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Section 1: Learners and Teachers, and the Teaching and Learning Context.
A. Teaching and learning contexts Task 1 1. In what context will you be doing the CELTA course? Lessons in groups Multilingual groups (perhaps a majority of students from a single language background or a diverse mix of language backgrounds) Open groups Full-time Similar ability groups Mixed gender Groups of 12-14 students Day classes 2. Do you know what context you will be teaching in after you finish the course? One to one lessons/Group lessons Monolingual groups Closed groups Part-time courses Mixed ability groups Mixed gender groups Average sized classes Day/Evening classes
B. The learners’ cultural, linguistic and educational backgrounds Adult Learners Task 2 1. Think about why you decided to teach adults. Adults are engaged in the learning process. They are motivated to learn and often have specific goals; entering third level education, a desire to move abroad, ambition to be promoted at work or personal reasons. As many adults are clear on why they want to learn English, they are very focused which makes them more interactive in the classroom, better prepared for lessons and they work harder at improving their standard of English. In my experience, they are more challenging to teach but also more rewarding.
On a personal level, I find it easier to relate to adults; therefore it is easier to create lessons that both they and I find stimulating, entertaining and educational. These in turn creates a more social and friendly feel to the lessons. I want to teach adults as I want to have a more challenging teaching experience. I want to interact with students and help them achieve their goals. I want to create an interesting and stimulating learning experience for my students. 2. Think about what you, as an adult, bring to this learning situation. I am passionate about being the best teacher that I can be. I am inquisitive and like to know the answers to questions. I am also intelligent and know the basics of teaching English as a second language; I am also able to simplify quite complex ideas and impart this information clearly. I also like to have fun, and am enthusiastic and friendly. I find it easy to relate to others and can easily put myself in other peoples’ situations. I have lived in numerous countries and learnt the basics of their languages. I know how daunting, exciting and frustrating it can be to learn a language. 3. Look at your answers to questions 1 and 2 and use these ideas to help you to write down what characterises adult learners. Adult learners are characterised by: A specific desire to learn –motivated by many means Have typically had past learning experiences –both good and bad Have expectations as to what they can achieve –realistic and unrealistic. Many are focused and determined to learn Have their own definite personalities, beliefs and histories Come from many countries and cultures –may influence class relations and teacher/student relationship Have already achieved many successes on their own Find out about learners Task 3 1. What would you want to find out about a group of learners that you had to teach so that you could plan your lessons? Level of class Usual format of class-spoken, written, or listening Mixed or similar abilities Whether it is a monolingual or a multilingual group Whether it is a closed or open group Mixed or single gender class Number of learners in the class Learners desire outcome from classes –work related Motivations or goals Age range
What they have previously covered in classes
2. How would you find out? I would try to get their student records from the school, and also their teacher’s class records. If this is a new class, I would look over their placement evaluations and see what strengths and weaknesses characterise these students. An introductory session, with a questions and answers format, would also help in facilitating better lesson planning. Alternatively, short individual interviews could be made during the first few lessons. A quick questionnaire could be filled in by the students to find out personal preferences and motivations.
Motivation for learning English Task 4: If you were teaching a group of learners, each of whom had different motivations for learning English, which learners would be the most challenging in terms of motivation? I think that learners that have no clear ideas about why they want to learn English would be the most challenging to motivate. They would be less focused than other students, who have very specific goals in mind. From personal experience, students are also unmotivated if they don’t see a point in learning English or a component of English. I taught conversational English to high-school students in South Korea, who were studying for their Universities’ entrance exams. The exams didn’t have a speaking component so on average, 2 out of 15 students showed up. The lessons had no relevance to their goals. D. The Qualities and skills of a good language teacher Task 5: Look at the list of qualities and skills that a teacher might have. Which do you think learners most often rate in the top five? From the list, I would choose: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Knows about language and learning Is enthusiastic and inspires enthusiasm Builds rapport Has a sense of humour Is patient
Section 2: Language Analysis and Awareness.
A. Grammar Task 6: Make a list of associations you have with the word ‘grammar’. Rules of a language Fundamentals of learning a language Necessary for clarity, understanding and communication Numerous exceptions Pedantic Idiosyncratic to a language Dull and not exciting to learn Initially confusing and perplexing Task 7: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Task 8: Provide a list of reasons why English language teachers need to know about grammar. In doing so, try to give some thought to the learners’ perspective. English language teachers need to know about grammar so that they can teach it. We need to have a clear understanding of something before we can simplify it, clarify it or explain it. In order to best teach a point to a student, we need to be able to firstly know exactly what they are asking –what they are confusing or an explanation of why their initial statement was incorrect. This requires explicit knowledge of English grammar. In order to be able to effectively and correctly answer questions, English language teachers need to know grammar and know how to explain it. Also it means that English language teachers are less likely to be blindsided by a question that they are unable to answer. Students expect a teacher to understand and know what they are teaching. They are paying for a service and expect to receive a high quality of teaching. They cannot be expected to wait for every explanation to every grammar question that they ask. Word Class Task 9: 1. You: pronoun 2. A: indefinite article Correct. Incorrect. I went to the movies last night. Incorrect. He often comes late. Correct. Incorrect. Can I have a black coffee, please? Incorrect. People with 12 items or fewer can queue here.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
But: co-ordinating conjunction Quite: adverb (of degree) Abstract: adjective Could: modal auxiliary verb Those: demonstrative determiner For: preposition Mean: verb Plunger: noun
Types of Verbs Task 10: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lexical Lexical Auxiliary Auxiliary Auxiliary Lexical
Task 11: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Lexical Auxiliary Auxiliary Lexical Lexical Lexical Auxiliary Lexical
Task 12: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C E B A D
Task 13: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Worked: Past tense form Seeing: –ing form Lives: 3rd person –present simple tense Try: Base form Handed: Past participle form
Task 14: Base Form Hear Do Help Think Take Steal Go Drink Arrive Past Form Heard Did Helped Thought Took Stole Went Drank Arrived Past participle Heard Done Helped Thought Taken Stolen Gone/Been Drunk Arrived Regular/Irregular Irregular Irregular Regular Irregular Irregular Irregular Irregular Irregular Regular
Verb Phrases Task 15: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Was hoping: Past, Progressive Might have got: Modal, Perfect Have tried: Present, Perfect Were being questioned: Past, Progressive, Passive Saw: Past, Simple You will be lying: Modal, Progressive
Task 16: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Am having: Present, Progressive Stopped: Past, Simple Lives: Present, Simple Had been: Past, Perfect Are made: Present, Passive Will have been: Future, Perfect (i)Happened; (ii) was driving: (i) Past, simple; (ii) past, progressive. Have been feeling: Present, Perfect, Progressive
Task 17: 1. Was shining: Action took place in the past, over a period of time. 2. ‘ll have finished: Distant future, Action that is now being discussed will be completed at a specified time period in the future. 3. ‘s been working: Action has taken place/commenced in the past and is continuing into the present. 4. Was wondering: Present, polite form, Action taking place in present but grounded in the past. 5. Own: The action is present but started at unspecified time in the past and is expected to remain as so into a specified place in the future.
Present progressive. Task 18: What auxiliary verb is used to create the present progressive? Verb: to be –am/is/are. What is the form of the lexical verb of the present progressive? ‘-ing’ form of a verb. E.g.: being. Task 19: ‘m meeting: Future, a plan has been made in the immediate future. ‘s always running late: Present, habitual behaviour of an individual, so assumed for past present and future. ‘m walking: Past, story-telling-is more dramatic in the present tense. Task 20. 1. Present progressive refers to something that is happening at this moment in time. ‘Having’ cannot be used as it has a more continuous meaning rather than a static meaning. He either has a brother and a sister or he hasn’t. 2. ‘Liking’ is similar in that you either like something or not. You do not continue to like something in the present progressive form. 3. ‘Thinking’ implies that you are still considering or debating your opinions on a new job. It cannot be used in the present progressive tense as the person asking this question should assume that you have already made up your mind as to how you like the job. 4. It is an unnecessarily usage of the present progressive form. There is no implied action in a statement. The sauce either lacks salt or it doesn’t. B. Vocabulary Words and dictionaries Task 21: Information in a dictionary Correct spelling Synonyms IPA pronunciation/ phonemic transcript (online dictionaries often have a recording that you can listen to) Alternative words/thesaurus Correct usage in phrases and sentences/ Idioms (formal/informal) Occurrence as a verb phrase Word class (noun, verb used with object, verb used without object)
Origin (Middle English, Old French) Related forms (adjective, verb) Related words Links to medical, biblical, or slang dictionaries (online)
1. Highest: is not used to measure height in people. Correct word would be tallest. Highest would be used for mountains, walls, or trees. 2. Enervated: describes a state that is without force or vigour. It is incorrect to apply to a person’s state of being awake, as it is too formal and highfalutin. Correct word would be tired. 3. Pretentious: has a negative connotation of over-reaching or using impenetrable language. The overall sentence is praising so the word ‘pretentious’ would be incorrect. A more correct word to use could be intelligent. (Note: clever) 4. Slap: Slap is a forceful verb and is not something that would be delivered lovingly. An alternative verb could be ‘pat’ as it implies the same type/style of gesture but in a more loving capacity. (Note: touch) 5. Footing: Walking would be a better word choice. Footing does not have a meaning in this instance and renders the sentence nonsensical. (Note: Jogging -Often words incorrect translated directly from another language are the root problem of such utterances. The French for jogging is literally translated as footing).
Task 23: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Not only was he nice, but he was also strikingly handsome. (adverb-adjective) After he got up, he made his bed and did some homework. (verb-noun, verb-noun) It was absolutely fabulous! (adverb-adjective) They both really depend on each other. (verb preposition) Their farewell at the airport was highly emotional. (adverb-adjective) She was caught in a vicious circle. (adjective-noun)
C. Phonology Overview Task 24: 1. Stress: B. Giving emphasis to one syllable 2. Phoneme: C. An individual sound 3. Intonation: A. The music of our voices
Task 25: 1. An individual sound is mispronounced. B. The listener might understand ‘bin’ when the speaker wanted to say ‘pin’. 2. A request is made with flat intonation. C. The speaker can sound arrogant and demanding. 3. The wrong syllable is stresses in a word. A. The word is incomprehensible. Task 26: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. There/ their South Languages Peaceful Young Call Search Equation Sugar
Task 27: Where does the word stress fall on the following words? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Guarantee Cavalry Mechanisation Language Retreat Speculative Success Balance Identity Articulate
Task 28: 1. Photograph Photography Photographer Photographic Non-native speakers often experience problems with these words as they have the same stem but shifting word stress. 2. To record/a record to increase/an increase To present/a present To import /an import Stress on last syllable for two syllable verbs. Stress on first syllable for two syllable nouns. Task 28: Mother Patrol Forget Announce Indicative Tonight Notable Mention
Section 3 Language Skills: Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing
A. Reading Ways of reading Task 30: Think of all the texts that you have read so far today and comment on the ways in which you read these texts. Firstly, I read the cereal packet. I read each side including ingredients and nutritional information. I read the packet most days out of habit, not to obtain any information or learn anything but I read passively to pass the time while I eat. (Passive reading) Today, I have read the newspaper; scanning the headlines to find articles that may interest me and reading intently the lead paragraph. If the article was something that I found interesting or useful, then I read the full article. Often if I found the article wasn’t interesting to me then I would quickly skim through the rest of the article to get the ‘gist’ of it. If I thought the article would interest my family, I would read the headline and first few paragraphs out loud to them. (Skimming) I also read many road signs. I quickly scanned the signs for the place that I wanted, noted the direction and distance and ignored the additional information that was of no use to me. I only paid attention to the particular information that I needed to proceed. (Scanning) I also read to relax, but I do so in a more intensive fashion. If it is a well-written and entertaining book, then I savour each word. Often I will re-read paragraphs as I want to understand each symbol or hidden meaning in a passage. (Engaged reading) Today, I am also reading my pre-course task. I am doing so in an intensive fashion. I want to proceed carefully and ensure that I don’t make any unnecessary mistakes; so I am reading, re-reading and referring back to the original text as I answer questions. I am also crosschecking and referencing my finished tasks with the answer key. (Intensive) Task 31: 1. An academic article that we need to read for an essay that we are writing. Initially we would skim through the text, highlighting any relevant information. Then we would read intensively the relevant information for important information and also read to infer what it is that the author is purporting. (Skim, Intensive, Read to infer) 2. A telephone directory. We would quickly scan through the pages to get to the relevant initial, then we would scan the alphabetical listing for the name and number that we need. Finally we would intensively read the required name and number so to ensure that we have the correct details. (Scan, detailed reading) 3. The editorial of a newspaper in a topic we care about a lot. We would read this intensively and also read to infer what the author’s implicit message in the text is. (Intensive, read to infer) 4. An advertisement for a job that we might be suitable. We would scan through this text to see if the job requirements are suitable. If on first reading they seem suitable, a more detailed and intensive reading would be undertaken. (Scan, detailed)
Task 32: What problems are there with this way of reading? Time-consuming: it takes a long time to read and understand each and every word. Lacks comprehension: reading a long passage in a highly detailed way cause people to focus on the meaning of individual words rather than the meaning of a passage. Artificial: It takes the joy out of reading. People no longer read for entertainment or to gather information but to deduce the meaning of each word.
B. Listening Ways of Listening Task 33: The texts may be spoken with varying accents, intonations and speeds. Non-native speakers may not be familiar with a particular accent. Non-native speakers are more familiar with texts from studying. They are used to have a visual to focus on. A listening task may not utilise the comprehension tools that they have previously employed for written tasks (a visual written text, pictures, diagrams). Non-native speakers can re-read a text but may not have the opportunity to listen to a text repeatedly. They can control the speed at which they read, but not at which they need to listen. The spoken text may be too quick for them to grasp and comprehend. They may misinterpret a word and not have the opportunity to recheck it, which leaves them with a mistaken or incomplete opinion of the listening text. Task 34: Think of three situations in which you listened today. Make a note of who you were listening to, your motivations for listening and describe how you listened. I had a face-to –face conversation with my sister-in-law in the morning. It was early morning so I was only half-listening and relied on picking up the gist of the conversation to converse. Body-language and expression make up a large part of this type of listening. (Skim/ gist listening). I also spoke on the telephone with my mother who wanted an errand run. I was listening for detailed instructions on where I was to go and what I was to collect. For the rest of the conversation, I was able to skim listen and reply to what was asked. (Intensive listening and skim listening) I listened to the radio as I drove. I scanned through the radio stations until I found Ray Darcy. I listened to get the gist of the conversations and to infer their meaning from different conversations, as it was quite fast paced and colloquial. (Scan listening, gist listening and listening to infer meaning)
Task 35: 1. A lecture for a course you are taking at university. This type of situation would require intensive listening and also you would be required to infer meaning at certain points. (Intensive listening, Listening to infer meaning) 2. A sales pitch for a computer that doesn’t really interest you. However, you are at work and you can’t just walk out. Skim/gist listening would be used in this situation. A minimum amount of listening would be employed, only key words and the gist of the conversation would be picked up on to appear polite. (Skim/Gist Listening) 3. Announcement at a train station when you are waiting to hear the time of the next train to your destination. A listener would scan the announcements for the name of their destination and then listen intensively for the departure information. (Scan, Intensive) 4. Instructions from your boss for a new task that is critical for your job. As the information is critical, the listener would undoubtedly listen intensively throughout the entire listening task. (Intensive) 5. An interview with someone who is famous and whose political opinion you would like to find out about. The listener would listen intensively to the politician to find out more about their opinions and also listen to infer meaning. (Intensive, Listening to infer meaning) 6. A radio programme on a topic that is mildly interesting to you. A listener would skim listen to get the gist of the programme. (Skim/Gist listen)
C. Speaking Ways of speaking Task 36: Think about this disparity between 2 years’ study of a language and a lack of ability to speak. Why do you think this happens? Non-native speakers have not had the opportunity to utilise the language. Their studies have focused on being grammatically accurate rather than fluent. They have not engaged with the language as a living entity, instead they have dissected it and can only form sentences in previously studied context. They lack confidence in their pronunciation and/or their ability to hold a conversation. Sometimes non-native speakers are embarrassed to make mistakes so they don’t speak unless completely certain of what they are saying. Task 37: 1. Could I please have a ......? Unsuccessful attempt as the listener is unsure of what the speaker wants. 2. You come my house tonight? Successful in conveying a message, although the sentence is grammatically incorrect. 3. Yesterday good time. Next time we see, no? Successful in conveying a message, although the sentence is grammatically incorrect.
4. A. How long have you been in New Zealand? B. I stay here 5 weeks. Unsuccessful, as the person asking the question does not get a satisfactory reply to their question. Person B may have misinterpreted the question and/or confused their verb tenses. Person A would be left confused as to whether Person B has been here 5 weeks, or is planning to stay 5 weeks.
Task 38: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Transactional Transactional Interactional Interactional Transactional Interactional
Task 39: Make a list of reasons why you think speaking fluency practice could help learners’ language development. Reaffirms the language that they have learnt in class by using it. Help them to modify/change and adapt different vocabulary and sentence structures to different themes in a lively and spontaneous way. Enables them to practise the language constructs that they have, and to work around the problems areas that they have through describing events, situations and objects. Encourages discourse, which develops learners’ confidence in speaking a language. Creates a more lively and challenging classroom experience. Develops their speaking skills.
D. Writing Differences between written and spoken English Task 40: 1. S 2. W 3. S 4. S 5. W 6. S 7. S 8. W 9. W 10. W 11. W 12. S
Task 41: 1. She through the ball hard so it hurt when I court it. She threw the ball hard so it hurt when I caught it. Through and threw are homophones; they have the same pronunciation but different spelling and meanings. Court and caught have similar pronunciation (although not homophones), they are sufficiently similar for a learner to confuse them as homophones and misuse them. 2. My brther livs in Swedn. My brother lives in Sweden. The learner is possibly spelling phonetically (which might be possible in their first language). They appear to be omitting the schwa sound, which is the unstressed –uh sound in words. They may also have a learning difficulty such as dyslexia, which would require professional evaluation. The learner may also frequently utilise SMS language or ‘textese’, common among native speakers, where words are shortened by omitting vowels or other adaptations; and the learner has learnt these spelling through repetition and it is not utilising them in a classroom setting. 3. However, hard I try it never works. However hard I try it never works. The learner has learnt one rule for the use of ‘however’ and has taken this model and incorrectly applied it to another situation. The learner may not be sure of punctuation. 4. first of all he invited me to sit down after that he offered me a coffee I was very surprised by his politeness First of all, he invited me to sit down. After that, he offered me a coffee. I was very surprised by his politeness. The learner lacks knowledge of written punctuation (Capitalisation of first letters, full-stops, commas, etc). Perhaps, the leaner is writing as they would speak; or the learner is reverting to the punctuation norms of their first language. Also each sentence is quite short so the leaner may be attempting to connect them into a single, longer sentence. Task 42: 1. Look at the samples of learners’ writing below and identify the difficulties encountered by these learners and other learners whose first language do not have a Roman script. Writing from left to right Writing from top to bottom Writing on the line Punctuation use: start of each line with a capital rather than the start of a sentence, use of commas, lack of capitalisation or full-stops, incorrect usage of capitalisation and commas
Homophones: misuse of words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings May not be able to write in first language, so holding a pen and making correct script symbols with consistent shapes and sizes may prove difficult Uses literary techniques employed in orthography such as paragraphs, and planning and formatting their texts
Section 4: Planning and Resources
A. Planning and preparation The lesson plan Task 43: a. 3. Personal aim b. 6. Interaction pattern c. 1. Lesson aims/learning outcomes d. 5. Procedure e. 2. Anticipated problems and solutions f. 7. Stage aim
B. Resources Task 44: 1. F. Developing student’s language and skills in a structured way and allowing them to review at home 2. G. Developing students’ listening skills with specially prepared or real material 3. B. Developing students’ ability to read real texts 4. E. Finding information on a particular topic area and developing reading skills 5. I. Showing pre-prepared work on a large screen for clarity 6. H. Writing down new words for students to focus on, making the form, meaning or pronunciation features of a language clear 7. D. Developing students’ ability to listen to authentic speech 8. C. Giving students work which can be tailored to their individual needs 9. A. Encouraging students to expand their vocabularies and to find out about new words on their own
Section 5: Developing Teaching Skills and Professionalism
A. Developing Teaching Skills Teacher language Task 45: 1. Jot that down. Colloquial language that learners may be unfamiliar with. Learners may be more familiar with ‘Write this’.
2. I wonder if you’d mind just looking at question 4 and then if you could just answer it. The sentence is too long and complex for learners to understand everything. A better instruction would be ‘Answer question 4’. 3. I’d like you to read the text on page 4 and answer the first three, then compare your answers with the person next to you. After that write a short summary of the story and discuss this with your partner. Too many instructions are being given at once, and this may lead to confusion. Instructions should be staged throughout the lesson. Task 1: Teacher: ‘Read the text on page four and answer questions one, two and three’. Students should be allowed time to complete the first task Task 2: Teacher: ‘Compare your answers with the person next to you.’ Students are allowed to completed task 2 Task 3: Teacher: ‘Write a short summary and discuss it with the person next to you.’ Students write a summary and discuss it. 4. Look at a question at the bottom of the page and think about an answer. The instruction lacks clarity. The teacher should clarify whether the questions should be thought about or should be answered; ‘Read the question at the bottom of the page and answer it’/ ‘Read the question at the bottom of the page and think of an answer’.
Task 46: 1. I don’t want to work in a group because I will only learn mistakes from other students. I would explain the importance and the benefits of group work; more talk-time for student, increased confidence in speech, more interaction, and peer-teaching. Group work also allow them to participate actively and create a more social and interactive classroom. It also develops their social skills, necessary to communicate in any culture. Practising their language skills in a group will allow them to collaborate and exchange ideas, and learn from each other. It also shows them the purpose of learning English, to communicate with others, to engage actively with others and to interact. Also it will give them an increased motivation to learn English, as they will be frequently using it and are able to monitor their success and improvements. 2. I wish you could translate more words into my language. I would explain that the language of the classroom is English and that it is more beneficial for all students that English remains the dominant language in the classroom. However, I would explain that dictionaries may be used to reference words and phrases. I would explain that for a goal of increased fluency in English that students need to be able to think and speak in English rather than translating all the time. 3. Please don’t ask me to work with that student. I don’t like people from her country. It would depend in the circumstances, if the students in question come from warring countries and this has carried over into the classroom then it may be best to adhere to the student’s wishes and place them in different groups. However if it is simply a fear of the unknown or preconceived otherness that is motivating this students request; then it may be more beneficial to all to place them in the same group and to base a class on
racism to open up dialogue and break down barriers within the classroom. I would also explain the benefits of group work as above. 4. Could we just talk in class and not use any books? I would explain to the student that the class is multidisciplinary, in that we strive to utilise all skill sets: auditory, visual and kinaesthetic. I would explain the benefits of using all skill sets and incorporating all learning styles by showing them the different types of information that they will learn through each medium. I would also explain the overlap in learning and what is covered in the text is reinforced in the speaking section. Organising of the classroom Task 47: How would you organise the classroom to carry out the activity?
The desks could be set up in a semi-circle with the students acting as assistants seated at them, with the course information in front of them. The prospective customers can then move from desk to desk discussing the options and finding a suitable course. The teacher could mingle among them and observe and participate if needed. What resources you could use to make the activity more effective?
Initially, I could show them pictures of computers to visualise what it is that they are doing; and to open a discussion on the topic with the students. The assistants could have information packs with different courses on offer, prices, times and dates. The prospective students could have information cards as to their requirements, personalities, and identities. Any problem about the organisation of the activity that you could anticipate?
Quieter students may not wish to participate. Some students may move quickly from desk to desk, while other students move more slowly; some student will feel under pressure to rush, while some may feel frustrated at slowly moving students. Students will need time to read and analyse their information packs and identity information. Dealing with Language Task 48: Different meanings: 1. Slim/Thin: Different picture cards could be laid out and students could be asked to categorise them into thin and slim; and then decide whether they have positive or negative connotations. 2. To wink/to blink: Mime could be utilised to show each and then a few students could be selected to either to either close one eye ‘wink’, or two eyes ‘blink’ and say which is which. 3. I used to get up early/ I am used to getting up early: A picture of a child waking up with a past date (such as 1987-1996) could depict the continuous past perfect; and an explanation that is no longer fact or true. I could describe to them that everyday now (2012), I get up early and this is now a habit.
4. Nervous/Upset: Two comparative stories could help explain the concepts; I feel nervous when I go to the dentist. I feel upset when I argue with my friends. Then the students could answer alternating questions as to when they feel upset or nervous. 5. 4 weeks ago/ 4 weeks before: A quick explanation of ago using stories...as in ‘4 weeks ago I went to a concert’ and a date. And ‘4 weeks before’ as in ‘4 weeks before the concert, I bought the ticket’ and another date. Furthermore, diagrammatic sketches could be used to exemplify this: May 1st May 29th
X 4 weeks ago X 4 weeks before
Different pronunciation: 6. I do it/ I’ll do it: A quick explanation of the basic, I do it is present tense and I’ll do it is future tense. Then I would write each sentence on the board and cut them into the number of words per sentence: I/do/it -3 words 1.2. 3. I/’ll/do/it -4 words 1.2. 3. 4
7. Read (present tense)/read (past tense): I would drill for pronunciation using the different IPA phonemes /i:/ for read (present tense) and /e/ for read (past tense). 8. Put/putt: I would drill for pronunciation using the IPA phonemes /ʊ/ for put and /ʌ/ for putt. I would also show them how to use their mouths to make the shorter put sound and the broader putt sound. 9. Record (noun)/ record (verb): I would explain that word stress falls on the first syllable for nouns and on the second syllable for verbs. Then I would highlight the stressed syllable on the board and over-emphasis it in speech. REcord (noun) and reCORD (verb). 10. Live (verb)/live (something happening now): I would show the different phonemes for the two words and show how I use my mouth to create the sounds. Live (verb) would be represented by /ɪ/ and a closed mouth. Live (something happening now) would be represented by phoneme /aɪ / and an open mouth.
B. Developing Skills Task 49: 1. Reading: Why the activity was not successful: The activity wasn’t successful because it was too advanced for the group, and they may not have had the pre-required vocabulary to access the meaning of the text. The students were bored during the reading task and may not have fully understood the readers’ accents. Reading a text also focuses their attention on pronunciation, rather than content. They lost interest in what the text was about and instead concentrated on how to pronounce certain words. There was no lead-in or introduction to the topic, so the students had not activated their interest in it. Alternate activity to develop reading skills: Check that students understand key vocabulary for the task. Establish interest in the task by asking questions and creating a classroom discussion around the task. Ask the students to quickly scan read the text, looking for answers to a set of multiple choice questions. Then provide some detailed questions to check their understanding of the test, which utilises their intensive reading skills. Allow the learners to work silently on this task. Ask students to describe and discuss the text in a free-speaking activity. Then the preprescribed questions can be answered in class. 2. Speaking: Why the activity was not successful: The teacher did not test the vocabulary that students had or equip them with the necessary vocabulary. Interest in the topic was not established for all the students. Students may feel shy in voicing their opinion to the whole class, but feel more comfortable in pairs or groups. Alternative activity to develop speaking skills: Base the speaking topic on something that they have covered in a previous listening or reading exercise; and check that they have the appropriate vocabulary to complete the activity. Give them a handout from which to work from, a survey, a questionnaire or a quiz. Break the class into pairs or smaller groups and have each group discuss their opinions or complete a task that requires them to ask the opinions of others and give their opinions.
Task 50: Consider how the following form part of a teacher’s professionalism: Confidentiality: is importance from an ethical point of view. It is important to keep confidential all students records and to be discreet when discussing teaching issues with other members of staff. It also helps in building a stronger student-teacher relationship, based on respect, trust and honesty. It is imperative that a teacher behaves professionally in all situations relating to confidentiality. Also from a legal standpoint, students’ records or reports should never be shared without the student’s prior consent. Setting standards: Standards set by the school, company or exam should be strictly adhered to. To inflate grade would give unrealistic expectations to the student, and bring the school or company into disrepute. To adhere to a set standard means that students know how they measure up against their peers and gives them a realistic expectation of their development. It also means that the school or company will be well-respected as a language school that can be trusted to provide accurate and unbiased information on a learner’s ability. As a teacher, it is important to uphold set standards so that you, yourself, are also respected as a teacher who teaches effectively and consciously. Punctuality: Students are paying for a service and expect that at a very minimum that this will be delivered on time. It is rude and unprofessional to be late. A teacher needs to be conscious that students have other places to go and be, after the class ends. A teacher should be reliable and consistent in turning up a few minute early to prepare the classroom and greet the arriving students. The class should start punctually as a respect to the students who arrived on time. Latecomers can join in as they arrive. Course planning/reviewing: are important in laying out the aims of a course and what you hope to achieve with a group by the end of a course. In laying out the course plan, it focuses your mind on what is needed in individual lesson plans. In order to give a professional quality lesson, it is important to have a planned outcome and aim for the overall course. It is also important to review the course along the way to ensure that it is achieving what is set out in the course plan. As a matter of professionalism it is imperative that what has been promised from the outset is delivered so course planning and reviewing is greatly important. Record keeping: is an important task as it allows other teachers to pick up where you left off, if they have to cover your class. It also allows you to track a classes’ progress. It also allows students to see their progress, if needs be. Assessment: are necessary to ensure that learners understand meaning; to test what students know and remember; or test other skills such as pronunciation and listening. Professionally, teachers should know how to administer assessments which are fair, varied and interesting and which have clear testing objectives and criteria for the students. Assessments should form a clear part of the learning process, so that students can see the benefit of them. Curriculum development: should be undertaken in a holistic manner. Primarily the needs of the learners need to be understood and taken into account at all stages. A primary, secondary, and tertiary, etc focus should be highlighted and used as a tool for all teachers and persons of interest to input their ideas and opinions. This should be a collaborative approach that has the best interests of the learners at the centre. Learning outcomes should be set, with input from all parties. A process of input assessment should be included in the framework to ensure that learning outcomes are being met. Finally a system of
accountability should be set in place to ensure standards are met. Overall, the process should take place in a professional capacity, with mutual respect and due reverence given to others ideas. Pastoral care: A teacher needs to be respectful of the student and ensure that their emotional needs are being met in the classroom; this may mean referring them to someone out the classroom if they become distressed. As a teacher, one has to be respectful of a student’s emotional needs and know where to seek professional help for them. Team work: It is important that a teacher is able to work in a team, as often many teachers work in the same school, and classes may overlap. Teachers need to be considerate, respectful and helpful to one another, which may include sharing ideas and experiences, encouraging others, sharing resources and maintaining records. They need to create a good working relationship through team work, professionalism and respect. Relationship with students: A professional student-teacher relationship is one based on mutual respect. A teacher needs to do more than teach; they need to be able to build up a rapport with students, by taking an interest in their lives outside of school, chatting to them after class, and by being approachable. Cultural awareness: is a must for all teachers, as very often an innocent gesture may offend students. It is important to research the culture of your students, especially if you are living within their country. It is also important to be sensitive to the cultures of all students within your class, and understand where they are coming from. Dressing appropriately for class is important in all countries but more so in some. As a courtesy, check if the school you are hoping to teach in has a dress code. Self-development: Professionally, a teacher should ask to observe another teacher from time to time so that they can garner ideas and learn new skills. Also teachers should ask to be observed and given feedback from time to time, when working in a school. Occasionally feedback could be gathered from students so that any weakness or strength can be identified. Continual reading of ESL magazines and reports could give fresh ideas and keep a teacher up to date on latest practises. Further study could be looked into along the way. School/college policies and rules (including equal opportunities and health and safety): The policies and rules of a school or college have been put in place so as to safe-guard the best interests of the students. They should be adhered to strictly. Health and safety of students should be a number one priority. Equal opportunity policies should be implemented and enforced stringently. As a teacher, you should request to have access to these policies and documents and familiarise yourself with them. If necessary, your input to the development of these documents should be made professionally and with the best interests of the students in mind. Membership of/contribution to professional bodies: Professional membership of one of these bodies means that you are acting as a representative of them in your professional work. These bodies act to promote the advancement in teaching and learning English. Membership of these bodies allows you greater access to further course material, latest teaching methodology and developments in the ESL field. Contribution to these bodies ensures that these bodies are there to support other ESL teachers at home and abroad with accurate information, assistance and support. ESOL and teacher training research and development world-wide: Professionally we all have a duty to contribute to a greater understanding of the field that we work in. Research,
advanced training and new developments promote greater communication between individuals working as teachers and thereby further our knowledge of different methodologies and techniques. The more we understand about how language works, how it is learnt and how it is utilised; the more we can develop and implement teaching strategies that benefit both teacher and student.