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bi ging

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h ni , 12- 2002

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cng ngh xy dng ng i

PGs L Kiu Trng i hc Kin trc H ni

Ngi son bi v trnh by:

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chng trnh nng cao trnh k s nm 2002

b xy dng

Trng i Hc Kin Trc H ni

1. Cng ngh s l nn mng 1.1 Cng ngh s l nn t yu bng m ct: 1.1.1 M t cng ngh Vic s dng m ct c mc ch l :

Trong

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Rtc cng tiu chun ca t ti y m ct ( kG/cm2) P ti trng do mng truyn cho m ct ( kG/m di ) b chiu rng mng bng ( cm ) o trng lng th tch ca ct trong m ( kG/cm3 ) gc ma st trong ca ct , ( o ) d chiu cao m ct ( cm )

Kch thc y m ct c xc nh t iu kin l : p lc do mng cng trnh v trng lng m ct truyn xung lp nm di m ct 2

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Nu ti khu vc xy dng, ngay trn mt c lp t hu c hoc t p yu th ng l phi chn mng bng xung mt chiu su kh ln, ngi ta c th dng gii php kinh t hn , l vic thay th lp t yu bng m ct. Kch thc m ct xc nh t iu kin l lp t t nhin bn di c th tip thu c p lc truyn xung. Vi mng bng, chiu dy m ct c xc nh t phng trnh :
R tc =

P + 0d b + 2dtg

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(i) Gim chiu su chn mng, (ii) Gim p lc ca nh hoc cng trnh truyn xung nn t yu ti tr s m nn t c th tip thu c p lc y, (iii) m bo cho cng trnh ln u v n nh nhanh chng do nc trong t c thot ra theo ng ngn nht vo m ct.

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PGs L Kiu

cng ngh xy dng ng i

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Khi cn xy cc cng trnh c trng lng ln trn cc trm tch st yu v bn , ngoi mc ch tng nhanh qu trnh c kt, m ct cn dng nn cht nn bn bng trng lng bn thn ca n. Khi nn cht t bn, cn ct sao cho kt cu ca bn khi b ph hoi. Khi ct trn lp bn y m khng dng cc bin php c bit ri ct u v t t m tung lng ln th kt cu ca t bn s b ph hoi v ct s ln ngp trong bn. Khi thi cng theo cng ngh ri ct , cc ht ln ri ngay st tu cuc cn ht nh nm hai bn . Khi di chuyn tu cuc lin tc th ht ln s ri u trn mt ct. Thi cng nh th , ct khng b trn ln vi bn m s nn cht bn bng chnh trng lng bn thn ca ct. Nh tnh thot nc ca ct, nn tip theo qu trnh nn cht l qu trnh c kt thm nhanh chng. Do , tng c kh nng chng ct ca bn. C th kim tra c qu trnh nn cht t bn bng cch xc nh m ca t.

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Vi nhng cng trnh c chiu di ln t trn nn t st bo ho trng thi nho c chiu dy nh hn 6 mt c th thi cng theo phng php y tri t yu . Phng php ny c th c m t nh sau: ti khu vc xy dng , p di t cao hn cao trnh thit k ca nn t 5 n 6 mt. Do tc dng ca trng lng di t p , t yu b y tri ra hai bn. Khi lp t b y tri khng dy lm , ch t 3 ~ 4 mt , lng vt liu p c th xc nh gn ng bng khi tch t b y tri. Nu khu vc xy dng c cu to bng cc lp trm tch dng phn lp , t kp gia l t st trng thi nho hoc do mm th phi s dng cc bin php ngn nga s sp ca di t p.

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Chiu dy m ct c tnh ton sao cho ln ca m ct v ln ca cc lp t yu nm di phi nh hn ln gii hn ca mng cng trnh. Vic thi cng m ct sao cho cht t c kh ln c th loi tr c ln khng cho php ca mng. Khi thi cng m ct trn mc nc ngm , ct c ri thnh tng lp 15~20 cm , tng lp phi c m cht mi ri lp tip theo . C th s dng m ln ( xe lu ) hoc m nn ( m chy ) hoc m thu chn ng cho ton chiu dy ca m. cht t c phi l 1,65~ 1,7 tn/m3. Nu ct c vo h mng kh, dng phng php m ln hoc m nn th sau khi ri mi lp li ti nc k mi m. Nn dng ct ht trung hoc ct ht to lm m ct.

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khng ln hn cng tiu chun ca nn t v s n nh ca nn c m bo .

Loi t Ct bo ho Ct m

p lc n v (t/m2) 0,3-0,4 0,6-1,0 1,0-2,0

Din tch y qu m ( m2) Chiu dy lp t c m (m) 0,25 0,5 1,0 1,5 5,0 3,0 1,0 0,25

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4,5 B phn 1 4 7 24

m cht ct ri trng thi t p hoc trng thi t nhin , c th dng cch m chn ng tng mt hoc dng phng php thu chn ng. Khi dng phng php m b mt my m c s dng l my chuyn dng m b mt nhng c th m su c t 0,50 n 1,50 mt. Loi my ny m ct hoc ct. Khi chn kch thc qu m ca my m chn ng b mt c th tham kho s liu ghi trong bng sau y:

0,4 0,6

1,5 2,0

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t st

My mc thc hin m ln chn ng : My Nga c loi BK 25 . Loi my ny m cht ct n su 1,50 mt, t st t 0,5 ~ 0,8 mt. Hiu sut khong 2000 ~ 3000m3 ct nn trong 1 ca. Tiu ch kim tra cht lng hon thnh cng tc l khi trng lng th tch ct t c 1,60 ~ 1,75 G/cm3 , ng vi cht D = 0,7 ~ 0,90. My Nht thc hin vic m v thi cng m ct trn t lin ( ti liu do hng Nippon KaiKo gii thiu nm 2000 ) cho trong bng :

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SW-180 PD 100

Loi my

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Cng sut ( PS) 150 152 150 150

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Phn nng (tn) 50 50 50 70

SP 100N SP 110N

s
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3 b phn dng cho cn trc

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Ghi ch 4

Chiu rng m ct c xc nh sao cho s n nh ca cng trnh c m bo v khong gp 5 ~ 6 ln chiu rng mng.

SP 250 SP 300N

250 600

150 300

7 4

1.1.2 Phm vi s dng:

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Trong nc :

m ct l phng php gia c nn t yu rt c hiu qu . Trc nm 1990 s dng nc ta kh nhiu , nht l khi Lin x gip ta s l tt mng nh C1 i hc Bch khoa H ni . Nh khch s 10 L Thch H ni 5

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Phm vi s dng ca m ct l chiu dy lp ct khng qu 10 mt. Nu chiu su ny qu ln th v vn kinh t m nn chn loi mng khc. Di t c nc lu chuyn cng hn ch dng m ct v l do ct c th tri theo dng nc m chn mng gim chu lc.

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Dng m thu chn ng tng su c dng khi cn nn cht lp ct trn 1,5 mt. Dng cc loi m su m ta quen gi l m di nhng l loi mnh nh cc loi -50 , -86 v.v... v cc loi thu chn ng tng su cc mnh . Dng cc loi m di c th t bn knh chn ng ti 0,4 ~ 0,7 mt v chiu su ti 3 ~ 4 mt. Khi dng loi my thu chn ng nh B - 76 hoc B - 97 bn knh nn cht n 3 mt v chiu su lp t c nn cht n 10 mt v hn na. Dng m rung th h my xung su bng cch xi nc , ngha l gn vi my rung c u xi nc r ct khi h m su vo trong ct. Di tc ng ca nc v m rung , ct c nn cht. Khi phun xi vi p lc 4~5 atm vo lp ct, ct b xi ri ra do nc chuyn ng ln pha trn. Cc ht t v ht mn trng thi l lng cng b y ln trn. Ht nng s lng ng xung y. Bn knh lan truyn kh nh nn gia tc chn ng c cc ht ct truyn l nh nn phi di chuyn m thnh nhiu im b tr theo hnh hoa mai nh l thuyt m b tng bng m di. Khi h m n v tr m dng nc xi. Qu trnh m cht th ngng xi nc. Khi m xong li xi nc rt m ln v nh th , l rng trong ct. Lp li l bng cch , rt ct xung. Nhiu khi rt xung l y bng si nh ht. C th kim tra cht lng m nn ct bng thit b xuyn , nn ti trng th hay nn tiu chun nh kim tra mu t nguyn dng.

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1 b phn dng cho cn trc 3 b phn dng cho cn trc

1.2 Cc ct : 1.2.1 M t cng ngh:

(i) Cc ct c ng knh ln : Cc ct thi cng c ng knh ln cn c gi l ging ct. L khoan to cho cc ct loi ny c thi cng ging nh kiu to l khoan cho cc nhi c vch bng thp vi chiu dy vch 8 ~ 20 mm. Thng thng cc ct loi ny c ng knh l 600 mm. Ly ht li bng gu khoan xoay cho n khi t su cn thit. Thng cc ct c su khng ln nh cc nhi nn khng phi dng bentonite gi thnh vch v c vch bng thp. Sau khi ngng khoan , nhi lng h khoan bng ct m chc v rt vch ln khi nhi y. Trn mt cc ct thng l m ct. Kt

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C hai kiu cc ct c s dng gia c nhn to nn t yu bo ho. Cc ct c ch to theo kiu khoan thnh l khoan thng ng xong nht y ct c s dng tng nhanh qu trnh nn cht ca t yu di tc dng ca trng lng khi t p v ti trng cng trnh xy trn . Cc ct thi cng theo kiu ng cc ng rng xung t , khi nhi ct th rt ng ln l mt cch ch to cc ct kiu khc.

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Phng php dng m ct l phng php hu hiu vi nhng vng t yu cn nhanh chng n nh sm thi cng. y l phng php kinh in trong gia c nn t yu trong cc bi bn quc t s l nn t yu. Bin php ny c t ra sm nht vi cc vng Trung u, sau n Lin x c. Nht bn c nhiu tp on thi cng ln bin ln chuyn dng m ct xy dng ngoi khi, to ra nhng o ni bng ct c tng c vy, din tch khu vc c lp ct n nhiu hecta.

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Nc ngoi:

cng s l nn ct ht trung vi chiu dy n 6 mt. Gn y do phng n cc thi cng nhanh hn v gi ct ht trung t nn phng php ny t dng. Phng n ny kh tin cy v cht lng nn nu c lp t st trn mt coi nh vng vy quy kn lp ct. Nn trin khai thc hin phng n ny rng ri khi iu kin cho php . nhng vng sn ct m t yu, s dng bin php ny, t c kt nhanh v gia c nn t yu c hiu qu. Cng ngh ny thch hp cho nh c s tng t 6 tng tr xung trong iu kin nn t yu.

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(ii) Cc ct c ng knh nh :

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Cc ct ng knh nh c thi cng do ng nhng ng thp rng xung t m nhng ng ny c ng knh khong 500 mm lm cho t c dn nn cht . Cc min m t c nn cht tip gip vi nhau . Nhi ct trong ng khi rt ng ln. Theo iu kin lm vic th cc ct loi ny v c bn khc vi cc dng cc b tng nhi hay cc cng khc . im khc ch l cc ct v t nn cht quanh n cng tip thu ti trng v bin dng nh nhau. Khi thi cng cc ct ta s khng c mt mng cc m c mt nn nn cht vi mun bin dng trung bnh ln hn kh nhiu so vi mun bin dng lc t cha b nn. Thnh phn khong c nh hng n gii hn nn cht ca t st v t bn. Hm lng cc cht khong st a nc trong t cng ln th gii hn nn cht ca t cng nh. Kinh nghim cho thy , tr s nh nht ca h s rng c th t c khi nn cht tng su , nch tng ng vi tr s ca h s rng p trong khong p lc p = 0,5~1,0 kG/cm2 xc nh theo kt qu th nghim mu t trn my nn . Khi p lc khong 1 kG/cm2 th phn ln nc l rng c p thot ra khi t v h s rng ng vi p lc s l gii hn nn cht ca t khi nn cht tng su bng cc ct. (iii) Nhng c im thi cng cc ct:

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C s xc nh khong cch cn thit gia cc cc ct l cc gi thit v thi gian c kt ca nn nh sau: * Thi im ban u , nc tip thu ton b ti trng truyn ln nn. * Vng nh hng ca cc ct ng knh ln c xem nh trn. * Vng nh hng chu ti trng phn b u. * Ch xt n c kt thm.

Cc ct ng knh ln c s dng c hiu qu khi cn tng nhanh qu trnh nn cht ca t bi tch nh t st dng di. Cc ct ng knh ln cng c s dng hp l khi cn m bo s n nh ca nn c din tch chu ti ln bng cch tng nhanh qu trnh c kt thm nh nn nh cng nghip cn n nh ln trong thi gian ngn.

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cu phi hp ca h thng thot nc ngay trong nn di mng m bo tng nhanh qu trnh nn cht ca nn chu ti do ng thm ca nc p thot ra t l rng ca t c rt ngn li.

* Cn ch hin tng ct mc trong ng khi rt ng ln . Phi c trang b chng mc ct trong ng khi rt ng nng ln. * Ct trong cc phi c m cht. Dng cch no th ngi thit k thi cng ch nh v t vn m bo cht lng bn cnh ch u t duyt y . C th dng qu nn , cng kh nn hoc n thm ln na khi rt . * Trnh t ng theo cch dn nn t ngoi vo trong nu din gn. Nu din chy di th thi cng theo hng ngang chn l. Thi cng c mt s hng l li n hng chn cho khu vc c ln cht u. 1.2.2 Phm vi s dng :

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Trong nc:

Cc ct c dng nc ta bt u vo nm 1958 cho nhng khu xy dng nh tr s c quan c s tng 4 ~ 5 tng. Ngi nh s 42 Ng Quyn H ni,

Ti nhng vng m nc ngm tnh , iu kin s dng cc ct nn pht trin . Cn ht sc cnh gic vi iu kin mc nc ngm thay i , bin ng nhiu . Ti H ni c mt s bi hc cho vic s dng cc ct vi v tr c mc nc ngm bin ng nhi , nc ko rt ct di mng lm cho cng trnh b ln nguy him . Nu theo di tt iu kin thu vn th gii php cc ct l gii php kinh t trong s l nn t yu. y l bin php gia c nn t yu r v c hiu qu cho nh t 6 tng tr xung xy dng trong iu kin t yu.

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* Cc thp ng nng c th ng xung t bng thit b no cng c : my ng cc , my nn , my h cc kiu rung, ba Franki ...

* Ct dng nhi trong ng a xung t phi ng nht v kch thc ht , l loi ct va hoc ct th. Hm lng st v bi khng qu 5%.

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* nn cht t tng su cc thp rng , c gi l ng nng , thng dng c ng knh 500 mm v khng lm nh hn 420 mm. u ng nng c m to ra c khi rt ng ln ct nhi bn trong ng s nm li trong t.

Thi cng gia c nn t yu tng su bng cc ct c nhng c im sau y:

Ngoi nc:

1.3 Gia c nn bng bc thm : 1.3.1 M t cng ngh :

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Khi nn t c cc lp ct bn trn nng cao ng thi dng lm lp gia ti gip cho s cht bt nc lp di su lp t ny c kt kh nng chu ti, nc trong t b p lc ca ti lm nc tch ra v ln cao theo bc, t c kt nhanh. Khi gim ti, nc cha trong ng c bc m khng hoc t tr li lm nho t. Kt hp s dng vi a k thut tip tc cht nc trong t v ct bn trn s ci thin tnh cht t nn nhanh chng. Va qua ti Vng Tu B Ra nhiu nh my c gia c bng phng php s dng bc thm v kt qu cho thy rt ngn c thi gian n nh
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Nn t snh ly, t bn v st bo ho nc nu ch lp t hoc ct ln trn , thi gian lp snh ly c kt rt lu ko di thi gian ch i xy dng. Cm xung t cc ng c bc thot nc thng ng xung t lm thnh li vi khong cch mt li l 500 mm. V tr ng c bc nm mt li. ng thot nc c bc thng cm su khong 18 ~ 22 mt. ng thot nc c bc c ng knh 50~60 mm. V ng bng nha c rt nhiu l chm kim nc t do qua li. Trong ng bc bng si plime dc theo ng nc dn theo bc ln, xung, trong ng. Phng php ny c gi l phng php thot nc thng ng (vertical drain). Vic cm ng xung t nh loi my cm bc thm. My ny nc ta t sn xut c ( Tng Cng ty Giao thng 2 ). Hin nay ang c mt nc ta nhiu my cm bc thm ca i loan.

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Cc ct c nu trong cc sch gio khoa v Nn mng v gia c t nn ca nhiu nc trn th gii. T nhng nh a cht c tn tui nh Teczaghi n Maslov ca Nga u nhc n phng php ny nh l phng php gia c nn t yu c hiu qu v kinh t.

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tr s cng ty Xut nhp khu Rau Qu, B Thng Mi nc ta l ngi nh s dng cc ct sm. Sau ny, vo nm 1982, ti khu Thnh Cng H ni, vic s dng khng thnh cng cc ct ngi nh A2 Ngc Khnh lm nhng ngi s dng cc ct tr nn thn trng.

Nc ngoi:

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1.4 Lm cht t ln st tng su bng cc t : 1.4.1 M t cng ngh

Bin php s dng bc thm c s dng cng khng qu lu so vi s xm nhp phng php cng ngh ny vo nc ta. Ti Philippines, Indonxia l nhng o c nhiu vng trng xnh ly, vic s dng bc thm kh ph bin.

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Vic s dng bc thm nc ta mi xut hin khong 10 nm tr li y. Nhng cng trnh s dng bc thm vi s lng nhiu tp trung cho cc cng trnh nn ng nh ng quc l 5 - H ni - Hi phng, nhiu on trn ng quc l 1A, nht l nhng ng xa l ti ng bng sng Cu Long nh cc ng thuc cc tnh min Ty Nam b v nhiu con ng thuc tnh C Mau . Cng trnh dn dng v cng nghip s dng bc thm c dng rng ri cc khu cng nghip B Ra-Vng Tu nh ti cc nh my in Ph M, nh my Ho cht ...

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Trong nc :

y l bin php mi c s dng nc ta v vi nhng cng trnh c thot nc theo phng thng ng ca bc thm chng t tc c kt ca nn t yu l nhanh so vi cc phng php khc . Bin php ny c th s dng c rng ri v theo kinh nghim nc ngoi , y l bin php hu hiu trong bi ton gii quyt tc c kt ca nn t yu. Cng ngh ny thch dng cho vic xy dng nh c s tng c s tng 3 ~ 4 tng xy dng trn nn t mi lp m di lp t lp l lp bn su.

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1.3.2 Phm vi s dng

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nn t l ng k . ng quc l s 5 ni H ni vi Hi phng , nhiu on nn t cng c gia c bng bc thm. Bc thm c dng nhiu trong vic xy dng ng i qua vng ng bng sng Hng , ng bng sng Cu Long . Bc thm lm cho nn t n nh nhanh hn ch n nh t nhin c nhiu thi gian. Bc thm c s dng nc ta trong vng 5 nm tr li y.

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Gii hn nn cht ca t st xc nh theo cng thc :


0 = h 1 + nch

Trong c , h l dung trng cht , dung trng su h , nch cht ln nht.

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Hoc theo cng thc :

= 1+

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Nu gi l din tch tng i ca cc l ta c th tham kho khong cch gia cc cc t trn vi xi mng nh bng sau:

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Mc nn cht ph thuc vo t ni cn nn v cht cn t. cht ng vi ln st nh hn 0,02 dao ng khong 1,55 ~ 1,70 t/m3 v ph thuc hm lng ht st v ht bi trong t. Trong trng hp iu kin s dng phi t tnh khng thm ca nn ln th phi tng tnh nn cht. cht khi ny phi trn 1,75 t/m3.

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Nu s dng thuc n th cch tin hnh nh sau: To l nh n mn . ng knh l n mn ch t 60 ~ 80 mm . Sau khi khoan l nh ny ti su lp t cn nn cht , rt mi khoan ln v cho thuc mn ni vi dy dn n hay dy kch n xung . Lp nh bng ct v cho n . Lng thuc n loi BB khong chng 200 ~ 300 gam cho mt l s to ra c l c ng knh gp 10 ln ng knh gi thuc . Sau khi n , t quanh gi mn b p ra chung quanh v to l rng nhi t hoc nhi hn hp t - xi mng - vi ri m cho cht. Thng thng chiu su ca lp ln st c gia c n khong 12 ~ 14 mt di y mng.

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Vic lm cht t tng su vi loi t ln st c l hng ln c th tin hnh thnh hai ng tc : to l v lp y l. Vic to l c th tin hnh bng cch ng cc thp trn ng knh 400 ~ 500 mm ri nh ln , c th khoan , c th dng nng lng n. Vic lp y l thng dng t ti ch , c th dng t kh trn vi vi v xi mng ri nhi cht xung l.

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Kim tra cht lng m cht thc cht l xc nh cht ca t gia cc cc ti v tr t mng . Vic m cht coi nh t yu cu nu tr s cht trung bnh xp x tr s thit k qui nh. thp so vi tr s thit k khng qu 0,05. Nu cao trnh t mng nh hn chiu dy lp m th

rng t nhin ca t (%) H s rng ca t trng thi t nhin m2khi c=1,65 t/m3 Khong cch gia cc cc t m2khi c=1,7 t/m3 Khong cch gia cc cc t m2 khi c=1,75 t/m3 Khong cch gia cc cc t

1,224

1,084

1,0

0,92

0,85

0,264

0,224

0,182

0,149

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s
0,115 0,084 1,8 2,0 2,25

2,5

2,75

1,75

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1,75

0,298

0,286

0,206

rd

0,173

0,142

2,10

2,25

2,50

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0,321

0,260

0,229

0,198

0,166

1,6

1,8

2,0

2,1

2,25

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0,785 3,25 0,110 3,00 0,137 2,5 12

55

52

50

48

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1.5 Cc xi mng t trn t : 1.5.1 M t cng ngh

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Nhng cc xi mng t trn t thng b tr st nhau di chn mng bng , ng knh cc n st cc kia . Lng xi mng dng cho 1 m3 cc t 250 kg n 350 kg. T l Nc/Ximng l 60% n 120% vi sa xi mng bm xung cc. Sau 28 ngy , khoan ly mu trong cc cc ny cng t 17 kG/cm2 vi lng xi mng l 250 kg/m3 v hn na tu thuc loi t ti ch. Phng php ny c cc nc Hoa k , Anh, Php , c v nhiu nc chu u khc s dng. Nc Nht cng xy dng nhiu nh vi loi cc ny. Vi cc ny c th xy dng nh t 8 tng n 10 tng . Gn y cc hng ca c gii thiu vo nc ta loi my do Hercules Grundlgging sn xut lm cc xi mng t. Loi ny c th lm c nhng cc t trn xi mng t ng knh 600 mm , su bnh qun 4,4 mt hay hn na. Thay cho xi mng n thun , ta c th trn xi mng vi vi thnh cc vi - xi mng vi lng hn hp vi v xi mng cho 1 mt su ca cc l 26 kg nh trnh by trn.

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Dng my o kiu gu xoay , b gu v lp li khuy t kiu li chm ngang lm ti t trong h khoan m khng ly t khi l khoan. Xoay v n cn xoay n su y cc. Ta c mt cc m bn trong t c khuy u . Khi mi khuy y cc th bt u bm sa xi mng c dn trong lng cn khoan n mi khoan. t li c trn vi sa xi mng thnh dng xn xt c xi mng. Va rt va bm sa xi mng v trn. Cui cng khi cn khoan nng mi ln n mt t , ta c cc t trn xi mng. Xi mng s pht trin cng nh tnh ton.

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Phng php ny c nu trn l thuyt , nc ta mi s dng nh l th im . Cha c cng trnh thc nghim nn iu kin s dng b hn ch .

1.4.2 Phm vi p dng

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cn tin hnh lm cht thm bng m nng. Khi s dng nng lng n v chiu dy lp t b xi ti ch d tnh gn ng v vt qu 2 mt. Nu do iu kin s dng cng trnh v qu trnh cng ngh c th xy ra s kin l nn nh b t m th cn kim tra cht lng m cht bng th nghim ti trng th trn nn t c lm t nhn to. Khi m cht khng t yu cu th lm thm cc chen thm vo ch cc lm.

1.5.2 Phm vi p dng

1.6 Cc loi cc s dng cy trong thin nhin : 1.6.1 M t cng ngh:

h ib o

Khi khi lng cc cho cng trnh khng nhiu v trong mi trng cha cc thng xuyn ngm nc , c th dng cc loi cc l cy trong thin nhin : cc g , cc cy trm , cc tre. (i) Cc g :

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Phng php ny mi c gii thiu vo nc ta nhng iu kin s dng rng ri cn hn ch . y l bin php c ngha kinh t cao , nn c th im nhiu nh hn na c kt qu nhn rng din s dng . Ti cng trnh Tr s Cng ty Hng Hi ti u khu Kim Lin dng phng php ny gia c thnh vch o lm hai tng hm cho nh chnh. Ti B Ra cng dng phng php ny gia c nn y mng mt b cha du ln, c hiu qu cao. Loi gia c nn theo cng ngh ny c th lm mng cho nh c cao ti 12 tng.

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Vi nhng ch tiu trn y, phng php t ra hu hiu khi qui i sc chu ti di nn thnh tr s ng nht dng khi tnh ton mng bng di cng trnh. Vi sc chu ca cc khong 15 kG/cm2 c th qui i sc chu y mng bng thnh bnh qun 5~7 kG/cm2 l iu c ngha khi thit k mng.

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Ct Bn,st ct t ln hu c Than bn

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Loi t ti ch

Lng ximng/m3 250 226 250 350 325

T l N/X % 120 100 60 60 60

Cng mu KG/cm2 41,8 30 17,1 15,7 16,4

Nht bn gii thiu vi th trng nc ta loi my lm cc loi ny l TENOCOLUMN. Cc ch tiu khi s dng my TENOCOLUMN nh sau:

n=

40000(eo e yc )

* d 2 (1 + eo )

h ib o

Cc g thng phi s dng ti nhng ni m cc thng xuyn ngm trong nc. Nu nc khng ngm thng xuyn cc g , cc rt nhanh b mc lm h hng cng trnh. Cc g thng dng di y tr cu nh , tr ct in vt sng , tr ct in dn in qua cnh ng , cn c trm c th ng di mng nh 3 ~ 5 tng trn nn t yu . Hin nay cha s dng cc g ph bin cho nh dn dng v cng nghip. Vic s dng cc g nn ht sc hn ch v tin cy ca cc g cha cao do nhiu iu kin ca thu cn khng an ton cho vic chng mc .

v 2

T cng thc ny ta thy : * t yu va c st IL = 0,55 ~ 0,60 , cng chu ti thin nhin Ro=0,7 ~ 0,9 kG/cm2 ng 16 c cho 1m2. * t yu c st IL = 0,7 ~ 0,8 , cng chu ti thin nhin Ro=0,5 ~ 0,7 kG/cm2 ng 25 c cho 1m2. * t yu qu c st IL 0,80 , cng chu ti thin nhin Ro< 0,5 kG/cm2 ng 36 c cho 1m2.

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Vng ng bng sng Cu Long , cc vng ven bin khc nh nng , Nha trang ...s dng cc g trm l mt sng to trong vic s dng vt liu a phng nhm h gi thnh cng trnh. Vic s dng cc g trm thi gian th nghim v chng minh l tt. Trng hp nn t yu l bn ct pha st hoc bn st pha ct th c trm ng vo t c tc dng nh ci nm nn cht t nn gia cc c trm lm cho t t ch c h s rng t nhin eo t ti h s rng yu cu eyc. Cng vic y l xc nh s cc cho 1 m2. Theo nghin cu ca trng i hc K thut nng th s c trm n c ngd knh d c xc nh theo cng thc :

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Loi cc g ph bin l dng g bch n , g phi lao , g m c thn thng , di t 4,5 mt n 12 mt , i khi n 18 mt , ng knh t 16 n 30 ~ 35 cm . u di ca cc g c o vt nhn c hnh thp m u nhn hng xung di. Rt nhiu khi lm b phn thp dt ghp thnh mi m ly mi g chng cho mi cc b to hay dp v khi gp chng ngi trong qu trnh ng. Phn u trn ca cc nh ai trnh v u cc cng nh trnh dp tot u cc khi va chm vi ba ng.

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(ii) Cc tre : Cc tre c s dng nh bin php gia c nn m khng nn coi l mng cc. Thng thng ng cc tre vi s lng cc l 25 cc cho 1m2, ngha l cc b tr theo hng vung gc vi nhau v cch nhau 20 cm mt cc. Cc tre phi l tre c ti , mnh dy , ng knh 80 mm n 120 mm, di 3~3,5 mt mt cc. Pha ngn o vt v cm xung di . Pha gc ca gi st mt lm u trn cc , khi ng s ng vo mt tre . ng cc tre theo chu vi dn vo gia v khng nn ng nhanh qu. ng qu nhanh c th b hin tng dn p lm tri cc ng hoc b nn cht gi to. Hin nay cha c nghin cu nghim tc no v cc tre cho nhng thuc tnh cht , chiu di , tnh bn theo thi gian . Tuy th do kinh nghim dn gian lu ngy , cc tre s dng tha tht khong hai chc nm ( 1960 ~ 1980 ), gn y trong xy dng nh dn li xut hin nhiu nh s dng cc tre. V cc tre l cht hu c nn ch bn theo thi gian nu mi trng quanh cc ngp nc thng xuyn. Nu mi trng cha cc , kh , t thay i lin tc hay kh thng xuyn , cc tre b mc v c kh nng mi n hng. Mi trng s dng cc tre phi c theo di thng xuyn c quyt nh ng n. 1.7.2 Phm vi p dng

Trong nc:

h ib o

Trong nc dng ph bin cho nh 2 ~ 3 tng ni t yu. Mt giai on di khong 30 nm t dng v cha thy c s chc chn cho ch li ca cc tre v theo trng phi Lin x c t s dng loi cc ny. Sau i mi, dn c t lm nh mi li s dng cc tre. Ngoi nc :

Khi chu u gn nh khng dng loi cc tre gia c nn t. Gn nh rt t ti liu vit v cc tre hoc c trm.

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y l bin php gia c nn truyn thng s dng nhiu trong dn gian nc ta nhng t nhng nm 1960 n 1990 vic s dng b hn ch . Sau nm 1990 , nhiu nh dn li bng ln phong tro s dng cc tre . Cn ht sc ch n mi trng chn cc . Nu mc nc ngm thay i nhiu phi ht sc thn trng khi dng cc tre. Cng ngh ny s dng cho nh c s tng di 4 tng trong vng t khng qu yu nhng khng rn . Sc chu cho php ca t di 1 kG/cm2.

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1.7.1 M t cng ngh (i) Khi nim v phn loi :

(ii) D liu cn cho thit k cc:

h ib o

* Cc ti liu v a cht cng trnh ti khu vc xy dng : mt bng h khoan , im xuyn thm d v cc kt qu khoan , xuyn , cc ti liu v th nghim cc th, ng vin v ng trc cng trnh, mt ct v ct a cht, kt qu phn tch th nghim t . Cc kt qu thm d a cht thu vn cng trnh.

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Theo kh nng chu ti ca cc m chia thnh cc chng hoc cc treo ( cc ma st ). Cc chng cm mi cc vo tng hoc tng t c coi l tng y khng nn c. Cc ma st chu ti trng ngoi nh lc khng ca t bao m chung quanh v mi cc. Nu ti mi cc c cc lp t cht th phn ln ti trng truyn qua mi cc. Nu cc cm vo cc tng t c tnh nn ln ln th phn ln ti trng s do ma st trn mt bao quanh cc tip nhn.

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Loi cc ny c dng rng ri trong xy dng dn dng v cng nghip. Theo phng php h cc xung t, chia lm cc h bng ba, bng cc my h chn ng hoc cc ba chn ng hoc cc p . Tu theo a cht ti ni ng hoc h cc , c th h cc theo cch s dng my h cc hoc kt hp vi cch xi nc hoc khoan mi . Ti nhng ni m cc phi i qua lp ct th vic h cc kh khn hn khi cc h qua lp st . Nhng trng hp ny phi khoan mi v mun gi c thnh vch h khoan khi xp , phi dng dung dch st bentonite gi thnh vch. Qu trnh khoan mi bm vo h khoan dung dch st bentonite . Dung dch ny bm vo thnh vch l khoan gi khng cho ct xp. Theo cu to cc loi cc b tng ct thp c sn , cc c chia thnh : loi c tit din vung ct thp thng, loi c tit din vung ct thp ng sut trc. C loi cc c tit din vung tit din c , c th ch to loi cc tit din vung tit din rng hnh trn mi kn hoc mi h. C loi cc tit din trn , li c nhng cng c loi cc ng tit din rng . C th ch to cc b tng ct thp c hnh nm . Ni chung hnh thi cc b tng ct thp ch to kiu c sn rt a dng .

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1.7 Cc b tng ct thp c sn :

* Khi cc cm vo cc lp t tng i cht th khng nn chiu dy lp di mi cc qu mng nu di lp ny l lp c kh nng chu ti km hn lp ny. * Nu cc lp c kh nng chu ti km ( bn , st nho hoc do nho ...) c chiu dy qu ln n ni chiu di cc khng th i qua ht cc lp th c th mi cc ti cc lp t yu nhng phi tnh ton sao cho kh nng chu ti ca cc l do ma st quyt nh.

h ib o

* Nu di cc lp chu ti km l cc lp chu ti kh hn nh ct cht , st v st cng c chiu dy thay i rt nhiu trong phm v chiu di nh cn thit k mng, coc th la chn gii php dng hai , ba chiu di cc khc nhau ti cc v tr khc nhau.

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* T mt t tr xung c cc lp t p , bn hu c, bn , st v st do nho v nho , ct bi v cc loi t khc c kh nng chu ti km th chiu di ca cc c xc nh trn co s mi cc phi c cm su vo lp ct tng i cht hoc vo cc lp st cng , na cng , do cng hoc cm vo cc lp t to ht , lp .

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Khi chn loi mng cc ch yu cn c vo c tnh v tr s ti trng. i vi ti trng tp trung , nn chn mng cc c tit din hnh vung , ch nht hoc hnh thang v cc b tr thnh nhm . Nu ti trng phn b theo chiu di dng mng cc hnh bng v b tr cc trn mt , hai hoc nhiu hng ( di tng ). Mng cc di cc xil, ng khi th b tr cc theo ng trn. Khi chn chiu di cc phi xut pht t iu kin a cht theo cc iu kin sau y:

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(iii) Chn loi mng cc , chiu di v tit din cc

* M t qu trnh vn hnh , s dng, khai thc cng trnh nht l cc yu t v lc s c kh nng nh hng n s chu ti lu di ca cng trnh. Cc kh nng lm cho nc di t b thay i trong qu trnh s dng nh cc yu t sn sinh ra tc ng n mn , kh nng to dng chy ngm , kh nng lm tng, gim mc nc ngm.

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* Cc ti liu v thit k cng trnh.

Vic la chn tit din cc nh l hp l khi : - Ti trng thc t tc dng ln cc nh hn tr s tnh ton theo t nn v theo vt liu lm cc. - Khi cn thit phi thit k theo cu to vi s lng cc ln hn nhiu so vi yu cu xut pht t iu kin sc chu ti tnh ton ca cc theo iu kin cng t nn. - Khi ti cng trng khng c cc tit din ln. - Khi chiu di cc vung nh hn 8 mt. - Khi cc dng thp ng sut trc thay cho cc thng c chiu di ln hn 16 mt.

h ib o

v 2

Kinh nghim cho thy , nn la chn tit din cc ln l hp l vi cc trng hp: - Khi coc ti trng ngang v mmen un m tit din cc nh khng tip nhn c. - Khi ti trng tc ng rt tp trung, khi hn ch din tch b tr cc trn mt bng v khi c kh nng truyn ti trng tnh ton ln cc gn bng tr s bn gii hn ca vt liu cc. - Khi thit k cc n di ct. - Khi chiu di cc ln hn 12 mt. - Khi xy dng mng cc nhng vng ng t. - Khi cc chu ko nhiu. - Khi t c tnh n.

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Chn tit din cc li nht phi k n ti trng truyn ln cc , n kh nng tn dng cao nht vt liu lm cc cng nh phi k n cc tnh cht c l ca cc lp t m cc i qua v lp t di mi cc.

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* Thng thng th cc nn xuyn qua cc lp t ln st cm vo cc lp t ct tng i cht hoc cc lp t st v st cng , na cng hoc do cng. cm su vo cc lp t cht nn tu tnh hnh cc lp trong a tng nh : 0,50 mt vi v t to ht; 1,00 mt vi t cht ; 1,50 mt vi t cht va.

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* Khi cch mt t k t trn xung t hn 2 mt thy c cc lp ct cht , st v st cng cng nh t to ht hoc th gii php la chn mng cc t ra ng nghi ng hoc c th ni l khng nn.

(v) H cc kiu chn ng :

h ib o

Ch i vi t ct bo ho nc v t st nho hoc do nho mi nn s dng phng php h cc bng chn ng. h cc c tt th my chn ng phi c trng lng ln th d h cc di 12~15 mt trong t yu th trng lng my phi nng ti thiu l 5 tn v t cht th my phi nng n 10 tn. Vic chn my h cc chn ng ph thuc trng lng cc , ph thuc tnh cht c l ca t ni cha cc. Cc my h cc chn ng ca Lin x c cn trong nc ta l cc loi B-1 , 3 , 30 , 80 , 160 , 170 , 250 , v BY-1,6 , B-102 , B-104 , B108.

v 2

Cc loi ba ng cc loi song ng kiu Lin x c cn c nhiu trong nc ta l : Y-5 , C-32 , C-35 , C-38 , C-431 , CCCM 742A , CCCM501 , 502 , 503, 708 v PP-28. Ba diesel kiu Lin x c c cc loi YPM-500 , YPM-1250 , C-524, C-2544 , C-222 , C 222A , C-268 , C268A , C-330 , C-858 , C- 859. Cc loi ba ng cc kiu diesel thu lc ca Nht c phn chy t 3,3 tn n 6 tn vi k hiu DH hin nay cng c nhiu Cng ty Xy dng ang c. Cc loi ba diesel ca Hoa k c th mua c ti th trng l DE150/110 , DE70/50C, DE70/50B, DA55C , DA45 , DE33/30/20C , DA35C , DA15C . Ba dng hi nn c MS500 , Ms 350 , 11B3 , 10B3 , 9B3 , #7 , # 6 , v #5. Cc dng dn khoan mi c H1200B , HA-18 , HVA -36 v AF-550.

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Vic h cc bng ba c th thc hin vi bt k loi t chu nn no. Hin nay ba c s dng nhiu l ba diesel kiu hai thanh dn ng cc mc d nng lng xung kch c km ba hi n ng nhng u im quan trng l ba t iu khin , khng cn c my nn kh . Gn y vic s dng my diesel kiu ng c cng sut in cao so vi loi hai thanh dn nn loi my ny c s dng rng ri. T s trng lng phn chy xung kch v trng lng cc khng c nh hn 1,5 ln i vi t cht , khng nh hn 1,25 ln vi t cht va v 1,0 i vi t yu bo ho nc. Khi dng ba diesel kiu ng , t s trng lng phn chy xung kch vi trng lng cc c th ly thp hn v bng 0,7 ~ 0,8 . Khi bt u ng ch nn nng chy cao khong 0,3 ~ 0,4 mt s a cc vo v tr kh chnh xc.

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(iv) H cc kiu ng :

(vii) Cc nm :

h ib o

Cc nm l loi cc b tng ct thp c hnh nm. Cc nm s dng rt tt khi lp t y mng l thun nht v dy cha nm. Mi nm phi nm trong lp t n hi v cch ng phn gii vi lp di t nht 1,2 mt. Do iu kin kh tho mn v chiu dy lp t cha nm nn vic s dng cc nm l hn ch. Mt s cng trnh s dng cc nm do mi nm xuyn qua lp t cha nm nn nm b chm xung cc lp t di v hin tng x rch , lm tch lp t st mng gy nguy him cho cng trnh.

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Phn ln cc thit b s dng cho cc p u c sn xut trong nc ta. B phn ch yu ca my p cc l h kch. C hai kiu my c bn l my p nh cc v my p m ngang thn cc. C 3 cch neo kch l h neo trong lng t , h gi nh i trng v h neo ngm cht vo cng trnh. Hn ch ca cc p l kh s dng cc ln v kh nng kch p cng nh h neo gi cng knh nu dng i trng. Hin tng p cc lm tri t chung quanh l iu kin cn ch trong tin p. Cn b tr tin p sao cho t khng b dn nn nhanh gim hin tng tri t chung quanh , nht l ti cc v tr c nhng lp t c tnh n hi cao.

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Cc p l c th s dng rt c bit ca nc ta. Hin nay trong iu kin thi cng trong ni do cc ng b nhc im v ting n v s chn ng nn vic s dng rt hn ch. Ban u cc p ch s dng theo cch ni nhng on ngn cc Mga . Sau ny chng ta c th p c nhng on cc di trn 5 mt. V nguyn tc nhng cc ng u c th thi cng kiu p. m bo cc p t c sc chu ti d tnh th lc p cc phi t ti lc p gii hn ti thiu Ppmin . ng thi m bo an ton cho h neo gi v thit b p , cn khng ch lc p khng ln qu Ppmax. Lc p ti hn ti thiu v ti a ph thuc c tnh ca nn t cha cc. Thng lc ny phi ln hn lc chu ti ca cc 20% ~ 50%.

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(vi) H cc kiu p :

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Cc loi my h cc ca cc nc pht trin mi nhp vo nc ta rt phong ph , c k hiu l V- ( V-chn ng , vibration ) nh V-140 , V-36 , V-30 , V-20 , V-20B , V-17 , V16, V-14 , V-5C , V-5B , V-5 , V2A v V-2. Mt trong nhng Hng c nhiu my thi cng cc ni ting ca Hoa K l ICE ( International Construction Equipment, Inc. ) ta c th c p ng thng qua E-mail tip xc l: info@iceusa.com.

1.7.2 Phm vi p dng Trong nc :

Nc ngoi:

1.8 Cc dng cc ch to ti v tr cng trnh : 1.8.1 M t cng ngh (i) Cc nhi :

h ib o

Cc nhi c s dng trong vic xy dng nh cao tng. Nh cao tng c nhng c im ng ch : *Ti trng tp trung thng ng chn ct ln ng k. Ngoi ra di chn cu thang v thang my , chn nhng vch cng cng c nhng ti trng kh ln. Ti trng ngang cng nh vn n nh ca nh cao tng l nhng bi ton cn c xem xt mt cch nghim tc. * Nh cao tng rt nhy vi ln, c bit l ln lch. Ln kiu g cng gy ra nhng tc ng mnh m n s lm vic tng th ca cc kt cu nh. *Trong tnh trng th ca ta hin nay, nh cao tng s c xy dng nhiu trong khu ng dn c, mt nh c sn kh dy c. Vn

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Vic s dng cc b tng ct thp cho nh vng t yu l ph bin trn rt nhiu nc. Chiu di cc c s dng n 30 mt. Tit din cc c th hnh vung, hnh ch nht , hng trn hay hnh tam gic. Kch thc cnh nu tit din hnh vung t 200 x 200 mm n 450 x 450 mm. C ngi thit k cc b tng ct thp n tit din 500 x 500 mm. Gn nh tt c cc nc trn th gii u c tiu chun thit k v thi cng cc b tng ct thp.

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Cc b tng ct thp tr thnh gii php mng su kinh in v truyn thng . Vic s dng gii php ny c kt qu rt n nh . S pht trin ca phng php ny l tt yu v kt qu l khng cn bn ci . y l gii php mng su c s dng cho nh c s tng t 5 n 17 tng, hin nay s dng kh rng ri cho cc dng nh Vit nam.

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(ii) Cng ngh lm cc nhi

ii.1 Cc dng cc nhi ph bin : Cc nhi ni trong ti liu ny l cc nhi b tng ct thp thc hin ti ch. NgoI ra cn c cc dng cc nhi ct, cc nhi cui hoc dm m thut ng quen dng l cc balastre s cp ti mc khc. a) Cc nhi n gin: (i) Cc nhi n gin nng

h ib o

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@ Qu trnh thc hin mng cc , d dng thay i cc thng s ca cc (chiu su , ng knh) p ng vi iu kin c th ca a cht di nh. @ Cc khoan nhi tn dng ht kh nng chu lc ca b tng mng cc do iu kin tnh ton theo lc tp trung. @ u cc c th chn cao tu cho ph hp vi kt cu cng trnh v quy hoch kin trc mt bng. @ Nu s dng mng barrette rt d dng lm tng hm cho nh cao tng. Theo kinh nghim ca cc nc ng Nam , Hng Cng, i Loan th c 6 ~ 7 tng cao nn lm mt tng hm cho nh cao tng l thch hp. C tng hm, cng trnh cao tng c nhiu ci li. Nu lm tng hm, nn di nh c gim ti trng do ly i lp t m hm chim ch.. Nh c hm, tng n nh khi chu tc ng ngang rt ng k. Nh c tng hm s dng thm din tch phc v nhng tng su. Cc nhi mi vo Vit nam v mt thc t ( trc y c tc gi th nghim quy m nh ) khong ba bn nm tr li y, ch yu cho cc cng trnh lin doanh hoc nc ngoi u t.

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bo m an ton cho cc cng trnh c l mt c im xy dng nh cao tng nc ta. T nhng c im nu khi qut m gii php chn cho mng nh cao tng hay thy l mng cc nhi v mng barrette. Nhng u im ca mng cc nhi cp th tm tt : @ Khi thi cng cc khoan nhi cng nh s dng cc khoan nhi m bo an ton cho cc cng trnh hin c chung quanh. Loi cc khoan nhi t su khng gy ln nh hng ng k cho cc cng trnh ln cn.

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(ii) Cc nhi hnh tr su:

Cc lm xong b) Cc nhi m rtng y: (i) M rng y trn hoc bt k

Cc cn gi vch

h ib o

Ti liu ny ch cp n cc loi cc nhi hnh tr s dng kh ph bin ti H ni v thnh ph H Ch Minh.

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(ii) M rng y do khoan mt t m rng hoc nhiu t m rng xut thn:

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ii.2 Cng ngh khoan ii.2.1 Thit b v ph tng phc v khoan (i) Thit b khoan :

* S dng cc my khoan a cht cng trnh v a cht thu vn sn c :

*Cc thit b, my chuyn dng khoan cc nhi :

Loi ny c thit k chuyn dng cho cng ngh khoan cc nhi. Khng phi ch to thm cc ph tng phc v m s dng ngay, trc tip. Ti H ni c nhng my ca cc Hng SOIMEC, HITACHI, NIPPON SHARYO, SANWA , . . . Nhng thit b khoan chuyn dng ca Hng NIPPON SHARYO ly th d l cc loi c cho hng l DHJ-40, DHJ 60-2, DHP 80, DH 408-95M , DH 508-105M, DH 608-120M. Nhng my ny thng c phc v nhng cng tc nh : khoan dn th cc, dng lm my ng cc c, dng khoan trong vch. My ch thng dng ng c diesel loi HINO, s dng nc lm lnh, 4 chu k, phun nhin liu trc tip. Cng sut thng t 117 m lc n 185 m lc. Ph bin l 2000 vng pht. Lng nhin liu tiu th t 165 ( g/ m lc gi) n 171 ( g/ m lc gi ). B phn thu lc ca my c bm ch vi p lc 245 Kg/cm2 v c lung chuyn l 223 lt /pht. Tc quay t 2 n 3,5 vng/pht. Tc nng, h l 66/33 m/pht. Tc di chuyn t 0,8 n 1,9 km/gi. My nng t 21 tn n 44,2 tn. Din tch phn bnh ln t t 45.500 cm2 n 83.060 cm2. Thng my gn mt cn trc trc tip phc v cc cng on khoan. Cn trc mmen nng tI t 35 tn x 3,7 mt n 65 tn x 3,9 mt. Cn chnh t 10 mt n 55 mt v mc ph t 6 n 15 mt.

h ib o

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Tn dng cc b my v c cu quay ca ca cc my khoan a cht cng trnh v a cht thu vn m nc ta nhp t trc nm 1990. Khi s dng nhng my ny cn c nhng b phn chuyn dng cho cng tc khoan ca cc khoan nhi nh mi khoan v gu khoan c ng knh ln.

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(ii) u khoan: Thng s dng ba dng u khoan:

* Mi khoan gn kim loi rn hoc bnh xe quay c gn ccbit cn gi l ( cranhng) Nhng loi ny thng dng khi khoan qua lp cng hoc qu trnh khoan gp phi lp nhiu cui si trm tch lng l ( trm tch y ao h) thnh dng thu knh cha n su t mng theo thit k. Loi mi khoan ny dng kh ph bin trong khu khoan bn mn ph trong cc m khai thc . * Mi khoan cnh xon ( auger flight ).

* Gu khoan thng ( buck) :

h ib o

i vi t khu vc H ni v thnh ph H Ch Minh s dng kh ph bin loi gu ny. Gu kiu thng c np kim li ct t y. Np gn vi thn thng bng bn l. np y c hai hoc ba rnh ct t ( ming ct ) b tr hng tm np. C gn rng o ca ct t ny. Loi gu ny thch hp vi t tht, t st dng bn, ct ht nh, ht trung hoc ct c hm lng si khng qu nhiu trong mi trng sng nc. Khi gp lp si hoc ct cht hm lng si c ht trn 30 mm kh nhiu th loi gu ny kh s dng.

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Mi khoan c cnh xon vt c th c cc chiu dI khc nhau. C th on xon theo chiu di c 21 mt nhng cng c th ch c cnh xon chiu di 4~5 mt. Hnh dng ca mi khoan xon ging nh cI m nt chai cho loi nt bng li-e ( in in ) hoc mi khoan xon khoan g. Thng dng loi mi khoan ny khoan t st, khoan t lp trn c nhiu r cy nh, gch v, mnh snh, c rc. Khi gp lp ct ln cui kh cht, mng, c th dng loi mi khoan ny o xuyn hoc xi ti cho gu vt tip.

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My c kch thc chiu di tng c 6,6 mt n 8,5 mt. Chiu rng my t 2,7 mt n 4,5 mt. Cn o vn hnh theo nguyn tc ng lng. Chiu di cn ch thng 21 mt. Khi cn o su hn th t trong cn ch c on ng lng nh ra o. Cc my ph bin nhp vo nc ta u c th o su ti 50 mt.

(ii)

Mt s s c hay gp vi thit b khoan:

ii.2.1.(*) Thit b mi:

ii.2.2 Cng ngh khoan: (i) ng vch:

h ib o

ng vch c ng knh ln hn ng knh cc l 100 mm. Chiu di ca ng vch t 3 mt n c chiu su cc nu cn. Thng lm ng vch di 4~8 mt . Chiu dy tm thp cun thnh ng vch t 10 ~ 20 mm. Nhim v ca ng vch l chng gi cho vch khoan lp trn ngay t mt t xung khng b xp, st v gi cho t chung quanh lp trn ca h khoan khng chui vo h khoan lm nh hng xu n cng trnh hin c chung quanh ni ang thi cng.

Thng ng vch ny rt ln ngay sau khi b tng va xong s dng cho nhiu h. Rt ln ngay sau khi b tng lm cho b tng vng c vch to nn p lc nn trc tip vo thnh t v to ra mt khng phng, lm tng ma st bn ca cc ln, tng an ton cho cc. Khi cc nm qu
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My ny o kiu n chm dn v casing xung t. t bn trong v ly dn ln bng gu o kiu ngom. Cc ng casing ni dn theo su. Mi khoang ng di t 2 mt n 6 mt v ni vi nhau kiu rng ngp ri cht. ng knh o t 500 mm n 2500 mm.

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Gn y ( nm 1998 ) nc ta mi nhp loi my o h Casagrand loi o theo kiu xoay p. My ny nhp t Italia. Nhng nc khc cng sn xut nh Hoa k, CHLB c. My c c tn l LEFFER. My Italia c k hiu GCL-GCP HB/E loi GL-GV.

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Mi khoan kiu xon, kiu thng thng hay b bin dng rng ct t khi gp t rn hoc si cui, r cy nhiu. Rng ca gu thng thng c v bc chng mn. Nhng v bc ny mau mn v gy nhng do c ch d dng thay th nn khi o cn chun b v bc rng gu thay th trong qu trnh o. Phn cp treo cn o ni vi cn o nh mt c cu truyn gi cho khi cn o quay m khng gy xon cp pha trn. B phn ny hay c gi l con chut hay bp chui. Nu con chut b bi ct chui vo hoc st g, khi cn thit quay gu thng xy ra hin tng xon cp. Cn lu bo dng thng xuyn cho con chut ny.

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(ii)

Vic s dng dung dch bn khoan bentonite:

Dung dch st bentonite c hai tc dng chnh:

@ To mi trng nng bnng nhng t , vn khoan, ct vn ni ln mt trn tro hoc ht khi l khoan. Trong nhiu trng hp c th thay bn bentonite bng cht do sinh hc ( biopolymres ) . Ti H ni c cng trnh nh thp ( Ho L c ) s dng loi cht do sinh hc ny. Tu tng trng hp c th m trong bn st bentonite c th cho thm cc ph gia nh Natri Cacbnat ( Na2CO3 ) hoc Natri Fluorua ( NaF ). Vic cho thm ph gia nhm tho mn cc ch tiu c cc qui phm ra:

h ib o

nht , c trng cho tnh lu ng ca dung dch bn trong khong 18 n 30 centipoa ( theo 5 ) ; S kt ta ngy m ( tch nc) v tnh n nh c trng cho s n nh ca dung dch chng s phn tng:

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@ Lm cho thnh h o khng b xp nh dung dch chui vo cc khe ct, khe nt quyn vi ct d xp l gi cho ct v cc vt th vn khng b rI v to thnh mt mng n hi bc quanh thnh vch h gi cho nc khng thm thu vo vch. V l thuyt c nghin cu kh y trong l thuyt v vch bn to khun ( parois moules ).

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Bentonite l loi t st c kch thc ht nh hn so vi ht t st kaolinite. Nn dng t st bentonite ch to bn khoan. Khi him t st bentonite c th dng mt phn t st a phng ( kaolinite) nhng t ny phi c ch s do khng nh hn 0,2 v cha ht c kch thc ln hn 0,05 khng qu 10% v cc ht nh hn 0,005 khng t hn 30%. S thch hp cui cng ca t st a phng c xc nh theo kt qu ca th nghim trong phng i vi dung dch st ch to t t st y. Dung dch st c thnh phn v tnh cht m bo s n nh ca h o trong thi gian xy dng v lp y h.

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st cng trnh lin k th nn gi vch li m khng rt ln vi mc ch khng lm rung ng cng trnh lin k. C th lm vch bng v b tng ct thp ri li lun cng vi cc. S dng vch bng b tng ct thp rt yn tm trong khu chng xp vch.

Bn mi trc khi s dng phI t cc thng s sau y: Dung trng trong khong 1,01 v 1,05 ( tr trng hp cn c bn nng hoc bn st) nht Marsh trn 35 giy Khng c c hm lng ct tch nc nh hn 30 cm3 dy lp mng bn ( cake) nh hn 3 mm.

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Dung trng di 1,2 (tr loi bn nng) nht gia 35 ~ 90 sec Hm lng ct kh xc nh mt gi tr thc v rt ph thuc vo a cht khu vc khoan, nhng ni chung hm lng ny khng c vt qu 5%.
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Bn bentonite sau khi khoan, lm sch h khoan phi t cc ch tiu sau y :

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Dung trng; nht theo cn Marsh ( c s l 1/2 lt) Hm lng ct trong dung dch lc Chiu dy lp mng bn ( cake ).

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Cc c trng ca bn khoan bentonite theo tiu chun Php ( DTU 13.2) l:

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Hm lng ct biu th mc trong dung dch phI di 4% ( theo OM-2). mt nc, c trng kh nng truyn nc cho t m, khng ln hn 30 cm3 ( theo dng c BM-6). ng sut ct tnh, biu th bn cu trc v xc bin ca dung dch st trong phm vi t 10 ~ 50 mg/cm2 qu 10 pht sau khi khuy trn n ( theo dng c CHC ). Mt tronmg khong t 1,05 n 1,15 khi dng st bentonite v t 1,15 n 1,3 g/cm3 khi dng cc st khc.

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Tch nc khng ln hn 4% n nh khng ln hn 0,02 G/cm3 ( theo dng c IC-1 hoc IC-2 ).

Phm cht ca bentonite theo API ( American Petroleum Institute )

Phm cht ca bn bentonite theo ngh ca Cng ty Bachy Soletanche: Mt (g/ml) 1,025 0,0005 Sau khi ra h khoan, mt phi nh hn 1,08 tch nc sau 30 pht th nghim ( tnh bng mililitre ) l 25 4 trc khi b tng tch nc khng qu 40 nht Marsh cone, sec 30~35. Trc khi b tng t 30~ 40 Hm lng ct (%) t hn 2% PH 8 ~ 10,8

(iii)

Thi ra h khoan khi t chiu su:

h ib o

Khi khoan t su, ngng cho c lng ng trong thi gian 30 oht, ly gu vt cho ht lp ct lng ng ri bt u thi ra cho sch nhng mn khoan v ct ln trong dung dch. Qu trnh khoan, bi ct v mn khoan trn ln vo dung dch bentonite lm cho dung trng ca dung dch ny tng ln. Vic vt b ct lng ng v thi ra ht sc quan trng nhm bo m cho cht lng cc sau ny.

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Nh trn bit , bn c tc dng gi vch nu n m bo ng cht lng nh cc yu cu nu. Qu trnh khoan su th bn xm nhp vo khe l, to vch bn, nn mt bentonite gim i, qu trnh khoan phi thng xuyn tip thm bn mi vo h khoan.

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Qu trnh s dng bentonite :

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Theo Vin du m Hoa K th cht lng ca bentonite phI tho mn cc yu cu sau y: nht c khi quay 600 vng/pht ti thiu phi t 30 pht T s YP/PV ti a l 3 tch nc ti a l 15 mls ( mililitre par second ) Ht cn ng trn sng 75 microns ti a l 4% theo trng lng m khng qu 10%

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tch nc nh hn 40 cm3 Chiu dy lp vch do ( cake) nh hn 5 mm.

Vic thi ra c thc hin nh sau: Trang b:

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+ Thi im bt u : 30 pht sau khi khoan xong v vt ct lng ng bng gu. + Thi gian thi ra : ti thiu 30 pht , trc khi thi ra phi kim tra cc c trng ca bn bentonite theo cc ch tiu nu. Ty tnh hnh cc thng s kim tra ny m d bo thi gian thi ra. Phi thi ra n khi t cc c trng yu cu. + Ch , trong thi gian thi ra phi b sung lin tc dung dch bn bentonite ti cho b s bn ln ct v mn khoan b qu trnh thi y hoc ht ra. Chiu cao ca mt trn lp dung dch bn phi cao hn mc nc ngm n nh l 1,5 mt. Nu khng cao ny c kh nng xp thnh vch h khoan do p lc t v nc bn ngoi thnh h gy ra. Nu

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Qui trnh thi ra:

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+ Mt ng bng thp c chiu dy 8~10 mm, ng knh 254 mm, di bng chiu su h khoan ( cn c tn l ng trmie ). to thnh ng di nh vy, ng trmie c ni bng nhng on ng di 3 mt c ni vi nhau theo kiu ng di c ming bt tin rng ren m thnh bt v ng trn c rng ren dng. u trn cng s l ming bt lm g ta cho ton ng ta ln gi ta kim np cho h khoan. + Gi ta l mt thp tm lm thnh hai mnh nh cnh ca m theo ng chia u gia. Mt bn l gn vo mt v tr mt u mt ng chia hai mnh y sao cho khi m tch c hai na lp ng v tr chnh gia. Chnh gia ng phn gii ca mt khot mt l m ly ng trmie, c hai mnh np u m ly ng trmie nhng khng cho ming bt lt qua c. Mt ta ny t ln ming ng vch. ng trmie c dng trong qu trnh xc ra h khoan v dng khi b tng. + Mt ng thp c ng knh ngoi l 60 mm, thnh ng dy 3 ~ 4 mm th su cch y h khoan 60 cm dn kh nn xung h khoan. u trn ng ny ni vi ng cao su chu p lc cao dn n my nn kh.

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Nu dung trng ca bn vt qu nhng ch s c trng nu, khi b tng , be tng khng n ht c bn khi l khoan chim ch ca n, gy ra nhng ti bn trong b tng. Nu khng vt sch ct lng ng di y h khoan s to ra mt lp bn m gia cc v nn y cc, khi chu tI cc s b ln qu mc cho php.

H Hmax

Q, Qmax max

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Lng nkh cn thit v p lc kh tun theo quan h trong biu :

bk

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V1

(iv)

Kim tra cc ch tiu quyt nh cho lp ghp v cc trang b b tng :

h ib o

V su y cc khoan nhi : do ngi thit k ch nh. Thng thng y cc nn t trong lp ct to ht c hm lng cui si kch thc ht trn 10 mm ln hn 20% t 1,5 n 2 mt tr ln. iu kin c th cho tng cng trnh, quyt nh su ca cc phi theo ti trng tnh ton m mki cc phi chu.

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V nng nh kh s c chuyn chng ti s gii thiu chi tit trong chuyn mc khc.

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Dung trng ca dung dch c k hiu l b v dung trng ca dung dch hn hp bn , kh l bk , chiu cao ct nc dung dch c thi c quan h :

khng m bo dung trng ca bn ti nh yu cu cng gy ra xp vch h khoan do iu kin p lc bn ngoi h. + p lc kh nn thi cn c vo l thuyt kh dng nh kh ( air lift ).

ii.2.4 Cng ngh b tng:

h ib o

(i)

Be tng c khi kim tra sch ca h khoan v vic t ct thp. Thng lp li ng trmie dng khi thi ra lc trc dng lm ng dn b tng. Cp phi b tng do thit k tho thun theo mt trong bn dng: - Hn hp c thit k - Hn hp theo n t hng - Hn hp tiu chun - Hn hp c ch nh st ca b tng thng chn t 120 mm n 160 mm p ng iu kin thi cng ( workability). Nu khng st theo yu cu m lng nc vt qu mc cho php phi dng ph gia ho do. Khng nn st qu ln ( qu 160 mm) s nh hng n cht lng b tng. Thit b s dng cho cng tc b tng: B tng ch trn sn ch n bng xe chuyn dng ng dn b tng t phu xung su yu cu Phu hng b tng t xe ni vi ng dn Gi ng v phu m t trn. 33

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Ct thp trong cc khoan nhi su t ngha chu ti m ch c tnh cht cu to. Tu ngi thit k qui nh nhng thng thp t khi t n y cc. Thanh thp hin nay bn trn th trng di 11,7 mt nn cc khoan nhi hay chn chiu su c bi s ca 11,7 mt. Mng cc nhi ca cc tr cu hay lm c chiu su ti y. Ct thp khuych i thnh cc lng tng on 11,7 mt. Sau khi c php th thp s mc vo cn trc th xung h. Th xong mt khoanh, nu ni th ngng g qua u trn ca lng ni vi on trn. Khi ni chc s tho rt thanh g h tip cho n khi su. Trn cng, c 3 thanh thp to mc vo ming ng vch gi lng thp. Thp dc hay dng c ng knh 25 ~ 28, cc thanh dc thng t cch nhau 150 ~ 200 mm. ai c th xon hay thnh cc vng trn. ng knh thp ai hay dng l 10 ~ 12.

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ii.2.3 Cng ngh lp ct thp:

Thng gii php thit k tn dng cc khoan nhi pht huy ht kh nng lm vic ca n, nn cc khoan nhi cho nh cao tng ti khu vc H ni , thnh ph H Ch Minh, nn lm trong khong 42 ~ 50 mt.

(ii)

1.8.2 Phm vi s dng

h ib o

T nhng nm 1983-1984 ti H ni lm th im mt vi nh c mng cc nhi, nhng nhng cc ny khng su ( di 8 mt ) v ng knh nh (450 ~ 600 mm ) nh cc cng trnh nh tr s 3 ph Nh Chung H ni, nh trung tm bo ch 12 ph L o Thnh H ni, nh ca Cng ty Thng mi Hon Kim ph Nh Th H ni. T sau khi c chnh sch m ca ca ng v Nh Nc ta, nc ngoi vo u t lm nh cao tng ti thnh ph H Ch Minh v H ni, cng ngh cc nhi mi tr nn thng dng trong xy dng nh cao tng. Hin nay ti thnh ph H Ch Minh v H ni c trn 500 ngi nh s dng mng cc nhi. Hu ht cc cu ln lm trong nhng nm qua trn nc ta u lm tr cu trn cc nhi.

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Trong nc :

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Dng nhi trong xy dng nh cao tng, mng tr cu, hin ang kh ph bin xy dng ti H ni, thnh ph H Ch Minh v nhiu tnh thnh ph khc. Mng cc nhi hn ch ln v chu lc ln. Loi mng ny c th xy dng c hiu qu vi nh t 12 tng n trn 40 tng. i b phn nh cao tng xy dng nc ta trong thi gian qua lm mng cc nhi.

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Cc yu cu b tng : - ng dn b tng c nt bng bao ti hoc ti nylon cha va ximng ct 1 :2 hay bt xp dng ht trnh nhng ti kh trong lc b tng ban u. Nt ny s b b tng y ra khi . - Ming di ca ng dn b tng lun ngp trong b tng ti thiu l 1 mt nhng khng nn su qu 3 mt. - Khi b tng , b tng c a xung su trong lng khi b tng, qua ming ng s trn ra chung quanh , nng phn b tng xung lc uln cao dn, b tng c nng t y ln trn. Nh th , ch c mt lp b tng trn mt ca b tng tip xc vi nc bentonite cn btng trong lng cht lng vn rt tt. - Phm cp ca b tng ti thi l C25 ( tng ng #300 th nghim theo mu lp phng ). - B tng phi lin tc cho n cao. Khi rt m cui cng , lc nng rt vch c 1,5 mt nn thm b tng b vo ch b tng chy lan vo nhng hc quanh h c to nn, nu c khi khoan su.

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1.9 Cc barrette v tng trong t xy dng trong thnh ph

Phng php tng barrette v tng trong t c m t nh sau : Chu vi nh c lm mt h tng bao ngm trong t s dng lm tng hm nh kim mng nh. Tng ny c chiu su ging nh cc nhi, ngha l khong 30 ~ 50 mt su. Thng thng chiu su ca cc barrette phi lm n lp t c tr s N trn 50 nhng tng trong t ch cn lm su hn y tng hm hai ln chiu su ca hm. Chiu rng tng thng thng l 600 mm, 800 mm, 1000 mm. Rt him thy chiu dy tng tng hm trn 1200 mm. rong lng tng vy ny tu gii php thit k, c th c nhng cc barrette ct. Mng cc kiu barrette c th l mng c mt ct ch nht, mmg c mt ct ch L , ch H, ch T , ch Y hay kiu ch + . . .

h ib o

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Cc barrette c tit din ngang l hnh ch nht. Chiu rng cc ph thuc gu o v thng c kch thc l 600 mm v 800 mm. Mi on c cnh di ca tit din ngang l 2400mm , rng 600 ( 800 ) mm hoc hn na v su n lp t tt, thng l lp ct ht trung chng cc c gi l mt panen. Nu nhng panen ny lin nhau to thnh tng th l phng php tng trong t bng b tng ct thp. i vi nhng nh c nhiu tng hm th phng php barrette t ra u vit v d sao, phng php cc nhi th vn phi gii quyt c chng nc, chng xp vgch quanh nh khi lm hm nh v lm i cc.

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1.9.1 M t cng ngh

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Chu u s dng mng cc nhi kh sm ti Php, B, , c, Anh v cc nc Bc u . Chu M pht trin cc nhi t khi pht trin nh cao tng c bit l ti Hoa K. Nht bn, Hng Cng, Singapores, Malaysia xy dng nhiu cng trnh cao tng c mng l mng cc nhi. Mng cc nhi bt u lm nhiu vo nhng nm 1960 ~ 1975 ti nhng nc pht trin trn th gii.

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Ngoi nc:

Cng trnh s dng cc nhi ln u tin c chiu su ln n 35 mt, ng knh cc 600 , 800, v 1000 mm ti H ni l ngi nh CIT ( Trung tm Thng Mi H ni ) ti ph Trng Tin H ni.

0,6 2,2~2,8 2,2~2,4m 2,2~2,8m 2,2~2,4 m

2,2 ~ 2,8m

(i)

Cng ngh o mng barrette :

h ib o

o mng barrette nh gu xc kiu hai mnh nh cc kho vt liu ri hay s dng. Ci c bit ca gu ny l lm thm khung dn hng khi o h o c thng ng. Khung bao cao khong 3 mt bc quanh phm vi o ca li gu. o nhng mt u tin, cn lm dng to hng cho gu trt theo. Khi c vch t , gu s trt theo vch t. C o tng on 2,2 ~ 3 mt theo chiu di tng c mt panen li t thp v b tng. Chiu rng ca gu c bn l 600 mm. Qu trnh o phI s dng dung dch bn st bentonite nh phn cc nhi gii thiu. Khi o n su thit k, kim tra cht lng dung dch, ngng 30 pht ct lng ng, vt ct bng gu y tng i phng. Sau c th th ct thp v xc ra nh nu phn cc nhi.

Sau khi xc ra xong h khoan, lp tm giong vo v tr s c tng tip , ri b tng. Cch b tng ging nh nu trong phn ni v cc nhi. Trang b c th s dng thi cng cc barrette c: 36

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Loi tit din ch nht c th chu ti 600~ 1000 tn lc Loi tit din ch thp c th chu ti 1000~ 1800 tn lc Loi tit din ch T c th chu ti 1000~ 3600 tn lc Loi tit din ch L c th chu ti 1000~ 2000 tn lc Loi tit din ch H c th chu ti 1600~ 3200 tn lc Loi tit din ch Y c th chu ti 1600~ 3000 tn lc

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1.9.2 Phm vi p dng: Trong nc:

Nc ngoi:

h ib o

Tng trong t v cc Barrette c chu u v chu M cng nh ti i loan, Hng Cng, Nht bn s dng kh rng ri t sau chin tranh th gii ln th hai kt thc. Trong h thng tiu chun th gii ta u thy c tiu chun ring cho cc barrette v tng trong t. Hu ht cc tiu chun u coi cc barrette v tng trong t l mt dng cc c c th ring ch khng coi l loi kt cu ring bit.

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Trong thi gian trc nm 2001, ti H ni c hai cng trnh dng mng barrette l VitCombank Tower ti s 198 Trn Quang Khi H ni, Khch sn Sunway ph Phm nh H H ni u do Cng ty BachySoletanche thi cng. Nay ti H ni c 3 Cng ty thi cng Cc Barrette v tng trong t rt c tn nhim l Cng ty BachySoletanche, Cng ty Xy dng h tng ng Dng v Cng ty TNHH Delta. Ti thnh ph H Ch Minh c nhiu cng trnh s dng cc Barrette v tng trong t nh cng trnh HabourView ph Nguyn Hu, SaigonInn ph Tn c Thng v 6 ~ 8 ngi nh khc . Cc Barrette v tng trong t rt thch dng khi cng trnh c tng hm. T nm 2001 H ni, thnh ph H Ch Minh v mt vi thnh ph khc bt u lm nhiu nh cao tng nn phng php cc Barrette v tng trong t kh ph bin. Ti H ni v thnh ph H Ch Minh trong hai nm 2001 v 2002 ny xy dng hng chc nh c s dng phng php cng ngh tng trong t v cc Barrette.

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- Gu c khung dn hng o. - Ming giong ni chng thm gia khe thi cng. Ming giong l phin cao su c chuyn dng, mt cnh di c ngm mt na vo khi b tng chun b cn na na dng tm thp chuyn dng c ch to ring , p st vo vch t s o tip cng on sau. Khi b tng xong o tip tc cho on sau. Khi giI phng khng gian thn tng, g tm giong na ny nm trong panen s sau. Nh th, giong b tng s chn nc nu c nc xuyn qua khe ni gia hai panen lin k nhau.

.c

Cc c trng k thut v yu cu kim tra phi a vo cc yu cu k thut phi t trong hp ng giao nhn thu thi cng. Nhng c trng ch yu v kim tra trong thi cng cc nhi nh sau: iii.1 c trng nh v ca cc v kim tra: (i) c trng: - V tr cc cn c vo h trc cng trnh v h trc gc - Cao trnh mt h khoan - Cao trnh mt t ti ni c h khoan - Cao trnh y h khoan (ii) Kim tra : - Dng my kinh v v thu bnh kim tra theo nghip v o c

h ib o

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Kim tra s ph hp l s chng kin cc qu trnh thi cng, qu trnh th nghim kim tra, i chiu vi cc tiu chun, quy phm v xc nh s ph hp ca sn phm so vi yu cu ca hp ng.

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V h thng kim tra thng phn bit: Kim tra c phng th nghim hoc dng c th nghim tin hnh cc php th nhm bit cc ch tiu t c ca sn phm. Loi kim tra ny c th nm ngay trong n v sn xut, c th l c quan chuyn mn coa t cch php nhn tin hnh.

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Ngi bn sn phm chnh l ngi thi cng nn ngi thi cng phi chu trch nhim cp chng ch cho sn phm ca mnh l t cc ch tiu k thut. Vic cp chng ch ny thng qua cc th nghim kim tra do bn thi cng t lm hoc bn thi cng thu mt c quan c chc nng tin hnh.

Phng php lun c bn ca cng ngh l i i vi bin php thc hin phi c cc phng n kim tra cht lng. Trong kinh t th trng, thng thng c quan k thut c bn ch u t thu lm t vn k thut cng vi bn thit k c nhim v nu cc c trng k thut phi t c trong qu trnh thi cng nhm xc nh r cht lng sn phm coi nh iu khon ca hp ng kinh t giao nhn thu thi cng.

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1.10 Cc c trng k thut dng kim tra cc khu trong qu trnh thc hin cng ngh thi cng cc nhi v tng barrette:

iii.2 c trng hnh hc ca h khoan v kim tra: (i) c trng: (ii) ng knh h khoan hoc s l ng knh cc nghing l thuyt ca cc. nghing thc t Chiu su l khoan l thuyt, chiu su thc t Chiu di ng vch Cao trnh nh v chn ng vch.

Kim tra:

- o c bng thc v my o c - Phi thc hin nghim tc qui phm o kch thc hnh hc v dung sai khi o kim. iii.3 c trng a cht cng trnh: (i) c trng:

iii.4 c trng ca bn khoan: (i) c trng:

Cc ch tiu bit: Dung trng, nht, hm lng ct, lp v bm thnh vch ( cake ), ch s lc, pH. (ii) Kim tra :

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Trn hin trng phi c mt b dng c th nghim kim tra cc ch tiu ca dung dch bn bentonite. iii.5 c trng ca ct thp v kim tra

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C 2 mt theo chiu su ca h khoan li phi m t loi t gp phi khi khoan i chiu vi ti liu a cht cng trnh c c quan kho st a cht bo thng qua mt ct l khoan thm d ln cn. Phi m bo tnh trung thc khi quan st. Khi thy khc vi ti liu kho st phi bo ngay cho bn thit k v bn t vn kim nh c gii php s l ngay.

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(iii)

Kim tra :

iii.6 c trng v b tng v kim tra:

Cn da vo quy phm thi cng v nghim thu cc kt cu b tng v b tng ct thp nu ra cc c trng ny.

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- Thnh phn , cp phi - Cht lng ct liu ln, ct liu mn ( kch thc ht, gc, ln cc ht khng t yu cu, sch vi cht bm bn) - Xi mng : phm cp, cc ch tiu c l, hm lng c hi: kim, sunpht. . . - Nc: cht lng - Ph gia: cc ch tiu k thut, chng ch ca nh sn xut. - st ca hn hp b tng, cch ly st - Ly mu kim tra cht lng b tng ho cng - Kim tra vic b tng ( chiu cao , ct nh cc, chiu di cc trc hon thin, khi lng l thuyt tng ng , khi lng thc t, d gia thc t v l thuyt.) - ng cong b tng ( quan h khi lng- chiu cao k t y cc tr ln). Kim tra:

(ii)

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(i)

c trng :

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Quan st bng mt, o bng thc cun ngn, th nghim cc tnh cht c l trong phng th nghim.

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(i) c trng: - Kch thc ca thanh thp tng loi s dng - Hnh dng ph hp vi thit k - Loi thp s dng ( m hiu, hnh dng mt ngoi, cc ch tiu c l cn thit ca loi thp ang s dng). - Cch t hp thnh khung, lng v v tr tng i gia cc thanh. - sch ( g, bm bn, bm bn), khuyt tt c di mc cho php khng - Cc chi tit chn mgm cho kt cu hoc cng vic tip theo: chi tit hn v sau, mc st, chn bulng, ng quan st dng cho th nghim siu m, phng x ( carota).

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iii. 7 Lp h s cho ton b cc nhi c thi cng :

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Cht lng cc khoan nhi l khu ht sc quan trng v chi ph cho vic ch to mt cc rt ln cng nh cc phi chu ti ln. Ch cn s xut nh trong bt k mt khu no ca qu trnh kho st a cht, khu thit k nn mng hay khu thi cng cng lm nh hng n cht lng cng trnh. Vic kim tra cht lng cng trnh cc khoan nhi c khi qut trong s :

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Cng ngh kim tra cht lng cc nhi

Qu trnh thi cng mt cc phi tin hnh lp h s cho tng cc. Da vo cc c trng nu m bn thi cng phi bo co y cc ch tiu, kt qu kim tra tng ch tiu c trng. Kt qu v h s ca cc kim tra cui cng bng tnh ti bng cc phng php khc. Trong h s c y cc chng ch v vt liu, kt qu th nghim kim tra cc ch tiu c cp chng ch. Mt bo co tng hp v cht lng v cc ch tiu l thuyt cng nh thc t ca tng cc. Cn lu v tnh php l ca h s. Mt chng ch v xi mng l bn chnh hay bn sao c nh my cp cho c l hng. Nh th cha y tnh php l. Ngi s dng phi ghi r a ch s dng loi vt liu ny n kt cu trong hng mc cng trnh. Phi ghi r a ch s dng cho tng m vt liu.

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- Chng ch v vt liu ca nI cung cp b tng - Thit k thnh phn b tng c s tho thun ca bn k thut kim tra cht lng - st ca b tng - Cch ly mu v qu trnh ly mu - Kim tra giy giao hng ( tch k giao hng) - Chng kin vic p mu.

Trong qu trnh thi cng

Khi lm xong cc

Cc qu trnh: * Chun b * Khoan to l * Hon thnh khoan * Ct thp * b tng * Ph u cc * i cc

Kim tra cht lng nn: * Cc phng php tnh

* Th cc kiu phn tch ng lc (PDA)

Thi cng cc khoan nhi l vic kn khut, cng vic i hi nhng cng on phc tp, kh nh gi cht lng v chu nh hng ca nhiu yu t nh: * iu kin a cht cng trnh v a cht thu vn. * Trang thit b thi cng * Cng ngh thi cng. * Cht lng ca tng cng on thi cng. * Vt liu thi cng.

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Cc nhi l sn phm c ngha quan trng trong khu chu lc ca cng trnh nn cht lng cn c lu tm ht sc. Vic kim tra k cht

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* Khoan ly mu

* Th nghim cc ton vn (PIT) hoc m di (PET) * Th nghim siu m, v tuyn, phng x, hiu ng in - thu lc, o sng ng sut.

Kim tra cht lng cc:

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Kim tra cht lng cc khoan nhi

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Kim tra trc khi thi cng: (i) Cn lp phng n thi cng t m, trong n nh ch tiu k thut phi t v cc bc cn kim tra cng nh s chun b cng c kim tra. Nhng cng c kim tra c c quan kim nh kim v ang cn thi hn s dng. Nht thit phi thng trc nhng dng c kim tra cht

Nhng khuyt tt ny trong qu trnh thi cng c th gim thiu n ti a nh khu kim tra cht lng c tin hnh ng thi im, nghim tc v theo ng trnh t k thut, s dng phng tin kim tra m bo chun xc. Kim tra cht lng sau khi thi cng nhm khng nh li sc chu ti tnh ton ph hp vi d bo khi thit k. Kim tra cht lng cc sau khi thi cng l cch lm th ng nhng cn thit. C th kim tra li khng ch cht lng chu ti ca nn m cn c cht lng b tng ca bn thn cc na.

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Cng on b tng khi y h khoan cn bn lng ng, rt ng nhanh lm cho cht lng b tng khng ng u, b ti bn trong thn cc. C khi thn cc b t on. Cng on rt ng vch c th lm cho cc b nhc ln mt on. cc b tht tit din.

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+ Trong khu thi cng : Cng on to l xp vch. co tit din cc, nghing cc qu mc cho php. Nhiu khi thi cng cha n chiu su tnh ton m bn thi cng dng khoan lm cc khu tip theo, c khi s dng ny c ng tnh ca ngi gim st hoc thit k khng c kinh nghim quyt nh m khuyt tt ny ch c pht hin l sai khi th ti khi ngy.

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+ Trong khu chun b thi cng cha tt nh nh v h khoan khng chnh xc dn n sai v tr.

Cc khuyt tt c th :

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lng thi cng tng cng on s lm gim c cc khuyt tt ca sn phm cui cng ca cc nhi. Trc khi thi cng kim tra cht lng cc khu chun b, trong qu trnh thi cng loi b vt liu khng t, trang thit b khim khuyt, kim tra k tng nguyn cng, phn on, tun th trnh t thi cng nghim ngt nhm trnh cc s xut c th gy ra khuyt tt.

Kim tra trong khi thi cng:

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(ii) Kim tra cc c trng ca a cht cng trnh v thu vn. C khoan c 2 mt cn kim tra loi t v tr thc a c ng khp vi bo co a cht ca bn kho st lp trc y khng . Cn ghi chp theo thc t v nhn xt nhng iu khc nhau, trnh bn A/E A/E cng thit k quyt nh nhng iu chnh nu cn thit. c cng trnh ngay ti H ni vo cui nm 1994, khi quyt nh ngng khoan lm tip cc khu sau khng i chiu vi mt ct a cht cng nh ngi quyt nh khng am tng v

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(i) Kim tra cht lng kch thc hnh hc. Nhng s liu cn c khng nh: v tr tng cc theo hai trc vung gc do bn v thi cng xc nh. Vic kim tra da vo h thng trc gc trong v ngoi cng trng. Kim tra cc cao trnh: mt t thin nhin quanh cc, cao trnh mt trn ng vch. thng ng ca ng vch hoc nghing cn thit nu c thit k cng cn kim tra. Bin php kim tra thng ng hay nghing ny gii trnh v c A/E ( kin trc s hay k s l ch nhim d n) duyt. Ngi kim tra phi c chng ch hnh ngh o c.

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Qu trnh thi cng cn kim tra cht ch tng cng on yu cu kim tra:

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(iv) Kim tra li nh v cng trnh v tng cc. Kim tra cc mc khng ch nm trong v ngoi cng trnh, k c cc mc khng ch nm ngoi cng trng. Nhng my o c phi c kim nh v thi hn c s dng ang cn hiu lc. Ngi tin hnh cc cng tc v xc nh cc c trng hnh hc ca cng trnh phi l ngi c php hnh ngh v c chng ch.

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(iii) Kim tra tnh trng vn hnh ca my thi cng, dy cp, dy cu, b phn truyn lc, thit b hm, cc ph tng my khoan nh bp chut, gu, rng gu, cc my ph tr phc v khu bn khoan, khu lc ct nh my bm khuy bn, my tch ct, sng ct.

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( ii) Cn c ti liu a cht cng trnh do bn khoan thm d cung cp cho thit k ngay ti ni thi cng s dng i chiu vi thc t khoan.

lng ny k vi ni thi cng v lun lun trong tnh trng sn sng phc v. Phng n thi cng ny phi c t vn gim st cht lng tho thun v i din Kin trc s/K s l ch nhim d n ng .

Cc phng php kim tra cht lng cc nhi sau khi thi cng xong: Nh ta thy s cc phng php kim tra cht lng cc nhi, thng c hai loi bn khon: cht lng ca nn v cht lng ca bn thn cc. Sau khi thi cng xong cc nhi, vn kim tra c hai ch tiu ny c nhiu gii php c thc hin vi nhng cng c hin i. Tuy chng ta mi tip cn vi cng ngh cc khoan nhi cha lu nhng v kim tra, chng ta ban hnh c TCXD 196:1997 lm c s cho vic nh gi cc nhi. Tiu chun ny mi cp n ba loi th: nn tnh, phng php bin dng nh PIT v phng php siu m. Tnh hnh cc cng ngh kim tra cc nhi trong nc v th gii hin nay l v cng phong ph. C th chia theo cc phng php tnh v ng. Li c th chia theo mc ch th nghim nh kim tra sc chu ca nn v cht lng cc. Ngy nay c nhiu cng c hin i xc nh nhng ch tiu m khi tin hnh kim tra kiu th cng thy l ht sc kh. (i) Kim tra bng phng php tnh :

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a cht nn phi b hai cc c b tng khng m bo su v kt qu p tnh th ti ch t 150% ti tnh ton cc hng. (iii) Kim tra dung dch khoan trc khi cp dung dch vo h khoan, khi khoan su v khi xc ra lm sch h khoan xong. (iv) Kim tra ct thp trc khi th xung h khoan. Cc ch tiu phi kim tra l ng knh thanh, di thanh ch, khong cch gia cc thanh, sch du m. (v) Kim tra y h khoan: Chiu su h khoan c o hai ln, ngay sau khi va t su thit k v sau khi lng v vt li. Sau khi th ct thp v th ng trmie, trc lc b tng nn kim tra xc nh lp cn lng. Nu cn c th ly thp ln, ly ng trmie ln vt tip cho t sch y h. y h khng sch s gy ra ln d qu mc cho php. (vi) Kim tra cc khu ca b tng trc khi vo h. Cc ch tiu kim tra l cht lng vt liu thnh phn ca b tng bao gm ct liu, xi mng, nc, cht ph gia, cp phi. n cng trng tip tc kim tra st Abram's, c mu kim tra s hiu, s b nh gi thi gian s ninh. (vii) Cc khu cn kim tra khc nh ngun cp in nng khi thi cng, kim tra s lin lc trong qu trnh cung ng b tng, kim tra thng ca mng , mng n dung dch tro t h khi b tng ...

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Phng php gia ti tnh : Phng php ny cho n hin nay c coi l phng php trc quan, d nhn thc v ng tin cy nht. Phng php ny dng kh ph bin nc ta cng nh trn th gii. Theo yu cu m c th thc hin theo kiu nn, ko dc trc cc hoc y theo phng vung gc vi trc cc. Th nghim nn tnh c thc hin nhiu nht nn ch yu cp y l nn tnh. C hai qui trnh nn tnh ch yu c s dng l qui trnh ti trng khng i ( Maintained Load, ML ) v qui trnh tc dch chuyn khng i ( Constant Rate of Penetration, CRP ). Qui trnh nn vi ti trng khng i (ML) cho ta nh gi kh nng chu ti ca cc v ln cu cc theo thi gian. Th nghim ny i hi nhiu thi gian, ko di thi gian ti vi ngy. Qui trnh nn vi tc dch chuyn khng i ( CRP) thng ch dng nh gi kh nng chu ti gii hn ca cc, thng ch cn 3 n 5 gi. Nhn chung tiu chun th nghim nn tnh ca nhiu nc trn th gii t khc bit. Ta c th so snh tiu chun ASTM 1143-81 ( Hoa k), BS 2004 ( Anh) v TCXD 196-1997 nh sau:

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Ch tiu so snh ASTM D1143-81 BS 2004 TCXD 196-1997 200%Qa 150%Qa~200%Q 200%Qa* Ti trng nn ti a a, Qmax 25%Qmax 25%Qa ln cp tng 0,10 mm/h 25%Qa 0,25 mm/h ti 0,10mm/h Tc ln n (100%&200%)Q 200%Qa v nh qui c 46

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Qui trnh nn chm vi ti trng khng i

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50%Qa

25%Qmax

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V i trng gia ti, c th s dng vt nng cht ti nhng cng c th s dng neo xung t. Tu iu kin thc t c th m quyt nh cch to i trng. Vi sc neo kh ln nn khi s dng bin php neo cn ht sc thn trng. i b phn cc cng trnh th ti tnh dng cch cht vt nng lm i trng. Cho n nay, ch c mt cng trnh dng phng php neo th ti l cng trnh Grand Hanoi Lakeview Hotel s 28 ng Thanh nin do Cng ty Kinsun ( Thi lan) thuc tp on B&B thc hin. Gi th ti tnh kiu cht ti l kh cao. Hin nay gi th ti loi ny t 180.000 n 250.000 ng cho mt tn ti th m cc qui phm u yu cu th 1% cho tng s cc vi s cc th khng t hn 1 cc. Thi gian th ti thng t 7 ngy n 10 ngy/cc. Phng php gia ti tnh kiu Osterberrg:

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25%Qa Qui trnh tc chuyn dch khng i Ch tiu so ASTM D 1143BS 2004 TCXD 196-1997 snh 81 Khng th qui Cha c qui nh Tc chuyn 0,25cho loi th kiu nh c th 1,25mm/min dch ny. cho cc trong t st 0,75~2,5mm/min cho cc trong t ri t ti trng gii Qui nh v dng hn nh trc th nghim t ti trng gii Chuyn dch tng hn nh trc trong khi lc khng tng hoc gim trong khong 10mm Chuyn dch t Chuyn dch t 10%D 15%D Ghi ch: Qa = kh nng chu ti cho php ca cc

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Cp ti trng c bit v thi gian gi ti ca cp ln cp h ti

12 t 24h

100%Qa, 150%Qa vi t 6h

a = 24h

(ii) Phng php khoan ly mu li cc: y l phng php th kh th s. Dng my khoan khoan, c th ly mu b tng theo ng knh 50~150 mm, dc sut su d nh khoan. Nu ng knh cc ln, c th phi khoan n 3 l nm trn cng mt tit din ngang mi tm c khi nim v cht lng b tng dc theo cc. Phng php ny c th quan st trc tip c cht lng b tng dc theo chiu su l khoan. Nu th nghim ph hu mu c th bit c cht lng b tng ca mu. u im ca phng php l trc quan v kh chnh xc. Nhc im l chi ph ly mu kh ln. Nu ch khoan 2 l trn tit din cc theo chiu su c cc th chi ph xp x gi thnh ca cc. Thng phng php ny ch gii quyt khi bng cc phng php khc xc nh cc c khuyt tt. Phng php ny kt hp kim tra chnh xc ho v s dng ngay l khoan bm pht xi mng cu cha nhng on hng.

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Phng php ny kh mi vi th gii v nc ta. Nguyn tc ca phng php l mt lp b tng dy di y ri th h hp kch ( Ocell ) xung , sau li tip phn cc trn. H iu khin v ghi chp t trn mt t. S dng phng php ny c th th nghim ring bit hoc ng thi hai ch tiu l sc chu mi cc v lc ma st bn ca cc. Ti th nghim c th t c t 60 tn n 18000 tn. Thi gian th nghim nhanh th ch cn 24 gi, nu yu cu cng ch ht ti a l 3 ngy. su t trang thit b th nghim trong mng c th ti trn 60 mt. Sau khi th xong, bm b tng xung lp h kch cho cc c lin tc. Tin s Jorj O. Osterberg l chuyn gia a k thut c tn tui, hin sng ti Hoa k. ng hin nay ( 1998 ) v hu nhng l gio s danh d ca Northwestern University, Vin s Vin Hn lm K thut, 1985 l ging vin trng Tersaghi, nm 1988 l thnh vin Vin nn mng su. Nm 1994 phng php th tnh Osterberg ra i vi tn O-Cell , c cp chng ch NOVA. Chng ch NOVA l dng c coi nh gii Nobel v xy dng ca Hoa k. Phng php th tnh O-Cell c th dng th ti cc nhi , cc ng, tng barettes, th nghim ti hng cc, th nghim cc lm kiu gu xoay ( Auger Cast Piles ). Nc ta c mt s cng trnh s dng phng php th ti tnh kiu Osterberg. Ti H ni c cng trnh Thp Vietcombank , ti Nam b c cng trnh cu Bc M thun s dng cch th cc kiu ny. Ngay ti H ni, cng trnh s 37 ph Lng H cng dng phng php th Osterberg th cc barrette vi tit din ngang th l 1,00 x 2,40 mt v 1,50 x 2,40 mt vi ti trng th n 4800 tn.

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u thu pht c hai kiu: kiu u thu ring v u pht ring, kiu u thu v pht gn lin nhau. Nu ng knh cc l 600 mm th ch cn b tr hai l dc theo thn cc i xng qua tm cc v nm st ct ai. Nu ng knh 800 mm nn b tr 3 l. ng knh 1000 mm, b tr 4 l... Khi th, th u pht siu m xung mt l v u thu l khc. ng qut kim tra cht lng s l ng ni gia u pht v u thu. Qu trnh th u pht v u thu cn m bo hai u ny xung cng mt tc v lun lun nm cng su so vi mt trn ca cc. Trng i hc Northwestern Hoa k c Khu th nghim a k thut Quc gia mi lm nhng th nghim v siu m kim tra cht lng cc nhi vo nm 1997 vi cc nhi c c vi nhng khuyt tt nh trc. Kt qu cho thy phng php qut siu m trong tit din ngang cc thu c biu phn nh kh chnh xc v tin cy. Qui phm ca nhiu nc qui nh th nghim kim tra cht lng cc b tng bng phng php khng ph hu phi lm cho 10% s cc. Phc tp ca phng php ny l cn t trc ng th u thu v u pht siu m. Nh th, ngi thi cng s c ch trc nhng cc s th

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Phng php ny kh kinh in v c dng ph bin. Phng php th l dng k thut nh gi kt cu khng ph hu mu th ( Nondestructive evaluation, NDE ). Khi th khng lm h hng kt cu, khng lm thay i bt k tnh cht c hc no ca mu. Phng php c Chu u v Hoa k s dng kh ph bin. Cch th thng dng l qut siu m theo tit din ngang thn cc. Tu ng knh cc ln hay nh m b tr cc l dc theo thn cc trc khi b tng. L dc ny c ng knh trong xp x 60 mm v l l ng nha hay ng thp. C khi ngi ta khoan to l nh phng php kim tra theo khoan l ni trn, nu khng l trc.

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(iii) Phng php siu m:

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Phng php ny i hi thi gian khoan ly mu lu, qu trnh khoan cng phc tp nh phi dng bentonite tng mt khoan ln b, phi ly mu nh khoan thm d v tc khoan khng nhanh lm. Hin nay Vin Thit k Giao thng nc ta c yu cu nhiu cng trnh th nghim theo phng php ny. Nhiu cc nhi mng tr cu Vit tr khoan ly mu theo phng php ny.

Phng php th bng phng x ( Carota ):

(iv) Phng php o m di:

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Phng php ny th nghim kim tra khng ph hu mu bit cht lng cc , cc nhi, cc barrettes. Nguyn l l s dng hin tng m di ( Pile Echo Tester, PET ). Nguyn tc hot ng ca phng php l g bng mt ba 300 gam vo u cc, mt thit b ghi gn ngay trn u cc y cho php ghi hiu ng m di v my tnh s l cho kt qu v nhn nh cht lng cc. Ti Hoa k c Cng ty GeoComP chuyn cung ng nhng dch v v PET. My tnh s dng s l kt qu ghi c v m di l my tnh c nhn tiu chun ( standard PC ) , s dng phn cng b sung ti thiu, mi tn hiu thu nhn v s l qua phm mm m phn mm ny c th nng cp nhanh chng, tin li ngay c khi lin h bng e-mail vi trung tm GeocomP. Phm mm da vo c s Windows theo chun vn hnh hin i , c nghin cu ph hp vi s hp l ti a v cng thi hc ( ergonomic ). Ch cn mt ngi lm c cc th nghim v m di vi nng sut 300 cc mt ngy. Khi tip xc vi http://ww.piletest.com/PET.HTM ta c th c c kt qu chun mc khi th cc v c cung cp min ph phn mm cp nht theo ng e-mail. Vi s tin li l chi ph cho kim tra ht sc thp nn c th dng phng php ny th nghim cho 100% cc trong mt cng trnh. Nhc im ca phng php l nu chiu su ca cc th nghim qu 20 mt th chnh xc ca kt qu l thp. (v) Cc phng php th ng:

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Phng php ny cng l mt phng php nh gi khng ph hu mu th ( NDE ) nh phng php siu m. Cch trang b th nghim khng khc g phng php siu m. iu khc l thay cho u thu v u pht siu m l u thu v pht phng x. Nc ta sn xut loi trang b ny do mt c s ca qun i tin hnh. Ging nh phng php siu m, kt qu c biu thu phng x c th bit c ni v mc ca khuyt tt trong cc.

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v lm tt hn, mt yu t ngu nhin trong khi chn mu th. Nu lm nhiu cc c ng th siu m qu s lng yu cu s gy ra tn km.

(vi) Phng php tr khng c hc: Phng php ny quen thuc vi tn gi phng php phn tch dao ng hay cn gi l phng php truyn sng c hc. Nguyn l c p dng l truyn sng, nguyn l dao ng cng bc ca cc n hi. C hai phng php thc hin l dng tr khng rung ng v dng tr khng xung. Phng php tr khng rung s dng m t in ng c kch hot do mt my pht tc ng ln cc. Dng mt my ghi vn tc sng truyn trong cc. Nhn biu sng ghi c, c th bit cht lng cc qua ch tiu ng u ca vt liu b tng cc v tr . Phng php tr khng xung l c s cho cc phng php PIT v PET. Hai phng php PIT v PET ghi sng m di. Phng php tr khng xung ny ghi vn tc truyn sng khi p ba to xung ln u cc.

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* S dng phng php th Bin dng nh ( PIT ) l cch th nhanh cho s ln cc. Php th cho bit cht lng b tng cc c tt hay khng, tnh ton vn ca cc khi kim tra cc khuyt tt ln ca cc. Cc loi my phn tch PIT dung ngun nng lng pin, c ng nhanh chng v s dng n chic. Dng c ca phng php PIT dng tm cc khuyt tt ln v nguy him nh nt gy, tht c chai, ln nhiu t trong b tng hoc l rng.

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* My phn tch cc theo phng php bin dng ln PDA c loi mi nht l loi PAK. My ny ghi cc th nghim nng cho mi trng xy dng c nghit. My ny ghi kt qu ca phng php th bin dng ln cho cng trnh nn mng, cho thm d a k thut . Phn mm s l rt d tip thu. S liu c t ng lu gi vo a s dng v sau. Chng trnh CAPWAP ci t c vo PAK nn vic nh gi kh nng ton vn v kh nng chu ti ca cc rt nhanh chng.

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Cc phng php th ng ngy nay v cng phong ph. Vi khi nim ng lc hc ca cc, th trng cng c th nghim c rt nhiu trang thit b nh my phn tch ng cc th theo phng php bin dng ln ( PDA), my ghi kt qu th theo phng php bin dng nh (PIT), my ghi saximeter, my phn tch hot ng ca ba ( Hammer Performance Analyzer, HPA ), my ghi kt qu gc nghing ca cc ( angle analyzer), my ghi kt qu ng cc ( Pile installation recorder, PIR ), my phn tch xuyn tiu chun ( SPT analyzer) ...

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iv.2 Cht lng cc chu ti tnh khng p ng: (i) (ii) Do khng khoan n su qui nh thi cng cc cng on sau Do cn lp bn qu dy tn y h khoan, xc ra khng sch m b tng

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iv.3 Cht lng ct thp khng t: (i) t khng ng khong cch gia cc thanh, lng thp b mo m, bin hnh so vi thit k Thp b bn. Nh rng mi trng lm vic rt sn bn lm bn ct thp

(ii)

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B tng thn cc mt tng mng do b tng c st qu ln. B tng cc mt tng mng do c ti nc trong thn h khoan B tng thn cc mt tng on do gp ti nc ln trong thn h khoan (iv) Mi cc mt mt on do y xc ra khng sch (v) Thn cc thu nh tit din, l mt khi b tng bo v do rt ng khi b tng s ninh, mt phn ngoi b tng b ma st vi thnh vch chng i ln (vi) Cc mt thng ng do khi rt ng c tc ng ngang trong qu trnh rt ng (vii) Cc b thiu mt s b tng do thp qu dy, b tng khng chy dng kn ht khng gian (viii) Thn cc nham nh do b tng c st nh (ix) Thn cc c on ch c si hoc c cc l rng ln do b tng b gin on (x) on trn thn cc c cc nhnh b tng am ra nh r cy do on ny khng c nc ngm, t kh, li b st trong qu trnh khoan to thnh cc rnh c hnh r cy. Khi rt ng chng lc b tng cn nho nn b tng chy ra (xi) Tn nhiu b tng do vch b xp tng on

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(i) (ii) (iii)

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iv.1 Cht lng b tng thn cc:

S khc nhau gia ba phng php ny l my ghi c cc hin tng vt l no v phn mm chuyn cc dao ng c l hc y di dng sng ghi c trong my v th hin qua biu nh th no.

(iii)

Ni thp khng ng qui nh cch ni, v tr ni.

iv.4 iu kin cng tc km (i)

(ii) (iii)

iv.5 Gp d vt khi khoan (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

(i) (ii)

iv.7 Cht lng thit b,trang b km c tai nn do khi rt ng b tng b t mi hn.

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iv.8 Ma: Ma v bin ng thi tit cn tr thi cng. Khi thi cng c kh khn,phi ngng thi cng khi ang o d,c th dng gii php lp tm bng ct sch

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C nhng h khoan ch cch cng trnh hin hu vi chc cetnimet. Cn gi vch nhng ch ny. ng thi qu trnh gy khoan khng gi mnh gu gy rung chn ng. Cn c gii php chng hu hiu cc cng trnh hin hu c kh nng bin dng do qu trnh thi cng cc.

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iv.6 Khoan st cng trnh hin hu:

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Gp r cy,gp nhng thu knh si cui do trm tch ao h Gp rc xy dng do ph d dn khng sch:dm,mng tng,khi b tng. Gp cc c:Ch khng c nh cc c v nh th s ph hoi kt cu nn. Gp m ci chm.

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Mt bng lun ngp nga trong bn. Qu trnh khoan phi s dng hng trm khi bn bentonite. Khi b tng s bn trong h khoan b b tng y ln ming h, gy bn ra mt bng thi cng. Mt bng ngp nga bn bn lm cn tr vic thi cng nhng cc tip theo. Nu bn ny chy ra cng thot nc ca thnh ph s lm tc cng chung. Phi thit k bin php thu hi ti s dng bn bentonite, va tit kim, va to ra v sinh cho mt bng.

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iv. 9 Kinh nghim v th nghim:

Nn t chc kim tra cp chng ch theo kiu kim tra cho gia cc n v th nghim. iv. 10 Lp h s :

Cn yu cu h s v h s cn c a ch kt cu nh trnh by phn trn. Vic s dng cc nhi rng ri mi xm nhp vo nc ta trn di chc nm nay v cho kt qu kh n nh . y l bin php mng su c hu ht cc nc trn th gii s dng cho nh cao tng v cc cng trnh c ti ln . Ngnh giao thng nc ta s dng phng php ny cho hu ht mng tr cu xy dng nc ta trong vng hai chc nm gn y . Vi nh cao tng , gii php cc nhi v cc barrette l gii php rt tt nu khng dm ni l gii php duy nht ng. 1.11 S dng tng c bo v h o su : 1.11.1 M t cng ngh

Tng c vch h o bng g la ngang : Bin php ny c s dng nhiu do vt t lm c khng i hi chuyn dng m l nhng vt t ph bin. My ng nhng dm I thp hnh xung t cng l nhng my ng cc thng thng . Quanh thnh h o c ng xung nhng thanh dm I-12 thp hnh c su hn y h o khong 3~4 mt. Nhng dm I-12 ny t cch nhau 1,5 ~ 2,0 mt. Khi o t su th la nhng tm vn ngang t dm I n n dm I kia , tm vn ng theo chiu cnh , la gia hai bng ca dm I . Vn c p mt t

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Trong cng ngh thi cng nn , mng nh dn dng v cng nghip t khi phi o h su hoc nu c o h su th mt bng thi cng li thoi mi m lm mi dc chng xp thnh vch t o. Gn y do phi lm nh cao tng , h mng su v xy chen trong thnh ph nn vn chng vch o thng ng c t ra nghim tc.

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cho y h v m bng qu nng. Gii php ny cng s dng cho khi b ngng thi cng v nhng l do khc.

Tng c bng thp :

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Tng c c kim tra s chu p lc ngang nh dng tng chn t theo s tng mng ( mm ) ng t do. Cn kim tra bin dng ca tng, khng cho php tng c di chuyn gy xp l hoc lp cng trnh o trong lng h. Di tc ng ca cc lc ngang, tng mm ng t do , lm vic nh mt cng sn c ngm n hi trong t. Do lc ngang l p lc t ca mt bn mt c y vo c sau khi o hng bn trong, tm c s quay quanh mt im no . T im xoay ny m xc nh su cm c sao cho to c p lc cn bng ch ng v b ng. Thng thng phi thm h thng vng gi v neo h tr chng li cc tc ng ca p lc ln tng. Nu mt t c khng chng c p lc , cn to nhiu lp c theo kiu dt cp , lp ngoi bao bc h rng , cc lp trong din tch bao

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Tng c bng nhng tm thp ch sn t nh my . C nhiu loi tit din ngang ca tm c nh c phng , c khum , c hnh ch Z gi l c Zombas , c hnh ch U gi l c Lacsen . Nhng tm c ch to t nh my c chiu di 12 mt , chiu dy taqm c t 6 ~ 16 mm. Chiu rng ca tit din ngang ca mt tm thng t 580 mm n 670 mm. Chiu su ca tit din th mng nht l c phng , ch 50 mm v su nht l c Lacsen khi ghp i n 450 mm. c im ca c l hai mp tm c c mng khi la nhng tm c li vi nhau lc ng xung t , mng c c kht n mc nc khng thm qua , khng di chuyn c t pha mt c ny sang pha mt c bn kia. C thng ng xung t trc lc o v mt pha ca tng c khi o chng c t x v nc chy vo h o theo phng ngang.

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vo cnh ca dm I . Khong h gia vn v cnh kia ca dm I c n g cho cht. Nu t o khng c nc ngm th bin php ny chng thnh h o n gin . Cn kim tra lc y ngang v c bin php vng chng bin dng u dm I phn trn . Nu khu vc thi cng c nc ngm th bin php t ra c nhc im l nc ngm s chy vo h o theo khe gia cc thanh vn v em theo t mn hoc ct chung quanh vo h o v gy nguy him cho cng trnh k bn. Gii php ny rt ph thuc vo mc nc trong t v kt qu khng n nh , rt tm b . Ch nn s dng trong phm vi cng trnh nh .

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h ib o

Hin nay Nh my B tng Xun Mai bn cnh H ni ang ch to tng c bng b tng ct thp ng lc trc s dng trong vic thi cng cc tng hm. Tm c lm bng b tng ct thp c kch thc dy 120 mm, rng 750 mm v di t 6 n 8 mt. B tng s dng c mc 300 , thp ng sut trc. Loi ny h xung t c th ng, c th rung p.

Tng c bng b tng ct thp ng lc trc:

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Hng C-LOC ca Hoa k gii thiu sang nc ta loi vn c bng VINYL c tit din ngang ta nh loi LACSEN s dng cp b h , b mng th bn lu, vng chi v m quan. Nhiu cng trnh cp h s dng phng php k hc t hiu qu v trng lng bn thn ca k ln m y mng k li nm trn nn t yu sng nc nn chng bao lu , ch mt vi nm k b st v hng . Nu cm k bng vn c nha , mi k nm su di t , c khi phn chm gp ba , bn ln phn ni ca vn c nn chu lc y ngang rt tt , k n nh lu di .

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Thit b h cc c xung t cng l cc my ng cc thng thng. Nu s dng h cc c kiu rung, c th ghp nhiu tm cng rung h cho tn dng sc my. Thng dng my ng cc diesel ng cc c . Khi s dng tng c phi kim tra bic dng gy ra s chuyn dch tng c vo pha trong h o . Nu c kh nng chuyn v phi thit k cc t chng bng cc khung nm ngang . Nhng t chng ny l nhng thanh thp hnh ch I , U khng nh , to thnh khung kn khp bn trong tit din h o , c cc thanh cho gc v cc thanh vng ngang c tng p cht vn c thnh vo t . Nu cn m bo khng gian thi cng bn trong h o khng th lm h vng ngang m phi neo nhng thanh thp hnh khung vn c xuyn qua vn c thnh m neo vo t bn ngoi h o . Vic to dy neo bng cch khoan vo t theo my khoan perforateur , sau a dy cp vo trong h khoan ny ri bm va xi mng ti mt s im lm u neo.

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bc s hp dn . Chiu rng mt bc cng c tnh ton sao cho cung trt khng ph hu ton b h thng. Hin nay trn th trng nc ta c mt Hng cung cp cc c ni ting th gii TRADE ARBED c kinh nghim sn xut v cung ng cc c hng trm nm nay. Cc c thng c s dng nhiu ln . Ngay ti nc ta cng c nhng cng ty chuyn cung cp hoc cho thu cc c qua s dng nhm h gi thnh cho cc gii php s dng cc c.

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1.11.2 Phm vi p dng Trong nc :

Nc ngoi:

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2. Phn xy dng cng trnh trn mt t : 2.1 Cng trnh nh xy gch sn ti ch :

Cc nc chu u l ni s dng vn c sm trn th gii. c, Php, Anh, cc nc Bc u s dng vn c sm nht. Bc M cng l nhng nc c nhiu kinh nghim xy dng dng tng c nhiu. Cng ty ARBED l cng ty c lng vn c bn nhiu nht trong cc nc phng Ty. Nht bn cng l nc sn xut nhiu loi vn c thp dng Larsen bn trong khu vc chu , Thi bnh dng. Gn y, Nht bn v Hn quc lin doanh a ra th trng cc sn phm vn c LX v Larsen di tn hng TUNGHAN INDUSTRY SDN BHD l loi vn c chu cnh tranh vi vn c M v chu u ti th trng ng Nam . Vn c s dng k thnh vch o, k ng dn n cc cu ni trn mt t bng phng cng nh k ven h, ven sng.

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Bin php vn c ny l bin php kinh in c s dng chnh thc nh ti liu gio khoa trong cch s l o mng su . Phn l thuyt tnh ton v thc t p dng chng minh rng kt qu rt n nh , ng tin cy trong cc gii php chng thnh h o . Nu lun lu tt , y cng l gii php kinh t . Cn nhn rng v quen thuc vi gii php ny. Cc cng ty xy dng cu ng hoc thi cng cng bin, cng sng s dng nhiu hn ngnh xy dng dn dng v cng nghip. Tuy vy vng chng vch o su trong thnh ph, nhiu cng ty xy dng dn dng v cng nghip lm quen vi tng c.

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C b tng ct thp c thun li l nu li tng s s dng ngay lm tng tng hm, ch cn bc thm cho chiu dy t 100 ~ 150 mm b tng sau khi thi cng lp chng thm s gim c chi ph cho thi cng tng tng hm.

2.1.1 M t cng ngh Nh xy gch , sn ti ch bng b tng ct thp c xy dng kh ph bin nc ta t nhng nm 1930. Kt cu chu lc ch yu l gch , gch c ct thp . Ngoi ra c mt s kt cu nh sn v sn thang bng b tng ct thp. Thi k nhng nh ny c xy dng ph bin th yu cu thit k cho cng trnh phi tho mn yu cu tit kim xi mng v thp cng nh khuyn co rng phi tn dng vt liu a phng v hnh dng kt cu n gin. Kt cu c yu cu chng c cc tc ng c hc , xm thc ca mi trng , chng g cho cc chi tit bng thp. Kt cu m bo n nh theo phng ngang nh l tng ngang nh c chiu dy 220 mm , hoc khung ngang kt cu sn hoc mi c gi ta . Tu khong cch gia cc kt cu n nh ngang , nu khong cch ny nh hn s liu trong bng sau y th nh c gi l nh c s cng v nu ln hn th nh gi l c s mm. Loi sn v mi 1. Sn nh v mi bng b tng ct thp v gch ct thp c ton khi hoc lp ghp xong ton khi ho. 2. Sn nh v mi bng b tng ct thp lp ghp , bng cc dm b tng ct thp hoc dm thp cc tm bn b tng hoc gch.

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Tr s ln nht ng vi khi xy nhm (m) I II III IV

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36

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Nhng nh gch m ta thit k nhiu nm nay c tng ngang chu lc v gc panen hoc sn ti ch nn nhng nh nh th l nh c s cng. Nh c s cng th h tng ngang , tng dc cng tr v mi to thnh h khng gian , nhng kt cu ny lm vic trong mt h thng chung chu cc ti trng tc ng ln nh , k c trng lng bn thn. m bo s lm vic lin hp gia cc b phn ca nh cn ch : - Lin kt gia tng ngang v tng dc tt nht l s dng m dt. - Khi tng ang xy m cn dng , phi ch m dt ri xy tip.

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Khi xy c phn lm 4 nhm cn c vo loi gch , , vo cu to ca khi xy v cng ca va . Sc chu tiu chun ca khi xy l gii hn bn ca khi xy , ph thuc nhiu vo cht lng va cu to nn khi xy. Khi c cc lc tc ng lm cho khi xy chu ko, chu un v chu ct th tu thuc phng ca ni lc so vi mch ca khi xy m xc nh c sc chu tiu chun ca khi xy ng vi cc loi lc ny.

h ib o

Khong 5 nm tr li y, hu ht cc l gch u gia cng t bng c gii nn cht lng vin gch tt ln rt nhiu so vi trc y .

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Nh xy gch c u im l khi xy chu la tt , chu nhng tc ng ca n mn nh nn bn vng hng trm nm . Nh xy gch s dng vt liu a phng , tit kim xi mng v thp, cch m , cch nhit tt , d to hnh kin trc. Nhc im ca nh xy gch l : khi lng ring va vt liu ln , t 1200 ~ 2000 kg/m3 m sc bn ca khi xy li nh nn nh nng n so vi nh b tng ct thp hoc nh thp. Khi nh phi chu ti trng ng th loi nh xy chu ng km . Khi c cc lc ko v ct ln th nh xy chu ng km nn iu kin s dng b hn ch. Yu cu ca khi xy to nn nh phi c chc , mch xy ngang bng , mt xy phi phng . Thnh , cnh , gc xy phi thng ng theo di. Mch xy phi u n v khng qu mng hay qu dy . Mch va tiu chun l 12 mm. Mch ng khng c trng nhau m phi m bo so le ti thiu l 1/4 chiu di vin gch.

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Sn ti ch th nn kt hp sn vi ging tng . Khi u dm hoc u sn k vo tng khng nh hn 120 mm th lc ma st gia sn v tng ln nn c th gim b bt s lng si neo ni trn.

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- Mi tng nh phi c h ging tng lin kt cc tng vo nhau v vo sn , mi nh. - Tng v ct u phi neo gi vo sn , vo mi bng cc thanh thp neo. - Tng nh c khung b tng ct thp hay khung thp phi c neo gi bng thp si 8 nm trong lp va xi mng ct , hai u si 8 chn trong khung , c 6~8 hng gch xy li phi lm mt si neo gi ny.

2.1.2 Phm vi s dng: Trong nc:

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Loi nh xy gch, tng ti ch hin nay vn chim t l ln trong phng thc dn t xy nh cho mnh. Loi nh ny c ci tin cht t l c thm ct gc tng, n cao trnh y sn c thm h dm ging khng c tnh ton to vi ct thnh khung lm cho nh thm n nh. Loi nh ny dn lm ph bin t thnh ph n nng thn mi, cc th x, th t, th trn lm nhiu dng nh ny. Tuy phng thc xy dng ch yu l th cng nhng d thi cng ngay c trong ng ngch, iu kin vn chuyn vt t kh khn.

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Tuy nhin t nguyn liu lm gch l dng ti nguyn khng ti to c cn dn dn hn ch sn xut gch nung. Hin nay cng ngh sn xut vt liu nung ( gch, ngi nung ...) ang hon thin cc loi l tuynen cng sut 5 ~ 20 triu vin / nm theo hng thay th dn t st ly rung, ao bng t i hoc cc lp bi tch sng. Kin quyt xo b l th cng v l do qun l ti nguyn khng ti to c ( t st ) cng nh bo v mi trng. Pht trin gch trang tr, ngi trng men mu. Loi nh xy gch , tng gch chu lc s hn ch dn v so vi nh khung b tng ct thp, din tch chim t ca tng ln , kh nng cao c hiu qu s dng t . Tuy th , y l gii php truyn thng nn s tn ti lu di vi s nghip xy dng nc ta.

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Gch xy nhng nm gn y , phn t nguyn liu c gia cng bng my nn vin gch kh u n , p ng c kch thc hnh hc theo tiu chun . Bn cnh nhng vin gch c , nhiu c s sn xut gch a ra nhng loi gch rng nhiu l lm cho tng xy nh i , tng nh tng tnh cch m , cch nhit.

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Vic xy trt vn c thc hin theo phng php th cng . Vn chuyn ngang trong ni b cng trng s dng xe ci tin vi sc cha khong 150 vin gch ( 300 kg ) mt xe . Vn chuyn theo phng thng ng ch yu l thng ti vi sc nng 300 ~ 500 kg. Nhiu cng trng s dng cn trc thp loi 5 tn th ng nhng thng chuyn cho vic ch gch v benne chuyn ch va v b tng.

h ib o

Panen hp c kch thc danh ngha tnh theo mm : Chiu di : 2400, 2600, 2700, 2800, 3000, 3200, 3300, 3400, 3600, 4200. Chiu rng: 500, 600, 1000, 1200. Chiu cao : 200. Cc tm panen c thit k vi ba loi ti trng tnh ton nh sau: Loi a c ti trng tnh ton l 300 kG/m2 Loi b c ti trng tnh ton l 500 kG/m2 Loi c c ti trng tnh ton l 700 kG/m2. B tng s dng lm loi panen ny l b tng mc 200 . Thp chu lc trong sn pa nen ph bin l 210 ~ 216 vi lng thp cho 1m2 sn l 4 kg/m2 n 10 kg/m2.

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Vo nhng nm 1978 vi s ra i ca tm pa nen hp , nhiu nh my b tng c sn c xy dng v ch to panen sn bn cho cc cng trng. Loi nh xy gch c sn lp ghp bng panen tr nn ph bin . Cng c cu lp panen ln sn l cn trc thiu nhi vi sc cu ph bin l 200 kg , sau nng dn n 500 kg.

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2.2.1 M t cng ngh:

2.2 Cng trnh nh xy gch sn lp ghp :

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y l phng thc lm nh cho vng nng thn v cc th t nc ngoi t gia th k 19 . Hin nay phng thc xy dng ny vn ph bin nhiu nc c khu vc v th gii. Tuy nhin vic s dng vt liu gch nung s dn n cn kit t st l ti nguyn khng ti to c, nhiu nc thay th gch nung bng gch blc b tng, blc rng hoc t trn xi mng ri dp thnh gch vin to xy tng bao. Tng , vch rut nh lm bng vt liu mng, nh.

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Nc ngoi:

Phng thc ny to gip gii quyt nhanh nhu cu nh cho dn trong thi gian ny.

2.2.2 Phm vi s dng: Trong nc:

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Loi nh ny thc cht ging nh loi trn, ch khc l sn c c sn thnh cc panen. Vic ch to tm panen gip cho tng tc xy dng v thm tin nghi v cch m. Tuy th, hin nay ang thu hp din xy dng v nhng nh my b tng c sn khng sn xut panen bn na m t c ti cng trng rt kh m bo cht lng. L do thu hp din s dng v ngi s dng cho l n nh chung ca cng trnh theo cch xy dng ny cha p ng yu cu ca h v khi ngi dn s dng nh ca h th gii php sn ti ch c a chung hn gii php lp sn .

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Loi sn Hourdi ca cc nc chu u m tm sn c sn bng gm hay b tng ct liu nh, c 2 l rng ln dc theo chiu dm k c dng kh ph bin nc ngoi. Nhng tm sn cao 200 mm, rng 600 mm v chiu di 600 mm ghp vi nhau theo chiu di k ln dm theo chiu ngang. Chn mch bng va xi mng. Loi sn ny c u im l cch m, cch nhit tt . Vo nhng nm 1992~ 1994 khi B Xy dng c quan h hp tc vi Hng SOCOTEC, hng ny c gii thiu loi sn ny vi mt c quan t vn thit k trong B nhng khng c ch to thc nghim .

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Vo nm 1982 mt s c quan nghin cu nh trng i hc Xy dng, Vin Khoa hc Cng ngh B Xy dng lm th immt s sn bng tm b tng c l trn dc theo chiu gi ta , khng ct thp. Nhng tm ny ta trn nhng dm nh ng lc trc gc qua gi ta c nhp t 2,50 mt n 4,50 mt. Loi ny c lm th im cho khong trn di chc nh, sau s c xp sn ti mt ngi nh ph Cu G H ni nm 1984 loi sn ny khng s dng na.

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Khi ch to panen sn , phn sn trn ca hai u tm panen phi lm khuyt chn gch phng khi xy tng ln u tm panen th phn gch chn s ti trng ca tng v ca cacs tng sn trn xung. Vi panen mi khng cn phi lm khuyt phn sn trn ny. Sn bng panen hay tm an th nhng tm sn phi neo ging vi nhau v ging vi tng ngn cn mi dch chuyn khi c rung ng hoc chu cc dng lc ngang tc ng. Phi chn k panen bng b tng si nh c mc cao hn mc b tng ca panen . Mt t ca cc tm panen sn v panen mi ny nn l mt trn ca ging tng.

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Nc ngoi: Phng thc xy dng ny lc u do cn b k s ta i hc trong cc nc thuc khi x hi ch ngha c , m ch yu l Lin x c a v. Loi nh ny khng pht trin ngay ti nhng nc lc u ra n. 2.3 Nh lp ghp tm nh :

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Loi nh ny c xy dng vo hai thi k nc ta vi s khc bit kh nhiu v kt cu . Nm 1958 ti H ni xy dng th im loi nh bloc u tin ti khu tp th Kim Lin v cng ch xy dng ti khu th im ny m khng nhn rng ra . Thay cho tng trong nh xy gch l cc tm bloc bng x c c chiu dy 300 mm v tm x rng khong 1,2 mt , cao 1,5 mt . Thnh phn vt liu trong nhng tm x gm x nhit in c sng c c ht nh hn 20 mm , ct vng v xi mng. Mc ca b tng x c ch to lm bloc l 50 . Bloc ny c dung trng khong 1,4 t/m3 . Vi kch thc nh trn , mi tm x nng khong 750 kg. Cc tm c t ln sn qua lp va xi mng ct vng t l 1 : 3 dy 20 ~ 30 mm v ghp st nhau , mch va ng cng l xi mng ct vng 1 : 3 . Trc khi t tm sn c ging tng b tng ct thp mc 200 , ging dy 100 mm. Sn s dng cho loi nh ny dng tm c sn c kch thc khong 12 m2/tm . Sn dy 100 mm , b tng mc 200. Mi phng lp 2 tm v khu ph cho v sinh v bp c ti ch . Vic lp ghp cc tm thi k xy dng ti khu tp th Kim Lin H ni dng cn cu thp c sc cu 5 tn loi BKCM-05 . Vic lin kt gia tm vi nhau , tm vi sn ch dng mch va xi mng ct nn nhng t H ni c bo c bo trn cp 12 vo nhng nm 1965 ~ 1975 thnh ph ra lnh cho nhng ngi khu tp th ny phi s tn . Nhng sau nhiu trn bo trn cp 10 cng trnh khng thy nt n do bin dng , vic s tn khng t ra na . Kt cu cho loi nh ny kh nng n v din tch s dng nh nhiu so vi din tch xy dng do chiu dy ca tng ln . tin cy ca cc mi ni cha cao nn to ra tm l khng yn tm cho ngi s dng , ng thi kin trc ca nhng nh ti khu tp th c xy dng th im cn nhiu nhc im nn vic s dng loi nh ny b hn ch.

Loi nh lp ghp tm nh khc l loi s dng cho nh hai tng tr xung nhng ph bin l dng cho nh 1 tng , c khung l ct b tng ct thp nh nh l , c rnh la tm tng mng 60 mm lm vch ngn.

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2.4. Nh lp ghp tm ln :

Nh lp ghp tm ln c nghin cu xy dng nc ta vo nm 1975 v bt u xy dng th nghim vo nm 1976 ti khu Vn Chng , qun ng a , H ni.
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Kt cu chu lc chnh l khung ct v dm bng b tng ct thp nh . Sn tm phng va cho c gian nh . Vch l nhng tm an b tng ct thp dy 60 mm, rng 500 mm v di chng 750 mm ~ 1200mm. Tm tng ny la vo hai ct bng rnh dng mng . Mt s nh c tm tng chn gia ct ca khung b tng ct thp tit din nh l tm kch thc nh ch to bng x sng ht nh di 10 mm. Loi nh ny vo nhng nm 1964 n 1978 c dng nhiu thay ln tri cng trng gi nh tm cho cng nhn c lu hn nh tranh l na , an ton hn v t kh nng b ho hon hn . Vo nhng nm 1968 ~1978 cc khu tp th ca cn b ti H ni v sinh vin cc trng hc c ni tr pht trin nhanh chng, a im xy dng cc trng i hc , trung hc v trng dy ngh khng n nh song song vi vic cha c kinh ph u t xy dng vnh cu nhng vn i hi s lng ln nh cho sinh vin nn loi nh ny c xy dng nhiu cho cc trng hc c sinh vin , hc sinh tp trung. B tng c tm tng , ct , dm thng c mc 200. Thp s dng cho , thanh ch l 12 v nhng thanh khc l 6 hoc 4. Thp trong cc tm tng l li thp 4 an vung cch nhau 100 mm. Loi nh ny c dng lm ln tri cng trng l chnh v s dng cho cc mc ch khc c tnh cht tm b m trong mt thi phng chm phc v l hy c ch nht ngi ri tin nghi tnh sau nn khng trt trong , khng trt ngoi , nn lng xi mng ct , khng hoc c trn bng ct np tre. Kt cu mi cho loi nh ny l v ko thp trn m cc thanh dc mi hn bng thp trn thnh hai dm t hp thp trn v thanh cnh h s dng mt si dy cng 12 ~ 14 c lp tng . Ta vo v ko ny l x g b tng , x g g hay x g cng bng thp trn t hp t 6. Cht lp ph bin l fibroximng , tn hay ngi xi mng. Mt s cng trng dng cht lp cho loi nh ny l ct p trn ph giy du bitum. T khi phn chia a bn xy dng cho cc cng ty xy dng theo a d , s nhu cu ln tri gim v nht l khi Nh nc khng cho tnh 2,8 % tin u t cho ln tri cng trng trong mc chi kin thit c bn khc th khng ni no lm loi nh ny na. Cc c quan xo b c ch bao cp nh tp th cho cng nhn vin chc nn loi nh ny cng khng c t xy dng. Bn cnh , mc sng ca ngi dn ln cao dn , nhng loi nh rt km tin nghi nh loi ny c hi pht trin l him hoi .

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Vic lp ghp nh loi ny nh cn cu thp c sc nng 5 tn . h tr vic lp ghp nh trong lc cha di chuyn cn trc thp ti hin trng , c th dng cn trc bnh xch lp hai tng di . Do trnh ch to tm v do ch trng ca nh qun l xy dng nn tt c nhng nh loi ny u phi trt trong v trt ngoi nh nh bnh thng. Loi nh ny thch hp cho cc chung c nhiu cn h . Nhng nm cui ca thi k xy dng loi nh ny ( khong nm 1990 ) mu m loi nh lp ghp tm ln c ci tin nhiu th hin qua cc mu nh ti khu Thanh xun Nam v Thanh xun Bc H ni. Loi nh lp ghp tm ln nu tnh ton theo ng t cp 6 Richter tr ln th chi ph cho cc lin kt ht sc cao . My nm gn y

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Loi nh ny thng c xy dng 4 ~ 5 tng trn mng b tng ct thp ti ch. Mt s khu tp th s dng loi nh ny xy dng nh 2 tng theo nguyn tc , mt h c c tng di v tng trn . Nhng gian u hi c li giao thng ring bit nn di nh l mt h t ngi , trn gc l h nh.

Mt thi gian kh di , nhng tm c ch to ngay ti bi hin trng . Sau , vic sn xut tm do cc nh my b tng c sn m nhim ri chuyn ch n v tr lp .

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Cu thang l tm khng cn t t ln tm chiu ti v tm chiu ngh cng bng bn b tng ct thp mc 200 v dy 12 cm. Thp chu lc chnh t theo phng di ca tm thang.

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Loi nh ny c kt cu chu lc chnh l h thng tng bng b tng c mt t thp phn b cu to trong tm v gia cng g bin ca tm . Tng chu lc gn vi sn thnh h kt cu khng gian cng chu lc v tu theo s sp xp kin trc m bn sn k chu lc c coi nh bn k hai cnh , ba cnh hoc bn cnh . Tng c chiu dy 15 cm bng b tng mc 150 ~ 200 , chiu cao bng chiu cao nh v chiu rng t 3,3 mt n 3,6 mt mi thn ngang nh phi lp t hai n ba tm. Tm tng mt s khu tp th c lm bng khun b tng ct thp , nhi gia tm bng b tng x p mn qua hc sng 5 mm . Tm sn bng b tng mc 200 , ct thp t theo tnh ton v chiu dy sn l 12 cm ~ 15 cm. Vic lin kt gia nhng tm tng vi nhau v tng vi sn hoc tng vi tm thang bng cch ni hn nhng ming chi tit t bng thp sn chn trong tng tm c bn . Khu v sinh thng c b tng ton khi .

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2.5. Nh c thi cng theo kiu kch nng sn Sn nh c c tm n trc tip ln tm kia ngay trn chnh mt bng cng trnh . Lp sn n vi sn kia c lp chng dnh ngn cch d dng bc tch tng lp sn ring bit m khng b kh khn g . Ct nh c c trc khi c cc tm sn v c cao cho ht tng cao ca nh lun mt mch. Khi cc lp sn tui pht huy ht kh nng chu lc , nng ton b tm sn ln nh h thng kch la qua l cha sn ti sn n ht cao tng . Lin kt cht sn di cng vi ct c nh v tr sn ca tng trt . Ta to dng xong mt tng v tng ny b cc tm sn trn ln . Tip tc la kch qua sn tip theo tng nng nng nhng tm sn cn li ln thm mt tng na . Sau cn chnh ri lin kt cht tm sn ny vo ct . Ta li c thm mt tng na c to dng ng nh mt tng nh thit k.

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Loi nh lp ghp tm ln ghi du ca mt bc pht trin trong cng nghip xy dng nh trong cc khu chung c H ni trong xut thi k 1978 ~ 1994. Nu loi nh ny gii quyt tt khu lin kt chng ng t cho cc mi ni , gii quyt tt hn khu cch m v cch nhit , nng cao chiu cao nh ln thm cht na th loi nh ny c th dn n cng nghip ho xy dng nh nhanh chng . Tuy vy , vic gii quyt khu mi ni cho chng ng t khng phi l n gin v kinh t . Hin nay nc Nga ngng vic xy dng theo loi nh ny . Qua nhng tai bin trong vng chc nm qua trn th gii , cc nc pht trin t vn tnh ton khng chn rt nghim tc phn nh trong vic sa i quy phm tnh vi cc tc ng khng chn. Vic ngng sn xut loi nh ny ti Nga hay ti nc ta l ch trng ng n v s an ton s dng cng trnh .

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thin tai do ng t lm nhiu nh trn th gii b xp nn hu ht cc nc u phi xem xt li cch tnh ton nh chu ti trng ng t. Cng v l y m hin nay CHLB Nga gn nh khng s dng nh lp ghp tm ln na. nc ta vo khong nm 1994 tr li y nh lp ghp tm ln cng khng c xy dng na vi l do nh nc xo b bao cp trong vic cung cp nh cho cn b cng nhn vin chc , t c phn cho nhiu n v xy dng nh bn , v mun d bn , cc cng ty c t thng lm nh cn h ring bit . Mt s n v xy dng nh chung c bn th li lm nh nhiu tng , n chn mi tng , gim gi thnh u t cho mt n v din tch nh s dng do mng chu ht kh nng lm vic .

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tng v mt dng kt cu khung thp 3 chiu vi li vt liu nh c cc tc gi Hoa k a ra t nhung nm 1960 nhng thnh cu kin phi i ti nm 1980 cc tc gi o mi a ra m hnh u tin v cc tm cu kin ny vi hai lp li thp cng cao cng vi lp li polyurthan. Hng EVG (o ) , Entwicklungs und Verwertungs-Gesellschaft m.b.H, Raaba-Austria , tin hnh nghin cu v a ra cng ngh sn xut cc
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2.6. Nh xy dng theo cng ngh 3-D :

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Thit b ch yu s dng trong phng php thi cng nh nng tng l h thng kch . H kch ny phi c cao bng mt tng nh v c kh nng nng ti thiu cho c h l sc nng ton b trng lng cc tm sn. iu kin thi cng chn ct cho tng l thao tc tin hnh gia hai tng sn c nng tch nh h kch nn phi ht sc ch n s bo m an ton cho ngi lao ng . Qu trnh thi cng ht sc phc tp , i hi s phi hp ng b v s iu khin thng nht . u im ca phng php xy dng nh loi ny l rt ngn thi gian hnh thnh to khung chu lc cho cc tng nh . phc tp v phi c h thit b chuyn dng l hn ch ca phng php nn thc t , phng php xy dng ny khng c nhn rng nc ta. Ti Vin Khoa hc v Cng ngh Xy dng xy dng th im mt ngi nh 5 tng thi cng theo phng php ny . Th nghim nhn rng ra nh lm vic ca B Ti chnh , mt ngi nh trong To n Ti cao . Nhng kt qu sau th nghim cho bit thi gian thi cng gim c so vi i chng trn 30% , tit kim nhiu chi ph gin gio v gi thnh cng trnh gim khong 10 % . Sau nhng ngi nh th nghim y , phng php xy dng kiu ny khng c nhn rng chng t tnh kh thi ca phng php cn tn ti nhng khc mc c bn . Tuy vy loi nh thi cng theo phng php ny c th a vo danh mc tuyn chn cng ngh cho tng lai .

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C th nng theo trnh t ngc li . t u nng mt tm ln trn cao nht . Khi gn chc chn sn vi ct ta c sn cao nht vo v tr . Khi ct c gn vi sn n nh xong , nng tip sn tng p to ra tng . C lm tip cho n khi nng ht cc tng nh .

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C nng tng tng sn ri lin kt vi ct cho cc tng t di ln trn cho n sn cui cng cao nht , ta hnh thnh khung chu lc ca ton nh. Theo trnh t nng nh va m t , tng nh c hnh thnh t di ln trn , t nng cui cng ta s c ton b khung ct v sn ca ton nh .

Tuy th cng trnh xy dng da trn cu kin 3-D c nhng nhc im : * S dng thi qu panen sn cho cc kt cu khc nh tng , vch nn gi thnh phi i theo . * Khe nng chng la ca lp polystyrene km nn cng trnh mt kh nng chu lc khi c chy. Tng kt qua vic xy dng loi nh ny ti thnh ph H Ch Minh thy , mi m2 cu kin gi thnh l 45.000 n 95.000 ng. Nh th , loi nh ny gi xp x bng nh xy gch nhng c nhng u im v thi gian thi cng nhanh lm cho hp dn. Th loi nh ny ph hp vi cng trnh va v nh khong 1 ~2 tng nn cc nh thit k cng ch to nhng cu kin cho loi nh ny. Qua qu trnh xy dng loi nh theo cu kin 3-D , cc nh thit k thy rng khng nht thit khi s dng sn nh loi 3-D ny li c phi dng tng nh th m c th tng l tng xy. Nu qu l thuc vo s s dng 3-D s dn n g p v lm nng gi thnh hoc lm ngi nh km i chc nng s dng hay tin nghi. Loi nh ny mi vo nc ta , cn cn thi gian th nghim cng nh cc ch u t cn nhc .

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Phng php xy dng da vo cu kin 3-D ph hp cho i tng trung lu v nhng u im : * Cng trnh c ti trng nh , kinh t trong s dng nn mng , trn nn t yu , trong xy dng ci tng , nng tng trn c s cng trnh c c nn mng yu. * Thi cng nhanh chng nh lp ghp , c kh nng thi cng trn mi a hnh , bng thit b chuyn dng hoc th cng cng thi cng c loi nh ny. * Nh c kh nng cch m , cch nhit tt. * Khng cn nhiu chng loi th mi thi cng c thnh cng trnh. * Gi thnh hp l. * Thi gian thi cng nhanh.

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tm 3D-Panel ( three-dimentional panel) vi li li polystyrene nh , c gi thnh h lm tt c cu kin cho c ngi nh t 1 n 5 tng . u nm 1987 h thng panen 3-D c gii thiu rng ri trn th gii v c a vo sn xut hng lot . Ti nc ta , ngi nh u tin xy dng theo phng php ny vo nm 1997-1998 ti huyn Bnh Chnh thnh ph H Ch Minh.

2.7. Xy dng s dng cp pha trt : Cp pha trt c s dng lm khun c cc cng trnh bng b tng ct thp da vo nguyn tc lm mt on cp pha cho cc kt cu c tit din ngang khng i hay bin i theo qui lut tuyn tnh. l cc cng trnh ng khi , nh nhiu tng bng b tng c kt cu tng chu lc , nhng loi kt cu ny s c trt theo phng thng ng ; cc knh , mng , ng nm ngang , hm di , nhng kt cu ny c tit din ngang khng i bng b tng ct thp s c trt theo phng nm ngang . Nhng b phn ch yu ca b cp pha trt gm c : * H thng vn khun , * H thng sn thao tc, * H thng bm du p lc.

Cc yu cu ch yu ca h cp pha trt l :

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H thng cp pha bao gm vn khun , vng gng v gi nng. H thng sn gm sn thao tc trong , sn vn ra ngoi v h gio treo trong , ngoi. Ti trng thi cng trn sn c tnh tu theo trang b thi cng trn , vt liu v ngi tin hnh cc thao tc . S liu c th tham kho t 1000 N/m2 n 2500 N/m2. Mun s dng c cp pha trt khi thit k kin trc phi tun theo cc yu cu :

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To cp pha cho mt on cng trnh . t thp v b tng . b tng cho kt cu m vic b tng lm cho cng trnh pht trin theo chiu cao th khi b tng ng rn cng cho cp pha tho khi vn bc khng b bung , v , th trt cp pha ln on trn . H cp pha phi c t ln vt ta gi l ty cho kch bm m vt ta y phi m bo ton b kt cu ca cp pha trt di chuyn khng gy bin dng ngoi mun .

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Nguyn l vn hnh ca h cp pha trt nh sau:

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+ cng khng b bin dng khi dch chuyn. + Tnh linh hot tt , d iu khin di chuyn , v + An ton s dng.

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Vng gng

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Tn cu kin Cp pha

Gi nng

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Ty kch

Ni dung lm b mt Chiu di Chiu rng phng mt bn V tr l lin kt Chiu di Chiu di <2 mt cong nu chiu di >3m V tr l lin kt Chiu cao Chiu rng V tr thanh vng gng V tr l lin kt cong ng knh Tim thanh ni

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Sai lch khi ch to hay nhp cc b phn cp pha trt tnh bng mm i hi rt nh cho trong bng : Sai s cho php 1 2 -2 2 0,5 5 2 4 0,5 3 3 2 0,5 2/1000 0,5 0,25

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Thi cng cp pha trt i hi tun th cc qui nh k thut ht sc nghim ngt . Lp rp cp pha trt i hi chnh xc cao v sai s khi lp cp pha trt phai at cc iu ghi trong bng : Sai lch cho Hng mc php ( mm ) Ghi ch S th t

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+ Mt bng v mt ng cng n gin cng tt xt theo quan im hnh dng hnh hc. + B tr kt cu ca cc tng nn ging nhau , thng nht cao y dm, cao cc l ca , tuyn trc cc dm , ct , vch nn trng hp vi nhau qua cc tng. Chi tit t sn bng thp hn to lin kt vi cc kt cu nh khi mt trt c thi cng khi trt xong c gng xp theo phng ngang hay phng ng v khng xt . + Phn chia khu vc trt , ln ca vng trt xc nh theo c im kt cu cn thi cng , tu theo tc nng v kh nng thi cng c th. Gia nhng vng trt nn l khe bin dng hay khe ln .

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Cng ngh thi cng cp pha trt in hnh theo trnh t sau y: * Chun b cc iu kin thi cng * Phng tuyn v kim tra trc c * Lp t gi nng , vng gng * Lp t mt mt cp pha * Buc ct thp , lp cc ng ng chn sn * Lp t cp pha cn li v cp pha cho cc l ca * Lp t sn thao tc * Lp t h thng p lc du : kch , ng dn du , b phn iu khin * Lp t cc thit b kh ng lc , chiu sng thi cng * Vn hnh th ton b h dm , bm du , h x kh * Cm ty kch * b tng t u * Lp cp pha ca , buc thp ngang, t cc chi tit chn sn , b tng khi c iu kin thch hp * Trt khi m bo b tng sp l ng kt. Lp gi treo trong , ngoi v cc trang b an ton * Lp tun hon cc thao tc trn n khi kt thc kt cu cn b tng.

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5 6 7 8

X dch tim cppha v tim kt cu tng ng ngang Trong mt ca dm bng ngang gi Ngoi mt nng bng mt thng gc Trong ca tr ng bng Ngoi mt gi nng bng V tr vn Ming pha khun trn Ming pha di V tr lp t kch phng mt cp pha bn ngang bng sn thao tc Sai lch phng ngang ca v tr vng gng ng knh cp pha trn, chiu di cp pha vung

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Kim tra bng thc Kim tra bng thc ngn 2 m

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Sai s cho Ghi ch php (mm) Chuyn v tng i gia cc 10 Kim tra trc bng thc thng Ca tng 5 Thc 2m

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Cp pha trt to ra nhng cng trnh chc chn v bn vng v kt cu s dng l b tng ct thp ton khi. Tuy th , qu trnh thi cng i hi nghip v ca k s v cng nhn phi thnh thc v chuyn nghip. Cc yu cu v cht lng kch thc hnh hc sau y ni ln tnh nghim ngt :

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* b tng tng lp n 2/3 chiu cao ca tm cp pha v trc lc lp b tng u tin bt u ng cng , trt 1/2 hnh trnh , phi thng xuyn quan st s lm vic ca h thng cp pha v b mt b tng ra khi khun. Dng thit b kim tra , nu thy cng b tng l khi cp pha t 0,5 ~ 2,5 kG/cm2 th cho trt bnh thng. * C gng gin cch gia hai ln trt khong 1 gi . * B tng mi lp xong phi t cng mt cao v trong khong thi gian tng i ng u . * Sau mi ln trt cn lm v sinh bn trong cp pha b tng sp khng b dnh v cp pha. * Qu trnh trt phi ch v thng ng ca kt cu . Nu c sai lch cht t phi chnh sa ngay .

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+ st b tng thch hp l 60 ~ 80 mm. Cng b tng sau khi c l khi mt cp pha phi t 0,5 ~ 2,5 kG/cm2. + Chiu cao mi lp b tng khong 300 mm. + m b tng bng m di. Khi ang trt khng c m. Trnh t trt tm tt nh sau:

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Thi cng b tng trong cng ngh cp pha trt :

3 4 5 6 7

2.8 Cng ngh thi cng ng lc trc trong xy dng nh : Nm 1928 Freyssinet nghin cu thnh cng b tng ct thp ng sut trc v t n nay vic s dng b tng ct thp ng lc trc t ra rt hiu qu trong xy dng. Nc ta bt u th nghim nhng cng trnh thit k s dng b tng ng lc trc u tin trong xy dng cu b tng ct thp vo nm 1962 ( Cu Ph L trn quc l s 2 ). Trong xy dng cng nghip , b tng ct thp ng lc trc c dng trong cc xil cha ht trong cc nh my. B tng ng lc trc dng trong kt cu sn nh mi c s dng my nm gn y nc ta . n nay cc cng ty t vn nc ta c th thit k nhng kt cu ng lc trc v trong nc t thi cng kt cu ng lc trc ny. B tng chu nn tt v chu ko km . Trong kt cu b tng ct thp thng thng , b tng v thp c thit k cng chu lc pht huy ht nhng c im ca tng loi vt liu tham gia to nn kt cu . To ng sut trc cho kt cu b tng ct thp l lm cho kt cu phi chu lc trc khi s dng trong cng trnh v phng chu lc ngc vi khi n lm vic trn cng trnh . Nh th , kt cu lm vic s hu hiu hn . Nh c vic to ng lc trc m kt cu b tng ct thp c th lm ra nhng kt cu thanh mnh , vt nhp ln , tng c kh nng lm vic , cng ln , tng kh nng chng thm , chng nt cao , m rng phm vi lp ghp nng dn mc

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Cp pha trt l bin php tin tin c hiu qu s dng cao. Trc y ta ch c mt cng ty chuyn thi cng theo phng php trt vi nhng b thit b trt ca Trung quc v Rumanie. My nm gn y nhiu nc cho nhng loi thit b cp pha trt mi vi chng ta. Cng ngh ny c trin vng ln khi thc hin cng nghip ho xy dng.

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Ton chiu cao Kch thc Vch , ct tit din Dm phng b mt Chuyn v tim l cha Ct cao Gia cc tng Ton chiu cao V tr chi tit chn sn

ng

H/100 ; 50 10 +10,-5 8 10 10 30 20

Kinh v Kim tra bng thc Thc 2m Ktra thc

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bng

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Phng php cng sau dng ch to cc kt cu b tng ct thp ng lc trc ti ch nh xil , sn nh , dm cng sau , dn rng , b mng . Cng ngh cng sau c th c tin hnh theo hai phng php : cng c hc v cng nhit in . Cng c hc l dng kch bm vo u neo lm thanh thp dn ra v sinh ni lc . Sau khi cng dng cht gi u neo v nhi chn va xi mng trong ng cha si thp .

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c gii ho xy dng. Do s dng thp cng cao trong kt cu nn tit kim lng thp ng k. Thp s dng trong kt cu b tng ct thp ng lc trc l dy ko ngui , dy ti v ram , cc dnh thp , v thp thanh cn nng c hoc khng x l tip . Nhng loi thp ny c hnh dng bn ngoi c th l dy trn , dy vn , dy c vt n , dy c ln sng hoc dy tt thnh dnh. Gii hn bn ko ca ct thp dng trong kt cu b tng ct thp ng lc trc kh cao : t 1470 n 1960 N/mm2 . Vic thi cng b tng ct thp ng lc trc i hi phi c thit b chuyn dng , qun l k thut cht ch v cng nhn lnh ngh. Khu cng v neo ct thp c ngha quan trng i vi cht lng ca kt cu b tng ng lc trc . C hai phng php to ng lc trc cho kt cu : cng trc v cng sau. B tng ct thp cng trc s dng cho cc kt cu c sn nh panen , dm b tng ct thp c sn , dn b tng ct thp . Ti nh my , plygn ch to kt cu c sn , lm nhng bi cng thp to ng lc trc. Tu theo thit k sn xut m bi c mt , hai hay nhiu dn cng . Sn cng c san phng v b tng kim sn y cp pha . Sn chia thnh tng bng , mi bng c hai u m gi dy cng v ta kch cng . Tu theo cu kin c ch to m khong cch gia hai m cng ng lc trc lm xa hay gn. Thng mt h m cng nn b tr cng hai , ba hoc bn cu kin sp xp thng hng tn dng sc cng ca kch v sn xut c nhiu cu kin mt lc . La ct thp vo cp pha ri cng thp . Phi c cc cng c o xc nh ng lc trong cc si dy. ng lc ny phi p ng s liu thit k v thit k tnh ton ngoi ng lc cn thit cn nhng tn tht do nhiu l do tc ng. Sau khi cng thp v neo cht u neo t vo m th vic tip theo l b tng. Khi b tng t cng , ct thp cho ri thnh tng cu kin v ct cha hoc vn chuyn n ni lp ghp.

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2.9.1 S tng:

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tn dng t ai th cng nh tit kim h k thut phc v th, nng s tng nh trong th v khu tp trung dn c l iu cn thit u tin. S tng bnh qun ca cc nh trong th cn c nhng nghin cu y v cc mt sinh hc, x hi hc, k thut xy dng v kinh t xy dng.

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S s dng cc tng hm v cng trnh ngm lm tng hiu qu s dng t ai xy dng. iu ny i hi nghin cu kin trc cho nhng loi cng trnh ngm nhm p ng cc yu cu s dng cng trnh v thy mi hi ho trong ch trng hin i v tit kim t ai. Tng hm cha ng ngay trong nh cao tng lm tng hiu qu s dng din tch ca nh cao tng. Tng hm di nhng nh cng cng lm ca hng, trung tm giao dch cng cng, lm nh tr v cc cng trnh giao tip hoc k thut khc. Cc nc trong khi ASEAN s dng c bnh qun 3 tng hm i vi nh cao tng xy dng. Nht bn cng s dng bnh qun c 3 tng hm cho din tch t xy dng. c bit ti Hoa k c thnh ph Philadelphia s dng bnh qun n 7 tng hm cho nh cao tng. Nhng nh cao tng mi xy dng nc ta my nm gn y mi s dng c bnh qun 0,7 tng hm l iu ng tic.

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S s dng nh cao tng nhm tp trung th cng nh tit kim t ai th. S s dng nh cao tng phn nh tnh hin i. Tuy vy khi s dng kin trc nh cao tng cng phi tr li hng lot cu hi t ra: lch s pht trin nh cao tng, phn loi kin trc nh cao tng, nh cao tng trong mng li qui hoch th, cc yu t k thut xy dng nh cao tng, vt liu xy dng nh cao tng, thm m kin trc nh cao tng.

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2.9 Cng ngh thi cng nh cao tng :

Cng nhit in l phng php s dng dng in chy qua si thp lm si thp nng ln v dn di . Neo trong khi si thp ang nng . Khi thp ngui co li nhng b neo gi nn to ra ng lc . Hin nay nhiu c quan thit k s dng kt cu b tng ng lc trc trong vic lm y hm nh dn dng v cng nghip gim v hn ch thm nc t y nh ln . Vic s dng kt cu ng lc trc c rt nhiu u vit nn cn khuyn khch p dng trong xy dng cng trnh.

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Nh chc tri ( gratte-ciel ) l sn phm c bit ca nn vn minh th ra i gn lin vi s tp trung th ho cao . S ra i ca nh chc tri khng tch khi vic gi t th tng vt, s i hi phi tit kim t ai th v s ch to ra thang my, s xut hin ca cc dng vt liu kt cu cng nh phng php tnh ton kt cu mi. Trn th gii c nhng nh cao tng c ghi nhn l: Ngi nh Wooworth Building New York xy dng nm 1913 cao 232 mt. Nh Chrysler Building cng New York nm 1930 cao 315 mt Nh Empire State Building cng New York nm 1931 cao 330 mt. Nh trung tm Rokejelar l cm nh chc tri ni ting xy dng trong nhng nm 1931-1939 cng New York.

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Nghin cu nh cao tng, xt v mt kin trc, qui hoch phi tr li c cc cu hi: lch s pht trin nh cao tng, phn loi nh cao tng, cc vn yu t to thnh nh cao tng, nh cao tng trong mng li qui hoch th, cc yu t k thut, vt liu xy dng, thm m kin trc cao tng v nhiu vn khc lin quan n nh cao tng.

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Nm 1995 xut hin d n " Vt qu 4000" ( Excess 4000) ca Tp on Taisei ( Nht bn ) xng mt ngi nh cao tng vi chiu cao nh trn 800 mt v sc cha ca nh n 800 nghn ngi. Nh lm dng thp c 5 chn choi u ri thu li tng 40. Trong ngi nh c ng t i li, c sn, vn, sn vn ng, sn chi th thao v din tch phc v cng cng khc y .

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Tng kt v nhng thit hi ca trn ng t Kob, Nht bn thng Ging nm 1995 th i b phn nh v h hng cng nh s ngi b nn do trong cc nh c cao 4, 5 tng khung g, lp ngi. Nhng nh loi ny nng bng, nh tch, ngha l pha trn nng do mi ngi, khung nh pha di bng g nn khi gp rung ng b xp ngay. Cn hu nh nh cao tng ti Kob b hng rt t n ni c th ni l khng h hng, mc du hai loi nh nm cng nhau trong mt tiu khu.

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Qua nghin cu v nh cao tng, t khi c trng phi Chicago n nay, thnh tu ca nh cao tng c nhng tin b vt bc. Nhng ngi nh nhiu chc tng ri n vi trm tng ln lt ra i m lot nh xy dng sau to ra nhng k lc vt xa nh lm trc v gic tin nghi, bn vng.

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Kin trc cao tng mnh dn, to bo. Ly thp Thin nin k ( Tour Millenium ) m Noman Foster thit k xy dng cao n 840 mt ng thi vi ngi nh Thp V tn ( Tour sans fin ) ca Jean Novel. Nht bn th gii thiu Vt qua 4000 ( Excess 4000 ). Chn tri kin trc nh cao tng ang rng m. Bao nhiu tng c gi l kin trc nh cao tng. y l nhng nim qui c. Tm, chn, mi tng c th c coi l nh cao tng. Tuy 77

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Nh cao tng thng mang phong cch quc t. Mt kin trc s Anh c th thit k nh cao tng cho Nht bn. Kin trc s Nht bn li i thit k nh cao tng cho Singapore. Tuy th, trng phi thit k nh cao tng chu u khc trng phi thit k nh cao tng chu M. To nh thp Century Tower Tokyo, tc phm ca Kin trc s Anh Noman Foster v cc ng tc gi l mt thnh tu ca kin trc ng i. To nh ny th hin nhng tin b mi nht v ng lc hc cng trnh v cng ngh xy dng. Dng v kin trc ca cng trnh l s nhn nhng ln nhau gia phong thi chu u v Nht bn cng trnh c tn ti hi ho gia th nc Nht. Ngi nh Ngn hng Trung hoa HongKong cao 315 mt ca Leon Ming Fei li l thch thc xt v mt kin trc vi ngi nh Ngn hng HongKong Thng Hi t cnh ngi nh trn khng xa , ch cao 180 mt theo trng phi Highlech. Ngi nh ca Hng Bo him Lloyd's Building Lun n c nhiu nt c o. Phong cch kin trc mi ng thi vi s dng vt liu mi to nn du n tt p cho thnh ph c knh ny. iu c bit ca ngi nh ny cn t chc khng gian trong nh. S phong ph ca ca khng gian kin trc c tng ln rt nhiu qua cc attium ( sn trong nh) c thit k rt cng phu. nh sng ca ngi nh tht l k diu. Ban ngy th nh sng t nhin bn trong nh lung linh, lp lnh. Ban m th hng v lm ngi ngm nhn chong ngp.

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Nm 1973 cng New York nh thp i World Trade Center nng k lc chiu cao ln 415 mt v ri mt nm sau, 1974 ti Chicago, ngi nh Sear Tower nng ln 443 mt. Ti Hi ngh Quc t v nh cao tng ti HongKong nm 1990 cc nh chuyn mn thng k 100 ngi nh cao tng cao nht th gii. S tng cao nht l 110 tng. Ngi nh xp th 100 cao 50 tng. Tuy vy , khng phi l ch c 100 ngi nh cao tng ny mi c vinh d ca mnh. Rt nhiu nh thp thp tng hn vn c ghi nhn gi tr ngh thut kin trc.

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2.9.2 Phn loi nh cao tng:

C nhiu cch phn loi nh cao tng. Sau y l nhng cch phn loi chnh. * Phn loi nh cao tng theo chc nng s dng. Phn loi theo chc nng c iu kh v chc nng s dng nh ca nh cao tng rt a dng v phong ph. C loi nh c s dng theo chc nng n nh nh thun tu, nh lm vic, khch sn, bnh vin, siu th, ngn hng ... Rt nhiu nh cao tng c chc nng hn hp nh nh lm vic nhiu chc nng: va lm vic, va khch sn, va gia inh.

2.9.3 Mt v t chc khng gian khu vc nh cao tng trong th: S lng nh cao tng phn b trong th ph thuc vo t chc th c th, ph thuc vo kin trc ca a im xy dng, ph thuc cc yu t k thut nh vic cung cp in, nc, thot thi cht d sau s dng,

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Mt nh cao tng trong khu qui hoch cn to c s hi ho khng gian th. C th xy dng hng lot nh cao tng trong khu vc nh cm nh nhng cng c th ch xy dng nh cao tng theo tng

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* Phn loi theo cc yu t k thut nh nh c h kt cu tng chu lc, nh khung b tng ct thp, nh khung thp, nh khung hn hp thp hnh v b tng ct thp.

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* Phn loi theo s tng cao. Th d : t 12 n 17 tng, t 18 n 24 tng, t 25 n 40 tng. Trn 40 tng c gi l nh siu cao tng.

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vy, xt trn quan im tng th th khi nh c cao t 40 mt tr ln, tng ng vi s tng 12 tr ln th nhng yu t t chc cuc sng, cc yu t sinh hc ca ngi s dng cng nh cc yu t k thut phi gii quyt bt u c d bit vi cc nh thp hn. V th, chng ta coi nh c s tng t 12 tr ln hoc chiu cao 40 mt tr ln l nh cao tng. Tuy th, c mt vi ngi nghin cu v nh cao tng nc ta li cho rng nh cao tng nn tnh t 6 tng . L do l t 6 tng th nn mng cho nh phi c gii php ch hn nh 5 tng tr xung. Trong iu kin xy dng ti cc nn t ca cc trung tm th ca nc ta, thng 5 tng tr xung, ch cn lm nh theo phng n mng nng trn nn thin nhin.

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2.9.4 Nhn t kin trc khi s dng nh cao tng:

Khi s dng nh cao tng cn nghin cu cc nhn t kin trc sau y: * T chc mt bng chung khu vc nh cao tng. Trong mc ny cn p ng cc vn nh mt nh cao tng trong khu vc, sn vn quanh nh cao tng, ng x giao thng i ngoi ca ngi nh. Quan h gia ngi nh v trc l. V tr ngi nh vi cu trc th. * T chc khng gian kin trc trong tiu khu c cha ngi nh cao tng. Vai tr ngi nh vi cnh quan chung quanh. Chc nng ngi nh vi cc nh chung quanh v vi t chc dn c trong a bn tiu khu.

* T chc mt ng cng trnh. S tng quan gia mt ng v mt bng trong bi cnh chung ca cng trnh. Vai tr ca mt ng trong vic hnh thnh silhouette ca kin trc khu vc c nh cao tng. * T chc tin nghi sinh hot v tn ti trong nh cao tng cho ngi s dng nm trong vng kh hu nhit i gi ma. 2.9.5 Nh cao tng v nhng vn k thut.

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Nhng vn k thut phi gii quyt khi xy dng nh cao tng rt a dng v phc tp. Tuy nhin c th tm tt trn nhng nt ln l nh cao

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* T chc mt bng c th ca ngi nh : c cu mt bng, mt bng cc tng v quan h gia cc thnh t mt bng vi nhau. Mi quan h gia cc tng xt v chc nng s dng chung v chc nng s dng chuyn. Mi quan h xt v cc yu t k thut xy dng v cc yu t phc v tin nghi cng trnh.

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nhm nh khu thng mi. Cng c th ch sp xp nh cao tng nh im nhn khng gian kin trc nh s sp xp cc cng trnh th ln. i song song vi b tr mt nh cao tng l s nghin cu mt bng tng th khu vc. Nh cao tng cn c t bao vi t chc giao thng, thm cy, c to trong sch kh quyn. Cng c th c cm nh mi cn t ngoi vi. To khng gian kin trc khu vc xy dng nh cao tng i hi nghin cu tng th cc yu t qui hoch, kin trc ng thi vi cc yu t k thut, mi trng, an ton s dng. Khng th tch ri cc yu t tin nghi, k thut, an ton, kinh t vi cc yu t thm m, cc yu t tinh thn cho khu vc.

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2.9.5.1 Vn thang my:

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Cn la chn thang my ngay t khi nghin cu thit k kin trc ngi nh. Nguyn tc la chn thang l: + Kh nng kinh t + Mc tiu, v tr, c im ca cng trnh + S tng v khong cch gia cc tng + Dn c hay l s ngi cn c thang my phc v +Yu cu cht lng phc v + Cc yu cu khc ( nu c)

Ch tiu c bn s dng khi la chn loi thang l: lng khch ti a cn vn chuyn trong chu k 5 pht ti thi gian cao im ca ngi nh. 80

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Theo TCVN 5744-93 thang my chia thnh 5 loi: thang chuyn dng ch ngi, thang ch ngi nhng ngi mang theo hng, thang chuyn dng ch ging trong bnh vin, thang ch hng nhng c ngi i theo, thang chuyn dng ch hng. ng vi mi loi thang my khc nhau c nhng yu cu v thng s k thut, yu cu kt cu, phng php iu khin v nghim ngt v an ton khc nhau. Thang my v ging thang l hai thnh t gn b mt thit vi nhau to nn mt loi giao thng thng ng rt c trng cho nh cao tng. Nhng thng s k thut ch yu ca thang my l trng ti, vn tc nng, chiu cao nng, kch thc cabin, chnh xc dng tng. i vi ging thang cn ht sc lu v sai s cho php hnh hc ca ging thang, cht lng xy dng ging, thng gi ca ging. Khi la chn thang my phi m bo tng quan gia thi gian ch i v thi gian i thang pha nm trong gii hn cho php tu thuc c im, tnh cht v mc ch phc v ca ngi nh. Mc chnh xc khi thit k v thi cng ging thang ht sc quan trng. i vi nh cao tng, thang my ng vai tr quan trng c v phng din k thut ln kinh t.

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C th ni rng thang my ra i cng vi s tp trung th lm gi t th tng vt l l do trc tip to ra tng cng nh thc t xy dng nh cao tng.

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tng phi gii quyt cc vn k thut ch yu sau y: nhng thnh t kin trc v phc v chc nng nh thang my, iu tit khng kh, an ton phng chng chy, an ton v an ninh x hi...nhng vn v kt cu chu lc cho cng trnh, nhng vn v s dng tng hm.

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* Cn tun th cc qui nh v s ngng to ca thang m bo nhng yu cu chng chy. Nh c s tng trn 40 khng c lm thang ln xut nh m phi c nc thang cc s tng khc nhau trnh to ging ht khi khi chy.

* Yu cu khi xy dng thang, cc thng s hnh hc l thng s ht sc quan trng, cn c kim tra v nghim thu vi mc chnh xc cao.

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* Vic b tr thang trong mt ngi nh cn theo nhm mt cch hp l v iu ny va p ng nhu cu ca khch va gim chi ph u t cho xy dng c bn. Khi b tr theo nhm cn u tin chn theo phng php tnh nng ging nhau. Theo ISO, dy s ti trng thang ph bin l: 320, 400, 630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600, 2000, 2500 ( kG) ng vi vn tc 0,63 n 2,5 m/sec. Chng ti kin ngh i vi nh nhiu tng nc ta nn u tin chn loi 400 n 800 kG vi vn tc 0,63 ~ 2,5 m/sec. Loi thang ny kh thng dng nn gi thnh h. Cc thng s s dng ph hp vi s lng ngi di chuyn mt ln v mc cn di chuyn ph hp.

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* i vi nhng nh c s lng khch s dng khng ln v b tr t thang my khi la chn nn da vo nng sut thang v chn cc thang c thng s k thut ging nhau. Khi s lng thang nhiu ( >4 ci) nn s dng bng tra sn, cng vic la chn s n gin nhng t yu cu v nhng bng tra ny c thc t cc nc s dng nhiu thang my trc y chp nhn . Thang c sc ti cng ln th gi cng cao. Thang c vn tc ln gi cng ln. Khi la chn thang my, kin trc s nn tham kho cn b chuyn mn phng n la chn tho mm c c thng s k thut v kinh t.

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Nhng kt lun quan trng khi la chn thang my cho nh cao tng tm lc nh sau: * Vic chn thang my phi c tin hnh ngay t khi thit k kin trc cng trnh. S la chn cng ph hp vi tnh nng ca cng trnh v kh nng u t cng tt. Mi phng php la chn cc thng s k thut ni chung ch cho kt qu gn ng bi v cc phong php la chn u da vo nhng thng s thc nghim cho mt iu kin khc vi ngi nh ca ta ( v ngi nh ca ta lm u).

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v cht lng phc v khch c c th ho ra khong thi gian trung bnh s dng thang.

2.9.5.2 Cc vn v iu tit khng kh v thng gi cho nh cao tng: bo m tin nghi cho ngi sng trong nh cao tng cn gii quyt tt vn thng gi v i tit khng kh. Mun thit k tt c iu tit khng kh v thng gi cn xc nh cc thng s tnh ton bn trong v bn ngoi nh. T cc thng s ny m tnh ton c ti trng nhit hay c th hn l cng sut lnh/ nhit ca tng phng cng nh ton nh. Theo nhng kt qu nghin cu ca cc nh vt l kin trc nc ta th nhit hiu qu tng ng ca khng kh ng vi mc cm gic nhit hon ton d chu ca con ngi Vit nam l: Ma h : 24 ~ 25 oC Ma ng: 22 ~ 23 oC T , cc thng s tnh ton cho khng kh bn trong nh thch hp vi mi trng c nhit , m tng i v tc gi nh bng: S tt 1 2 3 4 Trng thi lao ng Ngngi Lnh L va Lnng t C
o

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Ma ng %

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t
o

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70-60 70-60 70-60 70-60

v m/s

22-24 22-24 20-22 18-20

70-60 70-60 70-60 70-60

0,3

24-27 24-27 23-26 22-27

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Thng s tnh ton cho bn ngoi nh c chn theo 3 cp iu tit khng kh khc nhau. l: Cp 1: Nhit ti cao tuyt i v nhit dung tng ng vi nhit y. S gi khng m bo ch nhit m bn trong nh l 50 gi/nm. Cp 2: Nhit v nhit dung khng kh p ng iu kin l s gi khng m bo ch nhit m bn trong nh l 200 gi/nm. Cp 3: Nhit v nhit dung khng kh p ng iu kin l s gi khng m bo ch nhit m bn trong nh l 400 gi/nm. Tr s nhit tnh ton y l tr s nhit ti cao trung bnh o lc 13 gi hng ngy cu thng nng nht trong nm.

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0,30,5 0,30,5 0,30,5

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* H thng c cc b phn trao i nhit cc b dng my qut ( Fan coil): l gii php thch hp vi cng trnh c nhi phng. Tu thuc knh thc v cng sut lnh m c th b tr mt hoc nhiu b dn ng c qut. V tr lp t c th l trn sn st tng, treo tng hoc lp trn trn. Nhc im c bn ca h thng ny l s cha ng u ti cc v tr

* H thng iu tit khng kh trung tm: mt t my c lp hoc khng c lp t ti mt v tr thch hp dn khng kh theo ng ng n cc ming thi phc v cho phng ln hoc nhiu phng ln cn nhau nm trong mt tng hoc chng st nhau theo chiu cao. tit kim cng sut lnh, h thng lm vic theo ch tun hon nn trong h thng c dng gi hi. u ca h thng ny l vic theo di, vn hnh thun li v khopong kh c x l nhit m tp trung ti mt a im. Nhc im l cn lp t 2 tuyn ng: cp v hi. Kch thc tit din ng dn khng kh kh ln chim nhiu khng gian ca tng nh nn i hi khng gian nh ln, tng nh phi cao ( h4m ) mi b tr c. S phn chia khu vc phc v ca cc h thng trung tm iu tit khng kh trong thit k nh cao tng l vic i hi s la chn cn thn. Li khuyn ca nhng ngi thit k theo h trung tm l di tng cng ca tuyn ng i v v khng nn qu 60 mt. Khi phi b tr di hn cn c qut chuyn tip.

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Cc gii php iu tit khng kh cho nh cao tng theo cc phng hng sau y: c im ca loi nh cao tng l s lng phng trong nh rt ln. Nhng phng ny li rt khc bit nhau v kch thc hnh hc, v cng nng cho nn rt khc nhau v ch nhit m bn trong nh. Mt c im rt bao trm na ca nh cao tng l cc phng va tri rng theo mt bng li va xp chng nhau theo chiu cao. T nhng c im ny m la chn gii php iu tit khng kh cho nh cao tng phi p ng yu cu d b tr h thng, thun tin khi vn hnh, chim ch ti thiu theo mt bng cng nh mt ng, ngoi ra phi p ng iu kin kinh t v m quan. Nhng gii php c th kh d l:

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thit k h thng iu tit khng kh cn tnh ton lng nhit tha, lng m tha ca tng gian phng ring bit ri t thit lp qu trnh iu tit khng kh v xc nh cng sut lnh tnh ton cho h thng. y l khu tnh ton c th, t m, chi tit. iu ny i hi chnh xc i vi tng ngun to nhit, thu nhit v tn tht nhit. i vi cc thng s m cng phi xem xt chi tit nh vy.

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(i) Nh cao tng thng trang b thit b v sinh hon chnh, s lng thit b v sinh nhiu, tiu chun dng nc cao. Do vy nn lu lng tnh ton ln dn n ng knh cc ng ng phn phi cng sn kh ln. Nu b tr ng ng chnh phn phi pha trn, phi bm nc ln kt ri t kt phn phi xung tng di th ng ng ng s c dng trn to di nh, dung tch kt nc ln nh hng n kt cu nh. Nu lm ngc li, 84

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Nhng kt qu nghin cu cp nc cho nh cao tng thy ni ln nhng kt lun sau y:

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Chng ta u bit vi tnh trng cp nc hin nay ca cc th nc ta th cp nc cho cc nh cao tng hon ton khng p ng. Yu cu c bn ca h thng cp nc l lm sao phn phi nc u cho ton b ngi nh m bo ch lm vic ca mng li phn phi gn ng vi tnh ton thu lc ca mng li.

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2.9.6 Vn cp nc cho nh cao tng.

gii quyt tt vn thng gi v iu tit khng kh cho nh cao tng, cn c nhng nghin cu c h thng xy dng nhng biu quan h t - v cc biu tn sut ca cc yu t nhit v nhit dung cho cc a phng xy dng nh cao tng. C th gim nh khi lng cng vic bng cch phn chia lnh th thnh cc vng kh hu khi thit k chp nhn sai s cho php. Trvs mt c th s dng TCVN 49-72 v TCVN 4088 - 85 cho khu vc pha Bc. Tnh ton c lng nng sut lnh dng cho iu tit khng kh i vi mt s phng thng dng lm c s xc nh gn ng cng sut lnh tng cng cho cng trnh. Cn phn tch k hn cc u nhc ca tng loi s ca h thng iu tit khng kh chn ra s ti u cho nh cao tng. Lu tm tho ng n gii php thng gi cho khu ph v khu v sinh.

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* Thng gi ht kh thi khu ph nh bp v khu v sinh: i vi nh cao tng, khu ph nh bp v khu v sinh cn thit t chc thng gi c kh. Nu khng b tr thng gi c kh m ch nh vo thng gi t nhin th mi hi hm lan to khp ni gy nhim v mt v sinh. Lng gi thi phi m bo 50 m3/h cho mt chu x, 25 m3/h cho mt chu tiu. Khu vc bp cn n 100 m3/h.

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khc nhau trong mt phng. iu ny c th khc phc c bng b tr thm qut bn hoc qut cy trong phng trn u khng kh.

(iii) Vn tiu hao in nng cho my bm:

(1) H thng phn vng song song: Chia s tng nh thnh cc vng khc nhau vi phm vi phc v ca mi vng t 4 n 5 tng. Phn chia vi s tng nh th th s chnh p gia cc tng trong mt vng gn nh khng ng k. Mi vng c cung cp nc do mt my bm t tng k thut ti tng 1 hay tng hm. Mun m bo vic t ng ho ng m my bm v cho my bm lm vic theo chu k, c thi gian my bm c ngh ko di bn s dng my cn c kt nc hoc trm kh p cho tung vng. p lc nc s do

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Nh cao tng s dng mt my bm chung th my bm phi kh ln cung cp lu lng cho ton nh v a p lc n tng cao nht. V nh th nng lng tiu hao cho vic bm nc s ln. Nu chia thnh nhiu my bm bm cho tng khu vc th tng nng lng s gim i kh nhiu. Vic cp nc cho nh cao tng thng phi phn chia nh cao tng thnh cc khu vc c cp nc, gi l phn vng cp nc. C hai cch phn vng chnh l: phn vng song song v phn vng ni tip.

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(ii) Vn p lc d v phn phi u p lc: Nu nh cao tng ch b tr mt my bm th p lc my phi m bo a nc ln tng cao nht v p ng s dng nc tng cao nht. Lm nh vy, p lc nc tng di s qu ln. iu ny dn n vi cc nh k thut l phi kh p lc d cc tng di m bo p lc t do ca cc thit b tng i u nhau phn phi nc u, ch lm vic ca mnh li st vi tnh ton s gp nhiu kh khn. p lc d qu ln s gy tr ngi cho ngi s dng, kh chnh trn khi dng vi ho trn nng lnh, gy n khi s dng.

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ng ng chnh phn phi pha di ln trn v xung kt chung thdung tch kt nc nh hn nhung ng ng chnh cp nc c dng di to trn nh lm cho p lc t do cc tng di rt mnh. iu lm cho gi thnh mng li ln v cc on ng pha u phi c ng knh ln ti lu lng cho cc on sau. Gii php u vit s l phn ra tng khu cp nc ng knh ng s nh i, lu lng nc cho cc im tiu th s ng u, gi thnh chung s gim.

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(2) H thng cp nc phn vng ni tip:

2.9.7 Nhng vn v kt cu nh cao tng

2.1.7.1 Nhng c im c bn v kt cu nh cao tng. Xt v mt kt cu nh cao tng, nhng c im ni tri sau y nh hng n cc gii php kt cu ca nh: (i) Do nh c nhiu tng nn trng lng bn thn v ti trng s dng thng rt ln li phn b trn din tch tng i hp. iu ny dn n cn thit lm nn mng su truyn ti trng xung gc hoc lp t rt tt. (ii) Nh nhiu tng nhy cm vi ln lch ca mng. iu ny nh hng kh nhiu n s lm vic v trng thi ng sut bin dng ca cng trnh vn c siu tnh kh cao.

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(iii) Do chiu cao nh ln nn tc ng ca cc ti trng ngang ( gi, ng t ) v cc ti trng lch, ca bin thin nhit l ng k. T vic chn gii php, hnh thc kt cu, cng cu kin, cc t l kchd thc hnh hc ca ngi nh c nh hng kh nhiu n bn, n nh, tnh chng lt ca cng trnh.

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C hai trng hp phn vng song song v ni tip h thng cp nc nh cao tng c gi thnh xp x nhau. Mi cch phn vng c ci u, nhc ca n. Khi thit k s tu thuc iu kin c th v thit b v cc iu kin khc la chn sao cho hp l, m bo cc yu cu kinh t, k thut ra.

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My bm ca vng 1 va bm nc cung cp cho vng 1 va bm vo kt cho vng 2 , my bm ca vng 2 t trn tng cao nht ca vng 1 bm nc cho vng 2 v c theo cch tng t cc my bm nc cho vng trn nhn nc t my bm ca vng di. Khi ny ct p ca cc my bm ch tng ng vi ct p ca my bm ca vng 1. Lu lng ca cc my bm vng di ln hn ca vng trn, kt nc ca vng di cng ln hn ca vng trn.

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kh p cung cp nc cn nc th do kt cung cp. Thng c th t kt nc cho tng vng tng trn ca mi vng.

2.1.7.2 T hp kt cu chu lc nh cao tng.

(ii) S khung chu lc:

Khung ngang v dc c lin kt cng ti nt khung to thnh khung khng gian. Mt bng kt cu c th c hnh vung, hnh ch nht, a gic, hoc hnh trn, hnh lp ... Nguyn tc chung l khung cn cng truyn mi ti trng ( thng ng v ngang) xung mng. Di tc dng ca ti trng cc thanh ct v dm khung va chu un, ct va chu nn hoc ko. Kh nng chu ti ca cng trnh b nh hng kh nhiu theo cch cu to nt khung v t l cng ca cc phn t thanh cng t vo mt nt. V tng th, chuyn v ngang gm hai thnh phn:

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Tu theo cch lm vic ca khung m h kt cu chia thnh s khung, s ging, s khung ging.

(i) Cc cu kin chu lc, cc h kt cu chu lc c bn: Cu kin bao gm: Cu kin dng thanh nh ct, dm, thanh chng Cu kin dng phng: tm tng, tm sn, li cc thanh dng dn phng. Cu kin khng gian. Tu thuc cch t hp cc cu kin to nn cng trnh, h kt cu ca nh cao tng phn thnh hai nhm: Nhm ch gm mt loi cu kin c bn nh h thanh, h tng ( vch ), h li, h hp. Nhm c t hp t hai hoc nhiu loi kt cu c bn: h khungvch, h khung li, h khung-hp, h vch-li, h li-hp...

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(iv) S phn b cng dc theo chiu cao nh c nh hng n dao ng bn thn m dao ng ny li nh hng n tc dng ca cc ti trng, n ni lc, chuyn v ca ngi nh. Phng hng gim cc dao ng ny khng ch tm cch phn b khi lng hp l dc theo chiu cao m cn tm cch gim khi lng tham gia dao ng: dng vt liu nh cho kt cu bao che, vt liu c cng cao, vt liu c tnh do dai ln lm kt cu chu lc. Nh th, thp , nht l thp cng cao c nhng tnh cht p ng yu cu ny.

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(iii) S ging:

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Ti trng ngang do gi, do ng t tc ng trc tip vo h thng cc sn ngang cng ri truyn vo h thng kt cu ging ng ri xung mng. Nh thng thng, sn ch chu tc ng ca cc ti trng thng ng vung gc vi mt phng sn. Vi nh cao tng th sn phi cng khng nhng ti trng thng ng m cn truyn c cc tc ng theo phng ngang n cc h thng cng phng thng ng. Trong nh cao tng, ni lc ch yu do ti trng ngang nn h thng cc kt cu cng theo phng thng ng ng vai tr quan trng trong vic gi n nh tng th, hn ch nghing, vng lch cho ton b ngi nh. H thng ny lm vic nh dm hoc dn cng xn ngm vo h mng v c chiu cao tit din kh ln truyn ton b ti trng ngang v mt phn ti trng thng ng tng ng vi din tch truyn ti t cc tng bn trn xung mng. Tu thuc vo s phn b ca cc dn ging ny trn mt bng nh m cc h kt cu sau y thuc v nhm cc kt cu lm vic theo s ging: * H vch chu lc: cc dn ging thng ng l cc dn phng dc sut chiu cao nh, b tr ti v tr no trong mt bng nh. * H li chu lc: Dn ging ng l cc dn khng gian, b tr mt hoc mt ss trong mt bng nh. Khng gian bn trong ca cc ging ny thng dng b tr thang my , thang b hoc cho vic lp t cc ng ng k thut nh ging thng gi, h cp thot nc, dy dn in...

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S chu lc ca cc h hn hp bao gm cc kt cu ging thng ng v cc khung lin kt vi nhau bng cc tm sn cng ca cc tng c coi l s ging. Vi s ging, khung ch chu phn ti trng thng ng tng ng vi din tch truyn ti ca n. Nt khung hay b tr dng khp hoc phn ln cc ct u c cng chng un kh b.

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* Chuyn v ngang do un khung nh chuyn v ca mt thanh cngxn thng ng (nh (a) trn hnh v), t l ny chim khong 20%. * Chuyn v ngang do bin dng un cc thanh thnh phn ( nh (b) trn hnh v), t l ny chim 80%, phn ra do bin dng dm khong 65%, do bin dng ct 15%. Tng th th bin dng ngang ca khung cng thuc bin dng ct. H khung thng c cng ngang b, kh nng chu ti khng ln. Khi li ct c b tr u n trn mt bng vi bc ct 6~9 mt, c th p dng cho nh n 30 tng.

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(iii) S khung-ging:

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Cc dn ngang gi vai tr nh l mt b phn phn phi li lc dc cho cc ct khung v cn tr s xoay t do ca ton h. Bng cch ny c th gim ng k mmen y v chuyn v nh nh , c th dt ti gim 30%.

B tr thm cc di cng ngang, dc c chiu cao bng chiu cao ca mt tng nh. Kho ton h lm vic nh mt kt cu dng t ong, cc di cng ng vai tr truyn nhanh nht ti trng ngang n vch ng truyn xung mng.

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tng cng cng ngang cho cc khung, thng b tr: * Ti mt s nhp cn b tr thm cc thanh xin dc theo sut chiug cao nh. * Tng cng cc dn ngang tng nh nh hoc mt s tng trung gian, ng thi lin kt cc khung vi hai h dn ng v ngang ny.

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Loi kt cu chu lc ny l h hn hp bao gm c khung cng v cc h ging ng. Hai loi kt cu ny lin kt vi nhau bng cc sn cng to thnh h khng gian cng chu lc. Khung cng tham gia chu c ti trng ng v ngang. Nt khung phi l nt cng. Cc kt cu chu lc khc nh vch cng, li cng, sn cng c c im, cu to, s truyn lc ging nh trong s ging. cng ca h thng c cc khung cng v cc kt cu ging m bo. So vi cc kt cu ging th cng ca khung nh thua rt nhiu. V th kt cu ging chu phn ln tc dng ca ti trng ngang, c khi ti 70%.

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* H hp chu lc : Trn sut chu vi nh, ct hng hin c b tr vi bc nh hn. H hp c li ch nht c to thnh do cc ct, cc dm ngang trn tng bao. Khi b sung thm cc thanh cho thnh h hp c li tam gic. Trong mt s trng hp hiu qu v chu lc cn ln hn khi c b tr thm c thanh cho v thanh ngang to thnh li dng qu trm. H hp chu lc, cc bn sn cng c ta trc tip ln thnh hp, cc ct bn trong c th b tr tha hoc khng cn na. Nh h thng cng theo phng ngang l cc bn sn, theo phng ng l cc dn ging quanh chu vi, h hp to thnh h khng gian nhiu , khng ch c cng chng un ln m cng chng xon cng ln. V th loi kt cu chu lc ny hay c s dng lm nh c chiu cao kh ln v cc ln.

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(ii) V hnh dng cng trnh: * Nn la chn hnh dng mt bng cng trnh n gin, gn, i xng v c cng chng xon ln. Mt bng c hnh trn hoc hnh vung chu ng tt khi cing trnh chu dao ng v khng chn. Mt bng c dng L , H , Y khi chu cc lc do dao ng thng hay b gy phn cnh do phn cnh xa tm un v tm xon. Trong nhng trng hp ny, nn b tr thm khe khng chn bin mt bng phc tp thnh t hp cc mt bng n gin. Khi c chn ng, phn nh hai bn 90

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p ng c cc yu cu trn thng s dng vt liu thp. Trong chng mc no s kt hp gia b tng, b tng ct thp v thp em li hiu qu tt.

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* C cng cao v trng lng nh. S la chn ny nhm lm gim lc qun tnh khi cng trnh c dao ng m vn m bo hiu qu cao nht v kh nng chu lc ca tit din kt cu. * S dng vt liu c tnh bin dng ln nhm nng cao kh nng phn tn nng lng khi cng trinhf c dao ng ln. * S dng vt liu c kh nng chu ng tt cc ti trng lp v i chiu. * Vt liu c s dng c tnh ng nht, ng hng cao khng b tch th hoc tit din kt cu chu lc b thay i khi chu cc ti trng lp, ti trng i chiu trong lc cng trnh b dao ng. * Vt liu c gi thnh hp l, iu kin cung ng khng qu kh trn th trng v thi cng thun li.

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Ngoi cc h thng chu lc c bn nh cc s nu trn, tu thuc iu kin mt bng s dng, c im ti trng v kh nng thi cng... m dc theo chiu cao nh, h thng kt cu chu lc cn c nhng thay i. (i) Cn tun th cc tiu chun ca vt liu lm kt cu cng trnh:

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Dng dn ngang kt hp li cng: Hiu qu v chuyn v Dng dn ngang kt hp li cng : Hiu qu gim mmen gi Dng cc gii cng ngang v dc (iv) Cc h kt hp:

Cc gii php tng cng cng cho h khung

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* Cn thit k khung chu lc ca nh cao tng c siu tnh cao. L do l khi c ng t gy ra mt s ch cc b xp, st th nhng ch khc vn bn vng, iu ny hn ch thit hi. Khi ny, s c s cn bng li ni lc v ti mt s ni cn c ng sut ph do nhit b thay i hoc do ln lch gia cc phn. * Khi xt n s xut hin ca khp do th phng n chn thit k sao cho khp do xut hin dm trc sau mi n ct. Ct xut hin

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* Dc theo hai phng thng ng v ngang nh, khng nn thay i cng, cng ca mt tng hay mt vi tng hoc ca mt phn nh. L do khi tng th nh xut hin mt tng hay mt on mm th s tp trung bin dng lm cho ni ny s l ni mau h hng nht. Gi th cn thit phi bt mt s ct chng hn th phi b tr vch cng tng ng lm sao cho cng ni b bt ct gn nh khng thay i.

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* Theo phng thng ng, hnh khi cng trnh cn cn i, gin iu v lin tc. Yu cu ny m bo tnh ng iu v dao ng ca cc phn trong mt khi cng trnh. Cng trnh c t s chiu cao trn chiu rng ln, chuyn v nh cng trnh s ln. Cc bin i t ngt v hnh khi theo chiu cao s dn n cc t bin v khi lng tham gia dao ng v v bin dao ng. S khng ng iu din ra gia phn khi ln v khi b theo chiu cao v lm cho tnh cht chi lc ca cng trnh tr nn phc tp. Cn thm cc vch cng truyn mt cch lin tc to trng t phn ny sang phn khc ca cng trnh. Hnh dng thon dn theo chiu cao nh dng thp EIFEL hoc Landmark Tower cng nh Excess 4000 l hnh khi tiu biu c th gim thp nht nh hng ca dao ng nh phn phi khi lng hp l theo chiu cao.

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Mt bng i xng c tm cng trng hoc gn trng vi trng tm mt bng l gii php tt. Mt bng cn c cng chng xon tt. Vch cng i xng l phng n tt cng nh b tr vch cng cng xa trng tm cng tt.

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khe khng chn dao ng c lp trong khi mc ng iu trong mi phn s tng ln. Khe khng chn cn rng khi dao ng hai khi tch bit khng va p vo nhau. Mt bng nh di cn ct thnh nhiu on ngn trnh s lch pha ca cc dao ng gy ra s tc ng khng ng u trn sut chiu di nh.

2.9.9 B tr kt cu trn mt bng: (i) Li ct:

(iii) T hp sn:

2.9.10 T hp cu kin theo phng ng.

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cng khng gian ca ngi nh ph thuc rt nhiu vo hnh dng ca n. Nh c dng thon dn theo chiu cao s hp l nht v phn phi trng lng khi dao ng, ko theo s h thp ng k v tc dng ca cc ti trng gi, ng t.

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Vic chn s kt cu cho cc sn ngang ph thuc kch thc sn ( nhp, bc cc ct), hnh dng sn v cu to bn thn tm sn. Phng n sn c la chn s nh hng n chiu cao kin trc ca sn v cng ngang ca ton b cng trnh. Nh khung c li ct hnh vung hay ch nht, h sn c th theo 3 cch: gin n, ph thng hoc phc tp.

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Nhng nguyn tc b tr li ct trn mt bng nn nh sau: * Li ct phi ph hp vi mt bng kin trc v s kt cu chu lc ca ton ngi nh. Phi lu tm n cc yu cu nh hnh cu kin v h mun. * Li ct cn n gin , d dng thi cng v thun li cho trang thit b. Nn chn li l ch nht hoc vung. Vi cc nh c mt bng i xng nn tn dng trit tnh i xng ca mt bng. Nu mt bng khng i xng, nn chia thnh li thng nht cho nhng phn c th, phn cn li dnh cho khng gian m nh hnh lang, snh, thang, khu phc v, khu k thut ... Bc ct thch hp nn l 5~6 mt i vi s khung hoc 9~12 mt cho cc s kt hp khung-li, khung-vch. Vi cc h kt hp khung-hp hoc vch-hp th khong cch ca cc hng ct c th n 18~24 mt.

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khp do thng nh hng n nhiu b phn ca cng trnh. Khp do dm ch nh hng cc b. Cng trnh c ct yu bin dng s tp trung mt tng no , mc nguy him s tng thm. S ph hng do ct v un ct thng ln hn dm v ct cn thm tc ng ca lc dc ln hn dm.

2.9.10 Thi cng nh cao tng

(ii) Vn chuyn b tng ln cao : thng dng bm b tng nhng bm thng thng ch bm ti chiu cao 40 mt. Khi cn chuyn b tng bm ln cao qu 40 mt th dng mt trm trung chuyn chiu cao thch hp v ti cng t my bm chuyn tip. (iii) Vn gio ngoi v an ton lao ng : gio ngoi cng nh cc phng tin vn chuyn cn gn cht ch vi cng trnh , mi tng c mt t lin kt. (iv) Vn cp pha v gio v nu tc xy dng 7 ~ 8 ngy mt tng cho phn th th phi gio v cp pha , khng c r n 3 tng ri mi an ton r gio. Nh cao tng ang c pht trin trong xy dng nc ta v thc t hnh thi kin trc ny ci thin b mt th nc ta cng nh hiu qu s dng t ca n . Ngy nay , kin trc s v k s xy dng nc ta c th t thit k v xy dng nh cao tng . Pht trin th , gii php nng cao s tng nh l ht sc bc thit . B Xy dng v Nh nc ang khuyn khch xy dng nh cao tng trn nhng khu th c quy hoch c ch nh.

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Khi cn khi ng u , trong xy dng nh bng thp , nh khung Tip khc c s dng kh rng ri nc ta . Khung chu lc ca nh l thp hnh , v ko thp , lp tn . Do kt cu chu lc bng thp hnh nn loi nh khung Tip kh kho . Nh khung Tip s dng cho cc phn xng sn xut trong cc x nghip cng nghip , cho cc nh kho cha hng ho ca cc doanh nghip thng mi , cc x nghip cng nghip .

2.10 Cng ngh thi cng nh thp tin ch :

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Thi cng nh cao tng c nhng vn sau y cn gii quyt : (i) Vn vn chuyn ln cao : thng dng cn trc thp , cn trc leo nu kh nng cao ln hn chiu cao phc v ca cc cn trc thp .

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Khi hai cng trnh cng c t s chiu cao trn b rng ngang nh (H/B) bng 5 ~ 6 th chuyn v nh c thon 1/20 ch cn bng 25~30% so vi nh khng c thon. Kt cu cc di ging ngang thng t nh hoc cc tng k thut.

2.11 Nh nhp ln b tng ct thp v mng :

Mi c kt cu chu lc c bn vt ht nhp, s dng dy cp l mi dy. C cc loi sau: kt cu dy, mi v treo, h thng t hp, mi c dy treo ngoi... Theo ngh ca V.Z. Vlasov , mt v c c trng bng cong Gauss l ng cong tch ca ng cong chnh. Mt v c cong Gauss dng khi tm ng cong ca cc mt ct qua php tuyn i qua im ang xt mt v nm trn php tuyn v mt pha ca mt v.

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B mt ca v b tng ct thp c phn bit bng cong ( mt hay hai cong), du ca cong ( dng , m , khng ) v phng php to thnh ( mt dch chuyn, mt xoay ...)

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Nh c mi nhp ln kiu kt cu dy v nh nhp ln thp thanh c nt cu to nn dng mi nhp ln tinh th cng s dng nhiu cc nh cng cng v cng nghip nhng nc ta cha s dng.

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V b tng ct thp chia ra v c cc hnh dng cong hoc thoi mt hay nhiu chiu l loi c xy dng nc ta v loi v hnh cu chng ta cha c . Ph bin vi loi v cong l v thoi hai chiu cong dng, v gm cc tm cong hnh tr, v cong on lp xe, v cong hai chiu dng, v cu l loi c s dng kh ph bin ti Hoa k.

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Loi nh tin ch rt hu hiu , to cc xng sn xut nhanh chng v ni chung sut thu hi vn kh cao nn c khuyn khch s dng cho cc khu sn xu cng nghip .

Sau khi ng u thay i ch kinh t , vic nhp khu khung Tip tr nn him th hai Hng thp ln vo th trng nc ta l DHP ca Australia v Hng Zamil Steel ca rp ang cung cp chnh loi nh tin ch bng thp ny . Nh ca Hng Zamil Steel kh mng manh , nhng Hng m bo mi s an ton trong s dng nn bn c hng vi trm cng trnh vi din tch xy dng n vi vn mt vung ring th trng pha Bc nc ta m phn ln l nh sn xut .

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3. Mt s cng ngh nc ngoi s dng nhng him s dng nc ta :

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Kt cu dy hay chnh xc hn l nh nhp ln c mi l kt cu dy l loi mi c kt cu chu lc mi l dy cp . Hai u dy neo vo khung b tng ct thp hoc neo xung t. Kt cu dy c th vt qua nhp n vi trm mt v thanh mnh . Kt cu nh , to khng gian ln , rt thun li cho nhng nh thi u trong nh , nh kho cha , nh sn xut ln , nh trin lm v cc dng nh cng cng khc . Chng ta hy vng thi gian ti , im xuyt cho cc cng trnh th , cn c mt s nh loi ny tng tnh mun mu mun v ca kin trc hin i trn t nc ta .

3.2 Cng ngh xy dng nh vm cu bng b tng ct thp. 95

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3.1 Cng ngh xy dng nh nhp ln kt cu dy.

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Ti nh my xi mng Hi phng , c mt s mi lm theo v tr mng b tng ct thp c dy cng chn mi nhp 24 mt. Loi v ny do cc k s Rumanie thit k v cng ty Xy dng Hi phng thi cng khong nm 1960 - 1961 . Ti trng i hc Bch khoa H ni c hai nh n lm mi v tr 15 mt. Ti ng Anh c mt nh mi v thoi nhng nhp 15 mt l nhng nh xy dng c tnh cht th im loi kt cu ny. Loi nh ny kh thch hp cho nhng ni cn nhp nh ln nh nh ga , nh thi u , garage v kho cha . Tuy th , loi nh ny mi c th im chng minh rng lc lng xy dng c th lm c loi nh ny ch cha nhn rng ri . iu kin xy dng rng ri khi c nhu cu nh lm cc khu thi u ln hay cc khu cn c nh nhp ln l iu m thi gian gn sp ti chng ta s c nhu cu.

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Mt v c cong Gauss m khi tm ng cong ca cc mt ct qua php tuyn i qua im ang xt mt v nm trn php tuyn v cc pha ca mt v. i vi v c ng cong Gauss dng, theo phn loi th P.L. Pastenak gi l v liptic. c trng quan trng ca mt v l ln ca on nng ca v f. Tu thuc vo t l gi on nng vi kch thc mt bng ca v m ta gi l v cao hay v thoi. V thoi l v c nng khng qu 1/5 ca nhp trn mt bng ca v. Nu mt bng trn th f D/5 trong D l ng knh ca mt bng v.V thoi hay c s dng lm cc cng trnh kt cu khng gian.

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4. Mt s cng ngh khng chn : 4.1. Khi nim: ng t , hin tng rung ng t ngt mnh ca v tri t do s dch chuyn cc mng thch quyn hoc cc t gy trong v tri t v 96

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Thc cht loi kt cu ny l kt cu chu lc mi cho mt loi nh nhp ln trn th gii hin nay ang s dng nh mt mt thi thng. Mi c cu to thnh vm thoi na cu do nhng thanh ni vi nhau ti nt hnh cu to thnh hnh dng ging nh mng tinh th kim loi. Nhng thanh c bn c hai u tin rng ren vn vo cc nt cu lin kt mt. Cc nt cu khot cc l c tnh chnh xc hng tm lm lin kt ni cc thanh thnh mng. Tm lp thng bng tm b tng ct thp c sn lp ghp. Mi loi ny c th c nhp vi trm mt v rt tit kim vt liu lm kt cu. Loi mi ny rt thch dng cho cc nh cn khng gian ln nh nh thi u , nh cng cng , kho cha ln , nh trin lm . H ni ang thit k v th nghim xy dng th im mt vi cng trnh . B Xy dng ng cho mt s c s sn xut xy dng v c kh xy dng nghin cu lm th im loi mi nh ny . Nhiu nh thi u phc v SeaGames 2003 lm loi mi ny.

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3.3. Cng ngh nh nhp ln khung khng gian bng thp mng tinh th

Ti nhng vng xa thnh ph , vng i thoi , t rng ngi tha , ti Hoa k xy dng nhiu nh vm cu b tng ct thp cho cc trang tri va v nh s dng. Loi nh ny c dng nhiu lm nh ngh cui tun ca cc gia nh trong th . Cng trnh c chun b sn trt bng tm b tng ct thp dy t 100 ~ 120 mm. Lm mt khuyn mng mng cho chn vm c chiu dy khong 300 mm nh mt vnh ging . t vo gia nh mt ti bng vi nilng cao su kh dy nu bm cng c hnh bn cu chn bn cu ph ln ging mng lm cp pha . Buc thp nh c tnh cht cu to thng ch dng thp si ng knh 3 mm ln bn ngoi v na cu cao su sau dng sng phun b tng lm kt cu bao che . V na cu b tng ct thp ny va l mi , va l tng . Phn trang tr bn trong tu theo vn u t v mc tiu s dng cng trnh . Loi nh ny c lm nhiu min Trung v min Ty Hoa k. i vi nc ta , vic s dng loi nh ny thch hp cho cc trang tri min trung du , va lm nh , va lm ni ct cha cho trang tri .

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ng t trn th gii thng tp trung hai i: i vng quanh Thi Bnh Dng v i a Trung Hi qua Himalaya vng xung Malaixia. Hai i ny cng l ni tp trung nhiu ni la tt v ang hot ng. ng t Chil 1960 l ng t mnh nht ( 8,9 Richter) c nng lng ln gp trm ln nng lng qu bom nguyn t n Hirosima. Ti Vit nam, ng t ch yu tp trung pha trng H ni, dc theo sng Hng, sng Chy, sng , sng C, ven bin Nam Trung b. ng t in Bin Ph (1-11-1935) t ti 6,75 Richter, cp 8-9 thang ng t, su chn tiu l 25 km. ng t Tun gio ( Lai Chu) , xy ra ngy 24-6-1989 t 6,7 Richter, cp 8-9 , su chn tiu l 23 Km. Nhiu nguyn nhn ca s pht sinh ra khi nng lng gy ra ng t nh hang ng b xp, cc mnh thin thch va vo tri t, cc v th bom ht nhn ngm di t, nhng nguyn nhn c bn l s chuyn ng tng h khng ngng ca cc khi vt cht nm su trong lng t thit lp mt th cn bng mi , thng c gi l vn ng kin to. ng t xy ra do hu qu ca vn ng kin to c gi l ng t kin to. Theo thng k, 95% cc trn ng t trn th gii c lin quan trc tip n vn ng kin to. Theo thuyt kin to v tri t, thch quyn l lp cng c to ch yu l cc qun th giu nguyn t Si v Mg nn gi tt l Sima cn bn trn n c gn cc lc a ri rc do cc qun th giu cht Si v Al nn gi tt l Sial to nn. B dy thch quyn khong 70 km bin v 140 km di cc lc a. Tuy bao trm ton b v tri t nhng thch quyn khng phi l lp c b dy ng u m c dng kin trc phn mng bi cc vt t su xuyn thng. Di thch quyn l lp dung nham lng, do nhit cao. Thc t ny lm cho cc mng c s chuyn dch tng i vi nhau v d nhin nhng lc a bm trn mnh n cng dch chuyn theo ( thuyt lc a tri ni). Ngy nay tn ti 11 v mng mang tn : u , n c, Thi

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c truyn qua nhng khong cch ln di cc dng dao ng n hi. ng t ch yu lin quan vi ni lc kin to. i a s ng t xy ra i ht chm cc mng thch quyn hoc dc cc t gy su. Nhng cng c loi ng t do ngoi lc nh s trt l t vi khi lng ln hoc s mt cn bng trng lc nhng ni c h cha nc ln v su nhn to . Ni pht sinh dch chuyn ca ng t c gi l chn tiu hoc l ng t. Ni tm tri t vi chn tiu qua ln mt t, ng ny gp mt t ti ni c gi l chn tm. Khong cch t chn tm n chn tiu c gi l su chn tiu, k hiu l H. Khong cch t chn tiu n trm quan st ( trm t my hay chn cng trnh ) c gi l tiu c , khong cch t chn tm n trm quan st gi l tm c D. Cng ng t mt t xc nh theo thang ng t hoc bng i lng manhitut ( magnitude ).

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Khi xy ra ng t, qu trnh chuyn ng trt tng i gia cc khi vt cht khng ch vn ng c hc n gin m cn c c s tch lu th nng bin dng hoc km chuyn ho nng lng, nng lng t trng thi ny sang trng thi khc dn n s tch t nng lng nhng vng xung yu nht nh trong lng t. Khi nng lng tch t n gii hn no , khng cn th cn bng vi mi trng chung quanh nn thot ra di dng th nng chuyn sang ng nng v gy ra ng t. Cc im tch t nng lng , im chn tiu, nm su trong lng t t 5 km n 70km. Trn ng t Tun gio ( 1983) c su H = 32 km. Mt s trn ng t khc H = 70 km ~ 300 km. Cc trn ng t mnh thng su 30 km ~ 100 km.

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Th d trn ng t Kob, Nht bn , thng Ging nm 1995 c m t chuyn ng ca cc mng theo hnh km y.

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bnh dng, Bc M, Nam M, Phi, Nam Cc, Philippin, Cocos, Carib, v Nazca. Cc mng ln li c phn chia thnh cc mng nh qua cc vt t gy nng hn. C nm dng chuyn ng tng i gia cc mng khi ng t l : cc mng tch xa nhau ra, cc mng di ngm xung su , cc mng trn ln nhau, cc mng va vo nhau, cc mng rc ng qui vo nhau. Trong 5 loi ny, cc chuyn ng di v trn to ng t mnh hn c.

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Thang MKS-64 : Thang MSK-64 nm 1964 c Medvedev v Sponheuer v Karnic xut nh gi ng t nh hng n cng trnh xy dng. Cng ng t c nh gi qua hm s chuyn di cc i ca con lc tiu chun c chu k dao ng ring T = 0,25 s. Thang KSK-64 cng c 12 cp v quan h gia cp MSK-64 vi ph bin ca con lc tiu chun nh bng sau:

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Thang Mercalli ci tin: Nm 1902 G. Mercalli ( Giuseppe Mercalli , ngi , 1850-1914 ) ra thang o cng ng t 12 cp. Nm 1931 Wood v Newmann b sung nhiu in cho thang 12 cp ny v thang ny c mang tn MM. Thang MM nh gi mnh ca ng t da vo hu qu ca n tc ng ln con ngi, vt v cc cng trnh xy dng. Thang chia thnh 12 cp, t cp I n IV l ng t yu, t cp V n VI tc ng n gic quan con ngi, nh thc ngi ng, n treo trn trn nh lay ng, nh ca rung nh v c cht t thit hi. ng t cp VII lm cho ngi phi b chy khi nh, h hng t nh n va vi nh bnh thng v lm hng nng nh m khu thit k v thi cng km. Mt s ng khi b . Cp VIII lm h hng hng lot cng trnh, ngay nhng nh c thit k v thi cng tt.Panen sn ri khi dm . Gi l ng t cp IX v cp X l ng t lm hu ht cc nh. ng t cp XI gy thit hi trn phm vi ln. Cp XII mang tnh hu dit km theo s thay i a hnh ni c ng t.

MSK-64 5

re
0,5~1,0

Ph bin (mm)

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4.2. nh gi cng ng t : C th da vo hoc hu qu ca n, hoc nng lng gy ra trn ng t y. Trong vng 200 nm qua trn th gii ngh khong 50 loi thang phn cp o cng ng t. Cc thang sau y c nhiu nc s dng :

Log E = 9,9 + 1,9 M - 0,024 M2 Tnh ton theo cng thc ny, thu c :

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su ca chn tiu nh hng rt ln trong tng quan gia thang M v thang MM. Trn ng t c thang M=8 nhng su H>100 km th nh hng ca n kh rng nhng hu qu li khng ng k. C trn ng t ti Maroc M = 5,75 nhng H = 3 km gy ra cng ng t ti cp XI vng chn tm.

Thang nng lng Richter c 7 bc nh s t 2 n 8 Richter. Gia thang Mercalli ci tin v thang Richter c quan h nh sau:

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V mt l thuyt , thang M bt u t 0 v khng c gii hn trn, nhng thc t cha bao gi o c trn ng t no c M t n 9. Trn ng t mnh ti Columbia ( 30-11-1906 ) v ti Sanricum, Nht bn ( 2-3-1933) cng ch t ti 8,9.

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M 5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8 8,6 20 20 20 20 20 20 E 0,08x10 2,5x10 14,1x10 80x10 46x10 2000x10 20000x102

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Thang Richter: Thay cho vic nh gi cng ng t thng qua hu qu ca n, nm 1935 , Richter, k s a chn ngi Hoa k( Charle Francis Richter , 1900-1985 ) a ra thang o cng ng t bng cch nh gi gn ng nng lng c gii phng chn tiu. ng a ra nh ngha , ln M ( Magnitude ) ca mt trn ng t bng logarit thp phn ca bin cc i A ( m ) ghi c ti mt im cch chn tm D = 100 km trn my o a chn c chu k dao ng ring T = 0,8 sec. M = log A Quan h gia nng lng E ( ergi) c gii phng chn tiu vi magnitude c xc nh theo cng thc:

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6 7 8 9 10

1,1~2,0 2,1~4,0 4,1~8,0 8,1~16,0 16,1~32,0

3.Nhng trn ng t t u nm 2001 cp nht n ngy 9-03-2001: Theo thng k ca Trung tm thng tin quc gia v ng t ca Hoa k, nhng trn ng t xy ra c th gy tc hi cho cng trnh t u nm 2001 ghi c nh di y:

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Cc nc thng dng song song hai thang l thang Mercalli ci tin v thang nng lng Richter nn chng ta hay thy ni trn ng t mnh cp my v c my Richter. Mnh cp my , hay c hiu theo cp ca thang Mercalli ci tin v Richter l theo thang Richter.

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MM MSK 64 JMA Wcm/s2

II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII III IV V VI VIII IX X XI XII VII 0 I II III IV V VI VII 0,5 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000

0 I

I II

Kinh

Nm 1981, Vin Kin trc Nht bn thit lp mi quan h gia thang MM , MSK-64 v t ra thang o ng t JMA ca Nht bn m thang ny gm 8 cp vi gia tc cc i ca nn t W, cm/s2 nh bng sau:

2001/01/01 06:57:04 6,907 Bc 126,613 ng 167,154 2001/01/09 16:49:28 14,898


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su 33 km

s
a im mnh Mindanao 7,4 Philippines o 7,0 101

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

I~II III IV~V VI~VII VII~VIII IX~X XI

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Thang Richter M

Thang Mercalli ci tin MM

2001/01/13 17:33:30 2001/01/26 03:16:40 2001/02/13 19:28:31 2001/02/19 22:52:30

6,9 39 km 22 km 36 km 12 km 7,3 5,3 7,0

2001/03/07 08:29:19 0,30Bc 2001/03/07 08:47:28 62:74 Bc 2001/03/07 11:19:10 23,18Nam 2001/03/07 11:34:06 20,01 Bc 2001/03/07 2001/03/07 2001/03/07 2001/03/07 2001/03/07 2001/03/08 2001/03/08 2001/03/08 2001/03/08 2001/03/08 2001/03/08 2001/03/08 2001/03/08 2001/03/09 2001/03/09 11:51:28 17:12:24 18:10:57 18:22:55 23:46:04 01:38:15 06:06:42 07:19:55 11:37:24 14:53:18 15:28:44 20:50:34 21:11:25 01:07:09 02:52:05 27,91 Bc 35,05 Bc 7,26Nam 20,02Nam 24,15Nam 8,70Nam 53,39Nam 6,37Nam 29,87Nam 35,29Bc 30,26Nam 36,55Bc 5,24Nam 32,51Bc 14,04Bc

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33 km 97,57ng 33 km 148,35Ty 66,75 Ty 33,0 km 143,81 33,0 km 102,73 84,81Ty 33,0 12,97Ty km 178,35Ty 179,72Ty 33,0 km 123,87 6,7 160,09 km 130,71 178,13Ty 10,0 99,49ng km 178,32Ty 560,9 70,97ng km 400,0 102,28 69,48ng km 118,3 144,90

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5,1 3,0 4,4 4,3 4,4 3,2 5,6 4,5 4,3 5,1 4,4 5,1 5,2 4,3 4,7 5,1 5,9 5,4 4,6

2001/02/24 07:23:48 1,46 Bc

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Indonexia Vietnam

Bc BinMoluca

Sumatra Indonxia Alaska Achentina o Mariana Trungquc Hoa k o atxg o Fiji o Fiji N Indonexia Kamchatka o Banda NiuZiln TQuc NiuZiln Apganistan Indonexia Pakistng Mariana

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33 km

7,6

TrungM

2001/01/10 16:02:43

Nam 57,019 Bc 13,063 Bc 23,326 Bc 4,618 Nam 21,4 Bc

ng 153,398 Ty 88,787 Ty 70,317 ng 102,937 ng 120,8 ng 126,3 ng

111 km

6,8

Vanuatu Alaska

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Do chn tm cch th x in Bin khong 20 km nn tc ng khng mnh. Nh ca h hng cht t v khng c nh xp. V thit k kt cu ngi nh lm ti in Bin cn phi rt kinh nghim v hu nh khng c nh lm kiu khung b tng ct thp. Ch c mt vi ngi nh lm kiu khung khng hon chnh v phn ln l nh tng gch chu lc c xy vi mc va rt thp.

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Vo hi 22h52 ngy 19-02-2001 trn a bn tnh Lai Chu xy ra trn ng t gy nn nhiu t chn ng ngn ko di n 6 gi sng ngy 2002-2001. Theo bo co ca Trung tm a chn, trn ng t lc 22h52 mnh 5,3 Richter, sau lc 1h24 ngy 20-02-2001 chn ng mnh 3,8 Richter, lc 2h04 ngy 20-02-2001 chn ng mnh 4,3 Richter sau cn mt s t chn ng khc vi cng nh. Tm ng t cch th x in Bin Ph 20 km v pha Ty to 21,4 v Bc; 120,8 kinh ng, su 12 km.

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5,2 130,15 km 130,94Ty 84,8 4,9 km 114,5 km 33,0 km 33,0 km 300,0 km 148,6 km 33,0 km 33,0 km 122,1 km 200,0 km 10,0 km Ch thch cho bng: Gi GMT. To theo Greenwich. 2001/03/09 02:56:59 6,31Nam 2001/03/09 07:10:22 64,48Bc

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(iii) Gia tng chn v khung cn b tr nhng thanh thp ru cm t trong ct khung cu vi tng m khong cch gia cc ru khng ln qu 5 hng gch. Ni gia hai ct ru hai u tng l thanh thp chy theo chiu di tng. ng knh thp ru 8 . Mch cha ru thp phi xy bng va xi mng khng c vi v #100. Nn t ru thp ny khi t ct thp ct, p vo mt cp-pha, sau khi r cp-pha s cy cho thp ny bung ra cm vo cc lp tng xy chn.. Nu qun c th khoan l su

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(i) Nh khung b tng ct thp chu lc khng chn tt hn nh tng gch chu lc. (ii) Nh khung b tng ct thp, ti nt khung nn b tr thp ai trong nt khung , ai phn b theo chiu ct khung, vic trnh c nt nt khung tt. Khong cch ai 50 mm , ai 8.

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Nc ta hu ht cc trn ng t ghi li c th chn tm u nm tp trung pha Bc, dc theo cc vt t gy a cht vng sng Chy, sng Hng, sng Hng , sng , sng M , sng C... Theo s liu m tp Quy chun Xy dng Vit nam ( tp III ) cung cp th vng d bo chn ng cc i l 8 MSK-64, ngha l tng ng 5~6 Richter. Nhng nm qua mi ghi c ti nc ta cc i l 6,75 Richter nhng phn ln vo thi im ng t, nhng vng c nh hng ca ng t mt nh tha tht nn thit hi khng ng k. Ti n va qua, trn ng t thng 22 thng Ging nm 2001ch c 6,8 Richter m hng trm ngn ngi nh v lm cht khong 20.000 ngi , lm b thng nng n 20.000 ngi na. Nu vi su chn tiu chng 30 km, v th cch chn tm trn 20 km c th tham kho mt s kinh nghim tng kt ca kinh nghim trong cu to cc chi tit nh sau khi s kt nhng trn ng t ln nh ti Osaka ( 17 thng Ging nm 1995; 7,2 Richter ):

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hng thng do xut hin lc ct ln trong dm v ct khung. V tr ni ph hoi thng xy ra ti phn ct st ngay mc trn sn. Nn lm li thp nh p quanh chn ct , ct s tng cng nhiu. Thp dc chu mmen m d l ct vn cng nn un mc 135o, m nhiu tiu chun cho rng vi thp vn khng cn un mc.
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100 mm vo ct khung ri nht thp vo sau nhng nh lp l chn bng va c xi mng trng n ( sikagrout ). (iv) Vi nhng nh tng gch chu lc phi xy bng va c xi mng v cht lng va khng nh hn #25. Cn m bo cu gia nhng hng gch. Khng xy qu ba hng dc mi n mt hng ngang v nn xy theo kiu ch cng. (v) Trong mt bc tng nn c t nht hai hng ging ti cao trnh bu ca s, cao trnh lanh t ca. Ging bng b tng ct thp #200 c 2 ct dc 8 v ai ni 2 thanh ct dc ny. Ct thp t gia ging. Nhiu cng trnh h hng do xut hin lc ct ln trong dm v ct khung. Nhng ph hoi loi ny thng xy ra ti phn ct st ngay mc trn sn. L do l cc chi tit quanh nt khung cha cng. Vi ct , ta thy cha c cu to chng vi lc ct vng gn chn ct. Cn thit k li p quanh chn ct. Nhng thanh thp dc m qua gi ct ca dm , nn un mc 135o. Nh nhiu tng b ng t hay dp nt ct tng trt v tng trn st tng trt v c khi nh b xon. M do l tng trt thng phi lm thong cho phng n tip, garage nn khng b tr sn gia cng ct. Cng hay thy ct b dp st chn nhng tng gim cng theo chiu cao nh. Nhng v tr va nu , chn ct cn gia cng chng xon. khng chn tt, nn dng ct thp vn ( thp gai, thp g) v Kob cho thy nhiu nh m kt cu dng thp trn thng b ph hng. H

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5. Kt lun :

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Phn trn trnh by nhng cng ngh xy dng nc ta . Nhng cng ngh no mi vo nc ta nhng nm gn y c chng ti trnh by chi tit hn nhng cng ngh khc . Cng ngh sn xut bao gm : b quyt sn xut ( know-hown ) , cng c sn xut , nguyn vt liu , nhn cng thc hin . Phn trnh by ni ln cc phn ni dung cng ngh l g , phng tin s dng chnh v nguyn vt liu c bn. Do ng li i mi ca ng ta rt r rng trong quan h quc t l giao lu vi tt c cc nc v nht l sau nm 1992 , nhiu doanh nghip nc ngoi tham gia trong th trng nc ta nn cng ngh xy dng nc ta c nhng thay i vt bc. My xy dng cng nh nguyn liu c th c nhp vo nc ta kh mau l nn ni chung trnh cng ngh xy dng nc ta khng thua km trnh khu vc l bao nhiu nu khng ni rng ngang bng vi trnh khu vc. Tuy th , vi yu cu hi nhp khu vc trong thi gian rt gp na , chng ta cn tm hiu tip cn nhanh chng vi cng ngh tin tin , thit b hin i tn ti v pht trin trong thi k mi , thi k ca kinh t tr thc , ca cng nghip ho , hin i ho t nc ./. L.K

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Trong khi ch i qui nh tm thi ca B Xy dng sp ban hnh, chng ti c mt s khuyn ngh nh trn khng lm tng chi ph xy dng l bao nh trn nhng m bo khng chn n 6 Richter.

3. Gim st thi cng v nghim thu cng tc lp t ng dy v trm (145 trang A4) H ni 6- 2002 4. Gio trnh thi cng nh cao tng ( 143 trang A4)

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6. Gio trnh php lut trong xy dng ( 180 trang A4)

5. Ch dn thi cng cho vng c ng t nc ta (45 trang A4) H ni 4 - 2001

NXB XD - H ni

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7. T in Gii thch v Xy dng v Kin trc ( 780 trang A4 , chung vi on nh Kin, Trn Hng v on Nh Kim ) NXBXD - H ni 2002

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L Kiu S 63/61 Thi Thnh H ni. Tel: 84.4. 8532725 Fax: 84.4. 5620187 Mob: 0913231614 E-mail : lekieu@fpt.vn

Cc bn c nhu cu v ti liu lin h vi tc gi:

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H ni 8 - 2002

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2001

2. Gim st thi cng v nghim thu cng tc lp t trang thit b trong nh dn dng ( 75 trang A4) H ni 12-2001

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1. Gim st thi cng v nghim thu cc cng tc b tng ct thp ( 64 trang A4) H ni 10-2001

cng tc gi : ( Ch nhng sch vit trong 2 nm 2001 -2002 ):