Permaculture Cooperation: Climate Change & Peak Debt

Transition to Permaculture through Cooperation

“Permaculture is more than a gardening system” Bill Mollison

3 Ethics

• Earth Care • Fair Share • People Care

“perennial polyculture vs annual monoculture”

State of the local & global

Global Change

“Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure”

US Environment Concerns: Gallup

Upper Hunter Valley Environment vironmentalAttitudesPaper2008-09v2_000.pdf

Corporate Climate Coup
• David F Noble, historian of science • Corporate Denial Campaign: Greenhouse Mafia • Corporate Climate Traders: Carbon Finance • Climate Justice Movement: Klimaforum, Via Campesina, Permaculture networks, Transition Network etc

System: Planet Earth
• • • • Neo-liberal globalisation Multinational Corporations Industrial Mass-Consumerism Financial “Markets”, “Free Trade” “Free Markets” • World Trade Organisation, International Monetary Fund • World Bank (Carbon Finance) • United Nations (Security Council, UNESCO, IPCC, IAKTD etc)


• We are doing it now • But badly • Lots of BIG Science/Big Tech/BIG Business schemes i.e. mirrors in space, algae in ocean, artificial or GMO trees • The best means to take C02 out of the air is not technical means, but trees (and soil) • Industrial Biochar Consortium 2575503150.html

Human Welfare and Ecological Footprints

Limits to Growth
• • • • • • Peak Population Peak Oil Peak Coal Peak Soil Peak Water Peak Moment

Environmental Refugees

Wilderness? 10% more than 48 hrs

Travel time to major cities: A global map of Accessibility.

Conservation Refugees

“indigenous tribal peoples, like endangered species, are being driven to extinction. Their languages are swiftly dying and we're losing a huge resource in their invaluable knowledge derived from millennia in their respective homelands. Environmentalists, determined to preserve biological systems and entities, should now be equally driven to preserve aboriginal cultures.” Conservation Refugees

Peak Debt
Debt-based economies

What is Peak Debt?
• Hubbert Peak in debt • Economies from individuals, households, national economies • Point where the ability to repay to interest/fees etc beyond the income of the debtor

• Ajay Kapur, 2006, global strategist Citigroup, defined six factors create and maintain plutonomy:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. business-friendly government and tax policies increasingly complex financial systems control of the rule of law globalization technology changes patent protection

Tax Havens
• Too many tax havens • Used by corporations & individuals to avoid paying any tax • International elite profit from the global local, but never pay back except in philantrocapitalism • Fund drugs, crime, slavery, war, profiteering, specualation • Mainstream and accessible

Shadow Banking
• “the whole alphabet soup of levered up nonbank investment conduits, vehicles, and structures.”
• June 2008 speech, U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner, then President and CEO of the NY Federal Reserve Bank, described the growing importance of the shadow banking system.. lending through the shadow banking system slightly exceeded lending via the traditional banking system based on outstanding balances.

Only the Super Rich Can Save Us
• Ralph Nader “novel” • At best calling-out the plutocrats to share some load • At worst a sell-out fantasy

• • • • • Financialisation vs. Investment % of finance in real production has declined % of finance in speculation has increased Financialisation of household mortgages Financialisation of atmosphere under carbon trading (ETS etc) • Financialisation of ecosystems

Capitalism vs. Corporatocracy
• Free markets for the poor, socialism for the rich • “George Bush started as a social conservative and ended as a conservative socialist” • Ronald Reagan create the biggest government in US history, that continues

War and other Luxuries
• Luxury economy, fashionable consumption • Created wants vs. real needs • War is the ultimate luxury item

Disaster Capitalism
• Naomi Klein author “No Logo”, “Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism” • Iraq, AfPak, New Orleans, Russia • Complex of military, private security and logistics contractors • More private military (mercenaries) in AfPak % than in Iraq under Bush • Foreign Aid • Now Haiti

What could we expect ?

Revenge of Gaia
• Environmental War Economy • Miitarization of climate change, Disaster Capitalism, Green Zones • Mega-cities, wilderness, “countryside” • Sudden, violent climate change & megadeath, mass-extinction with probable world war (resource wars, environmental refugees) • Gaia Bible and a New Eden • James Lovelock “Revenge of Gaia”

• • • • •


Carbon farming (“soft” organics) Genetically modified organisms + “organics” Second Green Revolution Corporate industrial perennial polyculture Corporations, Employees and Consumers vs. cooperative farmer & industrial ecology • Social, genetic and geo-engineering • Push advertising
McGaia Tomorrow’s Table: Organic Farming, Genetics, and the Future of Food

Re-Generative Gaia
Coevolution NOT Competition / Commons & Cooperative based • Democratic Carbon • Planetary permaforestry • Global energy convergance
– Global North Energy Descent – Global South Energy Ascent
• 10 000 Trees: Strategy for Climate Change • Small Organic Farmers Cooling the Planet • Ag Assessment, IAKTD

State of the movement

Permaculture ?
• • • • “permanent agriculture” “permanent culture” Utopian ideal Open global design system Sustainability framework Social movement International network Accredited Permaculture Training (AUS) FarmReady (AUS)

• • • •

Mollison, Holmgren, Cran (APC9)

Permaculture Movement
• • • • • Klimaforum09 Copenhagen IPC9 Africa APC10 Cairns 4000 sites (Ethan Roland) 500 institutes (Tony Andersen) • Transition Movement • Education via schools, technical colleges, universities (global) • Subsidies for farmers (AUS)
Bill Mollison “Senior Australian of the Year 2010 – National Finalist”

System Change Not Climate Change
• Klimaforum09 slogan • “we don’t work for climate change, we work for systems change” • Klimaforum Declaration delivered by El Salvadorian (former Australian immigre) Juan

Planetary Permaculture
• • • • Democratic Industrial Ecology Nested Common Pool Resources Democratic Work & Communities Planetary Permaforestry (global ecological agriculture) • Perennial Polyculture • Social, peer-peer, cooperative, coeveolution • Open manufacturing & food

• The Rocky Road to Real Transition • Combination of Resilience & Resistance Strategies • New Sustainability Paradigm • Democratic, Participation in Ongoing Planetary Design

Permaculture: 3 Ethics & 12 Principles

3 Ethics

•Earth Care •Fair Share •People Care

Holmgren’s 12 Design Principles
1. Observe and interact 2. Catch and store energy 3. Obtain a yield 4. Apply self-regulation and accept feedback 5. Use and value renewable resources and services 6. Produce no waste 7. Design from patterns to details 8. Integrate rather than segregate 9. Use small and slow solutions 10. Use and value diversity 11. Use edges and value the marginal 12. Creatively use and respond to change

Permaculture Flower

Home Gardens

School Gardens

Community Gardens

Sustainable Homes, Armidale

Transition Towns, Armidale

Village Homes, Davis

LA Botanic:Permaculture/Organics

Permaculture Guilds & Groups

Accredited Permaculture Training

Seed Savers Networks

Farmers Markets

Mandela Foods worker-coop, Oakland

Free Permaculture Riverside Church, Manhattan

Street Culture

Prince Charles Permaculture Patron
• “What is so deeply impressive is the practical way in which the Institute demonstrates how genuine sustainability can be achieved by applying the principles it has developed.” • HRH Prince Charles

• started April 2006 as collaboration between permaculture students and a South American community group in the South-Eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. • 40 permablitzes • international reputation successful tool fasttracking suburbs towards sustainability

Urban Food
• • • • Wall Street Journal Gates Foundation Detroit US Social Forum

Broad-Acre Permaculture
• Darren Doherty • Fellow travellers • Natural Sequence Farming of Peter Andrews • Allan Yeomans of Keyline • Agroecology • Sustainable Agriculture • Ecological Agriculture

Carbon Farming

Keyline and Carbon Farming

Fusion Farms, VIC

Commonwealth Policy
• Liberal-National Policy • Labor Party Policy • Carbon Sequestration Payments to Farmers for Soil and Plant (Ecology)

Regenerative Agriculture
• • • • • • Joe Salatin Darren Doherty others AUS/NZ FarmReady Milkwood, Felix etc

Organic Farming
• International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements “relies on ecological processes rather than the use of inputs.” • Oceania, with some 12.1 million hectares, has more than one third of the land being farmed organically, most of which is in Australia

Vital Signs: Organic Agriculture

Organic vs GMO Farming
• More than three times as much land is devoted to genetically modified crops than organics • Less than 1 percent of the world’s agricultural land is now managed organically.3
Vitalsigns WorldWatch: Organic Agriculture

Related Movements
Concurrent movements

Natural Sequence Farming

• • • •

Peter Andrews Australian Story (most popular ever) Of Droughts and Flooding Rains Right As Rain

Major-General Jeffery & Peter Andrews
“Major-General Jeffery hopes that within a decade a third of Australia's farmers - and eventually all - will have stopped using artificial fertilisers, dramatically boosted vegetation species, Image: Carbon Coalition substantially reduced or ceased irrigation and adopted a more holistic, natural approach to farm management.” 2009, Sydney Morning Herald

Natural Sequence Farming Principles
• Natural sequences can be harnessed • A farming system founded on working with nature • Maximum natural outcomes with minimum financial and manufactured inputs • NSF can be applied to Grazing • NSF can be applied to Agriculture • Sustainable Landscape Outcomes under Natural Sequence Farming

World HQ Transition Movement

Transition Towns Totnes
• Transition Towns movement has evolved into Transition Movement • Transition Initiatives exist in rural areas, villages, towns and cities.

(Not) transition (grumpy) pilgrim

Schumacher College

Transition Culture
• “Transition is determinedly inclusive and non-blaming, arguing that a successful transition through peak oil and climate change will by necessity be about a bringing together of individuals and organisations, rather than a continued fracturing and antagonising.”
Transition Culture response to Trapese

The Rocky Road to a Real Transition
• “One of the aspects of their critique of Transition is that it shies away from directly confronting what they see as being the enemy. Their starting point can be summed up in the sentence “it is fundamentally important to identify and name the cenemies in the battle to make a real Transition”” • Transition Culture response to Trapese

Next Generaration Permaculture
Institutions, Sectors, Systems & Industries
• • • • • • • • • • Urban & Rural Food Town Planning (TTT?) Cities (TTT?) Organisations ? Manufacturing ? Government ? Politics ? Trade ? Education ? Barter?

Copenhagen, Denmark
Klimaforum09, the Peoples Summit

Climate Circus Copenhagen

Sustainability Market

Climate social circuit

Permakultur Denmark stall

Cuban permaculture

Narsana, Indian permaculture pioneer

Walter, IPC9 Organiser

Padma, India water permaculture pioneer

Brazilian permaculture

41% Copenhagen commuters cycle

Klimaforum09 • “does not just work for climate change, it works for systems change”
• a forum where activists start working with grassroots • network for activists/grassroots • practical actions meet radical actions


“10 000 Trees” Planetary Permaculture Strategy

A Practical Strategy for Climate Change

Tony Andersen, 10 000 Trees

Planetary Permaculture “10 000 Trees” Strategy
 

   

Permaculture Climate change Carbon sink in ecology: trees, mostly soil More 10,000 TREES / person / lifetime Less 1 TON CO2 / person / year Failing U.N. Climate Conference process Parallel activist/grassroots conference Klimaforum International permaculture network

2 Aspects of 10 000 Trees

 

Planetary Permaforestry 10 000 Trees per person Global re-afforestation project Perennial polyculture Agroecology Food sovereignty Ecological agriculture

 

Global Energy Descent 1 ton C02 quota per person per year 100 Euro Carbon tax after 1st ton 100 Euro tax pays for planetary permaforestry


carbon tax spent on perennial polyculture (permaculture) style forestry programs perennial polyculture and soil become carbon sinks local permaculture groups implement 10 000 trees program, expanding existing permaculture institutes from a few hundred into the 10s of thousands if 5000-7000 trees can be planted per person in the next 25 years we can stablise extreme climate change

Soil & Tree Carbon Sinks

best means to take C02 (GHG) from the atmosphere is not technical means, it is trees Most carbon is sequestered (trapped) in soil, partly in trees

more powerful than competition

Informal Cooperation
• • • • • • • • • • Movements Informal economy Community economics Household sector Gift economy Barter economy Clubs Associations Special Events Church

Formal Cooperation
• Incorporated Cooperatives • Mutual Societies • Building Societies • Incorporated Associations • Industrial & Provident Societies • • • • • • • • • Consumer Cooperatives Producer Cooperatives Housing Cooperatives Rural Cooperatives Worker Cooperatives Marketing Cooperatives Social Cooperatives School Cooperatives Hybrid Cooperatives

• Mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive a mutual benefit • Similar interactions within a species are known as cooperation • mutualism has historically received less attention than other interactions such as predation
Wikipedia: Biological_interaction

Lynn Margulis
• Theory of symbiotic relationships driving evolution • “ believes that proponents of the standard theory "wallow in their zoological, capitalistic, competitive, cost-benefit interpretation of Darwin” • Cooperation is greater than competition - coevolution • Gaia Theory colloboration with James Lovelock • Endosymbiosis / Symbiogensis

Elinor Ostrom
• Nobel Prize for Economics 2009 for "her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons“ Nobel Prize lecture
Photo: Arizona State University

Nobel for Ostrom on Commons
• “by showing how common resources— forests, fisheries, oil fieldsor grazing lands, can be managed successfully by the people who use them, rather than by governments or private companies”. Ostrom’s work in this regard, challenged conventional wisdom, showing that common resources can be successfully managed without government regulation or privatization ”

Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on Ostrom


Old Commons • Fisheries • Forests • Atmosphere • Grazing lands

New Commons • Internet • Knowledge • Wikipedia

Donella Mathews
•Limits to Growth 1972 •12 Leverage Points to Intervene in a System •Systems Thinking: A Primer •Sustainability Institute •Global Village Report (if the world was 100 people)

12 Leverage Points (12-9)
• 12. Constants, parameters, numbers (such as subsidies, taxes, standards) • 11. The size of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows • 10. Structure of material stocks and flows (such as transport network, population age structures) • 9. Length of delays, relative to the rate of system changes

12 Leverage Points (8-5)
• 8. Strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the effect they are trying to correct against • 7. Gain around driving positive feedback loops • 6. Structure of information flow (who does and does not have access to what kinds of information) • 5. Rules of the system (such as incentives, punishment, constraints)

12 Leverage Points (4-1)
• 4. Power to add, change, evolve, or selforganize system structure • 3. Goal of the system • 2. Mindset or paradigm that the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises out of • 1. Power to transcend paradigms

Peer to Peer Foundation

Homebrew Industrial Revolution


Open Source Ecology
• Open Source Ecology use permaculture and digital fabrication together to "evolve to freedom."

OpenFarm Tech

Farmer to Farmer Movement

Juan N. Rojas, Presidente, Instituto de Permacultura de El Salvador

Global Sustainability Corps

Permaculture America Latina

Social Movements
• • • • • • • • • • • Permaculture Movement Carbon Farming Organic Gardening & Farming Movement Keyline & Natural Sequence Farming Environmental Movement Transition Movement Climate (Global) Justice Movement Social Justice Movement Cooperative Movement Indigenous & Peasant Movements Open-source & Free Culture Movement

Why not the default?

Cooperatives vs. Corporations
Corporations • Dominant human institution • Any industry • Tyrannical • Wage Slave • Manager Surveillance • Agency Problems • Legal amplification • State subsidies Cooperatives • Damaged human institution • Any Industry • Democratic • Member-owner • Worker-Management • Capitalisation Problems • Legal deprecation • State dis-incentives

International Cooperative Alliance

Statement of Cooperative Identity
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Voluntary and Open Membership Democratic Member Control Member Economic Participation Autonomy and Independence Education, Training and Information Co-operation among Co-operatives Concern for Community

The Co-operative Group UK
• UK consumer cooperative • Hybrid consumer society • Direct descendent of Rochdale Pioneers • 4.5 million members • 123 000 employees • food, travel, banking, insurance, pharmacy, funeral, legal services, investments, online shop, electrical and beds (trains?)

Totnes Pound


Mondragon or Arrasate in Basque

Mondragon Cooperative
• Mondragon Cooperative largest workercooperative in world • 120 worker-cooperatives • 100 000 plus worker-owners • Global enterprise • Started by Catholic priest • Global corporation making consumer goods



120 cooperatives

2003 2004 2005






13.390 M euros

16 300 M euro 58%










1.243 M euros

2 800 M euro






100 000





677 M euros

792 M euro


Mondragon Cooperative















Structure in MONDRAGON
CONGRESS Permanent Council

FINANCIAL GROUP Automotive Components

Industrial Equipment Domestic Appliances Engineering and Capital Goods Machine-Tools Training and Research Centres


Mondragon Framework







Mondragon Coop Tour



Caja Laboral

Caja Laboral’s profit after tax for 2009 came to 56.5 million euros, which is 43.8% down on the figure posted in 2008.


Mondragon Grafitti

Grafitti artists, Mondragon

Basque Independence

Save the Nature


Worker Coop Credit Union Proposal

Brent Emerson Mike Leung

Worker Cooperative Employment

Entrepreneurial Activities

Startup/Expand Worker Coops

Credit Union


Grassroots Support for Worker Cooperatives

Established Worker Cooperatives

Permaculture Credit Union

• The Permaculture Credit Union pools the financial resources of people who believe in the ethics of Permaculture - care of the earth, care of people, and reinvestment of surplus for the betterment of both. We apply those resources to earth-friendly and socially responsible loans and investments.

Radical Routes
• Radical Routes is a network of radical co-ops whose members are committed to working for positive social change. The network is made up mainly of housing co-ops of various sizes (none with more than 16 members), a few workers co-ops and a couple of social centres.

• Rootstock is the ethical investment arm of Radical Routes. By investing your money in Rootstock you can financially support the setting up of grassroots cooperative projects, enabling people to take control of their own housing, work and social life.

Green Worker Cooperatives
• GREEN WORKER COOPERATIVES is a South Bronx-based organization dedicated to incubating workerowned and environmentally friendly cooperatives in the South Bronx.

New Economics Cooperatives
• Former head of New Economics Foundation now head of Cooperative Group • Interested in new economy cooperatives such as open-source software communities • Co-op Fortnight • Transition Movement links

UK Cooperatives
• Tories Policy to allow/facilitate public service agencies to “privatise” and become worker-cooperatives or employee-owned agencies within a service network • UK Labour Party to make “mutualism” a key to election staretgy, platform etc

What can be done?

Community Development Cooperatives
• “Set up the many simple cooperatives enabling all the unemployed, homeless, bored, retired, people to get into the community gardens etc. that would enable them to start producing many of the basic things they need. Can we set up co-ops to run a bakery, bike repair shop, home help service, insulating operation, clothes making and repairing operation…. ” Dr Ted Trainer

New Commons Design Principles
Ostrom identifies eight “design principles” of stable local common pool resource management [4] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Clearly defined boundaries Local rules for giving and taking of commons Collective decision-making process Effective monitoring accountable to users Scale of sanctions for violating resource community rules Conflict resolution cheap and easy to access Self-determination of community recognized by higher-level authorities; organization in the form of multiple layers of nested enterprises, with small local commons at the base level.

Source: Wikipedia

Democratic Carbon
• What would happen if we made the entire Carbon Cycle democratic? Not political, but democratic. Not just the science, but the industry too, the business of energy (oil, gas) and agriculture (food and fibre) ? -carbon-carbon-dictatorship-the-climate-circus/

Permaculture Credit Unions
• Why not a PCU in every town ? • If farmers get carbon credits why not households? • Can local credit unions establish special funds ?

Rural Broad Acre Permaculture Coop

• A broad-acre and rural permaculture cooperative • Technical, financial, legal assistance for members • Pool resources for Keyline, Earthworks, perennial polyculture

Rights of Nature
• Ecosystems have rights • People have rights as part of ecosystems • Ecuadors Constitution • Bolivia holding climate summit in April to declare a Universal Declaration of Natural Rights “Suits brought to enforce those rights shall be filed in the name of the natural communities or ecosystem whose rights have been violated.”

World People's Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth

Cooperative Development
• Cooperative reform and resurgence in UK (Tories & Labor), Australia (NSW leading) • Change: Cooperatives have to adapt or die. • Challenge: The modern global economy is hard. • Capital: To grow and compete, co-ops need funds, and laws financing innovations. • Clusters: Clustering cooperative development increases synergy, solidarity and reciprocity

Industrial Symbiosis,_Denmark

Climate Change: 12 Leverages
• 12. Constants: Carbon Tax, Carbon Price • 11. Buffers: Carbon Sequestration • 10. Structures: Carbon Sink (10k Trees) • 9. Delays: Energy Descent Global North • 8. Negative Feedback: Climate Movement, Environmental Protection Agencies, Natures Rights Litigation • 7. Positive feedback: Carbon Farming, Permaforestry • 6. Information flow: Democratic government, science & media, independent internet • 5. System Rules: Emissions Standards, Pollution Laws, Polluter Pays, Rights of Nature • 4. Power Change: Direct & Radical Democracy • 3. Goal: Climate Justice (10k Trees) • 2. Mindset or paradigm: Planetary Permaculture • 1. Power to transcend paradigms: Great Transition

Peak Debt: 12 Leverage Points
• 12. Constants: Corporate Tax, Tobin Tax • 11. Buffers: Capital Reserves • 10. Structures: Social Finance • 9. Delays: Less Consumption, Slow Money • 8. Negative Feedback: Tobin Tax, Financial Regulation • 7. Positive feedback: Credit Unions, Mutuals • 6. Information flow: Total Cost Ownership of Debt • 5. System Rules: Usury Laws, Regulations • 4. Power Change: Close Tax Havens, Shutdown Shadow Banking • 3. Goal: Democratic Finance • 2. Mindset or paradigm: Hierarchy of Needs • 1. Power to transcend paradigms: Human and Ecological Growth

Planet Permaculture: 12 Leverages
• 12. Constants: Permaculture Index • 11. Buffers: Permaculture Free Zones • 10. Structures: Permaculture Commons • 8. Negative Feedback: Popular Inquiries, Citizen Juries • 9. Delays: Long termism • 8. Negative feedback: Permaculture planning laws & regulations • 7. Positive feedback: Democratic Permaculture Networks • 6. Information flow: Media Ecology • 5. System Rules: Permaculture Law • 4. Power Change: Direct & Radical Democracy • 3. Goal: Planet Permaculture • 2. Mindset or paradigm: Regenerative Gaia • 1. Power to transcend paradigms: Transition to Permaculture via Cooperation

What can be done?

Coop Fortnight, UK

APC10 - Australasian Permaculture Convergence
• Cairns, September 2010 • Practical pathways to stepping up permaculture learning in local communities around Australasia. • We'll learn what's working effectively and why.

Fair Share Festival, Newcastle
TBD, Coming soon possibly

Permaculture Cooperative
Transition to Permaculture via Cooperation Products • Permaculture.TV – videos • News.Permaculture.Coop - news • PermacultureGroups – groups

Planned • – Spanish &Portugese

• • • • • • Nicholas Roberts & Kirstie Stramler Permaculture Cooperative www.Permaculture.TV

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