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# Mathematical Model of Physical Systems ● Mechanical, electrical, thermal, hydraulic, economic, biological, etc, systems, may be characterized by differential

equations. ●The response of dynamic system to an input may be obtained if these differential equations are solved. ●The differential equations can be obtained by utilizing physical laws governing a particular system, for example, Newtons laws for mechanical systems, Kirchhoffs laws for electrical systems, etc. Mathematical models: The mathematical description of the dynamic characteristic of a system. The first step in the analysis of dynamic system is to derive its model. Models may assume different forms, depending on the particular system and the circumstances. In obtaining a model, we must make a compromise between the simplicity of the model and the accuracy of results of the analysis. Linear systems: Linear systems are one in which the equations of the model are linear. A differential equation is linear, if the coefficients are constant or functions only of the independent variable (time).

d2y dy (1) 3 6 y et is linear differential equation. 2 dt dt d3y d2y dy (6 t ) 2 t 2 y sin t is linear differential equation. (2) 3 dt dt dt y (6 t ) t 2 y y sin t y or

The most important properties of linear system is that the principle of superposition is applicable. In an experimental investigation of dynamic system, if cause and effect are proportional, thus implying that the principle of superposition holds, then the system can be considered linear. Linear time invariant systems: the system which represented by differential equation whose coefficients are function of time for example y (t 6) 2t 2 y 4 y e 2t y An example of time varying control system is a spacecraft control system.

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For examples d2y dy ( ) 2 y A sin wt 2 dt dt 2 d y dy ( y 2 1) y 0 2 dt dt 2 d y dy y y3 0 2 dt dt The most important properties of non linear system is that the principle of superposition is not applicable. y=x2 . z=x2+y2 A differential equation is called non linear if it is not linear. under the assumption that all initial conditions are zero. one often finds it necessary to introduce equivalent linear system which are valid for only a limited range of operation. Because of the mathematical difficulties attached to nonlinear systems. Examples are Y=sin(x) .Non linear system: Non linear system are ones which are represented by non linear equations. ٢ . Transfer functions: The transfer function of a linear time-invariant system is define to be the ratio of the Laplace transform ( z transform for sampled data systems) of the output to the Laplace transform of the input (driving function).

of x(t).Mass a M b A force applied to the mass produces an acceleration of the mass. .Take the L. If the highest power of s is equal to n the system is called an nth order system. the force equation is where D = d/dt Fm = M a = M D v = M D2 y ٣ . ● The highest power of s in the denominator of T. bm 1s bm a0 s n a1s n 1 .Example: Consider the linear time-invariant system a0 y ( n ) a1y ( n 1) ... 3. an 1s an ● Transfer function is not provide any information concerning the physical structure of the system (the T. Transfer Function G ( s ) b0 s m b1s m 1 .by substitute all initial condition to zero.. is equal to the order of the highest derivative term of the output. assuming all initial condition to be zero. F. and acceleration a.)? 1..T. The transfer function of the system become. of the differential equation. Mechanical translation system Consider the mass – spring – dashpot system 1. an 1 y a n y b0 x ( m ) b1 x ( m 1) . T. a velocity v. of many physically different system can be identical). bm 1 x b m x nm (1) take the Laplace transform (ℓ) of y(t) ℓ(a0y(n)) = aoℓ(y(n)) = ao[snY(s)-sn-1y(0)-s(n-2)y/(o)-…-y(n-1)(0) ℓ(a1y(n-1)) = a1ℓ(y(n-1)) = a1[sn-1Y(s)-sn-2y(0)-s(n-3)y/(o)-…-y(n-2)(0) ℓ(any) = anℓ(y) = anY(s) same thing is applied to obtain the L.F. F...Write the differential equation of the system 2.. This ratio is the T.Take the ratio of the output to the input. F. The reaction force fm is equal to the product of mass and acceleration and is opposite in direction to the applied force in term of displacement y.. How you can obtain the transfer function (T.

of the figure below ٤ . The reaction force fk on each end of the spring is the same and is equal to the product of stiffness k and the amount of deformation of the spring. The force equation. in accordance with the Hoks law is fk = k ( yc . customary units metric units Quantity Force pounds newtons Distance feet meters Velocity feet/second meter/second 2 meter/second2 Acceleration feet/second Mass slugs=pound*second2/foot kilogram Stiffness coefficient pounds/foot newtons/meter Damping coefficient pounds/(foot/second) newtons/(meter/second) Example: find the T. or stiffness k provides a restoring force as represented by a spring.dashpot e f The reaction damping force fB is approximated by the product of damping B and the relative velocity of the two ends of the dashpot. The direction of this force depend on the relative magnitude and direction of the velocity Dye and Dyf FB = B (Ve – Vf ) = B ( Dye . End c has a position yc and end d has a position yd measured from the respective equilibrium positions.Spring c d The elastance. F.Dyf ) Mechanical translation quantity and units U. S. then yd = 0 and the above equation reduces Fk = k yc 3.yd ) to If the end d is stationary.2.

below.The fundamental law governing mechanical system is Newtons law for translational system. G ( s ) Y (s) 1 2 X ( s ) Ms fs k Example: find the T.F . The complete mechanical network is drawn in fig. y (0) 0 the Laplace transform can be written ( Ms 2 fs k )Y ( s ) X ( s ) Taking the ratio of Y(s) to X(s). the law state that Ma M F d2y dy f ky x 2 dt dt Taking the Laplace transform of each term [M [ f d2y ] M (s2Y (s) sy(0) y(0)) 2 dt dy ] f [ sY ( s ) y (0)] dt [ky ] kY ( s ) ( x) X ( s ) Set the initial conditions to zero so that y(0)=0. of simple mass-spring-damper mechanical system To draw the mechanical network. the points xa. we find that the transfer function of the system is T . For nodes a & b f f k k ( xa xb ) f k f m f B MD xb BDxb 2 (1) (2) where D=d/dt ٥ .F. xb and the reference are located.

5 with all initial condition equal to zero. xb to xa. or xb to f by combining equation (1) & (2) k ( MD 2 BD) xa ( MD 2 BD k ) f (3) check ( MD 2 BD k ) xb kxa ( MD 2 BD) xb f (4) (5) (6) Let xa MD 2 BD k G1 f k ( MD 2 BD) G2 xb k (7) 2 xa MD BD k 1 x (8) G b 2 f MD BD Or by taking L.4. to equation 3.T. The transfer functions are xa ( s ) Ms 2 Bs k f ( s ) k ( Ms 2 Bs) x ( s) k G2 ( s ) b 2 xa ( s ) Ms Bs k G1 ( s ) (9) (10) (11) G 1 xb ( s) 2 f ( s) Ms Bs Note that the equations 8 & 11 are equal to the product of the (6) * (7) & (9)*(10) & G(s)=G1(s)G2(s) G=G1G2 The block diagram representing the mathematic operation f G1(D) xa G2(D) xb f G (D) xb f G1(s) xa G2(s) xb f G (s) xb ٦ .or f k f m f B M b BD x b x It is possible to obtain one equation relating xa to f.

so we must write Two equations d 2 x1 dx dx M 1 2 B( 1 2 ) k1 ( x1 x2 ) dt dt dt M1 d 2 x2 dx dx f (t ) B( 2 1 ) k1 ( x2 x1 ) k2 x2 2 dt dt dt M1s2X1(s) + B(sX1(s)-sX2(s))+k1(X1(s)-X2(s)) =0 M2s2X2(s) + B(sX2(s)-sX1(s))+k1(X2(s)-X1(s))+k2X2(s) =F(s) T (s) X 1 (s) Bs k1 4 3 F ( s ) M 1M 2 s B( M 1 M 2 ) s ( K1M 2 k2 M 1 ) s 2 k 2 Bs k1k 2 ٧ .Example: Automobile suspension some system of one wheel M1= mass of the automobile B = the shock absorber k1 =the spring k2= elestance of the tire M2= mass of the wheel Two independent displacement exist.

.. of equations (1)&(2). J = moment of inertia of The load kg. We obtain the following equation. m2 f = Viscous – Friction coefficient Newton / (rad /sec) ω = angular velocity. Taking the L. rad /sec2 J f T Applying Newtons law to the present system.. We obtain Then the transfer function of this system is found to be ( s ) 1 where ( s) { (t )} . Newton.T.... The system consists of a load inertia and a viscous – friction damper.. Applying kirchhoffs voltage law to the system shown.(1) dt C 1 idt eo .( 2) C Equation (1)&(2) give a mathematical model of the circuit...m For mechanical rotational systems Newtons low states that J T Where α = angular acceleration.. assuming zero initial conditions. L di 1 Ri idt ei .. T ( s ) {T (t )} T ( s) Js f Electrical Systems LRC circuit.. red / sec T = torque applied to the system. we obtain LsI ( s ) RI ( s ) 11 I ( s ) Ei ( s ) Cs 11 I ( s ) Eo ( s ) Cs the transfer function E0 ( s ) 1 2 E i ( s ) LCs RCs 1 ١ .Mechanical Rotational System Consider the system shown below.

ohms La = armature-winding inductance. For example. a-pares ea = applied armature voltage.F. 1 Eo ( s ) 1 Cs 2 Ei ( s ) Ls R 1 LCs RCs 1 Cs Example Armature-Controlled dc motors The dc motors have separately excited fields.F of this Eo ( s ) Z 2 ( s) Ei ( s ) Z1 ( s ) Z 2 ( s ) Where Z1= Ls+R 1 Z2 Cs Z(s) = E(s)/I(s) Hence the T.m2 f = equivalent viscous-friction coefficient of the motor and load referred to the motor shaft. dc motors used in instruments employ a fixed permanent-magnet field. radians T = torque delivered by the motor. volts θ = angular displacement of the motor shaft. henrys ia = armature-winding current. Newton*meter J = equivalent moment of inertia of the motor and load referred to the motor shaft kg. Eo(s)/Ei(s) can be found as follows. k1 is constant ٢ . volt eb = back emf. ψ = kf if . Consider the armature-controlled dc motor shown in the following figure. amperes if = field current. Newton*m/rad/s T = k1 ia ψ where ψ is the air gap flux.Complex impedances. circuit is Consider the circuit shown below then the T. They are either armature-controlled with fixed field or field-controlled with fixed armature current. Ra = armature-winding resistance. and the controlled signal is applied to the armature terminals.

...F can be obtained is (s) K ...(3) 2 dt dt Assuming that all initial conditions are condition are zero/and taking the L..F ( s) For the field-contnalled dc motor shown in figure below E f ( s) The torque T developed by the motor is proportional to the product of the air gap flux ψ and armature current ia so that T = k1 ψ ia Where k1 is constant T = k2 if Where k2 is constant di f Lf R f i f e f ……….. ………(2) dt dt ٣ ...(2)&(3)..chek ? 2 Ea ( s ) s ( La Js ( La f Ra J ) s Ra f KK b ) Example: Field-Controlled dc motor Find the T. hence Jd 2 d f T Kia . of equations (1) ....... we obtain Kpsθ(s) = Eb(s) (Las+Ra) Ia(s)+Eb(s) =Ea(s) (Js2+fs) θ(s) = T(s) = KIa(s) The T..(2) dt The armature current produces the torque which is applied to the inertia and friction...T = kf if k1 ia For a constant field current where k is a motor-torque constant T = k ia For constant flux eb kb d dt {(eb=k2ψω)} where kb is a back emf constant………(1) The differential equation for the armature circuit is La dia Raia eb ea ....(1) dt d 2 d J 2 f T k2i f ..T..

13s 1) ٤ . of the this system is obtained as K2 (s) ..72 Answer Ea ( s ) s (0. radian θ = motor shaft.T.F.f = fm+n2fL ( s) 0. for the positional servomechanism shown below...= 5. of eqs.F..2 Ω La = negligible Jm = 1*10-3 Ib-ft-sec2 fm = negligble Jl = 4... Assume that the in-put and out put of the system are input shaft position and the output shaft r = reference input shaft.. radian c = out put shaft.4*10-3 Ib-ft-sec2 fL = 4*10-2 Ib-ft/rad/sec n = gear ratio N1/N2=1/10 Hint J = Jm+n2Jl . (1)&(2) & assuming zero initial conditions we get (Lf s +Rf) If (s) = Ef (s) (Js2 + fs) θ(s) = k2 If (s) The T..5*10-2 volts-sec/rad K = motor torque constant = 6*10-5 Ib-ft-sec2 Ra = 0. radian k1 = gain of potentiometer error detector = 24/π volt/rad kp = amplifier gain = 10 kb = back emf const..W For the positional servomechanism obtain the closed-loop T.chek ? E f ( s ) S ( L f s R f )( Js f ) H.By taking the L..

. (1) state vector. W(s) R(s) + _ + _ H3 + _ H1 + + Y(s) [4 Marks] G1 G2 G3 H2 Fig. (1) R u C R y Q2: For the block diagram of feedback control system shown in Fig. [2 Marks] (2) Find the state space equations and then draw the block diagram of state space equations. 2009 Subject: Control Engineering Year: Third UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING FIRST TERM EXAMINATION time allowed 75 minute Attempt All Questions Q1: (A) Define four of the following statements. (1) (1) Derive the transfer function Y(s)/U(s).Jan.(2) the output is Y(s)=M(s)R(s)+Mw(s)W(s) Find the transfer functions M(s) and Mw(s). (2) . (3) open loop control system. (4) transfer function.13th. [2 Marks] L Fig. [2 Marks] (B) For the electrical circuit shown in Fig. (2) transducer. (5) linear time invariant system.