Handbook of Forensic Services
(revsed 2007) Editor Km Waggoner Editorial Assistant Kathryn H. Suchma Graphic Design Sandra D. Hollday An FBI Laboratory Publcaton Federal Bureau of Investgaton Quantco, Vrgna ISBN 978-0-16-079376-9 

Table of Contents
Introducton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Submttng Evdence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Evdence Examnatons. . . . . . . . . . . 13 Crme Scene Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Crme Scene Search . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 

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The forensc servces of the FBI Laboratory Dvson and the Operatonal Technology Dvson are avalable to the followng: ß FBI field offices and legal attachés. the collecton. n most cases. Forensc analyss of evdence s often crucal to determnatons of gult or nnocence. and the FBI Laboratory s accredted by the Amercan Socety of Crme Laboratory Drectors/ Laboratory Accredtaton Board. preservaton. 1 . FBI Forensic Services The successful nvestgaton and prosecuton of crmes requre. and shppng evdence and descrbes the forensc examnatons performed by the FBI’s Laboratory Dvson and Operatonal Technology Dvson. packagng. The FBI has one of the largest and most comprehensve forensc laboratores n the world.INTRODUCTION Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Introduction The Handbook of Forensic Services provdes guidance and procedures for safe and efficient methods of collectng. preservng. and forensc analyss of evdence.

are rendered free of cost. the followng lmtatons apply: ß No examnaton wll be conducted on evdence that has been prevously subjected to the same type of examnaton. and the nvestgatng agency. the prosecutng attorney. ncludng expert wtness testmones. No testmony wll be furnshed f testmony on the same subject and n the same case s 2 ß ß . These reasons should be explaned n separate letters from the drector of the laboratory that conducted the orgnal examnaton. No request for an examnaton wll be accepted from laboratores havng the capablty of conductng the examnaton. Exceptons may be granted upon approval of the FBI Laboratory Drector or a desgnee. and other federal agences for cvl and crmnal matters. mltary trbunals. however. attorneys. county. Exceptons may be granted when there are reasons for a reexamnaton. State.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß U. and muncpal law enforcement agences n the Unted States and terrtoral possessons for crmnal matters. All forensc servces.S.

Dependng on the caseload of the Laboratory and the needs of the contrbutor. however. An FBI Laboratory Report of Examnaton may contan the opnons and/or nterpretatons of the examner(s) who ssued the report. In addton. when submttng evdence to the FBI Laboratory.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 provded for the prosecuton by another expert. ß No request for an examnaton wll be accepted from a nonfederal law enforcement agency n cvl matters. evdence examnatons may be subcontracted. it accepts from state and local law enforcement agences only evdence related to volent crme 3 . contrbutors acknowledge the followng: ß FBI examners wll choose approprate techncal processes to address the contrbutor’s request for examnaton. ß ß Violent Crime Versus Property Crime The FBI accepts evdence related to all crmes under investigation by FBI field offices.

The FBI does not routnely accept evdence from state and local law enforcement agences n cases nvolvng property crmes unless there was personal njury or ntent to cause personal njury. These gudelnes help to ensure that the FBI contnues to provde tmely forensc assstance to law enforcement agences nvestgatng crmes of volence or threatened volence. Explosve ncdents and hoaxes targetng unoccuped resdental and commercal buldngs and property. 4 . At the dscreton of the FBI Laboratory Drector or a desgnee.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 nvestgatons. The followng are examples of property crmes that are not routnely accepted for examnatons: ß ß Arson of unoccuped resdental and commercal buldngs and property. Such exceptons wll be consdered on a case-by-case bass and should not be regarded as settng a precedent for future case acceptance. Addtonal restrctons may be mposed on case acceptance to acheve ths goal. the FBI may accept evdence from property crme cases. All accepted cases wll be afforded the full range of forensc servces provded by the FBI.

Back to the top 5 .000). Breakng and enterng. Nonfatal traffic accidents involving speedometer and headlght examnatons except n cases nvolvng law enforcement and government officials. Ht-and-run automoble accdents not nvolvng personal njury. ß ß ß ß ß ß Mnor fraud (under $100.000). Mnor theft (under $100. except automoble theft rngs or carjackngs. Automoble theft. Burglary.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Vandalsm and malcous mschef drected toward resdental or commercal buldngs and property.

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SUBMISSIONS 7 . Do not submt multple cases under a sngle communcaton. on agency letterhead. LEGATs should fax the request to the Evidence Control Unit. agency. Requests for evdence examnatons must contan the followng nformaton: ß The submttng contact person’s name. address. prior to submitting any evidence to the Laboratory. 703-632-8334. and addressed to the FBI Laboratory Evdence Control Unt.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Submitting Evidence Requesting Evidence Examinations All requests for evdence examnatons should be n wrtng. Each case should be submtted wth a separate communcaton and packaged separately. and telephone number. unless otherwse ndcated n the Examinations secton. Questions concerning international submissions should be directed to 703-632-8360. All international law enforcement agency/ police requests should be coordinated through the appropriate FBI legal attaché (LEGAT).

” ü Herewith s lmted to small tems of evdence that are not endangered by transmttng n an envelope. f avalable. vctm.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Previous case-identification numbers. Wrte on the envelope before placng evdence nsde to avod damagng or alterng the evdence. A lst of the evdence beng submtted “herewth” (enclosed) or “under separate cover. suspect. The name(s) of and descrptve data about the ndvdual(s) nvolved (subject. evdence submssons. The wrtten communcaton should state: “Submitted herewith are the following items of evidence. The name of the prosecutor assgned. Descrpton of the nature and the basc facts of the case as they pertan to evdence examnatons. and communcatons relatng to the case. or a combnaton of those categores) and the agency-assigned case-identification number.” ß ß ß ß 8 .

f there s local controversy. ß Packaging and Shipping Evidence ß ß ß Pror to packagng and shppng evdence. call the pertinent unit for specific instructions. Take precautons to preserve the evdence. The wrtten communcaton should state: “Submitted under separate cover by [list the method of shipment] are the following items of evidence. A street address must be ncluded. Include a copy of the communcaton requestng the examnatons. Wrap and seal each tem of evdence separately to avod contamnaton. Where the evdence should be returned and where the Laboratory report should be sent. 9 .Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ü Separate cover s used to shp numerous or bulky tems of evdence. A statement f the evdence was prevously examned. or f other law enforcement agences have an nterest n the case.” ß ß What type(s) of examnaton(s) s/are requested.

Affix EVIDENCE and BIOHAZARD labels.S. Department of Transportaton and Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton ß ß ß ß 10 . on the nner contaner. affix a LATENT label on the inner contaner. Seal the nner contaner wth tamper-evdent or filament tape. All shipments of suspected or confirmed hazardous materials must comply wth U.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß Place the evdence n a clean. Do not use loose Styrofoam. Place the sealed nner contaner n a clean. If any of the evdence needs to be examned for latent prints. if approprate. and prevously unused outer contaner wth clean packng materals. dry. Completely seal the outer contaner so that tamperng wth the contaner would be evdent. Affix the evidence examination request and all case nformaton between the nner and outer contaners. and prevously unused nner contaner. dry.

Ttle 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) lists specific requirements that must be observed when preparng hazardous materals for shpment by ar.101 provdes a Hazardous Materials Table that identifies items consdered hazardous for the purpose of transportaton. labelng. land. U.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 regulatons. 11 . A trained and qualified evidence techncan must assst wth the typng. Ttle 49 CFR 172. and tranng requrements for shippers. or sea. ß Ttle 49 CFR 172. the Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton annually publshes Dangerous Goods Regulations detalng how to prepare and package shpments for ar transportaton.S. In addton.101 also addresses specal provsons for certan materals. emergency response nformaton. packagng. and shppng of all hazardous materals. hazardous materals communcatons. Department of Transportaton regulatons and the followng gudelnes must be followed when shppng lve ammunton: ü Package and shp ammunton separately from firearm(s).

S.” The Declaraton of Dangerous Goods must nclude the number of packages and the gross weght n grams of the completed packages. CARTRIDGES. or FedEx. SMALL ARMS. address the outer contaner as follows: EVIDENCE CONTROL UNIT LABORATORY DIVISION FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 2501 INVESTIGATION PARKWAY QUANTICO VA 22135 ß Shp evdence by U. ü ß Unless otherwse ndcated n the Examinations secton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ü The outsde of the contaner must be labeled “ORM-D. Record the method of shpment and the trackng number(s) on the chan-of-custody form. Postal Servce Regstered Mal. UPS. Back to the top 12 .

. . . . . . . . . 104 Product Tamperng. . . . . 71 Frearms . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Har . 106 Questoned Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Vdeo . .Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Evidence Examinations Abrasves . . . . . 90 Mssng Persons . . . . . . . 56 Explosves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Pharmaceutcals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Demonstratve Evdence. . . . . . 21 Buldng Materals . 117 Safe Insulaton . . . 23 Caulk . . 14 Seral Numbers . . 79 Latent Prnts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Feathers . . . . . . . . 119 Shoe Prnts . . . 72 Ink . . . . . . . . . 121 Toolmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Toxcology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Racketeerng Records . . . 71 Image Analyss . . . . . . . . . 14 Anthropology . . . . . . . . . . 14 Chemcal Unknowns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Explosves Resdue . . 100 Pepper Spray or Foam. . . 22 Bullet Jacket Alloys. . . . . . 80 Lubrcants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Tre Treads. . . . . . . . . . . 24 Computers . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Tape. . 118 Sealants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Sol. 29 Cordage . . 61 DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Specal-Event and Stuatonal Awareness Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Controlled Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Wood . . . . . 31 Rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Bank Securty Dyes . . . . 146 EXAMINATIONS 13 . . . . . . 17 Audo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Dsaster Squad . . . . . 117 Crme Scene Surveys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Cryptanalyss . . . . . . . Documentaton. . . . . 33 Electronc Devces . 14 Adhesves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Arson . . . . . 62 Fbers . . 94 Pant. . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Metallurgy . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Weapons of Mass Destructon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Forensc Facal Imagng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Reconstructon .

Do not use paper or glass contaners. ß Employ personnel famlar wth the operatons and mechancs of engnes and machnery to recover abrasves. Submt the ol and fuel from the engine pump and/or filters. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Questions concerning abrasives evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. and sealants can be compared by color and chemcal composton wth suspected 14 . Submt abrasves n heat-sealed or resealable plastc bags or pant cans.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Abrasives Examinations Examnatons may determne the type of abrasve materal used to sabotage engnes or machnery. Abrasves embed n bearngs and other parts. Abrasves settle n ol and fuel. and Sealant Examinations Adhesves. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Submt the bearngs and other parts. Caulk. ß ß ß Adhesive. caulks.

ß When possble. and sealant evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 sources. Race. ß Anthropological Examinations Anthropologcal examnatons can determne whether somethng s a bone and. whether t s human or anmal n orgn. or sealant s adhered. f so. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Submt a suspected source. If ths s not possble. remove a sample of the materal wth a clean. Package separately. and sealants cannot be determned by compostonal analyss. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. caulk. approxmate heght and stature. sex. caulk. sharp nstrument and transfer t to a resealable plastc bag or leakproof container such as a film canister or plastc pll bottle. submt the tem to whch the adhesve. and approxmate age at death often can be determned from human 15 . The source and manufacturer of adhesves. caulks. Questions concerning adhesive.

Collect nsect samples found on the remans in leakproof containers such as film canisters or plastc pll bottles.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 remans. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8449 for addtonal nstructons. and bullet holes also may be examined. refrgerate untl malng. bluntforce trauma. Anthropologcal examnatons usually are conducted on bones sent to the Laboratory for DNA analyss or facal reproductons. f possble. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Pack n paper bags and wrap n protectve materal such as Bubble Wrap or paper. Back to the top 16 . Damage to bone such as cuts. Personal identifications can be made by comparng X-rays of a known ndvdual wth skeletal remans. and then shp n a Styrofoam cooler. ß Submt medcal records and X-rays. ß Clean and ar-dry bones. If tssue s present on the skeletal materal. Questions concerning anthropological evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. f possble.

or any electronc or mechancal devces an arsonst may have used. and the removal of personal property or commercal nventory. matchbooks. fused chemcal masses.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Arson Examinations Arson examnatons can determne the presence of ignitable liquids introduced to a fire scene. Preserve evdence n artght contaners such as metal cans. Pack to prevent breakage. glass jars. Molotov cocktals. Examnatons generally cannot dentfy specific brands. or heatsealed plastic bags approved for fire debris. and specalty solvents. cgarettes. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. 17 . Search at questoned arson scenes for the followng tems: candles. Examnatons of debrs recovered from scenes can dentfy gasolne. Questions concerning arson evidence should be directed to 703-632-7641. Igntable lquds are volatle and easly lost through evaporaton. Do not fill the containers to the top. fuel ols. burn trails on carpeted or hardwood floors. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Also search for burn trals on cloth or paper.

Forensc Audo. unaltered. The OTD DEL has dfferent acceptance crtera and a dfferent physcal address than the FBI Laboratory.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Audio Examinations Audo examnatons are conducted by the FBI’s Operatonal Technology Dvson (OTD). Authenticity Authentcty examnatons are conducted to determne whether audo recordngs are orgnal. Enhancement Enhancement examnatons are conducted to selectvely reduce nterferng nose on audo recordngs to mprove the ntellgblty. contnuous. Dgtal Evdence Laboratory (DEL). and consstent wth the operaton of the recordng devce used to make the recordng. Voice Comparisons Spectrographc examnatons compare an unknown recorded voce sample wth a known verbatm voce exemplar produced on a smlar transmsson-and-recordng devce such as the telephone. and Image Analyss Unt (FAVIAU). as descrbed below. The results 18 . Decsons regardng spectrographc voce comparsons are not conclusve. Vdeo.

Damaged Media Audo recordngs can be repared. compare.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 of voce comparsons are provded for nvestgatve gudance only. local. and nterpret such sgnals as gunshots and telephone touch tones. or nternatonal case has a nexus to an ongong FBI nvestgaton or 2) the FBI dvson head deems that the case s of enough regonal mportance to mert the dedcaton of federal resources to the state. State. or retreved for playback and examnaton. or nternatonal case. Signal Analysis Sgnal analyss examnatons are conducted to dentfy. Audo examnatons may not be submtted drectly from enttes outsde the FBI. Questions concerning audio examinations should be directed to 703-985-1393. restored. These crtera shall be met wth a wrtten 19 . or nternatonal agency cases must be submtted by the FBI field office servicing the area and must meet one of the followng two crtera: 1) the state. local. f damage s not too extensve. local. Questions concerning audio evidence should be directed to 703-985-1388.

Submt orgnal audo recordngs. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. SENSITIVE AUDIO/VIDEO MEDIA” and “KEEP AWAY FROM MAGNETS OR MAGNETIC FIELDS. ß ß ß ß Wrte-protect the orgnal recordng. whch may include finalizing CD and DVD media. SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT” or “FRAGILE.” Address the outer contaner as follows: FORENSIC PROGRAM BUILDING 27958A ENGINEERING RESEARCH FACILITY FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION QUANTICO VA 22135 Back to the top ß 20 . FBI enttes may submt cases drectly. Identfy known and questoned voce samples.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 statement from the dvson head (Specal Agent n Charge). Label the outer contaner “FRAGILE. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.

When cuttng s not possble.. ß ß Only evdence wth vsble red or pnk stans wll be examned. and submt t wth the dye-staned evdence. Items such as money and clothng can be analyzed for the presence of bank securty dye and tear gas. package separately. Use an unstaned swab as a control.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Bank Security Dye Examinations Bank dye packs contan dye to stan money and clothng and tear gas to dsorent a robber. Do not submt large staned evdence (e. transfer questoned stans by rubbng wth a clean (dry or wet wth alcohol) cotton swab. Collect an unstaned control sample. Ar-dry the swab and pack n a heat-sealed or resealable plastc bag. Questions concerning bank security dye evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. 21 . cut a small sample of the staned area and submt n a heatsealed or resealable plastc bag. car seats). ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. When possble.g. Follow the evdence submsson drectons.

Pack to keep lumps ntact. and stolen tems and can transfer to vehcles. tools. Questions concerning building materials evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. Do not process tools for latent prnts. Do not use paper or glass contaners. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Package each tem of evdence n a separate paper bag. bags. Collect known samples from the penetrated or damaged areas. 22 ß ß . cement. Submt known and questoned debrs n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. stucco. Shp known and questoned debrs separately to avod contamnaton. debrs can adhere to people. ß When buldng materals are penetrated or damaged. and concrete. mortar. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. submt the evdence to the Laboratory for examners to remove the debrs. clothng. plaster.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Building Materials Examinations Examnatons can compare buldng materals such as brck. If possble.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Bullet Jacket Alloy Examinations Elemental analyss of bullet jackets can be done when a bullet has fragmented so that ndvdual peces cannot be used for comparson wth testfired ammunition from a firearm or in the absence of a firearm or the lead component of the bullet. 23 . tme. Alloy classification can differentiate among bullet jacket alloys of dfferent manufacturers or among the bullet jacket alloys n manufacturers’ producton lnes. Ths analyss may be helpful when there are multple shooters and types of jacketed ammunition. case number. Postal Servce. Questions concerning bullet jacket alloy examinations should be directed to 703-6328441. and shotshell casngs can be sent va Regstered Mal through the U. cartrdge cases. and evdence number wrtten on the contaner. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Evdence must be packaged separately wth the date.S. locaton. collector’s name. ß Ammunton components such as bullets. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.

collector’s name. locaton. cartrdge cases. case number. and evdence number must be on the contaner. lquds. The outsde of the contaner must be labeled “ORM-D. cartrdges. 24 .Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß U. shotshells. however. SMALL ARMS. general classification of a substance is usually achievable.” The Declaraton of Dangerous Goods must nclude the number of package(s) and the gross weght n grams of the completed package(s). Full identification of an unknown may not always be possble. tme. Department of Transportaton regulatons and the followng gudelnes must be followed when shppng lve ammunton: ü ü Package and shp ammunton separately from firearm(s). Back to the top ß Chemical Examinations of General Unknowns General unknowns nclude powders. or shotshell casngs. and stans that are of ndetermnate orgn or cannot be readily classified. The date. CARTRIDGES. ü Do not mark bullets.S.

transfer questoned stans by rubbng wth a clean (dry or wet wth alcohol) cotton swab. When cuttng s not possble. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. When possble. t may be possble to comment regardng the consstency of the unknown substance compared wth a known sample. Collect an unstaned control sample. package separately. Questions concerning examinations of general unknowns should be directed to 703-632-8441. ß Submt powder and lqud samples n leakproof contaners. and submt t wth the staned evdence. Do not submt large staned evdence. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 When comparson samples are avalable. cut a small sample of the staned area and submt n a heat-sealed or resealable plastc bag. Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8441 prior to submitting general unknowns to ensure that the evidence will be accepted for examination. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Use an unstaned 25 .

Transaction Examnatons can determne the tme and sequence that data files were created.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 swab as a control. Comparison Examinations can compare data files with known documents and data files. Ar-dry the swab and pack n a heat-sealed or resealable plastc bag. Extraction Data files can be extracted from the computer or computer storage meda. Deleted Data Files Deleted data files can be recovered from the computer or computer storage meda. Back to the top Computer Examinations Content Examnatons can determne what type of data files are on a computer. 26 . Format Conversion Data files can be converted from one format to another.

Determne whether encrypton and/or password protecton s used. Submit requests at least one week in advance. determne the type of network software. the locaton of the network servers.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Keyword Searching Data files can be searched for a word or phrase and all occurrences recorded. If applcable. Limited Source Code Source code can be analyzed and compared. Obtan as much of the followng nformaton as possble pror to submttng a request: ß ß Determne the type(s) of computers and operatng systems. Passwords Passwords can be recovered and used to decrypt encoded files. ß 27 . and the number of computers on the network. Call the Computer Analysis Response Team at 703-985-1302 to request a search or field examination.

ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Pack and shp central processng unts n the uprght poston.” ß ß 28 . If possble. Use a sturdy cardboard contaner when shppng computer components. Label the outsde contaner “THIS END UP. ß For most examnatons. use the original packing case with the fitted paddng.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Specfy whether a sezure of computers and meda or an on-ste examnaton s requred. Seal the contaner wth a strong packng tape. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. submt only the central processng unts and the nternal and external storage meda. Do not use loose Styrofoam because t lodges nsde computers and components and creates statc charges that can cause data loss or damage to crcut boards. Questions concerning computer evidence should be directed to 703-985-1302. Use large plastc Bubble Wrap or foam rubber pads as packng.

” Address the outer contaner as follows: ß ß FORENSIC PROGRAM BUILDING 27958A ENGINEERING RESEARCH FACILITY FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION QUANTICO VA 22135 Back to the top Controlled Substance Examinations Controlled substance examnatons can establsh trace-drug presence. 29 . cartrdges. dentty. SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT” and “KEEP AWAY FROM MAGNETS OR MAGNETIC FIELDS.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Dsks. Label the outer contaner “FRAGILE. and quantty. tapes. Quanttes exceedng 100 grams of suspected marjuana or 10 grams of all other suspected drugs ncludng cocane. and hard drves must be packed to avod movement durng shppng. methamphetamne. and heron wll be returned unanalyzed. The Laboratory usually analyzes only drugs sezed n federal nvestgatons. Bulk Drugs The Laboratory lmts the quantty of bulk drugs that t wll analyze.

Back to the top 30 . ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Do not submit used drug field-test kits with evdence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Drug Residue Requests for drug resdue examnatons on evdence wll be accepted only when the evdence s properly packaged to avod contamnaton. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Drug resdue examnatons of currency are performed only on a lmted bass. Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8441 prior to submitting drugs or currency to ensure that the evidence will be accepted for examination. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. ß ß ß Submt evdence n separate heat-sealed or resealable plastc bags. Fold clothng to preserve trace evdence. Questions concerning controlled substance evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441.

volent crmnals. and vehcular-. Encrypted documents may be faxed or e-maled for mmedate decrypton. street and prson gangs. Documentation. 31 .Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Crime Scene Surveys.and threedmensonal dgtal or physcal crme scene reconstructons as well as computer anmatons or models that depct bullet trajectory. and reconstruction should be directed to 703-632-8194. Cryptanalysis and Racketeering Record Examinations Cryptanalysis Cryptanalyss examnatons nvolve the analyss of encoded and encphered documents used by terrorsts. and Reconstruction Vsual nformaton specalsts receve data from the field or travel to the field to collect it. or objectmovement analyss. human-. Call 703-632-7356 or 703-632-7334 for contact nformaton. lne-of-sght analyss. and organzed crme groups. Questions concerning crime scene surveys. They then use the data to prepare two. documentation. foregn ntellgence agents.

Gambling Gamblng examnatons nclude the nterpretaton of records from sports and horse bookmakng busnesses. Prostitution Prosttuton records are examned to determne the scope of the busnesses. and other pertnent nformaton. gross sales. amounts pad n nterest and prncpal. type of drugs dstrbuted. and any other llegal actvtes. and other gamblng busnesses. Loan-Sharking Loan-sharkng records are examned to determne the amounts of the loans. prce structures. Money Laundering Money-launderng records are examned to determne the scope of the operatons. number of loans. ncludng the number of employees and ther roles. gross and net 32 . how the funds were laundered. and nterest rates. gross or net weghts or quanttes.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Drug Records Drug records are examned to determne the overall scope of the busnesses. Internet gamblng operatons. the amounts laundered. ncludng the herarchy. numbers or lottery operatons.

DNA Examinations Deoxyrbonuclec acd (DNA) s analyzed n bodyfluid stains and other biological tissues recovered from tems of evdence. Such analyses 33 . These tems nclude charts. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. and other financial and organizational nformaton. and anmated and dgtally nteractve presentatons. Questions concerning cryptanalysis and racketeering record evidence should be directed to 703-632-7356 or 703-632-7334.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 revenues. Questions concerning demonstrative evidence should be directed to 703-632-8194. llustratons. Back to the top Demonstrative Evidence Vsual nformaton specalsts prepare a wde array of demonstratve evdence for nvestgatve and prosecutoral purposes. maps. The results of DNA testng on evdence samples are compared wth the results of DNA analyss of reference samples collected from known ndvduals. dagrams. Follow the evdence submsson drectons.

bones. salva. these tems contan low concentratons of degraded DNA. Mtochondral DNA (mtDNA) s typcally analyzed n evdence contanng naturally shed hars. makng them unsutable for nDNA examnatons. Typcally. body tssue. or wth a crme scene. semen. There are two types of DNA used n forensc analyses. har fragments. where approprate. and teeth. wth evdence tems. The power of nDNA testng done by the DNA Analyss Unt I (DNAUI) les n ts ablty to potentally dentfy an ndvdual as beng the source of the DNA obtaned from an evdence item to a reasonable degree of scientific certainty. and hars that have tssue at ther root ends.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 can assocate vctms and suspects wth each other. Addtonally. and small peces of evdence contanng lttle bologcal 34 . The hgh senstvty of mtDNA analyss allows scentsts to obtan nformaton from old tems of evdence assocated wth cold cases. Nuclear DNA (nDNA) s the more dscrmnatng of the two types and s typcally analyzed n evdence contanng blood. as well as the definitive power of exclusion. samples from mass dsasters. the DNA-typng results from evdence tems (ncludng tems related to mssng persons) examned n the DNAUI may be uploaded nto the Combned DNA Index System (CODIS) database.

sster(s). Addtonally. brother(s). mtDNA performed by the DNA Analyss Unt II s an excellent technque to use for obtanng nformaton when nDNA analyss s not feasble. Addtonally. the maternal nhertance of mtDNA allows scentsts to compare a mtDNA profile to reference samples from that person’s mother. FBI cases are prortzed 35 . unique identificatons are not possble usng mtDNA analyss.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 materal. Questions concerning mitochondrial DNA testing should be directed to 703-632-7572. or any other maternally related ndvduals. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. All of these individuals have the same mtDNA profiles because all maternal relatves nhert ther mtDNA from ther mother. the mtDNA-typng results related to mssng-person cases may be uploaded nto the CODIS database. However. Case Acceptance Policy of the DNA Analysis Unit I ß The DNAUI accepts FBI cases for serologcal and nDNA analyss. Because multple ndvduals can have the same mtDNA type. Questions concerning nuclear DNA testing should be directed to 703-632-8446. Follow the evdence submsson drectons.

transnatonal/natonal crmnal organzatons/ enterprses. significant violent crime. U. state. ß The DNAUI accepts cases from FBI field offices and legal attachés (LEGATs).g. federal. military trbunals. and muncpal law enforcement agences n the Unted States and ts terrtores. The DNAUI also accepts cases that are submtted to the Laboratory from nternatonal law enforcement agences through the FBI LEGATs. DEA). and support of local. Bureau of Indan Affairs. publc corrupton. cvl rghts. other federal agences (e. The submttng agency s not served by another government forensc DNA laboratory.. major whte-collar crme. ß 36 . Ths ncludes examnatons that characterze bologcal stans and may dentfy the source of a stan on an evdentary tem. Cases are accepted provded that: 1. attorneys’ offices. cyber-based/hgh-technology crmes.S.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 accordng to the FBI’s prortes of counterterrorsm. and nternatonal agences. and duly consttuted state. county.

Case Consideration Policy ß The DNAUI supports the Natonal Mssng Person DNA Database (NMPDD) Program. ß ß 37 . The submtted case has not been examned prevously by another laboratory. Cases must be submtted through an NMPDD Program Manager for entry nto the Bologcal Relatives of Missing Persons or Unidentified Human Remans Indexes. DNA profiles located in the National DNA Index System (NDIS) Convcted Offender database cannot be used as references. The DNAUI mantans the Federal Convcted Offender (FCO) Program.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 2. The NMPDD provdes nvestgators wth an opportunty to identify missing and unidentified persons on a natonal level. whch supports the collecton and nDNA analyss of samples collected from more than 500 stes across the Unted States. The DNAUI requres known reference sample(s) for comparson wth evdence materials.

e. etc.. etc. should be drected to the DNAUI at 703-632-8446. The DNAUI does not examne evdence from property crme cases unless volence that results n bodly harm s used n the commsson of the crme.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß The DNAUI does not conduct low-copynumber (LCN) or “touch DNA” examnatons (i. DNA from fingerprints.. ß ß 38 . pieces of paper.). a review of the case file will be conducted to determne f addtonal examnatons wll be conducted. paternty/ maternty comparsons. handled objects. For cases n whch the FBI Laboratory has conducted prevous DNA or serologcal testing. ß As necessary: ß DNAUI cases may be prortzed accordng to scheduled trial dates or other case-specific nformaton. Items such as steerng wheels and firearms may be appropriate for analyss. Questons concernng knshp. The DNAUI does not perform knshp analyss.

followed by counterntellgence matters and volent crmes. Questons regardng case and evdence sutablty should be drected to the DNAUII at 703-632-7572. Travel expenses for examners testfyng n state and local cases are also pad by the FBI Laboratory. Agences may call 703-632-7572 to dscuss the needs of the nvestgaton and the evdence. FBI enttes may refer to the FBI Laboratory/DNAUII web page on the FBI ntranet for addtonal nformaton on the regonal mtDNA laboratores. Analyss of the evdence wll be performed by one of the unt’s regonal mtDNA laboratores and s cost-free to state and local law enforcement agences n the Unted States and ts terrtores.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Case Acceptance Policy of the DNA Analysis Unit II All FBI cases that meet the sutablty gudelnes (outlned below) wll be consdered for mtDNA analyss n the DNAUII. State and local law enforcement agences needng mtDNA analyss must contact the DNAUII for more nformaton regardng evdence submsson. Cases nvolvng terrorsm are gven hghest prorty. 39 . followng the sutablty gudelnes outlned below.

FBI enttes may refer to the FBI Laboratory/DNAUII web page on the FBI ntranet for addtonal nformaton on the NMPDD Program. and assault. Contact the NMPDD Program Manager at 703-632-7582 for questons regardng mssng-person evdence submsson. mtDNA analysis is justified for har evdence when no tssue s present on the har root. sexual assault. Mtochondral DNA analyss n mssngperson cases s approprate only when bone or 40 . It s mportant to remember. however. Evdence from these nvestgatons also undergoes mtDNA analyss n the DNAUII or n one of the regonal mtDNA laboratores.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Missing-person cases involving unidentified human remans and relatves of mssng persons are managed and entered nto the NDIS n the DNAUII by members of the NMPDD Program. that mtDNA analyss s approprate n only a small porton of cases where mtDNA evdence s present. Most often. typcally homcde. Experence shows that about 75 percent of cases n whch mtDNA analyss s actually performed nvolve har evdence where only the har shaft s present. Suitability of Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Mtochondral DNA analyss has been appled successfully to evdence from volent crmes.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

teeth specimens can be verified as of human orgn. To avod the msapplcaton of mtDNA analyss resources, cases must be revewed carefully for ther scenaros, the possblty of other tests on avalable evdence (e.g., nDNA), and the selecton of specmens havng the greatest probatve value. Regardless of the type of bologcal evdence, mtDNA analyss generally will not be performed when nDNA results exst on tems of smlar orgn. For example, f nDNA results are obtaned from semen identified on a victim’s vaginal swabs and there s no allegaton of multple assalants, mtDNA analyss would not be performed on an assocated pubc har found n the pubc-har combngs of the vctm. Current forensc mtDNA technques cannot effectvely dstngush between sources or relatve quanttes of DNA. Consequently, mtDNA s not approprate for evdence contanng possble mxed sources of DNA such as semen stains from sexual assaults. Mtochondral DNA analyss generally will not be performed on bloodstains unless the vctm’s reference samples are not avalable or other

41

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

approprate reference samples are unavalable for nDNA analyss. For example, a kdnappng vctm s mssng, but a bloodstan s found n the suspect’s vehcle and only a maternal relatve’s (e.g., mother, sblng) reference sample s avalable for the vctm. In that case, mtDNA analyss could be conducted usng a porton of the vehcle bloodstan, the maternal relatve’s reference sample, and the suspect’s known sample. Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Hair Evidence Mtochondral DNA analyss should be performed on probatve har samples only if they are deemed unsuitable for nDNA analysis. Only those hars havng greatest probatve value should be subjected to mtDNA analyss. If several smlar probatve har specmens are submtted from one source of evdence, mtDNA analyss should be performed on only 1–2 hars. For example, f 10 hars collected from a vctm’s body are mcroscopcally assocated wth the suspect, no more than 2 hars wll be analyzed. Submsson gudelnes for mtDNA cases must nclude the followng ponts for har evdence:

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Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

ß

Known vctm har samples (of all types) must be submtted to determne whether evdence hars are smlar or dssmlar to the vctm’s har. If evdence ncludes specmens dssmlar to the vctm, known suspect har samples (of all types) should be obtaned.

ß

Mitochondrial DNA analysis generally will be performed on all probative microscopic hair associations. In addton, the followng types of hars are consdered for mtDNA analyss, f probatve: ß Hars that exhbt “mcroscopc smlartes and slght dfferences” (e.g., because of prolonged tme between the crme and collecton of reference samples, environmental or artificial changes to har, or the sutablty of reference samples or questoned har). Hars that are not sutable for mcroscopc comparson purposes (e.g., body-area hars, har fragments, or any other factor that elmnates the possblty of performng a comparson). In such cases, however, the har must be probatve (e.g., apparent foregn har n the pubc-har combng of the vctm).

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Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

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Hars that are sutable for mcroscopc comparson purposes but, for vald reasons, are not sutable to compare wth the pertnent reference sample (e.g., har deposted 10 years pror to the collecton of the reference har sample, reference sample s from an individual whose hair is artificially treated after the crme date). Regardless, the har must be probatve.

Unidentified Human Remains Pror to mtDNA analyss, bone or teeth specmens should be examned by a forensc anthropologst or odontologist or a similarly qualified individual. Submssons of such tems should be accompanied by a written report that verifies human origin by a qualified expert. Documenting, Collecting, Packaging, and Preserving DNA Evidence If DNA evdence s not properly documented, collected, packaged, and preserved, t wll not meet the legal and scientific requirements for admssblty n a court of law. ß If DNA evdence s not properly documented, ts orgn can be questoned.

44

Collecting Known Samples Blood ß Only qualified medical personnel should collect blood samples from a person. and preservng DNA evdence depends on the lqud or sold state and the condton of the evdence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß If t s not properly collected. decomposton and deteroraton can occur. the greater the possblty of conductng useful examnatons. Collectng. If t s not properly packaged. contamnaton can occur. bologcal actvty can be lost. It may be necessary to use a varety of technques to collect suspected body-fluid evidence. and sold bologcal evdence adheres to surfaces. 45 . When DNA evdence s transferred by drect or secondary (ndrect) means. The more evdence retans ts orgnal ntegrty untl t reaches the Laboratory. lqud bologcal evdence s absorbed nto surfaces. t remans on surfaces by absorpton or adherence. In general. packagng. If t s not properly preserved.

Label each tube wth the date.” “REFRIGERATE ON ARRIVAL. Refrgerate. do not freeze. collector’s name.” Submt to the Laboratory as soon as possble. DRY PLACE. for DNA analyss. Package blood samples from dfferent ndvduals separately. not dry ce. tme. durng shppng. lqud blood samples (tubes may break f frozen).Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Collect at least two 5-mL tubes of blood n purple-top tubes. ß ß ß ß ß ß 46 . and evdence number. whch contan EDTA as a preservatve. Pack lqud blood tubes ndvdually n Styrofoam or cylndrcal tubes wth absorbent materal surroundng the tubes. locaton. person’s name. Use cold packs. which contain NaF (sodium fluoride). Label the outer contaner “KEEP IN A COOL. Collect drug or alcohol-testng samples n gray-top tubes.” and “BIOHAZARD. case number.

person’s name. Pap smear sldes. locaton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Buccal (Oral) Swabs ß Use clean cotton swabs to collect buccal (oral) samples. case number. pulled teeth. Ths may nclude such tems as surgcal samples. ß ß ß ß ß ß 47 . and evdence number. Identfy each sample wth the date. an alternate reference sample may be submtted (for nuclear examnatons only). Buccal samples do not need to be refrgerated. Ar-dry the swabs and place n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. collector’s name. or a toothbrush or tem of clothng known to be used solely by the ndvdual of nterest. Do not use plastc contaners. Package oral samples from dfferent ndvduals separately. Submt to the Laboratory as soon as possble. tme. Rub the nsde surfaces of the cheeks thoroughly. If a reference blood or oral sample cannot be obtaned.

Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. artght contaner.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Blood on a Person ß Absorb suspected lqud blood onto a clean cotton cloth or swab. ß Blood on Surfaces or in Snow or Water ß Absorb suspected lqud blood or blood clots onto a clean cotton cloth or swab. Freeze the evdence and submt to the Laboratory as soon as possble. Do not use plastc contaners. Do not use plastc contaners. Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Do not use plastc contaners. Collect suspected blood n snow or water mmedately to avod further dluton. Place n a clean. ß 48 . Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Absorb suspected dred blood onto a clean cotton cloth or swab mostened wth dstlled water. Elmnate as much snow as possble.

Wrap dred bloodstaned garments n clean paper. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. Pack n clean paper. cut a large sample of suspected bloodstans from mmovable objects wth a clean. Preserve bloodstan patterns. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. Place all debrs or resdue from the garments n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Bloodstains ß Ar-dry suspected wet bloodstaned garments. Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or ß ß ß 49 . Ar-dry small suspected wet bloodstaned objects and submt the objects to the Laboratory. Do not use plastc contaners. Pack n clean paper. Do not use plastc contaners. Absorb suspected dred bloodstans on mmovable objects onto a clean cotton cloth or swab mostened wth dstlled water. When possble. sharp nstrument. Avod creatng addtonal stan patterns durng dryng and packagng. Do not place wet or dred garments n plastc or artght contaners.

ncludng the presence of such nfectons as AIDS. Informaton regardng the health of the vctm(s) and suspect(s). and tuberculoss.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 an envelope wth sealed corners. Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Blood Examination Request Letter A blood examnaton request letter must contan the followng nformaton: ß ß ß ß ß A bref statement of facts relatng to the case. Whether anmal blood s present. hepatts. Semen and Semen Stains ß Absorb suspected lqud semen onto a clean cotton cloth or swab. Do not use plastc contaners. Do not use plastc contaners. Clams made by the suspect(s) regardng the source of the blood. 50 . Whether the stans were laundered or dluted with other body fluids.

When possble. Do not use plastc contaners. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. Do not use plastc contaners. Pack n clean paper. sharp nstrument. cut a large sample of suspected semen stans from mmovable objects wth a clean. Pack n clean paper. Absorb suspected dred semen stans on mmovable objects onto a clean cotton cloth or swab mostened wth dstlled water. Refer to the Collecting Known Samples secton for more nformaton. Note: It s not necessary to collect reference seminal fluid for comparison. ß ß ß Seminal Evidence from Sexual Assault Victims ß Sexual assault vctms must be medcally examined in a hospital or a physician’s office 51 . Ar-dry the swab or cloth and place n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Submt small suspected dry semen-staned objects to the Laboratory. Do not use plastc contaners.

and anal evdence. ß Refrgerate and submt the evdence to the Laboratory as soon as possble. Do not use plastc contaners. Other Sources of Body-Fluid Evidence ß Absorb suspected lqud salva or urne onto a clean cotton cloth or swab. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. Do not use plastc contaners. Do not use plastc contaners. Ar-dry the cloth or swab and pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. oral.or urnestaned objects to the Laboratory. When possble. Saliva and Urine. ß ß 52 . sharp nstrument. Pack n clean paper.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 usng a standard sexual assault evdence kt to collect vagnal. Pack n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. Submt small suspected dry salva. cut a large sample of suspected salva or urne stans from mmovable objects wth a clean.

Ar-dry and place the cgarette butts from the same locaton (e.g. Do not use plastc contaners. Do not use plastc contaners. 53 . Air-dry hair mixed with suspected body fluids. Do not submt the ashtray unless a latent prnt examnaton s requested. Pck up envelopes and stamps wth gloved hands or clean forceps and place n a clean envelope. Package the ashtray separately. ß ß Hair ß ß ß Pck up har carefully wth clean forceps to prevent damagng the root tssue. Package each group of har separately n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. Do not use plastc contaners.. Ar-dry and place n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Pck up cgarette butts wth gloved hands or clean forceps. Do not use plastc contaners. Do not submt ashes. Pck up chewng gum wth gloved hands or clean forceps. ashtray) n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners.

Cuttng bones ncreases the possblty of contamnaton. Nonrestored premolar.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Refrgerate and submt to the Laboratory as soon as possble. Nonrestored canne. ß ß ß ß Pck up suspected tssue. 54 . or teeth to ensure that the evdence wll be accepted for examnaton. and Teeth Call the Laboratory at 703-632-7572 pror to submttng suspected tssue. Nonrestored front tooth. 3. bones. and teeth wth gloved hands or clean forceps. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. Submt whole bones. bones. Tissue. 4. Collect teeth n the followng order: 1. Collect 1–2 cubc nches of red skeletal muscle. Nonrestored molar. Bones. 2.

ß Preserving DNA Evidence–—Long-Term Storage ß Blood/salva (reference samples). 6. ß Place tssue samples n a clean. Restored premolar. ß Blood/semen (evdence samples). Freeze the evdence. lqud blood samples. artght plastc contaner wthout formaln or formaldehyde. 7. do not freeze. Place teeth and bone samples n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. place n Styrofoam contaners. 55 . or at room temperature. and shp overnght on dry ce. Store refrigerated. Restored molar. ü ü Refrgerate. Restored canne.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 5. Restored front tooth. away from light and humidity. 8. frozen (if dried).

Interception-of-Communication Devices Intercepton-of-communcaton (IOC) devces are used to unlawfully ntercept oral or wre 56 . ü ü Store refrigerated or frozen. or at room temperature. etc.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ü Store refrigerated.or ownerentered data and other nformaton. It s recommended that these samples be stored n a refrgerator/freezer and solated from evdence that has not been examned. ß DNA tubes/tssue samples. pagers. Back to the top Electronic Device Examinations Commercial Electronic Devices Examnatons of commercal electronc devces— ncludng personal dgtal assstants (PDAs). away from light and humidity. In some cases. if possible. t s necessary to dsassemble the devces durng examnaton. frozen. and global postonng systems (GPSs)—can extract user. cellular telephones.

Other Electronic Devices and Circuits Examnatons on other electronc devces and crcutry—ncludng facsmle machnes. t s necessary to dsassemble the devces durng examnaton. The devces consst of radofrequency transmtters and recevers. In some cases. range of operaton). stored data.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 communcatons. and bomb detonators—can extract user. In some cases.or owner-entered data. Questions concerning electronic device examinations should be directed to 703-985-2400. 57 . FBI entities may refer to the Operational Technology Division/Digital Evidence Section web page on the FBI intranet for additional information regarding evidence submission. The examnatons can dentfy operating characteristics and modifications made to the devces. t s necessary to dsassemble the devces and/or crcuts durng examnaton. Questions concerning shipping electronic device evidence should be directed to 703-985-1388. and other nformaton. stun guns. Examnatons are conducted to dentfy operatng characterstcs (frequency of operaton.

and fusng systems.” Address the outer contaner as follows: ß FORENSIC PROGRAM BUILDING 27958A ENGINEERING RESEARCH FACILITY FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION QUANTICO VA 22135 Back to the top Explosives Examinations Evdence resultng from an apparent exploson and/or recovery of an explosve devce can be examned. wres. although disfigured. Examnatons are based on the premse that components and accessores used to construct the devces survve the exploson. 58 . batteres. tapes. ß Label the outer contaner “FRAGILE. such as swtches.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Follow the evdence submsson drectons. The examinations can accomplsh the followng: ß Identfy the components used to construct the devce. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT” and “KEEP AWAY FROM MAGNETS OR MAGNETIC FIELDS. detonators.

Explosives are hazardous materials and must be handled only by qualified public safety 59 . Preserve the trace evdence potentally present n the devces so that t s not destroyed or damaged durng the examnatons. Determne the constructon characterstcs. Determine the specific assembly techniques employed by the bulder(s) of the devce.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß Identfy the explosve man charge. Determne the manner n whch the devce functoned or was desgned or ntended to functon. ß ß Call the Laboratory at 703-632-7626 each time an explosive device or a related explosive item needs to be shipped. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. Questions concerning explosives evidence should be directed to 703-632-7626.

Follow the evdence submsson drectons. and the amount to be shipped is regulated. plastc. storng. wood. paper. military explosives ordnance disposal personnel. cloth. glass. or ncendary mxtures. Resdue may be deposted after handlng. and the type of explosves. or ntatng an explosve. and other surfaces. Other 60 . Back to the top Explosives Residue Examinations Instrumental analyses of explosves resdue can determne whether substances are hgh-explosve. ß Some explosves resdue s water-soluble and must be protected from mosture. or certified bomb technicians. low-explosve. Explosves resdue can be deposted on metal. Questions concerning explosives residue evidence should be directed to 703-632-7626. An FD-861 form (Mail/Package Alert) is required for shipping bomb components to the FBI Laboratory. Special packaging is required. whether the composton of the substances s consstent wth known explosves products.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 personnel. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

resdue evaporates quckly and must be collected as soon as possble n artght contaners such as metal cans, glass jars, or heat-sealed or resealable nylon or Mylar bags. Ziplock storage bags are not suitable for shppng or storng explosves resdue evidence. Do not fill the containers to the top. Pack to prevent breakage. ß ß ß Collect and preserve control samples from the blast ste. Extreme care must be taken to avod contamnatng explosves resdue evdence. Never store or shp explosves resdue evdence wth bulk explosve materals.

Never store or shp explosves resdue evdence from a crme scene wth evdence from a search ste.
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FBI Disaster Squad
ß ß Asssts n prntng the deceased at dsaster scenes. Assists in collecting antemortem fingerprints of vctms.
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Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

ß ß

Asssts n dentfyng frcton rdge skn of the deceased. Deployment of the FBI’s Dsaster Squad requres consent from the dsaster scene coroner or medcal examner, a rankng law enforcement or government official, a representatve of the Natonal Transportaton Safety Board, or a representatve of the U.S. Department of State. Requests for assstance must be made through the nearest FBI field office or the FBI’s Strategc Informaton and Operatons Center at 202-323-3300.

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Feather Examinations
Feather examnatons can determne brd speces and can compare feathers found on clothng, vehcles, and other objects wth feathers from the crme scene. Questions concerning feather evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. Follow the evdence submsson drectons, ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.

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Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

ß

Submt feathers n heat-sealed or resealable plastc bags or paper bags.

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Firearm Examinations
Firearms Frearm examnatons can determne the general condition of a firearm and whether the firearm is mechancally functonal or n a condton that could contrbute to an unntentonal dscharge. Trggerpull examnatons can determne the amount of pressure necessary to release the hammer or firing pin of a firearm. Examinations can determine whether a firearm was altered to fire in the fullautomatc mode. Oblterated and/or altered firearm serial numbers sometimes can be restored. Firearms can be test-fired to obtain known specmens for comparson wth evdence ammunton components, such as bullets, cartrdge cases, and shotshell casngs. Comparisons of suspect firearms can be made with firearms depicted in surveillance images, possbly resultng n an “assocaton” concluson. Photogrammetry can determne the length of the weapon(s) used by the subject(s) depcted n the survellance mages. See Image Analysis Examinations.

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Bullets Fred bullets can be examned to determne general rifling characteristics such as caliber, physical features of the rifling impressions, and the manufacturer of the bullets. The mcroscopc characterstcs on evdence bullets can be compared with test-fired bullets from a suspect firearm to determine whether the evidence bullet was fired from that firearm. Cartridge Cases or Shotshell Casings Cartrdge-case or shotshell-casng examnatons can determne the calber or gauge, the manufacturer, and whether there are marks of value for comparson. The mages of questoned cartrdge cases and shotshell casngs can be scanned nto the Natonal Integrated Ballstc Informaton Network (NIBIN) to compare wth evdence from other shootng ncdents. The mcroscopc characterstcs of evdence cartrdge cases and shotshell casngs can be examned to determine whether they were fired from a specific firearm. Shot Pellets, Buckshot, or Slugs Examnatons of shot pellets, buckshot, or slugs can determne the sze of the shot, the gauge of the slug, and the manufacturer.

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Patterns of gunshot resdue can be duplcated usng a questioned firearm-and-ammunition combination fired into test materials at known distances. Gunshot Residue on Victim’s Clothing The deposton of gunshot resdue on evdence such as clothng vares wth the dstance from the muzzle of the firearm to the target. Unfired and fired cartridges or shotshells can be assocated through manufacturng marks. Examnatons also can determne whether the ammunton was loaded n and extracted from a specific firearm. Unfired Cartridges or Shotshells Examinations of unfired cartridges or shotshells can determne the calber or gauge and whether there are marks of value for comparson.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Wadding Examnatons of waddng components can determne the gauge and the manufacturer. 65 . These patterns serve as a bass for estmatng muzzleto-garment dstances. Gun Parts Examnatons of gun parts can determne the calber and model of the gun from whch the parts orgnated.

cartrdge cases. The firearm must be handled minimally to avod loss or destructon of evdence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Silencers Muzzle attachments can reduce the nose of a firearm by suppressing sound during firing. or other operatng surface. Do not allow objects to enter or contact the firearm’s barrel. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Frearms and ammunton components such as bullets. Postal Servce. ß ß All firearms must be unloaded. Evdence must be packaged separately and identified ß ß 66 . If the firearm cannot be submtted.S. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. chamber. Testing can determne whether a muzzle attachment can be classified as a silencer based on a measurable sound-reducton capablty. The firearm should be submitted. and shotshell casngs can be sent va Regstered Mal through the U. call 703-632-8442 for nstructons. Questions concerning firearm evidence should be directed to 703-632-8442.

cartrdges and cartrdge cases. Do not mark bullets. CARTRIDGES. collector’s name.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 by date. collector’s name. and seral number. ß U. The date. tme.” The Declaraton of Dangerous Goods must nclude the number of package(s) and the gross weght n grams of the completed package(s). make. Department of Transportaton regulatons and the followng gudelnes must be followed when shipping live ammunition: ü ü Package and shp ammunton separately from firearm(s). SMALL ARMS. The outsde of the contaner must be labeled “ORM-D. and evdence number must be on the contaner. ü ß Do not mark the firearm. case number. locaton. tme. shotshells and shotshell casngs. locaton.S. name(s) of the owner(s). model. and evdence number. or ß 67 . Firearms must be identified with a tag containing the caliber. case number.

locaton. collector’s name. collector’s name. facal age progressons. see Image Analysis Examinations. case number. postmortem reconstructons. locaton. ardred. and evdence number must be on the contaner.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 other firearm-related evidence. Back to the top Forensic Facial Imaging Vsual nformaton specalsts provde composte drawngs. ß Clothng submtted for gunshot resdue examnaton must be carefully handled. and wrapped separately n paper. Clothng wth blood must be ar-dred and labeled “BIOHAZARD” on the inner and outer contaners. tme. 68 . Intervews requred to prepare composte drawngs may be conducted ether by havng a visual information specialist travel to the field or by usng vdeo teleconferencng. The date. and evdence number must be on the contaner. The date. and dgtal photographc manpulatons and retouches. For facal comparsons between known and questoned subjects.and three-dmensonal facal reconstructons from skeletal remans. case number. tme. two.

Do not use paper or glass contaners. ß Submt samples of lamnated glass (e. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Glass fracture examnatons can determne the drecton and type of the breakng force and the sequencng of shots.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questions concerning forensic facial imaging should be directed to 703-632-8194. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. 69 . Comparison ß Submt samples of glass from each broken wndow or source n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles.. Do not use paper or glass contaners.g. Label the samples “INSIDE” and “OUTSIDE” and package separately n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. Questions concerning glass evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. Back to the top Glass Examinations Glass comparson examnatons can determne whether partcles of glass orgnated from a broken source of glass. wndsheld) from each sde of the glass.

Search for partcles n the har. Do not use tape for recoverng glass partcles. Do not use paper or glass contaners.” “BOTTOM.” “LEFT.” and “RIGHT”).Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Submt the ar-dred clothng of the vctm(s) and suspect(s). Pack all 70 . ß ß ß ß Fracture ß Label the sdes of the glass n the frame (“INSIDE” and “OUTSIDE”). Do not process evdence for latent prnts. skn. Submt partcles n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. and wounds of the vctm(s) and suspect(s). Shp known and questoned debrs separately to avod contamnaton. Do not use paper or glass contaners. Search for partcles n vehcles by vacuumng each secton of the vehcle separately. Label the glass where t was removed n the frame (“TOP. Submt vacuum sweepngs n leakproof contaners. ß Submt all glass peces so that the peces can be fit together to identify the radial cracks near and at the pont(s) of mpact and to ncrease the probablty of matchng edges. Package each tem separately n a paper bag.

damage. method of removal. Back to the top Hair and Fiber Examinations Hair Har examnatons can determne whether hars are anmal or human.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 glass separately and securely to avod shftng and breakng durng shppng. Do not process evdence for latent prnts. Hairs that are associated will be submtted for mtochondral DNA analyss. carpetng. and alteraton (e. such as anmal (wool). Secure the glass between sheets of plywood or sturdy cardboard. Examnatons can assocate a har to a person on the bass of mcroscopc characterstcs n the har but cannot provde absolute personal identification. bleachng or dyeng) can be determned from human-har analyss. Race. f possble. ß Submt the entre pece of lamnated glass. mneral (glass).g. and other textles of vctm(s) 71 .. body area. Do not place any objects nto the mpact area. vegetable (cotton). Questoned fibers can be compared with fibers from the clothng. and synthetc (manufactured). Fibers Fiber examinations can identify the type of fiber.

Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Fabrc composton. and color can be compared. collect at least 25 hars from dfferent parts of the head and/or pubc regon. Forensc Audo. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Label searches can determne clothng manufacturer nformaton. Dgtal Evdence Laboratory (DEL). Comb and pull out the hars. Submt hars n clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. When possble. constructon. Vdeo. ß Back to the top Image Analysis Examinations Image analyss examnatons are conducted by the FBI’s Operatonal Technology Dvson (OTD).Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 and suspect(s). ß For known har samples. and mpressons on and from fabrc can be examned. Questions concerning hair and fiber evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. 72 . Submit fibers in clean paper or an envelope wth sealed corners. A questoned pece of fabrc can be matched physcally to known fabrc. and Image Analyss Unt (FAVIAU). submt the entre garment or textile.

Subject(s) or object(s) also can be compared between multple questoned mages. such as hands or ears. Photogrammetry Physcal dmensons can be derved from mages through the use of geometrc formulas or on-ste comparson. firearms. as descrbed below. and vdeo recordngs. and vehicles. ncludng survellance mages. nvolve comparsons of subject(s) or object(s) depcted n questoned mages wth those n known mages. For on-ste comparsons. Subject comparsons nclude facal comparsons or can be made between lke body parts. digital images. Examples of photogrammetry nclude determnng the heght of a bank robbery subject(s) and the length of the weapon(s) used by the subject(s) depcted n survellance mages. photographc prnts.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 The OTD DEL has dfferent acceptance crtera and a dfferent physcal address than the FBI Laboratory. Examples of objects that can be compared include clothing. 73 . Photographic Comparisons Examinations of film. negatives. examners enter the scene and place a heght chart at the locaton of the subject(s) or object(s) of nterest.

Location.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Authenticity and Image-Manipulation Detection Photographic evidence—including film. Ths can establsh the tme frame durng whch a photograph was taken. both film and digital. Cameras Cameras. an alteraton. Video Stll mages can be produced from vdeo clps. Source and Age Photographic products. Time. 74 . tme. and the source can be establshed by examnng manufacturng characterstcs. Smlarly. seized as evidence can be compared wth mages to determne whether a specific camera captured a specific mage. dgtal vdeo cameras can be compared wth vdeo clps. including film and prints. can be dated. video. and dgtal mages—can be examned to determne whether the mage s the result of a composte. and Date Examnatons of photographc evdence can determne the locaton. and used n courtroom presentatons. enhanced and enlarged. or a copy. and date that an mage was taken.

Image analyss examnatons may not be submtted drectly from enttes outsde the FBI. 75 . Questions concerning image analysis examinations should be directed to 703-9851393. Child Pornography Examinations Sezed mages of chld pornography should be searched for known vctms by checkng wth the Natonal Center for Mssng and Exploted Chldren and the Innocent Images Natonal Intatve. Vdeo clps and stll mages also can be examned to determne f they depct recordngs or mages of real people and events or whether they represent computer-generated subjects and events. The mages also can be compared wth mages n the Chld Explotaton and Obscenty Reference Fle to dentfy the source of the mages. Vdeo clps can be examned to determne f any of the people and scenes depcted n the vdeo clps are also recorded as stll mages n the reference file. Questions concerning image analysis evidence should be directed to 703-985-1388.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Automobile Make and Model Identification Vehcles depcted n survellance mages can be compared wth the Natonal Automotve Image Fle to determne make and model.

or nternatonal case has a nexus to an ongong FBI nvestgaton or 2) the FBI dvson head deems that the case s of enough regonal mportance to mert the dedcaton of federal resources to the state. FBI enttes may submt cases drectly.. vdeotapes. Never use the Pause operaton when vewng orgnal vdeo recordngs. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. local.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 State. local. or digital files of the evidence. These crtera shall be met wth a wrtten statement from the dvson head (Specal Agent n Charge). vdeotape. Submt orgnal evdence (e. submit firstgeneraton photographc prnts. being careful not to ntroduce further compresson.g. or nternatonal case. ß Wrte-protect the orgnal meda. If the original media is unavailable. or nternatonal agency cases must be submitted by the FBI field office servicing the area and must meet one of the followng two crtera: 1) the state. negatves. CD) whenever possble because t contans the greatest level of detal. local. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. ß 76 .

If prnts from the relevant frames are avalable.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Process all film prior to submitting. State n a communcaton the date and tme of the pertnent area and use the date-tme stamp on the mages or the counter ndcator (set from the begnnng of the tape at 000). use 35 mm film or digital equivalent (at highest resoluton settngs to mnmze mage compresson). Arrest or known photographs of suspect(s) for comparson wth questoned mages must depct the suspect(s) from many angles smlar to the questoned mages. submt them for reference. 77 ß ß ß . If questoned mages show tattoos or marks. If a facal comparson s requested. Bank surveillance film should be processed by the bank’s securty company accordng to manufacturer specifications. ensure that the face or head of the suspect(s) fills more than half the frame. nclude photographs of the same areas of the body on the known suspect(s). When takng known photographs for comparson wth questoned mages. queue the orgnal vdeotape to the approxmate tme of the pertnent area. When requestng forensc examnatons based on vdeo mages.

ballistic. Submssons for comparson wth the Chld Explotaton and Obscenty Reference Fle must be lmted to no more than 30 mages. clothing or firearms) where they are vsble n the questoned mages. When submttng such evdence as a vdeotape or data card. Do not touch or move the survellance cameras. nclude the dmensons of the scene to the nearest eghth of an nch and nclude a dagram or prnt from the relevant mages ndcatng the locaton of the measurements.g.. Physical items such as clothing and firearms must be submtted to the Laboratory for other examnatons such as trace evdence. or fingerprint analyses before they are submtted for mage comparson. Call 703-985-1393 for specific instructions. SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT” or “FRAGILE. label the outer contaner “FRAGILE.” 78 ß ß ß ß . If photogrammetry s requested. SENSITIVE AUDIO/VIDEO MEDIA” and “KEEP AWAY FROM MAGNETS OR MAGNETIC FIELDS. Include one dagram or prnt for every angle used n the scene.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Do not mark or cut tems submtted for comparison (e.

g. fountan pen. t s not possble to determne whether the nk orgnated from the same source to the excluson of others. porous-tp pen) and the date of the nk manufacture..g. Follow the evdence 79 . Questions concerning ink evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. nks are composed of dyes n solvents and other materals that mpart selected characterstcs. watermark identification) can provide details regarding document preparaton. Ink analyss usually s lmted to comparsons of the organc dye components. In general. When nk formulatons are the same. Examnatons cannot determne how long nk has been on a document. The composton of wrtng nks vares wth the type of wrtng nstrument (e.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Address the outer contaner as follows: FORENSIC PROGRAM BUILDING 27958A ENGINEERING RESEARCH FACILITY FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION QUANTICO VA 22135 Back to the top Ink Examinations Examnng nked wrtng n conjuncton wth other technques (e. ballpont pen.. handwrtng analyss.

t s sometmes necessary to 80 . The future acceptance of any state and local cases generally wll be based on the submttng agency’s lack of access to the same technques or servces provded by the FBI Laboratory.. cases of a high-profile nature or cases that also involve FBI field offices. the FBI Laboratory wll no longer accept routne cases from state and local agences n whch latent prnt examnaton servces may be obtaned from wthn the submttng agency’s system. however. Developing Latent Prints at Crime Scenes The Laboratory s the best place to develop latent prnts. e. ß Pack nk evdence separately from any document or surface wth nk marks. protectng the Unted States from terrorst attacks. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Back to the top Latent Print Examinations Case Acceptance Policy Because of the ncreasng casework demands of the FBI’s prmary msson.g. the unusual techncal nature of the case.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 submsson drectons. or the crcumstances surrounding the case.

Use a short-har brush or cotton to remove excess powder. The color of the powder should contrast wth the color of the surface (e. gray.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 develop latent prnts at crme scenes.g. Avod overbrushng latent prnts and losng clarty. black for lght surfaces and gray or whte for dark surfaces). or whte powder can be appled to a surface wth a varety of style of brushes. The followng measures ensure that crme scene latent prnts are protected: ß ß Photograph latent prnts pror to any processng. Use cauton when powderng. ß ß ß ß 81 . Black. Cauton should be taken to prevent destroyng latent prnts.. Examne all evdence vsually and wth a laser or an alternate lght source before usng any other latent prnt development process. Use transparent tape or black-and-whte rubber lfts to lft latent prnts. Photograph latent prnts developed wth fingerprint powders before lifting them.

The Processing Guide for Developing Latent Prints s a comprehensve gude to latent prnt processes and protocols. Followng ths gude wll maxmze the potental to develop latent prnts and wll preserve evdence f other forensc examnatons are requred. Refer to ths publcaton to ensure that proper processes are appled n the recommended order.g. whte backng card for black powder).. smocks). masks. gloves.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/ backissu/jan2001/lpu.pdf. safety glasses. When usng latent prnt development processes. Law enforcement personnel may request the Processing Guide for Developing Latent Prints in field-manual format by faxng a request on agency letterhead to 703-632-8374.. 82 . Use personal protectve equpment (e. the color of the backng card should contrast wth the color of the powders (e. ß ß Photographing Latent Prints ß Use a trpod and cable release when photographng latent prnts.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß When transparent tape s used. The gude s avalable at http://www. refer to the manufacturer’s nstructons and the Materal Safety Data Sheets.g.

ß ß ß ß ß Photograph latent prnts ndvdually. Set the lens f-stop to the smallest possble aperture whle usng the camera meter to adjust the camera’s shutter speed to obtan proper exposure. One-stop overexposed mage. Take three exposures of each latent prnt by bracketng: ü ü ü Orgnal exposure. Ths ensures that the target latent prnt s n focus. use ISO 400 film. When possible. Photograph latent prnts at each step n the processng sequence before movng to the next process. Photograph latent prnts developed wth fingerprint powders before lifting them. One-stop underexposed mage.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Use a 35 mm or medum-format camera wth a macro lens capable of half-sze to full-sze reproducton. 83 .

g..Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß For reference purposes. nonabsorbent. date. and locaton of the latent prints. Place nonporous evdence (e. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Fll the frame completely. Photograph latent prints with an identification label that ncludes a scale. and other pertnent nformaton. ß ß Stablze the evdence to avod movement or frcton durng shppng. hard surfaces) n separate protectve coverngs such as thck transparent envelopes 84 . ß ß ß Questions concerning latent print evidence should be directed to 703-632-8443. The identification label should be placed on the same plane as the latent prnts. locaton of prnts. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. reference number. f possble. collector’s ntals. date. photograph latent prnts close to one another n one frame. Mantan a photographc log that records each shot. collector’s ntals. reference number.

at a mnmum. the name of the person recordng the prnts. Palm prnts should be taken on only one sde of a separate card. vctms. paper. All fingerprint cards must include pertnent bographcal and/or demographc nformaton. or suspend n a contaner so that there s mnmal surface contact. the caseidentification number.. 85 ß ß ß . The fingerprint card should bear an arrest offense. those who had legtmate access. Frcton generally wll not destroy latent prnts on ths type of surface. the date.g.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 (glassne). Submit known fingerprints and palm prints of everyone who may have handled the evdence. and a brief statement of facts relating to the case. ß Place porous evdence (e. ncludng suspects. Fngerprnt cards and major-case prnts should nclude. the name of the person prnted. and nvestgatve personnel. not on the reverse sde of a fingerprint card or on the reverse side of a card that has a recorded mpresson on the other sde. Frcton wll destroy latent prnts on ths type of surface. cardboard) n separate protectve coverngs.

g. digital camera). Documentaton of the capture devce (e. reference prevous communcatons and case-dentfyng numbers and other pertnent nformaton. a scale or other measurable tem s mandatory. Dgtal mages. Documentaton ndcatng the mage s an orgnal capture. ncludng dgtal photographs. flatbed scanner..g. wndow.. ncludng dgtal photographs. 86 . When known prnts are submtted separately from evdence. If a search of the Integrated Automated Fngerprnt Identification System (IAFIS) is requested. of latent and ntentonally recorded prnts should nclude a scale or other measurable tem. must meet the followng requrements: ß ß ß Documentaton of the mage source (e.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß The notaton “elmnaton prnts” should be ncluded f the person prnted s not a suspect. Submitting Latent and Intentionally Recorded Print Images in Digital Format Dgtal mages. door frame).

RAW.. A resoluton that meets or exceeds 500 PPI when calbrated to actual sze (1:1). A mnmum of 8 bts for grayscale mages and 24 bts for color mages. A mnmum of 8 bts for grayscale mages and 24 bts for color mages. or wth Wavelet Scalar Quantzaton (WSQ) compresson saved at a maxmum of 15:1. TIFF). A resoluton that meets or exceeds 1000 pxels per nch (PPI) when calbrated to actual sze (1:1). 87 . ü ü Latent prnts submtted as facsmles or photocopes wll not be examned n the FBI Laboratory. ß Fle propertes for ntentonally recorded prnts consstng of: ü A file format without compression.g.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Fle propertes for latent mages consstng of: ü ü ü A file format without compression or with lossless compresson (e. with lossless compresson (e. TIFF).g. RAW..

watertght. dred) by the most expedtous means.” “RIGHT THUMB. except when the known prnts wll be searched aganst IAFIS in order to obtain FBI file prnts.. frozen. Label the outer contaner “KEEP IN A COOL.. ß ß ß 88 .” “RIGHT INDEX”).g. Provde a complete physcal descrpton of the deceased.g. and artght contaner. Shp the remans n the condton n whch they were found (e. ß ß Label each contaner (e. DRY PLACE.” All human remans wll be returned to the contrbutor.” and “BIOHAZARD.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Intentonally recorded prnts submtted as facsmles wll not be examned n the FBI Laboratory. n water. Submitting Hands or Fingers of an Unknown Deceased ß Pack each hand or finger in a separate unbreakable. “RIGHT HAND. f possble.” “REFRIGERATE ON ARRIVAL.

certain cosmetics 89 . ß Address the outer contaner as follows: CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SERVICES DIVISION FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 1000 CUSTER HOLLOW ROAD CLARKSBURG WV 26306 ß Questions concerning ten-print fingerprint cards should be directed to 304-625-2360. Automotive fluids (e. engine oil. complete ten-print fingerprint cards not related to an ongoing Laboratory investigation should be sent to the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information Services Division. and polyalkylene glycol oils.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Address the outer contaner as follows: EVIDENCE CONTROL UNIT LABORATORY DIVISION FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 2501 INVESTIGATION PARKWAY QUANTICO VA 22135 Legible.g. Back to the top Lubricant Examinations Lubrcants encompass a range of substances.. brake fluid). ncludng petroleum products. natural fatty ester oils.

ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. lotons). vehcular homcde. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Lubrcant examnatons may also be conducted n sexual assault. bath ols. ß ß ß Back to the top 90 . Ar-dry the swab and pack n a heat-sealed or resealable plastc bag..g. or heavy-equpment sabotage cases. Submt suspected sources of lubrcants for comparson examnatons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 (e. and package separately n paper bags. and some polshes contan lubrcants. Questions concerning lubricant evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441.g. ß Submt entre tems (e. Absorb suspected lubrcants onto a clean cotton cloth or swab. Leave a porton of the cloth or swab unstaned as a control. clothng) when possble. Package lubrcants separately n leakproof contaners.. Ar-dry the evdence.

the manufacturng methods used to produce an object can be determned. and fabrcaton marks—to determne whether the objects share a common orgn. and others. hot and cold rollng. Examnatons can determne mechancal propertes. drawng. mllng. spnnng. such as the response of a metal to an appled force or load. Moreover. forgng. grndng. These manufacturng technques can nclude castng. or excessve servce usage (fatgue)—can be 91 . ronng. or corroson. deep drawng.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Metallurgy Examinations Comparison Comparatve examnatons can determne whether two metals or metallc objects came from the same source or from each other. Examnatons also can determne chemcal composton. Broken or Mechanically Damaged Metal The causes of falure or damage—such as the applcaton of stress exceedng the tensle strength or yeld lmt of the metal. ncludng alloyng and trace elements. extruson. accdental damage. swagng. blankng. crackng. Metal comparsons can dentfy varous surface and mcrostructural characterstcs—ncludng fractured areas. a materal or manufacturng defect.

The nature of the thermal source (e. The magntude of the force or load that caused the falure. or thermal cuttng. electrc arc welder) used can sometmes be determned. Burned. turnng. the nature of the heat source. If fragments were formed by mpulsve (short-duraton. Heated. how the force or load was transmtted to the metal. burner bar. an examnaton can determne whether an explosve was detonated and the magntude of the detonaton velocty. 92 . shearng.g.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 determned. or Melted Metal Examnatons can determne the approxmate temperature to whch a metal was exposed. Metal Fragments Examnatons can determne how metal fragments were formed. mllng. The nature of the object that was the source of the fragments often can be determned as well. and the drecton t was transmtted also can be determned. Cut or Severed Metal Examnatons can determne the method by whch a metal was severed. and whether a metal was n an electrcal short-crcut stuaton. hgh stran rate) loadng. such as sawng..

Such determnatons can be made even f the glass was broken by the mpact. clock. Watches. The on/off condton of applance timers damaged by a fire or explosion often can be determned. and Timers The condtons causng a watch. Clocks. or p. tmer.m. Lamp Bulbs Examnatons can determne whether a lamp bulb was ncandescent when ts glass envelope was broken. (calendar-type tmng mechansms only) can be determned. Precous-metal content also can be determned. The composton and mechancal propertes of materals can be examned to determne f the components meet contractual oblgatons or approprate regulatory codes. or other mechansm to stop or malfuncton and whether the tme dsplayed represents a. Determnatons also can be made as to whether a lamp bulb was ncandescent when t was subjected to an mpact force such as a vehcular collson.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Specification Fraud and Noncompliant Materials Metallurgcal testng of materals can determne whether nferor components were substtuted n contractng frauds. 93 .m.

Nuclear DNA examnatons are conducted n the DNAUI and mtochondral DNA examnatons are conducted n the DNAUII to support the NMPDD Program. state. cavtes. The poston of on/off swtches and other mechancal components can be determned. or foregn materals. All agences must contact one 94 . and federal law enforcement mssng-person cases can be submtted drectly to the FBI Laboratory or through the FBI field offices or resdent agences. Each unt has an NMPDD Program Manager who s avalable to answer any questons regardng case submsson (contact nformaton s lsted below). Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Questions concerning metallurgy evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Objects with Questioned Internal Components X-ray radography can nondestructvely reveal the nteror constructon and the presence or absence of defects. Local. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Back to the top National Missing Person DNA Database Program Examinations The Natonal Mssng Person DNA Database (NMPDD) Program s supported by both the DNA Analyss Unt I (DNAUI) and DNA Analyss Unt II (DNAUII).

For Internet e-mal. wrte to eric. and law enforcement reports must be ncluded wth unidentified human remains samples submitted. ß 95 . The FBI wll perform mtochondral DNA and nuclear DNA (STR) analyses on samples. A copy of the anthropology. All samples submtted to the FBI Laboratory must have an ncomng letter descrbng the samples submtted.pokorak@ ic. The submttng agency must have the necessary nformaton and completed forms for sample submsson.stewart@ ic.gov for the DNAUII. medcal examner and/or coroner. wrte to Erc Pokorak for the DNAUI or John E. For FBI (nternal) e-mal. Contact ether of the NMPDD Program Managers pror to submttng samples or for questons concernng samples. ß ß Call 703-632-7586 for the DNAUI or 703-6327582 for the DNAUII.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 of the FBI Laboratory’s NMPDD Program Managers before submttng samples.fbi. odontology (dental). Stewart for the DNAUII.fbi.gov for the DNAUI or john.

Samples from Biological Relatives of Missing Persons ß Samples must be sent wth a Consent and Informaton Form for the Natonal Mssng Person DNA Database (FD-935 form). Buccal (Oral) Swabs ß Use sterle. cotton-tpped applcator swabs to collect four buccal (oral) samples. A copy of the law enforcement report should accompany the samples submtted. Dried Bloodstains Use the blood-cell collecton kts that are avalable in FBI field offices or by contacting the NMPDD Program Managers at 703-632-7582 or 703-632-7586. 2. ß Collect samples n the followng order of preference: 1. Buccal (oral) swabs. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Dred bloodstans.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Rub the 96 .

or tissue. subject’s name. ß ß Samples from Unidentified Human Remains Call the Laboratory prior to submitting bones. Identfy each sample wth the date. 97 . approxmate heght. and case number. collector’s name. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. teeth. Do not use plastc contaners. and stature at death can be determned from human remans. locaton. Skeletal Samples Anthropologcal examnatons can determne whether skeletal remans are human or anmal. tme. ß Ar-dry the swabs and place them back nto the orgnal packagng or an envelope wth sealed corners. ß Pck up samples wth gloved hands or clean forceps.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 nsde surfaces of the cheeks thoroughly (use two swabs on each sde). sex. Buccal samples do not need to be refrgerated. Race.

5. 2. Submt whole samples. submt three samples. Humerus. ß ß ß 98 . 4. Submt skeletal samples wth an anthropologcal report. preferably from an anthropologst certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. Submt skeletal samples n the followng order of preference: 1. skull. Lower arm bone. If possble. 6. or a medcal examner’s/ coroner’s report. Teeth. Cuttng skeletal samples ncreases the possblty of contamnaton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß Ar-dry samples and place n paper bags. Femur. and/or mandble. 3. Tba. Hand and foot bones.

Nonrestored molar. Vertebrae. 3. 4. Submt teeth wth an odontologcal report. Ar-dry teeth and place n paper bags. Nonrestored canne. Nonrestored front tooth. ß 99 . Nonrestored premolar. ß ß ß Pck up teeth wth gloved hands or clean forceps. 2. 8. Rbs. Teeth Personal identifications can be made by comparng teeth wth dental records and X-rays.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 7. or a medcal examner’s/coroner’s report. Submt teeth n the followng order of preference: 1. preferably from an odontologist certified by the Amercan Board of Forensc Odontology.

8. Restored molar. DRY PLACE. 7. artght plastc contaner wthout formaln or formaldehyde and keep refrgerated or frozen. ß ß Back to the top 100 . 6.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 5. Restored premolar. Collect 1–2 cubc nches of red skeletal muscle. Restored canne. Restored front tooth. ß ß ß Pck up tssue wth gloved hands or clean forceps. Label the outer contaner “KEEP IN A COOL.” “REFRIGERATE ON ARRIVAL. Tissue Tissue samples usually will provide sufficient quanttes of DNA for testng.” and “BIOHAZARD. Place tssue samples n a clean.” Submt to the Laboratory as soon as possble.

relatve thckness. A comparson can be made between the pant from an object and the pant on a tool. vaults. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. model. orgnal automotve pant. and chemcal composton of each of the layers can be compared. manufacturer. The color. number. Pant on safes. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. The Laboratory wll not examne evdence to authenticate fine art or historical artifacts or to source spray pant or archtectural pants. and model year of an automoble may be determned from a pant chp. Questions concerning paint evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Paint Examinations The layer structure of a questoned pant sample can be compared wth a known source from a suspect. ß Search the accdent or crme scene and the personal effects of the vctm(s) to locate pant 101 . and door frames can be transferred to and from tools. color. The sequence. wndowslls. texture. Sourcng automotve pants s lmted to factory-appled.

If no damage s obvous. controls should be taken from several areas of the suspect substrate. but not n. Pants can be transferred from one car to another. sharp nstrument. or from object to car durng an accdent or a crme. Ths can be accomplshed by the followng: ü ü ü Secton an area of the panted surface. Controls must be taken from an area close to. from car to object. ß Control pant chps must be collected from the suspected source of the evdentary pant. Pant fragments often are found n the clothng of the ht-and-run vctm(s). ß Package pant specmens n leakproof contaners such as vals or pllboxes. Cut a pant sample from the surface usng a clean. Submt the clothng. Controls must have all of the layers of pant to the substrate.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 fragments. Lft or pry loosely attached chps or dslodge the pant by gently httng the opposte sde of the panted surface. Do not 102 . Each layer can be a pont of comparson. any damaged area.

ß Submt entre tems (e. or tear gas.. cotton.g. Do not use plastc bags. and wpe over the suspected sprays or foams. ß 103 . clothng) when possble. Prepare a second mostened cloth or swab as a control.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 attach pant partcles to adhesve tape. It may be used n self-defense sprays or foams. or envelopes to package pant specmens. and package separately n paper bags. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. dye. Items can be analyzed for the presence of oleoresn capscum. Questions concerning pepper-spray evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. Mosten a clean cotton cloth or swab wth sopropanol (rubbng alcohol). Ultravolet dye (orange) and/or tear gas also may be n the sprays or foams. Ar-dry the evdence. Back to the top Pepper-Spray or Pepper-Foam Examinations Oleoresn capscum s a resn n varous peppers.

ß ß 104 . actve ngredents. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. quantty. ß Questions concerning pharmaceutical evidence should be directed to 703-6328441.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Ar-dry the cloths or swabs and pack separately n heat-sealed or resealable plastc bags. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. and weght. Back to the top Pharmaceutical Examinations Pharmaceutcal examnatons can dentfy consttuents. Refer to Hazardous Materials Transportation when submttng pepperspray cansters. ß ß Submt spray cansters when possble. If possble. submt pharmaceutcals n orgnal contaners. Lst the names of the pharmaceutcals and nformaton on ther use.

Questions concerning polymer evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. make. These peces can be physcally reconstructed wth the remnants of the fixture left on the car. plastc lens covers) can be left at the scene. use. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Polymer Examinations Polymer evdence typcally conssts of peces of plastc or other manufactured materals. ß When a motor vehcle has been n an accdent. model.. or manufacturer of polymer evdence usually cannot be identified by compositional analyss.g. The source. Plastcs n wre nsulaton and mscellaneous plastcs such as buttons can be compared wth known sources. fragments (e. Motor vehcle trm can be compared wth plastc remanng on property struck n a ht-and-run case. and model year of a vehcle can be determned f a manufacturer’s part number s on the trm. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Collect and package 105 . The manufacturer.

Pack n clean paper. ß Search the accdent or crme scene and personal effects of the vctm(s) to locate plastc fragments. cut wth a clean. If possble. Submt fragments n leakproof containers such as film canisters or plastc pll bottles.g. sharp nstrument a secton where the transfer s suspected. Remove damaged suspect motor vehcle parts.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 the fragments carefully to keep the edges ntact. ß ß Back to the top Product-Tampering Examinations Product tamperng s when a commercal product s ntentonally dstorted to harm someone or to extort money or other thng of value. and package separately n resealable plastc bags or boxes. Pack to prevent stan removal by abrasve acton durng shppng. Examples 106 . submt entre tems (e. If the entre tem cannot be submtted. clothng) wth potental or smeared polymerc transfers. Do not use cotton or paper contaners.. Package separately n paper bags. Collect an unstaned control sample. Do not use plastc contaners.

Questions concerning product-tampering evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. ß Back to the top 107 . The Laboratory wll not assess manufacturng quality control or product specifications in commercal products. Do not use paper or glass contaners. Submt samples n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. and the combnaton of tamperng and alterng n domestc settngs. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. food adulteraton n supermarkets. Use cauton to prevent the destructon of latent prnts.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 range from drug tamperng n medcal envronments. ß ß Submt control samples of the unadulterated product. Package and shp control and suspect samples separately to avod contamnaton. Follow the evdence submsson drectons.

Submsson of photocoped evdence nstead of orgnal evdence. and personalty cannot be determned from handwrtng examnatons. although not all handwriting is identifiable with a specific writer. Intent and such trats as age. Dstorton or dsguse n the questoned and/or known wrtng. ß ß ß 108 . Lack of sufficient identifying characteristics. sex. Lack of contemporaneous wrtng or lapse of tme between executon of questoned and known wrtng. Some reasons for nconclusve results nclude: ß ß ß Lmted questoned and/or known wrtng. Lack of sufficiently comparable known writing for comparson.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questioned Document Examinations Handwriting and Hand Printing The examnaton and comparson of handwrtng characterstcs can determne the orgn or authentcty of questoned wrtng.

The wrter and wtness must ntal and date each page of wrtng. sze of paper. Do not allow the wrter to see the prevous exemplars or the questoned wrtng. Remove each exemplar from the wrter’s sght as soon as t s completed. Obtan exemplars from the rght and left hands. or arrangement of wrtng. Do not gve nstructons on spellng. Numerous repettons may be necessary to obtan naturally prepared wrtng. All exemplars must be on separate peces of paper.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Procedures for Obtaining Known Writing Exemplars ß The text. wrtng nstrument. Gve verbal or typewrtten nstructons concernng the text to be wrtten. punctuaton. and wrtng style (handwrtng or hand prntng) must be as close to the orgnal wrtng as possble. ß ß ß ß ß ß 109 . space avalable for wrtng.

personal correspondence. Obtain a sufficient quantity of exemplars to account for natural varaton n the wrtng. and cancelled checks or other documents prepared durng the normal course of busness actvty. Obtan undctated wrtng such as busness records. 110 . ß ß Smulated sgnatures are prepared by copyng or drawng a genune sgnature. Freehand sgnatures are wrtten n the forger’s normal handwrtng wth no attempt to copy another’s wrtng style.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß Obtan hand-prntng exemplars n upper. Altered or Obliterated Writing Documents can be examned for the presence of altered or oblterated wrtng. Common Types of Nongenuine Signatures ß Traced sgnatures are prepared by drectly usng a genune sgnature as a template or pattern. Therefore t may be possble to dentfy the wrter(s) who prepared the sgnature(s). and the orgnal wrtng may be decphered.and lowercase letters.

Comparson of questoned typewrtng wth reference standards can determne a possble make and model of the typewrter and/or the typewrter elements. ball. Procedures for Obtaining Known Typewriting Exemplars ß If the typewriter has a carbon-film ribbon or correcton rbbon. Carbon-film typewriter ribbons and correction rbbons retan readable text. Typewrters wth nterchangeable elements (e. Ths s most common when the typewrter s a typebar machne.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Typewriting Questioned typewriting may be identified with the typewrter that produced t..g. Generally. or thmble) are less lkely to be assocated wth questoned typewrtng. prntwheel. However. remove t from the 111 . These rbbons can be compared wth questoned typewrtten mpressons. these typing elements may be positively identified with specific texts by examining individual characterstcs of the elements. fabrc rbbons cannot be read or identified. The identification is based on individual characteristics that develop durng the manufacturng process and through use and abuse of the typewrter.

remove t from the typewrter and put the typewrter n the stencl poston. Insert a new rbbon n the typewrter pror to obtanng exemplars. f avalable. n some cases. the examner wll request the 112 ß ß ß ß . numbers.and lowercase letters). Allow the typeface to strke the carbon paper. Place a sheet of carbon paper over a sheet of blank paper and nsert both nto the typewrter. Record the make. Obtan two full word-for-word typed exemplars of the questoned text and two typed exemplars of the entre keyboard (all symbols. and upper. ß If the typewrter has a fabrc rbbon. however. Obtan the typewrter servce and repar hstory. Also record the date the exemplars were obtaned and the name of the person who typed the exemplars. Normally t s not necessary to send the typewrter to the Laboratory.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 typewrter and submt the rbbon to the Laboratory. model. Submt the fabrc rbbon and the exemplars typed on the carbon paper to the Laboratory. and seral number of the typewrter on the exemplars.

It must be packed securely to prevent damage durng shpment. Obtan at least 10 exemplars wth a document through the automatc document feeder. f applcable. Photocopies or Facsimiles Photocopes or facsmles of documents can be identified with the machine used to produce them f the exemplars and questoned documents are relatvely contemporaneous.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 typewrter. Procedures for Obtaining Known Photocopy Exemplars ß Obtan at least 10 exemplars wthout a document on the glass plate and wth the cover down. The possble make and model of the photocoper or facsmle machne sometmes can be determned.. ball.g. or thmble) also must be submtted to the Laboratory. Obtan at least 10 exemplars wth a document on the glass plate and the cover down. Typewrter elements (e. ß Obtan at least 10 exemplars wthout a document on the glass plate and wth the cover up. ß ß 113 . prntwheel.

model. and plates or office printing devces such as nk-jet or laser prnters. Do not store or shp photocopes n plastc envelopes. trm. Record the make.or roll-fed.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Record on each exemplar the date the exemplars were obtaned. whether the paper supply s sheet. negatives. mask. Do not rub the ndentatons wth a pencl. and optons such as color. and edtor board. Paper Torn edges can be compared. Paper can be examned for ndented wrtng. zoom. and seral number of the photocoper. 114 . the name of the person who prepared the exemplars. reducton. ß ß Graphic Arts (Commercial and Office Printing) Prnted documents can be assocated wth a common source or identified with known commercal prntng paraphernala such as artwork. enlargement. Do not add ndentatons by wrtng on top of the evdence. and the condtons under whch the exemplars were made. The paper manufacturer can be determned f a watermark s present. nformaton about the toner supples and components.

115 . Checkwriters A checkwrter mpresson can be compared wth a known source. The document must be shpped n the contaner n which it was burned. The document must be handled mnmally. or between layers of cotton n a rgd contaner. Carbon Paper or Carbon-Film Ribbon Used carbon paper or a carbon-film ribbon can be examned to dsclose the content of the text. Embossings and Seals An embossed or seal mpresson can be compared wth a known source. ncludng watermarks. Age of a Document The earlest date a document could have been prepared may be determned by examnng varous physcal characterstcs. prntng. typewrtng. in polyester film encapsulaton. Examnng checkwrter mpressons may determne the brand or model of the checkwrter. Submt the devce to the Laboratory.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Burned or Charred Paper Burned or charred documents (not completely reduced to ash) may be decphered and stablzed. and nks. ndented wrtng.

116 . sandwch and garbage bags) can be compared wth a roll or box of bags. Bank Robbery Note File The Bank Robbery Note Fle contans mages of notes used in bank robberies. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. This file can be searched in an attempt to assocate text from a communcaton n one case wth text from communcatons n other cases. Submt the rubber stamp to the Laboratory uncleaned. Questions concerning documentary evidence should be directed to 703-632-8444. This file can be searched n an attempt to assocate text from one bank robbery note wth text from bank robbery notes n other cases. Anonymous Letter File The Anonymous Letter Fle contans mages of anonymous and/or threatenng communcatons submtted to the Questoned Documents Unt for examination.g.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Rubber Stamps A rubber-stamp mpresson can be compared wth a known source. Plastic Bags Plastc bags (e.

Whenever possble. and other nformaton n pencl. color. date. The lack of detal in photocopies makes examinations difficult and often wll result n nconclusve opnons. constructon. Protect the evdence from nadvertent ndented wrtng. Copies are sufficient for reference-file searches. and dameter can be determned. stamped.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Documentary evdence must be preserved n the condton n whch t was found. soled. Do not store or shp photocopes n plastc envelopes. The composton. ß ß Back to the top Rope and Cordage Examinations A pece of rope or cord can be compared wth a questoned rope or cord. torn. It must not be unnecessarly folded. or wrtten on or handled excessvely. If a tracer s present. 117 . Questions concerning rope and cordage evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. submt the orgnal evdence to the Laboratory. marked. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. the manufacturer can be determned. Mark documents unobtrusvely by wrtng the collector’s ntals.

ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. If the rope or cord must be cut. Examnatons of safe nsulaton sometmes can determne the manufacturer. ß Collect safe-nsulaton samples from damaged areas. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Handle the sectons of rope or cord carefully to prevent loss of trace materal or contamnaton. Questions concerning safe-insulation evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. Submt n heat-sealed or resealable plastc or paper bags.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Label the known and questoned samples. ß ß ß Back to the top Safe-Insulation Examinations Safe nsulaton can be compared to a known source. specfy whch end was cut durng evdence collecton. 118 . ß Submt the entre rope or cord.

Pack to keep lumps ntact. Do not process tools for latent prnts. tools. If possble. wood. plastc. bags. Package each tem of evdence n a separate paper bag. ß Back to the top Serial-Number Examinations Obliterated serial or identification numbers— ncludng markngs on metal. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Questions concerning serial-number evidence should be directed to 703-632-8442. and fiberglass—often are restorable. and stolen tems and can transfer to vehcles. Submt known and questoned debrs n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. Comparisons can be made wth suspect des. clothng. submt the evdence to the Laboratory for examners to remove the debrs. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Safe nsulaton can adhere to people. Do not use paper or glass contaners. Shp known and questoned debrs separately to avod contamnaton. 119 .

Use Naval Jelly to remove rust. ß 120 . remove the secton contanng the seral number and submt t to the Laboratory. 1. Casts wll duplcate foregn materal n the stamped characters. 4. Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8442 regardng the approprate cast kt. 2. 3.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß For large objects. Remove pant and drt wth a solvent such as acetone. gasolne. Use an acrylc-surface replca cast kt. or pant remover. Buld a dam around the stamped characters to retan the acrylc lqud whle t hardens. If t s not possble to remove the secton contanng the seral number. Dfferent formulas are used n dfferent temperatures. and f possble. Clean the area before proceedng. move the evdence to a warm area. Ensure there are no vods n the dam. Do not use a wre brush. Use a soft and plable dam materal such as modelng clay. If possble. make a cast to submt to the Laboratory. Use a soft brush.

The examnaton of detaled shoe prnt and tre tread mpressons often results in the positive identification of the shoes of the suspect(s) or tre(s) from the vehcle(s) of the suspect(s). ncludng partal mpressons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 5. 121 . 7. Remove the cast when t s hard.and threedmensonal forms. mx the lqud and powder for one mnute and pour the mxture nto the dam. The acrylc lqud wll take 30 mnutes to harden. Pack the cast to prevent breakage. These mpressons are retaned on surfaces n two. Back to the top Shoe Print and Tire Tread Examinations Shoe prnt or tre tread mpressons are routnely left at crme scenes. Almost all mpressons. If pant and rust are on the cast. have value for forensc comparsons. 8. Indcate from where on the object (often a vehcle) the cast was taken. Followng the nstructons n the kt. make addtonal casts and submt the cleanest one to the Laboratory. 6.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Photographing Shoe Print and Tire Tread Impressions General crme scene photographs must be taken to relate the mpressons to the crme scene. All mpressons must be photographed usng both methods. General crme scene photographs are not sutable for footwear or tre examnatons. A scale must be n every photograph. Place a lnear scale such as a ruler next to and on the same plane as the 122 . The purpose of these photographs s to produce a detaled negatve that can be enlarged to natural sze. Examination-Quality Photographs Examnaton-qualty photographs must be taken drectly over the mpressons usng a trpod and lghtng. ISO 400 color film should be used. Examnaton-qualty photographs then must be taken to obtan maxmum detal for forensc examnaton and must nclude a scale. Examnaton-qualty photographs must be taken as follows: 1. General Crime Scene Photographs General crme scene photographs of shoe prnt or tre tread mpressons must nclude close-range and long-range photographs. The photographs must show the relatonshp of the mpressons to the surroundng area.

Images should be taken usng a 35 mm or medium-format film camera. Attach an electronic flash with a long extenson cord to the camera. Poston the camera so the film plane is parallel to the mpresson. use ISO 100 film. In most ambent-lght stuatons. If the shoe prnt s made from a colored substance (e.. Adjust the heght of the camera. and f possble. Use ISO 200 or 400 film. 2. Use a manual-focus camera. Fll the frame wth the mpresson and scale. 3. 4. if necessary.g. Set the f-stop on f/16 or f/22 for a greater depth of field. Low-cost digital cameras do not provide sufficient mage detal for examnaton-qualty photographs. Place a label n the pcture to correlate the mpresson wth crme scene notes and general photographs.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 mpresson. 5. 123 . color film may be preferable to black and whte. blood). Place the camera on a trpod and poston t drectly over the mpresson. use a normal lens (50 mm for a 35 mm camera).

7. Focus on the bottom of the mpresson. adjust the sunscreen.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 6. bracketng toward overexposure to obtan maxmum mage detail. a materal used for castng snow mpressons. Shoot several exposures. hold the flash at least 5–7 feet from the mpresson.or reflected-light photograph. Ths wll enhance the detal of the mpresson. not on the scale. Hold the spray can at least 2–3 feet 124 . Block out brght ambent lght wth a sunscreen to maxmze the lght from the flash. To ncrease the contrast. Move the flash two or more angles to the mpresson. For consistent exposure. Take the exposures. 9. Take an exstng. and repeat Steps 7 and 8. Position the flash at a very low angle (10–15 degrees) to the mpresson. Frst. lghtly spray snow mpressons wth Snow Prnt Wax. move the lght to another poston. 8. Impressions in Snow Impressions in snow are difficult to photograph because of lack of contrast. or wth colored spray pant. attempt to photograph the mpressons as f n sol.

do not resist abrason when cleaned. Casting Three-Dimensional Impressions Castng a three-dmensonal mpresson n sol.000 ps or greater. Plaster of pars. If the evdence cannot be submtted to the Laboratory. and dental plasters are not sufficiently hard. wth a compressve strength of 8. Hghlghted mpressons wll absorb heat from the sun and must be shelded untl photographed and cast to prevent meltng. sand. Recovering the Original Evidence Whenever possble. Dental stone s avalable through local dental supply houses. submt to the Laboratory the evdence bearng the orgnal mpresson. use the followng technques to recover the evdence. or snow s necessary to capture detal for examnaton. The compressve strength s lsted on the contaner along wth the proper rato of powder to water used for mxng. Drect a lght applcaton of spray at an angle of about 30–45 degrees so the colored pant strkes only the hgh ponts of the mpresson.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 from the mpresson so the force of the aerosol does not damage the mpresson. modelng plasters. Colored dental stone s preferred. Dental stone. must be used for castng all mpressons. 125 . and must not be used.

Mixing Dental Stone in a Bucket or Bowl If the mpressons are numerous or large. Wth premeasured bags. To make a cast. The bag contanng the dental stone powder can be used to mx and pour the dental stone.by 12-nch resealable plastc bag can store two pounds of dental stone powder. The dental stone should be added slowly to the water and strred contnuously for 3–5 mnutes. The castng materal 126 . add the approprate amount of water to the bag and close the top. castng mpressons at the crme scene nvolves only addng water. Mx the castng materal by vgorously massagng t through the bag for 3–5 mnutes. After t has been mxed.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Mixing Dental Stone in a Bag Store dental stone n resealable plastc bags. After t has been mxed. the materal should have the consstency of pancake batter or heavy cream. t may be necessary to mx larger quanttes of dental stone n a bucket or bowl. Ensure that the materal n the corners of the bag s also mxed. Pouring Dental Stone Casting material has sufficient weight and volume to erode and destroy detal f t s poured drectly on top of the mpresson. An 8. the materal should have the consstency of pancake batter or heavy cream.

If the cast s n sand or loose sol. use a finger or a small stick on the surface to cause the dental stone to flow into the impression. the cast should be left undsturbed for at least 20–30 mnutes. Lifting Two-Dimensional Impressions Lftng an mpresson allows for the transfer of a 127 . Casts n mud or clay may requre careful treatment and excavaton when beng removed. Before the cast hardens completely. In cold weather. An FBI Laboratory examner must clean the cast. collector’s ntals. Do not put the stick or finger more than 1/4 nch below the surface of the castng materal because t can damage the mpresson. Allow the cast to ar-dry for at least 48 hours. The impression should be filled with casting material until it has overflowed. not n plastc. In warm weather. and other dentfyng nformaton on t. allowing it to flow into the impression. Casts have been destroyed or damaged when lfted too soon. wrte the date.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 should be poured on the ground next to the impression. If the mixture does not flow easily into all areas of the impression. t should lft easly. the cast should be left undsturbed longer. Package the cast n paper.

Electrostatc lftng devces come wth nstructons for use.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 two-dmensonal resdue or dust mpresson to a lifting film. It also allows the impression to be shpped to the Laboratory for photographng and examnaton. smooth. Items that contan a dry resdue footwear mpresson must not be wrapped or stored n 128 . To preserve and store the lifting film containing an impression. Ths devce works on dry dust or resdue mpressons on clean surfaces but wll not work f the mpressons were wet or have become wet. Low-grade cardboard boxes such as pzza boxes must not be used because the resdual charge on the film will pull dust from the box and contamnate the mpresson. Electrostatic Lifts An electrostatc lftng devce lfts footwear mpressons from porous and nonporous surfaces wthout damagng the mpressons. tape one edge of the film securely in a clean. The film has a residual charge that attracts dust and debrs and causes the film to cling to other surfaces. Storing Electrostatic Lifting Film Lifted impressions are damaged easily if the film is not stored properly. high-quality paper file folder or tape the edges securely n a shallow photographc paper box.

Transparent adhesve lfters can be used to lft impressions developed with black or fluorescent powders. Lifting Materials ß Electrostatic: can be used on porous and nonporous surfaces. nonporous surfaces. Nondestructve. Black gelatn lfters work well for lftng lght-colored dry or wet mpressons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 plastc because a partal transfer of the mpresson to the plastc wll occur. Adhesve lfters can be used only to lft mpressons from smooth. Gelatin and Adhesive Lifts Gelatn lfters can be used to lft mpressons from porous and nonporous surfaces. 129 . Whte gelatn lfters can be used to lift impressions developed with fingerprint powders or mpressons dark enough to contrast wth a whte background. Transparent tapes such as two-nch fingerprint-lifting tape also can be used to lift powdered mpressons f the mpressons are transferred to a whte card. Used to lft dry dust and resdue mpressons. Whte adhesve lfters can be used to lft impressions developed with fingerprint powders. Useful for searchng for latent mpressons.

Black gelatin: can be used on all porous and nonporous surfaces. Offers good contact wth most resdue. Used to lft wet or dry mpressons that have been chemcally enhanced or developed with fluorescent fingerprint powder. Transparent adhesive: can be used on smooth. 130 . nonporous surfaces. ß ß ß Searching Shoe Print and Tire Tread Files A file of shoe manufacturers’ designs and a file of tre treads and other reference materal can be searched to determne brand names and manufacturers. White gelatin: can be used on all porous and nonporous surfaces as long as the gelatn contrasts wth an mpresson. Used to lft wet or dry mpressons that have been treated wth black or fluorescent fingerprint powder. Used to lft wet or dry mpressons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß White adhesive: can be used on smooth. Do not use on an orgnal mpresson. nonporous surfaces. Used to lft wet or dry mpressons that have been chemcally enhanced or developed with dark fingerprint powder.

Unobtrusvely wrte the collector’s ntals.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questions concerning shoe print and tire tread evidence should be directed to 703-632-7288. dependng on the tems beng submtted for examnaton. tres. ß For shoe prnt and tre tread comparsons. and other relevant nformaton on the evdence. If photographs are not avalable. smooth. Ar-dry and package evdence separately n Bubble Wrap. photographc negatves. lfts). or paper bags. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. clean. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. dates. 703-632-7314. or the orgnal evdence. hgh-qualty paper or lamnated folders. 131 ß ß ß Back to the top . lfts. submt casts. Detaled sketches or photocopes are acceptable. submt orgnal evdence whenever possble (shoes. or 703-632-7315. submt qualty photographs of the mpressons. Images of mpresson evdence may be submtted electroncally. casts. For shoe print and tire tread file searches. Call 703-632-7288 for specifics on submitting evdence n ths manner.

because the sol at the crme scene can change dramatcally. texture. and composton. 132 ß ß ß ß . texture. Collect sol samples from the mmedate crme scene area and from the logcal access and escape route(s).Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Soil Examinations Sol examnatons can determne whether sols share a common orgn by comparng color. If possble. ß Collect sol samples as soon as possble. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Questions concerning soil evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. Collect sol samples at a depth that s consstent wth the depth from whch the questoned sol may have orgnated. collect sol samples from alb areas such as the yard or work area of the suspect(s). and composton. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Collect sol samples where there are notceable changes n color.

and package separately n paper bags. Pack to keep lumps ntact. Submt known and questoned sol n leakproof contaners such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. 133 .Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß Submt a map dentfyng sol-sample locatons. Ar-dry the sol. Do not process tools for latent prnts. Carefully remove sol adherng to vehcles. and geographc nformaton system (GIS) mappng. Do not remove sol adherng to shoes. These operatons nclude three-dmensonal laser scannng and documentaton of physcal structures and objects. Shp known and questoned debrs separately to avod contamnaton. clothng. and tools. and package separately n paper bags. Do not use paper envelopes or glass contaners. ß ß Back to the top Special-Event and Situational Awareness Support Visual information specialists travel to the field and conduct dgtal ste/venue surveys. 360-degree sphercal vdeo capture. Ar-dry the sol and the clothng.

g. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. 134 . ß Whenever possble. vnyl electrcal. the tape may be manually removed and placed adhesve sde down on a clean.. and color can be compared wth known sources. colorless pece of plastc sheetng (e. Scotch) tapes. transparency film or Kapak tubular rollstock). The Laboratory wll examne duct. latent fingerprints. submt tape stll adhered to the substrate. Tape Examinations Tape composton.. If t s not possble to submt the substrate. Ths mnmzes the loss of trace evidence. Questions concerning tape evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. and cellulose acetate (e. maskng.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questions concerning special-event and situational awareness support should be directed to 703-632-8194. packagng. constructon.g. or contact mpressons. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Comparsons can be made wth the torn end of tape and a suspect roll of tape.

135 . or vnyl document protectors. Do not dstort or tear the tape durng removal.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 not on cardboard. Toolmark examnatons also nclude lock-and-key examnatons. These characterstcs can be transferred to surfaces that had contact wth the tools. document and ntal each cut. ß If the tape s cut durng removal. Fractures Fracture examnatons sometmes can be used to determne whether evdence was joned together and subsequently broken apart. pnkng shears). In the absence of a questoned tool.. Use a method that produces a unque cuttng pattern (e. paper. Evdence toolmarks can be compared wth recovered tools.g. toolmark examnatons can determne the type of tool(s) that produced the toolmark and whether the toolmark s of value for comparson. Back to the top Toolmark Examinations Toolmarks Tools can bear unque mcroscopc characterstcs because of manufacturng processes and use.

Dfferent formulas are used n dfferent temperatures. make a cast to submt to the Laboratory. Remove pant and drt wth a solvent such as acetone. or pant remover. ß ß If possble. Buld a dam around the stamped characters to retan the acrylc lqud 136 . Do not use a wre brush. 2. Clean the area before proceedng. Casts wll duplcate foregn materal n the stamped characters. If possble. move the evdence to a warm area. gasolne. submt the tool-marked evdence. Use an acrylc-surface replca cast kt.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questions concerning toolmark evidence should be directed to 703-632-8442. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. 4. If t s not possble to submt the tool-marked evdence. 1. Use a soft brush. 3. Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8442 regardng the approprate cast kt. Use Naval Jelly to remove rust.

Submt samples n leakproof containers such as film canisters or plastic pill bottles. Ensure there are no vods n the dam. The acrylc lqud wll take 30 mnutes to harden. Use a soft and plable dam materal such as modelng clay. Indcate where on the object (often a vehcle) the cast was taken. 7. do not place the tool aganst the tool-marked evdence. Followng the nstructons n the kt. To avod contamnaton. ß ß Photographs locate toolmarks but are of no value for identification purposes. 6.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 whle t hardens. 8. make addtonal casts and submt the cleanest one to the Laboratory. Obtan samples of any materal deposted on the tools. mx the lqud and powder for one mnute and pour the mxture nto the dam. Pack the cast to prevent breakage. 5. Remove the cast when t s hard. If pant and rust are on the cast. ß 137 .

Nonvolatle organc compounds (drugs of abuse. 138 . Examples nclude: ß ß ß Volatle compounds (ethanol. Because of the large number of potentally toxc substances.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß Submt the tool rather than makng test cuts or mpressons.or poson-related homcdes. The examnatons can determne the crcumstances surroundng drug. pharmaceutcals). methanol. Toxcology examnatons can dsclose the presence of drugs and posons n bologcal specmens and food products. and accdents. sopropanol). sucdes. Mark the ends of the evdence and specfy whch end was cut durng evdence collecton. Heavy metals (arsenc). t may be necessary to screen for classes of posons. Back to the top Toxicology Examinations The Toxcology dscplne of the FBI Laboratory s accredted by the Amercan Board of Forensc Toxcologsts.

Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8441 prior to submitting hair to ensure that the evidence will be accepted for examination. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. Questions concerning toxicology evidence should be directed to 703-632-8441. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference ß ß 139 . The urne must be collected as soon as possble after the assault but must not have been collected more than 96 hours after the alleged druggng. ß Acceptng evdence n alleged poson nvestgatons wll be based on whether the vctm(s) sought medcal attenton or a suspcous death occurred. Bologcal evdence n drug-facltated assaults must nclude a urne sample. cyande).Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Mscellaneous (strychnne. A doctor’s medcal evaluaton and report must be ncluded wth the evdence. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. Toxcologcal analyss of har specmens wll be performed only for specific drugs or posons.

and whether subjects(s) or vctm(s) are lvng or deceased. or contamnaton occurs. Call the Laboratory at 703-632-8441 prior to submitting the specimens to ensure that the correct quantity is submitted. Pack so that no breakage. leakage. Each bologcal specmen must be placed n separate. ß The quantty of bologcal specmens submtted depends on whether the dentty of a toxc substance s known. labeled. Submt a copy of the autopsy or ncdent report. sealed glass tubes.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence. the route of admnstraton. Affix BIOHAZARD labels to the inside and outsde contaners. Refrgerate or freeze bologcal specmens durng storage and shppng to prevent deteroraton. the tme after exposure that bologcal specmens are collected. or heat-sealed or resealable plastc bags. 140 ß ß ß . plastc cups. The communcaton accompanyng the evdence must reference the telephone conversaton acceptng the evdence.

Lst any known or questoned drugs consumed by or prescrbed for the suspect(s) or vctm(s). and Image Analyss Unt (FAVIAU). Vdeo. Descrbe any known or questoned envronmental exposure to toxc substances by the suspect(s) or vctm(s). ß ß Back to the top Video Examinations Vdeo examnatons are conducted by the FBI’s Operatonal Technology Dvson (OTD). unaltered. The OTD DEL has dfferent acceptance crtera and a dfferent physcal address than the FBI Laboratory. 141 . Forensc Audo.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Descrbe the symptoms of the suspect(s) or vctm(s) at the tme of the crme or pror to the death. as descrbed below. and consstent wth the operaton of the recordng devce used to make the recordng. Authenticity Authentcty examnatons are conducted to determne whether vdeo recordngs are orgnal. contnuous. Dgtal Evdence Laboratory (DEL).

g. Synchronization Audo and vdeo sgnals can be combned to produce one composte recordng.. f damage s not too extensve. Format Conversion Vdeo can be converted from one format to another (e. Special Effects Specal effects. PAL to NTSC or SECAM). or retreved for playback and examnaton. restored.. can be added to vdeo recordngs to protect a person’s dentty. such as a mosac or blur spot. 142 .g. Standards Conversion Vdeo can be converted from one standard to another (e.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Enhancement Enhancement examnatons are conducted to maxmze the clarty of the vdeo sgnal. Damaged Media Repair Vdeo recordngs can be repared. Beta to VHS). Video Image Processing Enhanced stll mages can be produced from mages on vdeo and made as prnts or dgtal files.

local. If orgnals cannot be obtaned. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. ß Wrte-protect the orgnal meda. local. These crtera shall be met wth a wrtten statement from the dvson head (Specal Agent n Charge). or nternatonal agency cases must be submtted by the FBI field office servicing the area and must meet one of the followng two crtera: 1) the state. or nternatonal case has a nexus to an ongong FBI nvestgaton or 2) the FBI dvson head deems that the case s of enough regonal mportance to mert the dedcaton of federal resources to the state. call for further nstructons. Questions concerning video evidence should be directed to 703-985-1388. FBI enttes may submt cases drectly. Submt orgnal vdeo recordngs. local. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. or nternatonal case.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Questions concerning video examinations should be directed to 703-985-1393. Never use the Pause operaton when vewng orgnal vdeo recordngs. Vdeo examnatons may not be submtted drectly from enttes outsde the FBI. 143 ß . State.

or chemcal agents. SENSITIVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT” or “FRAGILE.” Address the outer contaner as follows: ß ß FORENSIC PROGRAM BUILDING 27958A ENGINEERING RESEARCH FACILITY FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION QUANTICO VA 22135 Back to the top Weapons of Mass Destruction Examinations A weapon of mass destructon (WMD) s typcally assocated wth nuclear and/or radologcal. WMDs are desgned to cause a large amount of destructon or dsrupton to people and nfrastructures. however.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Queue the orgnal vdeotape to the approxmate tme of the pertnent area. 144 . bologcal. and use the date-tme stamp on the vdeo or the counter ndcator (set from the begnnng of the tape at 000). State n a communcaton the date and tme of the pertnent area. Label the outer contaner “FRAGILE. t also may be an explosve. SENSITIVE AUDIO/VIDEO MEDIA” and “KEEP AWAY FROM MAGNETS OR MAGNETIC FIELDS.

s traned to safely conduct tradtonal examnatons of hazardous evdence. or radologcal—evdence examnatons wll be conducted by the Laboratory or at a desgnated FBI partner laboratory specally equpped to handle hazardous materals. academc. Suspected or confirmed WMD crime scenes should be handled only by qualified personnel. bologcal. bologcal. and/or radologcal materal.. The Laboratory can drect or apply the use of specalzed analytcal technques to dentfy and characterze a wde range of bologcal pathogens. and trace radoactve compounds that consttute a suspected or potental WMD.e. chemcal. 145 . These examnatons are conducted at FBI partner laboratores. toxc chemcals. chemcal agents. and prvate laboratores to conduct forensc examnatons of evdence that ether contans or s contamnated wth hazardous chemcal.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 The FBI Laboratory has formalzed partnershps wth a varety of government. The FBI’s Hazardous Evdence Analyss Team (HEAT). composed of forensc examners and techncans from the varous FBI Laboratory dscplnes. toxns. Dependng on the nature of the threat—.

Back to the top Wood Examinations Wood examnatons can match sdes. Follow the evdence submsson drectons. and other objects wth wood from the crme scene. Questions concerning WMD evidence examinations should be directed to 703-632-7766. ß Submt wood n plastc or paper bags. determne wood speces. Before t can be analyzed by the Laboratory or partner laboratories. suspected or confirmed WMD evidence must be properly field-screened by qualified personnel to determine the absence or presence of hazardous materals. vehcles. contact the FBI’s Strategic Information and Operations Center at 202-323-3300 and ask for the Weapons of Mass Destruction Operations Unit Duty Officer.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Upon notification or suspicion of a possible WMD incident. ncludng Requesting Evidence Examinations and Packaging and Shipping Evidence. 146 . Questions concerning wood evidence should be directed to 703-632-8449. and compare wood partcles found on clothng. and fractures. ends.

However. Department of Transportaton and Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton regulatons. state. and personal protectve equpment recommended for personnel processng routne crme scenes. Always consult local. safety precautons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Crime Scene Safety Personnel have the ultmate responsblty to recognze chemcal. bologcal. Routes of Exposure Personnel operatng n or around contamnated envronments must be aware of the varous ways n whch hazards may enter and harm the body. Ths secton also explans the mportance of complyng wth wastedsposal regulatons. and physcal hazards when processng a crme scene. All shppng of forensc evdence must comply wth U. and federal envronmental and occupatonal health and safety laws when workng wth forensc evdence. safe work practces. SAFETY Ths secton descrbes the hazards.S. programs. t s the responsblty of each agency respondng to and provdng support at the crme scene to develop polces.1 147 . and tranng on health and safety practces.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007

Inhalation Inhalaton s the ntroducton of a toxc product by the respratory system. Arborne contamnants may be n the form of a dust, aerosol, smoke, vapor, gas, or fume. Materals may be n a sold or lqud form and stll represent an nhalaton hazard because they produce vapors, msts, and fumes. Proper work practces and adequate ventlaton can mnmze the rsk of arborne-contamnant nhalaton. When workng n areas wth arborne contamnants present, personnel must wear respiratory protection. Personnel must be certified to wear respratory protecton and, therefore, to work n areas contanng arborne contamnants. Skin Contact Contamnaton through the skn can result from drect contact or by absorpton. The severty of the njury can depend on the concentraton of the contamnant and the amount of exposure tme. Systemc effects—such as dzzness, tremors, nausea, blurred vson, lver and kdney damage, shock, or collapse—can occur when the substances are absorbed through the skn and crculated throughout the body. Exposure can be prevented by usng personal protectve equpment (e.g., gloves, safety glasses, goggles, face shelds, and protectve clothng).

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Ingestion Ingeston nvolves ntroducng contamnants nto the body through the mouth. Ingeston can cause severe damage to the mouth, throat, and dgestve tract. To prevent entry of contamnants nto the mouth, safe work practces—such as washng hands before eatng, smokng, or applyng cosmetcs—must always be used. Personnel should not brng food, drnks, or cgarettes nto areas where contamnaton can occur, regardless of personal protecton they may be wearng. Injection The drect njecton of contamnants nto the body—ether by needle stcks or mechancal njures from contamnated glass, metal, or other sharp objects—can cause severe complcatons. Contamnants enter drectly nto the bloodstream and can spread rapdly. Extreme cauton should be exercsed when handlng objects wth sharp or jagged edges. Work gloves must be worn at all tmes.

Safety
Bloodborne Pathogen Safety On December 6, 1991, OSHA ssued Ttle 29, Secton 1910.1030, of the Code of Federal Regulatons (CFR), Bloodborne Pathogens.2

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Occupatons at rsk for exposure to bloodborne pathogens nclude law enforcement, emergency response, and forensc laboratory personnel. Fundamental to the bloodborne pathogens standard s the concept of followng unversal precautons. Ths concept s the prmary mechansm for nfecton control. It requres that employees treat all blood, body fluids, or other potentally nfectous materals as f nfected wth bloodborne dseases, such as the hepatts B vrus (HBV), the hepatts C vrus (HCV), and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The following protectve measures should be taken to avod drect contact wth potentally nfectous materals: ß Use barrer protecton—such as dsposable gloves, coveralls, and shoe covers—f contact wth potentally nfectous materals may occur. Change gloves when torn or punctured or when ther ablty to functon as a barrer s compromsed. Wear approprate eye and face protecton to protect aganst splashes, sprays, and spatters of potentally nfectous materals. Wash hands after removng gloves or other personal protectve equpment. Remove gloves and other personal protectve equpment n a manner that wll not result n contamnatng unprotected skn or clothng.
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Prohbt eatng, drnkng, smokng, or applyng cosmetics where human blood, body fluids, or other potentally nfectous materals are present, regardless of personal protecton that may be worn. Place contamnated sharps n approprate closable, leakproof, puncture-resstant contaners when transported or dscarded. Label the containers with a BIOHAZARD warnng label. Do not bend, re-cap, remove, or otherwse handle contamnated needles or other sharps. After use, decontamnate equpment wth a daly prepared soluton of household bleach dluted 1:10 or wth 70 percent sopropyl alcohol or other approprate dsnfectant. Noncorrosve dsnfectants are commercally available. It is important to allow sufficient contact tme for complete dsnfecton. In addton to unversal precautons, engneerng controls and prudent work practces can reduce or elmnate exposure to potentally nfectous materals. Examples of engneerng controls nclude long-handled mrrors used to locate and retreve evdence n

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confined or hidden spaces and punctureresstant contaners used to store and dspose of sharps and pant strrers. Chemical Safety Dependng on the type of materal encountered, a varety of health and safety hazards can exst. Some of these hazards are identified by the followng categores:1, 3 ß Flammable or combustble materals—such as gasolne, acetone, and ether—gnte easly when exposed to ar and an gnton source, such as a spark or flame. Over tme, some explosve materals, such as ntroglycerne and ntroglycerne-based dynamte, deterorate to become chemcally unstable. In partcular, ether wll form peroxdes around the mouth of the vessel n whch t s stored. All explosve materals are senstve to heat, shock, and frcton. Pyrophorc materals—such as phosphorus, sodum, and barum—can be lqud or sold and can gnte wthout an external gnton source n ar temperatures less than 130 degrees Fahrenhet (540 degrees Celsus).

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Oxdzers—such as ntrates, hydrogen peroxde, and concentrated sulfurc acd—are chemcal compounds that readly yeld oxygen to promote combuston. Avod storage wth flammable and combustible materials or substances that could rapdly accelerate ther decomposton. Corrosve materals can cause destructon to lvng tssue or objects such as wood and steel. The amount of damage depends on the concentraton and duraton of contact. When workng wth chemcals, be aware of hazardous propertes, dsposal technques, personal protecton, packagng and shppng procedures, and emergency preparedness. Ths awareness comes from approprate tranng and the nformaton n a Materal Safety Data Sheet. The Materal Safety Data Sheet provdes nformaton on the hazards of a partcular materal so that personnel can work safely and responsbly wth hazardous materals.

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Light-Source Safety When usng ultravolet lghts, lasers, and other lght sources, personnel must protect ther eyes from drect and ndrect exposure.4 Not all laser

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beams are vsble, and rreversble eye damage can result from exposure to drect or ndrect lght from reflected beams. Prolonged exposure to the skn also should be avoded. All personnel n the vcnty of the lght source should wear protectve eyewear approprate for the light source. Goggles must have sufficient protective material and fit snugly to prevent light from enterng at any angle. The goggles must dsplay the Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute’s (ANSI’s) mark denotng eye-protecton complance. Laser-protectve eyewear must be of the approprate optcal densty to protect aganst the maxmum operatng wavelength of the laser source. Confined-Space Safety A confined space is an enclosed area large enough for personnel to enter and work, but t has lmted or restrcted means for entry and ext. Confined spaces (e.g., sewers, open pits, tank cars, and vats) are not desgned for contnuous occupancy. Confined spaces can expose personnel to hazards ncludng toxc gases, explosive or oxygen-deficient atmospheres, electrcal dangers, or materals that can engulf personnel enterng the space.5

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Conditions in a confined space must be consdered dangerous, and personnel may not enter the space until a confined-space permit has been ssued. The atmosphere must be montored contnuously wth a calbrated, drect-readng nstrument for oxygen, carbon monoxde, flammable gases and vapors, and toxic air contamnants. Perodc readngs from these monitors should be documented. Only certified confined-space personnel may operate in confined spaces. Rescue services must be mmedately avalable to the ste. The followng practces must be followed when working in a confined space: ß Never enter before all atmospherc, engulfment, mechancal, and electrcal hazards have been identified and documented. Isolatng hazards must be performed n accordance wth OSHA 29 CFR 1910.147, The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout).6 Provde ventlaton. Ensure that ventlaton equpment does not nterfere wth entry, ext, or rescue procedures.

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Ensure that back-up communcaton s n place pror to entry. Ensure that personnel certified in first aid and CPR (cardopulmonary resusctaton) are on-ste. refer to the OSHA standard for Permit-Required Confined Spaces.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Provde barrers to warn unauthorzed personnel and to keep entrants safe from external hazards.7 ß ß ß ß ß ß 156 . Never attempt a rescue unless part of a desgnated rescue team. head protecton. Wear approprate personal protectve equpment. a full-body harness. Provde constant communcaton between personnel entering the confined space and attendants.146. For addtonal nformaton. such as self-contaned breathng apparatus (SCBA). 29 CFR 1910. and other necessary equpment.

often used to dentfy the contents of unknown packages.652(c). 29 CFR 1926. As wth all excavatons.652(b) or 29 CFR 1926. confined spaces.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Excavation Safety All excavatons must meet the requrements set forth n OSHA’s standards for excavatons. X-Ray Safety Portable.650.651. or dangerous to employees and who has the authorzaton to take prompt correctve acton to elmnate those hazards.8 1926.10 Each employee n an excavaton shall be protected from cave-ns by an adequate protectve system desgned n accordance wth 29 CFR 1926. personnel should be aware of bured utltes and control standng water. hazardous environments.10 unless excavations are less than five feet in depth and examnaton of the ground s made by a competent person to prevent cave-ns.9 and 1926. handheld X-ray machnes. pose a rsk for exposure to X-ray radaton at crme scenes. hazardous. A competent person s someone capable of dentfyng exstng and predctable hazards n the surroundngs or workng condtons that are unsantary. 157 . and oxygen-deficient atmospheres.652.

and the operator. The hazard rsk assessment should dentfy the possble contamnants as well as the hazards assocated wth each product. Ensure that standard X-ray operatng procedures are n place and followed and that adequate tranng has been provded n accordance wth federal and state regulatons. the questonable object. Remove all nonessental personnel from the X-ray field. Always wear assgned montorng devces approprate for X-ray radaton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Keep X-ray exposure as low as reasonably achevable by adherng to the followng: ß ß ß ß ß Sheld the X-ray devce. Lmt the tme that personnel must be n the area of operaton. Dependng on the 158 . the selecton of personal protectve equpment must be done n coordnaton wth a hazard rsk assessment completed by trained and qualified personnel. Back to the top Personal Protective Equipment At all crme scenes.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 outcome of the assessment or uncertanty of the hazards assocated wth the gven scene. It also offers some resstance to cuts and snags. acds. grease. Entry nto these types of scenes wll depend on each law enforcement organzaton’s avalable equpment. alkales. 29 CFR 1910.120. Neoprene offers resstance to ol. stuatonal training. and qualified personnel. hydraulic fluid. and chlornated solvents. 13 Detaled nformaton can be obtaned from the manufacturer. aromatcs. petroleum. Hand Protection Hand protecton should be selected on the bass of the type of materal beng handled and the hazard(s) assocated wth the materal. and most refrgerants. bases. OSHA’s standard for Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. photographic solutons. solvents. ß 159 . fuels. lubrcants.11 may need to be appled. alkalne solutions.12. The followng lst provdes nformaton about glove materal types and functons: ß Ntrle provdes protecton from acds.

germcdes. Personnel allergc to latex usually can wear ntrle or neoprene. caustcs. detergents. Remove rngs or other sharp objects that can cause punctures. Change gloves when they become torn or punctured or when ther ablty to functon as a barrer s compromsed. Latex wll swell and degrade f exposed to gasolne or kerosene. and lmted concentratons of ntrc and chromc acds. When exposed to prolonged. and ketonc solutons. causng the glove materal to lose ts ntegrty. and tears. excessve heat or drect sunlght. ß ß 160 . nspect them for holes. ols. When workng wth heavly contamnated materals. wear a double layer of gloves. Latex (natural rubber) ressts mld acds. punctures. ß ß Gudelnes for glove use nclude the followng: ß Pror to donnng gloves. Usng powder-free gloves wth reduced proten content reduces the rsk of developng latex allerges.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Polyvnyl chlorde (PVC) s resstant to alkales. latex gloves can degrade.

1. Do not reuse. and radoactve materals should wear approprate eye protecton. bologcal. remove dsposable gloves by graspng the cuffs and pullng them off nsde out. Eye Protection Personnel handlng chemcal. Face shelds must be worn n combnaton wth safety glasses or goggles because face shelds alone are not consdered approprate eye protecton. safety glasses may be made to the wearer’s eyeglass prescrpton. Protectve eyewear also should be worn over prescrpton glasses. 161 . Dscard dsposable gloves n desgnated contaners. Contact lens users must wear safety glasses or goggles to protect the eyes. 14 Face shelds offer better protecton when there is a potential for splashing or flying debrs. and contamnants can be trapped behnd the contact lens. such as safety glasses and goggles.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß To avod contamnatng unprotected skn or clothng. it can be difficult to remove the contact lens to rrgate the eye. In the event of a chemical splash into the eye. Alternately.

can produce noxous fumes and other arborne contamnants n whch responders must use respratory protecton. medical evaluation.134. nonpermeable shoe covers can provde barrer protecton to shoes and prevent the transfer of contamnaton outsde the crme scene. fit testing.16 In some stuatons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Foot Protection Shoes that completely cover and protect the foot are essental. ANSI Z41-1991. from objects percng the sole. 15 Protectve footwear should be worn at crme scenes when there s a danger of foot njures from fallng or rollng objects. the wearer s not guaranteed protecton. Respiratory Protection Certan crme scenes. Crtcal elements for the safe use of resprators nclude a wrtten program. 162 . Wthout these elements. 12. such as bombngs and clandestne laboratores. The standard recognzed by OSHA for protectve footwear s the American National Standard for Personal Protection— Protective Footwear. or from exposure to electrcal hazards.18 s mandatory whenever resprators are used. tranng.12. 17 Complance wth 29 CFR 1910.1. and a respirator mantenance program. Respiratory Protection.

Ttle 49 CFR 172. or sea.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Head Protection At certan crme scenes where structural damage has occurred or may occur. land.21 whch detals how to prepare and package shpments for ar transportaton.19 Back to the top Hazardous Materials Transportation All shipments of suspected or confirmed hazardous materals must comply wth U.1-2003. Ttle 49 of the CFR lists specific requirements that must be observed when preparng hazardous materals for shpment by ar.101 also addresses specal provsons for certan materals. the Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton annually publshes Dangerous Goods Regulations. emergency response nformaton. Department of Transportaton and Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton regulatons.20 In addton.S. hazardous materals communcatons. protectve helmets should be worn.101 provdes a Hazardous Materals Table22 that identifies items considered hazardous for the purpose of transportaton. Ttle 49 CFR 172. and tranng requrements for 163 . Z89. The standard recognzed by OSHA for protectve helmets s ANSI’s requrements for ndustral head protecton.

and dsposal facltes. Ths system mposes requrements on both generators and transporters. storage. Back to the top Hazardous Waste Regulations The U. to “grave. was establshed to track chemcals from “cradle. Hazardous materals that are removed from crme scenes are consdered evdence and would not fall under RCRA waste provsons. Even new material in its orgnal contaner may be consdered waste f there s no use for t.23 commonly referred to as the “cradle-tograve” regulaton. RCRA specifies that once a material is determined to be hazardous. However.” or generaton.S. The servces of a hazardous waste contractor and transporter can be used to help remove materals from scenes.” or dsposal. Personnel who serve any functon n the shpment of hazardous materals must receve the specified training prior to shipping any materials by commercal transportaton. as well as on transport. The process for determnng whether a materal s a hazardous waste should be completed by qualified personnel.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 shppers. t becomes the generator’s complete responsblty. when a case 164 . Envronmental Protecton Agency’s Resource Conservaton and Recovery Act (RCRA).

29 CFR 1910. J. New York. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. Clandestne drug laboratores and envronmental crme scenes are examples of stuatons that may requre the removal of waste. Upfal. U.osha. D. Genum. 1981.S.C. Schenectady. 165 . Natonal Research Councl.. D.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 has been adjudcated or. Pocket Guide to First Aid for Chemical Injuries. Back to the top References 1. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton.1030. 3. Bloodborne Pathogens. Washngton. Department of Labor. 2.gov/pls/oshaweb/ owadsp. Washngton.show_document?p_table=standards &p_d=10051. the mmedate assstance of a qualified contractor knowledgeable about local regulatons must be sought. the materal s not needed. Commttee on Hazardous Substances n the Laboratory. M. for other reasons. 1993. Avalable: http://www.C. Natonal Academy Press.

147. D. Schenectady. Permit-Required Confined Spaces. 29 CFR 1926.gov/ pls/oshaweb/owadsp. 8. Confort.C. U. Genum.gov/pls/oshaweb/ owadsp. New York. and Definitions Applicable to This Subpart.650. American National Standards Insttute. Scope. 166 .osha. Department of Labor.S. V.C. Avalable: http://www. 29 CFR 1910. J. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 4. Washngton.show _document?p_table=standards&p_d=9804.show_document?p_table =standards&p_d=9797.146. Washngton. Department of Labor. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. Application. Confined Space Pocket Guide.osha. The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/ Tagout).S. 6. 7.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadsp. U. Avalable: http://www. D. 29 CFR 1910. U. 5. New York. Washngton.1-2000).S. 2000. Avalable: http://www. American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136. Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute.osha. D. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton.show_document?p_table=standards&p _d=10774. 1996.C. Department of Labor.

120. Choose the proper gloves for chemcal handlng. D. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. 167 . In: Best’s Safety Directory.S.vrgna. Avalable: http://www.edu/chem/home. M. Requirements for Protective Systems. 1998. Vrgna. Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. Avalable: http://ehs.S. U. Laboratory Survival Manual. 1998. Unversty of Vrgna.S.osha.osha. 13. D. Department of Labor. Oldwck.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadsp. A.652. 11. U.show_document?p_table =standards&p_d=10775.C. Avalable: http://www.osha. New Jersey.html.C. Washngton. Best. 10. 29 CFR 1926. Avalable: http://www. 12. U.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 9.show_document?p_table =standards&p_d=10776. Specific Excavation Requirements. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. Department of Labor. Washngton. Charlottesvlle.gov/ pls/oshaweb/owadsp. 29 CFR 1926.show _document?p_table=standards&p_d=9765.gov/ pls/oshaweb/owadsp. Department of Labor. D. Washngton.C. Office of Environmental Health and Safety. 29 CFR 1910.651. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton.

Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute. 1997.134. C.osha. American National Standard for Personal Protection—Protective Footwear (ANSI Z411991).136. Hazardous Waste Handling Pocket Guide. Department of Labor. New York. New York.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 14.1-2003). 29 CFR 1910.C. Avalable: http://www. New York. 15. Washngton.C. 16. 29 CFR 1910. American National Standards Insttute.show_document?p_table =standards&p_d=9786. Respiratory Protection. Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute.gov/pls/oshaweb/ owadsp.S. Occupational Foot Protection. Avalable: http://www. 18. U. U. 17. Genum. 168 .osha.show_document?p_table=standards&p _d=12716. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton.gov/ pls/oshaweb/owadsp. Department of Labor. Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute.S. Schenectady. Gorman. Occupatonal Safety and Health Admnstraton. Washngton. American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection (ANSI Z87. D. D. 1991. 2003.

Dangerous Goods Regulations.S. Envronmental Protecton Agency. Washngton. New York.gov/nara/ cfr/wasdx_05/49cfr172_05. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Avalable: http://www. American National Standard for Personnel Protection—Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers—Requirements (ANSI Z89.101.gov/regon5/defs/html/rcra. Back to the top 169 . 21. Washngton.gpo.gpo. Avalable: http://www. 22.access. D. Montreal. U. U. 44th ed.1-2003).C.C. Avalable: http://www.gov/nara/ cfr/wasdx_05/49cfr172_05. 40 CFR 3001–3020. Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute.access.. 49 CFR 172.S.epa. Amercan Natonal Standards Insttute. D. Internatonal Ar Transport Assocaton.S. Department of Transportaton.C. 2003. Hazardous Materals Table. 2003. Washngton. Department of Transportaton.html. 20.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 19. D.htm. Canada. U. 23. Transportation.html. 49 CFR 100–185.

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chemical. 171 . The FBI is the lead federal agency of a suspected or confirmed WMD crime scene. Upon notification or suspicion of a possible WMD incident. or explosive agents) should be handled only by qualified personnel. A crme scene search s planned. biological. Physcal evdence cannot be overdocumented.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Crime Scene Search Crime scenes involving suspected or confirmed weapons of mass destruction (WMD) (nuclear and/or radiological. Basic Principles SEARCH ß ß The best search optons are usually the most difficult and time-consuming. contact the FBI’s Strategic Information and Operations Center at 202-323-3300 and ask for the Weapons of Mass Destruction Operations Unit Duty Officer. coordnated. Specific information on how to process a hazardous materials crime scene is not covered in this section. and executed by law enforcement officials to locate physcal evdence.

Establsh a command headquarters for communcaton and decson makng n major or complcated crme scene searches. Make prelmnary personnel assgnments before arrvng at the scene. A vgorous search of concealed areas. 172 ß ß ß . f possble. 2. Establsh communcaton between the medcal examner.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß There are two search approaches: 1. A cautous search of vsble areas. Dscuss the search wth nvolved personnel before arrvng at the scene. laboratory personnel. Ensure that personnel are aware of the types of evdence usually encountered and the proper handlng of the evdence. f possble. and prosecutve attorneys so that questons that arse durng the crme scene search can be resolved. f necessary. avodng evdence loss or contamnaton. Preparation ß ß ß Obtan a search warrant.

transportaton. Prepare the paperwork to document the search. and securty for search personnel. tranng. food. restroom facltes. water. equpment. medcal assstance. In prolonged searches. apttude. ü Prepare admnstratve log. Ensure that assgnments are n keepng wth the atttude.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß ß Coordnate agreements wth all agences n multjursdctonal crme scene searches. Personnel may be assgned two or more responsbltes: Team Leader ü Ensure scene securty. Transfer paperwork and responsblty n a preplanned manner from one team to the next. ß ß 173 . lghtng. shelter. Accumulate evdence collecton and packagng materals and equpment. Provde protectve clothng. and experence of search personnel. use shfts of two or more teams. communcaton.

academa. Sketch Preparer ü Sketch and log scene. ü Intal and date all evdence collected. Prepare narratve descrpton.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ü ü ü ü Conduct prelmnary survey (ntal walk-through). Evidence Recorder ü Serve as evdence custodan and log evdence. Specialists ü Brought n from the FBI Laboratory. other 174 . Evidence Recovery Personnel ü Ensure that evdence s located and documented (photo and sketch). Make final decisions. Resolve problems. Photographer ü Photograph and log evdence and scene. prvate ndustry.

. Contnue to take extensve notes. Record who enters and leaves. Secure and Protect ß ß Take control of the scene mmedately. Keep out unauthorzed personnel. Determne the extent to whch the scene has been protected. ß ß ß 175 . especally transent evdence. Take extensve notes. Consder the safety of all personnel.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 laboratores. on a case-by-case bass to assst n ther area of expertse. etc. Approach ß ß ß Be alert for evdence. ü Should be identified prior to the time they are actually needed. Obtan nformaton from personnel who have knowledge of the orgnal condton.

Recognze specal problem areas. Determne personnel and equpment needs. Select a narratve technque (wrtten. audo. Delneate the extent of the search area. Mantan admnstratve and emotonal control. 176 . Take prelmnary photographs. or vdeo). Identfy and protect transent physcal evdence.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Preliminary Survey The prelmnary survey s an organzatonal stage to plan for the search. Expand the ntal permeter as needed. ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß Cautously walk through the scene. Determne the need for any specalsts. Organze methods and procedures. Make specific assignments.

177 ß ß . ß ß ß ß Ensure that collecton and packagng materials and equipment are sufficient. Take extensve notes to document the scene. Look for hdden tems.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß Develop a general theory of the crme. Consder all categores of evdence possbltes. Focus first on evidence that could be lost. physcal and envronmental condtons. and personnel movements. Leave the least transent evdence for last. Evaluate whether evdence appears to have been moved nadvertently. Evaluate Physical Evidence Possibilities Ths evaluaton begns upon arrvng at the scene and becomes detaled n the prelmnary survey stage. Search the easly accessble areas and progress to out-of-vew locatons. Evaluate whether the scene appears contrved.

The narratve should nclude the followng: ü ü ü ü ü Case identifier. the narratve. Condton and poston of evdence when an evdence recovery log s not used.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Narrative The narratve s a runnng descrpton of the crme scene. 178 . Use photographs and sketches to supplement. ß ß ß ß ß Use a systematc approach n the narratve. and locaton. tme. Weather and lghtng condtons. Identty and assgnments of personnel. Under most crcumstances. Nothing is insignificant to record if it catches one’s attenton. Date. not substtute for. do not collect evdence durng the narratve.

Photograph the nteror crme scene n an overlappng seres usng a normal lens. Prepare a photographc log that records all photographs and a descrpton and locaton of evdence. ß ß ß ß ß ß 179 . Photograph from eye level to represent the normal vew. filling the frame. All tems of evdence should be photographed by close-ups. and close-up vews of the crme scene. Overall photographs may be taken usng a wde-angle lens. Photograph the most fragle areas of the crime scene first. medum.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Photography ß ß Photograph the crme scene as soon as possble. f possble. Establsh a progresson of overall. first without a scale and then with a scale. Photograph all evdence n place pror to recovery.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß Photograph the exteror crme scene. Pror to enterng the scene. Sketches normally are not drawn to scale. f necessary. Photograph entrances and exts from the nsde and the outsde. acqure—f possble—pror photographs. and dstance and sze relatonshps. or maps of the scene. the sketch should have measurements and detals for a drawn-to-scale dagram. Sketch number desgnatons should coordnate wth the evdence log number desgnatons. However. ß ß Sketches should supplement photographs. when possble. Consder usng aeral photography. ß ß Sketch The sketch establshes a permanent record of tems. 180 ß . Photographs should have 360 degrees of coverage. blueprnts. establshng the locaton of the scene wth a seres of overall photographs ncludng a landmark. condtons.

or a combnaton of these features.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß The sketch should nclude the followng: ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Case identifier. Measurements showng the locaton of evdence. furnture. scale. doors. Dstances between objects. and exts. e. ü 181 . Dmensons of rooms. and locaton. legend. tme.g. Weather and lghtng condtons. persons. Date. scale dsclamer. Key. bodes. Each object should be located by at least two measurements usng an establshed measurement system. Identty and assgnments of personnel. compass orentaton.. and wndows. trangulaton. or azmuth. entrances. transectng baselne.

Record and Collect Physical Evidence ß ß ß Ensure that all tems are photographed pror to collecton. and dated. Evdence tems are marked drectly only when postve the marks wll not nterfere wth subsequent forensc examnaton. Search entrances and exts.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Conduct Detailed Search ß ß ß ß Use a search pattern (grd. Complete an evdence log notng all tems of evdence collected. have one person serve as evdence custodan. Search for evdence from the general to the specific. ntaled. or spral). strp or lane. ß 182 . Two people should observe the evdence n place. If possble. then as t s collected. Mark evdence locatons on the sketch. Be alert for all evdence.

fiber samples from a known carpet). Ensure that all documentaton s correct and complete. 183 . Do not excessvely handle the evdence after recovery. Photograph the scene showing the final condton. Seal all evdence packages at the crme scene. Final Survey ß ß ß ß ß The final survey is a review of all aspects of the search. packagng. Constantly check paperwork.g. and other nformaton for errors.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß ß ß Wear latex or cotton gloves to avod leavng fingerprints.. Dscuss the search wth all personnel. Obtain known standards (e. Ensure that all evdence s accounted for before departng the scene.

and by whom released. Reconsder the need for addtonal specalsts. 184 ß ß ß ß Back to the top . consstent wth legal requrements. Once the scene has been released. to the person to whom the scene s released.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 ß ß ß Ensure that all supples and equpment are removed from the scene. Ensure that the approprate nventory has been provded. The scene should be released only when all personnel are satisfied that the scene was searched correctly and completely. Ensure that no areas have been overlooked n the detaled search. to whom released. Crme scene release documentaton should nclude the tme and date of release. Only the person n charge should release the scene. Release ß ß Release the crime scene after the final survey. reentry may requre a warrant.

Frearms cartrdge cases or shotshell casngs. 88–89. 148–149 Ammunton. See DNA examnatons INDEX 185 . 15–16 Arrest photos. 147–149 Bologcal relatves. 17 lmtatons. 136–137 Adhesves. survellance films. 21 Bohazardous materals bloodborne pathogen safety. 73. 101–102 tre tread examnatons. 139–141 routes of exposure n contamnated envronments. buckshot. 14 Acrylc-surface replca cast kt. 77 Arson. 18. 116 Bank securty dyes. and labelng. 64 packagng. 5. labelng.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Index A Abrasves. 64 waddng. 75–78 Bank Robbery Note Fle. 119–121. 14–15. 65 Anonymous Letter Fle. 141 See also Image analyss Automobles accdents. shppng. or slugs. mssng persons and samples from. 74. 149–152 packagng. 127–130 Arborne contamnants. 69–71 make and model identification. 18–20 Authentcty/manpulaton detecton. 116 Anthropologcal examnatons. 5 glass samples from. 121–131 B Bank robbery. 4 Audo. 101–102 automoble theft. 95–97 Bologcal tssue sample examnaton. 68. 75 pant samples from. See also Bullets. See also Tapes for lftng mpressons. shppng. 100. 9–12. 66–68 shot pellets. 46. 11–12.

Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Blood blood examnaton request letter. 78. 152–153 Chemcal unknowns. 45–46 collectng known samples. n snow or water. 48 stans. 5 C Cameras. See Impressons and casts Caulk. 115 Chemcal safety. 115 Carjackng. 45–46. 68 collectng from a person. 48 wet bloodstaned garments and objects. specific fluids. Survellance mages Carbon paper or carbon-film rbbon. shppng. 56–58 Checkwrters. Frearms bullet jacket alloys. 64 packagng.g. 150–152 Bones. See also DNA examnatons. 22 Bullets. 149–152 Body fluids. Tssue. 64. 24–26 Chld Explotaton and Obscenty Reference Fle. 48–50. 74. 75. See also Ammunton. 66–68 Castng. 49–50 on surfaces. 64 Buldng materals. e. 78 186 . Salva Unversal precautons. bones. See Anthropologcal examnatons. 66–68 Burglary.. and teeth. 65. 14–15 Cellular phones. 96 lqud. cartrdge cases. 23–24. See also Photographs/photography. 48–50 collecton. 47. 50 on clothng submtted for gunshot resdue examnaton. Blood. mssng persons and. 48 on a person. 95–96 dred. 5 Cartrdges. 96–97 Buckshot. 23–24 fired. and labelng. mage analyss and. See also Skeletal samples Buccal (oral) swab samples. 49–50 Bloodborne pathogen safety.

31 content. 103 protectve. 68 hair/fibers on. 26 extracton. 27 Computers comparson. 29–30 Cordage. 117–118 Crme scene safety. 26 deleted data files. 147 bloodborne pathogen safety. 101–102 pepper spray or pepper foam on. 75–79 Clocks. 29–30 explosves resdue on. 49 buldng materals debrs on. 27 labelng and shppng. 118–119 wood partcles on. See also Bohazardous materals about. 27–29 search or field examnaton. fabrc. 27 procedures for examnaton. 93 Clothng.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Chld pornography examnatons. 60–61 glass samples on. See Personal protectve equpment safe nsulaton on. 27 passwords. 147–149 Controlled substances. 26 format converson. 73 controlled substances on. 70 gunshot resdue on. mage analyss. 22 for comparsons. and textles bank securty dye on. 154–156 Contamnated envronments routes of exposure n. 146 Coded messages. 27–28 transacton. 149–152 chemcal safety. 57–58 Computer Analyss Response Team. 65. 71–72 pant on. 26 keyword searchng. 21 blood on. 152–153 187 . 26 computer-anmated modelng. 26 Confined-space safety. 56–58 Communcaton devces ntercepton-of-. See Cryptanalyss Commercal electronc devces. 28–29 lmted source code.

121–124. 178 photography. 17 buldng materals. 157–158 Crme scene search procedures approach. 183–184 latent prnts. 86–87. 31 Crmnal Justce Informaton Servces Dvson. 176–177 preparaton. 154–156 hazardous materals transportaton. 142–144 Debrs arson and. 131–133 Decontamnaton/dsnfecton of equpment. 184 search. 173–175 secure and protect. 179–180 physcal evdence possbltes evaluaton. 153–154 personal protectve equpment. 80–89 narratve. 164–165 lght-source safety. 171 Crme scene surveys. 172–175 record and collect. 82–84. 125–127 188 . 182–183 release. 147–149 X-ray safety. 171–172 final survey. 175 sketches. 163–164 hazardous waste regulatons. 100–102 safe nsulaton and. 182 search personnel. 33 Dental stone. 22 glass samples. 89 Cryptanalyss. 69–70 pant. 118–119 sol examnatons and. 31–33 D Damaged meda restoraton audo recordngs. 151 Demonstratve evdence. 175 basc prncples.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 confined-space safety. and reconstructon. 177 prelmnary survey. mxng and pourng. 158–163 routes of exposure n contamnated envronments. 19–20 vdeo. 180–181 weapons of mass destructon and. documentaton.

See Clothng. teeth. 44–45 har. bones. 58–60. 52–53 semen and semen stan examnatons. 142–144 Evdence packagng and shppng. Abrasves. 32 Drug resdue. 2–3 Explosve ncdents and hoaxes. collectng.. Explosves Expert wtness testmony. 60–61 Eye protecton. See also Chemcal safety Explosves resdue. 115 Enhancement examnatons audo recordngs. 34–35. 33–35 tssue. and preservng. 53–54.g. 30 Dyes. 154. 33–35 anthropologcal examnatons of bone. 42–44. 21 E Electronc devces. 7–9.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Digital cameras and film. packagng. See Cameras. Flm DNA examnatons about. 4 Explosves. 96–97 case acceptance polcy. e. 56–58 Electrostatc lfts. 7–12 Evdence examnatons. bank securty. 54–55. See also specific items. 35–40 documentng. 18–20 vdeo. 9–12 submsson. 97–100 urne. 161 F Fabrc and textles. 50–52 semnal evdence from sexual assault vctms. and textles 189 . 52 sources for analyss. 127–128 Elmnaton prnts. 85 Embossngs. DNA. 15–16 buccal (oral) swabs. requestng. fabrc. 34–35 preservng DNA evdence. 115 Drug records. 40–43 nuclear DNA. 55–56 salva. 47. 71–72 mtochondral DNA. 52–53 Document age.

62–63 Fbers. 64 slencers. 73. 16. See also Latent prnts Fngerprnts. 65 Foot protecton. 159–161 Handwrtng and hand prntng. 32 Gelatn lfts. 71–72 Flm. lquds. 114 Guns. 112–113 FBI Dsaster Squad. 88–89. 27. or slugs. 79–80. 87. 69–71 Global postonng systems (GPSs). 107–110 Hazard rsk assessment. 72–79 Fngerprntng human remans. 78 shot pellets. 61–62 FBI Laboratory. 141 Feathers. 12 FBI Operatonal Technology Dvson. 68 mage analyss. See Arson Frearms. 1–3 FBI Laboratory Evdence Control Unt. See Frearms Gunshot resdue on clothng. 24–26 Glass. See Latent prnts Fre. 162 Footprnts. 57. 65 waddng. 64 gun parts. 1–3. stans). 3–5 G Gamblng. 53–54. 56–58 Graphc arts (prntng). 71–72 toxcology screenng. 18. See Electronc devces. 57. personal protectve equpment and. buckshot. 68–69 Forensc servces about. 65. 66 unfired cartridges or shotshells. mage analyss. 7. 68 H Har. 43–44. 63–68.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Facsmle machnes. See also Ammunton. See Shoe prnts Forensc facal magng/ reproducton. 158–159 190 . 72. 139 Hand protecton. Questoned document examnatons Facsmles. 1–3 lmtatons. Bullets cartrdge cases or shotshell casngs. 65 gunshot resdue on vctm’s clothng. 65. 128–130 General unknowns (powders.

shppng. 125–127 for toolmark examnatons. 150 Ht-and-run (automoble) cases. 74 packagng. 75. 164–165 Head protecton. Chemcal safety. and labelng of. 105–106 Human immunodeficiency vrus (HIV). 5. 73–74.g. e. 74 chld pornography examnatons. and date of photographc evdence. 136–137 two-dmensonal mpressons. See also Bohazardous materals. 44. tme. 76–79 provdng orgnals. 10–12. 149–152 191 . 88–89 samples from unidentified. 15–16 hands/fingers for latent prnts. 78 locaton. 74 automoble make and model identification. 78 clothng. Explosves Hazardous waste regulatons.150 Human remans anthropologcal examnatons. 163–164. 78 film.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Hazardous materals handlng and transportaton. 74 vdeo. See Arson Image analyss authentcty and magemanpulaton detecton. 73–78 Impressons and casts of serial/identification numbers. 163 Hepatts B and C vruses. 97–100 I Igntable materals. 76 source and age. 119–121 three-dmensonal mpresson casts.. 73 photographs. 127–130 Infectous materals. 73. 76–79 firearms. specific hazardous materials. 73–78 procedures for submsson. 101–102. 75 cameras. Ammunton. 73. 78 photographc comparsons. 76–79 photogrammetry.

82–84 submitting hands/fingers of deceased for. 92 objects wth questoned nternal components. and tmers. 71 lftng. 89–90 M Malcous mschef. 5 Mssng persons about samples. 94–97 blood collecton and. case acceptance polcy. 9–12. 93 Mnor theft and fraud. 93 Latent labels. 96 bone submssons. 57–58 Lftng materals. 148 Injecton of contamnants. 92 lamp bulbs. 90–91 cut or severed metal. shppng. 127–130 Lght-source safety. 80 developng at crme scenes. anthropologcal examnatons of bone and. 10 Latent prnts. clocks. 5 Metallurgy broken or mechancally damaged metal. heated. 96 L Labels and labelng. 81. shppng. 97–98 buccal (oral) swabs. 149 Ink. and labelng. 32 Lubrcants. 149 Inhalaton exposure. 80–82 dgtal mages of. 96–97 dred bloodstans.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Ingeston of contamnants. 93 specification fraud and noncomplant materals. 92–93 watches. 84–86 photographng. 91 burned. 88–89 192 . 75 Insect samples. See also specific items Lamp bulbs. 16 Intercepton-ofcommuncaton (IOC) devces. 86–87 glass samples and. 81 packagng. 92 comparatve examnatons. 79–80 Innocent Images. 153–154 Loan-sharkng. 93 metal fragments. or melted metal.

161 foot protecton. 162 Pharmaceutcals. 77 mpressons n snow. 98–99 tssue samples. 56–58 Personal protectve equpment (PPE). 117. 158–159 head protecton. 74 photographc comparsons. 87. 159–161 hazard rsk assessment and. 32 N Natonal Automotve Image Fle. 94 Nonfatal traffic accidents. 73 193 . 112–114. 97–98 teeth and.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 samples from bologcal relatves. See also Toxcology Photocopes. 114–117 Pepper spray or foam. eye protecton. 95–96 skeletal samples. 75 Natonal Integrated Ballstc Informaton Network (NIBIN). 124 latent prnts. 37. 179–180 examnaton-qualty. 73–75. 40. 75 Natonal Center for Mssng and Exploted Chldren. 96–97 P Packagng and shppng evdence. 154. See Pepper spray or foam Oral swab samples. 100 Mtochondral DNA (mtDNA) See DNA examnatons Money launderng. 162 hand protecton. 47. 56–58 Pant. 82–84 locaton. 100–102 Paper. and date determnatons and. 163 respratory protecton. 122–124 mage analyss. 104. 64 Natonal Mssng Person DNA Database. 78 Photographs/photography crme scene search procedures. 73. 103–104 Personal dgtal assstants. (PDAs). 5 Nuclear DNA (nDNA). 9–12 Pagers. tme. See DNA examnatons O Oleoresn capscum. 131 Photogrammetry.

115 Posons. 116 Bank Robbery Note Fle. altered or oblterated wrtng. 158–163 embossngs and seals. 115 checkwrters. 110 packagng. 115 S Safe nsulaton. 55–56 Sealants. 115 R Racketeerng records. 148. 117 plastc bags. 106–107 Property crme. 79 nongenune sgnatures. 162 Rope.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 shoe prnts and tre treads. 34. 107–110 nk and. 117–118 Routes of exposure n contamnated envronments. 114 photocopes. 115 typewrtng. 115 document age. 116–117 paper. 3–5 Prosttuton. 31–33 Respratory protecton. 116 burned or charred paper. 121–124 of suspects. 115 rubber stamps. 77 toolmarks. 147–149 Rubber stamps. 110–112 Q Questoned documents. 75–79 Prntng and prnted matter. shppng. 137 Plastc bags. 115 facsmles. 110 Anonymous Letter Fle. 14–15 194 . 104–106 Pornography examnatons. See Crme scene safety Salva. 32–33 Protectve clothng and equpment. 52–53. 112–114 graphc arts (prntng). 114 Product tamperng. 118–119 Safety. 112–114. and labelng. See Crme scene safety. 114 carbon paper and carbon-film ribbon. 114 handwrtng and hand prntng. Toxcology Polymers. mage analyss.

50–52 Semnal evdence from sexual assault vctms. 24–26 Survellance mages. 5 Typewrtng. and teeth anthropologcal examnatons of bone. 89 Teeth. semnal evdence from. 135–138 Toxcology. See DNA examnatons Sexual assault. 19 Sgnatures.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 Seals. 93 Tre treads. 121–131 Shot pellets. 81 Ten-print fingerprint cards. 52 Shppng of evdence. 15–16 DNA examnatons. audo recordngs. 73–79 Suspects. 52 Seral numbers. specific items Shoe prnts. bones. 77 T Tape. 48 mpressons n. 182 Semen and semen stan examnatons. See Human remans Skeletal samples. 66 Skeletal remans. 44. 97–100 Toolmarks. 65 Sgnal analyss. 54–55 97–100 unidentified human remans. See Packagng and shppng evdence. 64 Shotshells and shotshell casngs. 7–12 Substances. 138–141 Traffic accidents. 64 Snow blood n. bones. 64. 119–121 Serology. 133 Submttng evdence. unknown (powders. 110–112 195 . 134–135 for lftng mpressons. 121–131 Tssue. 148 Slugs. 115 Search patterns. 128–130 for lftng latent prnts. stans). 110 Slencers. 124 Sol. and teeth Tmers. lquds. arrest or known photographs of. 131–133 Specal-event and stuatonal awareness support. See Tssue. 97–98 Skn contamnaton/contact.

79. ammunton. 16 V Vandalsm. Questoned documents 196 . 93 Watermark identification. 144–146 crme scene search procedures and. See Handwrtng and hand prntng. 72–79 Volent crme. 68. 5 Vdeo. 141–144 mage analyss. 146 Wrtng examnatons.Handbook of Forensc Servces 2007 U Unversal precautons. 133 Voce comparsons. known ndvdual comparson to skeletal remans. 3–4 Vsual nformaton specalsts. 171 Wood. 150–152 Urne. 157–158 X-rays. 33. 31. 139 X X-ray safety. 18–19 W Waddng. 65 Watches. 52–53. 115 Weapons of mass destructon.

Law enforcement officers and forensic laboratory personnel may obtan the handbook n field-manual format by faxing a request on agency letterhead to the FBI Laboratory Lbrary at 703-632-8374. 197 .pdf.gov/ hq/lab/handbook/forensics.The Handbook of Forensic Services s also avalable onlne at http://www.fbi.

198 .

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