index..........4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..74 FDI net outflows.0.........6 56 75 80 26..........1.105 2..........................71...3 7....75 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.................38 46....6........3 General infrastructure 3........1 1...........4...........58 High-tech imports less re-imports....................7 27 3.............................3 2............. %.................76..................13.......73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.....0.......2 Regulatory environment 1...3 5.....0..2 4....4 Royalty & license fees receipts........................... 100..........50..14 3...2 86 41.. 34.. % GDP.................53.3 Researchers headcount/million pop...............2 Investment 14.97 3.. % GNI..........3..............2 ICT use*........1 5...0...............3.......1 2..............3 4....2 6.......12.67 31..n/a.......................1 6..3...............2 7............103 Intensity local competition†.75 2............................n/a National feature films/mn pop.................n/a ICT & business models†..6........22.................71 5.................................n/a.n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$........4 2........1.............104 State of cluster development†.........2 4..1 2....1 3.................1...1..1 Info & comm..64..............................3 Knowledge diffusion 6..7... %.4 E-Participation*.....7..........................8...6............................1...9 22.......1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 63....1 6..9.39 Creative services exports...1..1 Creative intangibles 52.............1 5.... % GDP..................5...............................2.................. maths.4 7.2................. secondary.........3 GDP (US$ billions) 21.......................83 ICT & organizational models†............. %.....8..0 33 7.........8.2 6........2...... years....69 4...47 2 Human capital & research 2..... ha/cap.......... % GDP........3... %... %......14.1........... % GDP..............0.84.53..2...3 4..629.......................3............................ % GDP.......... 15–64 yrs...3..........65 Cost to start a business..........1....32................... 91 Global Innovation Index 2009.2..1.3......1....................90 Firms offering formal training......................24 4..2 3......1 67 1..... 91 Innovation Efficiency Index.....................2...7. % GDP..1 7....6.......116 n/a 9......2 Creative goods & services 7......44.......................1 1.........68 Press freedom*.1.... %......5...............2 21........................................n/a Pupil-teacher ratio...........................38.........5..4 34.........8 54............82 3....................................6 107 6........0......2....91 School life expectancy.......3 2......0.....9 108 5......2...................1 20.2 Innovation linkages 5......5.......................n/a R&D financed by business..........3...124 6.............1 3............ % GDP.......................0.46...3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker........n/a................3....1.....5........n/a New businesses/1.............81 Tertiary outbound mobility......n/a..............105 Rigidity of employment*..43...47......1..1 6...... % GDP/cap.33 Share of renewables in energy use..................1 ICT access*......................2 1..3...0...............2.84...............90 3...............................4.........0 74.....72 Gross capital formation..........................3...................2.5....................................................2....2 Tertiary education 2..... %...56 1..4.....................................2.....................1........77 R&D financed by abroad..32.......44 Computer & comm service exports.......3....3 5...........4..2 108 2......37........0...................8......7..................71 Computer & comm.. %.......2.2 5.0...4.....................5.............................1. % gross...................1.........0....... 69 Global Innovation Index 2010..2............... %...........................33..................2.........................120 3 Infrastructure 3....................9....17.......5 Education expenditure...........n/a..............42.3 8.................. service imports.........16.........2 5..........1.....1..2 Knowledge impact 6......2.....0.............2 3....1...5.......85 Public expenditure/pupil..................................3.......7...... PPP (current international $) 6.....3...........1 Knowledge workers 24....60 Government effectiveness*......2........ % GDP.9......... 90 Innovation Output Sub-Index.........8................. %.3 Trade & competition 4..9..........6.......1......................73 5..........9..................0..73 Imports of goods & services......22............79 High-tech exports less re-exports...0.......4..........2...0......................................................1 4.......24....3.............................................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.............43 Creative goods exports.5 University/industry collaboration†.2..........................1.. % firms..4 2...2.. %.......92 11.........20...........3 Government’s Online Service*......90 Gross expenditure on R&D..1 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index...

...70...................1.................62..........1 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index..3...1 3..............2.......3 2.....................................29........3.......2 5...........2.....1.....8..3 6.............................0 26 58....1..................................... secondary.8 46......2 3.2..2......5 26 6..4 7........ % GNI. %.........1 6................2...................9.....5........50........27 Quality research institutions†.......2........ % GDP................2........43 26 5....9......3.....7........... % GDP/cap.........5..........21 35.....44 Market capitalization........9 13 5 Business sophistication 5...........7.. %.............3 Business environment 1...1 Education 83....1 1......9 22 32 7 Creative outputs 48...1..2...31.............4.......................1................2 6.1...20 Creative services exports...57...............9..........3.451............... %.2 Investment 30..............58 Tertiary outbound mobility. 0.......5 R&D performed by business.......7.........3..3 Government’s Online Service*...1 Credit 4.....7 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$............ % GDP..49..0..............2 25 7...... PPP$/kg oil eq.....2.......9 5..... 54..............82 Share of renewables in energy use..8..............29 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor..........1...........24..23 Firms offering formal training.94.................9......9......17...........................................3......4 Knowledge-intensive employment..........26.63.20 Total tax rate..............................1.................................18.....1.3 5........................4 Royalty & license fees payments.............................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.....7...4 Strength of investor protection*.......2.97.......................5 Education expenditure....Estonia Population (millions) 1.2 2..................... 20 Innovation Input Sub-Index...1.................... 29 Global Innovation Index 2009........................................6 36 31 38...25.31.........17 2....5 20 3...........................1 7............50............5.40.3.......1......74........2...............25.2 ICT use*..............7....4 Royalty & license fees receipts.........2...........3....1 Knowledge workers 51.2................20.......................32.............1......................1..6 Computer software spending......1 4...........................14 6........................9 39..............................1 5..........71..8..........33............ kWh/capita...0..........................59.1.......24 High-tech exports less re-exports...............54.........5 University/industry collaboration†........3.... %..............8 27 1..........................n/a....2.34...............1................2 1................3.9 1...................2 5.... %.........3.................2......8...............................3..0.8........5.................16 7................3 4..2..............34 State of cluster development†...6...............0............41......................9..........46.....................2 1.........n/a 6.................97 2 Human capital & research 2.41.................................. years..........5 68 4 Market sophistication 4................2....n/a 4...25 Press freedom*.........69........27....................... 43..2..6 21 66...............3 84......... %.39 High-tech imports less re-imports.1.....51.........6...... %..80.........5...3 6..2...........9 65 3...............24 Graduates in science.2 2..2 Tertiary education 2.......6.69.0.8 56 4.34...........3....2........................98.....46 School life expectancy........................68...............0.64.......3.5 2..2 2.1.18 Exports of goods & services.25 Rigidity of employment*...82 Total value of stocks traded............... ha/cap.............1.....5...........................3.............6 40..51 Tertiary inbound mobility.68........... & science.......... %.....26.39...3 4...............7 4.12 ICT & organizational models†......75.43...................................... %.2..........2 Innovation linkages 5.24............2.1 ICT access*..................74.. days...........15 Gross expenditure on R&D...94...88..4...12 National feature films/mn pop.........................................75.. 29 1 Institutions 80................................ % firms..........49 Gross capital formation........................... 23 Innovation Output Sub-Index..................2 4.4 5...........1....4 Electricity output....3... 31 Global Innovation Index 2010..84..n/a.3 GDP per capita....76........ maths....5...........38 R&D financed by business..3 3......50................................................42..4....67.68 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$................1 2..12 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.....................12 Pupil-teacher ratio.000 pop...........................................42.................53.. % GDP.19.......... %......... %........1 4......................................3........5....................7..................................1 4................................2..112 1....2.16 2..1.....35 Computer & comm............46 FDI net outflows.17 Rule of law*...........25 Domestic credit to private sector........28 69.................... % GDP.........3 2.......0 32 24 6 Scientific outputs 38..38......... % profits.....8 20 2.........6 13 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 155 ......................................1...... %....................48 Public expenditure/pupil..34.........4...2...........6....4 2....43..10 3................73....3..2 4..1........27 3.. % gross.....5..1..............15 3........37 Depth of credit information*........18.......0......9.............1 5..............1 6........ % GDP...........6.2........82 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.........................3 Knowledge absorption 5....................1......8..83.............3 7.... % GDP..................24 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$......2...9............... %.4......n/a Imports of goods & services........4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$....2................................. % income/cap........1........3....4 GDP (US$ billions) 19........ % GDP.................. % GDP..............2.1 5.9 11 7...... 15–64 yrs........2......31....................................... %.1....... % GDP.......3....................................46 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.............................0...74........2 7...........1 Info & comm.. %.....22 PISA scales in reading................. %.................4 53................1.......40.36 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.............2... 24 Innovation Efficiency Index.25 3 Infrastructure 3.........14 Creative goods exports...2 75................. technologies (ICT) 39.1 Creative intangibles 55... %... % GDP.......4.................6 Daily newspapers/1....3 7.............6...................3.........27 3......3 Researchers headcount/million pop..30 42......12 Market access trade restrictiveness*........4 29 59.................43.....3......26 Computer & comm service exports....3 4......2 6...............3 Research & development (R&D) 2............3 Trade & competition 4.......................................................28 GDP/unit of energy use........2..3..2 3......2 Knowledge impact 6.5...12 41.................... kWh/cap...................000 literate pop...........3...........2 Energy 19.....1........39......3 Political stability*....1...2.94...........1 Political environment 1............... % GDP......n/a.....................54..............2 5........21 Cost to start a business...30 Graduates in engineering......................1...........1 3......12 Intensity local competition†.....2.27 5...5........23 Electricity consumption....57 3....6 Tertiary enrolment.70....2 Creative goods & services 7.......................................1 7.....2..........1 6..... %....5.........1.........4 E-Participation*........................2..........................4............... % GDP..73 R&D financed by abroad....1 50................................................105 New businesses/1.................84........9.. service imports.......19 ICT & business models†.....0.....3 Time to start a business........1 25 6...91.....2 1..................2................2.............................1.......9..1....38 Government effectiveness*.....5 19 33 46 27 69..1 Knowledge creation 33...4............1 42.4 4...............2 4..... %...............................26 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$........................ PPP (current international $) 19.....9.3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..4..4 2..2 7...3 5.........................7 25 Strength of legal rights for credit*...............8..3 5...........3 Knowledge diffusion 6..7................................................1 1.. 49.............1..........3 General infrastructure 3...................2 Regulatory environment 1.3..............3 Regulatory quality*..... %...............1 1.8........ % GDP............2.......... %...6.............2.5 Recreation & culture consumption........1 2......30 FDI net inflows........21 Microfinance gross loans..1 2.4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.2....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.2 6....2..........2....

.....3...........................4.3 Knowledge absorption 5............98 3.......1 4.0...86 FDI net inflows............86 FDI net outflows............0 GDP per capita..................101 1.....................7.53.................3......n/a.....3.........1 ICT access*..........91 Firms offering formal training..........n/a.71 Imports of goods & services............1..........69 4...... % GDP.2 3...... %....................96 R&D financed by abroad....................................92 State of cluster development†..0.......................3...................2 6...2 Innovation linkages 5..111 PISA scales in reading...........3...1....95 3 Infrastructure 3............. % GDP...............0...................1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 51.0.6...3 5...............1 4.. %..5 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.................n/a 5..........................114 Electricity consumption.........................94 Microfinance gross loans......................2....6 Tertiary enrolment........96 Creative services exports......5 Recreation & culture consumption.....20.90 Exports of goods & services.3 4............0.. & science.........0...3......................1....4............3.....14..1 Creative intangibles 13.2 3................9...0...........3 Knowledge diffusion 6..3.....1..............................n/a..........n/a R&D financed by business..35..........................1 6....78.1 5................................103 31...............0 109 4 Market sophistication 4.....................72 Public expenditure/pupil............n/a Pupil-teacher ratio.7........3........1....................3 7....3 Business environment 1..........1 5..8 116 20.1.......................................0.5 113 110 29 16.................n/a Total value of stocks traded..2 2...83 Computer & comm service exports..3 5........................9..2 ICT use*...............40.3... %.................................93 Market capitalization.7.1 2..0 112 8......1 7.............124 Intensity local competition†.... service imports........1..................0.......77 6.......72.n/a 84 5.1.......76 Tertiary inbound mobility..........3 Political stability*..2.......n/a.....................2 5..................... PPP$/kg oil eq..............1.......4 Electricity output.....n/a National feature films/mn pop............................1.........46 Computer & comm...............................n/a Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$......... %...... PPP (current international $) 934.........4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.........2.....2 Creative goods & services 7....47.....20.43......3 Research & development (R&D) 2.............33..2 Tertiary education 2............1.......2 Knowledge impact 6........... 0...................... % GDP.....5.......5 University/industry collaboration†...........4......2 4.........................2 4.....89....................3.......... 121 Innovation Input Sub-Index..................2 2.......1 3.. %..........7..........1........................1...............2...... secondary.3 2..n/a.................n/a 6...........n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$...2.........3.. %..................7 53 106 7 Creative outputs 7..................................1 Knowledge creation 4.4 47 3......... %..38.......................50....3 Government’s Online Service*........................8 124 2............7 37 109 6 Scientific outputs 19...................77 25.............. % GDP.......5.......4 2..121 3...............1..................4 Royalty & license fees receipts...........6 New businesses/1.. technologies (ICT) 15............. 121 Innovation Output Sub-Index............ %.......3....2.3 6. %.......1....3 5.............7....27..............9...91 33............2......113 Graduates in science.....0........1.............................2 5.......2 Energy 23.3.1........... %.................1.2..2.......33........5 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.....39............. 16......................................2 1.....2 5...0...... % income/cap............n/a Daily newspapers/1....2 2..........................2 1....17....95 Domestic credit to private sector............8 81 6.5......n/a Tertiary outbound mobility......0. ha/cap........ % GDP.1 4..............................0.. %.......2...1...3.............2...... % GDP...n/a...................... 120 1 Institutions Political environment 1..................4...............4 118 114 .....4 Knowledge-intensive employment.................0......7. 116 Innovation Efficiency Index........5............ % GDP.... 29.....3 4................6.2..8. % GDP........................29 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$...... %............87 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..........1.2 3..5.28................28 4...2.....113 Market access trade restrictiveness*.......1 Knowledge workers 31.............. %..95 Gross expenditure on R&D......2 5..............4 109 Strength of legal rights for credit*......2.. % GNI...1 1.....0.2 4..... % GDP.......3..120 Gross capital formation.......25...........2.......................2...... 123 Global Innovation Index 2009.......3 General infrastructure 3....104 Rigidity of employment*......2 1......4............ years..............................16 School life expectancy...............3 2...................1..17........................1 89 6...........3...................... kWh/cap........0..9.............................6 86.....6....2......1 6............... % GDP..........8...............................110 2................42..........................2. %...........n/a ICT & business models†......1.....1 2..1 5.0........................2..47..8.3 Time to start a business..40...........67 1...38 R&D performed by business..............................3.............5 23......1........3..........................2 107 109 20.4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.................33.........................2........1 Credit 4... 15–64 yrs..I: Country/Economy Profiles 156 Ethiopia Key indicators Population (millions) 85.n/a.............3............2.3....1 7..3 4................6.........94........3........n/a...........3 Regulatory quality*.............12....................3..............2..5 37....47............... %..........68 High-tech exports less re-exports...75 Total tax rate..........5.....1 3....2...106 3..................................0... 22..............3..........2........4...3 Researchers headcount/million pop.31....4 26...............41.2.................90 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment......0...............98 High-tech imports less re-imports.....4 4....91 Computer software spending.........0.......1 1......2 6.........1.......73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.1.......... % profits............1..........4 5.................1 Info & comm............1....................... %....n/a...............92...6.............................2..................................................000 literate pop....1..................118 Rule of law*...4 E-Participation*...4 Royalty & license fees payments....1.. % gross........................2 12........121 Government effectiveness*..3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*......................3 Trade & competition 4..1..47 28......7...........n/a................................123 3....... % GDP.............8.......2....n/a......... %..3... kWh/capita..........25...................13............ days...5 119 3............................2...............n/a.........2...1.2......................8.....8......................1...............8 121 7.........1 Education 31......000 pop....2 2............5 2........2....... % firms...3......56 Creative goods exports......0.1......95 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.. %.....1...........3...........................................1.1...1. %...0........0.....................................................117 ICT & organizational models†..2.76 Quality research institutions†..34 2 Human capital & research 2....2.............19.................6.......................8 96 1.........................................23..........118 7....90 Share of renewables in energy use.3 3.........2............................... % GDP......2 6.83 Depth of credit information*......4 2... % GDP.......2..............7 62 4...3...4.........4 GDP (US$ billions) 28...........1 1....1 2.................2.......2...32.....1...........2 Regulatory environment 1....57.........3 6......5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean..... maths.........3..............2 Investment 28......119 2........2 7. % GDP/cap.....................18...1..........2.........3.......1.2.0...8.3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker... %....39................................6.5 Education expenditure...........2 123 5 Business sophistication 5..........67...........2 7...........3.....102 38........4 Strength of investor protection*...............43 Graduates in engineering.......6.........115 GDP/unit of energy use..51 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...........0.....1 82 31........................... %...8 18... 106 Global Innovation Index 2010..............1.............................25....1.....................3 7...86 Press freedom*....4 7.14.................1 6..............8 123 22.........2..............34 Cost to start a business............................................36.....

.......6..........25 Tertiary inbound mobility............n/a.2. kWh/capita.......1 Political environment 1...............1 Info & comm..72..10 Electricity consumption.1....13 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..5.3 Political stability*....................6.96 1.......3... %.................. % GDP......7 High-tech exports less re-exports.1......97.......................... %.....22 2....99.........2......1 28 7.....................9...2 R&D financed by abroad.......9..............3. % gross............................3.....9 5 6......6..........56.. % GDP.....94.......6...3 2........3 2........87.....2 3.....4 2.......5 University/industry collaboration†.......3......22.....n/a 4......1............ % GDP..............2.............3.....8.......3............................................5 6....4.....3 Business environment 1.................1 1............37 Depth of credit information*......4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....n/a Imports of goods & services...2.....3.......40 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$......... maths.............2.....3 Quality research institutions†........................2 5.............................1 ICT access*.......117 57...2 Regulatory environment 1..........................3.4 E-Participation*.7.....61..............1. 100....Finland Population (millions) 5.............2........2 Tertiary education 2....70...............1........8........64...3 Research & development (R&D) 2......6 Rule of law*...........2.5 2.2 10 1..........6 69...14.45.............3............1 Knowledge creation 70.18..........1 5............5 8 3.. % GDP..4 2...................................4 7.................... %.63.... 0.....................4......................14 4............ years... %..................32........................................... % firms................. %........0.............3 4........000 pop..............93 33....3 5.................. %.....2 6....0..........17 ICT & organizational models†.....2.......1 7........719.....4 FDI net inflows.n/a......31 3....21 Public expenditure/pupil.........31.3...4....... % GDP.....4 Royalty & license fees receipts.......1............... 35 Global Innovation Index 2010................7 GDP (US$ billions) 238..........8.................3 Researchers headcount/million pop............3 5............ secondary.....3.. 50..57.........1.3 4...0.5.4 5.25.............1.5.9.6...2............2......49 53...........3.......1....2 Investment 38..............76 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.......2....1 1................................................2 Energy 34................. 5 Innovation Output Sub-Index...........................n/a R&D performed by business.. % GDP.......2 53 5 Business sophistication 5............0........4..........n/a..3 GDP per capita.18......3 Creative goods exports..3............ %............30 35......8.............12 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..........0....15........2 Government effectiveness*....59.........4.....16 Daily newspapers/1...0.1 4...1 6.60.................................31 3....1 23 3............n/a.21 5..4.......7............76............8..................................................1.....3.................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean..1...........85.................2 1...28....1 7.8 National feature films/mn pop.. 6 Innovation Efficiency Index.80.....2........74.. technologies (ICT) 49.............97. %....5 13 3 48.........0.........80.....1.................9 5 2.77......92 New businesses/1........................73..................1.6 Tertiary enrolment...2...... %...52.3...........1....1 25 76..............3 Government’s Online Service*........78.... % GDP/cap................4 Royalty & license fees payments..........2....................92 Ecological footprint & biocapacity....4........1.........3 6........44 Market capitalization................... & science....3 Pupil-teacher ratio.....78......9 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor...3 Press freedom*........3...........1 Credit 4.........3.......2......... 100.....3 General infrastructure 3.......0 5......... % GDP.........................................1 Creative intangibles 50.............................2...33 Tertiary outbound mobility..... % income/cap..............2.... 64.......2.2....44................8 7...........2 6.....77....7..........1...........4 Strength of investor protection*.........3..............................7 GDP/unit of energy use....11 3.9 6 84......5....................... %............................3 3......................... %..... days.26...2 Creative goods & services 7.3...1 1.......2 2..........2........3 6 4 Market sophistication 4......76...15 High-tech imports less re-imports...........2........1... service imports....... %.......2...................1 5............2............8....1.......................1 2.2.8.................6...1 Education 98.............................................1 3.2 Knowledge impact 6.....2 1.....0... % GDP.........2..67 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.............71....7 66................1........................26..86....6..........1 1................ %............................. %.........4.....1 4........................0 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.................9........................... %.........2 4...........93.....3 State of cluster development†.1 6............63..........2 2.......................1 40 5 7 Creative outputs 42.51.............96........8 5 5.....................2 3......95.1..................000 literate pop...........4 26 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 157 ................3....................3...............3 7......1........................3 Time to start a business. 6 Innovation Input Sub-Index..........0......7 Firms offering formal training.......................................1 6.... %........2.........................................25 Domestic credit to private sector..........4 Electricity output............48..12......... % profits....24 Computer & comm service exports.52...........22.3 Regulatory quality*.... %...13 3 Infrastructure 3........ 100....2..2.68..........3........ %.3 7.19 3....0......2 1..21..6 PISA scales in reading... 100...1...........3..7.................................................2 Innovation linkages 5..........4........................................................2.............................3 6................12 Market access trade restrictiveness*.......1..............18.....3 34 4................3........3................................5.........2 Gross expenditure on R&D............1............8.......5 1 15 48 3 76.............................1 Knowledge workers 63......60..................2 4..3.14 Total tax rate............. % GNI.........................3 Knowledge diffusion 6.......0.......47..................................2 ICT use*................................48 Total value of stocks traded........3....... PPP$/kg oil eq......................2................3 Trade & competition 4...................................30 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$................ ha/cap.73........ % GDP.................54 Cost to start a business..............58 Intensity local competition†..........1 4....3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.......8.......5 83..........2.....18 Graduates in engineering.............3 85....... % GDP.22 School life expectancy.0....................21......85.7.2 7.1...........3 4..............28 Computer software spending..31.....0............. % GDP.....7 44 7....0 73.....2 Graduates in science.............4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...1....3 Knowledge absorption 5.........................5.......0..79 2 Human capital & research 2...0................. % GDP...............82................ 13 1 Institutions 89..68..........1 2............8..................8 Gross capital formation.....1 FDI net outflows......4 Knowledge-intensive employment...................18 ICT & business models†.........1 Rigidity of employment*.....6 52.........9 R&D financed by business...... % GDP. %...80..1........83.....5 Education expenditure...99............................2....2......................73 Exports of goods & services.....2........7.....2 5...........63 Creative services exports......2...n/a Microfinance gross loans.......7 49........76 Share of renewables in energy use...........38 Computer & comm. 15–64 yrs.......9......1.........1.......8.............1.3......15...................35 2.13..2 4.3......69...0 7 57.............................................3.......9 9 14 6 Scientific outputs 58.....9....................4 4..............1 2.2 6...8. PPP (current international $) 34..2..2 5................2 7..........................5 3 6.49................................9 6........ %.............. %..................1 5............1 3....41.... kWh/cap.............47. 6 Global Innovation Index 2009...............................................3 5............2 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$...........7 12 Strength of legal rights for credit*. 57.........40 3...5 Recreation & culture consumption..............................3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...........1..........4 56....3......2 2..2.........................................................................35........3......

........2 Innovation linkages 5..........2 1...2.............................3................... %..... % GDP......3..................1 2..2.........81........ %... % GDP........9.......1 Knowledge creation 36.3 4.........117 2 Human capital & research 2...70..6 Tertiary enrolment..... 39 Global Innovation Index 2010..................11 32..14 Quality research institutions†.......56............23 6......... kWh/cap..75..................................1...............................1 5.9.43.....................39..32 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...0...2..1.........31..... % GDP........................................................2 26 22 43..49..........0............2..........1.........1 Education 80............4.4 2....................... 0.41.18...................... % GDP.........................41... %..55.......45....................0.2..2 5.......37 Graduates in science..... 49..... % GDP......2.........7....................................1...... 23 Innovation Efficiency Index......4.....21 Cost to start a business..............I: Country/Economy Profiles 158 France Key indicators Population (millions) 62..3 5.......50.....7............... ha/cap.0..2 Knowledge impact 6.45.0........5 74...2.....3 Trade & competition 4...............37 5.........1.90..................39 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.........................7.................................8 39 40 6 Scientific outputs 41............2..46.... technologies (ICT) 41............4 E-Participation*... % profits...........................22 Total value of stocks traded..3 4..0.....2 2................... 21 Innovation Input Sub-Index................. kWh/capita..................8 53.......................4 7.2 4..........................................0.......3 4................1....28.26 R&D financed by abroad.. 22 Innovation Output Sub-Index.......5........................................3 Business environment 1..............4 2............3 General infrastructure 3.....75.41 State of cluster development†.........2....78.....1....2 6........... %...94......19 Rigidity of employment*.12 Total tax rate.....106 Exports of goods & services.... %......26.10.....1 3....1 54...............2 ICT use*..................1 6........71 3........ %.........................3......12 Market access trade restrictiveness*.............7 17 7............2..2...........8 28 68.............4 Royalty & license fees receipts.................13 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.........18 Press freedom*.5............. secondary........2 Creative goods & services 7.......3.................60.....17 3.....101 Intensity local competition†....3 7..................8.................16 Firms offering formal training.4 Royalty & license fees payments........................................................3 6.......2 Tertiary education 2...................0......3... % GDP........3......................4 53.............. %......9.... % GDP......n/a Imports of goods & services.......3..6......2 6.........2.....1.........1..................1 2...........2...................5...............3.........6...............25...22 Pupil-teacher ratio..........9.....1...1.....40............21 18 5...... PPP$/kg oil eq....3........3 Research & development (R&D) 2........19 R&D financed by business..1 4...1...55.2...2 2..........2.....1 Credit 4.3...1......2...5 48.........................42.0.......54.....43.....0 17 7.n/a R&D performed by business............7...............1.......63.........................3 6..................8 21 6..... %......7 32 3.........2 7....5 69 5 Business sophistication 5.......6..........21 Computer & comm..18 Electricity consumption..... %................... %..3.............85 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...6.42.................................2.......3 5....2..48....15.......................55 Market capitalization..6.... % GDP...17 High-tech exports less re-exports................4 34 ........2..............1.....53............................................2 7...1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 77........2..44..2 4.................1..46 High-tech imports less re-imports........31....29 National feature films/mn pop....000 literate pop.1......1.....3 Political stability*......47 31.....................16.1.....7........... 15–64 yrs.....................1 7...9................................3 Researchers headcount/million pop......................3............. & science....................9....4 Knowledge-intensive employment.52..................4...3 Regulatory quality*................20 6...5 2...1 1. % income/cap..1.......3 2. 42..........3.....................30 School life expectancy....1 ICT access*.......1........21 Tertiary inbound mobility....................................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*......3..................53......66 Domestic credit to private sector..........23 Rule of law*..........85. %...3 7....................................... % GDP.74....1 Knowledge workers 50...........................1 7. % GDP..............................................................0.34 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$....1 2............3....................2 Energy 25.........................30.................1.....2 4.. maths....7..1.4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.........47.....2 5.61 38..n/a 4...5........... 22 Global Innovation Index 2009....1 22 6.3 24 72.........n/a...53 2...74 New businesses/1.80........................0.4..........45 2................18 3 Infrastructure 3........ %..........3...........................................3 Government’s Online Service*.......68...4......1...1.9 5..........37 Depth of credit information*..3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...35. %....39 Government effectiveness*.......2.....1 5............ % gross..................................20 Gross expenditure on R&D.....................34.....................89......94....4.5 GDP (US$ billions) 2..............28..0..19 Daily newspapers/1. 19 1 Institutions Political environment 1.................31.33......13 ICT & business models†..................3 25 2......2 6.....19.0.................................9 17 3......3.16 3.3 3......................40 1....5 63 16 7 Creative outputs 44...........6...............20.13 7............7...... PPP (current international $) 33.......72.......15 49..............11 3..1 6............ % GDP......... %.649....2 1..2...2..........1.......3 2..............3.............51.......... %.........2.3.....8...................................13 Gross capital formation.............................1 3........2...56 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$...... 55............0....5 Education expenditure........................................4 Strength of investor protection*..............2 Regulatory environment 1...............1....9.3..........................................4 Electricity output.7.61.....65...85.....13 4........7.......30 Computer software spending.......2.... % GNI..5 27 4........n/a...................7...........................................................2.............9............. days...2.......2 1.........22 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..68........n/a........... %......... %.4 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index................2. % firms........36 Public expenditure/pupil.. years........................................1......70.9 34 1.................4 ICT & organizational models†.....................5...................23......10 Computer & comm service exports..............5...2.................66.....3.....1 6.......1...6..........5 Recreation & culture consumption.........42 Share of renewables in energy use......69.......3 78.25 Creative services exports...14 PISA scales in reading...3............90 41......................19 3......1 4........13 Tertiary outbound mobility.....6 28 4 Market sophistication 4...........1 Info & comm.1 22 61............5..6 GDP per capita..n/a Microfinance gross loans......1 Creative intangibles 58......7.....................1 1....2......1.....3........................3...........34 FDI net outflows..77...................40......3..........3 17 Strength of legal rights for credit*.32 FDI net inflows...26 Graduates in engineering.5 University/industry collaboration†...... %. % GDP.....3......................3.3 Knowledge absorption 5....................................................1.......2... %........000 pop......0......................2.........4 5................99.2 3............17 Creative goods exports..............3 5.....1 4........30......21 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....113 1.. %.....2.......2........... service imports................................7......3 Knowledge diffusion 6....87.........................1 1..........6....................2.....3 39...... % GDP/cap.......655......2 3.................2...3 Time to start a business.....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...2.....0 26 35 66 21 69......3.................. %..5..............6.2 2..................22 GDP/unit of energy use..............2 5.......59........3...............3............................1.........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....77 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.............1 5..4.45.........2 Investment 43......9...3.......14....n/a....... % GDP.4 4.........................

..99 7.......3.. % GDP.......71........2...........3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.2....1.....1.............................19 Market capitalization..1 ICT access*....3 5.......3 7......3..87 R&D performed by business......43.....1 Info & comm...................................n/a 6..........0.............. %.4 Royalty & license fees payments..........2 3...3.n/a......0 84 98 20..2.................................... %.......72................57 22.....91 3..48 6................21........................49................... 84 Global Innovation Index 2009...6 75 43 2 83 58...n/a Creative goods exports.108 FDI net inflows...........2....1 6.....................................000 pop...8....7 28.....4 Strength of investor protection*.....1 5.....n/a.......3 Knowledge absorption 5.......................................45 Rule of law*.1 Creative intangibles 19..1 6.........7 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.......37 Gross expenditure on R&D.7...3.1.......3 6....6......3 2......98 Gross capital formation.....1.. %....... 31..................... service imports.......4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$..............1 3................... %.83 Tertiary outbound mobility....3.122 Ecological footprint & biocapacity......1 32..................2..2 111 19....3 2............1.4 Knowledge-intensive employment.....3..............................2 3..........1...................2 7...... % GDP.......3........... % GDP..............2..61..3.000 literate pop....37 Depth of credit information*.4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...2 4............6......................2..............2........... % GDP..3...1..3 Regulatory quality*..12....2 1......1.........41 Total tax rate.........103 Government effectiveness*....................n/a...........1 7..........n/a..53.........2.......................6 23........7........93 Total value of stocks traded...119 State of cluster development†..................2 1........ % GDP..........0..65 Rigidity of employment*....... %........3......1 Knowledge workers 26.....74 Quality research institutions†..........7........1 1....................22.......4 41...............................................4 Royalty & license fees receipts.3 Government’s Online Service*...3.0..........4 103 5.......2 4..........1...38 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment..................25............................ %........ 0..........1.............1 4..........3 123 4 Market sophistication 4..10 1...3.......27................................. % GDP..............2.......47...........33 ICT & business models†.........38 High-tech exports less re-exports.....2 2.............0..0........5 87 3..48...........5 Market access trade restrictiveness*..74 Graduates in science...9 99 4...........3 3...2................... PPP (current international $) 4............0.......1..................55 Press freedom*............3 4....3 4....2....30................2 Innovation linkages 5.0............................................................................ technologies (ICT) 24......3 Cost to start a business..9 29 6................22 26.......3....2..2 6.....75 1...4 4.................3... %..... %.... 15–64 yrs.....0..1....... %.........8...........1 Education 50.....0..........4.....73 High-tech imports less re-imports... % GDP............3...............3...3........... %. % GDP.........62.......76 School life expectancy....1..31 3..............1.....6 Tertiary enrolment....5 22.......................2..............63 3..........35........20...41 Exports of goods & services.......... years........0...3.73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor..............n/a Daily newspapers/1.........3 36 84 7 Creative outputs 7..................28..39 Computer software spending..........2...n/a...... %......................... % GDP............2 2...................2.1....4 2......3..2.......1......25..............................................1................50..96 ICT & organizational models†.................4 2...........30.......... maths....2...... kWh/cap..........................2 ICT use*...9...........1..................................n/a R&D financed by business...............8 44 5 Business sophistication 5..0.....3 Research & development (R&D) 2..................3................2..............0..........1.93................17.....................8 114 7..7..9..3....99.......2........2..3 6....................... days.........25..................5 2..1......2 Tertiary education 2.2.......................... %....2.........3 Trade & competition 4......3 5...........n/a........4 45 1...................1 3....13...... % GDP/cap...... %.....5.......2 Creative goods & services 7..22..........7............................31 2......1...........................2 Knowledge impact 6...........28......n/a Computer & comm service exports...............9..............2 5..............2..Georgia Population (millions) 4...........12........1..0 96.. ha/cap.7 39 Strength of legal rights for credit*.1......1 58 48.....................3 Business environment 1.2................8 57 2..........4...103 Public expenditure/pupil.3 5...........25.......1...........8..n/a...........67................. 25. % GNI.............1 1.....7 2 Human capital & research 2..7 106 99 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 159 .87 3......................1 4..n/a National feature films/mn pop...................51 34......8 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$......................1.n/a...12.... 75 Innovation Input Sub-Index...............7.....93........2.............3 2..................................3....5....1 Credit 4..109 36...........n/a.10..5 University/industry collaboration†...................2.......7.......3 Knowledge diffusion 6.......3...........................1 2............4 5......9 71 3...38 5.......................0 15..3......52 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.0...........97 R&D financed by abroad.....3 Political stability*......1.1...... % gross................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean..92 Creative services exports.................3 General infrastructure 3...........3............................57 Tertiary inbound mobility.................32............... secondary.1.5.................2 Investment 19.......1.... %...........1 Political environment 1...... 81 Global Innovation Index 2010.3 7...2......................... % income/cap....n/a...2 6.................68 Graduates in engineering.......................1 2.......4 Electricity output.............1 71...........2......1 Domestic credit to private sector.........................................29............113 54......2 GDP per capita.. %.........3..............5........................7.........................................1 5.7..........................4 7...................1...........774.............4 E-Participation*.................... %.11 Imports of goods & services........................6 37 6........69 4..................0.... %.9........2 Energy 18.... 100..................94.....70.......3 Researchers headcount/million pop....1 6.........7.1 1....14..........................5 Recreation & culture consumption............. 98 1 Institutions 72.18..........71 Microfinance gross loans...1..0........3................................5 Education expenditure. %...55...................3 Time to start a business...2 4.3..1 Knowledge creation 32.................70........0.......2 5.2.................... kWh/capita......9....0 5..................64 PISA scales in reading. % GDP.........1.43..................15................................................2 1.......n/a Computer & comm...... % GDP......75 Intensity local competition†...............................2 2.3................ %...........0...2...1 2........0....3........ 38...2 Regulatory environment 1.........................98.........0.....................n/a 5...........3...................1 4.......10......................... %..........1......5..96..10 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...1 5.......18.........2.2................2 7...97..2.9..............................1 GDP (US$ billions) 10..2....6......6.....2...............28.3..................1.... % firms..... % GDP... % GDP... % profits.............5.........................2 5....... %.......74 Electricity consumption..........................102 3..............0....60 Share of renewables in energy use........1.....................19.......50 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$......................3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker. PPP$/kg oil eq.....0...49........ 76 Innovation Efficiency Index.............. 73 Innovation Output Sub-Index.........1........40..........................2................................2..1 7........3...............24............7.....20 New businesses/1............2 6..35.............8......2................. & science......58 Firms offering formal training........7.....11 4........................111 FDI net outflows..........73 GDP/unit of energy use....................n/a Pupil-teacher ratio.....................................................111 3 Infrastructure 3.......2.......1.3.....................3.100 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..............3 4.0....n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$........9 96 99 82 6 Scientific outputs 30...

...3 Research & development (R&D) 2...............24....5.....3 5..............................70...5 16 23 59 11 72........2..................................15 3......4..........0..........3 Researchers headcount/million pop.......5..........5 University/industry collaboration†...9.. % profits.45...6.... %....3 Knowledge absorption 5..70 Market capitalization..........1.........1...26 FDI net inflows...14 High-tech exports less re-exports.............. %........................1...2 1.............5..1 1..... days...............3.3..........3....3..............1 ICT access*....54 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$..3........2 5.................69 Exports of goods & services.............38.7............95..................... %.91 2 Human capital & research 2.................... %..19......60............53 Intensity local competition†.............3...........37 Tertiary inbound mobility.....36...........63 3.9....4 GDP (US$ billions) 3............... % GDP.............8 24 14 43..9 State of cluster development†..13 Gross expenditure on R&D.... % GDP...............................1 5.9...........3.......3......I: Country/Economy Profiles 160 Germany Key indicators Population (millions) 82...................n/a..1.....0 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index...............37 Share of renewables in energy use...............37.....35 Creative services exports...........1 Gross capital formation....1....59 Cost to start a business.91...13..... %.........000 literate pop. % gross...29 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.70.......1...................20 Computer & comm service exports......2 5.....1.............................54 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$... PPP$/kg oil eq..14.47..25 Government effectiveness*.......2...........65..............58......4..5 Recreation & culture consumption................................2 7..........2 Creative goods & services 7.................4 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.........9 33 4 Market sophistication 4.............26 4.........................3..........4 57..7.......................3 7.1.4.........................2...2 2..2 3.... % GDP.... & science......7 15 3................. 50..3 Government’s Online Service*..n/a.....21 High-tech imports less re-imports....3 Regulatory quality*........2.......85......9 5.0............9....13........267.........2......................3.......... % GDP.....1 3.........4..........15 Graduates in engineering............80..4......... %.....5...................2....1 Education 88.......94.3...1 2...............86........ 2 1 Institutions Political environment 1..........1.1.............................................7.4 3....82.....3........ ha/cap....26 GDP/unit of energy use........0......92.....1........ % GDP..............................25.70........3 2............1 Credit 4.8 R&D financed by abroad..................1....4................0.12 Market access trade restrictiveness*....69..........54.....3 5.. 100....1...........2.......2 Regulatory environment 1..5 2.3 Business environment 1.......41..0......................2.....3.......................3 4...2......3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker.......1 6............16 Rule of law*........................9...1 6..4 Royalty & license fees payments..1 3.............................2 5...............................................................5..2...............28.....1 5.............3......................4 7................................28 26........................................... 16 Global Innovation Index 2009...........3 44............ 59............................3...........................n/a....3.................1 2...15.................. %....25 National feature films/mn pop..2..1.2 57.........n/a....2 7 6...5 21 1.11 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.. %....15 Press freedom*.........4 5.2 Knowledge impact 6.............3 5.....21 3...0...2............. % GDP....2..............2..n/a PISA scales in reading..2 1..................26........9........2 6.1....4 Strength of investor protection*.2 6...2 6.............96....34...........1.n/a...85.........8....... % GNI.............................23 Computer & comm.................. service imports....2 21 63..61.....68.. %.................... %....2............6....2 7...............7 6 7..6 53.......2.000 pop............ maths.2 ICT use*.................................16 1...3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*...n/a School life expectancy...........................27 Daily newspapers/1............................45..6..2 Tertiary education 2.............4.......5 Education expenditure...........n/a Graduates in science..................4........n/a Imports of goods & services...................11 ICT & business models†.........2..........1........1 6......1 81...3......43 R&D performed by business... %.2 2.3............2 4....1.....15 7.....54 2....106 Ecological footprint & biocapacity......38.......3...........52........9 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$..83.............4...... kWh/cap................ 15 Global Innovation Index 2010...........1 Domestic credit to private sector.... %..3 Trade & competition 4................36...................3 Knowledge diffusion 6............. %..5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.......1.................................3 Time to start a business........1 Info & comm.............6............................... PPP (current international $) 36.........2.....98 40............2........3....3 2.............................. %....n/a...5 30 5 Business sophistication 5..................4 4........................ technologies (ICT) 42.......2 Energy 25.............1.3...n/a.39.......2 Investment 34................3.................................6 77 18 7 Creative outputs 51........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$........ 100..............1..5 30 25 6 Scientific outputs 49.....2............. %...1 Knowledge creation 69..7.......................2.............67..3...................40....3...... %...............3.........2 1.......4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.....64.......100 1...................2.........21 6................9...............6 3 Infrastructure 3...... years......3 Political stability*.............7 47.....0..2 3......9........... % GDP/cap........1.....4...........1 2........330............1...........................17 3.......1..2............ secondary................3............................1..5....n/a Microfinance gross loans........50......41 5........1 Knowledge workers 51....1 4.................28 Electricity consumption...8.................13 Pupil-teacher ratio........5 44 4...3 3...............2...................................3 7.... %.56.15 Rigidity of employment*.....2.0......48.....n/a Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.............1 5. %.43 2................................ 54............................. %..4...............3.1 58....28...................3 General infrastructure 3.45 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor........55..................................1 23 7......................................1......0.42................n/a Tertiary outbound mobility...........1.........9.11 ICT & organizational models†.................5...................1 81......... 0.........................1 Creative intangibles 56....3 6...54.............1....6 Tertiary enrolment...4 2.....92.2.2................1 GDP per capita.........................81.......5....16 6. % GDP.....53 Computer software spending.1 7.......4 Royalty & license fees receipts....2...........3 4......... 21 Innovation Efficiency Index.......3.......14 Firms offering formal training..................................4 E-Participation*.......................1.2 40 3.......................4.....3 14 85.......9 25 5......................................................1 1...................35................5 12 2..............1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 83....0 5 Strength of legal rights for credit*......................6.............. % GDP........... % GDP.94 43.....2 2..................0............. % GDP......... % firms..................5..51..................................85.2... kWh/capita.......2 8 ...........................21.......13 R&D financed by business.8......3.............. %.........9................1........1 4....4....n/a............................40....4 59....2..............61................................ 15–64 yrs....6 20 66..11 Creative goods exports..........................5...40 Total tax rate........1 4.................4 Electricity output............. % GDP....81..3... % GDP.......2...........3......47 Total value of stocks traded............21................11 Quality research institutions†.......................2..6.......................73............... %....8 14 6...............1 1.....2 4......3 6............1 7..............76....77.........2 Innovation linkages 5.......................3 4...8....18.9.........1............ 4 Innovation Input Sub-Index.4 2.. % GDP............1......1.n/a 4...43....................19 FDI net outflows....1.........78..............................3......0..................59 Public expenditure/pupil. 12 Innovation Output Sub-Index......37 Depth of credit information*.5.......... % income/cap......................4 Knowledge-intensive employment....2 4......85 New businesses/1.....

................2 Innovation linkages 5.....3 Government’s Online Service*....2 5......3............35....................................1 7..............2. %....1..4...1......... % GDP/cap........5 University/industry collaboration†.....3 96 Strength of legal rights for credit*.........4 GDP (US$ billions) 26.......... 105 Global Innovation Index 2009...................................41 2 Human capital & research 2.............54 ICT & business models†.................0...6.......64 1................3 Trade & competition 4.............6 91 7........1 3.......89 Total tax rate...........3 4......1 4........4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...............2.....9 80 6....................2 6.............2 Regulatory environment 1..............2 3..8 99 29....Ghana Population (millions) 24..3...0.......2 ICT use*....................43 Public expenditure/pupil.....73 Intensity local competition†.................... %.......3.3..3 5.............8......1 7.68 Gross capital formation......38.............2....50......3 5.....2.....20......1.... 39....4 5...............2 1......23...n/a Gross expenditure on R&D.........................n/a.....2............n/a High-tech exports less re-exports....... %.4 Royalty & license fees receipts...... %..n/a...............................69 FDI net outflows...1.3 Business environment 1..............................n/a.3 6.............2 4. %....3 Regulatory quality*..... %.....1...1 4........ secondary...................n/a...31 Graduates in engineering............79 Imports of goods & services................5................2. % GDP.......1......................n/a Quality research institutions†......4.................6 61 6.......25...............2................. & science.......0......3........83 2..........................552..1 59. %...........28.............5.. %....2 Energy 25....................3 6...............................................................n/a Computer & comm...................1.......46................2 4.........39.............................................................41 4..n/a Firms offering formal training....................101 PISA scales in reading....59.........................7 104 15 6 Scientific outputs 24.............................. 25........91...0............n/a..........................................6.........................2 2.....2 6..............2....3 Knowledge diffusion 6....80....38.3 GDP per capita.2 7.................................2......3 Knowledge absorption 5...............9 83.2.............1 6....85 2..2.n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$.2...n/a.......4 Electricity output...............2.....8....... %.............102 Electricity consumption........7.....3 Time to start a business....0........................1...........2...........................3 2.........6...73..1 5........3....54.......2 Knowledge impact 6.....4.............................8............... % GDP..2......3.............6 39...4 31.........2 7...............8 83 2.0.....1.3.......2 46..............................................................1......32..............................73 5.......35..4 Strength of investor protection*.......n/a Computer & comm service exports................0....2......5 Education expenditure....46...........7 63 35...106 3..........n/a...64 Tertiary outbound mobility..........7..63 6........62 Rigidity of employment*.1...........................................74 Tertiary inbound mobility......2 Creative goods & services 7..............3 5...............2 5...........1..............100 Graduates in science...........60 3 Infrastructure 3..............................7.......2 5.....8..................................3.1......8.................10 3........1 Knowledge workers 35...72..31. % GDP........9..60.... %.....3..9 93 11......................8......69 Rule of law*......2 2.......0 49 64 49 60 51........................3 4...................2................ % profits..........8..................8...6 Tertiary enrolment.5 2.......2...............4.......n/a R&D financed by business.....76.2..........78 7..................3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..................67 FDI net inflows........76 Total value of stocks traded..........6............1 1...21....................6.....84 29............................n/a Pupil-teacher ratio....1 6............2........ 70 Innovation Output Sub-Index...........3.2.0....................9..9...........................................25 1................ 65 Innovation Efficiency Index.......55 31....2 75 7..n/a 1 Institutions 69.............35.....2.0.............8..3.... maths...................................5.................n/a.57 Exports of goods & services..................n/a 6.....1 Credit 4..0..............4...3 68 34 7 Creative outputs 25.......n/a 9.....................n/a.....103 GDP/unit of energy use...............3 4........1.3 Political stability*...3... 15–64 yrs.n/a.109 3... % GDP. % GDP..................1.........5 Recreation & culture consumption.............3 108 5 Business sophistication 5.......1........... % GDP......n/a...........2............3................ %..............2 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index......1 2..64...................111 Market access trade restrictiveness*...9...... days..1 ICT access*... %...... PPP$/kg oil eq.....2...........3..53...... 32.1 5............1...........6 88 4 Market sophistication 4....56...............0....3............. %........................63........5............................1 6...............................3........ % GDP....47...................1..6....3....n/a.............1.. %.............................................2.........................2 Tertiary education 2.1 4.38 4...........14..........1.............. % GDP........... kWh/cap...........1 1.......1 97 24 22...3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*........................86 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$..43 Cost to start a business..1 3...........37.............91 R&D financed by abroad........0........ % firms.23 New businesses/1.87 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.....17....1..........50 Share of renewables in energy use.000 pop..............89.....1.3.....68 39....8. %.............................1........34 School life expectancy...n/a High-tech imports less re-imports........18........ ha/cap.... 0.......2 4....2..........1.....3 Research & development (R&D) 2......000 literate pop.0........................................n/a Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.....................n/a....110 Creative services exports.....51......24................3 5...3.........8.........34 Market capitalization.........3.........................1 2.......... 86 Global Innovation Index 2010.......1.....19 Depth of credit information*. 76 Innovation Input Sub-Index..n/a Daily newspapers/1.............5...36 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.....53 National feature films/mn pop......2 1...................3 3.0...............89 State of cluster development†.................8...2 6...........n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...... % GDP....... % GDP................... %............ %........1..........................7 69 4........n/a...........9.. PPP (current international $) 1.....2........4 7.....4 2........95 Microfinance gross loans...............4 2.n/a 77 5..........................................44........89 Domestic credit to private sector.............3 General infrastructure 3........3...2 3..1............51.................................1 Knowledge creation 4.......1................1..... %.............2 2..65 Press freedom*....... % income/cap.........55 Government effectiveness*.............. % gross...2................50.2......................0..........2............61 ICT & organizational models†.....48 R&D performed by business..3 2..... %........4 E-Participation*.n/a..7..n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$...................4 Knowledge-intensive employment..3 7..........n/a Creative goods exports.3.....33.0..3......n/a.. % GNI.......1 Creative intangibles 42...6.................2.................. % GDP..... kWh/capita......8 53 1....n/a...51............0..1 1.6..4 39.............43 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment..92 3.3..................... %....6....1..........2..1 Education 66.........4...4 4...n/a. technologies (ICT) 19.......67 Computer software spending. %...............3 7.........1 Info & comm...1........53..5....9.4 Royalty & license fees payments...................... % GDP.........3................................... years..4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...................1..................5.......1 2.............3 49................80 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean. service imports.2.......1... % GDP.........................................20 22.............................6..3...........5 37 3.....4..........3...2...0 89 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 161 ....35.........3............1 5................................1...............2....1 Political environment 1.............................2 1.................................30....3 Researchers headcount/million pop....84....101 3..................5 107 3........3........................2 Investment 26.......1..

.3.6......9.....................................113 Market capitalization.2.......... % GDP..3 35 2.........3...............................1.3.....3 Time to start a business................ % income/cap.............................. %..............39 GDP/unit of energy use...........I: Country/Economy Profiles 162 Greece Key indicators Population (millions) 11................................ %.........2 2...........0.................2..............2 6......................n/a...7..3......4 91 5 Business sophistication 5.1 7.......42 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..................6...8 59 1.....................3 Knowledge diffusion 6..2.................3............1 Education 63...................0................2 Energy 25..............5.9...71.........7............................2 6.11..........98....83..3 6.........60 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.......3...5......3 4...........4 Royalty & license fees payments..2 2.1.....1 Creative intangibles 30.....n/a....1............3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*..........6 83 100 7 Creative outputs 31.2.....................7.....1................1....................................4 Royalty & license fees receipts........55 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..................2......50 Quality research institutions†.....................11 PISA scales in reading.....110 1.....................7......1 5...2.....1....90 Total tax rate.....7 72 89 6 Scientific outputs 20.......... kWh/capita..33.2....................................3... %....4 Knowledge-intensive employment.............. % GDP.....3 Business environment 1.................2...............7 24.....................2 6...............59................ 15–64 yrs.......14......30..9....1 7.32.97 Depth of credit information*........ maths........ % gross...................83..................1 7 62 32......105 FDI net outflows..........................50.3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....................................38...............5...3 Political stability*.....0.....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...................3.......7 69 Strength of legal rights for credit*...69 4.....3 Research & development (R&D) 2..1..8 117 4.. PPP$/kg oil eq.....................64........... %.......1.......2............ % GDP................ % GDP..17 6............49................1......2......3 Knowledge absorption 5.....2..........9....7.........2 Regulatory environment 1...... % GDP...4 GDP (US$ billions) 329......3 Graduates in science....63 High-tech exports less re-exports...........n/a Creative goods exports.........................0...............46 24.1...6.........46 Press freedom*..................48 School life expectancy.............3 5....... % GDP.2 1..76 3.9 2.......................5............14 Creative services exports.......79...........3 96 37....104 Public expenditure/pupil...3 Regulatory quality*..............................8.......2 Investment 13...2....3 7.............3.....1 Credit 4..........3....2 GDP per capita...... days......................................12............................................2...........................1 4........8 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$....94.......1 1.. kWh/cap.........111 7.....2 1....663..... technologies (ICT) 51...........0.......................4 Electricity output.....74 Total value of stocks traded.......1.1..................................32 Firms offering formal training.........1 107 4 Market sophistication 4.........78 R&D performed by business.5.2..............................2.........................104 28.....12.56 1..42 Rigidity of employment*. % GDP/cap..............22.................5 2....................9..............66............72 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.........3......3 2.......7.........25.... %........6......28 Gross expenditure on R&D....8... %...2 3................4 2...........1 3..2 Creative goods & services 7..............................89 Exports of goods & services......... %...........44 Gross capital formation...21 Graduates in engineering..... 0...36 Pupil-teacher ratio...4.............0..................5..........38......1....48.............. 25........4....9...............88 2 Human capital & research 2..........2...............90 ICT & organizational models†.......10...................20.3....................000 pop......................3 Government’s Online Service*.....9............3....6............40 ICT & business models†..................n/a Imports of goods & services...29 3..2..3...6...8............... % GNI....3 4........4 27...............4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.1......0.23.. 95 Global Innovation Index 2010..2.66.......3.......105 30........................2..2....0... years.3 5.....36..............0..........6 Tertiary enrolment.... %..... 46 Global Innovation Index 2009....2 ICT use*.......2................1..............3...........28 Daily newspapers/1.......18.... %...4 53 57 76 33 66...0.....55 Computer software spending............3..........2 69 7..........5......7................9...........3 Trade & competition 4...2........................46 5.................4 4............... % profits......2 7.....42... %......................31............................3.......70 Cost to start a business.................3.........................2..................... %..74..........................17 National feature films/mn pop.... %.....3 3...2........1.........2 4..................8.......3....2..............1 1....7...........3 2..............................2 5.........................34 6.n/a......9 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index... 42..... % GDP....47 High-tech imports less re-imports......................1 6........3...........42 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.1 4...64..5..1 ICT access*......39 Rule of law*...6.........36 Computer & comm service exports.....4 Strength of investor protection*.4...........4 38 3...38....1..............1 5..........................51 Microfinance gross loans...............54 New businesses/1.. % GDP.......... %......20....47 3..... %..3 4......3......................8 76......6 83 6.1 1..................1 Knowledge workers 32..........2....2 4.8....9................0 5......................................8.......19.1 2......61.......1........1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 67.............3.... %............49..............4 2................74 45.51.4 E-Participation*............35.............2....................16 Share of renewables in energy use.............5.......7............1..........48 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$...........................2 2............88 R&D financed by abroad.........3............... % GDP.....44 66 5....1 5...40..........48 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.........26.........3 5...........2 7...5 Education expenditure...1 2.....45.......3 6.............5 111 7........2 Tertiary education 2.79 FDI net inflows.....2 Innovation linkages 5.............4........1..2 Knowledge impact 6............ %..1.........3...... service imports......5.4 5...2...........15.7............6.....4 32.......12 Market access trade restrictiveness*...........1 Info & comm.......102 State of cluster development†...............92.......................5 19.................8......................30................... 72 Innovation Input Sub-Index....3..4.......6.....4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.................1 6............................12.... secondary.......................1.... % firms.....44..1............n/a 4....... % GDP..1...34 3.2 5...62.......................6............. %......19.......2.25.33.........5..1.........5.......66 Government effectiveness*........53 R&D financed by business.......82..................................... 34.......................6... %... %.........2...2........56 3............................9.................81 3 Infrastructure 3...................................2......43 Electricity consumption...3 7.....1 47........ % GDP.............6....2 4..25 Domestic credit to private sector...... % GDP.3...37.. & science....34..3 76 39.................................5 Recreation & culture consumption.....12.3.................................5 63..1 3..4 7..................31 Tertiary inbound mobility...8..... %.68..34......1 36 3.......35 Tertiary outbound mobility.........25.......2........1.. PPP (current international $) 29.....1...................6.0..............13.............53 31........ ha/cap..43.3..................2 3...............7.....7.6 46 6........109 Ecological footprint & biocapacity......................000 literate pop....20........2......0......3......2....1............. %........1 2....3 General infrastructure 3.............1......6 42 44...........111 Intensity local competition†........................ 54 1 Institutions Political environment 1......................................................1 4......1.....2 1..........2............... 50 Innovation Efficiency Index.16...3...74........58...9 32 ........................1.....................1 6..57 Computer & comm.42....2....... % GDP...............2 5.3 Researchers headcount/million pop..................................0.......... 63 Innovation Output Sub-Index........5 2..5 University/industry collaboration†..1 Knowledge creation 17.............

.5 Education expenditure...........1.... %........2....107 Total tax rate............57 Creative services exports......38 7......3 5..... % gross. 100......4.2.........3....71 3..............3........1................4................1 4..........1 1.....50 Market access trade restrictiveness*.2...1 4.................17.....................49 State of cluster development†.81 0.49 R&D financed by abroad.......42 ICT & organizational models†....1..3...1 98 110 24.............1 ICT access*....2..............1.45 4.3 Knowledge diffusion 6.. 97 Innovation Efficiency Index......... %............73 5...........1...........0................13..0....2.............46 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$....n/a... %........29........2 Creative goods & services 7.... %.......... % GDP............5......4 2.....0........1 7......38................62 1.............. PPP (current international $) 4.......................... 100...........8. % GDP.......... %.67 Computer & comm.............2 5....99 School life expectancy................2........n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$........................1 5................................35..3...719.3.................3 5......2.....34....17...........52 National feature films/mn pop....11.2 Innovation linkages 5. 25............92 Quality research institutions†......99 Intensity local competition†...9....1.1.................97 Government effectiveness*.......................................................3 5...0....3.............5 Recreation & culture consumption.......2 ICT use*.....59 R&D performed by business..1 Info & comm................1 4..................................115 Rigidity of employment*..........2..2...........................46.......3......................................31..... 15–64 yrs........................6 24........2 2.........62.........18.4.........6 Tertiary enrolment...........3..........1 6....................2.....15.. %..... %..2 Investment 26.....................2..5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...3 Research & development (R&D) 2............ % GDP.5........4 E-Participation*.............5 113 47 105 6 Scientific outputs 6.... %.........7.3..........4. %................1............. 29..........1........................3 Trade & competition 4................5.......4 2...5 GDP (US$ billions) 37.68 FDI net outflows...................................... %.....................3...................1......8.....61.........2.5 2.................1...n/a...1.........................................1 Credit 4....................... 86 Innovation Output Sub-Index..3 4...............0...................................1.1 6...........................2.............0.......n/a ICT & business models†...............105 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment............ % GDP.77.1 2........ % GDP.73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor......2 2..2........................................2 4.........5............... % GDP.......3...79 Gross capital formation..0..........6....4 5..2 3.........1.............................1 5......................2 109 44.........2 100 1.....2....77 Exports of goods & services.... 81 1 Institutions 51... %....69 4.....30..3...35. %...7 19.....54 High-tech exports less re-exports..........2 2......4 Strength of investor protection*.69.. % GDP..2...........25.103 Cost to start a business..102 Press freedom*....0......................3.86 Graduates in science.0..1 85 96 104 25..........2 6...............................58 24................2 Regulatory environment 1. % GDP...........87 3 Infrastructure 3.....1...........85............n/a 5.......2..............1..30 Share of renewables in energy use...............0.3..3. & science.......0......2 4............. kWh/cap..34......................112 FDI net inflows.........1 3........... % firms.........3............. %........8 12.......... %.3......9 35........5 University/industry collaboration†..........1 Political environment 1.......3 4.................... % income/cap......n/a Total value of stocks traded.......4...3.....7.1.....120 Ecological footprint & biocapacity....3 7.n/a Pupil-teacher ratio.................81 3....4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.............9 22............2..0........4 Electricity output..6 35 3...2.............3....0.................29.....0 45......................4. secondary....65............2 112 6.......17 3.............29.......93 2...............2 5.1 3.......... days.79 Microfinance gross loans.......................0.........78.............................98 Electricity consumption....... %.....3...............14.....................2..........................2.........2 5................0.......... %.............................3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker............ PPP$/kg oil eq...........4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$....................2 7.......6 100 5.....0..2.0.....000 pop..2 3..3 Government’s Online Service*.5...1..32....61........3 General infrastructure 3...................................2 Knowledge impact 6.......2 1....................2 6.6 60 Strength of legal rights for credit*..6..1....1.......0....1............27.6........... %......28 Tertiary inbound mobility.1............36 3.................1 7...........7.......2........2.77 19. 95 Global Innovation Index 2009.........1........4 4.........0 76 5 Business sophistication 5.11.7................7.....2........... %.........3..................................................... technologies (ICT) 18............................4 38.........n/a Firms offering formal training.........3 Researchers headcount/million pop.2 1......n/a.4 Royalty & license fees payments..............2...2 87 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 163 ...............7 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...........45 48...4 Royalty & license fees receipts.....3....78 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$..42..........3 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$...40..92 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....3 3............86 3................3...................2............3 Time to start a business.......3 Knowledge absorption 5...........80..........1................ ha/cap.7..................3 4.............2... 41 Global Innovation Index 2010.......n/a..... % GDP.....1................1...3 7...........1..........3.........21...100 Public expenditure/pupil....68......45. % GDP/cap....2.3..........9....n/a 6..................................7 70 4...........72.......2....................n/a.........2 4..........................................2 Tertiary education 2........................1.......... %....................2....... % GDP...........9..............1.............................5...56............ % GDP..................1 Creative intangibles 63.................103 Market capitalization..6.......5.......... % GDP..........2............1 123 101 85 7 Creative outputs 36..1 1.... kWh/capita..........3 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index....7..1 Knowledge creation 14..n/a..87 Graduates in engineering...............................31.......8.2.......0.4 Knowledge-intensive employment.4.5........1...................93 Gross expenditure on R&D...2 7.67 2 Human capital & research 2..........................0 75 3..............n/a........ % profits....3.......1..........................6...1.......................35..........................84 10.3................................ %.....................98 PISA scales in reading.5......1... %.... 0.........1 Knowledge workers 26...7 52 7........9..................................................4 71 40...79 R&D financed by business....2..............2.......51...1............n/a Creative goods exports......4 7....2............. 33..2................7.................0............1 2....................................................3 6............1 6..........0..................................... 73 Innovation Input Sub-Index.......2..3..3....39..................3 2.2.1 Education 43..n/a.......3 Business environment 1.........1.....................................................n/a Tertiary outbound mobility.. service imports.......44.......1 5......3 6.37 High-tech imports less re-imports.........3 Regulatory quality*.....79 Daily newspapers/1....2 6.......0.......000 literate pop............... % GNI........4.......4 GDP per capita.........2...84 New businesses/1...................19 Depth of credit information*..............................3 2..68 Computer software spending.........8...... maths..3................5..........0...................2 1...... % GDP.......65.1 1..........................Guatemala Population (millions) 14............1........ years........57 Computer & comm service exports..................................................5 65..............1...7.....1 Domestic credit to private sector....5..7 120 4 Market sophistication 4...47.3........................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*..........................n/a.......2....3............3 10 7...................6 102 2.................6.....75 Rule of law*...74 2.......120 6..4...........5 82 23..67 1.4........................................3 Political stability*............0.............0..................64 Imports of goods & services.........2 Energy 25.........................................99 GDP/unit of energy use.1 2..........

.............3 7.......7........n/a.1.....73.2 3...........................2...................1 4.0.......1 Knowledge creation 7..2 5............2 Knowledge impact 6..1.. %.......4 33........3........n/a 3.......3 Regulatory quality*.2.1...............n/a 5...n/a Pupil-teacher ratio........................ %..112 3 Infrastructure 3..6..2...7..........088....0........n/a...........................3 Business environment 1..n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.......n/a.5 University/industry collaboration†...3 2...............3 4...n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor. % GDP.................2.55 Market capitalization..n/a.........3.................. %...............40...................n/a.66............3 67 23...4 7. 34.....2................... PPP (current international $) 3..n/a New businesses/1...................................... %.....2 6......................26 2................1 5........................2 7.8 GDP per capita.........1.1 7........... %.1...5 Education expenditure.....n/a 6..................0.....................7 n/a 11 7 Creative outputs 27......... kWh/cap.....0......61 Total value of stocks traded...7...1 6.....2 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.........2...........1.....4 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...............95 ICT & organizational models†..107 Computer & comm service exports...............1.......1 Info & comm...n/a...................................65.....79 Press freedom*.....n/a............2 Creative goods & services 7.2...2............1 2........4 4.... % firms................2.............n/a R&D financed by business.....................4 Electricity output......65......................................n/a Computer software spending............0............1....... % GDP...1........9 35.3..........3 104 3......9 27.........0....5.................8. %......n/a Electricity consumption................................................1 Knowledge workers 35...................1.n/a n/a 60..........................104 7...................2 7. days.....n/a 4.......39 Graduates in engineering... %.........n/a Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.......41 Microfinance gross loans.n/a Quality research institutions†........................................ kWh/capita...1...1 6...........1 2.n/a 3.........1.1........n/a.22........n/a...........8.0......5 106 5...3 5....................3 5..............................3.......0......3......3 3............................7.........................9............3 Trade & competition 4.......100 Creative services exports..............1 4..1......1 7................. 100......63............n/a Daily newspapers/1...1 6.6 79 7.........2 Innovation linkages 5.....2. %..33........ 49 Innovation Input Sub-Index..1..1 Creative intangibles 45.....3 Knowledge absorption 5.68 6.... %........2 6...........0.......................1 Credit 4.......................n/a......................5...... 31........ technologies (ICT) 24.....3 Government’s Online Service*.....................28...................................2........................63 Tertiary inbound mobility....1 3.....1.61 2 Human capital & research 2......49.........2....2 Regulatory environment 1..................82 Imports of goods & services..............n/a.......21............ %.............................70.......................2..2..81.............5 91 21....1 69 94 77 69 53.....24.........1............n/a.n/a Share of renewables in energy use.....3 Knowledge diffusion 6.n/a.. % GDP.........4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$......85................ %..........2 Energy n/a n/a 3...................... % GDP...3.............111 Domestic credit to private sector........2..34 FDI net inflows...........2........1 1.................................n/a 5................2.33.5 Exports of goods & services.....3.............. % GDP....113 Gross capital formation......................... %..5 77 2..93 60....2 Investment 18.........36......................... % GDP.....101 3..2..1..........4.69 4..2.....1............................35..................2........ % GDP..................1..1.................n/a. % GDP............................ % gross..1 Education 52.................2 2.......0............................8..........84 Tertiary outbound mobility.......43 1.............. 113 Global Innovation Index 2009..57...46.......n/a....................4... % GNI.................16................................. % GDP................6 88 .2................. 38.2...............................1.1...1 47.............23......1 5...........0......2 4......1.1 5........ %..92 3......000 pop.......6... %.67 R&D performed by business..4 Royalty & license fees receipts.................1 1........n/a National feature films/mn pop....n/a Creative goods exports..............0 104 4.....................0..............52....................2..........1........2 1................n/a Gross expenditure on R&D......3.....2 2..............n/a.n/a..7.......... %.....27...................2. %...........n/a..........4 Royalty & license fees payments..3 4..1...n/a ICT & business models†.....9.......110 State of cluster development†...............9............18...................7...............2.............18 25.6....... %..........88 Total tax rate.....8.0.....4 High-tech imports less re-imports.n/a...........6..n/a.... 27 Global Innovation Index 2010......6......................1 3..........54..............42.3............4 Strength of investor protection*....................4 Knowledge-intensive employment....43 School life expectancy..9..................0........................90 R&D financed by abroad.....2 5.......3........8 106 Strength of legal rights for credit*.....1....0.....1.92 2.................................................................3 31 6.5 Recreation & culture consumption....0.3 Time to start a business. % income/cap..2.........3...89 Firms offering formal training.....2...............3...... % GDP............18 Intensity local competition†.............6................2 1....53........................2 5...............64.........2 ICT use*..87 Government effectiveness*............2......................4 E-Participation*....2 GDP (US$ billions) 1...................................2.........30....82...... 15–64 yrs..7....................8.....................91 Market access trade restrictiveness*.......3 4............................2.........4 2.n/a PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$................73.......9............n/a..................5 2.........0..............1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 58...........1 High-tech exports less re-exports.....91 Cost to start a business.....3....... %..... ha/cap..................... service imports........35 9..................1...... %.... 100...... & science.10 FDI net outflows...............25..3 General infrastructure 3.....4 75.........n/a........................................ % profits..1 2.............................7 56....1 1......I: Country/Economy Profiles 164 Guyana Key indicators Population (millions) 0....1........1....9 65 6................................3............n/a GDP/unit of energy use...................0............... maths...2 6.4 5.....1 81 53 31.........3 6..22...100 Computer & comm......6 Tertiary enrolment.............3 6.............7 91 9 6 Scientific outputs 34.....4 2...................2 Tertiary education 2........................5..29..............83 Depth of credit information*.......................n/a..0..................................7....3 2..................................11.3...... 61 Innovation Output Sub-Index........ % GDP/cap...................n/a 3..... 0................51 1.................n/a 48.........n/a.....3......5...92 Rigidity of employment*...47........................n/a....1 ICT access*..........2 4.0......n/a Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$....................................2 4....2 1.............3 Research & development (R&D) 2.............................5 60 7............. 103 1 Institutions Political environment 1....................7 26 5 Business sophistication 5................................ % GDP.... 75 Innovation Efficiency Index....... %............... PPP$/kg oil eq.2 2........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.....3.............78 PISA scales in reading...2..........000 literate pop......9 9 4 Market sophistication 4...............1............n/a.n/a...........................4..........82.....97 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$...1 49 13..2.....26.....3......................3 5....2.....3....3..................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*...........5 78 1....91 Graduates in science...............................13 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment..............................................19 Public expenditure/pupil...........1..........2 3.5.....3.............1....3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..0....... % GDP........................1...................72.......3 Researchers headcount/million pop...110 Rule of law*..............1............3 Political stability*.............3...... years...............1 4............3 7..........5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean......0.......................8............3... % GDP. %.1..................... secondary...

.....................................5........1 4.........8..............3 3.........7 29.78 Public expenditure/pupil..5 104 112 91 28....1.30..............4............119 Market capitalization...................................5.......... %...................1 3......6..................119 1...........87 Gross capital formation.................2......3...........................3.......................n/a New businesses/1.....2 Investment 20.........1.....8 61 7..5 102 5.....................................3....1..34 30..............1 7.................4 Electricity output..3...69 4..31............................3 7.................1 7.76 Government effectiveness*.56.....0....15.....7.....108 Rigidity of employment*.... %.................73 5..........2.....3 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index...... years.....9................19......9... % GDP......2.....................n/a........ % income/cap.3..............7....1 ICT access*...7............ % profits..33.............. % GDP.....5 70.2 Tertiary education 2......3 Knowledge diffusion 6.2 Innovation linkages 5..........30.........4 Knowledge-intensive employment.............n/a.......... %........................89 3...............2........ % GDP...........4............ %...34...2 Energy 22.......106 Total tax rate.. %............3 Regulatory quality*..18.........123 6.......................................2 2..77 Imports of goods & services.....................89 Creative services exports.2 Knowledge impact 6....0.....9.....50...1....2 1....4.3 5.3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...78 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....35......4 Royalty & license fees receipts..........................5 Recreation & culture consumption...........57 High-tech imports less re-imports........53 Market access trade restrictiveness*...........36......1 2..........2 ICT use*........3........................1.4. technologies (ICT) 14......1..4 Strength of investor protection*.....................2 3........... 83 1 Institutions 47........... % firms...2......n/a.......... %.......................1 20 7..0..1.6.3..............21...................................2..35.........2....n/a......................................2.2.........2...... PPP (current international $) 3........32...................1 Political environment 1.......90.........2 Regulatory environment 1.....8 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$......27 4....................83 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.........84 Graduates in science. 96 Innovation Input Sub-Index....................................3 110 117 23........7 88 3..5..... %.............34...................n/a............4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$....2...........0.. %...............................42 28.........0......................................................2 2..2 2.......................2 5..........4 E-Participation*...88 Firms offering formal training.....9.11.........8.............1 1........6 Tertiary enrolment.....1 Credit 4.......................................1 6..............0.........3 5..........3 6........n/a.......4...................45.....................2 10.......79 Ecological footprint & biocapacity....1....3 5......0..n/a 5...........3 7..............58....97 Quality research institutions†.0........................2..............1......47 Tertiary inbound mobility..2...................57 Depth of credit information*......................1 5...50 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..............87.5.2 7.....2.....43......3.. % gross........92 2 Human capital & research 2.........2......2 5...1. %....................n/a.........3 2..............2.............2..........36..............3.2... 70 Global Innovation Index 2010.......3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.........n/a Pupil-teacher ratio........... 33.3........ %....................... % GDP..5........................ %......3.......3........6...........2 6..21.............................................................5... PPP$/kg oil eq..............3 4.................................1...........3 Government’s Online Service*...83 State of cluster development†.......49 Intensity local competition†...2...3.......... % GDP..........3...........1...................1 5.......4 2.....................32.............78 Tertiary outbound mobility....0 36.................54 Cost to start a business..........1..........5.......................2..............4 101 60... %...1.......6........................4 2...........n/a......1 3......1 1...3 2.....................1.....3 Knowledge absorption 5. & science.............1................................39.12...........6 GDP per capita....................................2..9....4..........................3.2 1....2.................0............n/a............3.....5 Education expenditure...n/a..............5 University/industry collaboration†................ %..............35.........7.........2....................3 General infrastructure 3.2..................0...........2............. 98 Innovation Efficiency Index....................9.........................2 7...2 3.........1 Knowledge creation 11...........2.......... ha/cap...1 Domestic credit to private sector.104 Press freedom*.......47..n/a R&D financed by business.......1 4..2....37........0.....7.......3..1.....000 pop. % GDP................... 98 Innovation Output Sub-Index.........5........n/a Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$. kWh/cap...........21....................... %.45............2............n/a Creative goods exports.84...............................4 58 5 Business sophistication 5....27 Exports of goods & services...............1 Info & comm.....6.....2 4................................105 1.43......63 ICT & organizational models†.....35......................0......1...... % GDP.........................0....3 Time to start a business................3.........30.................................73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.72 R&D financed by abroad.......4 38......... % GDP....51 7...........1 2..2 1...1........2.2 4......... %....... % GDP......1..........................2....8.......28..............2....4.........2....1 6...........93 GDP/unit of energy use...........77 3........ % GDP..... % GDP..................45 R&D performed by business.. %.....1......58 Computer & comm.................... 0.......5 84 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 165 .............3.....3.....20.......2 Creative goods & services 7..Honduras Population (millions) 7..n/a Total value of stocks traded..........8...3 Political stability*...........1.................62 FDI net outflows....................... 22.5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean..........2.....5..........0.............86 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$....0..4 50 Strength of legal rights for credit*.000 literate pop.......................n/a ICT & business models†.................91 52..................3 Business environment 1...22 3.... 15–64 yrs......88 0............76 3.1.....4 Royalty & license fees payments.................n/a Computer software spending......9.........1........ % GDP... %.............. days.....5 50 2.......2.3 Trade & competition 4.............................................4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.........88 Gross expenditure on R&D...........3.. maths....................56... service imports..1..92 3..................1......... % GDP/cap............ % GNI.....................0...........4................ secondary....3.......1................0........1 Creative intangibles 57....2 6.0...... % GDP......3 4.4...1 6....3 Research & development (R&D) 2. kWh/capita........107 3 Infrastructure 3....1.............88 PISA scales in reading....................1..1..............................................7 106 1.....13........77 FDI net inflows.....2..............2...60.....n/a...............63...3........29................................0...................................55 10..............0 97 4...............2 4......5 2.n/a School life expectancy..........3........3 4..2 121 6.....4 5.....1 2.................n/a..........3 90 108 80 6 Scientific outputs 6.......8 11....................1 4............ 112 Global Innovation Index 2009...45 Microfinance gross loans.6 GDP (US$ billions) 14.........4 122 111 91 7 Creative outputs 33......1.....................58..........................3 Researchers headcount/million pop........2.....3.........3.....2.0... %... 100.6 96 4 Market sophistication 4....2 6.......0..............n/a Daily newspapers/1...........1.86 2..................1 1........38 2.48 National feature films/mn pop.82 Computer & comm service exports....2.............28.......1........5............. 27... %...0....39..66 High-tech exports less re-exports............2............1...9 86 18...6 21..... %....1 5..89 Electricity consumption..1 Education 36.........60.....................................3......1...........84 Rule of law*.3..........n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.....1 Knowledge workers 26..........................7...9..4 4....6....5 21..................2 5.......1....841....... %..................8......6 53 3......38 Share of renewables in energy use............................3 6.....91 Graduates in engineering.....9 68 44.....2........20..................4 7..............47 6..

...n/a 5.......... 100........9.......................n/a............1...16........n/a 49.......17 2 Human capital & research 2.......... %.....1 5 42 53.......1 1.. %...............28 School life expectancy..1 GDP per capita........6..48 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..................2 Investment 91............... %.....2.39 6...8...2.2 1.. maths......1......3..6 Tertiary enrolment..........5 University/industry collaboration†.......1.23..n/a 6..... 12 1 Institutions Political environment 1.........2.2 57.3.6 1 7.......................................4 Royalty & license fees receipts.........0.2 75.....n/a 2.............4 Knowledge-intensive employment....6..........2.....1 6...........2...........0 11 Strength of legal rights for credit*.2 6.........................................3 7.........................n/a.........37 Quality research institutions†..95.. 100.......9 R&D financed by abroad.. PPP$/kg oil eq..0..2...5.2 1....6...3.....3.. %.... 15–64 yrs..64........2....3...............3...2 4 3........1 Credit 4.....1 2....2 Innovation linkages 5.......2 6.........22 Total tax rate.n/a.......3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*..... %....0........................ days...3 Researchers headcount/million pop.......... 100......... %.......2 4..34 Tertiary outbound mobility....7...................47.......................3 7..... %........4 Strength of investor protection*.3 Government’s Online Service*...............................1 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.....1 1..3.........................................28.............5...2.......2 2............................8.......................................1 77 6...............000 pop......36 Imports of goods & services................10 Microfinance gross loans.................63......0................ 12 Innovation Input Sub-Index...2.................................57.0 1 78.. % GNI........3 Daily newspapers/1..30.62........1.......77...... %...................................2.................3......... & science......73....76 New businesses/1....5 Education expenditure..................n/a 4......2 3....2 ICT use*...............3 4........ %...9..........0........... % GDP........1.........21 Computer & comm service exports......8........ %...........8 GDP (US$ billions) 215.............33....5...............3........2........4..2.2.95....1 Info & comm......3..........1.......... 0......................................1..............95.......85.....9 High-tech imports less re-imports.3 Trade & competition 4..............7. 2 Innovation Efficiency Index............49..........1 5............ 100.....................83..............2 Exports of goods & services...........18 5..............75................................ kWh/cap.......1 4...2.............. %.............. kWh/capita....9..................... % GDP.25 State of cluster development†......1 Knowledge workers 66............1 2.............................................. %................. % GDP....4.......3.........................21 PISA scales in reading..5 51.............7 93.......13..33 3 Infrastructure 3......... %.....1.......3 Business environment 1................................56 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$........63....... China Key indicators Population (millions) 7........24...2......n/a 2..........1 Total value of stocks traded....7.... % GDP...................1..2.1 3.............. 47.......... 100........................2...3 Market capitalization.........................17 Government effectiveness*..... 100........................13 Cost to start a business.............28..... % profits............6............3................... 58.000 literate pop...3...0.................3..................6..2 6.....n/a.................3...........................5........ % GDP. 66 Global Innovation Index 2010.......... 100.4.......2 4..3 5.............90...........2 7.................................n/a.... PPP (current international $) 44.............59....3..87.2 Pupil-teacher ratio.0 48.... % firms...................52.......29 Gross expenditure on R&D......................2............29 91...2 4............5.......96 Public expenditure/pupil.......................1 24 6...0.........62......3 2. % GDP.39 Electricity consumption...2....2 2.......33 GDP/unit of energy use..............2 Knowledge impact 6........1 3................3 General infrastructure 3..............5 Recreation & culture consumption...4 5.....8 4 1................................3 Political stability*.....34 Graduates in science....1.........................4 2................ %...............................................57........4..1 4..... technologies (ICT) 53.. 4 Innovation Output Sub-Index..20..2..n/a ICT & business models†..........6..........6.............................82 60....63...........7.............0...............................n/a Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$...69.............................0.3...........23...3 Knowledge absorption 5..88.......1 Education 88....8..n/a.....22.74 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....n/a...... 100..............20 High-tech exports less re-exports........................2 1... % GDP...4 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.........0...........................3 Knowledge diffusion 6........ secondary........3........9..2.................1..............1 Computer & comm................2 Intensity local competition†.....2.............4 87....3 4......3.....0....71 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.....................2 5....30 Firms offering formal training...........................................3............................... 69....33 4........1 3.1 Creative services exports.................. %.30 National feature films/mn pop...2...... 100........ 100.n/a 3........... % GDP...............3 Research & development (R&D) 2......4 1 4....................2 5. % GDP.....1....... % income/cap....1........3 Time to start a business...0................. 100..2 Rule of law*............ %..............81......3..13 3..................3...3....................n/a..............69....1 Creative intangibles 54.1.....3 5....4 7.......3 4......... 3 Global Innovation Index 2009.4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.............3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker.......................25 Domestic credit to private sector....................5 2.1....2........18 ICT & organizational models†....................0..2.....81 FDI net inflows...4 2...n/a..................2 8 4 Market sophistication 4......1 1...............1..........4 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index. 100...........................0...............6 29 5...............1 ICT access*..1...........................1 2.......2 Creative goods & services 7...2 Energy 42..7 2 5 Business sophistication 5......4.....18 Rigidity of employment*..............4 Royalty & license fees payments...........1 1.......... % GDP/cap...................................1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 92.....................2.3 6...6 Graduates in engineering..........1.........n/a........................2 7....... % gross........1 Depth of credit information*.......0................1 Knowledge creation 5..5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...2...303..9 Tertiary inbound mobility...0...........................98.........4.. % GDP.......4 Electricity output......4 55 2......................................7 4 20 7 Creative outputs 57...............................8 27 7.........................................n/a..................4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...........1....39 FDI net outflows.....13.. % GDP.....4 E-Participation*...1 4.............1.........2 4 3......................2 Computer software spending...........1.........n/a 3.....4.......1..........................1 Share of renewables in energy use......... %....20 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment....2.. 100....0................105 3............2.....3..3..............................2...................4 15 5 7 30 59.1..........3.....n/a..2.1 6.......6........3 5..6......................8...........1..........1........8 8 3 6 Scientific outputs 38......................59..31 R&D financed by business..........n/a R&D performed by business....6 96......................1.........6 32..3 6..4 1 .............0.......2 Tertiary education 2......1 Market access trade restrictiveness*.....88...4 4.....1 5...72... %.....................2........... %...........3 3.......6.90.........9 2 70........... years.....2 59...............41...59....n/a Creative goods exports........................1..................... 100......2 Regulatory environment 1...........2 5...2 3......6.....2..........2.0....2............................2.......... ha/cap......I: Country/Economy Profiles 166 Hong Kong (SAR)...2........................ %.9 Press freedom*...............69....1 7......14 7.....1...........1 5........................2 2.......................1.............32 1...4..73..........35.........................0..1......................3 Regulatory quality*....13 Gross capital formation......8.. %...............1 7.... % GDP.................9 5 65.................28 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..................1 6.99...................2........16......1... % GDP......2.....................3 2.......7.2........ service imports.................................

.....2.......................................1......2....62...50 5.......Hungary Population (millions) 10..................................3.......1......62 38...........2 7 5 Business sophistication 5..3 5..........0....n/a Imports of goods & services.....1 6....26 3........3.........31..........................1 5.............................5....n/a......55....22 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.......................93 Market capitalization......... ha/cap..3 6.....................................4 2.0...........39......3......26 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$...... %................3..7....................48 Share of renewables in energy use........................6......3 3...7.....2..7...........................................................7............. %................67......48.1.......50................. 15–64 yrs.....4.....71.......7...... PPP$/kg oil eq....2....2....0....1..1.27........1............2 5...........3 31 1..............80 R&D financed by abroad........12...........................................5 6..2.... 36 Global Innovation Index 2009..............34 Rigidity of employment*.............4............. 47 1 Institutions 79.3...1...........3......2 Innovation linkages 5.............0....2.1 6....000 pop.3 Research & development (R&D) 2....... % GDP.................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean...........31 6................5....6.1 4..... %...........0 GDP per capita.........................0......................59..1....7 66 5 6 Scientific outputs 45........................3........1............... % GDP.....97...... 51..1..1 Political environment 1....1..94..8.....72 3....86 R&D performed by business....000 literate pop...2....56..3 4............... %..........9 16 7...........1 5......3...9.........3 4........27 Public expenditure/pupil..........................2..........6........11..70..............3......................3...............4 Electricity output........ %.................39 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$...............2 5....33 Quality research institutions†........2.6 Tertiary enrolment.1 5.67...3 Trade & competition 4....1 Education 77...8......4.............2 1............................................59..........2............................66..2 3.......77 4............2................... % GDP..................2.....7 31 28 54 36 70....... secondary..30 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.......................1 Knowledge workers 48...............................4 Knowledge-intensive employment........................ % GDP........................2.. %....2 2.......9..................10 Daily newspapers/1.3....6.........67 Creative services exports.......4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$........67...............1.....9...........9.......1.............. 100........14 Computer software spending.34 National feature films/mn pop....................2........ 16 Innovation Input Sub-Index..........11.....2 Knowledge impact 6................3 7..1 6.......4 Strength of investor protection*..1.73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor............................3.....................4 5.............3..2...............................34.63 31..4 7........20.............0...................5....45......2 4...1.... % GDP.......... kWh/capita.................83........................3.5 University/industry collaboration†..0...........3 4.....2 Creative goods & services 7...........1.. %.4 4..42.24..............92....52...................3 Time to start a business..................69..1....25 School life expectancy....1 2....1 1.....22 1...36 75.3..........15....2.. % GDP....................52 Electricity consumption..................................2 6........6.9.12 Market access trade restrictiveness*...............24....1 ICT access*..........62.....................46 4..............0................... % GDP.....1 2.6 46....................8 31 3.6.....73...........74...........18.............1 Info & comm.........37..43.36 3........73.........9......................1 Creative intangibles 43.............8.....3.........8....2 4...1.....12.....1 3........21..71 ICT & organizational models†...764............2 Energy 17........3 6......36 3......92..30 PISA scales in reading....................36 Government effectiveness*.....8........ technologies (ICT) 28...............2..57 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.. % profits. % GNI..2......4...............2...39..7.....3 5....................8 68..................1....19................3 Regulatory quality*..........2 1...9 30 46...........1 Credit 4.....................47 GDP/unit of energy use...........10 High-tech exports less re-exports.9.....................78...0..........................................27 Rule of law*..........5 2.5 9 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 167 ..1 2....5 54 Strength of legal rights for credit*........12 Creative goods exports........... % GDP...4 Royalty & license fees payments............55......1............................1...2 6.......................54 2..............3...........8............0 18 2.....................2 7.. %......... 11 Global Innovation Index 2010.......1.....0.......30 State of cluster development†.................. maths.......9 Computer & comm service exports..............................2.......9 38.....................4 36 42...........22 50.1.....3.. %........81. %.26 Gross expenditure on R&D..............3.25 Domestic credit to private sector........ %...5 High-tech imports less re-imports.36 Press freedom*.....2 2........3..........................7 74 3..........3........12...32 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.............4 47. %.........2............. % income/cap..0.......................37 Gross capital formation........... %. 0.........................................................1..................3 Business environment 1.........................0 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.......................57.............9.........................2.....4...3 GDP (US$ billions) 129...........13............ 25 Innovation Output Sub-Index............3........3 Researchers headcount/million pop.......7 Cost to start a business... %..7........ % firms.9 Intensity local competition†...5 Education expenditure........44.........4 2.............6.... PPP (current international $) 19.....1..66 Total value of stocks traded.........3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker.............................9..........75 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..55. % GDP....................3.......24 FDI net outflows...3 Knowledge diffusion 6......2 Regulatory environment 1............................1.............29.....4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.. % GDP... service imports.................. % GDP...7....34........................2...1....2 6......1 1..53...........8.........6......3.......2 Tertiary education 2.......70 Tertiary inbound mobility....17 3 Infrastructure 3.....2 68 38 33..........82..2 5. %..... %...............................62..........................54 1...2 ICT use*......5.........1.....27 Firms offering formal training.. % GDP/cap.........9 77.2.84 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment........................................................4 37 6...... kWh/cap..2 1..1 48 4 Market sophistication 4...1......... %..70 Graduates in engineering.....1....................5 Recreation & culture consumption..1........ % gross..............................55..1 45.............34 Microfinance gross loans...3 7..........27 2.1 3..............4...................................43......1..........32 Tertiary outbound mobility.2 71 7....................4 Royalty & license fees receipts.....24 Pupil-teacher ratio.52.................. & science.........................1 7....0............3 Government’s Online Service*............ %....3..............2 4........104 2 Human capital & research 2..3....15.......3 5... 48......................5 18 6............36 49 5............. days......3 Political stability*...8 ICT & business models†....2......1........1...........3 Knowledge absorption 5...........9.........2...........2.... %.......0....3 63.......2..............3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*...................1 7..6....15....2 5.......... % GDP........51................1....1 4...........13....1..............................7 Computer & comm.2 2.3 General infrastructure 3...57 New businesses/1....59 Total tax rate...2.......93...........2............4 E-Participation*..........70............7.........6..7 FDI net inflows............0..5...............1 4. %........2..............................................................76............. years.............3 2....2...................3................1 1...........0......................9 13 7 7 Creative outputs 44..........8 82..........70................6..73................22 Graduates in science....31 3......1.33 R&D financed by business.37 Depth of credit information*... % GDP......0. %..80.7 Exports of goods & services.....46.....1.9 39 45............2 Investment 24...1 Knowledge creation 22...1.......2 7..............5..86 7..36..............2..........3 2......................2 3...........3...5 80 4....... 33 Innovation Efficiency Index....2............................................. 45....31.......4..........................

..........................................2...........n/a............................ 1 Global Innovation Index 2009...............................................3 92.................65.0................7.............2 6...... 100...........1..0...4 12 51......................................5 3. % GDP....... % GDP/cap.....................3.............. technologies (ICT) 44.....3 4...1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 90....3 6..48 R&D financed by abroad...........55..n/a 32......3 Knowledge diffusion 6.......n/a.............4 7. % profits............3 3 Strength of legal rights for credit*..........1 Education 95...............83.79........4 72..37 Depth of credit information*....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean....2 5........1 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index...... 100....3...86.........9....3.......68 Computer & comm.............1...40..........2............2 7..................................4 Strength of investor protection*................3.........................................3..96. % GDP..48............6 27.......7. 100.......1.....33 Rule of law*..79..50 FDI net outflows..............5 Government effectiveness*........0........1.............. 100.....2...4 84 4 Market sophistication 4.......................2 3..... %....30 Tertiary outbound mobility...3.............1..30 Gross capital formation..1............. 62...................7...4 Knowledge-intensive employment.1 Credit 4...........3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*....................53...........39 2..............................9....0.....2..9 Quality research institutions†.1.................1..........0..........8......1 Creative intangibles 56....1..............................................3 General infrastructure 3.......................45........................................2 3.....................2 6.............................. % GDP.2...16 3..........................................1 3 3.......... %...........23 School life expectancy...4 Royalty & license fees payments........3 GDP per capita..3 Time to start a business......5...............44..59....9............12 6...8 19 75....1 Gross expenditure on R&D..2..........4 Royalty & license fees receipts............2.................7 ICT & organizational models†..2...............3.... 100.93................25 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$................3........ %.... %....................2....................5 37....1......0...............5.....4 Public expenditure/pupil..............4......4 2......2 1...6 Tertiary enrolment.48 Exports of goods & services....................9 20 88.3 PISA scales in reading.............75...3 2..9...58..........3....n/a......................1 6.0.1 1..3.......... % GDP...................2....64...1 Knowledge creation 49.... %...................3 5.......................9 73.....19 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.3...................2..61..................6 8 1.................1 84.........................................0.. %......106 3..........48......26................ secondary.....1 1....... maths....000 pop.............. years...1....3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....3 2.......3 7..3.....2 Energy 52......8 Market access trade restrictiveness*.........1 Info & comm....... %...........2......1 3............ kWh/capita.............5.8.........1 2.2..3......6.................37.3 6..........35....0....0........1...0...........11 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.............................19 4.....13 5..................... 48 Global Innovation Index 2010..85........................ 55.595.............................2. % GDP....0..2 Creative goods & services 7.................6....5 2.................2 4..............7..1..3 Researchers headcount/million pop. %...........8 5....1..............2.........1.................................69.92 High-tech exports less re-exports.....2.........0.............1..1..............51..3.50 Computer & comm service exports............3 2................1 4...........5...........1 5........ %...................n/a 4..7. %..............105 Creative services exports............... 20 1 Institutions Political environment 1...2 4..5 18 2 45...........14 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor...2...n/a R&D performed by business................... %.3 4........22 16 5................... %..3 5.......3........................6......66.. % GDP....2 5......54....17.....8 13 6......3.....2............42........4 57.3 Regulatory quality*.......7 48 .2..........2.............0....3...1 Microfinance gross loans. % GDP....................................89...1 4.6 3.......................3.. 0....... %................ ha/cap....1.........87 Total value of stocks traded.....1 1.. % GDP...........................................1....2 5.................2 8 6...3 7................3......28 R&D financed by business............................... service imports................2.2 Knowledge impact 6....6...4..... PPP$/kg oil eq....2 2........... %.......................9 Cost to start a business...........................109 55.........n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..... 13 Innovation Input Sub-Index......3.... 13 Innovation Efficiency Index.....5 Education expenditure.......3 Business environment 1......1..................1....n/a 6..8... days..............6.............2 1...8 4 2..2.2 Investment 26....1 2.2........65 Imports of goods & services.....................................42 FDI net inflows..8.........3.....23 2 Human capital & research 2...................16 Pupil-teacher ratio.........................................94......4 Computer software spending.....3 Research & development (R&D) 2...65. % GNI.........................3 3.4......53........91 High-tech imports less re-imports....................63 58.....46......... % GDP.................1..................2...2...3 4.......47 1.....0......2...........16 ICT & business models†......2 Regulatory environment 1..70................3.....82.... & science............................55 Market capitalization..2...............3 Trade & competition 4...........n/a..............27....28 Intensity local competition†......3 Government’s Online Service*..........68 27.4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..................1 6....11 7. kWh/cap..... %..1.1...2....8.........2 4........................1.........9...23 3 Infrastructure 3............. 100...... 100. % firms....... %.........2......7.... 11 Innovation Output Sub-Index..................2 2................4........2 Tertiary education 2..........1 GDP/unit of energy use.....9... % GDP.............. % GDP.....2..............1 Electricity consumption....................................................2..3.........................................1 5....3 5..3.........1.....1 6................................54.......3 25 7....2.8..3...............2...0..........................32.89...........2 Daily newspapers/1......... 100..1.................2.....44 New businesses/1............................1............. %......3..........2 ICT use*...............................92..2....1 2.................I: Country/Economy Profiles 168 Iceland Key indicators Population (millions) 0................................23.........85.....................5 Recreation & culture consumption........n/a......... %..........................................4 Electricity output........ 47.............................48.19..........7......8 68 4.........39... PPP (current international $) 37...1 1.............7 6 19 10 4 78..... %...4..........2.........5 University/industry collaboration†.......71........9 21 7......2 2..........3..1.......0...............................2 7......1 7...n/a Creative goods exports.n/a..63 Graduates in engineering...1........1.58.25 Domestic credit to private sector..9......... % gross.......59 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..........4...................................2 2 38 7 Creative outputs 42.......3.....4 32 5 Business sophistication 5..000 literate pop............3 Political stability*. 100.....1......5......5............3..108 Share of renewables in energy use....2 6......72 Tertiary inbound mobility.....25 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$..4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.......116 Ecological footprint & biocapacity......1 5.1 ICT access*..................................4 4....79...............94..3 Knowledge absorption 5..2......................6..71... %......4 5.......... % income/cap.....4 2.......8....2 Innovation linkages 5...4 E-Participation*.........48....3..............31 National feature films/mn pop.......................12 Rigidity of employment*........ % GDP....................4 Firms offering formal training..........3 65................................2..0 10 94 6 Scientific outputs 53.....1 GDP (US$ billions) 12..1 3................1 7..8 26 3...0...14 Press freedom*..............2.......1 4..............1....................16..26 Total tax rate......... 15–64 yrs.............0..1..15 State of cluster development†......2 1...7..3.................98...........................46 3......65...............0.....1...................... % GDP..........1 Knowledge workers 52...31 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$........................9....................... %...............13 Graduates in science....2.................2.........................

..................19 Depth of credit information*..........0.20.........1 5....4 4.2 2.................111 Total tax rate.......................1 2.............................1 Education 42...............................10..........................3 5.................n/a........ 62 Innovation Output Sub-Index...............7..108 Government effectiveness*.......19...................4....2 56..2..2 5...........34....3 Trade & competition 4..............................3 6.............................4 5......n/a.....2 7.2.......n/a Graduates in engineering.......8..........5 2.............3 4......3..3..............3 4....................2................2 6...4 E-Participation*.....................................50....32 Computer & comm service exports......13 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.32 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.... %...0...........1........14..........2...54....................13....... years.2 2.................3 94 1.......1...... %..............18.109 3......3............35 ICT & organizational models†.........1 2.3...... % GDP........3. % firms......105 Exports of goods & services....26.......................3..... %.................3 Business environment 1............. % GDP........8 60 6..31.............3........ %...........................................2 Tertiary education 2..2........3.39 Daily newspapers/1.......1...2.2........2 1........1......25....3 General infrastructure 3.......3.6 39 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 169 .................. 87 Innovation Efficiency Index.46....13.....1 Credit 4....2...........................4 2...7.............26. % GDP.36......1........0.....22 Creative goods exports...67 Press freedom*....1 GDP (US$ billions) 1.........................8.....47...............89 School life expectancy........................97 GDP/unit of energy use..53....n/a........................37..............3.52 State of cluster development†....................2....1 3.7.... %..........45 48.59...........1 6...................3...........2.........61.......62.....13....1 5...........1......1.....3 Political stability*.3....7...........2 4......50 6..........1 Info & comm...36.1 6.91 Public expenditure/pupil.......... %.......32 Imports of goods & services...2 5........... service imports..........68.....3..............2............................3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...4.................. %.............2....0......... % GDP/cap.......... & science.........................55 34........................................................2 4..3 5..3 Researchers headcount/million pop......2 4......2 ICT use*...4 Royalty & license fees payments...... % GDP................115 2..52 6.. % GDP......55...........0..........1.2..............33 7...8..... % GNI...............................................2....1........36........................2........................3 2..........2........1.....2..... % GDP. kWh/cap.57 Rigidity of employment*............2...........3......... 9 Global Innovation Index 2010..60 National feature films/mn pop........1 4.3......3.3 115 2..1.............38 Quality research institutions†......6.......... % GDP..5.....................29 29........................................7........16.............35.....2.............4 104 5.........44 4.9 Creative services exports..............0.8....2....5 72 3............8...1...............................................2............000 literate pop..........2......2 52 65 6 Scientific outputs 24.... kWh/capita.....3..8....................45..4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..1 Knowledge creation 10..0 38 7.3 Knowledge absorption 5........2.............3.............. %............3.......................1 1.2 1...0..........n/a Tertiary outbound mobility........................1....................................2 86 71 111 26............56.....1............4 Strength of investor protection*....4 44...2 Energy 18.....................1 ICT access*...............3.........1...90........ % GDP..... % GDP...............n/a ICT & business models†........56 3.......2 3.............34.............1 4.......3.1.....5 Recreation & culture consumption.........3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*..1 1...........................2...................12........5.........9 85 33 7 Creative outputs 40...4 2..........1 5... 15–64 yrs...50 R&D financed by business.................3 Regulatory quality*.......................2.....2....1 Knowledge workers 30..1..........................47 5.........9.3 Research & development (R&D) 2......52 3...0..........................66 Domestic credit to private sector...............1.......2 6....12...............3 7..........56 5.10...... PPP (current international $) 3...14...16.......0...1 7.......3 3.....3..99 2.73..................1 4....2 1...........................................3................2....................88 Graduates in science................1.....1...1.1......29 3 Infrastructure 3............3 11 4 Market sophistication 4..................5 Education expenditure.44 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..................3.....44 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$............ days....n/a....................................3 6.1 88 5 Business sophistication 5...0..............22...1 7...15..............46 Gross capital formation.......................................... 56 Global Innovation Index 2009.......87 Computer software spending.........2 7.61......................270..................9.........................2 Innovation linkages 5.....36.........27 46..............0..............2 Creative goods & services 7..................36 3.................2...........10.2 3..........1...........9..114 2 Human capital & research 2..........................3 Knowledge diffusion 6.....16.......n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..............1..7....... % gross................. %.......................5 University/industry collaboration†.....3...... % GDP.4 62 6.................3... %..............1......... %...1.....................69.....................103 PISA scales in reading.....3........5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.....................1...........7 15 4........3 7...................................n/a Gross expenditure on R&D.................78......3 94 3.....310...... % income/cap.......................... %......21 New businesses/1..............................80..................1...2 Regulatory environment 1.34 Market capitalization.....39 Share of renewables in energy use....3.......9 104 32.............89 Cost to start a business............52 FDI net inflows..2...0........ %........... PPP$/kg oil eq..... %.......... %...............3.....1........2 67 Strength of legal rights for credit*..0. %.86 Market access trade restrictiveness*...........6........1..........2 Knowledge impact 6........3..8.......1..........7..7......1...........6 Tertiary enrolment.......60.........2 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index........................3.....70.................45..4 7.6 58........6..........44....214.............. %...........................................9.....1..................4........1....85 R&D performed by business..3 38 7....... 36......17......... maths...........n/a Pupil-teacher ratio.4 FDI net outflows...............5.3..n/a.5....45... % profits.............8 84 24.......2 Investment 49..86 Rule of law*..62 High-tech exports less re-exports.........9........n/a.n/a Tertiary inbound mobility.......8 33..............2 5.......1 2...........................................7..9....2.4.0.................................5 38..........India Population (millions) 1....1......9........................................46..66.. %....n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$...7.9.............9 Ecological footprint & biocapacity...6.....1.............2 2.....4 Knowledge-intensive employment....1 Political environment 1.. %.. 41 1 Institutions 52.. % GDP...54............107 Intensity local competition†.19 Total value of stocks traded.n/a......................2...1.......................n/a..............72 1..............2...................1..........43 Computer & comm........... 32........4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.........................4 Electricity output.....32 4......................2..........0... % GDP..............3 5.......87 1...........000 pop... secondary..n/a..................... %........6 45 38...........3 Time to start a business........50 Microfinance gross loans.1.....................1 Creative intangibles 51........63.........2..............3 2.... 0................... 44 Innovation Input Sub-Index.... % GDP.2.3........1 6..................106 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment..........108 3......6..51............92 Electricity consumption.........5 GDP per capita...... 34..3 4..........54 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.. technologies (ICT) 9.n/a Firms offering formal training...................2 39...2 6.......3.31 R&D financed by abroad....... ha/cap.............4 Royalty & license fees receipts........7 63 16...............2..22.....1 3.............1........3 Government’s Online Service*.......... %........1 1..11........38 24...........56 High-tech imports less re-imports..............74..8 119 35 27...........5.........................

5 University/industry collaboration†.4 4.48 2.90 R&D performed by business.2 2..............n/a Creative services exports.....n/a.........................4..... maths..15 Ecological footprint & biocapacity..........................................2...1.4 Royalty & license fees receipts...49 FDI net outflows..................83 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$...2 4..........4 5..3.2 1..29 42............0.11.........1........71 2...........3..........5 2.....3 5..... % GDP......2 Innovation linkages 5.........2..90 Rigidity of employment*.......1 6...........1........ % GDP.......2.2.........1 Knowledge workers 28..7 82 5 Business sophistication 5....2 7....13................................1 6....6.....1...... %..................9.2 3...................................1 29.2 Creative goods & services 7........................3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*................79 Gross expenditure on R&D.... % GDP................................3.........n/a Creative goods exports..............120 Public expenditure/pupil............. years......4 90 1...3......................................3 Business environment 1..................0.....2....... %..........................95 GDP/unit of energy use...............2 95 3.......33 High-tech imports less re-imports...24..n/a....... 99 Innovation Output Sub-Index..............7..............5.......62 5.....4 2....1.5 Education expenditure....83 Microfinance gross loans.2.....................38...............113 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment...............4........ %....44 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor. %.......1.4...3......20 R&D financed by abroad........2.............. 49 1 Institutions Political environment 1............ secondary..89 Rule of law*....23..3.......2 ICT use*......9 90 3.....1.....0.....3 6..........................2 6......56........................77 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...0..3..5 GDP per capita.......66 4......3 6.........3 General infrastructure 3...1 4............2..7................2 Tertiary education 2.......1....................1.....3 Knowledge absorption 5..94 Quality research institutions†......19 Tertiary inbound mobility.....................3 4..........39 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$............ 80 Global Innovation Index 2010....... technologies (ICT) 24.................3 Research & development (R&D) 2........... % GNI.........14....2......................62 PISA scales in reading........1 Creative intangibles 48..............30 3......57 Market access trade restrictiveness*.2 4...3 5.......3 2.3 Researchers headcount/million pop........1 5.......... % GDP.1 1....5..2..........30...........2 4......................4.....58..62........0 124 5.5 92 51 7 Creative outputs 25..3......... % GDP.1 6....................................2....44 6.....19..0.n/a....1 1..........0 67 4................66.........1 Info & comm...1..29........................n/a Tertiary outbound mobility..................2 6.........4 E-Participation*....................................2 Energy 14.56 Pupil-teacher ratio.4 Knowledge-intensive employment............................ %......................3 45....2 5...................................... %........... 72 Global Innovation Index 2009............................ % GDP..............1 Credit 4................4 Electricity output...........1........ %............3.....1............2 97 23........... % gross....I: Country/Economy Profiles 170 Indonesia Key indicators Population (millions) 232.....................................n/a ICT & business models†....79 Graduates in science...........3 Time to start a business.2...............1 83 86 24.1.........................3 3.......92 Government effectiveness*.......86..........12.6.................3 7................. % GDP...........7.8..94 3... 33..........................................2..........8...34.....................3 94 6................4..6 Tertiary enrolment..1..........2...28... % GDP..............3 Regulatory quality*....54 Total value of stocks traded......198.5 81 16.. kWh/capita......................... %.............1....................3.......3..0 105 Strength of legal rights for credit*..................1 1......73 Graduates in engineering......2.................0...1..........................2 5............ % firms.n/a Computer & comm service exports.......4 7..............1..........2.........3.....61 FDI net inflows........1................2 5.............2 2.1 7......n/a...3.5 Recreation & culture consumption.1...4...........2 1.................79 Share of renewables in energy use....................3.....1.....94 3........6..................... % GDP.......2.46................ 95 Innovation Efficiency Index...........................67.................. %..........2......... 15–64 yrs..............2 Regulatory environment 1.....9..............17................n/a.......1 4......75 R&D financed by business.........1...... %...........2.4............3.25.26......3..............0...................3 4.........0..9..6 80 95 92 96 46......24....39...2.66 4.2.....................n/a...........50..................1 3...................... %....................2 3....1......3 2.................................. %........n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$......................... % profits.3 4.... days............ % GDP/cap.....................91 Total tax rate.... service imports............3....4....... %..............................9....2...................1................101 40............................2...............0...................... % GDP.........7..4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.... 27..........3 7......5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.1..5............16....................9....18.....8 70.................36 State of cluster development†......7.67 Daily newspapers/1.....93 1.........4 22 4 Market sophistication 4............2............. kWh/cap.....1 3........................0.................0...............2....6.....................6.....6 50 7...............................97 Depth of credit information*......3 Government’s Online Service*....2...................................3.... % GDP........3.......0 116 6. %...69 High-tech exports less re-exports....................1..........7....0.....2 Investment 27.........38 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..................115 Exports of goods & services............4 Royalty & license fees payments.....1 ICT access*.......................4 2...... % GDP..34 Market capitalization...13....2................3.7 36 51 6 Scientific outputs 18...................31 New businesses/1................2.....1.......000 pop..41................... PPP$/kg oil eq.............7....1 99 2...000 literate pop..........41 3 Infrastructure 3...8 36..1 4...........38 5.......8...............0..........1............7...50.........2 1...... & science...55 2 Human capital & research 2.......................8.0..48 7..52...................1...........80 Press freedom*.................2............0.2................1...............3 Political stability*.55.................7 89 7....3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...........1.....3 Knowledge diffusion 6...2 7................9........3.............28 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$....60....2...1 5............20.82................................. %......51.....66 Domestic credit to private sector.............38......9.....................2 6.....................................3...3.....9.....101 2.n/a.2....12..6...2......0....1........3.6 18...0...1 2.....93 3.........82.......59..122 6......1..........2..67 Gross capital formation....3.10.........3. 0............................6................93 Intensity local competition†...................3 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.....n/a Computer & comm.....9.8 111 ............6.3.1..................1.................. %................0.......51 Imports of goods & services.........2.................2.111 Cost to start a business................41...21...2 30..................................2........ %....9... %..................23..........83 1..............9.8......................................70..2......................4.1....3.......................8 GDP (US$ billions) 540.. % income/cap...1 Knowledge creation 1..................... PPP (current international $) 4.42..8.................52 23....60 ICT & organizational models†..........1 2....................1 2.................4 Strength of investor protection*................................1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 53...8.8...............6.......................................... %.2 94 7...3 5.........n/a National feature films/mn pop.................52.................1 Education 44....... %.....1..................2..3...60....... ha/cap.................................92 School life expectancy.2 2.....51 46...1....95 Electricity consumption...............1..54...................... %. 97 Innovation Input Sub-Index..85 Computer software spending...4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.............2.........1 5.......7.................71..............1 7......................1.4...................4 32.................93 Firms offering formal training.........3.... % GDP.............76 3...48..3 Trade & competition 4..2 Knowledge impact 6............... 22................n/a.

....3 5.................1.104 3... %...6.....2......................2...7.........5 University/industry collaboration†............................9 25................0.....10 Imports of goods & services................0..........n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$...............16.............71... %...................... %................................................96.......1 3...1....2.3...........47 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.........................2................1.........................2 1......1.......0......1 6.........................7........2 Energy 8...7 114 1........2....33........9........9..3....2..8...125 1.3.4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.......................n/a Pupil-teacher ratio....................3 Researchers headcount/million pop.......5 122 4....109 Rigidity of employment*.....................4 4.............0....49..............75 New businesses/1.. 15–64 yrs.............................................................2 2.....1 4..............15..8....................5.......2.........n/a.........1 2..........7............8 125 5 Business sophistication 5.... 0..................4 Royalty & license fees payments....................3 6......2 Regulatory environment 1....39..........n/a......3... days. % GDP.3...........66.. & science......2 7...000 literate pop.42..1 30 6..............n/a Tertiary outbound mobility...................................................n/a 32............2...........3 Regulatory quality*.....................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.....n/a...................... 28..n/a.....61 Graduates in science...99 ICT & organizational models†....n/a..................... 95 Innovation Output Sub-Index..12 Ecological footprint & biocapacity......37...3 Knowledge diffusion 6.......1.................3.......91 26..............4.......15 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....................... %..69 4.......100 21...26.......9 71 Strength of legal rights for credit*......79 R&D financed by abroad.............. service imports...........3 Government’s Online Service*.................117 Government effectiveness*....2 45 6............9............. % GNI......112 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment..3 6...............1 5................... %......1 3..................0....2 2..........3 Political stability*.......................3 Knowledge absorption 5.....2 Creative goods & services 7......1 4.......2........000 pop...................2....25..............15...n/a...... % GDP......4 85.2....................3........ % GDP....................117 FDI net outflows.................5 123 118 41 58 44............49 ICT & business models†.n/a.........30.21................4 Royalty & license fees receipts...........54 6...................1.2 ICT use*........ %...........1 Knowledge workers 23.......97 3.....1..................3......49 National feature films/mn pop. %......1 ICT access*.......................................... %.88 State of cluster development†................4 Electricity output.124 Rule of law*.......4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$..................2 7.......10...........120 FDI net inflows........1......... PPP$/kg oil eq.............87 40.......2.1...........1...... %......2...................10.....93..........................0 112 3..4..........4 2....35.......95 Share of renewables in energy use..............72 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor................1.......9...........................63 Daily newspapers/1............n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$......3...3..................................2....5 74 68 7 Creative outputs 7.0.....6 31..................................2..5 114 5. % GDP...3........... %.............n/a............................ % firms................3 5.........119 Market capitalization.............2 4.2...76 2 Human capital & research 2......1 Knowledge creation 32................ kWh/cap..................3......... % gross. %.......0 23.7.............n/a Computer & comm..43.....71 Intensity local competition†.......1................................................2 5...............4 E-Participation*... 71 Innovation Input Sub-Index...............3 7......83 Depth of credit information*....2..........3 37 4 Market sophistication 4..1..1.........................2...............2........ % GDP.13.....3..5 2..... %..............9............................6 Tertiary enrolment................................7..............26...85 3. PPP (current international $) 11..........1..................5 Education expenditure..0...3................2......................63 5.....7....30....... 106 Innovation Efficiency Index..........1 104 2.....................30.................. % GDP......16...........3...3 4....1.2..............5... 25....2.48 3 Infrastructure 3.................... % GDP..........0 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.........n/a High-tech exports less re-exports.........2.........9...5....1 2................n/a R&D performed by business........2 5..Iran Population (millions) 75.... %..........................9...................................2.......67 PISA scales in reading....2 1...n/a...48.........10.........4...4 GDP (US$ billions) 331.......3 4.....5.....4..3 2......3.1 1.......4.n/a..1......2.8.....6 100 7.......... %.............4 7...............n/a Global Innovation Index 2009.1 39.....2 5...3 5......9.....3..3.1 5...n/a Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$...............3........2...................1..2 Knowledge impact 6......1....... %.....................2..4 Strength of investor protection*...........0...................1.0...............................................n/a 4........................3 Time to start a business..2 Innovation linkages 5.........70 1.............125 Market access trade restrictiveness*....9 92 20...0............3.........2...... % GDP................1...............20...............2.2 8 66 22......3 7..1 Political environment 1... % profits.....n/a 1 Institutions 42......................................2 Tertiary education 2......36.6............27 Cost to start a business......1 6.................... 30............65...............12................2 3......4.4 2.8.3.2 6...............3........................................63 Public expenditure/pupil.....31..............................2.n/a........ 19 Global Innovation Index 2010................81 Gross capital formation.......61 GDP/unit of energy use..1 2.......3 Trade & competition 4............48....... maths.........6 14.1 1.........56....2..................9..................2 1...2 6.n/a High-tech imports less re-imports...........8.............1...3.....26............................... % GDP...n/a........94........54 School life expectancy...........1 4.............3.3............2 2.........................3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..1..51...8...............1.............66 Creative services exports...................n/a Creative goods exports.........n/a............0........47 Microfinance gross loans.......... kWh/capita............2............. %..7 109 71 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 171 ...1 Tertiary inbound mobility......... % GDP............7.........1 Education 11..n/a Computer software spending..4...2 19..1 117 36........................0.... % GDP.........3.....3 General infrastructure 3.... % GDP/cap.....2 3.............. % GDP.......3.... years. % income/cap...........................558...............1 7......7.......n/a........2 Investment 11......66 Domestic credit to private sector...........1 5........1....34....55 6.................................7...92 7......n/a..............104 29.3.....................68 3...............4 85 3. %......n/a....34 Graduates in engineering..........3...... % GDP.............. %.........0.... %........1 6.3 Research & development (R&D) 2..............3...0....56 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.......n/a..........................72 Total value of stocks traded....n/a 5..........3.........................3 4. 100.....n/a Computer & comm service exports.............1..........36............. %.5 Recreation & culture consumption.............7......................3...3 3...2............2 4........50 Gross expenditure on R&D...............3 Business environment 1...........................................9........... %.........1.......1 1.....1 Credit 4...........2...................0.............1....106 Press freedom*......1...4 5................n/a 2......................114 Exports of goods & services...........37 Total tax rate.............1 Info & comm.......1 7.......69 R&D financed by business........84 Firms offering formal training..4 26...........1........n/a 2.53...1....1..............2......1 Creative intangibles 23.. secondary..4........2.......3 2..................40.......................................19........1 GDP per capita.........................8 110 77 117 6 Scientific outputs 28. ha/cap....8.......2...................... technologies (ICT) 51........................1.....47...76 3............5...36....0...3 29..........58 Electricity consumption................4 Knowledge-intensive employment..3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*...............3..1..................3....2 4..2 6....43 Quality research institutions†...6....3..

......88.......86 3. %........88.... secondary...........................7 82......3..4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.............2..25 Domestic credit to private sector..........1.............. %.................. service imports............................19 Depth of credit information*.1.......2 Regulatory environment 1..11 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$....64.....9.........n/a Imports of goods & services.2 1...............1 72 4 Market sophistication 4...46............... % GDP.......................33..3 R&D performed by business....1 6......2 2.57.................3 2.............. % income/cap..........3....... % GDP.8 12 9 16 10 79...............3.................3 2....n/a Microfinance gross loans........7.5 2....................2......3 4............................. % GDP..............3.....n/a.5 Education expenditure..40 National feature films/mn pop...........1 4......5 University/industry collaboration†....1...30 6...........11 Rule of law*.....4...........1 1..........3 5.. % GNI....1.27 3........99...............7 25 6.. 42............2.............4 2.................3..3.5.......3 4........2 ICT use*..3...............................4........6......3........... 100.12 Market access trade restrictiveness*.22 Firms offering formal training.....68................. 65....71.....13 3...........3 General infrastructure 3......48 75..............4..23 5.3 6.....1 Education 90.....................42......................50 Creative services exports...2 32 4...................3.........80............4 4..................3... % GDP.4 2..................................................60....n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..................9...2...................1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 91.35....26.................................2........... %..................................................34 Electricity consumption.........4 5..1 FDI net inflows......................2...............1............278...... 15–64 yrs............................5..1.... %.............................41 ICT & business models†...............12 Daily newspapers/1.........3.1...7...2 1.......................1 5...62.2 Energy 28..............8...3 5...............94....9.............2 58 7.........6..............14 5..............................4...................31..2.............5 24 3...4.....I: Country/Economy Profiles 172 Ireland Key indicators Population (millions) 4......1.........................................100 New businesses/1...4...36.. %.22 2 Human capital & research 2....1........2..........3 Government’s Online Service*.....8.......1.... %.............3 44.........................16 State of cluster development†.................................3.........000 literate pop...4 Electricity output.8.3 Researchers headcount/million pop....... %..1 Knowledge creation 33....3 Time to start a business.51........9 Share of renewables in energy use.......66.................31...12 Exports of goods & services.............2.....1.1 ICT access*..1 Info & comm...2 4.2 2.1....3.......1.000 pop............76......n/a... % GDP..28 3... ha/cap.1.......83...1 6.......1 Creative intangibles 40........0..............29....7..............5...... 4 Innovation Efficiency Index..4 Royalty & license fees payments...3..6..1 8 5 Business sophistication 5....7 Computer & comm service exports.........9..58.......................9.....2..................9....0...........2 90.94.........................2 6..........3 57...........3 5..............5............. kWh/capita..................3.2...4......... %..............6 GDP per capita............1... maths..............48 Cost to start a business............................4.. %..n/a School life expectancy.....6..18 1....3 Political stability*......................83..8 55.......1.........21 Press freedom*..............................1 7............3 3......... % GDP.1......2 7...8 3 75.......25 Quality research institutions†....3...5 Market capitalization..9............32..............13 Rigidity of employment*......5........0............2 Investment 39......83.........3 4.7................2........55.......... 54....24...........27 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$......1...4 E-Participation*....8..2.....3....9 1............. % GDP...... %....2 6 1...............3.........2.......................1 2.......................8.......7 7 Strength of legal rights for credit*.....2 2..19 Tertiary outbound mobility............................4..4 Strength of investor protection*..3 Knowledge absorption 5....117 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.....30 2...19 Gross expenditure on R&D.2 Knowledge impact 6......25.....3..............................10 6.........3 6 81...................0....... kWh/cap.........21 Pupil-teacher ratio.7 10 26 39......................1 High-tech imports less re-imports.................28............1..............1..7 2........... % profits......1........................0.........2.................27 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment...... 13 Innovation Output Sub-Index......1 5.......1.......................0...................................6........2 44 ............. %..17 Computer software spending.....2........ %......................... & science......52 Tertiary inbound mobility.............3 Trade & competition 4......................n/a..................4 Royalty & license fees receipts......................31.............2...9.. % GDP..... days.........44......3...........................2......0 11 1 6 Scientific outputs 51.............. PPP$/kg oil eq.3 2 2......n/a 4................................................4...88 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$... %..............7 Intensity local competition†...............1.6 90....4 65.....83 Total value of stocks traded.............4..2 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index................. %..................84..1..1........................2.......................57.....1 Knowledge workers 73..................2.76...............3 7......2.........91......................1............. %.. 0..........22 3........30 Graduates in science.8.1.................7...............2..2..34 GDP/unit of energy use........5 Computer & comm............3 7.34 7........3 Total tax rate............76.........3 6..............3.....12 Graduates in engineering..... % GDP......... years............61.....................8. % GDP.......4 7................5 23 55......2 3................5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.....3 Business environment 1...............88............1 7...............83...1.8.3 Knowledge diffusion 6..........................69..............57..90...0...95.......19 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.....3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*......................33 R&D financed by abroad...................3...3.......2 5.....4 PISA scales in reading. % GDP.....2 5..1 Credit 4.................30 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.........2....... 100................1.......3 Regulatory quality*.9 22 3.....1........5....3 Research & development (R&D) 2...........2 33 1 7 Creative outputs 34.6 Tertiary enrolment.....42.....3...0.......... 22 Innovation Input Sub-Index......................... % GDP.......................................... 19 Global Innovation Index 2009.........52 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$..19 Gross capital formation..2..2.2 Tertiary education 2......2.......................1 3....9.1..........................2........................68..................... % GDP...................... PPP (current international $) 41........2 Creative goods & services 7.2........................ 83 Global Innovation Index 2010.....85................87...13 Creative goods exports..74.............2 11 6................3..9 15 5......... 21 1 Institutions Political environment 1.....2 5......48 28..........49............. %........................ % GDP/cap........19.2 GDP (US$ billions) 227.2 6.................................... %.....90..........2.............5......... % firms...............................59......................49...2 6.......16 R&D financed by business........40 ICT & organizational models†....0.............4 Knowledge-intensive employment..............95 34.........1 93..............6 4............5..2 1.2 3................2................2 7.........2..........................................1.............1 2...3.....1 6.1.........................3.....................3.............66...56...................76..............3....3 FDI net outflows.............4..............................................5 Recreation & culture consumption.........3........2 Innovation linkages 5....2... %.........3...6..............1 4.1 4...3.........1 5.............16 3 Infrastructure 3.. % gross.....1 3.... technologies (ICT) 49..........3...1.........2 4........97....4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$........5.....82...........77..................n/a........................ 100.......5 37. %.3.............37..2..9....3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker............2 4... %.....1 84 7..............n/a.7..................1........................33 Public expenditure/pupil..................1..............14 Government effectiveness*........1 1..........2... %....1 1....2.......28..........1 2.....................4 High-tech exports less re-exports.................

........34 1...17 High-tech imports less re-imports........... years.......................66 Intensity local competition†..2.....................3.......... %.......4 37 7............2 6..............................1...................79 Exports of goods & services..........1 3...4 Royalty & license fees payments..4.... %........7 24 Strength of legal rights for credit*.........2 5..........8 13 86..........9......4.........44..1 3......4................................... secondary....000 literate pop.............2 2.4.90....3 Political stability*......... 23 Global Innovation Index 2009..0 35 5 Business sophistication 5.1.....82..9.. % GDP............................................6 17 61....2 2.........................2....1 46 1................4 Knowledge-intensive employment..........45..28........3.........2 Creative goods & services 7..38 2 Human capital & research 2................3 Time to start a business...... %...2 Knowledge impact 6...... %..............6........ %....... %...........................7...............49.............7 41 21 6 Scientific outputs 57...................................98 Cost to start a business.......3 Government’s Online Service*.115 Government effectiveness*....3 Knowledge absorption 5......3 Knowledge diffusion 6........ % GDP..3 GDP per capita.....23 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....................................4.......2 4...................53....................... % income/cap.2.......................2 6..........0.......3.........6.....70 1......................... ha/cap.3 7...53 School life expectancy.6 5....................1..28 Microfinance gross loans................................................3 General infrastructure 3...........96......40..........2....................................... %.............26 Electricity consumption........1 Creative intangibles 51....2................84 3.........72..................4 25 54..25 Domestic credit to private sector.......3 Researchers headcount/million pop..........................3...57 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$..63...................1............2...........8 69........1 7..................................................2 7.........7 93...3....1 3 Infrastructure 3..........5 Recreation & culture consumption......1...............20 58................ % GDP.7...................0 58 8 7 Creative outputs 40................28.0.2....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.....36..2............16...............1 Education 55...7 Depth of credit information*.. %...............10..............1.........6................83..18 2.................69 Creative services exports......................... % GDP....65 Graduates in engineering....1 6...........81 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.............1................................ %...n/a ICT & business models†.3..27 Computer & comm..........n/a........3 4...3................13 State of cluster development†.....40.......6.......................3.2...7 79..........................................2.............................2......................................1 Knowledge creation 77......... 48... % GDP..........Israel Population (millions) 7.19 3.0.......60...............7 16 1 38............ 100... %...........3..............5 Education expenditure.68....................... 14 Innovation Output Sub-Index.........n/a Tertiary outbound mobility...2.....................2......1............ % GDP................ days................3.......n/a 28....15 High-tech exports less re-exports...................25 3.2 1..........1.77.......... % GDP........18 FDI net inflows.. %..1 1.41...................1.4......74...............1.................3 4......9 43 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 173 .2.......1 2...4 Strength of investor protection*..........2 7.1 4..2............0...........4 7..... 59......n/a.....8.....3......2 3......33............53 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment...............3 4.. %.............2 1........................5....n/a.....n/a..........5 FDI net outflows....52.....28 PISA scales in reading....8 34 7..2...107 Ecological footprint & biocapacity.1..4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$.....0...................63 5..............1.........4 25 3... 15–64 yrs......3.........1......................... 54..........8...112 32......n/a Creative goods exports.....91......21 Daily newspapers/1..9...............................75.94........................83...1.....................n/a........3.. 0............................2....................3.3 Trade & competition 4....6 Tertiary enrolment...1.........21 Share of renewables in energy use....1 7........ % GDP.68.................27 6.. % GNI..........0.............5 4 6..........2 46....n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$........................23 3...........................2 1.94.2 Tertiary education 2..............31...3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*............29....3.......3 6........3 2........................1 6..1........ % GDP/cap...0 30 2.3 6............................1...........2...3..............2..............81....................1 4.............38 Total tax rate...........29 Press freedom*.................4 2.................4....n/a 4.....................2 Investment 56....2 ICT use*............... kWh/capita.......3 Regulatory quality*..1 Quality research institutions†.............n/a...28...7 80..9 83 4 Market sophistication 4................91.9...........1.......3..6............................... 20 Innovation Efficiency Index.............5 2........1 4.....3 3........1 5....88.2...23 Gross capital formation...5 Market capitalization..............3 2.....................67.....................1.............7.................3....2.........3 R&D financed by business..5.95......3........2..2 5.....90.....................................32 Rigidity of employment*.......2............. 100........................................................2..... %.............33.............1 2.... service imports................5 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$.......................................1.....................1 Political environment 1.......................1 6.....28 Rule of law*..0..........5.................0.......... kWh/cap..............1.5....0................... %.............2 5........31 3......1..............................2...41........67..........6...................2 Energy 27.......8 Computer & comm service exports..............39 Pupil-teacher ratio....8..1 5........2........58........ %..9 Market access trade restrictiveness*......2 4.......2.....000 pop......................23....69 37............1 Knowledge workers 56............................52.8..72...4 4.................3......n/a Gross expenditure on R&D...... % GDP....0 11 4.......6...........42...2..........19 Imports of goods & services...41....8....1 Credit 4............21 Computer software spending............5.......................1 62................ %.............63 R&D financed by abroad.. technologies (ICT) 47.................15 Firms offering formal training..23 2..4 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.2... % firms..15 Public expenditure/pupil............9 7......2 Regulatory environment 1.......1 1...........72........1....3..4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$........0.............1..2.........4....... PPP (current international $) 27.....1........3..3 7..37...3........... %..18 Total value of stocks traded......4 58..........................2..1..... % GDP..3.2....4 Royalty & license fees receipts...76.1...........0.........29 Graduates in science......... % GDP...77.......1......................10.........31..........0......87......1 4......3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker...........3 Research & development (R&D) 2...............n/a R&D performed by business...... & science......1 Info & comm........35 National feature films/mn pop..........4..... PPP$/kg oil eq................13....2.................................. %.......58...2 3......3 5................83.........3 Business environment 1...1 ICT access*........... %.....1.......7.....n/a......1...3.........................................87 New businesses/1....8 63 24 61 2 68...............7 24 3..1 1........2...... 100...2... 8 Innovation Input Sub-Index........................... maths.......2 GDP (US$ billions) 195......2...........65....2 4.........2..........3 4 5.......3 5........4....23 GDP/unit of energy use..................49 33..... % profits.15 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor......................4 2...................7..........n/a........759...4 Electricity output...3..........................2 Innovation linkages 5..........10.....1 6....1 2......... %...........4..2.45...5 University/industry collaboration†...3.....3..2..... %.....4 E-Participation*..48........25..............1.......................... 23 1 Institutions 72............3.........80.......................... % GDP..............3 5...4...........2..................20.....................4 Tertiary inbound mobility................7..2 2..21 ICT & organizational models†....3............4 2 6. % gross.....34..4...........2 6...4 5......... % GDP..............3...1....1........9...... 22 Global Innovation Index 2010.............0.25 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.1 5...

.59.65 5.2 4...2 2.............6 GDP (US$ billions) 2............4................3....80 3.........2 Energy 26.............. 33.45.1..........62 4...41.3 2....2...... %..................4 42....3 4..... % GDP....................7 53 56..2............................n/a...........3.......1 Knowledge workers 45.....7............86 34...........6.......9.........3.....14 ICT & business models†..84 1............95............1.. ha/cap....1 5.......65............................3......................53....112...70 High-tech imports less re-imports..................... %....45 Electricity consumption.....................18. secondary.... % gross....n/a R&D performed by business. % GDP..2 Tertiary education 2.1...4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$........21 Firms offering formal training....2 6...6.........0................41. 47........2 4...1 49 1......5................41 FDI net outflows................2................ % GDP.... % GNI..29 3...................61....................7 28 Strength of legal rights for credit*.7......... %.27 Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$...........0..................1..............110 Exports of goods & services.2.................1......6... & science.... %.......................6.........25 Creative goods exports....0.2 1..........................1................25 6......4 7.........49........1 6..........9.......76....... %..............3..... %.....7.........2............... % GDP.........1.............2....... %....................23.................... % GDP.....5 Recreation & culture consumption..... % GDP....3 5.... % GDP/cap... %............5 Education expenditure.4 2...3 6....................1.......1......45 High-tech exports less re-exports..1 29..............3.....63..............5...................4 5...................8 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index..............2.............2...3..3 Government’s Online Service*.2.. % GDP.......2 5.....................9....................1........40 Government effectiveness*........5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean.............3.......9.........53 Public expenditure/pupil..1 1........2 36 65........................1.......5.1.....29 Quality research institutions†........6 Creative services exports.......2 5.......1................1...49...119 2 Human capital & research 2....2....1......50 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor.......................93..........7..8.2.3...62 Graduates in engineering...5 42 49 85 39 69...........21.........6 44......2 3...............1............2.............1....................9 30 44..... PPP$/kg oil eq..13.2 Creative goods & services 7............2 6......31.....1 4..3 Trade & competition 4......35 Rule of law*...48...2.................3..............2.42..14 FDI net inflows.....52 2.2 5.. % GDP.......3.........86 Total tax rate...............1......1 5.... %..68.4.......3.........8 46 6..2 43 7..2 6.......................................8..1 Knowledge creation 27.. %................4.....................1 1.........3...1 4........................................1 3.9 87 47 7 Creative outputs 39..................... days.....................3.....99 New businesses/1....8.4........7.........3 General infrastructure 3.1......2.............................. 63 Global Innovation Index 2010.................... % GDP.................20 Gross capital formation........0............................5.............56........1...18 Share of renewables in energy use........7 34 3............2 7....3 Time to start a business......................3 7.................................95 Intensity local competition†...3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker..........9 74 4............4 55 57 6 Scientific outputs 27.2........................................................2 Regulatory environment 1....43....6 89 5 Business sophistication 5.........3...........1 49 47 35.................5....3..........20 Graduates in science..............73.......................4 E-Participation*.....25 2......2 Innovation linkages 5.............28......97 Depth of credit information*.....2....................... 39 Innovation Input Sub-Index.....6 R&D financed by abroad.............25 23...66.............45................... %..........................1 Info & comm.........2.........................9..1.............. kWh/cap.....2....... 38 Global Innovation Index 2009......13 PISA scales in reading.2........................4 2...........3 5.......3 6..9.......9.........................................................30.........4...............1..............000 pop.........8 17 ...2 Knowledge impact 6...3 7........................................16...31 Computer & comm service exports......3.................39 Tertiary outbound mobility............22.............85......................44 Market capitalization..................... %.......... % GDP..000 literate pop...63 State of cluster development†...2.....1....................1................................49.4 35...26....1.50 Computer & comm...53................6 Tertiary enrolment......81 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment...........10... % firms. PPP (current international $) 31.......6.1.......... 37 Innovation Efficiency Index......3.....94.0.............3 Business environment 1..........7..28 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$....................5 University/industry collaboration†..5 73...........................19........2 1...........1 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 71................40....3 5..12.30.4 Knowledge-intensive employment................1...............1........15.. kWh/capita...........16.4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.........4 Strength of investor protection*.......14....3..3............. % GDP.....84......... %.4 Royalty & license fees receipts...........6......................37 GDP/unit of energy use.....19.32 School life expectancy.......77.....9...3 3... 31 1 Institutions Political environment 1....1 2.....57........1 1.1 Credit 4........44 1....12...8.........................................1..............1 GDP per capita...............................26 3...............3 Research & development (R&D) 2.....................0...24......9....37 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$.........39....33.10....1......................9....79 Total value of stocks traded.............n/a.........22.....35 Gross expenditure on R&D........3 67...2......2......107 36...64 3............2 7....1 6.62..3 Regulatory quality*...82 7...2 4..........23....2..................... %.32 R&D financed by business.................................13 Cost to start a business.9..........................................3 Knowledge diffusion 6..2 2..................1 7.....64................9......4 Electricity output....53 3......1..3 Political stability*.......................68.....37 National feature films/mn pop..........0....1...1..............3.......2 1...................3 4......6.2...............4....I: Country/Economy Profiles 174 Italy Key indicators Population (millions) 60.. %......2 Investment 25............................7......................2.........10.........7 32 6.................8.......... 35 Innovation Output Sub-Index......................3.......2..........27 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.....2 3........63 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.80 45........81 ICT & organizational models†........5 2..............1 Creative intangibles 39...................2........3 4...................29..............32 Tertiary inbound mobility.......9....... 15–64 yrs....3 Knowledge absorption 5...4 24 2.......8 31... % GDP..............2..24..27 Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$..............................................1 7......49............. 0..............61 3 Infrastructure 3..........................1 6. % profits.................. %........37 28 5.1................2 ICT use*...1....89 Ecological footprint & biocapacity............................... % GDP......... %....2.....2..........5. maths........ years..2....... %..3.....................6....2 2...........3.........n/a.............................47 Press freedom*......46..2.....3..1..............1 5..3 2......................n/a Microfinance gross loans...............12 Market access trade restrictiveness*.......23 6..........8............1 3...908.....................62.............29.......................2......4...................................33...........2..... %....1..............................3.............. %............1 Education 72...........6 86 7..............4 Royalty & license fees payments.25 38.1 2.25 Domestic credit to private sector..........1 29 3.......2......3...................6 5.1.2..............n/a Imports of goods & services...2..3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.. % income/cap.......17........83.....n/a....1 ICT access*......5.......n/a 4.3....... technologies (ICT) 35.............. service imports.31 Pupil-teacher ratio...........................24........0.........1 4...1 2....29 Daily newspapers/1.....................................0................................40..4 4.....7.3.......48 Rigidity of employment*.2...68.....3 Researchers headcount/million pop..................44 Computer software spending..9 55 4 Market sophistication 4.... %...................................................8.. 40.....................68..

.......3.... % GDP........3..11..................63 3 Infrastructure 3............n/a....................65 PCT resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...2 68 53 6 Scientific outputs 6.....2.........1......95...... 120 Global Innovation Index 2010...........2... % profits.................1 5.....................................2.......2 1.1 7.....1...... %............. % GNI.....0..18.. PPP$/kg oil eq.................................3 Time to start a business........................8....n/a Scientific & technical articles/bn GDP PPP$......1...... %.............93.. % GDP...............n/a........55 FDI net inflows.............8.....4 Domestic resident patent ap/bn GDP PPP$...............0...........2 3.................72 3....................................2 4.........1..............9..........1...............1...2 Knowledge impact 6.....2 Innovation linkages 5......n/a Graduates in engineering..n/a....... % GDP............3... % GDP.5...............7.27 Cost to start a business......1.............3......................................................n/a 4.3 Government’s Online Service*.10......Jamaica Population (millions) 2.........0........................78 Venture capital deals/tr GDP PPP$....... %....4 70 110 110 7 Creative outputs 24...1......................1 1.....................1...........0..1......0.. % GDP............0..........55 Market capitalization........3 5...........10...............2 Regulatory environment 1.... % GDP/cap...... %..9....n/a 44 5.1....n/a......2.29........3....59 6....0........2 Creative goods & services 7.n/a. % GDP..3 6......... %...2 ICT use*.......25 2..64...47 PISA scales in reading...............2.1.....85 28.............1.2.....3.........1.... %......2 1...... secondary......2 2................7........0......n/a.....................81 R&D financed by abroad................12 R&D performed by business...58 3.......2...............7................9................... % income/cap.....3 5.....1....0...n/a................................3.2 Investment 20.....3 13....................4 90 5 Business sophistication 5...9.......... 38.....36...31..................20 Public expenditure/pupil.............n/a Pupil-teacher ratio......................6. 0...........n/a..........................1...3 55 1...................3 General infrastructure 3.......1......... %......................................2 1.................1.... %.....8......2 5.9......9.....2......................................... %...........6 109 23.................2 6............... %..4.......0 80 67 20..2....3........1 3...............3 3................. technologies (ICT) 25.....1..30......43 Total value of stocks traded... 15–64 yrs.......2....3..45.........88 2...........36.......111 Domestic credit to private sector......24.............2..3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker....2 63.............................62 7......................7 35............................9 107 3............8 1......n/a..................3 7.......60................2...n/a.........0....80....26................. service imports....3........78 Graduates in science.... PPP (current international $) 7..37.....6 96 THE GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2011 Key indicators I: Country/Economy Profiles 175 .....1 5......1 Knowledge creation 12..........0...............33..... % GDP....9.....n/a JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$.. years.1 Education 61...3 Knowledge diffusion 6..............57 GDP/unit of energy use............... 73 Innovation Efficiency Index...9....60.. 70 Global Innovation Index 2009..... %...69 45..............104 New businesses/1......................3...................1 1....1 2. %............7 GDP per capita...............n/a Imports of goods & services..3 70 7.....0.....6......................1 96 4..7 23...1............2..... days.....6...41 6..1 5..59......96 Computer & comm.............1 2..................2.. %........1 1..............1..6.......96..1 Knowledge workers 38....3..........2............14........3.64..3 Business environment 1..................2......91................3..2 2....... %.......0..n/a....................................6.3.......1...........................n/a.. %....58.2..9 52 48............2..............9......2 7............................2....... 28..............4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$......................4 5...2 3...........33.................0.....2......31 31..............2........5.........1 2......2 7..96 3.........2...........3.........3..... 92 Innovation Output Sub-Index..............2 4........................2......78 Microfinance gross loans...56 Computer software spending.0..............n/a Gross expenditure on R&D..60 School life expectancy................ %...4 4...............3 Political stability*......................1 3......3......4......1.............55..............5 2.........90 Quality research institutions†...........0.....5 University/industry collaboration†.....n/a Daily newspapers/1..........................1 108 4 Market sophistication 4...........6 18.................................................n/a National feature films/mn pop..8.......4 Knowledge-intensive employment.73 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor...............7 5...............76 6........9..............6.. % GDP.........6 GDP (US$ billions) 12............n/a.......n/a...0..21...6..9 82....3 2......51......102 Creative services exports.........................15..........5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean............2 5..........3........69 4....3.................. 73 1 Institutions 69.....103 FDI net outflows......n/a ICT & business models†...... %................... % GDP....... maths....................................0 101 Strength of legal rights for credit*.................1 7.65 Intensity local competition†......25.n/a Domestic res utility model ap/bn GDP PPP$....2 4...................3...................................2.........n/a Creative goods exports....1.................5.................... % GDP.....98 Share of renewables in energy use..............4 2....62 Rule of law*.... kWh/cap................4 Electricity output...........................4 Royalty & license fees receipts.....0.. kWh/capita...........................92 3................1 ICT access*.......38 Exports of goods & services...................2.53.........................3 7..................44.............4 E-Participation*.....6.............5............................8....58........000 pop.....2..49 Tertiary outbound mobility.................19 Depth of credit information*.....1.2.............3 4........1................9...........0........44 3........... ha/cap...........2.............................. 115 Innovation Input Sub-Index......1.....61 Press freedom*....2..22.....n/a R&D financed by business... %....................5 Education expenditure......................1 6...................................2 Energy 9.............................3 Regulatory quality*........3 5......0........66 Firms offering formal training.....1 6......................43.........9...............................n/a............9.......................5 55 56 51 68 58..2....106 Market access trade restrictiveness*.................9..............2....000 literate pop..........9 95 7.8......3 Quality of trade & transport infrastructure*.3 Researchers headcount/million pop.............1 4.3..................3....2 6............................1 Info & comm..3................. % GDP.n/a 5..57 6............................33 High-tech exports less re-exports............4 2...........3 4.2...............7..2........36......... %....3 2...2.............57 ICT & organizational models†........24 1.................58..3.. %...............1................34.....1 4...............78 Government effectiveness*......20........................0 61 2...................n/a..... % GDP......4 Strength of investor protection*...2......88 Computer & comm service exports.........................59 Electricity consumption...... % GDP...........8...1..........1..3 Knowledge absorption 5.........2 Tertiary education 2.4 Royalty & license fees payments.......3 Trade & competition 4.3 Research & development (R&D) 2...........48.. % gross......0..59 State of cluster development†.1.................5..8 36......1....69.....2.7..64 Ecological footprint & biocapacity....9.......43 Total tax rate.......56 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...1 6....2......1...........107 Gross capital formation.........25 High-tech imports less re-imports.......28 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment.3 6....42..............2 2...................... 18.........................................632.............1 Creative intangibles 43........99 2 Human capital & research 2....1 Score 0–100 Rank Global Innovation Index.........1 4.5 Recreation & culture consumption..................................4 30.......................85 Rigidity of employment*...........8 118 6..............2 105 25........ %.......................3..................1 Political environment 1.................................. & science......6..0.........16..n/a Tertiary inbound mobility..........................8 72 3................2 6.................28...........................1 Credit 4..6 Tertiary enrolment........2 5...3..3.........3 4...55............7. % firms....6........................4 7........................

.4...1 3...11 1..4......1.......2..49 School life expectancy.........9........................33 1............... secondary...0....88..........3......73 Creative services exports.................... 100......................1......6................8.......2.........1......2 Investment 45.. %...................................2.........45......... maths...8......1 Domestic credit to private sector..........51.2...........2 1.0.....n/a......8...............65.......................... % income/cap.2.3 3.....2.....6 23 4........................2 Tertiary education 2....16 Market capitalization.57......3 Government’s Online Service*....9 14 82.20 Daily newspapers/1...............3......................................................2 8 5.....3...................3.........4 R&D financed by business......................................2.0....n/a 4...........1 1..4......7.........1......8 53.5...1 7....3......86............1 4......8...75.......72....70 JV/strategic alliance deals/tr GDP PPP$............1.....15 Government effectiveness*....2.93...75..4 7......5........... % GDP......................1 6.........3.... technologies (ICT) 31......2..22 Press freedom*.........................1 2.............2.........................13 Computer & comm service exports.............3 Growth rate of GDP PPP$/worker. %...........70....3. 26 Innovation Input Sub-Index................2...........67 2........................41...6...........4..................67.....4 Strength of investor protection*.................83.......1....1............................ 20 Innovation Output Sub-Index....8....3.. % GDP..........1...................4 5......................2 5. %..............2..................2...........0.......2..3...................2.............5 Gross capital formation..................3....5 Applied tariff rate weighted mean........85 Graduates in engineering................3...1 2.. kWh/cap.............70.2 4..........81........2 7....0.....7..........8........34 PISA scales in reading.3....81.............1........ service imports........................... %.....1....................7... % firms............29 Total value of stocks traded................................7...... 18 Innovation Efficiency Index.2.... %..........25 3............2 1...............3 35 27 6 Scientific outputs 49.................................38 Market access trade restrictiveness*.2.........8..11 FDI net outflows.8....2..........59.........15 3 Infrastructure 3............. % profits..............5 2..1........... % GDP..35 PCT patent filings with foreign inventor..........3 5......................9................452...2............3 R&D financed by abroad..........................8.....99 Gross tertiary outbound enrolment. % GDP............I: Country/Economy Profiles 176 Japan Key indicators Population (millions) 127......4 77.2 4.........4 Electricity output............ & science........2 7....................... % GDP..............0...........35.000 pop..........3.............13 3....43 2....................4 Domestic res trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$...........4 6 6...........32 21.......................4 2..2 2....1 2..........65.........0..................4 57..14.................1.42......4.....68 Madrid resident trademark ap/bn GDP PPP$.....................................2 3....................................93 2 Human capital & research 2..1 Education 89..........n/a Creative goods exports...................2......................1...7 27 4 Market sophistication 4..4 Royalty & license fees payments.................2 Innovation linkages 5....5.................70 Ecological footprint & biocapacity........78..3 Knowledge diffusion 6....... 64 Global Innovation Index 2010....1..1..................................................1