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https://www.scribd.com/doc/91018156/Part-2

04/24/2012

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equations. ●The response of dynamic system to an input may be obtained if these differential equations are solved. ●The differential equations can be obtained by utilizing physical laws governing a particular system, for example, Newtons laws for mechanical systems, Kirchhoffs laws for electrical systems, etc. Mathematical models: The mathematical description of the dynamic characteristic of a system. The first step in the analysis of dynamic system is to derive its model. Models may assume different forms, depending on the particular system and the circumstances. In obtaining a model, we must make a compromise between the simplicity of the model and the accuracy of results of the analysis. Linear systems: Linear systems are one in which the equations of the model are linear. A differential equation is linear, if the coefficients are constant or functions only of the independent variable (time).

d2y dy (1) 3 6 y et is linear differential equation. 2 dt dt d3y d2y dy (6 t ) 2 t 2 y sin t is linear differential equation. (2) 3 dt dt dt y (6 t ) t 2 y y sin t y or

The most important properties of linear system is that the principle of superposition is applicable. In an experimental investigation of dynamic system, if cause and effect are proportional, thus implying that the principle of superposition holds, then the system can be considered linear. Linear time invariant systems: the system which represented by differential equation whose coefficients are function of time for example y (t 6) 2t 2 y 4 y e 2t y An example of time varying control system is a spacecraft control system.

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Transfer functions: The transfer function of a linear time-invariant system is define to be the ratio of the Laplace transform ( z transform for sampled data systems) of the output to the Laplace transform of the input (driving function). ٢ . Because of the mathematical difficulties attached to nonlinear systems. z=x2+y2 A differential equation is called non linear if it is not linear. under the assumption that all initial conditions are zero. y=x2 .Non linear system: Non linear system are ones which are represented by non linear equations. one often finds it necessary to introduce equivalent linear system which are valid for only a limited range of operation. For examples d2y dy ( ) 2 y A sin wt 2 dt dt 2 d y dy ( y 2 1) y 0 2 dt dt 2 d y dy y y3 0 2 dt dt The most important properties of non linear system is that the principle of superposition is not applicable. Examples are Y=sin(x) .

F.Example: Consider the linear time-invariant system a0 y ( n ) a1y ( n 1) .. Mechanical translation system Consider the mass – spring – dashpot system 1. 3. F. T.F. Transfer Function G ( s ) b0 s m b1s m 1 .Mass a M b A force applied to the mass produces an acceleration of the mass. is equal to the order of the highest derivative term of the output.)? 1...Take the L. the force equation is where D = d/dt Fm = M a = M D v = M D2 y ٣ . of x(t). .by substitute all initial condition to zero... of many physically different system can be identical). assuming all initial condition to be zero. If the highest power of s is equal to n the system is called an nth order system.. ● The highest power of s in the denominator of T.Take the ratio of the output to the input. bm 1 x b m x nm (1) take the Laplace transform (ℓ) of y(t) ℓ(a0y(n)) = aoℓ(y(n)) = ao[snY(s)-sn-1y(0)-s(n-2)y/(o)-…-y(n-1)(0) ℓ(a1y(n-1)) = a1ℓ(y(n-1)) = a1[sn-1Y(s)-sn-2y(0)-s(n-3)y/(o)-…-y(n-2)(0) ℓ(any) = anℓ(y) = anY(s) same thing is applied to obtain the L. The reaction force fm is equal to the product of mass and acceleration and is opposite in direction to the applied force in term of displacement y. and acceleration a.. an 1 y a n y b0 x ( m ) b1 x ( m 1) . an 1s an ● Transfer function is not provide any information concerning the physical structure of the system (the T.. The transfer function of the system become. This ratio is the T. a velocity v. How you can obtain the transfer function (T.T.Write the differential equation of the system 2. F. bm 1s bm a0 s n a1s n 1 . of the differential equation.

The reaction force fk on each end of the spring is the same and is equal to the product of stiffness k and the amount of deformation of the spring. of the figure below ٤ .Spring c d The elastance. F. The direction of this force depend on the relative magnitude and direction of the velocity Dye and Dyf FB = B (Ve – Vf ) = B ( Dye . in accordance with the Hoks law is fk = k ( yc .dashpot e f The reaction damping force fB is approximated by the product of damping B and the relative velocity of the two ends of the dashpot. customary units metric units Quantity Force pounds newtons Distance feet meters Velocity feet/second meter/second 2 meter/second2 Acceleration feet/second Mass slugs=pound*second2/foot kilogram Stiffness coefficient pounds/foot newtons/meter Damping coefficient pounds/(foot/second) newtons/(meter/second) Example: find the T. The force equation. S.2. or stiffness k provides a restoring force as represented by a spring.Dyf ) Mechanical translation quantity and units U. then yd = 0 and the above equation reduces Fk = k yc 3.yd ) to If the end d is stationary. End c has a position yc and end d has a position yd measured from the respective equilibrium positions.

xb and the reference are located.F. we find that the transfer function of the system is T . The complete mechanical network is drawn in fig.F . G ( s ) Y (s) 1 2 X ( s ) Ms fs k Example: find the T. the points xa. below. For nodes a & b f f k k ( xa xb ) f k f m f B MD xb BDxb 2 (1) (2) where D=d/dt ٥ . the law state that Ma M F d2y dy f ky x 2 dt dt Taking the Laplace transform of each term [M [ f d2y ] M (s2Y (s) sy(0) y(0)) 2 dt dy ] f [ sY ( s ) y (0)] dt [ky ] kY ( s ) ( x) X ( s ) Set the initial conditions to zero so that y(0)=0. y (0) 0 the Laplace transform can be written ( Ms 2 fs k )Y ( s ) X ( s ) Taking the ratio of Y(s) to X(s).The fundamental law governing mechanical system is Newtons law for translational system. of simple mass-spring-damper mechanical system To draw the mechanical network.

to equation 3.T. The transfer functions are xa ( s ) Ms 2 Bs k f ( s ) k ( Ms 2 Bs) x ( s) k G2 ( s ) b 2 xa ( s ) Ms Bs k G1 ( s ) (9) (10) (11) G 1 xb ( s) 2 f ( s) Ms Bs Note that the equations 8 & 11 are equal to the product of the (6) * (7) & (9)*(10) & G(s)=G1(s)G2(s) G=G1G2 The block diagram representing the mathematic operation f G1(D) xa G2(D) xb f G (D) xb f G1(s) xa G2(s) xb f G (s) xb ٦ . xb to xa. or xb to f by combining equation (1) & (2) k ( MD 2 BD) xa ( MD 2 BD k ) f (3) check ( MD 2 BD k ) xb kxa ( MD 2 BD) xb f (4) (5) (6) Let xa MD 2 BD k G1 f k ( MD 2 BD) G2 xb k (7) 2 xa MD BD k 1 x (8) G b 2 f MD BD Or by taking L.or f k f m f B M b BD x b x It is possible to obtain one equation relating xa to f.5 with all initial condition equal to zero.4.

Example: Automobile suspension some system of one wheel M1= mass of the automobile B = the shock absorber k1 =the spring k2= elestance of the tire M2= mass of the wheel Two independent displacement exist. so we must write Two equations d 2 x1 dx dx M 1 2 B( 1 2 ) k1 ( x1 x2 ) dt dt dt M1 d 2 x2 dx dx f (t ) B( 2 1 ) k1 ( x2 x1 ) k2 x2 2 dt dt dt M1s2X1(s) + B(sX1(s)-sX2(s))+k1(X1(s)-X2(s)) =0 M2s2X2(s) + B(sX2(s)-sX1(s))+k1(X2(s)-X1(s))+k2X2(s) =F(s) T (s) X 1 (s) Bs k1 4 3 F ( s ) M 1M 2 s B( M 1 M 2 ) s ( K1M 2 k2 M 1 ) s 2 k 2 Bs k1k 2 ٧ .

. red / sec T = torque applied to the system. We obtain the following equation.(1) dt C 1 idt eo . of equations (1)&(2).. Newton..m For mechanical rotational systems Newtons low states that J T Where α = angular acceleration.... J = moment of inertia of The load kg. T ( s ) {T (t )} T ( s) Js f Electrical Systems LRC circuit. Applying kirchhoffs voltage law to the system shown..( 2) C Equation (1)&(2) give a mathematical model of the circuit.. we obtain LsI ( s ) RI ( s ) 11 I ( s ) Ei ( s ) Cs 11 I ( s ) Eo ( s ) Cs the transfer function E0 ( s ) 1 2 E i ( s ) LCs RCs 1 ١ .. The system consists of a load inertia and a viscous – friction damper. m2 f = Viscous – Friction coefficient Newton / (rad /sec) ω = angular velocity.. We obtain Then the transfer function of this system is found to be ( s ) 1 where ( s) { (t )} . assuming zero initial conditions. L di 1 Ri idt ei .Mechanical Rotational System Consider the system shown below. Taking the L. rad /sec2 J f T Applying Newtons law to the present system.T...

They are either armature-controlled with fixed field or field-controlled with fixed armature current. dc motors used in instruments employ a fixed permanent-magnet field. Consider the armature-controlled dc motor shown in the following figure. ohms La = armature-winding inductance.m2 f = equivalent viscous-friction coefficient of the motor and load referred to the motor shaft. henrys ia = armature-winding current. Eo(s)/Ei(s) can be found as follows. amperes if = field current. volts θ = angular displacement of the motor shaft. ψ = kf if .Complex impedances. circuit is Consider the circuit shown below then the T. radians T = torque delivered by the motor.F of this Eo ( s ) Z 2 ( s) Ei ( s ) Z1 ( s ) Z 2 ( s ) Where Z1= Ls+R 1 Z2 Cs Z(s) = E(s)/I(s) Hence the T. Newton*meter J = equivalent moment of inertia of the motor and load referred to the motor shaft kg. and the controlled signal is applied to the armature terminals. For example. a-pares ea = applied armature voltage. volt eb = back emf. 1 Eo ( s ) 1 Cs 2 Ei ( s ) Ls R 1 LCs RCs 1 Cs Example Armature-Controlled dc motors The dc motors have separately excited fields. Newton*m/rad/s T = k1 ia ψ where ψ is the air gap flux. k1 is constant ٢ . Ra = armature-winding resistance.F.

.T = kf if k1 ia For a constant field current where k is a motor-torque constant T = k ia For constant flux eb kb d dt {(eb=k2ψω)} where kb is a back emf constant………(1) The differential equation for the armature circuit is La dia Raia eb ea .. hence Jd 2 d f T Kia ...F ( s) For the field-contnalled dc motor shown in figure below E f ( s) The torque T developed by the motor is proportional to the product of the air gap flux ψ and armature current ia so that T = k1 ψ ia Where k1 is constant T = k2 if Where k2 is constant di f Lf R f i f e f ………..T. of equations (1) .....(1) dt d 2 d J 2 f T k2i f .(3) 2 dt dt Assuming that all initial conditions are condition are zero/and taking the L......... we obtain Kpsθ(s) = Eb(s) (Las+Ra) Ia(s)+Eb(s) =Ea(s) (Js2+fs) θ(s) = T(s) = KIa(s) The T.(2)&(3)..... ………(2) dt dt ٣ ..(2) dt The armature current produces the torque which is applied to the inertia and friction..chek ? 2 Ea ( s ) s ( La Js ( La f Ra J ) s Ra f KK b ) Example: Field-Controlled dc motor Find the T..F can be obtained is (s) K .

F.f = fm+n2fL ( s) 0..2 Ω La = negligible Jm = 1*10-3 Ib-ft-sec2 fm = negligble Jl = 4.. radian k1 = gain of potentiometer error detector = 24/π volt/rad kp = amplifier gain = 10 kb = back emf const. of the this system is obtained as K2 (s) ...72 Answer Ea ( s ) s (0.13s 1) ٤ .W For the positional servomechanism obtain the closed-loop T..5*10-2 volts-sec/rad K = motor torque constant = 6*10-5 Ib-ft-sec2 Ra = 0.T. for the positional servomechanism shown below... Assume that the in-put and out put of the system are input shaft position and the output shaft r = reference input shaft.chek ? E f ( s ) S ( L f s R f )( Js f ) H..4*10-3 Ib-ft-sec2 fL = 4*10-2 Ib-ft/rad/sec n = gear ratio N1/N2=1/10 Hint J = Jm+n2Jl .= 5.F. radian θ = motor shaft..By taking the L. radian c = out put shaft.. of eqs. (1)&(2) & assuming zero initial conditions we get (Lf s +Rf) If (s) = Ef (s) (Js2 + fs) θ(s) = k2 If (s) The T.

(1) state vector. (4) transfer function.(2) the output is Y(s)=M(s)R(s)+Mw(s)W(s) Find the transfer functions M(s) and Mw(s). (1) R u C R y Q2: For the block diagram of feedback control system shown in Fig. [2 Marks] (2) Find the state space equations and then draw the block diagram of state space equations. [2 Marks] (B) For the electrical circuit shown in Fig. (3) open loop control system. 2009 Subject: Control Engineering Year: Third UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING FIRST TERM EXAMINATION time allowed 75 minute Attempt All Questions Q1: (A) Define four of the following statements. [2 Marks] L Fig. .Jan. (2) transducer. (5) linear time invariant system. (1) (1) Derive the transfer function Y(s)/U(s). W(s) R(s) + _ + _ H3 + _ H1 + + Y(s) [4 Marks] G1 G2 G3 H2 Fig.13th. (2) .

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