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Update 56 Update 56A. Harding* by: Bruce 1.0 INTRODUCTION Surface Texture Symbols, ASME/ANSI Y14.36M-1996, defines the American National Standard symbology for expressing desired surface finishes resulting from processing solid materials. Qualitative values can be expressed for roughness, waviness and lay. The Y14.36M standard does not address the manufacturing processes required to produce a particular surface texture value, nor how it is verified. Surface texture definitions and texture verification methods are shown in ASME/ANSI B46.1-1995, Surface Texture (Surface Roughness, Waviness and Lay). Representation is as shown in Figure 1. While units expressed within these symbols should be consistent with the basic units expressed on the drawing, this and all newer ASME Y14 standards are illustrated with SI (metric) units. The “M” in the ASME Y14.36M designation is indicative of this, with SI units being the standard and preferred unit. However US customary units may be substituted where applicable and consistent with the principles shown. To that extent, the standard may be considered unitless. The use of surface texture symbology is optional. Where no surface texture symbology is used, the surface finish may be considered satisfactory if it is produced within the limits of size and form in accordance with ASME/ANSI Y14.5M-1994. When surface texture symbology is used, it is considered applicable to the finished surface of the object.
Surface Roughness Surface Texture
Section K11.2 Page 1 February 1997*
2.0 THE BASIC SYMBOL Use of the basic surface texture symbol is indicated where the surface may be produced by any method. If the surface is to be produced to net form (where material removal is prohibited), the circle symbol is added to the basic symbol. Examples of this principle include surfaces that may be produced by die casting, forging, hot finishing, cold finishing, sintering, injection molding, or other processes where no material need be removed for acceptable surface finishes. See Figure 2.
Basic symbol with material removal prohibited (net form)
Basic symbol with material removal required
Basic Surface Texture Symbol
Basic symbol with value of minimum material removal required
Figure 2. Basic surface texture symbol and variations for 1) material removal prohibited, 2) material removal allowed, and 3) material removal allowed to a minimum value
3X Text Height Expands with text length
Text Height (1X)
Figure 1. ASME/ANSI Y14.36M-1995 Surface Texture Symbol Size and Proportion
1.5X Text Height
NOTES 1.6 00 00
3X Text Height Minimum +1X for each added line of text over two 60°
* Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 47907
*Supersedes issue of November 1988
See Figure 1. the interpretation should be explained in a drawing note. Note that the use of the circle and bar modifiers are consistent with international symbols for “on” and “off.Section K11. It represents the peak-to-valley height for waviness. See Figures 3 and 4.025) (0. Prior to the issuance of ASME/ANSI B46.15 (0. a bar is added to the basic symbol over the “V.1. 4. and separated by a slash from the roughness cutoff length. etc.5 Other parameters such as evaluation length. measurement of surface texture is accomplished in the direction giving the maximum reading.1) 0.1 Roughness Average (Ra) is the principle parameter for specifying roughness.012 (0. treatment.075 (0. It is placed above the “V” on the surface texture symbol.1M-1995 standard was issued. usually across the lay. Both the value and symbol must be shown.32) (0.” 3.4 Waviness Height is the principal specification for waviness as defined in Section 1 of ASME/ANSI B46.25 (1.0 APPLICATION OF VALUES AND UNITS Only those values and specifications needed to verify the *Supersedes issue of November 1988 Table 1 Preferred Series Roughness Average Values. when the basic symbol and its variants are used without values.1M1995. tip radii. Roughness Average Ra N Ra L / Rz L Production methodology.2) 0. special ratings. 4.2) 4 5 (6. Section 9 with selection criteria listed in Section 3.1-1995. Regardless. notes.8) 1 1. 4. It is now mandatory that the roughness cutoff value be specifically stated on all drawings issued 6 months after the ASME/ANSI B46.5 (3.5 0. The preferred series roughness averages for both customary inch and metric are shown in Table 1.2 Roughness Cutoff or Sampling Width is placed under the horizontal line. callouts. etc. may be called out in a note.05) 0. Roughness Value Other than Ra Roughness cutoff or Sampling Length Lay symbol Figure 3. Parameters That May be Included in the Texture Symbol GENIUM PUBLISHING .0 MEASUREMENT Unless otherwise specified.3 Roughness parameters other than Ra are placed un-der the horizontal line and to the right of the cutoff rating for Rz. This use of implied values is no longer valid. 5. Standard values for sampling width or cutoff values for both customary inch and metric are shown in Table 2.5) 15 20 (25) Microinches (µin) . other text. See Figure 5. 4.125 0. Standard sampling ratings are defined in ASME/ANSI B46.” Further refinement to the “machining required” variation may be achieved by adding a minimum material removal value to the symbol.2 Page 2 February 1997* DRAFTING MANUAL Surface Roughness Surface Texture Update 56 Where material removal by machining is required.8 mm was implied if nothing was specified. Ra Micrometers (µm) 0. the default rating of 0.25 (0.63 (0.0 PARAMETERS SHOWN IN SURFACE TEXTURE SYMBOLS 4. 4.4) 0.3) 8 10 (12.1-1995. as defined in ASME/ANSI B46.5 (1) (2) 3 (4) 5 6 (8) 10 13 (16) 20 25 (32) 40 50 (63) 80 100 (125) 160 200 (250) 320 400 (500) 600 800 (1000) ( ) Recommended for normal use. It is placed to the right of the cutoff value.6) 2 2.
5 It is now mandatory that the Roughness Sampling Length or Cutoff rating be explicitly stated. Material removal is not allowed.6 2.10 0.2 Maximum Roughness Spacing SM is placed to right of Cutoff rating and above lay.DRAFTING MANUAL Update 56 Surface Roughness Surface Texture Section K11.5 8 25 Inches 0.6 0. usually across the lay.2 0.8). Roughness Sampling Length or Cutoff for R z (2.8 2. NOTE X 1. One value is maximum allowable.0 SYMBOL REPLACEMENT In applying surface texture symbols on a drawing. Control values are generally indicative of the direction that generates the maximum value.5) when different than R a (0.2 Page 3 February 1997* Table 2 Standard Sampling Length (Cutoff) Values Millimeters 0.08 0.003 0.5/Rz 0.030 0.5 1. 6.1-1995.010 0. the symbols are placed so that the point of the symbol is directly on a line representing the feature surface to be controlled.6 2.8 / SM 0.6 2.8 / Rz 0.6-0.8 Roughness parameter other than R a can be specified as limits.8 2.6 2. Lay specification is placed to the right of the symbol 'V'. 1. Roughness Average with upper and lower limits. Surface must be produced to net Roughness Average with no secondary processing. Samples of Surface Texture Applications GENIUM PUBLISHING *Supersedes issue of November 1988 . Material removal is allowed.25 0.6 2.5 0. 0. 1. 1. on an exten- 1.5 Roughness Average is placed above the 'V' of the symbol. The Roughness Cutoff is placed to the right and under the line. The units shown on surface texture symbols should be the same base units as the drawing.00 required surface texture characteristics should be shown in the symbol.5 1.5 2 Figure 4.30 1. "NOTE X" is used for various specifications beyond the scope of ASME/ ANSI B46.8 2.8 Material removal allowed to a minimum 2 mm is specified to left of 'V'. Units are micrometers.
2 Page 4 February 1997* DRAFTING MANUAL Surface Roughness Surface Texture Update 56 Ø8.5 B B X Y Example C Example B B 0.8 MILL 2. Example D illustrates surface texture specifications applied to only the second of a two-step process.Section K11.5 WIDTH B Example A Example A illustrates a method for limiting a surface texture specification to only part of a surface.5M-1994 symbology to constrain surface texture to areas between X and Y and A and B. However it should be noted that this example is contrary to ASME/ANSI Y14. except where such information is essential to engineering requirements.8 X 2. Figure 5.5 GRIND Example D LAP 0.2 Ø 14 12 0.5 Y A 0. Example B illustrates the requirement that the surface must be produced with a series of processes.5M-1994 which advises that parts should be designed without specifying manufacturing processes. Symbology for Special Processes and Operations *Supersedes issue of November 1988 GENIUM PUBLISHING .8 c 2. Example C uses ASME/ANSI Y14.1-8.8 A 2.
*Supersedes issue of November 1988 GENIUM PUBLISHING . Examples of Locations for Surface Texture Symbols Note that per ASME/ANSI Y14.2 2 21 12 10 5 0 0. See Figure 8 for exception to bottom reading rule.5 0.8 2.8 2.2 Page 5 February 1997* Figure 6.8 2.5 40 20 0.8 2. 38 29 0.5 40 0.5 0. This is the sole exception to the Y14.5 14 80 7 Figure 7.8 2. Basic Symbology Terms Ø20 Ø28 0.DRAFTING MANUAL Update 56 Surface Roughness Surface Texture Section K11.5M-1994.8 2.8 2.5 Ø10 0. all dimensions and symbols are read from the bottom of the drawing and none are to address hidden features.8 2 B SIZE SYMBOL HOLE Ø HOLE FINISH A 5 0. Some dimensional information omitted for clarity. Example of a Drawing with Rectangular Coordinate Dimensioning without Dimension Lines In this case dimensions and symbols may be read from the bottom and right side.5M requirement that dimensions be read from the bottom of a drawing.5 B 4 0.8 2 A 0.8 2 0 9 15 20 35 42 Figure 8.
measurement instrument travels in order to generate a represen8. or both. The RMA (root mean average) technique is also 8. is perpendicular to the nominal surface. 7. should only extend to the right of the point of the symbol.6 Lay is the orientation of tool marks or surface patterns. When baseline dimensioning is used. Nominal Surface Profile and Measured Surface Profile 8. Measured Profile Nominal Profile Figure 9. after plating.13 Roughness sampling width is the sampling width ment. See Figure 10. Texture symbols. It is measured perpendicular to the nominal surface. are aligned to their extension lines and are read from the bottom and right side of the drawing.9 Peak is the highest point above the centerline and between two valleys in a roughness sampling width. As cutoff value is a function of the measurement chosen to measure roughness characteristics separately from instrument settings and not a measured value. nominal surface.11 Roughness is the set of fine irregularities on the surface Where surface texture symbols apply to parts involving plating of solid material.16 Valley is a point of lowest depth below the centerline and surface texture. See Figure 10.14 Surface texture is the sum total of all irregularities 8. rounds. the surface texture symbol may be placed directly following the diametrical dimension. 8.5M. See Figure 10. Within mea*Supersedes issue of November 1988 GENIUM PUBLISHING .3 Flaws are interruptions in the surface topology. notes or specifications should indicate if the surface by the manufacturing processes used to produce the surface. greater than the roughness sampling width but within the 8. surement capability.0 THE EXTENSION LEG The horizontal line of the symbol. it does not characteristics designated as waviness. should be oriented so that they are read from the bottom of the drawing. It is measured parallel to the nominal surface. 8. See Figure 10. It is measured parallel require a tolerance. The chosen value should include all surface to the nominal surface.7 Measured profile is the profile of the surface topography waviness sampling width. the texture symbol affects the entire surface as defined by the dimensions. waviness.2 Cutoff is a value dictated by the response characteristics of used and will generate different results. the transitional area conforms to the roughest adjacent finish unless otherwise specified. and unexpected deviations from the random. It may include flaws and tool marks caused or coating.17 Waviness is the more widely spaced measure of the 8. texture value applies before plating. It is the arithmetic average 8. Flaws often are included in roughness 8. such as fillets. Roughness may also include traverse feed marks within the sample width. See Figure 6.4 Form. if used.5 Height is the inward or outward linear measurement which surface. it is a faithful representation of the actual surface.2 Page 6 February 1997* DRAFTING MANUAL Surface Roughness Surface Texture Update 56 sion line of the surface. theoretical or intended profile of the surface topology as expressed by the engineering drawing.8 Nominal profile is the normal. above and below the centerline of valleys when the area of the peaks and the area of the valleys is the sample width. texture symbols. Where transitions from one feature to another are shown. 8. The exception is where the drawing is dimensioned using baseline dimensioning without dimension lines as per ASME/ ANSI Y14. or on a leaderline pointing to the surface. irregularities being ascertained. Error of. See Figures 7 and 8. and chamfers. it is desirable for surface texture symbol to be shown in a view where the surface being controlled is shown in profile. between two peaks.0 TERMINOLOGY RELATED TO SURFACE TEXTURE 8. See Figure 10. the selected spacing limits of the roughness measuring instru8.Section K11. like other dimensions. See Figure 10.1 Centerline is the graphical center between peaks and of the sum of the deviations. It is measured perpendicular to the nominal surface. They are caused by roughness. is considered to be a more substantial tative sample. When the feature being controlled is a diameter. unwanted.15 Traverse width is the sampling width the stylus of the measurement. Deviations are measured perpendicular to the equal. It is measured perpendicular to the nominal 8.12 Roughness Average is also known as arithmetic average (AA) and centerline average (CLA). 8. Unless otherwise specified. centerline. as with other dimensions and symbols. deviation from the nominal surface but is not included in 8. 8. and flaws. 8.10 Peak-to-valley height is the sum of the maximum measurement from peak to centerline plus the maximum measurement from centerline to the valley. If practical. Waviness may be caused by process as produced and measured by instrumentation. It may be regular or unintentional. It surface topology. Waviness usually includes all irregularities is dictated by the production processes employed. See Figure 9.
DRAFTING MANUAL Update 56 Surface Roughness Surface Texture Section K11. Surface Characteristics GENIUM PUBLISHING *Supersedes issue of November 1988 .2 Page 7 February 1997* Typical T ransversin g Width Flaws Waviness Height Waviness Width Lay Roughne ss Average R a Peaks Roughne ss Width Valleys Roug Sampling hness Length or Cu Centerline toff Figure 10.
It is measured parallel to the nominal surface. For instance. peripheral speed.19 Waviness sampling width is the sampling width chosen to measure waviness characteristics separately from irregularities designated as roughness. 8. 10. with 1. It is measured perpendicular to the nominal surface. heat treatment. See Figure 10. A minor change in any factor may have a profound effect on the roughness of the surface produced. and even degree of dress of the wheel. and the placement for each symbol inside the surface texture symbol. Roughness may be thought of as being superimposed on a waviness surface.18 Waviness height is peak-to-valley height of the derived profile once deviations due to roughness and flaws are removed. the definition for each. lubrication.3 to 0.Section K11. traverse speed and feed rate of the grinding wheel.025 µm. 9. See Figure 10. roughness values depend on a number of factors. etc.2 Page 8 February 1997* DRAFTING MANUAL Surface Roughness Surface Texture Update 56 anomalies such as vibration. However. bonding material used.10 µm in the average range. See Figure 10. deflection. Even given a specific process.0 LAY SYMBOLS AND THEIR MEANINGS Shown in Figure 11 are the seven standard lay symbols. 8. tool chatter. surface grinding shown in Table 3 indicates a range of anywhere from 6.6 to 0. *Supersedes issue of November 1988 GENIUM PUBLISHING .0 PREFERRED SURFACE ROUGHNESS Typical surface roughness values vary widely depending on the processes employed. factors influencing the ultimate roughness value achievable include: the mechanical properties of the material itself. distortion.
A A Section A-A X M C Angular lay orientation in both directions relative to the surface in the view displaying the surface texture symbol. A A M Section A-A Circular lay orientation relative to the center of the surface displaying the surface texture symbol. non-directional.2 Page 9 February 1997* February 1997 Symbol Meaning Radial lay orientation relative to the center of the surface displaying the surface texture symbol. A A C Section A-A Parallel lay orientation relative to the surface in the view displaying the surface texture symbol. or protuberant lay orientation relative to the surface displaying the surface texture symbol. A A X Section A-A Multidirectional lay orientation relative to the surface in the view displaying the surface texture symbol. A A Section A-A P Particulate. Lay Symbols and Their Meaning GENIUM PUBLISHING *Supersedes issue of November 1988 . Direction of tool marks R A A R Section A-A Perpendicular orientation relative to the surface in the view displaying the surface texture symbol. A A P Section A-A Figure 11.DRAFTING MANUAL Update 56 Surface Roughness Surface Texture Section K11.
*Supersedes issue of November 1988 6.3 250 3.Section K11.40 0. Higher or lower values may be obtained under special conditions.2 Page 10 February 1997* 1997 DRAFTING MANUAL Surface Roughness Surface Texture Update 56 Table 3 Surface Roughness Produced by Common Manufacturing Processes Micrometer (µm) >> 50 25 12.6 63 0.80 0.05 0.025 0. mold casting Extruding Investment casting Cold rolling Drawing Die casting Average Application Less Frequent Application Ranges shown are typical.2 125 1.10 0.012 32 16 8 4 2 1 .5 Microinch (µin) >> 2000 1000 500 Flame cutting Snagging Sawing Planing Shaping Drilling Chemical milling EDM Milling Broaching Reaming Electron beam Laser Electrocheical Boring Turning Barrel finishing Electrolytic grinding Roller burnishing Grinding Honing Electropolishing Polishing Lapping Superfinishing Sand casting Hot rolling Forging Perm.20 0.50 GENIUM PUBLISHING .
numerous individual standards taken as a whole form a set of standards roughly comparable in scope to American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14. ISO standards on a particular topic often do not carry sequential numbers. Definitions of flaws and imperfections are discussed in ISO 8785. No more than 16% of all measured values of the selected parameter within the evaluation length may be less than the lower limit. sintering. Indiana 47907 Although ISO standards are expressed in metric units with commas for decimal points. wear resistance.3 Page 1 July 1999 1. users. the 16% rule may be overridden. errors of form such as out-ofroundness and out-of-flatness are not addressed in the ISO surface finish standards. 3. See Figure 2. waviness.36M). This and all ISO standards are expressed in SI metric units. For instance: • ISO 468:1982 Surface roughness — Parameters: Their values and general rules for specifying requirements. roughness comparison specimens. MAX must be added to the parametric symbol in the surface finish symbology on the drawing. sub-surface microstructure.36M (See Section K11.0 ISO RULES FOR COMPARING MEASURED VALUES TO SPECIFIED LIMITS 3. Effectively this means that the greater the value of s.DRAFTING MANUAL Update 61 by B. Harding* Update 61 ISO Surface Finish Designations and Differences from ANSI 2. and many other characteristics that may govern considerations in specific applications.3 Exceptions to the 16% Rule Where the measured values of roughness profiles being inspected follow a normal distribution. In the case of surface finish. etc. 2.S. See Table 1 for a list of all current ISO surface parameter symbols and Figure 3 for examples of symbology applications. • ISO 4287:1997 Surface texture: Profile method — Terms. which in turn reference other standards or other parts of the same standard.0 TREATMENT OF SURFACE FINISH SYMBOLOGY ISO standards are published in a different fashion than American National standards in that they are written as smaller focused documents (often called parts). The parameters in ISO surface finish standards relate to surfaces produced by abrading. Surface texture characteristics may also be specified as both “before” and “after” surface treatment. As with American National Standard ASME Y14. are specified on the symbology. color. surface integrity.0 ISO STANDARDS The primary ISO standard dealing with surface finish. in the United States if clearly indicated in a note. the ISO surface finish symbol is similar to the ANSI symbol. U. casting.g.1 ISO 1302 This standard defines how surface texture and its constituents.2 Units Section K11. The ISO 1302 standard does not define the degrees of surface roughness and waviness or type of lay for specific purposes. ISO 1302 is not concerned with luster. GENIUM PUBLISHING .1 Max Rule When a maximum requirement is specified for a surface finish parameter on a drawing (e. etching. none of the inspected values may extend beyond the upper limit over the entire surface.2 for complete coverage on ANSI/ASME Y14. as could periods (. nor are they in consecutive series. • ISO 8785:1998 Surface imperfections — Terms. 3.3 Appearance Visually.. corrosion resistance. • ISO 4288:1996 Surface texture: Profile method — Rules and procedures for the assessment of surface texture.5 max). *Purdue University West Lafayette. This is allowed when greater than 16% of the measured values exceed the upper limit. To add to the confusion of U. and lay. hardness. • ISO 10135-1:CD Representation of parts produced by shaping processes — Part 1: Molded parts. with commas (. the further µ must be from the upper limit. definitions and surface texture parameters. 2. 3. customary units could be used. no more than 16% of all measured values of the selected parameter within the evaluation length may exceed the upper limit. nor does it specify the means by which any degree of such irregularities may be obtained or produced. erosion.) for decimal points.) used as decimal points. definitions and parameters. ISO 1302 references ISO 4288:1996 specifications for precision reference specimens.36M.2 16% Rule When upper and lower limits are specified. but the total roughness profile conforms with the sum of the arithmetic mean and standard deviation (µ + s). but not directly discussed in the ISO 1302 standard. Surface defects are specifically excluded from consideration during inspection of surface texture. cutting. but the proportions of the symbol in relationship to text height differs from ANSI as do some of the parameters. Other ISO standards are referenced for constituent provisions. Annex sections are included in most ISO standards for clarification or informational purposes only and are not considered a part of the standards. wear. and establishes requirements for stylus-type instruments. Also. roughness. coating. 2. See Figure 4. ISO 1302:1992 is concerned with the methods of specifying surface texture symbology and additional indications on engineering drawings. Rz1.S. See Figure 1. and unlike the numbering scheme used by ANSI. appearance. plastic deformation.
5 7 15 7 0. ISO Surface Texture Symbol and its Placement and Size Specifications Chromium plated a2 a1 Figure 2.3 Page 2 July 1999 DRAFTING MANUAL ISO Surface Finish Designations and Differences from ANSI Update 61 Basic symbol for surface under consideration or to a specification explained elsewhere in a note Roughness value in micrometers preceded by parameter symbol Production method a d b c/f Roughness value other than Ra (micrometers) In future versions of 1302. all roughness values will be allowed at location 'a' only e Machine allowance Basic symbol for a surface to be machined Basic symbol for material removal prohibited and left in the state from a previous manufacturing process Surface pattern Waviness height preceded by parametric symbol or sampling length (millimeters) a2 x' x b c / f1 d f2 h d' a1 e Basic symbol with all round circle added Text height h (ISO 3098-1) Line width for symbols d and d ' Height for segment x Height for symbol segment x ' 2.7 10 21 10 1 14 30 14 1.5 8 3.2 20 42 20 2 28 60 Figure 1.Section K11.5 0.25 3.5 0. ISO Technique for Applying Surface Texture Symbols to Indicate Parameters Before and After Surface Treatment Ø GENIUM PUBLISHING .35 5 11 5 0.
8 2x45˚ Figure 3.5/Rz 16 2.3 X milled 5 Rz 6. Surface roughness is produced by grinding to Ra = 1.8 mm. Surface is nickel-chrome plated to roughness of Ra = 3.8 µm.5 mm.6 Ra 0. Examples of ISO Applications of Surface Texture Symbology GENIUM PUBLISHING O45 Surface texture symbology may be applied to extended extension lines or on extended projection lines.2 µm and limited to Ry = 6.5 mm. direction of lay is perpendicular relative to the plane of projection.3 Surface texture symbology may be combined with dimension leaders and witness (extension) lines. Surface treatment without any machining. Ra0. Surface roughness of Rz = 6. nickelchrome plated to Rz = 1 µm on all surfaces.2 Fe/Ni20pCrr Rz 1 Ra 3.3 MAX Ra0. limited to Rz = 16 µm to Rz = 6.8 Rz 40 40˚ 3 .3 Page 3 July 1999 Interpretation Surface roughness is produced by milling and between upper limit of Ra = 50 µm and Ra = 6.3 max.2 Fe/Ni10bCrr 0.3 µm with a sampling length of 2.8 Ra0. sampling length is 5 mm.DRAFTING MANUAL Update 61 ISO Surface Finish Designations and Differences from ANSI Section K11. sampling length is 2.8 2.3 µm is the default for all surfaces except the inside diameter which is Ra = 0. Example Ra 50 Ra 6.4/Ry 6. 1 Ra R .2 µm with a sampling length of 0.5/Rz 6.8 Ra 1.3 ( ) ground 2.3 µm. direction of lay is crossed in oblique directions relative to plane of projection.
Section K11.3 Page 4 July 1999 DRAFTING MANUAL ISO Surface Finish Designations and Differences from ANSI Update 61 Interpretation Example Rz 40 Surface texture symbology and dimensions may be combined on leader lines. it is considered valid for both the extended radii and chamfers.2 Ground Ry1. .6 Where only one roughness symbol is shown.continued GENIUM PUBLISHING O45 Symbology can be used for dimensional information and surface treatment. Built-up surface Ground Fe/Cr50 Ry6.6 30 Figure 3. The symbol may be expanded with additional lines for textual information where there is insufficient room on the drawings. Examples of ISO Applications of Surface Texture Symbology . 3xO5 R3 Ra1.
0 BASIC RULES FOR DETERMINING CUT-OFF WAVELENGTH When the sampling length is specified on the drawing or in documentation.006) < Ra ≤ 0.1 0. Rz1max or RSm. etc. Rt. the cut-off wavelength lc is equal to the sample length. TABLE 3 Roughness Sampling Lengths for Rz. Rz1max or RSm are first estimated using visual inspection.3 Page 5 July 1999 TABLE 1 Current ISO Surface Texture Parameters Parameter Max height profile Max profile valley depth Max height of profile Mean height of profile Total height of profile Arithmetic mean deviation of profile Root mean square deviation of profile Skewness of profile Kurtosis of profile Mean width of profile Root mean square slope of profile Material ratio of profile Profile section height difference Sampling length—primary profile Sampling length—waviness profile Sampling length—roughness profile Evaluation length Ordinate value Local slope Profile peak height Profile valley depth Profile element height Profile element width Material length of profile Symbol (ISO 4287:1997) Rp Rv Rz* Rc Rt Ra Rq Rsk Rku RSm R∆q Rmr Rδc lp lw lr ln Z(x) dZ/dX Zp Zv Zt XL Ml 2 1 Upper limit of surface texture parameter 1 2 Figure 4. and Curves for Non-periodic Profiles Such as Ground Surfaces Rz.5 8 Roughness Evaluation Length (ln) mm 0.4 1.0 BASIC RULES FOR MEASUREMENT OF ROUGHNESS PARAMETERS For non-periodic roughness the parameters Ra. graphic analysis. Rz1max ≤ 50 50 < Rz.25 08 2. Rz1max ≤ 200 Roughness Sampling Length (Ir) mm 0. Rz. with instrumentation.1 < Rz.08 0. Roughness Parameter Value Curves Showing Mean and Standard Deviation TABLE 2 Roughness Sampling Lengths for Ra. the cut-off wavelength is estimated using Tables 2-4.025) < Rz. Rq. comparison to specimens. Rz1max ≤ 0.5 8 Roughness Evaluation Length (In) mm 04 1. 5.02 < Ra ≤ 0. a representative sample is taken using the sampling length chosen above. Rz1max ≤ 10 10 < Rz.5 < Rz.1 < Ra ≤ 2 2 < Ra ≤ 10 10 < Ra ≤ 80 Roughness Sampling Length (lr) mm 0.25 4 12 5 40 GENIUM PUBLISHING .8 2. The sampling length is then selected from Tables 2 to 4. Rz1max µm (0. and Curves for Non-periodic Profiles Such as Ground Surfaces Ra µm (0. Rz1max ≤ 0.5 0. Rv. Rsk.DRAFTING MANUAL Update 61 ISO Surface Finish Designations and Differences from ANSI Section K11. Then.5 40 4.08 0.25 4 12. based on the use of Ra. Rp. When no sampling length is specified. Rku.02 0. Rz. Rc. R∆q.25 0.1 0.
Rz1max or RSm values are correct.3 1.25 08 25 8 Roughness Evaluation Length (ln) mm 04 1.4 0. This practice is now obsolete.4 0.25 4 12. For periodic roughness.013 < RSm ≤ 0. a roughness grade was specified. Other sampling length parameters could be: primary sampling length (lp) or roughness sampling length (lr). the parameter RSm is estimated graphically. the measuring instrument is adjusted for the next higher or lower sampling length and the measurement repeated. 5. See Table 5 for a cross reference between preferred roughness and the prior practice using roughness grade. but is still specified by some users.13 < RSm ≤ 0. If the value is outside the range of values for the estimated sampling length.5 40 TABLE 5 Preferred Roughness Values and Roughness Grades Roughness Values Ra ISO Grade Number from previous version of ISO 1302 N 12 N11 N10 N9 N8 N7 N6 N5 N4 N3 N2 N1 RSm µm 0.8 0.08 0.4 < RSm ≤ 1.3 3.3 Page 6 July 1999 DRAFTING MANUAL ISO Surface Finish Designations and Differences from ANSI Update 61 TABLE 4 Roughness Sampling Lengths for R-Parameters and RSm Curves for Periodic and Non-periodic Profiles Roughness Sampling Length (lr) mm 0. If the final setting corresponds to that found in Table 4. Sampling Length (lw) (lw) (lw) (lw) (lw) Evaluation Length (ln) Figure 5. 3 or 4.2 0.04 < RSm ≤ 013 0.05 0.Section K11.025 µin 2000 1000 500 250 125 63 32 16 8 4 2 1 The measured values are then compared to the ranges of values in Tables 2 to 4 for the particular parameter. the measuring instrument is adjusted for the next higher or lower sampling length and the measurement repeated.1 0. then both the sampling length setting and Ra. and a representative measurement of the parameter can be taken. and the recommended cut-off values selected using Table 4.1 Prior Practice Prior to the adoption of current preferred roughness specification.2 1. Relationship Between Evaluation Length (ln) and Sampling Length. then both the sampling length setting and RSm values are correct.6 0. GENIUM PUBLISHING . using Waviness (lw) as an Example.5 6. If the final setting corresponds to that of Table 2.04 0. Rz. If the value is outside the range of values for the estimated sampling length.3 < RSm ≤ 4 µm 50 25 12. and a representative measurement of the parameter can be taken.
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