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© 2012 by Donald E. Pusch. Some rights reserved.

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Iberville’s Canadians: Lists of the Canadians Participating in Iberville’s Second Voyage to Louisiana, 1699–1700 *
by Donald E. Pusch

“Sa Majesté a . . . donné les ordres pour faire embarquer sur ces bastimens les Canadiens . . . estant persuadée qu’il pourra les employer utilement pour son service.”
(An extract from Iberville’s sailing instruction)

Originally published as “Founders of Louisiana: The First Two Ship Lists of 1699” in Mississippi Valley Mélange, vol. 7, ed. Winston De Ville (Baton Rouge: Claitor’s Publishing Division, 2012), 2–31.
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Iberville’s Canadians

F

by Donald E. Pusch

or the history of the French Province of Louisiana, and especially those portions of the province lying along the northern littoral of Gulf of Mexico, there are few events of more significance than Iberville’s three campaigns there between 1698 and 1702. Each a building block in the establishment of the colony, the campaigns produced substantive results, including the rediscovery of the mouth of the Mississippi, further coastal and inland explorations, the erection of Fort Maurepas on Biloxi Bay, Fort La Boulaye on the lower Mississippi River, Fort Louis at the mouth of the Mobile River, and the founding of the original Mobile settlement. Most important was the establishment of actual colonists on the soil and the firm assertion of French claims to the region. The second of the three voyages—and the focus of the documents presented in this article—is important in large measure because of the substantial number of Canadians it brought to the nascent colony. Also, these were not mere recruits but seasoned veterans, many of whom had been on previous campaigns with Iberville in Canada. Their proven ability to work together, to endure hardship, and to follow orders suited them ideally for Louisiana, where all of these qualities would be needed for their survival and for that of the colony. The ships involved in the campaign included the frigate Renommée, commanded by Iberville himself, and a flûte (a type of well-armed cargo ship) called the Gironde, commanded by the Chevalier de Surgères. There were also two smaller craft (felouques) taken on the campaign, but these were carried on board, being unsuitable for high-seas navigation and intended primarily for use in the colony. Also carried on board were supplies for the garrison at Fort Maurepas: clothing, trade goods, foodstuffs, and munitions, including ten iron cannons and 6,000 pounds of gunpowder.1 The campaign originated in the fall of 1699 at Rochefort, where the ships were fitted out and modified for the voyage. After departing port there, Iberville took his flotilla up to the roadstead off La Rochelle,

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waiting there for the arrival of the écrivain Raucour, who had been selected to manage and distribute the munitions, provisions, and clothing being delivered to Fort Maurepas.2 According to a report made by Iberville after his arrival in the colony of Saint-Domingue—the campaign’s intermediary destination—the Renommée and the Gironde weighed anchor and set sail from La Rochelle the morning of September 17.3 The Atlantic crossing was apparently uneventful, and the ships arrived off the Saint-Domingue port of Cap-Français the evening of December 11. Following a short layover to take on additional provisions, wood, and water, the two ships departed for the Gulf of Mexico, arriving in Biloxi Bay on January 8, 1700.4 Iberville spent only five months in the colony, all devoted to his two primary objectives: to make further explorations and observations and to assert French claims to the region. His personal excursions inland were fairly limited, due in part to persistent health problems. He did, however, ascend the Mississippi as far as the Tensas village above Natchez and the Pascagoula River as far up as one of the villages of the Pascagoula tribe. In asserting French claims—and especially claims likely to be disputed by the English—Iberville, in conjunction with younger brother Bienville, reconnoitered the lower Mississippi, selected a suitable location on the east bank on which to erect a fort, and oversaw the construction there of a small stockade, Fort La Boulaye.5 Building and manning this post represented France’s first effort to control—albeit nominally—access to the river and was the first tangible assertion that the river and its watershed were permanent French possessions. The responsibility for much of the work accomplished between Iberville’s arrival in the colony on the second voyage and his return there on the third was shouldered by those of Iberville’s lieutenants who stayed in the colony during that interval. The most prominent among these were his two younger brothers, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville and Antoine Le Moyne de Châteaugué, and relatives Pierre Dugué de Boisbriand and Louis Juchereau de St. Denis.6 These individuals, supported by their fellow, newly-arrived Canadians, plus various freebooters, voyageurs, soldiers, and sailors, continued the work begun on Iberville’s first campaign and not only held the colony together

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both from the Archives Nationales d’Outre Mer (ANOM). The names of the Canadians recruited for Iberville’s second campaign are presented here in two pay lists.9 That familiarity was likely a major influence on those who cast their lot with him on the second Louisiana campaign. and no doubt many of the Canadians recruited for service in Louisiana had participated in those raids or in Iberville’s naval exploits on Hudson’s Bay. 1700.8 leaving the now replenished Fort Maurepas in the able hands of his lieutenant. the Sieur de Sauvolle. The two arrived in Quebec the end of August.14 Once the Canada-bound cargo was offloaded and the passengers disembarked. and the newly established Fort La Boulaye in those of his brother Bienville. in fact. Iberville boarded the Renommée and the next day set sail for France. and they would have been familiar with his leadership style. which would later accompany the frigate Renommée on Iberville’s second campaign. bound for Quebec on or about June 16. all haste was made to turn the ships around for 4 . but. Joseph Le Moyne de Sérigny. 1698. 1698. From correspondence between the minister of the marine and Bégon.11 perhaps as early as December 14.10 From there they were re-embarked for Rochefort. it is possible to glean information about the group as a whole and. Their voyage to Louisiana began in the colony of Terre-Neuve (Newfoundland). the intendant at Rochefort. however. The heading on the first list suggests that the Canadians traveled directly from Plaisance to France. the cargo ship (flûte) Gironde. information about individual Canadians. From these. taken there by Iberville’s brother. had sailed from Rochefort. It was from Plaisance that Iberville had launched raids on the English settlements to the east in 1696 and 1697.12 The ship on which they traveled to France is not known with certainty (at least to this writer).7 On May 27. they were transported first to Quebec. at the post of Fort Louis de Plaisance on the west coast of the Avalon Peninsula. it is known that the Canadians were in France as early as January 1699. in a few cases.13 accompanied by the frigate Poly. anxious to return to France to report the colony’s achievements and to make preparations for his third campaign.through the first critical years but laid the foundation for its further expansion.

15 This timetable exactly matches the Canadians’ appearance at Rochefort and strongly suggests that they were transported to France on one or both of these ships. and Pierre Venard. were present on the second campaign. Charles Marquis. Major Caumont. however. Jean La Topinne. Both pay lists were drawn at Rochefort. the second list includes several individuals not named on the first.17 Nicolas La Toupine. Maltot. fatalities during the campaign. and Simon Lespine. as the two were not considered to be “recruits” as were the other Canadians. Luc Dauriue.) Most of the individuals named on the second pay list arrived safely in Louisiana. Jean Gautier. that one of the officers. in part.16 Since they were being paid. Likewise. these include Pierre Couraille. It is noted. indicates that the Canadians were at La Rochelle. Jean Leblanc. Clavery. These were apparently Canadians who did not travel to France with the group shown on the first list. the minister. the first on May 5 and the second on August 25. their names do not appear on either list.19 There were. This is due. Joseph Chainier died after arriving in France and was replaced by François Clavery. it is likely they were put to use somewhere within the Rochefort-La Rochelle area. once arrived in France. were quartered at either La Rochelle or Rochefort. and Begon. both ports falling under the authority of Intendant Bégon. in writing to Iberville on August 5. It is also noted that several names appearing on the first list are missing from the second. Charles La Barre. Anthoine Dilagny. and Antoine Duclos deserted and was replaced by Clemont Begon. including four Canadians who all died on New Year’s Eve 1699. just as the Renommée and the Gironde 5 . however. Bienville and Châteaugué. or desertion of some members of the group. Jean Migneron. Joseph La Vergne. plus Antoine Dalmas. death. The second-campaign Canadians.18 (Although Iberville’s two brothers. The Poly and the Gironde arrived back at Rochefort the first week in December 1698. had fallen ill and was replaced by François Maltot. it is readily apparent that the two do not exactly match. as evinced by the marginal annotations on the second pay list. 1699. They include the three replacements. From an examination of the pay lists. for example.the return voyage. Jean and Pilippes La Briere. to the illness. a fact confirmed by the existence of a roll prepared when Iberville departed Biloxi Bay for the return voyage.

Denis is best known for his later exploits into Spanish Texas and for his founding of the western-most French post of St. Denis. St. The following year. 1700. also listed as a captain of the Canadians. he was appointed aide-major to Bienville and sent on a number of campaigns in support and defense of the colony. he placed Bienville in command of Fort La Boulay. In 1702. When Iberville departed Biloxi Bay in May 1700. Jean Trepanier (died December 31. Denis to replace him in the former post. he appointed St. Paul Dusheron (died March 25. Denis formed a trading company in 1717 with four other Canadians.22 Two others became members of the Renommée’s crew for the return voyage. Boisbrillant. These were Jean La Loire and Joseph Bonhomme. or Boisbrilliant). on the two pay lists) and Joseph Chauvin. 1700). St. was Pierre Dugué de Boisbriand (sometimes Boisbriant. Those known to have died during the campaign include Antoine Baussi dit Marsie (died December 31. He died in office there on June 11. who signed on as seamen on April 16 and May 23.were passing from the Caribbean into the Gulf of Mexico. These were Joseph Gaulin. Graveline. Jean-Bapatiste Baudreau (listed by his alternate name.23 Several of the second-campaign Canadians are of some renown. a position he held for some twenty-four years. 1699). 1700). among whom were second-campaign compatriots. 1700).24 Another person of note. 1699). Although he served well there. and Matté Leonnard (died May 1. and Jean Saucié. Three were dismissed in March 1700 and were paid only for three months service in the colony. With an eye on profiting from his contacts on the Texas frontier. and first among these was the young captain of the Canadians. 1699). 1744. His dabbling in commerce continued into his tenure as commandant of the Natchitoches post. there were others whose status changed after arriving in Louisiana. Louis Larrivée. respectively.21 In addition to the Canadians who died during the campaign. he supervised the building of Fort de Chartes. He returned to France in 1717 but came back to the colony the following year and was elevated to the position of commandant in the Illinois country. Jean-Baptiste des Natchitoches. Guillaume Brussard (died March 26. François Faux (died December 31. when Bienville moved up to the command of Fort Maurepas. There. Louis Juchereau de St.20 Nicolas Prevost (died December 31. On 6 . 1699).

their time at the Spanish court in 7 . While there. there was considerable interest in learning of their experiences and benefiting from their knowledge. the two with perhaps the most intriguing life experiences were the Talon brothers. Jean. Jean. which. and a sister were taken captive. They had first come to the Gulf Coast with their parents. eldest of the two. Pierre and Jean included. but perhaps their worldly experiences among the Caddo and the Karankawa. Pierre.26 The latter three were rescued by the Alonso de Léon expedition in June 1690. Pierre and Jean were (for unknown reasons) given passage out of Rochefort on the Gironde. They were then separated and embarked at Veracruz on two different ships. Lucien Talon and wife Isabelle Marchand. in 1696.25 Of all the Canadians on Iberville’s second campaign. was overtaken and captured by a French squadron in the Antilles in January 1697. 1698. prospective Louisiana colonists whom La Salle would mislead—in error or by intention—to the shores of Matagorda Bay in 1685. bound for Quebec. Four of his siblings were less fortunate: Jean Talon. There was even an attempt by the minister of the marine to link up the Talon brothers with Iberville prior to his first Louisiana campaign. Why they then elected to join Iberville’s second-campaign Canadians is open to speculation. Although their status for several years is unknown. Before that could happen. Thus it was that the two Talon brothers made their way back to Canada. Spanish authorities made the decision to send them on to Spain. Pierre and Jean. two other brothers. Pierre. as previously mentioned.28 When Pierre and Jean Talon arrived in France. by the Terán de los Ríos expedition in July of the following year. The one carrying the three older boys. He returned to France in 1729 and died there seven years later on June 7.Bienville’s recall to France in 1724. set sail for Quebec with the frigate Poly on or about June 16. and their three other siblings were reunited and taken to Mexico City. and he was absent from the Matagorda Bay settlement when it was overrun by the Karankawa in 1688. both of the Indians and of Spain’s activities in Texas. was placed among the Cenis (Caddo) Indians to learn their language.27 Eventually. The two arrived there the end of August. however. 1736. Boisbriand served as acting governor until the arrival of Perier in 1727.

were later in the employ of St. Jean Saucier. but possibly also as interpreters—on his 1714 trek to the Rio Grande. included here for reference. perhaps thousands.29 Several others among the second-campaign Canadians. indeed. and the previously mentioned Joseph Chauvin and Jean-Baptiste Baudreau (Graveline). Denis. all the Iberville Canadians—deserve to be recognized for their contribution to the founding of the province of Louisiana and the proud history of the Gulf South. Mississippi. The third.Mexico City. having put down roots in what would become the states of Louisiana. Presented in the following pages are three documents of interest for the second campaign. provided guidance the Crown wanted conveyed to him concerning the English but which. This is a telling instruction. without official direction or permission. for political reasons. 1699. 8 . That instruction is accompanied by a letter of transmittal to Iberville from Minister of the Marine Ponchartrain. accompanying him—as guides. especially in the colonies. and possibly Jean as well. are of considerable interest to genealogists and family historians. England and France were not officially at war. and starting families whose descendants are. dated September 22. Minister Ponchartrain puts the matter rather bluntly in his letter. there are many others who are worthy of mention but whose stories are either lost to the historical record or have not yet been adequately researched. and Texas. but Louis XIV was not averse to causing problems for England. This letter. The first two are the pay lists previously discussed. Gilbert Dardonne. In any case. giving Iberville a free hand to use the Canadians to attack English settlements—or to use the Canadians to support Spanish attacks against the same—provided the Canadians appeared to be acting on their own. today. and their high seas escapades made it impossible for them to resist the allure of yet another great adventure. Claude Trepagnier. Pierre Alain. Doubtless. could not be included in his official instruction. these men—and. The known whereabouts of the Talon brothers becomes a bit dim following the 1699–1700 campaign. but it is known that Pierre. These include Joseph La Pointe. At this time. is a translation of Iberville’s instruction for the second campaign. although not major historical figures. secretive and intended only for Iberville. counted in the hundreds.

the Canadians—Iberville included—were viewed as a slightly different breed: French subjects to be sure. to a great extent. That attitude characterizes. 9 . but ones whose deeds could be disavowed when politically expedient.Although Frenchmen. the degree to which bold actions and independent enterprises were tolerated in Louisiana and came to characterize her pioneering Canadians.

......................... 40 To Allexis François............... ditto.................................................... ditto ............... ditto ....................................................................... Translation by the author from Library of Congress microfilm.... ditto.............................................. ditto................... Denis. fol....... captain of the Canadians at 50 livres per month.........................................................................................The First Pay List................................ ditto . ditto.......... 50 livres To the Sieur Boisbrillant............................. 40 To François Poudrier......] [fol.. 15r:] Report of the Canadians who took passage from Plaisance to France and their monthly salaries and pay Firstly Officers To the Sieur St... 1699 [“Estat des Canadiens passez de Plaisance en france et de leurs appointements et solde par mois......................................” Rochefort................. ditto...................................... May 5.... 40 To François Faut... 40 To Paul Dusheron............................................................................... ditto.... 1699.................................................. major............... 40 To Joseph Chauvin.... ditto.... 40 To Ignaçe Lapointe............. ditto............... 40 To Charles Lamotte..... 40 670 livres 10 .............. 40 To Jacques La Brie............................................ 50 To the Sieur Caumont.......... ditto . 40 To Jean Baptiste Graveline................... 40 To Anthoine Moransy....... 40 To Anthoine Lucas......................................................................................................... 40 To Jean Leveillier................ 50 Canadians To Joseph Lapointe at 40 livres per month.................... C13C 2.......................................................... May 5........ ditto..... 15r–16v...... Col............. ANOM.....

.. 40 1670 livres 11 ............................ ditto............. ditto.......... 40 To François Montreuil................................ ditto ....................... ditto.................................................. 40 To Pierre Alin.............................. 40 To Denis Durbois.................................................................................... 40 To Jacques Ras............................................................................................................................... 40 To Jacques Chauvin. 40 To Ignaçe Laval.................................................................................................................. ditto ............................................................. ditto.................... 40 To Joseph Bourboniere.............. 40 To Lafontaine Couilliart................................. ditto ... ditto............................ ditto ........... 15v:] From previous page ............................................................................. 40 To François Lasolais.......................... ditto. ditto...................... ditto..................................... 40 To André Roy....... 40 To François St........................................................................................................................................ 40 To Guillaume Brossard...... ditto...... 40 To Jean Trepagnier........... ditto.............................................................................. 40 To Jean Talon................. ditto. 40 To Jean Pierre....................... Marie............ 40 To Joseph Chainier....................................................................... ditto.............. 40 To Estienne Lashambre............... 40 To Jean Laloire.......................... 40 To François Hamel... 40 To Charles Renau........ ditto................................................................. 40 To Maruiçe Crespaud. ditto......................................................[fol................ 40 To Leonnard Mat...................... ditto...................................... 670 livres To Claude Trepagnier at 40 livres per month.................. 40 To Nicolas Provost... ditto..... ditto......................... 40 To Jean La Briere................................................. ditto........... ditto........................................................ ditto..................................

........ 40 To Charles La Barre....................................................................................... 40 To Joseph La Vergne................. 40 To Anthoine Duclos........................................................................................ ditto................ ditto . ditto ........... 40 To Jean Baptiste Turpin.. ditto ...................................................... May 5.................... 40 To Philippes Minet.................... ditto ........................ 40 To Charles Le Vasseur........................ ditto........................ 1699 [Illegible signature] 2790 livres 12 ................................................. 40 To Mathieu Bellefonds....................................... ditto... 40 To Pierre Couraille... ditto ................................... ditto ..... ditto ............... 40 To Claude Francoeur........................................... 40 To Charles Laroze............. ditto.... ditto.......... ditto ................................................. 40 To Anthoine Dilagny... 40 To Joseph Gaulin................................................................................................. 40 To Pierre Talon.................................................................................................. ditto .......... ditto ..................................................................................... 40 To Philippes La Briere.......................... 40 To Pierre Larrivée...... ditto . 40 To Louis Larrivée................................. 40 To Jean Leblanc.................................................................. 40 To Gilbert Dardenne.. ditto.......................................... 40 To Joseph Bonhomme..... 40 To Jean Soçier.................. ditto ... ditto......................................................................... ditto .................................. ditto......... 40 To Joseph Robitaille........ ditto .. ditto................... ditto .................................................. ditto........................... 40 To Jean Gautier.. 40 Total Drawn at Rochefort. ditto ................................................... 40 To Anthoine Roussin.................................. 40 To Marc Berrishon.................................................................................................................[fol........................ 40 To Sebastien Charpentier........................ ditto ...................................... 1670 livres To Jean La Topinne.......................................................................................... 16r:] From previous page ................................................ ditto................ 40 To Louis Baudouin..... 40 To Simon Lespine..............................

16v:] [Written vertically] May 5.[fol. who took passage from Plaisance to France in order to serve on the ships that will go to Mississippi during the current year 1699. with their monthly pay. 1699 Rochefort Roll of the Canadians. 13 .

.. ...................... 1890 _________ Total per month ... Translation by the author from Library of Congress microfilm.. 1699 Rochefort Extract of the funds necessary for 4 months of advanced pay to 2 Canadian officers and 63 Canadians who will embark on the frigate Renommée in order to go to fort de Maurepas la Baye de Biloxy on the Mississippi River............ 17r: This page.....] Monsieur de La Touche August 25................... precedes the actual role of names.The Second Pay List.. 1699 [“Rolle des officiers majors Canadiens et Canadiens qui sont dans le port de Rochefort et doivent s’embarquer sur la fregatte du Roy la Renommée ... 1990 4 _________ And for 4 months . 100 To 63 Canadians at 30 livres each ....... August 25............... a summary.... 17r–20v......... ANOM....... 7960 livres Tendered by order of September 1. 17v: blank] 14 ......... 1699....... .30 from the first of September until the last of December 1699.... To Wit: To 2 officers at 50 livres each per month....... 1699 [fol.................. August 25...... .........” Rochefort....... Col....] [fol... C13C 2.................... fol........

.... 30 To Jozeph Chauvin.............. 30 To Jean Baptiste Graveline. ditto.... 30 To Paul Du Chiron....... Canadian Remit the first of the months of September................ November................. ditto........................ 30 15 .. 30 To Jean L’Eveillé.............. 30 _________ 60 livres [fol........................ thus...... 1699...... ditto . who will receive......... ditto ... sick Canadians To Jozeph La Point at 30 livres per month..... that is to say.... commanded by Monsieur d’Iberville........ the amounts shown below....... 18r:] Roll of the Canadian officers and Canadians who are in the port of Rochefort and who will embark on the frigate of the king the Renommée..... ditto. Denis To Sieur de Maltot in the place of Sieur de Caumont. and December To Sieur de Boisbriand To Sieur de St........ for their monthly pay beginning September 1.... to take passage to Fort de Maurepas on the Mississippi River. October. 30 To Antoine Baussi dit Marsie................. 30 To Ignace La Point.. 18v:] From previous page ..[fol............................... 60 livres To Jacques La Brie at 30 livres per month ...... ditto............... 30 To François Poudrid......... ditto .............. unless this one be........ First: Officers at 50 livres at 50 livres None......................

. 30 To Jozeph Bourbonniere........................................ ditto.................................. 30 To Estienne La Chambre............ 30 To Jean Talon... 30 To François St.................... ditto .......................... 30 To Jean Laloire.... ditto............... 30 To Pierre Alain... 30 To Maruice Crepaut... 30 To Leonnard Matté.................... ditto.......... 30 To Charles Renaud.... ditto........................ ditto ................. ditto...................... ditto................ ditto ..... 30 To François Lasolaye.................. Marie.............................. ditto ..................... 30 _________ 660 livres [fol.................... 30 To Guillaume Brussard................................... 30 To Gilbert Dardonne................... ditto.. ditto................................................... 30 16 .................. ditto ...................... ditto. 30 To François Amil.................................................................... ditto . ditto ........... 30 To Claude Trepanier.................. ditto..... 30 To Jacques Chauvin... 30 To Jean Pierre............................................. 30 To Pierre Talon............... 30 To François Montreuil.... ditto................... ditto....... ditto .......... ditto ........ 30 To Jean Baptiste Turpin.......... 30 To Nicolas Prevost ....... ditto. 30 To André Roy................... 30 To Antoine Lucas.... 30 To François Faux................ 19r:] From previous page . ditto . 30 To Pierre Couillard dit Lafontain.............. 30 To Jean Jacques Ros.............. 30 To Denis Durbois............................. ditto...............................................To Charles La Motte...... ditto ....................................... ditto......................... 660 livres To Jean Trepanier at 30 livres per month ........................... 30 To Ignace Laval.... 30 To Alexis François........................... ditto.............

...... ditto ............................................ 30 To Jozeph Ropitaille........ ditto ............................... 30 To Antoine Dalmas. 30 To Clemont Begon. 30 To Mathieu Bellefonds. ditto ..... ditto... ditto.......... ditto............. ditto..................................... ditto ....... ditto .................. the younger................ ditto ..................................................................................... 30 To Marc Berrichon.. 30 To Sebastien Charptenier.. ditto................ ditto........ ditto ..... ditto................... 1260 livres To Louis Larrivée..... 30 To Jean Migneron. 30 To Charles Marquis..... ditto.... ditto....................................... the elder........... 30 _________ 1260 livres From previous page ...... ditto .. 30 To Jozeph Bonhomme.................. 30 To Charles La Roze.... 30 To Piere Venard..................... ditto .......... 30 To Nicolas La Toupine.. 30 Spaniard returned with Monsieur d’Iberville _________ 1830 livres [fol.... 30 To Jozeph Gaulin......... 30 To Antoine Roussin................ 19v:] 17 ... ditto .... 30 To Jean Saucié......... 30 To Louis Baudouin............................. 30 To Pierre Larrivée................................................. ditto ................ 30 To Claude Francoeur.......................................................... ditto......In the place of Jozeph Chesnier.......... 30 To Charles Le Vasseur.............. 30 To Philippes Minet........... dead ditto Antoine Duclose who deserted To François Clavery......... ditto .......

............................................. XXIIG IIIC XX livres Grand total of the content of the current roll: Twenty-nine thousand seven hundred sixty livres.. thus.............. the sum of twenty-five thousand three hundred twenty livres...... 30 _________ 1860 livres Sum total of the said month of September......... August 25............. the sum of five thousand five hundred eighty livres................ November............. 1699... XVIIC LX livres For the months of October...... and December of the present year........... eighteen hundred sixty livres........... [Drawn] at Rochefort........ thus................. 20r:] and who is going back with him to Mississippi To Luc Dauriue31 at 30 livres per month..... 21v:] 18 .........From previous page . thus........... [Signed:] Diberville [One other illegible signature (Duguay?)] [fol..... 1830 livres [fol......... XXIXG VIIC LX livres I certify the contents of the current roll to be true..... VG VC IIIIXX livres None for this one And for the year one thousand seven hundred....... thus . thus .........

letter-book copy. 276r–81v. The remainder contains the king’s instruction to Iberville for his second campaign to the Mississippi. He does not want you to attack them overtly. Translation by the author from Library and Archives Canada microfilm. fol. 1699 [Minister to Iberville.] [fol. September 22. The first folio of this document is a letter of transmittal. September 22. September 2. and I do not doubt that you will execute it with all the exactitude possible. 1699. as if [they had acted] by themselves without the appearance of your acknowledgment. 1699 You will find attached the instruction that the king ordered me to dispatch to you concerning the voyage you will make to the Mississippi. 276r:] Concerning the [war] ships that the said Sieur d’Iberville commands32 To Sieur d’Iberville Fontainebleau. he would not be of a mind to oppose you in regard to [destroying] the settlements they might have made on this coast. but he will not disapprove of your finding the means to have them destroyed. I must explain to you that His Majesty does not want you to attack English [war] ships that you find in these waters. or 19 . Col. I turn now to what it contains. You will find nothing in this instruction that concerns the settlements (établissements) that the English or the French refugees might have made on the coast of Florida. B 20. ANOM.33 However. Fontainebleau. All the same.Iberville’s Instruction. whether by the savages or by the Canadians.

I am writing about it to Sieur Bégon. 276v:] [destroyed] by the Spaniards. it seems to me that my father had charged Monsieur Bégon35 to finish it. and you can be persuaded that I am working with pleasure to promote your services to His Majesty and to draw from him favors for you. while having them assisted by the Canadians and by the savages. Monsieur Du Guay34 sent me an account that you remitted to him of the expenses and of the result of your Hudson Bay enterprise in 1695. capitaine de frégate légère. I am strongly persuaded that you will find the means to execute that which I am explaining to you by this letter in such a way that no complaints will come of it. 277r:] commanding the Renommée The discovery that the Sieur d’Iberville made of the mouth of the Mississippi River36 and the confidence that His Majesty places in him prompts him [the king] to choose him again to command the [war] ships that he [the king] wants to send to this country in order to perfect and assure himself of the possession of the outpost (établissement) he made there. moreover. that you leave this letter in France in the hands of someone trustworthy. I do not object to it at all. [fol. I have the papers that concern this affaire and.[fol. But observe with care to act in this so that it can not appear that you have orders or permission to do it. as well. while waiting for him [the 20 . and it will be necessary for you to charge someone at La Rochelle to conclude it with him.] Memoir to serve as an instruction to Sieur d’Iberville. And it is necessary. [The letter is unsigned. and he will find attached orders to confirm to them the command of it. His Majesty approved the choice he made of the officers he nominated to command at the fort he built.

Thus. 278r:] recommends. the munitions necessary for this fort and for one year of provisions at its garrison [along] with hardes and habits for those who will compose it. 21 . he desires that he set sail immediately. and clothing (hardes) and to leave him at this fort to distribute them. Domingue or elsewhere unless being forced there by the winds or other unforeseen needs. In case he cannot be given. His Majesty sees fit that he go there. but he [fol.37 His Majesty considers it necessary to charge an écrivain principal [fol. 277v:] de marine 38 with these munitions. He will go. at Rochefort. all the wine necessary for his campaign due to the poor quality of this year’s [wine] and that it is judged appropriate for him to have some taken on at Madeira or in one of the Azores islands. to stop and linger there only as long as will be necessary to take on the wine that he will need. afterwards. He chooses for this purpose Sieur de Rocour to whom he wants him [Iberville] to give all the help and protection of which he [Rocour] will have need in order to be able to perform his functions. He [the king] does not doubt that all will be embarked when he [Iberville] will receive this memoir. in this case. to the roadstead of Biloxi without landing on the coast of St.king] to know more specifically what there will be to do for this country. being persuaded that he will be able to employ them profitably for his service. He also set their salaries so they will have reason to be content. on the frigate that he commands and on the flûte that will accompany it. His Majesty has also given orders to have embarked on these ships the Canadians who have heretofore served with him [Iberville] in Hudson’s Bay and who are currently at La Rochelle. provisions. He [Iberville] was informed of the orders that have been given to Sieur Du Guay to have embarked.

as it would be necessary to domesticate these animals in order to be able to use their wool. And in case. without doubt. when he was engaged to have the mouth of the Mississippi discovered. It would even be 22 . And. As the said Sieur de Sauvole will have. One of the great purposes that was. was to extract the wool of the buffalo (bœufs) of his country. The intention of His Majesty is to have a full understanding of this country. where a pen (parc) will be made to enclose them. It is necessary that he [Iberville] arrange to bring [back] several of their hides in order to test them and to make sure of the various uses that can be made of them. he judges it appropriate to relocate this fort to a place more suitable. he will go ashore in order to have an accounting made to him by Sieur de Sauvole. at his [Iberville’s] return. 278v:] made there. imparted to His Majesty. His Majesty hopes that. heretofore. and of those [goods] of the realm that can be consumed there. leaving it entirely up to him. he will put him [the king] in a position to decide with certainty on the courses of action that will be taken in order to extract from these settlements all the use that one can expect. of goods that can be drawn from it. which he will bring near the fort. if he judges it appropriate to conserve it.39 who commands there. on the understanding that the said Sieur Sauvole will have gained of the surrounding areas. he will take his [war] ships there after having embarked all that will remain at this fort and have it entirely destroyed. it is necessary that he arrange to get some of their young. His Majesty prescribes to him nothing on the manner of constructing this new fort nor on the augmentations to make to the one of Biloxi Bay. to be informed of plantings that can be [fol.As soon as he will have arrived before this fort. executed the orders that he [Iberville] gave to him to inform himself of it and that he will be able to stay in this country long enough to verify the knowledge that he will have acquired. of all that has happened in this country since he [Iberville] left there.

the use that can be made of it and what measures can be taken to draw off as much as can be consumed. He will consider carefully the nature of the wood of the country in order to know how it could be [fol.[fol. Those that the Spanish have on the same latitude and in lands of the same quality can make us believe that there are some in the area of the Mississippi. he wants him to consider if enterprises could be make of them [and] if. and as it is the usual nourishment of silk worms. in this case. He might find others of them. that he observes the fishing firsthand. it is not necessary to pass up researching them with care. and His Majesty desires that he brings [back] as many as he can. But the great undertaking is the discovery of mines. His Majesty was assured that this country was covered with very beautiful mulberry trees. and he 23 . and that he makes the most exact notes he can on what can be observed about this fishing. His Majesty wants him to consider carefully all that this country produces and for him to bring with him the greatest quantity possible of its yield in order to see. 279v:] used. the women and children of the savages could be applied and what could be done for this. whether in furniture or in the construction of building and ships. He will take possession of these mines in the name of His Majesty and will draw up papers (actes) as authentic as will be possible and will even have them authorized by the savages on the land where he will find them. as there is cause for hope. while observing that there be some males and females. Although the pearls that were given to him by the savages do not appear of high quality (d’une belle eau) or of a fine shape. It is also necessary that he assure himself of the places where fishing can be done. 279r:] desirable that he were able to bring some of them to France. In case he finds some of them. in France. Finally. he will take material from them in order to bring it to France in the greatest quantity possible in order to make several assays of it. but more of the latter than of the others.

After having gained full knowledge of this country. at these places. seamen. as many from those who are currently in the country there as from those who will be on his [war] ships. in order to remain at this fort until the following year under the command of the officers that he has proposed and of whom His Majesty has confirmed 24 . His Majesty also had him given written permission to take eight or ten Canadians of those he brought with him. He will correct the maps that have been made of it and will. not to go at all up to the places where the Spaniards are established. and soldiers who are under his command. just as it is explained to him above. at the same time. be observant of the dangers on this coast in order to avoid them and of what can be observed in order to navigate there with certainty. what there would be to do in order to [fol. he can be permitted to engage a greater number by mutual agreement and without obligating anyone. while observing. where there is a village (établissement). His Majesty prefers to permit him to add to this whatever he will judge appropriate. 280r:] employ these savages and their families and what it would be necessary to give them in payment for the work in order to engage them in it. He will choose one hundred good men among the Canadians. But in case others of them came from Canada. however. [fol. so as to avoid making them jealous. He will apply himself very forcefully to gain full knowledge of the neighboring coast of the Mississippi and will explore (découvrira) east and west as far as he can.will consider. freebooters. He was informed that his Majesty permitted the said Sieur Lesueur to embark with him in order to go back up the Mississippi as far as the Sioux country (pays des Sioux). 280v:] He will give to Sieur Lesueur the orders he will judge appropriate in order to make observations along the river and will order him to send them to the secretary of state having the department of the Marine40 at the first opportunity he will have.

since the departure of the said Sieur d’Iberville. because of the vegetables and fresh meat that this country will furnish them and of those that Sieur Du Casset41 sent there from [the line is unfinished]. He forbids him to use any act of violence 25 . the Jesuit who will have served in the same quality on the frigate Renommée and will bring back to France the chaplains that he left there. in case the Spaniards have. attacked the fort of Biloxi. which His Majesty expects to be sufficient throughout the course of the year 1700. 281r:] He will have the officers of the fort’s garrison recognize Sieur de Roucour.the choice. and even for part of 1701. He will establish. who will perform the functions of commissaire and will explain to Sieur Sauvole that the intention of His Majesty is that he gives to him all the protection and help that he will need in order to perform his functions and that he has him enter into the councils. where His Majesty wants him to occupy second place. He [the king] does not believe that the Spaniards want to attempt anything against this settlement. 281v:] not even want him to post himself at Pensacola if they were to withdraw from it. in order to gather them at the fort. But. and will leave them the provisions that Sieur Du Guay had embarked on his [war] ships. [it] not appearing to him that they have cause to complain about it. However. he is quite pleased to say to him [Iberville] that he wants him carefully to avoid having any business with them. And after having executed all the contents in the present instruction. which he will build anew. or scattered along the coast. likewise. And in order not to give them any cause for complaint. for chaplain in the fort. and even that they have taken it. écrivain principal of the Marine. [fol. His Majesty desires that he return to France with all the haste of which he will be capable. His Majesty wants him to see to reassembling the French who might be among them. he does [fol.

He does not want him to salute them either. His Majesty sees fit that he salute them.(voie de fait) against them.] 26 . However. reserving for himself [the king] to deal with it as he will judge appropriate. he [the king] prefers that he repel force with force and that he does all that the rules of a good and just defense can permit. illegible signature or initial. As it is the duty of His Majesty to avoid carefully all that might pose some obstacle to the execution of the orders for which the said Sieur d’Iberville is responsible. Louis XIV. His Majesty does not want him to ask the salute of any [war] ship of any nation whatsoever. the signature is not in the king’s hand. However. [The document is concluded with a small. This apparently represents the signature of the king. if these Spaniards attack him. but as the instruction is a letter-book copy. if he will find some Spanish or English fleet (escadre) where there were flags of general officers.

Col. 225–40. Raucoüart. microfilm. 4:395–431. 1699–1700. Attempts were made to locate the source document—thought to be part of AN. the document could not be found. Campaignes. 1880). MSS. 1981). 1699. August 26. . B 20. ANOM. citing Dépot de la Marine. of Alabama Press.End Notes Minister to Iberville. however. Découvertes et établissements des Français dans l’ouest et dans le sud de l’Amérique septentrionale (1614–1754) . ANOM. worked from a supposed copy of the version that Iberville sent to the minister of the marine.] Margry transcript. 3 2 1 Iberville to Minister. 5 4 27 . B 20. Several writers have given the date of sailing as October 17. 106–156. 266v–68r. however. Col. Iberville to Minister. trans. . Versailles. citing Archives du Ministère de la Marine. 358–60. Iberville’s Gulf Journals (Tuscaloosa: Univ. Iberville’s activities on the campaign are detailed in “Journal du voyage du chevalier d’Iberville sur le vaisseau du Roi la Renommée. C13A 1. Minister to Du Guay. en 1699. depuis le cap Français jusqu’à la côte du Mississipi. part 4. Marine B4 20—and to verify the sailing date. Bayogoulas [village]. 9296. N. 1700. fol. vol. 1699. June 15. pp.A. Raucour is the same individual whose named appears as Rocour or Roucour in Iberville’s sailing instruction (translated at the end of this article). McWilliams. 262r–63r..” undated [but likely written after Iberville’s return to France using his own ship’s log for reference.. December 19. ANOM. but have cited no source. 1699. and ed. Découverte par mer des bouches du Mississipi et établissements de Lemoyne d’Iberville sur le golfe du Mexique (1694–1703) (Paris: Jouaust. et son retour. and Ricoürt. on board the Renommée at Le Cap (CapFrançais). Various other spellings have been found. February 26. . he cites this copy as Bibliothèque Nationale. fol. Col. fr. including Ricour. An English translation of this document is in Richebourg Gaillard McWilliams. Marly. 1699. Also. The matter requires further investigation. Transcript in Pierre Margry.

9 8 7 6 “Memoire de ce quil faut faire cette annee pour la baye d’hudson. Memorial Univ. direction was given to Intendant Bégon to keep the Canadians in France. December 24.. vol. Versailles.” 1698. Marcel Giraud.” entry of May 27. of Alabama Press. 1700. Margry transcript. Lambert (Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State Univ. Father Baudoin’s War: D’Iberville’s Campaigns in Acadia and Newfoundland. B 20. Old Mobile: Fort Louis de la Louisiane. and St. The document solicits commissions for three: Caumon Le Gardeur. Williams. (The author was apparently Champigny. came to the colony on the second campaign. 1698. Col. Col. 1991). en 1699 . Boisbrillian de Duguay. ANOM. . trans. “Journal du voyage du chevalier d’Iberville sur le vaisseau du Roi la Renommée. 1696. A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography. These campaigns are detailed in Alan F. including the building of Fort Louis at the mouth of the Mobile River and the founding of the original Mobile settlement. 1700. The work that took place following the second voyage. 1. Bienville came on the first. four short of the number on the first pay list. ed. 1698–1715. Denis. Conrad. According to the journal entry of April 15.) ANOM. 4:431. fol. of Newfoundland. 12 11 10 28 . The Reign of Louis XIV. fol. ca. 1974). . 156r–57v. (New Orleans: Louisiana Historical Association. Press. John’s:] Department of Geography. 138v–39r. 1702–1711 (Tuscaloosa and London: Univ. with the exception of Bienville. is addressed in detail in Jay Higginbotham. For further information on the four. Margry transcript. intendant of New France. The document sets the number of Canadians transported to Quebec at sixty-five. the Gironde had departed on April 3. see their biographical sketches in Glenn R. 34–35. . 4:424. 1988). C11A 16. At that time. Minister to Sérigny. A History of French Louisiana. 1987). 1697 ([St. Sérigny himself was in France by that date.All of these individuals. Joseph C.

These have been left unchanged in the translations except for the given name Francois. off[icie]rs mariniers. Col. 20 19 18 29 . 264r–65r. 1699. u. ouvriers et mousses [et] soldats qui sont dans la garnison du fort de La Baie de Bilocchi au Missisipi passés en reveüe le vingt cinq[uiè]me mai 1700. May 28. On the second pay list. ANOM. 102r–126r.” According to a letter written to Iberville by Minister Ponchartrain. 137r–27v. the given names Pierre and Jean-Baptiste were abbreviated in the original lists. 121r–22r. ANOM. for example. Versailles. 255–60. “Spaniard returned with Monsieur d’Iberville . 1698. de Contré. Col. C13A 1. “Rolle des officiers majors. fol. Minister to Iberville. This individual’s name appears as “Anthoine Moransy” on the first pay list. B 20. Col. Also. Col. Quebec. May 26. August 5. Ibid. . Col. ANOM. Versailles. 15 14 Minister to the Marquis de Contré Blenac. fol. flibustiers. ANOM. Cannadiens. The name may be Daurine. ANOM. La Barre instead of La Barré. and v. Also. 16. Versailles. these have been spelled out in the translation. this Spaniard was brought back from San Luis Potosi on Iberville’s previous voyage. B 20. .” drawn at the Fort of the Bay of Biloxi. B 20. Versailles.Minister to Iberville. fol. The écrivain who drew this document made little or no distinction between the letters n. pp. matelots. which has been corrected to François. in some instances. C 11A 13 Champigny to Minister. fol. December 10. 1698. Begon instead of Bégon. June 25. 1698. 1700. fol. . Lettre du Roy à M. etc. Maltot instead of Maltôt. Col. this individual’s name appears under the heading. 1698. October 14. 105r–6r. B 20. 17 16 Several of the names on the original lists appear without proper diacritics. or possible even Daurive. ANOM.

1700. 1700. 1993). 252–53. 112. 44–45. see Marcel Giraud. pp. For St. Canadiens. C13A 1. flibustiers. October 18. C13A 1. This speculation that French refugees might be encountered on the coast of Florida (the upper Florida Gulf Coast) has to do with French Protestants (Huguenots). 31 32 This line is not part of the original cover letter but was added to the letter-book copy to describe the document. vol. Foster. not the Mississippi See note 17. 1689–1768 (Austin: Univ. Col. officiers mariniers. matelots.” Rochefort. Denis: A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography. matelots. 62–63. William C. of Texas Press. Wilderness Manhunt. Biloxi Bay opens onto the Gulf of Mexico. Spanish Expeditions into Texas. ANOM. Weddle. 27 28 29 30 Weddle.“Rolle des officiers marin[ie]rs. Robert S. Some were welcomed into the English colonies in America. 449. 263–64. Spanish Expeditions. 1715–1717. 1973). many of whom fled France following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. October 19. of Texas Press. A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography. 253–54. 269–79. 25 26 Conrad. flibustiers. 23 24 22 21 Ibid. pp. Col. 33 30 . Wilderness Manhunt: The Spanish Search for La Salle (Austin and London: Univ. Foster. 2. Years of Transition. ouvriers et soldats qui sont morts au fort de Biloxy. A History of French Louisiana. Press. 1995). 267–68.” drawn at Rochefort. In regard to Baudreau (Graveline) and Chauvin. Brian Pearce (Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State Univ. 188. “Etat des fonds à remettre pour le payement des officiers majors. Canadiens. River. ANOM. trans. ouvriers et mousses pour les services qu’ils ont rendus ou qu’ils rondront la presente année 1700 au fort de la Baye de Biloxy ou ils sont en garnison.

the ministry of the Marine. 40 41 39 That is. 37 The grade of écrivain principal was a mid-level office in the administrative corps (corps de plume) of the French navy between the higher grade of écrivain général and the lower grade of écrivain ordinaire. Vergé-Franceschi. A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography. 213. La Marine française au XVIIIe siècle. Sieur de La Salle. 719.. where he died in August 1701. James S. Michel Vergé-Franceschi. Press. although the former is more descriptive of old or used clothes. That honor belongs to the explorer René-Robert Cavelier. 422. Strictly speaking. Iberville was. governor of the French colony of Saint-Domingue. 2004). Ibid. Iberville did not “discover” the mouth of the Mississippi. Pritchard. Conrad. the first European to locate successfully and to enter the mouth of the river from the Gulf of Mexico. In Search of Empire: The French in the Americas. however.Henry-Jules Du Guay was commissaire général at Rochefort. 1691–1700. 1996). Jean [dit Jean-Baptiste] Du Casse. The terms hardes and habits can both be translated as clothes. 1670–1730 (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. 413. 38 Sauvole had been on Iberville’s first Louisiana campaign and had been left behind as commander at the newly built Fort Maurepas. 31 . 436. La Marine française au XVIIIe siècle (Paris: Sedes. 34 35 36 Michel Bégon was intendant at Rochefort. something that La Salle had failed to do.