40 LED Bicycle Light

[Using 555 Timer/Oscillator Using Timer/Oscillator]

B.E Electronics IV M. Yasir Jamil Khan M. Raghib Malik Munir Ahmed Shah

[The 555 circuit is a flashing bicycle, 20 LEDs will alternately flash at approximately 4.7 cycles The per second. Each LED is supplied with about 20 mA of current for a total of 220 mA. Uses a NPN and a PNP transistor.]

Introduction to 555 Timer/Oscillator I.C:

“A semiconductor device that controls various modes of on/off states in electrical systems or circuits. The 555 timer is one of the most widely used types of integrated circuits.”

History:
The 555 timer IC was first introduced around 1971 by the Signetics Corporation as the SE555/NE555 and was called "The IC Time Machine" and was also the very first and only commercial timer IC available. It provided circuit designers with a relatively cheap, stable, and user-friendly integrated circuit for both monostable and astable applications. Since this device was first made commercially available, a myriad of novel and unique circuits have been developed and presented in several trade, professional, and hobby publications. The past ten years some manufacturers stopped making these timers because of competition or other reasons. Yet other companies, like NTE (a subdivision of Philips) picked up where some left off. Although these days the CMOS version of this IC, like the Motorola MC1455, is mostly used, the regular type is still available, however there have been many improvements and variations in the circuitry. But all types are pin-for-pin plug compatible. In this tutorial the 555 timer is examined in detail along with its uses, either by itself or in combination with other solid state devices. This timer uses a maze of transistors, diodes and resistors and for this complex reason a more simplified (but accurate) block diagram is used to explain the internal organizations of the 555.

The 555 is an integrated circuit (chip) implementing a variety of timer and multivibrator applications. The IC was designed and invented by Hans R. Camenzind. It was designed in 1970 and introduced in 1971 by Signetics (later acquired by Philips). The original name was the SE555/NE555 and was called "The IC Time

Machine". The 555 gets its name from the three 5-kOhm resistors used in typical early implementations (Reference 1). It is still in wide use, thanks to its ease of use, low price and good stability. As of 2003, 1 billion units are manufactured every year. The 555 timer is one of the most popular and versatile integrated circuits ever produced. It includes 23transistors, 2 diodes and 16 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8). The 556 is a 14-pin DIP that combines two 555s on a single chip. The 558 is a 16-pin DIP that combines four slightly modified 555s on a single chip (DIS & THR are connected internally; TR is falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive). Also available are ultra-low power versions of the 555 such as the 7555 and TLC555. The 7555 requires slightly different wiring using fewer external components and less power.

The 555 has three operating modes:
Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "oneshot". Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bounce free switches, touch switches, Frequency Divider, Capacitance Measurement, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) etc Astable - Free Running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation, etc. Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce free latched switches, etc.

Inside a 555 Timer/Oscillator:

Inside the 555 timer, are the equivalent of over 20 transistors, 15 resistors, and 2 diodes, depending of the manufacturer. The equivalent circuit, in block diagram, providing the functions of control, triggering, level sensing or comparison, discharge, and power output. Some of the more attractive features of the 555 timer are: Supply voltage between 4.5 and 18 volt, supply current 3 to 6 mA, and a Rise/Fall time of 100n Sec. It can also withstand quite a bit of abuse. The Threshold current determine the maximum value of Ra

The connection of the pins are as follows:

Nr. Name

Purpose

1 2

GND TR

Ground, low level (0V) A short pulse high → low on the trigger starts the timer During a timing interval, the output stays at +VCC A timing interval can be interrupted by applying a reset pulse to low (0V) Control voltage allows access to the internal voltage divider (2/3 VCC) The threshold at which the interval ends (it ends if U.thr → 2/3 VCC) Connected to a capacitor whose discharge time will influence the timing interval The positive supply voltage which must be between 3 and 15 V

3 4 5

Q R CV

6

THR

7

DIS

8

V+, VCC

Transistors: 1) 2N2219A (high speed switches)

The 2N2219A and 2N2222A are silicon planar Epitaxial NPN transistors in Jedec TO-39 (for 2N2219A) and in Jedec TO-18 (for2n2222a) Metal case. They are designed for high speed Switching application at collector current up to 500ma, and feature useful current gain over a Wide range of collector current, low leakage currents and low saturation voltage.

2)

2N2907A (General Purpose Amplifiers Andswitches):

The 2N2905A and 2N2907A are silicon planar epitaxial PNP transistors in JedecTO-39 (for 2N2905A) and in JedecTO-18 (for 2N2907A) metal case. They are designed for high speed saturated switching and general purpose applications.

Light-emitting diode emitting diode:
A light-emitting-diode (LED) is a semiconductor diode that emits light when an electric current is applied in the forward direction of the device, as in the simple LED circuit. The effect is a form of rcuit. electroluminescence where incoherent and narrow narrowspectrum light is emitted from the p n junction in a p-n ju solid state material. LEDs are widely used as indicator lights on electronic devices and increasingly in higher power applications such as flashlights and area lighting. An LED is usually a small area (less than 1 m mm2) light source, often with optics added directly on top of the chip to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. The color of the emitted light depends on the composition and condition of the semiconducting material used, and can be infrared, visible, or ultraviolet. Besides lighting, interesting applications include using UV UV-LEDs for sterilization of water and disinfection of devices, and as a grow light to enhance photosynthesis in plants.
Schematic Symbol of LED

40 LED Bicycle Light

Schematic Diagram

Working: The 555 circuit below is a flashing bicycle light powered with four C, D or AA cells (6 volts). Two sets of 20 LEDs will alternately flash at approximately 4.7 cycles per second using RC values shown (4.7K for R1, 150K for R2 and a 1uF capacitor). Time intervals for the two lamps are about 107 milliseconds (T1, upper LEDs) and 104 milliseconds (T2 lower LEDs). Two transistors are used to provide additional wer current beyond the 200 mA limit of the 555 timer. A single LED is placed in series with the base of the PNP transistor so that the lower 20 LEDs turn off when the 555 output goes high during the T1 time interval. The high output level of the 555

timer is 1.7 volts less than the supply voltage. Adding the LED increases the forward voltage required for the PNP transistor to about 2.7 volts so that the 1.7 volt difference from supply to the output is insufficient to turn on the transistor. Each LED is supplied with about 20 mA of current for a total of 220 mA. The circuit should work with additional LEDs up to about 40 for each group, or 81 totals. The circuit will also work with fewer LEDs so it could be assembled and tested with just 5 LEDs (two groups of two plus one) before adding the others. Components Details:
Components that are used in the circuit are as follow:

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Name 555 Timer/Oscillator 2N3053 (NPN) 2N2905 (PNP) Resistor 4.7 K ohm Resistor 150 K ohm Resistor 220 ohm Resistor 160 ohm Resistor 100 ohm Capacitor 1 uF Capacitor 1 F Led 40

Quantity 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 20 01 01 01

Substitute ***** 2N2219A 2N2907A ***** ***** ***** ***** ***** ***** ***** *****

Output Wave Form/Graph:

The 555 timer I.C generating the alternatively the D.C signals of approximately 4.7 cycles per second. When the set one of led is on other remain off.

The Data Sheets of Used Components

Resources:
http://www.uoguelph.ca/~antoon/gadgets/555/555.html http://www.national.com/pf/LM/LM555.html http://www.doctronics.co.uk/555.htm http://www.doctronics.co.uk/safety_lights.html#limiting http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/555timer.htm http://home.cogeco.ca/~rpaisley4/LM555.html#15 http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Bill_Bowden/555.htm http://pr.radom.net/~pgolabek/materialy/Elektronika/Dodatki/555/www.ee.ed.ac.uk/~kap/hard/555/a plications.html

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