Spread Spectrum Technologies

(1 September, 2006)

February 2005

Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved

1

Objectives
Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to:

q Define spread spectrum technologies and how they are used q Describe modulation and the different data rates q Explain and compare FHSS, DSSS and OFDM q List the factors that impact signal throughput and range

February 2005

Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved

2

Spread Spectrum
q Spread spectrum is a communication technique that spreads a narrowband communication signal over a wide range of frequencies for transmission then de-spreads it into the original data bandwidth at the receive. q Spread spectrum is characterized by: wide bandwidth and low power q Jamming and interference have less effect on Spread spectrum because it is: Resembles noise Hard to detect Hard to intercept
February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 3

Narrowband vs Spread Spectrum
Narrowband (High Peak Power)

Power

Spread Spectrum (Low Peak Power)

Frequency
February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 4

Narrow Band vs Spread Spectrum
q Narrow Band Uses only enough frequency spectrum to carry the signal High peak power Easily jammed q Spread Spectrum The bandwidth is much wider than required to send to the signal. Low peak power Hard to detect Hard to intercept
February 2005

Difficult to jam

Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved

5

Spread Spectrum Use q In the 1980s FCC implemented a set of rules making Spread Spectrum available to the public. Cordless Telephones Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Cell Phones Personal Communication Systems Wireless video cameras q Local Area Networks Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN) February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 6 .

11b. Part 15 was modified to allow alternative "digital modulation techniques". This resulted in 802.4 GHz. Medical (ISM) band.11a. 802.4 GHz range February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 7 . 2001 CFR. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and Direct Sequence spread Spectrum (DSSS) q Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) was not covered by the CFR and would have required licensing.11 and 802. thus 802.11g which employs OFDM in the 2. employing OFDM. was created to work in the 5GHz Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) q In May.FCC Specifications q The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 15 originally only described two spread spectrum techniques to be used in the licensed free Industrial. Scientific. 2.

upon the speed of transmission. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)  Operates in the 2.  Operates in the 2. Gold.  A predetermined pseudorandom pattern  Fast Setting frequency synthesizers.4 Ghz range  Rapid frequency switching – 2.5 hops per second w/ a dwell time of 400ms.11a divides each channel into 52 low-speed sub-channels V 48 sub-channels are for data while the other 4 are pilot carriers. QPSK or QAM depending Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 8 . p Barker.Wireless LAN Networks q Wireless LANs RF spread spectrum management techniques Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS). p A Chipping code is a bit sequence consisting of a redundant bit pattern. M-sequence and Kasami codes are employed Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)  Operates in both the 5 Ghz and 2.  802.4 GHz range  Digital Data signal is inserted into a higher data rate chipping code. February 2005  The modulation scheme can be either BPSK.4 GHz range with a data rate of between 6 and 54 Mbps.

ham radio and Avalanche transceivers. vehicle radar systems. Televisions. Radio astronomy. military systems. police radios. GPS.3 MHz 3 MHz . satellite communications. ham radio. CB radios. networks and cordless phones. CAP. Radio Astronomy.30 kHz 30 kHz . Radio telephone. wireless SHF EHF February 2005 Range 10 kHz .2.328. Cordless phones. business cellular phones.30 GHz 30 GHz and above Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved .FCC Radio Spectrum Band Name VLF LF MF HF and VHF Cars.6 MHz . Aircraft navigation.6 MHZ 328. Doppler weather radar. police and business radios.30 MHz 30 MHz .300 kHz 300 kHz . fire radios. UHF radios. RC Aircraft.9 GHz .9 GHz Usage Cable Locating Equipment Maritime Mobile Service. 9 2. paging.

7 .2Ghz 5.5-10.2. Scientific and Medical February 2005 5.Industrial.8 Ghz 3.5.425 Ghz 8-12 Ghz 9.11b) C-Band C-Band Satellite downlink C-Band Radar (weather) 2.25 .5 Ghz 4 .4.4 Ghz S-Band ISM (802.925 Ghz C-Band ISM (802.7 Ghz Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 10 .875 Ghz 5.928 Mhz 2 .7-17.11a) C-Band satellite uplink X-Band X-Band Radar (police/weather) Ku-band Ku-band Radar (Police) ISM .5-15 Ghz 15.925-6.55 Ghz 12-18 Ghz 13.5.4 .725 .ISM Frequency Bands UHF ISM S-Band 902 .

FHSS February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 11 .

During Hop Time the carrier hops to the next frequency.4 GHz ISM band. The carrier hops through this lists of frequencies. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 12 .Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum q Carrier changes frequency (HOPS) according to a pseudorandom Sequence. The carrier then repeats this pattern. During Dwell Time the carrier remains at a certain frequency. Pseudorandom sequence is a list of frequencies. The data is spread over 83 MHz in the 2. This signal is resistant but not immune to narrow band interference.

401 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Elapsed Time in Millisecond s (ms) Channel 1 February 2005 Channel 2 Channel 78 13 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved .479 Divided into 79 1 MHz Channels 2.Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum An Example of a Co-located Frequency Hopping System Transmission Freq uency (G Hz) 2.

11 FHSS standard supports 1 and 2 Mbps data rate. FHSS hops between channels at a minimum rate of 2. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 14 . Each hop must cover at least 6 MHz The hopping channels for the US and Europe are shown below.480 GHz frequency range in the ISM band.FHSS Contd q The original 802.5 times per second. FHSS uses the 2.402 – 2. It splits the band into 79 non-overlapping channels with each channel 1 MHz wide.

Shorter dwell time = less throughput q Hop Time Is measured in microseconds (us) and is generally around 200-300 us. Longer dwell time = greater throughput.FHSS Contd q Dwell Time The Dwell time per frequency is around 100 ms (The FCC specifies a dwell time of 400 ms per carrier frequency in any 30 second time period). February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 15 .

fd1 February 2005 fc fc + fd1 fc + fd2 16 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved . 00 01 11 10 fc – fd2 fc . is represented by a different frequency (2 level GFSK) two symbols can be represented by four frequencies (4 level GFSK). Each symbol. A Gaussian filter smoothes the abrupt jumps between frequencies.FHSS Contd q Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying The FHSS Physical sublayer modulates the data stream using Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK). a zero and a one.

FHSS Disadvantages q Not as fast as a wired Lan or the newer WLAN Standards q Lower throughput due to interference. FHSS is subject to interference from other frequencies in the ISM band because it hops across the entire frequency spectrum. it is prohibitively expensive. however. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 17 . q Adjacent FHSS access points can synchronize their hopping sequence to increase the number of colocated systems.

DSSS February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 18 .

q There are two major types of spread spectrum techniques: FHSS and DSSS. DSSS spreads the signal by adding redundant bits to the signal prior to transmission which spreads the signal across 22 Mhz. Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 19 .  The process of adding redundant information to the signal is called Processing Gain .  The redundant information bits are called Pseudorandom February 2005 Numbers (PN).Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum q Spread spectrum increases the bandwidth of the signal compared to narrow band by spreading the signal. FHSS spreads the signal by hopping from one frequency to another across a bandwidth of 83 Mhz.

 The higher processing gain (more chips) increases the signal's resistance to interference by spreading it across a greater number of frequencies.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum q DSSS works by combining information bits (data signal) with higher data rate bit sequence (pseudorandom number (PN)). q The PN is also called a Chipping Code (eg. the Barker chipping code) qThe bits resulting from combining the information bits with the chipping code are called chips . February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 20 ..  Doubling the chipping speed doubles the signal spread and the required bandwidth.which is then transmitted.the result. The number of chips in the chipping code equates to the signal spreading ratio.  IEEE has set their minimum processing gain to 11.

Signal Spreading The Spreader employs an encoding scheme (Barker or Complementary Code Keying (CCK). The spread signal is then modulated by a carrier employing either Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying (DBPSK). or Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK). February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 21 . The Correlator reverses this process in order to recover the original data.

406 – 2.429 (2.423 (2. q Each channels is a contiguous band of frequencies 22 Mhz wide with each channel separated by 5 MHz. however. q Only Channels 1.417 plus/minus 11 Mhz). Channel 1 = 2. 6 and 11 do not overlap February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 22 .401 – 2. Channel 2 = 2.412 plus/minus 11 Mhz).DSSS Channels q Fourteen channels are identified. the FCC specifies only 11 channels for non-licensed (ISM band) use in the US.

the signal is attenuated 50 dB.Spectrum Mask q A spectrum Mask represents the maximum power output for the channel at various frequencies. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 23 . q From the center channel frequency. q From the center channel frequency. ± 11 MHz and ± 22 MHZ the signal must be attenuated 30 dB. outside ± 22 MHZ.

437 GHz Channel 11 2. etc. Channels 2 and 7. q DSSS systems with overlapping channels in the same physical space would cause interference between systems. Co-located DSSS systems should have frequencies which are at least 5 channels apart.412 GHz Channel 6 2.g. e. Channels 1. 6 and 11 are the only theoretically non-overlapping channels. Channels 1 and 6..DSSS Frequency Assignments q The Center DSSS frequencies of each channel are only 5 Mhz apart but each channel is 22 Mhz wide therefore adjacent channels will overlap. 25 MHz 25 MHz Channel 1 2.462 GHz February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 24 .

DSSS Non-overlapping Channels Each channel is 22 MHz wide. Channel 1 2. The transmitter spreads the signal sequence across the 22 Mhz wide channel so only a few chips will be impacted by interference.473 GHz Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 25 . P 3 MHz 22 MHz A maximum of three channels may be co-located (as shown) without overlap (interference). In order for two bands not to overlap (interfere).401 GHz February 2005 Channel 6 Channel 11 f 2. there must be five channels between them.

DSSS Encoding and Modulation February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 26 .

11b) employs two types of encoding schemes and two types of modulation schemes depending upon the speed of transmission.5 Mbps  Maps 8 data bits into a unique redundant 8 bits for 11 Mbps. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 27 . q Encoding Schemes Barker Chipping Code: Spreads 1 data bit across 11 redundant bits at both 1 Mbps and 2 Mbps Complementary Code Keying (CCK):  Maps 4 data bits into a unique redundant 8 bits for 5.DSSS Encoding and Modulation q DSSS (802. Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK): Four phase shifts with each phase shift representing two bits. q Modulation Schemes Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying (DBPSK): Two phase shifts with each phase shift representing one transmitted bit.

DSSS Encoding February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 28 .

A zero bit corresponds to an eleven bit sequence of six 1s. is modulo-2 (XOR) added to the eleven bit Barker sequence. A one bit corresponds to an eleven bit sequence of six 0s.  The Barker sequence has six 1s and five 0s.  If a zero is encoded all bits stay the same.  If a one is encoded all the bits change. q Reception.Barker Chipping Code q 802.11 adopted an 11 bit Barker chipping code. 1 and 0. 10110111000. Each data bit. q Transmission. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 29 . The Barker sequence. was chosen to spread each 1 and 0 signal.

Barker Sequence (Barker Sequence) 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 Chipping Code 10110111000 Original Data 1 One Bit 0 One Bit Spread Data 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 Six 0s = 1 February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved Six 1s = 0 30 .

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Contd February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 31 .

 At 11 Mbps. 4 bits of incoming data is mapped into a unique 8 bit chipping pattern. The 8 chipping bit pattern is generated based upon the data to be transmitted.Complementary Code Keying (CCK) q Barker encoding along with DBPSK and DQPSK modulation schemes allow 802.5 and 11 Mbps. 8 bits of data is mapped into a unique 8 bit chipping pattern.  At 5. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 32 .5 Mbps.11b to transmit data at 1 and 2 Mbps q Complementary Code Keying (CCK) allows 802. q CCK employs an 8 bit chipping code.11b to transmit data at 5.

b1. b3 b2 and b3 determine the unique pattern of the 8 bit CCK chipping code. The data bit pattern is: b0. q The unique 8 chipping bits is determined by the bit pattern of the 4 data bits to be transmitted. b2.5 Mbps 4 data bits is mapped into 8 CCK chipping bits. and appears on the imaginary or quadrature axis of the complex plane.Complementary Code Keying (CCK) Contd q To transmit 5. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 33 . Note: j represents the imaginary number.. sqrt(-1).

February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 34 . b3 b0 and b1 determine the DQPSK phase rotation that is to be applied to the chip sequence..Complementary Code Keying (CCK) Contd qTo transmit 5. qThe unique 8 chipping bits is determined by the bit pattern of the 4 data bits to be transmitted. b2.5 Mbps 4 data bits is mapped into 8 CCK chipping bits. Each phase change is relative to the last chip transmitted. The data bit pattern is: b0. b1.

b5. b3.b7 b2. b4. b0 and b1 are used to select the phase rotation sequence. b4 . b6 .Complementary Code Keying (CCK) Contd q To transmit 11 Mbps 8 data bits is mapped into 8 CCK chipping bits. b2. b6 and b7 selects one unique pattern of the 8 bit CCK chipping code out of 64 possible sequences.b5. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 35 . The data bit pattern is: b0. b3. q The unique 8 chipping bits is determined by the bit pattern of the 8 data bits to be transmitted. b1.

DSSS Modulation February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 36 .

Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying (DBPSK) Previous carrier symbol A Zero phase shift from the previous symbol is interpreted as a 0. 0 Phase Shift A 180 degree phase shift from the previous symbol is interpreted as a 1. 180 degree Phase Shift 180 degree Phase Shift February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 37 .

A 270 degree phase shift from the previous symbol is interpreted as a 10.Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) Previous carrier symbol A Zero phase shift from the previous symbol is interpreted as a 00. A 180 degree phase shift from the previous symbol is interpreted as a 11. 0 Phase Shift 90 Phase Shift 180 Phase Shift 270 Phase Shift February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 38 . A 90 degree phase shift from the previous symbol is interpreted as a 01.

DSSS Summary Data Rate Encoding Modulation 1 2 5.5 11 Barker Coding Barker Coding CCK Coding CCK Coding 11 chips encoding 1 bit 11 chips encoding 1 bit 8 chips encode 8 bits 8 chips encode 4 bits DBPSK DQPSK DQPSK DQPSK February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 39 .

DSSS systems have the advantage in throughput q The Wi-Fi alliance tests for DSSS compatibility No such testing alliance exists for FHSS. DSSS channel is 22 Mhz wide whereas FHSS is 79 Mhz wide. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 40 . q The FCC regulated that DSSS use a maximum of 1 watt of transmitter power in Pt-to-Multipoint system.FHSS vs DSSS q DSSS is more susceptible to narrow band noise. q DSSS costs less then FHSS q FHSS can have more systems co-located than DSSS.

q DSSS has gained much wider acceptance due to its low cost. high speed and interoperability. however. q Both FHSS and DHSS are equally insecure. it is expected to not advance into the enterprise.FHSS vs DSSS contd q DSSS generally has a throughput of 5-6 Mbps while FHSS is generally between 1-2 Mbps. FHSS advancement includes HomeRF and 802.15 (WPAN) (Bluetooth). February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 41 . This market acceptance is expected to accelerate.

) 11 Mbps DSSS Date Rate in Mbps 30 20 3 Mbps FHSS (no sync.Co-location Comparison 54 Mbps OFDM 40 3 Mbps FHSS (sync.) 10 1 February 2005 5 10 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 15 20 42 Number of Co-located Systems .

OFDM February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 43 .

and 54. 24. 6. 200 channels ( channels 1-199) spaced 5 MHz apart. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM).802. 9. It Operates in the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII). 75-80 Feet February 2005 64 users /Access Point Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 44 .11a Standard. 12. 12. Operates in the 5. All others are optional. and 24 are mandatory. 18. 36. MBps. Supported data rates are 6.0 GHz band. 48.11a q IEEE 802.

825) 149 153 157 161 NOTE: 1.150-5.220 Ghz 5.802. 802.260 Ghz 5.805 Ghz USA U-NII Middle Band (5.250 Ghz) Channel 36 40 44 48 Center Frequency 5.745 Gh 5. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 45 .725 – 5.240 Ghz 5.200 Ghz 5.320 Ghz 5.280 Ghz 5.765 Ghz 5. U-NII : Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure.785 Ghz 5.260 Ghz 5.180 Ghz 5. 2.350 Ghz) 52 56 60 64 USA U-NII Upper Band (5.11a is specific to the US.250 – 5.11a Network Channel Assignments Area USA Frequency Band U-NII Lower Band (5.

48 sub-channel are used for data  Each sub-channel is used to transmit data 4 sub-channel are used as pilot carriers.OFDM q A mathematical process that allows 52 channels to overlap without losing their orthogonality (individuality). February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 46 .  The pilot sub-channels are used to monitor path shift and shifts in sub-channel frequencies (Inter Carrier Interference (ICI)). Channels are separated based upon orthogonality. OFDM OFDM selects channels that overlap but do not interfere with one another.

 48 Sub-channels are used to transmit data  4 sub-channels are used as Pilot carriers to monitor the channel 52 Sub-Channels for each 8 channels Each channel is 20 MHz wide 8 Channels Lower and Middle UNII frequency band February 2005 Lower UNII Band Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved Middle UNII Band 47 . Each Channel is 20 MHz each. Each channel is broken into 52 sub-channels with each sub-channel 300 KHz each.802.11a Channels q 802.11a use the lower and middle UNII 5 GHz bands to create 8 channels.

OFDM Modulation February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 48 .

first developed the idea that electromagnetic magnetic waves arose as a combination electric current and magnetic field – an electromagnetic wave. Heinrich Hertz .Modulation Background q In order to properly understand OFDM modulation we need to do a quick review of various modulation techniques. This is also called cycle per second. James Clark Maxwell.  Kilohertz = thousands of cycles per second  Megahertz = millions of cycles per second  Gigahertz = billions cycles per second February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 49 . in 1880s. 1864. developed the first Radio Frequency device that sent and received electromagnetic waves over the air  The name Hertz (Hz) was given to the unit of frequency measurement representing one complete oscillation of an electromagnetic wave.

also called a sine wave. is shown below. q The are two major types of modulation schemes: Analog and Digital Sine Wave Frequency Phase Amplitude February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 50 . q The information can be imposed upon the carrier through a process called modulation which is accomplished by modifying one of three physical wave characteristic. These physical characteristics are: Amplitude – The height of the wave Frequency – the number of oscillation (cycles) per second.Modulation Background Contd q The oscillating electromagnetic wave. q This wave can be used as a carrier signal to carry information. Phase – the starting point of the wave (when compared to the starting point of the previous wave.

Change in Amplitude Frequency Modulation varies the number of oscillation (waves) per second Phase Modulation changes the starting point of the wave.Analog Modulation Amplitude Modulation varies the height of the carrier wave. Change in Frequency Change in Phase February 2005 1 = 1800 Phase Change 0 = No Phase Change 51 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved .

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) changes the frequency of the carrier wave to represent a 0 or 1.Digital Modulation Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) changes the amplitude of the carrier wave to represent a 0 or 1. Phase Shift Keying (PSK) changes the phase of the carrier wave to represent a 0 or 1. 1 = 1800 Phase Change 0 = No Phase Change 180 degree phase change February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 52 .

Phase Modulation Extended Phase Modulation changes the starting point of the wave.11a 2700 February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 53 . 0 = No Phase Change This is called Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) in 802. Change in Phase 1 = 1800 Phase Change 0 = No Phase Change 900 Phase shift can also be represented on an x/y axis constellation such that: BPSK 1 0 0o 1 = 1800 Phase Change ( π radians) 0 = No Phase Change 180o 1 = 1800 Phase Change ( π radians) In this instance we can transmit 1 bit for every phase shift.

00 = 350 Phase Change 01 = 1350 Phase Change 11 = 2250 Phase Change 10 = 3150 Phase Change Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) generalizes these techniques to encode information in both phase (by employing PSK techniques such as BPSK and QPSK) with amplitude.QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (QAM) 2 bits/phase 900 01 00 135o 180o 35o Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) extends this technique to transmit two bits for every phase shift. each quadrature contains 4 amplitudes (16 levels) and can therefore transmit 4 bits per phase. February 2005 QPSK 0o 225o 11 2700 315o 10 4 bits/phase 900 0110 0111 0100 180o 0010 0011 QAM 0001 0101 0000 0o 1100 1101 1111 1110 270 1001 1010 0 1000 1011 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 54 . For example. in the diagram a right.

each quadrature contains 8 amplitudes (64 levels) and can therefore transmit 6 bits per phase.QAM Extended 900 In the diagram at right. 180o 0o February 2005 2700 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 55 .

G. The Length of the each Symbol is equal to number of sub-carriers times the bits /transition. E. February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 56 . 48 X 6 = 288.. 1/2 would indicate that 24 sub-channels (1/2 X 48 = 24) are being used for error correction while the remaining 24 sub-channels are used for data transmission. Coding Rate (R) is the ratio of sub-channels carrying data to sub-channels carrying error correction code.g. e.Summary of OFDM Encoding/Modulation 64 Phase shifts can encode 6 bits /phase shift resulting is a transmission rate of either 48 or 54 Mbps depending upon the number of sub-channels (R) used for error correction..

Summary of OFDM Encoding/Modulation February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 57 .

End of Lecture February 2005 Copyright 2005 All Rights Reserved 58 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.