CHAPTER SUMMARIES Book Title : Ronald J. Burke and Caryl L. Cooper (2006). Inspiring Leaders.

New York : Routledge. Chapter Summaries : Chapter 1 : Inspiring Leaders : An Introduction : Chapter 4 : Authentic Leadership : A New Approach For A New Time : ‘Chapter 7: Leadership and Emotional Intelligence Chapter 1 : Inspiring Leaders : An Introduction By Ronald J. Burke Leadership is a process of inducing others to take action toward a common goal (Locke, 1991). Leaders can defines as individuals who establish direction or a working group of individuals, who gain commitment from these group members to this direction and who then motivate these members to achieve the direction’s outcomes (Conger, 1992). According to Avolio(1999), leadership does not and should not directly impact performance directly but rather indirectly. Most leadership influence in organizations is indirect which leader’s personality can affects the culture and processes of the top team and might be influences organization performance (Hambrick,1994). Locke(1991) developed a basic model of leadership based on four elements : (1.) Motives and traits (2.) Knowledge, skills and abilities of the leader (3.) Vision (4.) Implementation of the vision. Leading and managing is different. Leaders establishes the vision (set purpose, mission, strategy) while manager implements the vision. Management is about coping with complexity while leadership is about coping with change. Managing consists of planning, budgeting, organization, staffing, controlling, and problem solving while leading consists of setting a direction for change, aligning people, motivating people n creating a culture of leadership (Kotter,1990). Two mains activities that leaders do are create an agenda for change (vision and strategy) and build a strong implementation network (a strongly motivated core group). There are three forces appear to operate in the development of leaders (1) Genetics (2) Childhood dynamics within families (3) Early life experiences and work experiences. Personel growth, conceptual analysis,

feedback and skill development are the four approaches to leadership development. Leadership training should incorporate elements of all four approaches to become effective. Effective leadership are associated with intelligence and emotions. Therefore, emotional intelligence is the foundation to the effective leadership. Salovey and mayer (1990) suggest five abilities in their definition of emotional intelligence; knowing one’s emotions, managing emotions, marshalling emotions, recognizing emotions in others and handling relationships. These 5 dimensions were similar to those put forward by Salovey and Mayer (1990) ; Self – awareness, self-regulations, motivation, empathy and social skills. The character of behaviour will show the style of leadership such as Authentic leadership. Authentic leaders are those individuals who are deeply aware of how they think and behave and are perceived by others as being aware of their own and others values / moral perspective, knowledge and strengths; aware of the context in which they operate; and who are confident, hopeful, optimistic, resilient and high on moral character. In others word Authentic leaders are those who have the qualities of emotional intelligence --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chapter 4 : Authentic Leadership : A New Approach For A New Time By Fred Luthans, Steve Norman and Larry Hughes. Authenticity is defined as owning one’s personel experiences (i.e., thought, emotions, needs, wants, preferences or beliefs (Harter,2002). They also involves acting in accordance with the true self (expressing true thoughts and beliefs and acting accordingly). Kernis,2003 defines authenticity as ‘the unobstructed operation of one’s true, or core, self in one’s daily enterprise. Four components of authenticity : (1) Selfawareness (2) Self regulations (3) Unbiased processing (4) Relational transparency. Self-awareness including self-knowledge is an important determinant of psychological well-being. Kernis(2003) describes self-awareness as having awareness of, and trust in, one’s motives, feelings, desires and self-relevant cognitions. Self-awareness implies an

awareness of one’s strengths and weaknesses. There are four components in selfawareness (1) Values :- guide the way of social actors(i.e., : organizational leaders), select actions, evaluate people and events and explain their actions and evaluations. (2) Identity :- personel identities and social identities. Personal identities based on one’s unique characteristics, traits and attributes. Social identities based on individual classifies oneself as being a member of certain social groups, assessment of the emotional and value significance of the membership. (3) Emotions :- aware of emotions and understand the influence of such emotions to cognitive process and decision making capabilities. (4) Motive/goals :- set goals, expressed vision and attaining goal. Self regulations involves self-control through (a) setting of internal standards (b) evaluation of discrepancies between standards and outcomes (c) identification on intended actions for resolving the discrepancies (Stajkovic and Luthans,1998b). Selfdetermination theory is associated with internalized regulatory processes. There are three fundamental need of self-determination theory (1) autonomy (2) relatedness (3) competence. Unbiased processing refers to an absence of denials, distortions, exaggeration, or ignorance of internal experiences, private knowledge and external evaluations of the self that characterize a subjective view of the self. In other word, balanced processing is considering how people with low or fragile high self-esteem, are motivated to select and interpret information(Kernis,2003). Relational transparency plays an important role in authentic leadership. Gardner(2005) propose that authentic leaders will be relatively transparent in expressing their true emotions and feelings to followers, helping followers see both positive and negative aspects of their true self. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chapter 7 : Leadership and Emotional Intelligence By Cary Cherniss Emotional intelligence is the foundation for many of the qualities associated with effective leadership. Emotional intelligence can be define as the ability to perceive

and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion and regulate emotion in the self and others. Emotional competence framework can be divide into to components (1) Personal competence (2) Social competence. Personal competence determine how leaders manage his own emotion and social competences determine how leaders handle a relationship with others. Four basic dimensions of emotional intelligence are (1) Self-awareness (2) Self-management (3) Social awareness (4) Relationship management. Emotional intelligence has become even more important for leadership because it can increasing cultural diversity, manage conflicts and emotions. Leader needs first to control his own emotional reactions and able to read and understand the emotions of others(empathy). To inspire their followers, leaders must create emotional responses in those followers.

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