Formal and Informal Permaculture Cooperation to Save the World

Transition to Permaculture through Cooperation

Overview
• • • • • • • • Context Permaculture Related Cooperation Cooperatives Ideas Solutions Contacts

“Permaculture is more than a gardening system” Bill Mollison

“perennial polyculture vs annual monoculture”

3 Ethics

• Earth Care • Fair Share • People Care

Context
State of the local & global

Global Change

“Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure”

Human Welfare and Ecological Footprints

Environmental Refugees

http://www.agassessment.org/

Conservation Refugees

“indigenous tribal peoples, like endangered species, are being driven to extinction. Their languages are swiftly dying and we're losing a huge resource in their invaluable knowledge derived from millennia in their respective homelands. Environmentalists, determined to preserve biological systems and entities, should now be equally Conservation Refugees driven to preserve aboriginal cultures.” 

Anthropocene

http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/oceanography-book/anthropocene.ht http://www.eoearth.org/article/Anthropogenic_biomes

Wilderness? 10% more than 48 hrs

Travel time to major cities: A global map of Accessibility .

Permaculture
State of the movement

Permaculture ?
• • • • • • • • • “permanent agriculture” “permanent culture” Utopian ideal Open global design system Sustainability framework Social movement International network Accredited Permaculture Training (AUS) FarmReady (AUS)

Mollison, Holmgren, Cran (APC9)

Permaculture Movement
• Klimaforum09 Copenhagen • IPC9 Africa • APC10 Cairns • 4000 sites (Ethan Roland) • 500 institutes (Tony Andersen) • Transition Movement • Education via schools, technical colleges, universities (global) • Subsidies for farmers (AUS)

Bill Mollison “Senior Australian of the Year 2010 – National

Permaculture: 3 Ethics & 12 Principles

3 Ethics

• Earth Care • Fair Share • People Care

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Observe and interact  Catch and store energy  Obtain a yield Apply self-regulation and accept feedback  Use and value renewable resources and services  6. Produce no waste 7. Design from patterns to details  8. Integrate rather than segregate  9. Use small and slow solutions  10.Use and value diversity  11.Use edges and value the marginal 12.Creatively use and respond to change

Holmgren’s 12 Design Principles

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permaculture#Holmgren.27s_12_design_princi

Permaculture Flower

http://permacultureprinciples.com/flower.php

Home Gardens

School Gardens

Community Gardens

Sustainable Homes, Armidale

Transition Towns, Armidale

Village Homes, Davis

http://www.villagehomesdavis.org/

LA Botanic:Permaculture/Or ganics

Permaculture Guilds & Groups

http://www.permaculture-sf.org/ http://www.18thandrhodeisland.org/

Accredited Permaculture Training

http://permaculture.com.au/online/

Seed Savers Networks

Farmers Markets

Mandela Foods workercoop, Oakland

Free Permaculture Riverside Church, Manhattan

Street Culture

Prince Charles Permaculture Patron
• “What is so deeply impressive is the practical way in which the Institute demonstrates how genuine sustainability can be achieved by applying the principles it has developed.” • HRH Prince Charles

Permablitz
• started April 2006 as collaboration between permaculture students and a South American community group in the South-Eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia.  • 40 permablitzes • international reputation successful tool fast-tracking suburbs towards sustainability

PermaBlitz

Broad-Acre Permaculture
• Darren Doherty • Fellow travellers • Natural Sequence Farming of Peter Andrews • Allan Yeomans of Keyline • Agroecology • Sustainable Agriculture • Ecological Agriculture

Carbon Farming

Keyline and Carbon Farming

Fusion Farms, VIC

Organic Farming
• International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements “relies on ecological processes rather than the use of inputs.” • Oceania, with some 12.1 million hectares, has more than one third of the land being farmed organically, most of which is in Australia

Vital Signs: Organic Agriculture

Organic vs GMO Farming
• More than three times as much land is devoted to genetically modified crops than organics • Less than 1 percent of the world’s agricultural land is now managed organically.3

http://www.agassessment.org/ Vitalsigns WorldWatch: Organic Agriculture

Related
Concurrent movements

Natural Sequence Farming

• • • •

Peter Andrews Australian Story (most popular ever) Of Droughts and Flooding Rains Right As Rain

Major-General Jeffery & Peter Andrews
“Major-General Jeffery hopes that within a decade a third of Australia's farmers - and eventually all - will have stopped using artificial fertilisers, dramatically boosted vegetation species, substantially reduced or ceased irrigation and adopted a more holistic, natural approach to farm management.”

Image: Carbon Coalition

2009, Sydney Morning Herald

Natural Sequence Farming Principles
• Natural sequences can be harnessed • A farming system founded on working with nature • Maximum natural outcomes with minimum financial and manufactured inputs • NSF can be applied to Grazing • NSF can be applied to Agriculture • Sustainable Landscape Outcomes under Natural Sequence Farming

http://www.nsfarming.com/Principles/principles2.ht

World HQ Transition Movement

http://permaculture.tv/photos-of-totnes-of-transition-towns-totnes-f

Transition Towns Totnes
• Transition Towns movement has evolved into Transition Movement • Transition Initiatives exist in rural areas, villages, towns and cities. 

http://permaculture.tv/photos-of-totnes-of-transition-towns-totnes-f

(Not) transition (grumpy) pilgrim

http://permaculture.tv/photos-of-totnes-of-transition-towns-totnes-f

Schumacher College

http://permaculture.tv/photos-of-totnes-of-transition-towns-totnes-f

Transition Culture
• “Transition is determinedly inclusive and non-blaming, arguing that a successful transition through peak oil and climate change will by necessity be about a bringing together of individuals and organisations, rather than a continued fracturing and antagonising.”

Transition Culture response to Trapese

The Rocky Road to a Real Transition
• “One of the aspects of their critique of Transition is that it shies away from directly confronting what they see as being the enemy. Their starting point can be summed up in the sentence “it is fundamentally important to identify and name the cenemies in the battle to make a real Transition”” • Transition Culture response to Trapese

Institutions, Sectors, Systems & Industries
• • • • • • • • • • Urban & Rural Food Town Planning (TTT?) Cities (TTT?) Organisations ? Manufacturing ? Government ? Politics ? Trade ? Education ? Barter?

Next Generaration Permaculture

http://www.symbiosis.dk/industrial-symbiosis.aspx

Copenhagen, Denmark
Klimaforum09, the Peoples Summit

Climate Circus Copenhagen

Sustainability Market

Climate social circuit

Permakultur Denmark stall

Cuban permaculture

http://permaculture.tv/cuba-permaculture-power-roberto-perez-climate-change

Narsana, Indian permaculture pioneer

http://permaculture.tv/india-permaculture-pioneer-narsanna-koppula-of-aran

Walter, IPC9 Organiser

http://permaculture.tv/africa-permaculture-report-klimaforum09/

Padma, India water permaculture pioneer

http://permaculture.tv/indian-permaculture-report-klimaforum09/

Brazilian permaculture

41% Copenhagen commuters cycle

Klimaforum09 • “does not just work for climate change, it works for systems change”
• a forum where activists start working with grassroots • network for activists/grassroots • practical actions meet radical actions

Permaforestry

Tony Andersen, 10 000 Trees

10 000 Trees Strategy

A Practical Strategy for Climate Change

10 000 Trees Elements
Permaculture  Climate change  Carbon sink in ecology: trees, mostly soil  More 10,000 TREES / person / lifetime  Less 1 TON CO2 / person / year  Failing U.N. Climate Conference process  Parallel activist/grassroots

2 Aspects of 10 000 Trees
 

 

Planetary Permaforestry 10 000 Trees per person Global reafforestation project Perennial polyculture Agroecology

Global Energy Descent 1 ton C02 quota per person per year 100 Euro Carbon tax after 1st ton 100 Euro tax pays for planetary permaforestry

Permaforestry

carbon tax spent on perennial polyculture (permaculture) style forestry programs perennial polyculture and soil become carbon sinks local permaculture groups implement 10 000 trees program, expanding existing permaculture institutes from a few hundred into the 10s of thousands if 5000-7000 trees can be planted per person in the next 25 years we can stablise extreme climate change

Soil & Tree Carbon Sinks
best means to take C02 (GHG) from the atmosphere is not technical means, it is trees  Most carbon is sequestered (trapped) in soil, partly in trees

Cooperation
more powerful than competition

Informal Cooperation
• Movements • Informal economy • Community economics • Household sector • Gift economy • Barter economy • Clubs • Associations • Special Events • Church

Formal Cooperation
• Incorporated Cooperatives • Mutual Societies • Building Societies • Incorporated Associations • Industrial & Provident Societies
• • • • • • • • • Consumer Cooperatives Producer Cooperatives Housing Cooperatives Rural Cooperatives Worker Cooperatives Marketing Cooperatives Social Cooperatives School Cooperatives Hybrid Cooperatives

Cooperation
• Mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive a mutual benefit • Similar interactions within a species are known as cooperation • mutualism has historically received less attention than other interactions such as predation

Wikipedia: Biological_interaction

Lynn Margulis
• Theory of symbiotic relationships driving evolution • “ believes that proponents of the standard theory "wallow in their zoological, capitalistic, competitive, cost-benefit interpretation of Darwin” • Cooperation is greater than competition - coevolution • Gaia Theory colloboration with James Lovelock • Endosymbiosis / Symbiogensis

http://www.geo.umass.edu/faculty/margulis/

Elinor Ostrom
• Nobel Prize for Economics 2009 for "her analysis of economic governance, especially  the commons“

Nobel Prize lecture
Photo: Arizona State University

Nobel for Ostrom on Commons
• “by showing how common resources— forests, fisheries, oil fieldsor grazing lands, can be managed successfully by the people who use them, rather than by governments or private companies”. Ostrom’s work in this regard, challenged conventional wisdom, showing that common resources can be successfully managed without government regulation or privatization ”

Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on Ostrom

Commons

Old Commons • Fisheries • Forests • Atmosphere • Grazing lands
http://www.indiana.edu/~iascp/

New Commons • Internet • Knowledge • Wikipedia

Peer to Peer Foundation

http://p2pfoundation.net/The_Foundation_for_P2P_Alternatives

Homebrew Industrial Revolution

http://homebrewindustrialrevolution.wordpress.com/

Riversimple

http://www.riversimple.com

Open Source Ecology
• Open Source Ecology  use permaculture and  digital fabrication  together to " evolve to freedom ." http://www.openfarmtech.org/index.php/Main_Page
http://openfarmtech.org/weblog/

OpenFarm Tech

http://openfarmtech.org/index.php?title=LifeTrac

Farmer to Farmer Movement

Juan N. Rojas, Presidente,  Instituto de Permacultura de El Salvador

Global Sustainability Corps

http://globalsustainabilitycorps.org/

Permaculture America Latina

Social Movements
• • • • • • • • • • • Permaculture Movement Carbon Farming Organic Gardening & Farming Movement Keyline & Natural Sequence Farming Environmental Movement Transition Movement Climate (Global) Justice Movement Social Justice Movement Cooperative Movement Indigenous & Peasant Movements Open-source & Free Culture Movement

Cooperatives
Why not the default?

International Cooperative Alliance

http://www.ica.coop/coop/statistics.html

Statement of Cooperative Identity
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Voluntary and Open Membership Democratic Member Control Member Economic Participation Autonomy and Independence Education, Training and Information Co-operation among Co-operatives Concern for Community

http://www.ica.coop/coop/principles.html

The Co-operative Group UK
• UK consumer cooperative • Hybrid consumer society • Direct descendent of Rochdale Pioneers • 4.5 million members • 123 000 employees • food, travel, banking, insurance, pharmacy, funeral, legal services, investments, online shop, electrical and beds (trains?)

Totnes Pound

http://totnes.transitionnetwork.org/totnespound/home/howitworks

Mondragon

Mondragon or Arrasate in Basque

Mondragon Cooperative
• Mondragon Cooperative largest worker-cooperative in world • 120 worker-cooperatives • 100 000 plus worker-owners • Global enterprise • Started by Catholic priest • Global corporation making consumer goods

COOPERATIVES WITHIN MONDRAGON
•INDUSTRIAL •CREDIT •CONSUMER •AGRICULTURAL •EDUCATION •RESEARCH •SERVICES •TOTAL 87 1 1 4 8 13 6 120 cooperatives
MIKEL LEZAMIZ

MONDRAGON CO-OPERATIVES
2003 2004 2005
2006

2007

SALES

9.638M

10406M

11.859M

13.390 M euros

16 300 M euro

INTERNATIONAL SALES 2.555M BY INDUSTRIES

2.699M

54%

57%

58%

INVESTMENT

836M

784M

1.081M

1.243 M euros

2 800 M euro

PERSONNEL

68.625

70.884

78.455

83.601

100 000

NET PROFITS

411M

502M

545M

677 M euros

792 M euro

MIKEL LEZAMIZ

Mondragon Cooperative
SUPREME BOARD

GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACCOUNTING AUDITORS
WATCHDOG COMMITEE

RUNNING BOARD

GOVERNING COUNCIL

SOCIAL COUNCIL
EXECUTIVE BOARD

ADVISING BOARD

GENERAL MANAGER

MANAGEMENT COUNCIL

DEPARTMENT MANAGER A

DEPARTMENT MANAGER B

DEPARTMENT MANAGER C

DEPARTMENT MANAGER D

DEPARTMENT MANAGER E

MIKEL LEZAMIZ

Structure in MONDRAGON
CONGRESS Permanent Council
GENERAL COUNCIL

INDUSTRIAL GROUP
Components Construction Industrial Equipment Domestic Appliances Engineering and Capital Goods Machine-Tools Training and Research Centres
RETAIL CHAIN GROUP

FINANCIAL GROUP

Automotive

MIKEL LEZAMIZ

Mondragon Framework
COOP COOP COOP COOP COOP COOP

COOP

SOCIAL

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D)

EDUCATIONAL

FINANCIAL

MIKEL LEZAMIZ

Mondragon Coop Tour

Arrasate

Arrasate

Caja Laboral

Caja Laboral’s profit after tax for 2009 came to 56.5 million euros, which is 43.8% down on the figure posted in 2008.

Fagor

Mondragon Grafitti

Grafitti artists, Mondragon

Basque Independence

Save the Nature

Emilia-Romagna

http://www.cooperativegrocer.coop/articles/index.php?id=623

Worker Coop Credit Union Proposal

Brent Emerson Mike Leung

Worker Cooperative Employment

Entrepreneurial Activities

Credit Union
Deposits

Startup/Expa nd Worker Coops Loans
Deposits

Grassroots Support for Worker Cooperatives

Established Worker Cooperatives

Permaculture Credit Union

• The Permaculture Credit Union pools the financial resources of people who believe in the ethics of Permaculture - care of the earth, care of people, and reinvestment of surplus for the betterment of both. We apply those resources to earth-friendly and socially responsible loans and investments.

http://www.pcuonline.org/

Radical Routes
• Radical Routes is a network of radical co-ops whose members are committed to working for positive social change. The network is made up mainly of housing co-ops of various sizes (none with more than 16 members), a few workers co-ops and a couple of social centres.

http://www.radicalroutes.org.uk/

Rootstock
• Rootstock is the ethical investment arm of Radical Routes. By investing your money in Rootstock you can financially support the setting up of grassroots cooperative projects, enabling people to take control of their own housing, work and social life. 

http://www.rootstock.org.uk/

Green Worker Cooperatives
• GREEN WORKER COOPERATIVES is a South Bronx-based organization dedicated to incubating workerowned and environmentally friendly cooperatives in the South Bronx.  http://greenworker.coop/

Suggestions
What can be done?

Appropriate Technology

http://www.aprovecho.net/pg/gallery4.htm http://www.appropedia.org

Community Development Cooperatives
• “Set up the many simple cooperatives enabling all the unemployed, homeless, bored, retired, people to get into the community gardens etc. that would enable them to start producing many of the basic things they need.  Can we set up co-ops to run a bakery, bike repair shop, home help service, insulating operation, clothes making and repairing operation….  ” Dr Ted Trainer

http://pacific-edge.info/the-trainer-papers-1/

Ostrom identifies eight “design principles” of stable local common pool resource management [4] 1. Clearly defined boundaries 2. Local rules for giving and taking of commons 3. Collective decision-making process 4. Effective monitoring accountable to users 5. Scale of sanctions for violating resource community rules 6. Conflict resolution cheap and easy to access 7. Self-determination of community recognized by higherlevel authorities; 8. organization in the form of multiple layers of nested enterprises, with small local commons at the base level.
Source: Wikipedia

New Commons Design Principles

Democratic Carbon
• What would happen if we made the entire Carbon Cycle democratic? Not political, but democratic. Not just the science, but the industry too, the business of energy (oil, gas) and agriculture (food and fibre) ?

http://gaiapermaculture.com/projects/climatewar/blog/2009/11/30/democ

Permaculture Credit Unions
• Why not a PCU in every town ? • If farmers get carbon credits why not households? • Can local credit unions establish special funds ?

http://www.rootstock.org.uk/ http://www.malenycu.com.au/ http://www.pcuonline.org/

http://www.australianethical.com.a

Rural Broad Acre Permaculture Coop

• A broad-acre and rural permaculture cooperative • Technical, financial, legal assistance for members • Pool resources for Keyline, Earthworks, http://www.permacultureusa.org/2009/12/03/sustainable-land-manageme perennial polyculture

Rights of Nature
• Ecosystems have rights • People have rights as part of ecosystems • Ecuadors Constitution • Bolivia holding climate summit in April to declare a Universal Declaration of Natural Rights

World People's Conference on Climate Ch

“Suits brought to enforce those rights shall be filed in the name of the natural communities or ecosystem whose rights have been violated.”

http://www.celdf.org/Ordinances/RightsofNatureOrdinance/tabid/133/Defa

Cooperative Development
• Cooperative reform and resurgence in UK (Tories & Labor), Australia (NSW leading) • Change: Cooperatives have to adapt or die. • Challenge: The modern global economy is hard. • Capital: To grow and compete, co-ops  need funds, and laws financing innovations. • Clusters: Clustering cooperative development increases synergy, solidarity and reciprocity

Derived http://www.cooperativegrocer.coop/articles/index.php?id=623

Industrial Symbiosis

http://www.eoearth.org/article/Kalundborg,_Denmark

LifeBox
The Life Box™ was invented by Paul Stamets, mycologist, author and founder of  Fungi Perfecti®, LLC . The Life Box™ suite of products builds upon the synergy of fungi and plants by infusing spores and

TM

http://www.lifeboxcompany.com/

Seedballs

http://heavypetal.ca/archives/2007/07/

http://kidskorps.org/2009/03/27/590/

Events
What can be done?

Coop Fortnight, UK

http://www.thereisanalternative.coop/

APC10 - Australasian Permaculture Convergence
• Cairns, September 2010 •  Practical pathways to stepping up permaculture learning in local communities around Australasia. • We'll learn what's working effectively and why.

http://apc10.org/

Fair Share Festival, Newcastle
TBD, Coming soon possibly

Permaculture Cooperative
Transition to Permaculture via Cooperation Products • Permaculture.TV – videos • News.Permaculture.Coop - news • PermacultureGroups – groups Planned • Permacultura.coop – Spanish &Portugese

Contacts
• • • • • • Nicholas Roberts & Kirstie Stramler Permaculture Cooperative permaculturecoop@gmail.com News.permaculture.coop PermacultureGroups.org www.Permaculture.TV

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