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Time Management Tips Here are a few ideas for getting a better handle on your time: Write down

the goals you wish to accomplish: • Long-term goals (overall course, unit, and lesson requirements) • Short-term goals (weekly milestones or completion of specific activities) • Daily goals (daily tasks to accomplish your goals) Make a study plan and follow it. • Use your list of goals and the course outline to organize your study time. • Make a to-do list (a list of daily tasks to accomplish your goals). • Write key dates on your calendar. Arrange your study time to take advantage of when you feel most alert. • Try to study at the same time of day and in the same place. • Study where distractions are minimal. • Do the most difficult work when you feel best. Save the pleasant or easier tasks for other times. • Pace yourself; work regularly and daily. • Don't rely on getting most of your work done in last minute cram sessions. Work on an assignment at least a little bit the day it's assigned. • Divide the rest of the assignment into "chunks" of work. • Give each chunk a deadline. Stick to your plan. When you're stuck, ask yourself: • What is one task I can accomplish toward my goal? • What is the most important thing I need to work on right now? Make the time to reinforce what you're learning. • Do it when you have a few spare moments-between classes? A half-hour before school each day? • Reinforce learning by repeating information, rereading, and reviewing. Taking Notes

Taking notes is important in this course, both when watching Tutorials and when completing reading assignments. By taking notes and keeping a notebook of the work you complete in this course, you'll find studying for the Unit Quizzes and the AP Exam much easier. Here are a few thoughts on note taking: Why should I take notes while watching Tutorials? • It'll help you remember what the important ideas were in each Tutorial. • You'll have a permanent record of what you learned. • Tutorials may contain information or examples not given elsewhere. • You'll see the patterns and structures of tutorials better if you take notes. Why should I take notes while reading? • Taking notes (or underlining or highlighting) while reading is helpful because it forces you to decide what's important as you read. • It also helps your concentration because you're reading actively rather than passively. General tips on note taking: • Be brief. Summarize what you've learned by writing it in your own words. • Use consistent markings. notes faster. Mark important ideas with an arrow or some other symbol. Use abbreviations to help you take

• • • •

Jot down details or examples that support main ideas. You can indicate them with "EX" Include diagrams or graphs in your notes. They may help you remember the content better.

Review your notes as soon as possible after taking them. Read them and improve the organization if necessary. Listen for transitions. Transitional words and phrases-such one idea and the beginning of another. as "therefore," "finally," and "furthermore"-signal the end of

Listen for signal words. These will tip you off to main ideas, supporting materials, and concluding thoughts. Here's a list of

Second .~--- ..... .. ask yourself some or all of these questions: ----. Third And most important A major development Remember that The important idea is that The basic concept here is Support materials may be signaled with: • • • • • • • • • • On the other hand On the contrary For example Similarly In contrast Also Further Furthermore As an example For instance Concluding materials may be signaled with: • • • • • • Therefore In conclusion As a result Finally In summary From this we see Reading to Remember To help you remember more about your reading.common signal words and phrases: Main ideas may be signaled with: • • • • • • • There are three reasons why First .

there's generally no editing or filtering process used to screen information on the Web. entertain? • Is the Web site well organized? • Can you find what you're looking for? • Are the links on the Web site relevant and appropriate? . or something else that's easy to remember. persuade. or university? • Does this affiliation appear to bias the information? • Is there any sort of bias in the Web site or the information on it? ContentJPurpose • How complete and accurate is the information provided by the Web site? • What appears to be the purpose for the existence of the Web site? -To inform. What do I already know about this topic? Jot some notes down about what you already know on the subject. What's the author going to say next? As you read. Therefore. try to anticipate what the author will say next. translate the author's words into your own. Unlike print materials. and How? What information is important here? Decide what information is important enough to include in your notes. How can I paraphrase and summarize this information? As you take notes. skim through the piece to get an overview of the main points. Where?. years of experience. What's the big picture here? Before you start reading. What questions does this information raise for me? Start by asking-Who?. How can I organize this information? Once you've finished reading. How can I picture this information? Look over your notes and translate the information into symbols and pictures wherever possible. • • • • • • • • • • just Evaluating Web Sources The World Wide Web continues to grow and change at a rapid rate. education. organization. review your notes. such as books and newspapers. A hook may be an image. story. you should consider a few things when determining a Web site's value and reliability: Authority • Who created the Web site? • Who authored the information on the Web site? • Do the site creators and author(s) give information about themselves (such as occupations.• What's my purpose for reading this? Knowing why you're reading a piece will help you know what to look for as you read. What?. or other credentials)? • What specific expertise do the creators and authors have? Affiliation • Are the creators or authors of the Web site affiliated with a specific institution-a company. Create new groupings of the information or link it to other things you've read on the subject. being as brief as possible. see how the new information fits in with what you already know-not with that topic but with others as well. When?. rhyme. government. What's my hook for remembering this information? Find a way to remember what you need to know for tests. How does this information fit in with what I already know? As you look over your notes. explain.

• How is the information presented? What units are being used? What do the numbers represent? Are the numbers actual figures or percentages? Have the numbers been rounded off? • mean? Are they actual or projected amounts? What do the lines. sometimes it's easier to make comparisons among categories with a bar graph. pie charts. bars. For example. These are characteristics or patterns of behavior that differ among various groups. An item of interest might be. The better you know how to read these tables and graphs.) • How complete and accurate is the information provided by the Web site? Timeliness • When was the information created or last updated? • How up-to-date and reliable are the links? Reading and Interpreting Tables and Graphs In this course. • Examples you might use to support your points. These might be. • Think about at least two different ways you might answer the question. you'll come across tables and graphs that were created to simplify groupings of numbers or other data. For example. brainstorm ideas about your topic. • Subgroup differences. • Do you know exactly what the question is asking? • Look for key words and define alternatives. Peaks and troughs. while graphs illustrate diagrams of quantitative relationships. Before you start writing. • • Writing a Good Essay Understand the question. the more sense the data will make. Make a list of: • Key points that support the different sides you might take.Audience • Who is the Web site directed toward? How does it compare? • How does this Web site and its information compare to other sites? • How does this Web site and its information compare to other non-Internet sources of information available on this topic? (Note: Check with a librarian. They have different uses. it generally indicates there's been a change in the dominant trend. differences in voting behavior of different population groups. when lines cross on a line graph. Here are some questions to ask when reading tables and graphs: • What is the table or graph about? Read the title. . for example. and line diagrams. These are high and low values in a particular distribution. It should tell you what the content is supposed to demonstrate. or pie slices measure or • What is the quality of the data? How old is the data being used? Is all of the range presented or has part of the range been cut off? Where does the data come from? What does the accompanying text say about the table or graph? Is it credible? What biases can I identify? What is • • What do I think about how the table or graph has been interpreted? the author trying to prove or disprove? What are my conclusions about the information presented in the table or graph? Do I agree or disagree? Can I see other ways the data could be interpreted? Here are some things to look for in tables and graphs: • Trends. while it's easier to see trends over time in a line diagram. These are patterns that occur over time that can be seen in the data. states with significantly higher or lower voter turnout rates than the rest of the country. • Sources you can use for research or quotations. for example. Graphs come in many forms: bar graphs. Tables list numbers in columns and rows.

the easier it will be to notice problems. • Demonstrate a solid understanding of the points raised in the question. • Incorporate at least three relevant examples from the readings and the student's observations of US. punctuation. dates. • The longer you can leave it before revising.• Questions you need to answer before you can start writing. Excellent An essay in this category presents a cogent. history that directly support the student's argument. • Rewrite the essay. names. making the corrections and improvements. • Be written in clear. • A good essay can also include points from the opposing side. • Correctly make use of terms and concepts from the lesson. • Jot some notes to yourself about how you could improve it. Of course. • Proofread your final draft. several body paragraphs. • Which side do you want to argue? • A good essay will lean toward one side of an argument. Organize the material from your brainstorming session into a rough outline. link together the evidence in your own words with commentary. • Be organized into paragraphs that each contain one main point. punctuation. • Pay attention to the spelling. • Do you need more or better examples? • Do you need to check facts. Once your essay has been evaluated and returned. but not take an extreme position. and a conclusion. • Does your argument need better supporting examples? • Are your key points stated clearly? • Do they follow logically? Now read it through again. and facts that should be double-checked. well-written analysis of the complexities of the assigned question and demonstrates outstanding control of the components of effective writing. Below are the general items instructors look for and assess when scoring essays. Such an essay will: • Present an entirely clear argument directly addressing the points raised in the question. • Look for holes in your argument. • Write the first draft quickly-don't worry about every word or sentence. read your instructor's comments. Such an essay will: • Present a reasonably clear argument addressing the points raised in the question. • Decide what your body paragraph arguments will be. and grammatical errors. read it completely through once. • Your draft should consist of an introduction. • The first draft is a chance to get your ideas on paper so you can see how they work. • In your body paragraphs. Develop a thesis. Put your first draft away for a day or so before you begin revising. • Contain an identifiable thesis statement in the first paragraph laying out the argument the student wishes to make. How Essays Are Scored Essays in this course are scored and grouped into one of five categories. concise language with a minimum of spelling. • Don't worry about grammar and punctuation while you're writing the first draft-leave that for the next stage. but having no thesis statement is a disaster. Very Good An essay in this category presents a fairly well-developed analysis of the assigned question and demonstrates strong control of the components of effective writing. • Demonstrate a basic grasp of the points raised in the question. • Many different thesis statements will work for any given essay. items specific to each particular essay are also considered. . and so on? Write the first draft in one sitting. • Pick out an error or two that you can improve or correct in your next assignment. • List at least three pieces of evidence you might use to support each assertion. • Ask for clariflcation if you're unsure about your instructor's comments. When you're ready to revise your essay. • Write an assertion (topic sentence) for each body paragraph.

but exhibits some clear flaws. and grammar that inhibit the ability to determine the meaning of the student's response. decide what your main argument is. • Fail to incorporate any examples or reasons. As a result. but one that isn't fully developed or clearly related to the student's main point. spelling. ask yourself "What is the question I'm being asked?" There's no surer way to hurt your score than to answer a question that the exam doesn't ask. history that directly support the student's argument. under the headin~ "Introduction. compose. Flawed An essay in this category demonstrates serious weaknesses in the ability to analyze the assigned question and maintain control over the components of effective writing. although there may be minor flaws in paragraph or sentence structure. Here's a sample outline for the current events question noted below: . • Provide examples. • Next. An essay in this category presents a fairly competent analysis of the assigned question and demonstrates some control over the components of effective writing. think about how you're going to bring these things together at the end. • Demonstrate some understanding of the points raised in the question." • Now. punctuation. and proofread your essay responses on the AP Exam. Such an essay will: • Present an argument addressing the points raised in the question. Such an essay will: • Lack an identifiable argument regarding the points raised in the question. • Have serious organizational problems. • Contain numerous major errors in sentence structure.• • • • • Adequate Make reference to relevant concepts presented in the lessons. No Score A "0" will be given if a student fails to turn in the assignment or if the student commits plagiarism. lacking in variety. but it may be vague or limited in its development. Be generally well organized. • Have a general sense of organization. • Contain a thesis statement. • Lack a thesis statement. and containing some occasional major errors or more frequent minor errors in spelling. including major digressions and an absence of coherent paragraph structure. This is your thesis statement. • Employ language that is imprecise. Such an essay will: • Fail to respond to the assigned question. or grammar. • Incorporate at least one example that appears related in some way to the claims the student makes. Your summary should restate the main points of your essay and synthesize your arguments. and should be the first item you place in your outline. or grammar. Contain a thesis statement related to the argument the student makes in the essay. and mechanical errors throughout the essay that prevents the reader from understanding the essay's meaning. You only have 35 minutes to conceive." Practicing your outlining skills now will put you in a position to approach any type of essay question the AP Exam throws at you. think about how you're going to support your argument. Be generally well written. although there may be some problems with spelling. What key points do you want to make to support your thesis and what examples do you want to use to support these key points? Each point should merit its own paragraph and your outline should reflect this. • Contain pervasive organizational. Severely Flawed An essay in this category demonstrates severe problems in the ability to formulate an analytical essay and communicate using the rules of standard written English. punctuation. When outlining an answer: • First. Outlining Free-Response Answers Outlining is an essential skill you should be very familiar with before taking the AP Exam. Incorporate at least two relevant examples from the readings and the student's knowledge of U. • Finally. punctuation.S. you'll need to "hit the ground running. grammatical. but ones that are unrelated to the student's points. but will digress in places and present difficulties for the reader attempting to follow the student's line of reasoning.

Answering Free-Response Questions Once you've created an outline for a free-response question. Here are a few other pointers to consider when answering f Carefully read each question and then choose the best way to structure your essay. If you can't remember a specific date. • Candidates are no longer judged solely on the basis of their party affiliation. If you're supposed to analyze voting behavior. "Early in the 20th century. However. It's easy to misspell words. Your answer should written. as illustrated above. • Candidates must be able to convey a positive media image. There are a number of reasons for this. for example-whether an amendment was passed in 1913 or 1923. Each question will have key words that give you clues on the type of answer to write. it's safer to say something like." An approximate fact will earn more points than a wrong fact.Question: "Political parties today are experiencing a long-term decline in status and power. • Politicians are more willing to break party discipline if PAC contributions may be at risk. and should use the supporting data you've noted. Be sure to read each question carefully. • As interest groups have become more prominent. parties have declined. and then re-read it again just to be sure. Paragraph 3: This brings up another reason for the decline of parties: the rise of candidate-centered campaigns. or misstate dates and figures (1892 written as 1982). Here are some typical key words-you'll want to be sure to know what each of these requires prior to taking the AP Exam: Analyze Compare Contrast Criticize Define Describe Discuss Enumerate Evaluate Illustrate Interpret Outline Prove State Summarize Trace When in doubt. • Institute campaign finance reforms that would reduce dependency on interest group PACs." Assess the validity of this statement. Conciusion:Parties are no longer the political force they once were. answering it becomes much easier. Take the time to reread your answers before turning in your test. • Direct primaries force candidates to appeal directly to voters for support. there are some signs that parties may be able to reverse this trend. . qualify your answer. However. • Character issues also have a place in voter decisions. you won't get full credit for simply describing it. miss part of a question. omit words or parts of phrases. Recognize what the question is asking you to do. Paragraph 4: The need for media exposure and the increasing cost of campaigns has led candidates to rely more heavily on interest groups to fund their campaigns. Be alert for questions asking you to include more than one type of response. Introduction (Thesis):Political parties have experienced a long-term decline over the past three decades for several reasons. parties may be able to recapture the allegiance of voters if they do the following: • More clearly identify what it is their party stands for and why. • Direct primaries reduce the role of party bosses in selecting nominees. Paragraph 2: One reason for the decline of political parties is the replacement of party caucuses in many states with direct primaries. • Make their parties more inclusive and reach out to nonvoters.

such as politics and economics.- . or information you already know about the period. To avoid this pitfall: • Look for key words and defme alternatives. For the years specified in the DBQ you're working on. You'll be answering two free-response questions on the AP Exam. government. For example: SIDE A: The colonists were eager to maximize economic profits above all. for example. In your Unit Quizzes and on the AP Exam.. In a DBQ. It might be stated like this: In the decadesfrom 1763 to 1776. Suppose. Sometimes the people who create DBQs choose documents that suggest a certain way of approaching the argument. a question wants you to examine the causes of the American Revolution. you'll have approximately 55 minutes to read the documents. so you need to work efficiently. you must also blend in outside information. Look for themes and groups before you start writing. Remember to watch your time.. Read quickly through the documents and look for the following: • The main idea in each one. Using the documents below as well as information you already know about the period. --. actions.----. Who were we negotiating. There will often be clues in the question that will indicate how you should arrange your documents thematically. and eNd (note that the capitalized letters spell BRAIN-this will help you remember each step). Arrange the documents into a rough outline (10 minutes). SIDEB: The colonists had been moved by profound Revolutionary ideals. you can start writing your outline. • Look for common "case study" topics. You may want to answer what you see as the "easiest" question firstthis may calm your nerves and help you establish your concentration. Here are five steps you might follow when writing a DBQ: Brainstorm. think about which document(s) and which outside information you will use as evidence in each body paragraph. it's not enough to simply list and summarize the documents. Too often students don't answer the question they're asked. you must analyze their content and use this information to support your argument. • Identify two different ways you might answer the question. and/or fighting with? • Economic: What was the production and distribution of wealth like? Read and understand the question (2 minutes). analyze the reasons for this shift and assess their relative importance. Once you have an idea of what your argument is going to be. As you organize your outline. American colonists made a slow but gradual transition from a collection of discreet colonies to a unifiedfightingforce. with only 35 minutes to answer each. Read. especially if the question asks you to address an issue as it develops over time. Answering a DBQ A document-based question (DBQ) is an essay question that includes approximately eight documents you must use in your answer. Another effective way to organize documents is by topic. • Look at the question. Arrange. This is another helpful tool. and policies of the U. and write your answer. Interpret. In addition to using each document correctly. -----------~. make a list of everything you know about the following areas of American life: • Social: How did Americans live and interact with one another in this period? What were dominant themes or beliefs at this time? • Political: Name key leaders. trading. Once you've determined the what the question is.. • Look at the dates. Brainstorm what you know about the era (3 minutes). AP questions are never worded simply. • Clusters and themes among the documents. identify at least two ways to answer it based on information you've already learned about the period. . The documents in a DBQ are often given in chronological order.S. outline. • An overall argument that many of the documents might support.

Interpret the documents and write your essay (35 minutes). You may: • Quote key phrases (keep them short) • Paraphrase the main idea • Summarize one key aspect of a document • Look to see when each document was written and by whom. or semi-lucid thesis • Summarizes and explains documents simplistically • Includes a few documents • Contains little or no outside information.-- ------------=--------------------- ___J . limited. effective analysis of the issue and proves the thesis Is effectively organized and well written May contain small. • As you think over the whole essay. grammatical. and will count as outside information. • Don't linger-a good DBQ conclusion should be four or five sentences at most. • Don't panic if you can't remember every detail of the DBQ topic. • Leave 5 minutes at the end to breathe and finish in style. it's time to get going on your written essay! Here are some guidelines and tips: • Write a quick introduction that quickly establishes your thesis. or includes irrelevant outside information • May have significant factual. and then blend your evidence (documents and outside information) and your explanations (commentary). • In each body paragraph write a clear assertion that states what the paragraph is about. or organizational errors Flawed • Has no thesis or an entirely off-topic one • Shows little or no understanding of the question • Uses virtually no documents or ignores them • Is chaotic and ungrammatical • Contains numerous errors Answering Multiple-Choice Questions Has a well-developed thesis that fully answers the question Accurately and effectively uses virtually all documents Includes outside information on the era which effectively explains and applies to the topic and which advances the analysis of the issue Creates a solid. • Acknowledge the aspects of the other side that are true and valid. nonetheless. insignificant errors ---. and think about whether that person might be biased. • Restate your thesis. and have a thesis and outline. End your essay with a thoughtful conclusion. "What does this remind me of. either in that period. • Try to use every document. but then go on to prove. ask yourself. in other periods. Remember that any relevant information you have brainstormed about the period could be used as background. Now that you understand the question. that your side is the most reasonable. or in current events?" Or. "What does all this say about the American character or the American Dream?" Incorporate your answers to these questions in your conclusion. How DBQs are Scored DBQs in this course are scored and grouped into one of four categories: Good • • • • • • Average • Has a thesis that generally answers the question • Uses most documents accurately and effectively to prove the thesis but does not analyze as deeply as a good essay would • Acceptable outline and writing style • Includes some outside information • May contain some errors that do not ruin the overall essay Below Average • Includes a garbled.

Don't Don't Don't Don't read too much into questions. Clues • • • • • If two choices are very similar. try looking at it from a different angle. When you're reviewing the material. Studying for the AP Exam To do well on the AP Exam. try to second-guess the test writer. If two choices are opposite." "probably" or "some. Consider making up exam questions as you study. without weakening your argument. Reviewing material weekly. study guides. will drastically reduce the amount of time you'll spend relearning old material right before exam day. The answer is usually wrong (although not always). • Make a schedule for reviewing your notes. • • • . You'll need to develop a thesis or argument and support it with specific." "never. You may want to mark where you should be at different times in this portion of the test so you don't fall behind. Review the study tips on this topic (and/or do additional research on your own). you should essentially start studying for it the day you start this course.Here are a few pointers for answering multiple-choice questions: Do's • • • • • • • • • Don'ts • • • • • • Keep an eye on the time." or "none. Be suspicious of choices that seem too obvious. Here are a few general ideas on how to do this: Keep a notebook of all of your work. You should not only present arguments for or against a position but also evaluate those arguments. Take notes on material presented in the tutorials and in your reading. eliminate an answer unless you actually know what every word means. right from the beginning of the course. Review the study tips on this topic (and/or do additional research on your own)." "always. Ask yourself: • What would be a question based on this information? • What would be the correct answer? • What might be some incorrect answers? Jot the questions and answers down as you go along. As you read through the possible responses. go against your first impulse unless you're sure you were wrong. then go back and do the harder ones. Underline or highlight key words in the test questions. Before you look at the possible responses. Or." The longest or most complicated answer to a question is often correct. try restating it in your own words. probably neither one of them is the correct answer. and stick to the schedule. use your questions to test yourself. Review your notes. Answer the easy questions first. • Answer free-response questions. try to think of the answer on your own. relevant evidence. if it contains "all. You can never practice this skill too much. Then plan the structure of your essay accordingly. Be sure you can do the following: • Outline free-response questions. look for the wrong ones. one of them is probably correct. When you don't know the right answer. If a question seems hopelessly confusing or too hard. Make sure you understand what the question is asking you to do. and key terms and concepts regularly and frequently. You should also be able to acknowledge the opposing viewpoint. Read every answer. Check for negatives and other words that are there to throw you off." The answer has a good chance of being right if it contains "sometimes. cross off the ones you know are wrong.

Review the study tips on this topic (and/or do additional research on your own). . Don't wait until the last minute to study them. Know the definitions and significance of the key terms and concepts covered in the course.• Answer multiple-choice questions. Review them regularly.