Organizational Behavior, 8e

Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn
Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15

2

Chapter 15 Power and Politics
 Study questions.
– What is power? – How do managers acquire the power needed

for leadership?
– What is empowerment, and how can managers

empower others?
– What are organizational politics?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 3

Chapter 15 Power and Politics
 Study questions.
– How do organizational politics affect

managers and management?
– Can the firm use politics strategically?

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15

4

– Make things happen in the way you want.What is power?  Power is the ability to … – Get someone to do something you want done. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 5 . – Expressed by others’ behavioral response to your exercise of power.  Influence is … – What you have when you exercise power.

Coercive power. Information power. • • • • • • Reward power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 6 . Process power. – Types of position power. – Derives from organizational sources. Representative power. Legitimate power.What is power?  Position power.

– The extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. – Success in accessing and utilizing rewards depends on manager’s skills.What is power?  Reward power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 7 .

– The extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards or administer punishments to control other people.What is power?  Coercive power. – Availability varies from one organization and manager to another. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 8 .

– If legitimacy is lost. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 9 .What is power?  Legitimate power. – The extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the ―boss‖ has a ―right of command‖ to control their behavior. authority will not be accepted by subordinates. – Also known as formal hierarchical authority.

What is power?  Process power. • Controlling the analytical process used to make choices. – The control over methods of production and analysis. – Places an individual in the position of: • Influencing how inputs are transformed into outputs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 10 .

– The access to and/or control of information. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 11 .What is power?  Information power. – May be granted to specialists and managers in the middle of the information system. – May complement legitimate hierarchical power. – People may ―protect‖ information in order to increase their power.

– Helps complex organizations deal with a variety of constituencies. – The formal right conferred by the firm to speak as a representative for a potentially important group composed of individuals across departments or outside the firm.What is power?  Representative power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 12 .

• Rational persuasion.What is power?  Personal power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 13 . – Derives from individual sources. – Types of personal power. • Expert power. • Referent power.

or judgment that the other person needs but does not have. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 14 . not absolute. experience. – Is relative. – The ability to control another person’s behavior through the possession of knowledge.What is power?  Expert power.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 15 . – Much of a supervisor’s daily activity involves rational persuasion. – The ability to control another person’s behavior by convincing the other person of the desirability of a goal and a reasonable way of achieving it.What is power?  Rational persuasion.

What is power?  Referent power. – Can be enhanced by linking to morality and ethics and long-term vision. – The ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 16 .

– Power-oriented behavior is action directed at developing or using relationships in which other people are willing to defer wholly or partially to one’s wishes.How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  Acquiring and using power and influence. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 17 . – A considerable portion of any manager’s time is directed toward power-oriented behavior.

• Downward. • Upward. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 18 . – Effective managers build and maintain position power and personal power to exercise downward.How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  Acquiring and using power and influence. and lateral influence. • Lateral. – Three dimensions of managerial power and influence. upward.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 19 . – Increasing task relevance of own activities and work unit’s activities.How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  Building position power by: – Increasing centrality and criticality in the organization. – Attempting to define tasks so they are difficult to evaluate.

• Learning ways to negotiate. participation in professional associations. – Learning political savvy. – Enhancing likeability. and understand goals and means that others accept. persuade. and attractive personal appearance. • Pleasant personality characteristics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 20 .How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  Building personal power by: – Building expertise. and project involvement. agreeable behavior patterns. • Advanced training and education.

– Seeking opportunities to increase name recognition. – Sending out notices of accomplishment. – Making oral presentations of written work. – Participating in problem-solving task forces. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 21 .How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  Managers increase the visibility of their job performance by: – Expanding contacts with senior people.

– Making one’s own goals and needs clear. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 22 . – Bargaining effectively regarding one’s preferred goals and needs. – Controlling. or at least influencing.How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  Additional tactics for acquiring and using power and influence. – Using coalitions and networks to alter the flow of information and the analytical context. decision premises.

– Sanctions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 23 . – Coalition.How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  Common strategies for turning power into relational influence. – Friendliness. – Higher authority. – Bargaining. – Reason. – Assertiveness.

• Raised concerns about compliance and obedience. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 24 . • Designed to determine the extent to which people obey the commands of an authority figure. and obedience.How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  Power. even under the belief of life-threatening conditions. formal authority. – The Milgram experiments. • The results indicated that the majority of the experimental subjects would obey the commands of the authority figure.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 25 . – Chester Barnard argued that: • Authority derives from the ―consent of the governed.‖ • Subordinates accept or follow a directive only under special circumstances.How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  Obedience and the acceptance of authority.

the subordinate: • Can and must understand it. • Must believe that it is consistent with his or her personal interests. – For a directive to be accepted as authoritative. • Must believe that it is consistent with the organization’s purpose. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 26 . • Must feel mentally and physically capable of carrying it out.How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  Obedience and the acceptance of authority — cont.

How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  Obedience and the acceptance of authority — cont.‖ – Directives falling within the zone are obeyed. – The zone is not fixed over time. – Directives falling outside the zone are not obeyed. – Directives that meet the four criteria will be accepted as authoritative since they fall within the ―zone of indifference. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 27 .

– Provides the foundation for self-managing work teams and other employee involvement groups. and how can managers empower others?  Empowerment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 28 . – Considers power to be something that can be shared by everyone working in flatter and more collegial organizations.What is empowerment. – The process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work.

• Emphasis is on the ability to make things happen. – Traditional view. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 29 . • Power is relational in terms of individuals. and how can managers empower others?  The power keys to empowerment. – Empowerment view.What is empowerment. not individuals. • Power is relational in terms of problems and opportunities.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 30 . • Changing position power. and how can managers empower others?  The power keys to empowerment. – Ways to empower others.What is empowerment. • Expanding the zone of indifference.

– With empowerment. – Empowerment changes the dynamics between supervisors and subordinates.What is empowerment. employees must be trained to expand their power and their new influence potential. and how can managers empower others?  Power as an expanding pie. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 31 .

– Emphasize different ways of exercising influence. – Clearly define roles and responsibilities. – Provide support to individuals so they become comfortable with developing their power. and how can managers empower others?  Ways to expand power. – Provide opportunities for creative problem solving coupled with the discretion to act. – Expand inducements for thinking and acting. not just obeying.What is empowerment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 32 .

What are organizational politics?  Machiavellian tradition of organizational politics. – Emphasizes self-interest and the use of nonsanctioned means. – Organizational politics is defined as the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through nonsanctioned influence means. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 33 .

What are organizational politics?  Alternate tradition of organizational politics. – Politics is the use of power to develop socially acceptable ends and means that balance individual and collective interests. – Politics is a necessary function resulting from differences in the self-interests of individuals. – Politics is the art of creative compromise among competing interests. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 34 .

– Substituting for formal authority. – Overcoming personnel inadequacies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 35 . – Coping with change.What are organizational politics?  Positive aspects of organizational politics.

• Defending turf. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 36 . • Redirecting accountability and responsibility. • Avoiding action and risk taking. – Common self-protection strategies.What are organizational politics?  Organizational politics and self-protection.

– Working to the rule. • Creative. – Stalling. • Routine. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 37 . – Playing dumb.What are organizational politics?  Common techniques for avoiding action and risk taking. – Depersonalization.

What are organizational politics?  Common techniques for redirecting accountability and responsibility. – Blaming the problem on uncontrollable events. – Buffing (or rigorous documentation). – Scapegoating. – Passing the buck. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 38 . – Escalating commitment to a losing course of action. – Rewriting history.

Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 39 . – Expanding the jobs performed by the work unit. – Forming and using coalitions.What are organizational politics?  Common techniques for defending turf.

 This understanding can be facilitated with the use of a payoff matrix analysis.How do organizational politics affect managers and management?  Managers may gain a better understanding of political behavior by placing themselves in the positions of other persons involved in critical decisions or events. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 40 .

• Advisory connections. • Service ties. • Auditing linkages. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 41 .How do organizational politics affect managers and management?  Political action and subunit power. • Approval linkages. • Work-flow linkage. – Common types of lateral. intergroup relationships where political action occurs.

• Outsiders have more control over needed resources. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 42 . – Executive behavior can sometimes be explained in terms of resource dependencies.How do organizational politics affect managers and management?  Political action in the chief executive suite. • There are fewer substitutes for a particular type of resource controlled by a limited number of outsiders. – Resource dependence increases as: • Needed resources become more scarce.

– Developing workable compromises among competing resource dependencies. – Determining the proper level of executive pay. – Redefining how the firm expects to conduct business in the international arena. – Altering the firm’s degree of resource dependence.How do organizational politics affect managers and management?  Strategies for managing resource dependencies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 43 .

– Turn the government from an industry regulator to an industry protector. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 44 . – Decide when and how to get involved in the public policy process.Can the firm use politics strategically?  There is growing awareness of the importance of political strategy for business firms.  In the United States. corporate political strategy advises managers to: – Engage in the public political process.

influence.Can the firm use politics strategically?  Organizational governance. – The pattern of authority. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 45 . and acceptable managerial behavior established at the top of the organization. – Significantly determined by the effective control of key resources by members of a dominant coalition.

Can the firm use politics strategically?  Organizational governance implications. corporations may limit their ability to manage global operations effectively. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 46 . – The daily practice of governance is the development and resolution of issues. – Governance is becoming more public and open.S. – Imbalanced governance by some U.

– Governance should have an ethical basis. some firms are expanding governance interests to include employees and communities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 47 .Can the firm use politics strategically?  Organizational governance implications. – While governance is often closely tied to the short-term interests of stockholders and pay of CEOs.

– The behavior must respect the rights of all affected parties. – The behavior must respect the rules of justice.Can the firm use politics strategically?  A person’s behavior must satisfy the following criteria to be ethical: – The behavior must produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 48 .

Can the firm use politics strategically?  CEOs and employees may justify unethical actions by suggesting that the behavior: – Is not really illegal and so could be moral. – Demonstrates loyalty. – Appears to be in the firm’s best interest. – Is unlikely to be detected. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 49 .

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