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Journal Club, BPHC
First published April, 2012 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Journal Club, BPHC or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to rights department, Journal Club, BPHC.
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N TODAYS world I believe no-body is unaware of scenarios of Power-
Cuts and water shortage. For me these two are quite horrible, primarily because I am from deserted area of Rajasthan. To overcome issues like these we focus on attempts to avoid misuse of natural resources but we need to ask ourselves what we want? A temporary solution like preservation of resources or a permanent solution full of alternatives. A temporary solution is going to extend the time to switch back on something more abundant and easily replenish-able in nature but the focus is always this selfreplenish able resource. The most sensible solution hence seems is to GO GREEN. Thus we the team of Journal Club brings you the latest developments in the motto to “GO GREEN” in various fields of science. Hope that this issue may inspire people among us to take the developments in Green Technology to the next level.
Editing & Designing Team Head
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By-Veda Samhita The relation between transportation and energy is a direct one--greater the rise in demand for transportation, greater is the energy required. Here, transportation includes different modes like land, maritime and air. It accounts for approximately 25% of world energy demand and for more than 62% of all the oil used each year. Transportation is almost completely reliant (95%) upon petroleum products. With this kind of dependency, the relation between transportation and environmental pollution has also been a direct one. Transport sector contributes to quarter of all energy related CO 2 emissions. With the fast depletion and rising demand of the fossil fuels, the cost of transportation is also increasing tremendously. This is evident from the increase in petrol and diesel prizes several times in the past few months. With the number of vehicles escalating rapidly, there is an urgent need to shift to better energy sources for transportation.
The starting step in dealing with these issues is moving towards ‘Electric drive Vehicles (EV)’. This could be the start of a revolution that helps to cut down global warming gas emissions and end the oil addiction in near future. EVs standout for their potential to comprehensively address some of the biggest issues concerning cost, energy consumption and environmental impact. Compared to internal combustion engine technology (ICE), some of the benefits with the EVs are: • The potential to use large range of energy sources, including all types of renewable energy, in combination with higher energy efficiency. • The potential for sustainable and carbon neutral (CO2-free) mobility, zero emission if powered by renewable energy sources. • Less or no air pollution (depending on the type of power production) along with lower noise levels. Different types of electric vehicle technologies include: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). These vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs.
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Hybrid Electric Vehicles : HEVs run on gasoline with a motor and use batteries to improve efficiency. These do not use electricity from any external source.
(PHEVs) provide very promising opportunities for the future development of a sustainable transport sector.
All-Electric Vehicles: EVs use a battery to store the electric energy that powers the motor. EV batteries are charged by plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. EVs are sometimes referred to as battery electric vehicles (BEVs).
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles : PHEVs can be charged with electricity like EVs and run under engine power like HEVs. The combination increases the efficiency, reduces the emissions and costs. PHEVs can be classified into Serial PHEVs and Parallel PHEVs. Among these, Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
Electric cars are not a completely new technology. Back in 1800s, these vehicles were widely used. Restriction on range, recharging of the batteries were the limitations then, and they continue as challenges till date. With adequate improvements in these areas, numerous models have already hit the market and virtually every major company is promising either a plug in hybrid or a fully electric car. Chevrolet Volt and Honda Insight are competing in the hybrid market with gas engines to take over when batteries run out of charging. There is also Nissan’s Leaf, an all electric that can go up to 160km before needing a recharge. The challenges with these electric cars are still huge! Important ones being: • EVs involve high initial costs • Requires additional equipment- a charging station is required to recharge the battery in an all electric • Power source- if charging of several vehicles is done at a time from a local distribution transformer, blackout can happen
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due to overloading Battery life and capability- batteries deliver less range after a couple of thousands of charging and discharging • Recharging time-it may take 18 hours to recharge the battery at the available voltage • Disposing of the batteries Given these enormous challenges, rapid advancements in these fields resulted in some solutions to make EVs a practicality. Coupled with smart grid •
technology, batteries can be charged during off-peak hours allowing proper electricity management. The life of Li-ion batteries has been improved and their bulk production can bring down the costs. By using the old batteries for lower wattage needs (like household lighting) we can reduce the disposability problem to some extent. Rather than utilizing the electricity produced from conventional sources, the EVs can run on renewable sources like solar energy, making the transport sector sustainable for future generations.
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ROAD TO PS-1
What’s PS-1 all about? Why the hell are we doing it when friends from other colleges are having a great gala time? Probably these will be the questions in the minds of 2010 batch students.PS-1 is an excellent opportunity to improve your resume, making new friends and contacts, learning from you peers from Goa and Pilani Campuses, enhancing your communication skills and exploring new places .It’s the first step towards the professional life and this often turns out to be a really great experience. As you will be aware PS-1 is 50 days long program. The first 15 days is all about adjusting to your workplace. During this period you’ll be busy with orientation, interaction and project allocation. If PS-1 station is not in your hometown then you’ll be a having a tough time arranging for food and accommodation .Then comes what BITS is known for. You would have guessed it. Yes, its Quiz-1.You cannot escape the tests even at the PS-1.Quiz-1 is a very general test and all you need is to cram the history ,objectives and additional features of your PS-1 station .The best way to prepare is from the organization website and the orientation program. Now this is the time when students at some of the PS-1 stations will become extremely choosy in visiting the centre .It’s all about matching your time of visit with that of an instructor .While, students at other PS-1 will be having a tough time in starting up with the project work. Some of the PS-1 stations provide really great projects. These projects will be exciting and will be a huge asset for your resume. What you must understand is that PS is a distinctive feature of BITS brand name? They will be using it as one of their strengths while cajoling the industries for campus recruitments. Therefore,
it’s very important to do your project work diligently. Also you ‘ll be having a great learning experience from Group Discussions and Seminars .There will be 2 GD’s in total and you’ll be provided with a list of probable topics .The report is very important component and carries a lot of weightage. There will be 2 reports in total and seminars corresponding to each. In report-1 you’ll need to include details about the organization and compilation of the project work done until that time. While, report -2 will be more project oriented and should include all the details of the project work done at the PS-1 station. In seminars we need to present on the project and details included in the report. Seminars are followed by question and answer session and this may be attended by the people at organization. Quiz-2 is also there which includes the questions about the project .It would be better to listen to the seminar-1 of your peers or go through their slides while preparing for Quiz-2 because Quiz -2 also include the questions on project work of your peers also. So, this was all about the evaluation component of your PS-1. Apart from the evaluation PS-1 adds a greater value to your experience at BITS. Take it as an opportunity for making good friends, contacts and exploring new places. Interact as much as you can with your peers. Learn about their future plans, the electives they have taken or are planning to do, their cultural and technical fest and the trends of placements and higher education in their campuses. Do take your project seriously as this adds to your resume as already mention .This also helps to earn recommendations from the organization which may be beneficial while applying for higher education. BEST OF LUCK!!!
By- Atharav Gupta
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DROP OF LIQUID SOLVES MAZE!!
-A review by Adharsh Raghavan
In the scientific world, either labrats are used by experimental psychologists or algorithms are designed by computer programmers in order to solve mazes. But who in their right minds would have guessed that acid droplets could do the trick!? You probably think the topic seems bizarrely absurd and that I’m crazy. Fair enough, because I felt the same way too, until I had gone through the details of the experiment. A team led by Northwestern University’s chemistry professor Bartosz A Grzybowski has shown that an acid droplet can navigate a complex maze. Although the experiment has complex equations associated with it, the ‘primitive intelligence’ of the droplet can be explained by a simple chemical mechanism that is primarily based on a pH gradient. Such a p henomenon, in which somatic cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multi-cellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment, is defined as chemotaxis.
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The Experimental setup :
Then team in Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois used a common polymer to create a 2-D labyrinth some 2 cms on each side. They then flooded the mazy with strongly alkaline KOH solution, and then placed a HCl-soaked chunk of gel at the maze exit. The chunk (and its position), as you have probably guessed by now, is the source of the pH gradient across the maze.
After about 40 seconds later (this is minimum time required to set up the gradient) they placed a droplet of mineral oil containing hexyldecanoic acid at the entrance to the maze. The droplet was dyed with Calco Oil Red (American Cyanamid) in order to illuminate the path taken by it. The oil cannot mix with the KOH, and it sits on the surface, but not for long. It starts moving through the maze towards the acid-soaked gel, solving the maze in the process.
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Why at all does the droplet move in such a fashion? The answer lies in the pH gradient. As the droplet leaches its acid into the surrounding solution, it loses H+ ions; this affects the surface tension of the droplet. The pH gradient that was set up ensures that the front and the rear of the droplet have a different pH. This small difference affects the amount of deprotonation that
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happens at the ends of the droplet and hence sets up a surface tension gradient. This forces the droplet into motion. As Grzybowski says, the droplet is ‘selfpropellant’.
This might sound fairly simple, and I thought so too, until I saw the following two photographs:
Figure 2: The most amazing part of this experiment is depicted here, where the droplet goes astray at two locations, but decides there’s something wrong with that and so it reverses its direction!! It’s almost as if the droplet has a brain of its own!!
The technique seems to have unique applications. Sources claim that running oil against a H gradient could generate mechanical energy in a nano-machine or running it through a special maze could help solve a class of maze-like math problems, called NP-complete problems (computers are poor at completing these kind of problems).
The dark colour represents earlier times, and lighter colour represents later times.
Figure 1: Here the droplet (1µL, 20% v/v HAD (hexyldecanoic acid) in DCM (dichloromethane) assumes the shortest path available in order to solve the maze.
In the world of medicine, it is not unusual that the drugs that are effective in the lab fail to cure a disease because the medicine is unable to navigate the maze of blood vessels that lead to a tumor. But using the results of this experiment, scientists may have found a way to carry the drug to the right spot even after it takes a ‘wrong turn’. “A good reason is that cancer is more acidic
than the rest of the body”, Grzybowski says.
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THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
By - Prakhyat
Being intelligent does not always mean that someone does well in tests - a problem with which teachers and school administrators have struggled since the earliest days of organized education. Howard Gardner's Theory of multiple intelligences helps educators think differently about "IQ," and about what being "smart" means. The theory is changing the way some teachers teach. Gardner’s outlook on intelligence differs greatly from the traditional view which usually recognizes only two intelligences, verbal and computational. Howard Gardner first identified and introduced to us seven different kinds of intelligence in his book Frames of Mind. • Linguistic • Logical-mathematical • Musical • Spatial • Bodily-kinesthetic • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal This theory provides insight into people's preferred learning styles, as well as their behavioral and working styles, and their natural strengths. For example, imagine that your teacher has assigned you
to read a novel and then develop a project of your choice based on the book. One student immediately decides to draw a comic strip depiction of several different scenes from the novel. Another student in the class decides to compose a brief musical interpretation of the book, while another student opts to write a creative essay from the point of view of one of the characters in the story. The tendency to choose such widely varied projects based on the same novel can understood by looking at each student's individual strengths. Students who are good with visual information often prefer to work with visual imagery, such as drawing a scene or image. Students who are strong with tone or rhythm might prefer to do a project that incorporates music, while students who are good with words might prefer to write about their thoughts and ideas. Subsequent research and reflection by Howard Gardner and his colleagues has looked to three particular possibilities: a naturalist intelligence, a spiritual intelligence and an existential intelligence.
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As the education system has stressed the importance of developing mathematical and linguistic intelligences, it often determines a student's success only on the measured skills in those two intelligences. Supporters of Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences believe that this emphasis is unfair.
Children whose musical intelligences are highly developed, for example, may be overlooked for gifted programs or may be placed in a special education class because they do not have the required math or language scores. Teachers must seek to assess their students' learning in ways which will give an accurate overview of their strengths and weaknesses. As all children do not learn in the same way, they cannot be assessed in a uniform fashion. Therefore, it is important that a teacher create an "intelligence profile" for each student. Knowing how each student learns will allow the teacher to properly assess the child's progress. Such
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credible feedback will help a teacher to teach in an easy manner catering to each kid. Traditional tests (e.g. multiple choice, short answer, essay. . .) require students to show their knowledge in a predetermined manner. Supporters of Gardner's theory claim that a better approach of assessing students is by assigning them creative projects,journals which engage most of their intelligences. The theory of multiple intelligences is being followed in many educational institutions. Despite being doubted upon initially the theory has found great utility in the system. It has helped a significant number of educators to question their work
and to encourage them to look beyond the narrow confines of the dominant discourses of skilling, curriculum, and testing. For example, Mindy Kornhaber and her colleagues at the Project SUMIT (Schools Using Multiple Intelligences Theory) have examined the performance of a number of schools and concluded that there have been significant gains in respect of SATs scores, parental participation, and discipline. Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory has helped educators to reflect on their practice, and given them a basis to broaden their focus and to attend to what might assist people to live their lives well, then it has to be judged a useful addition.
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WIFI: INTERNET IN THE AIR
by- N . Sai Chaitanya
Most of the technological wonders that we see in and around us in these modern technological times are intriguing .One non-denying fact about the new technologies is that they make our life simple and easy.We all are curious to learn about how this things work…One such technology is the WI-FI the abbreviated as the WIRELESS FIDELITY. If you've been in an airport, coffee shop, library or hotel recently, chances are you've been right in the middle of a wireless network. WiFi has a lot of advantages. Wireless networks are easy to set up and inexpensive. They're also unobtrusive -unless you're on the lookout for a place to use your laptop, you may not even notice when you're in a hotspot. In this article, we'll look at the technology that allows information to travel over the air. A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. In fact, communication across a wireless network is a lot like two-way radio communication. Here's what happens:
. 1.A computer's wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna. A wireless router receives the signal and decodes it. The router sends the information to the Internet using a physical, wired Ethernet connection. 2.The radios used for WiFi communication are very similar to the radios used for walkie-talkies, cell phones and other devices. They can transmit and receive radio waves, and they can convert 1s and 0s into radio waves and convert the radio waves back into 1s and 0s. Using the above encryption and decoding technique the signals are transmitted. This is how the wifi that we use to wirelessly connect to the internet works .The
technologies that we use are really easy to work with but what actually makes them run is something for all of us to be curious about and learn.
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THE TINY TRANSISTORS
By – Sahaja T.
The idea of a single-atom transistor is the
outcome of researchers and the consumers worldwide to fit all the devices in their pockets. The basic principle behind a transistor is simple : Just arrange two electrodes, a source, a sink and a GATE that manipulates the flow of current between them. The common semiconductor transistors use silicon or other semiconductor material, and one more electrode to control the flow of current between source and sink. Just like any other transistor, it has two electrodes made of gold which are covered entirely with a non-conducting material except for the immediate contact area. This contact area functions as an electrochemical working electrode. These represent the source and the drain of our tiny transistors. These electrodes are immersed in an electrolyte and an additional voltage of the order of 0.001V is applied to deposit silver on each of them. And as the small crystal chunks touch, there is an atomic scale contact between them. By monitoring the conductance below a fixed value, the deposition is stopped and the voltage is reversed to dissolve the junction again, and when conductance falls to a lower value, the deposition starts again. After repetitive cycles, the conductance is stabilized at an interesting quantized integer multiple of G o =2e 2 /h.
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The quantization provides on-state and offstate potentials for the tiny transistor that are regulated by a gate potential set at “hold” between on and off. So they work at three potentials - on, off and hold. This explains the hysteresis - As we move between two states of switch, the energy barrier needs to be overcome from a conducting state to non-conducting state. These quantizations make the configurations mechanically and thermally stable by snapping into the ‘magic’ energetically preferred states and are retained during long sequences of switching cycles. One more question that arose was if such a gate-electrode controlled switching was possible between two conducting states of same contact. Since this involves no breaking of contact, such type of multilevel logics and storage devices on an atomic scale would be of extreme importance, because this enables efficient data storage, and processing with lesser logical gates. But there are some unavoidable and undesirable problems that arise in this context. Since the size of transistor shrinks, unpredictable quantum mechanical effects show up, challenging the usual transistor operation. However, the design of the single-atom transistor marks the beginning of active-controlled electronics on an atomic scale and opens up fascinating perspectives for quantum electronics and logics we are yet to witness.
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NANO-TECH MAKES MEDICINE GREENER
THE TECHNIQUE MAKES PRODUCTION GREENER
By -Aishwarya Srivastava
Over the last 5 years the Bionano Group at the
Nano-Science Center and the Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology at the University of Copenhagen has been working hard to characterize and test how molecules react, combine together and form larger molecules, which can be used in the development of new medicine. The group has basically been working towards the development of a new method that will make it possible to develop drugs faster and greener. Their work promises cheaper medicine for consumers. The researchers' breakthrough, as published in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, is that they are able to work with reactions that take place in very small volumes, namely 10-19 liters. This is a billion times smaller than anyone has managed to work with before. Even more intriguing is the ability to do so in parallel for millions of samples on a single chip. "We are the first in the world to demonstrate that it is possible to mix and work with such small amounts of material. When we reach such unprecedented small volumes we can test many more reactions in parallel and that is the basis for the development of new drugs. In addition, we have reduced our use of materials considerably and that is beneficial to both the environment and the pocketbook," says Professor Dimitrios Stamou, who predicts that the method will be of interest to industry because it makes it possible to investigate drugs faster, cheaper and greener.
The team of professor Stamou reached such small scales because they are working with selfassembling systems. Self-assembling systems, such as molecules, are biological systems that organize themselves without outside control. This occurs because some molecules fit with certain other molecules so well that they assemble together into a common structure. Self-assembly is a fundamental principle in nature and occurs at all the different size scales, ranging from the formation of solar systems to the folding of DNA. The self-assembling systems consist entirely of biological materials such as fat and as a result do not impact the environment, in contrast to the materials commonly used in industry today (e.g. plastics, silicon and metals). This and the dramatic reduction in the amount of used materials makes the technique more environment friendly, 'greener'," explains Dimitrios Stamou, who is part of the Synthetic Biology Center and director of the Lundbeck Center Biomembranes in Nanomedicine. The ultra-small nano reactors have walls made of lipids. During their fusion events volumes of one billionth of a billionth of a liter were transferred between nanoreactors allowing their cargos to mix and react chemically. We typically carried out a million of individual chemical reactions per cm 2 in not more than a few minutes.
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Depreciation of Rupee
-Kausthubh Annam All of you must have heard about the huge depreciation in the value of Rupee, which caught everyone’s attention and affected our country and economy in many ways. The Rupee fell from 44/$ to about 53/$ in the last few months. After reading this article, you will have a basic idea on what caused the fall and the impacts of it. Usually, the volatility in currency prices depends on the Supply & Demand. But this fall was not because of any particular reason, but it was a combined effect of many factors/events. Some of the main factors are: Stock Market Performance(Withdrawal of FII’s) FII’s are Foreign Institutional Investors, and the Indian stock market is dominated by them. They are responsible for more than 60-70% of the volumes and turnover in our Stock Exchanges. They invested a lot when the Bull Run was on and when India was performing well, and when they started pulling their money out from the markets (Because of factors like US Economy problems); it triggered a huge fall in the markets and also the Rupee. Indian markets haven’t performed well since quite some time after that happened. The retail investors (whose turnover is less than 5%) are always scapegoats whenever the big players trade. They generally follow the big institutions and hence pulled out their money too. The further fall in Rupee lowered the confidence of the Indian investor. Inflation Inflation in India is hitting new highs every month, which is definitely a cause of concern. This decreases our purchasing power against the other currencies (Because the Rupee’s value is lesser than what it was before). Strengthening ($) of the Dollar
The Euro crisis led to a fall in Euro/USD which significantly strengthened the Dollar. So, in general, the Dollar is getting stronger in the world currency markets. The demand and supply concept can be applied here. The increase in the demand in Dollar indirectly lessens the value of Rupee. Current account deficit is high This occurs when a country's total imports of goods and services are greater than the country's total export of goods and services. Our country’s deficit is more than the expected level now. This has affected investor sentiments and has led to the fall. Now while you’ve known the factors of depreciation, let’s look at some of its impacts-
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Products which are directly imported from overseas, such as Crude Oil, Fertilizers, Metals etc become costlier due to Rupee depreciation. Prices of products with components which are imported from other countries, like PC’s, electronics also increase. Depreciating rupee is bad for companies which import things and good for companies that are export oriented. Investors in import oriented companies will be affected. For companies, borrowing cost will increase which reduces their profit margin. Importers have to pay an additional Rs 489.8 per barrel to import the same quantity of Crude oil, an additional Rs 684.6 per tonne of Coal etc. The consumer is directly affected because the companies sell the products at a higher price to the public in order to not lose out on their profits.
India is heavily dependent on oil imports. A weak currency makes these imports expensive. The worst part is that these expensive imports are heavily subsidized in India. Cost of borrowing increases. Inflation rises even more, with prices of household products increasing making it costlier for consumers; and increase in prices of raw materials affecting the industries. For people working abroad, investing in India was a very good choice since everything they need to buy costs relatively cheaper than what they were before. India is running a very high fiscal deficit. This deficit is being financed by foreign investment. The dependence on foreign investment to bridge the fiscal gap is because of unproductive subsidies and concessions. This makes our currency even more vulnerable. This is risky because there can be a catastrophic fall in the Rupee in case of a global event.
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LEAP OF SCIENCE
By - Shubhankar Joshi
Robot: the very thought of the word brings in mind vivid pictures of many science-fiction movies like Transformers, I-Robot, Shelly’s Frankenstein and much recent Indian blockbuster Robot starring the supposed strongest man on earth, ’Rajnikanth’! The study of robots, robotics, involves electronics, engineering, mechanics, mechatronics, software and biology. Electronics served as the driving force of development of robots with the advent of the first electronic autonomous robot created by William Grey Walter in Bristol, England in 1948. In general humanoid robots have basic human features. Some have a head, two arms and two legs. Some may also have a face with eyes and mouth. Androids are humanoid robots built to resemble a male human, and Gynoids are humanoid robots built to resemble a human female.
Although all of these are just work of fiction, humanoid robots are not too far-fetched a dream. For example: TOPIO, a humanoid robot played Ping Pong at the Tokyo Robot exhibition (IREX)2009. Technically speaking humanoid robots are just a class of robots (although the most complex because of their obvious function: imitating humans). However, there are robots which don’t have the basic or rather the complex parts like limbs, torso and skull at all. The rovers used in moon expeditions, military drones and the latest college fad line followers, etc are all examples of autonomous or non-autonomous robots! Recently, the media had covered a surprising number of new humanoid robots emerging on the commercial market. Like many new technologies, these early generations of commercially available humanoids are costly curiosities, useful for entertainment, but little else. Yet, in time, they will accomplish a wide
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variety of tasks in homes, battlefields, nuclear plants, government installations, factory floors, and even space stations. Robonaut: A robot developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to inhabit the space station. Already, humanoid robots can autonomously perform task decomposition necessary to carry out high-level, complex commands given through gesture and speech. Humanoids can adapt and orchestrate existing capabilities as well as create new behaviors using a variety of machine learning techniques. In fact, some researchers claim to have implemented a first stab at the "seed" which will allow robot intelligence to develop indefinitely. As they adapt to their own, unique experiences with the world, we will look out upon a population where no two humanoids are exactly alike. Also, Robots that
can incrementally acquire new knowledge from autonomous interactions with the environment will accomplish tasks by means their designers did not explicitly implement, and will adapt to unanticipated circumstances of unstructured environments. For decades, popular culture has been enthralled with the possibility of robots that act and look like humans. We are promised by film, fiction and television that humanoids will cook for us, clean for us, become our best friends, teach our children, and even fall in love with us. Well, the good news is that the forerunners are here already! In a world in which manual workers are getting obsolete, robots seem poised to be the future of all physical tasks ranging from architecture to warfare, from excavation to exploration.
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By- Sri Vaishnavi.V
Telepathy (from the Greek words, tele
meaning "distant" and, pathe meaning "affliction, experience"), is the induction of mental states from one mind to another. The term was coined by the classical scholar Fredric W. H. Myers. You communicate using only the power of your mind without using any other sense organ. Two different theories known as Psychological symbiosis and thought insertion/removal explain telepathy. In the early psychological experience of the child (during earliest infancy), the child is unable to tell the difference between his or her experience and that of the mother, This state of mind is called psychological symbiosis with development it ends but, aspects of it can still be detected in the psychological functioning of the adult. Thought insertion/removal is a symptom of psychosis, particularly of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric patients who experience this symptom falsely believe that some of their thoughts are not their own and that other people, aliens, or conspiring intelligence agencies are putting thoughts into their minds.
Telepathy is the way other species communicate with each other. It has been proved in numerous studies that animals like dolphins communicate among themselves using telepathy, sometimes over great distances. Primitive tribes exist around the world even today who have developed telepathy and have retained the ability to communicate among themselves entirely by the power of 'thought' alone. People across the world have experienced as well as mastered it. This skill may occur to people within a short distance from each other or may even occur to people who are miles away from each other. Sigmond Freud, the Columbus of the mind visualized telepathy as a link between two beings who share a strong emotional bond which was contrary to the theories of parapsychologists. Freud always had a scientific explanation to any mental phenomena. He proposed a possible physical basis for telepathy based on an analogy with the telephone. He postulated that the thoughts or other mental processes that are transmitted are transformed into physical processes such as waves or rays. Once these waves or rays reach
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their target, they are transformed back into the original mental processes. Additional evidence for Freud's belief in this physical basis for the occult can be found in a letter of his to Ferenczi, in which he describes his opinion of a soothsayer whom they had both visited. Freud thought that she had a "physiological gift" that allowed her access to the thoughts of others. People who possess telepathy are said to be have psychic abilities and many claim that psychic powers are inherent powers. So is telepathy possible for normal people other than psychics? Yes, actually, psychic abilities can be learnt and we don't even have to inherit it from our parents or any ancestor. What's the point in trying to master telepathy? Well, what if u can influence a person to work according to your wish and command? Maybe talk to one another in class without using your mobile or speech and know what the other person is thinking (much like Edward's ability in THE TWILIGHT SAGA).
Telepathy is often used in fiction and films proving to be a fascinating subject to deal with. Be it the harry potter franchisee where lord Voldemort often forces into Harry’s mind using legilimency or even the Xmen series where professor Xavier uses telepathy to save many people.There is Jedi in star wars, Matt Parkman in heroes and the Dragon, Sapphira in Eragon in the long list of fictional telepaths. So here's something u can begin with, take a friend and five simple cards(plain white cards with simple designs...like a heart, square, star,..) sit at opposite ends of the room facing away from each other and ask your friend to choose a card, try guessing what it is. Who knows maybe you are the telepathic genius the world is waiting for.
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SEE THROUGH WALLS..!!!
By – Sri Prakyath Not many people would use the word "transparent" to describe cement. But transparent cement made its debut at the Italian Pavilion during the World Expo last year in Shanghai, and its qualities are pretty remarkable. During the day and when viewed upon head on, the Italian pavilion appeared similar to a normal cement building. But from the inside, at night or when viewed at an angle, the building takes on an ethereal quality not characteristic of concrete.
Fig: Transparent cement panel
Fig: Italian Pavilion at World Expo, Shanghai, 2010.
The technology is based on a matrix of cement embedded with resins that are designed to allow a certain amount of light through without compromising the integrity of the material. Trademarked as “i.light”, the substance created by “Italcementi” group contains multicolored resins that fill 2 to 3 millimeter holes that look like rectangular slats. These resins react to allow soft light to fill the building's interiora potential cost savings on energy bills, since the need for artificial lighting is reduced.
Italcementi used i.light for around 40 per cent of the 18-metre high Expo pavilion, or 3,774 transparent panels and semi-transparent panels made from 189 tonnes of the product. In each transparent panel there are approximately 50 holes, leading to about 20 per cent transparency. The semi-transparent panels were around 10 per cent see-through and were created by modulating the insertion of the resins. The transparency can be changed by modifying the amount of resin in the panels.
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Previous attempts at a similar feat had been made using a synthetic material called LiTraCon (light transmitting concrete) in which fiber optic cables were mixed with concrete but the "transparent cement" made from plastic resins is much cheaper than the one made from optical fibers. Moreover, the ability to capture light is greater, since the resins contain a wider visual angle than optical fibers. Developed by Hungarian architect Aronlosonczi, LiTraCon (Light Transmitting Concrete) is the world’s first commercially available transparent concrete. The translucent material is created by combining concrete and thousands of optic fibers strands that act like aggregate. The optical fibers form a matrix between the two main surfaces of concrete block, connecting and directing light between the two block faces.
The fibers are oriented in a parallel pattern which produces a brighter and darker side of the block. Since the optical fibers don’t suffer loss of light, the LiTraCon blocks can theoretically transmit light up to a thickness of 65 feet. The material is used in projects around the world including the museum cellaseptichora in Hungary. This transparent or rather translucent cement not only complements the aesthetics of the building but is also ecofriendly as it saves energy.
So the next time you think of building a "green home" let “i.light” strike your mind.
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- By Aishwarya Srivatsava
As Mr. Arora walked through his cabin door, his mind started racing back. About a decade ago there was a time when he was a rich and eminent business man with a flourishing automobile business. However, on the 25 th of December 2129 things changed dramatically. The modern world now entered an amazing era of speed and mobility.
of the branches operating the very cables that devastated his life forever.
However, in the meanwhile, an evil plan was germinating in his mind. He started considering the possibility of bringing the entire South Asian cable line to a standstill. He used all his savings to bribe one of the software experts of the firm to hack the password. He sneaked It all began when a Man had mastered time into the manager’s cabin Bulgarian scientist who had and speed. Within a split making an excuse that he successfully invented a way second, he would travel was called for technical by which people could travel assistance. He asked the at one tenth the speed of from one part of the manager to go light. Clubbing his work with globe to another. immediately to unit A of another humongous scientist the company stating that Dr. Andrew, who had there was an emergency. As the manager developed a technology to bring down hastily walked out, Mr. Arora punched in men to Nano-dimensions, the impossible the password but of course there came was made possible. Now people could the LCT detector. The LCT detector could board by being sucked into cables at one recognize faces and study features to end and within no time, reach the other detect what a person was up to and end which belonged to an altogether accordingly give access. As his plan blew different part of the globe. back on his face Mr. Arora could no longer Now, there was no looking back. control his anger. He started breaking and Within a span of five years, cables were kicking anything and everything he could laid down across the globe. The world spot. All of a sudden there were sparks had turned into a global village. Now, no flying across the room followed by a one had to bank on any other modes of deafening blast. Within seconds his body transport. As a consequence of this, Mr was up in fumes. However his evil plan did Arora’s business had gone to the dogs. He succeed, “the entire South Asian had to sell all his assets in order to pay transportation system had come to a back his shareholders and thus turned standstill”. Hundreds of thousands of into a poor technical assistant too lonely people were stuck in cable lines. There even to be noticed. The irony of the was mayhem and havoc across the globe. situation was that he now worked at one
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No one could understand for quite some time as to how it all started. Since they were never in a similar situation before they had no idea as to how they were going to combat it. Within hours the work of all the eminent scientists finally bore result. They drew a theory that all this time the energy was being supplied from the inside to push commuters out; what if they could make a pump which would pull them out. They implemented this plan and the first two passengers to be pulled out died in the process. There were approximately two hundred thousand passengers stuck in those cables. This was catastrophic. There was confusion, terror and tension all over the globe. All the eminent scientists started working on their project again. There had to be a .
way out. After improvising certain major changes to their machinery they were finally ready to give it a second shot. This time miraculously they had a living passenger coming out of the cables. Similar machinery was set up at various stations and people were rescued. This incident left a great impression on all the people of the modern world. They realized that there is a limit as to how fast they advance. Now people were back to using old modes of transport and did not rely entirely on their wonderful cables. As for the thousands of other Mr. Arora(s) who had lost their bread and butter to this new technical advancement - they started getting their jobs back.
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3D LITHIUM ION BATTERY
The age of electronics and information technology unravels itself before our eyes, as new and infinitely more promising avenues open up in a whirlwind of fanfare and cutting edge technology. As the world finds itself reeling in a pit of smoke, a new drive has come to the fore, growing in strength and tenacity, a drive to bring in sustainable and eco-friendly technologies directly to the consumer market, and slow the decay of Mother Earth as we speak. The French government in its recent move introduced a new rental scheme for electric cars, in a bid to curb pollutions and fume emissions and to avoid another Parisian Petrol Scare of ’97, in which the pollution levels reached such a height that cars with odd plate license numbers were banned from the following day. The move however, leaves us at a critical point. Why doesn’t everyone use electric cars?One major reason is that they take 5-6 hours of recharging time, a fact that hopelessly draws people away from the electric car market. ‘Cause yeah, let’s face it. Who has the time for it?’ However, at the 241 National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS), scientists have claimed that the next generation of batteries might be 3D, a special type of lithium ion battery with a three dimensional interior
architecture, specially designed for easy and quick charging. Developed by a group of scientists lead by Paul Braun at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, the battery is claimed to charge 10-100 times faster than their current counterparts, without compromising on storage capacity and performance. In other words, when a normal lithium ion takes about 2 hours to charge, this takes around 12 minutes. Laptops could charge within minutes and mobiles in seconds. Electric cars that run on these batteries could charge within 5 minutes, almost the same amount of time it takes to fill your tank with fuel. Typical rechargeable batteries, like the thin lithium-ion blocks in modern gadgets and nickel metal hydride batteries degrade significantly if charged or discharged too fast. You can swap the battery's active material with a thin film to get faster charging, but because the material lacks the area to store energy, your iPad would run out of power in seconds. The solution proposed was to wrap the foldable material into a three dimensional shape, thereby increasing its surface area and subsequently the storage capacity. To make this novel structure, the team created a tiny lattice of closely-packed spheres. Metal is used to fill in the space between
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the spheres, and then the whole thing is melted to leave a sponge-like 3D scaffold.
lighter and slimmer, and can be introduced not only in mobile phones, laptops and other high end consumer devices, but also in medical and military devices. These batteries can also be used for a variety of electronic devices and have found application in high-powered lasers, military packs and defibrillators that don't need time to power up before or between pulses. Braun sees tremendous potential in the sustainable electric car development market, as his team’s brain child could hopefully usher in a new era of significant reduction in gas and pollution levels from automobiles. Braun sees tremendous potential in the sustainable electric car development market, as his team’s brain child could hopefully usher in a new era of significant reduction in gas and pollution levels from automobiles.
Next, a process called electro polishing uniformly etches away the surface of the scaffold to enlarge the pores and make an open framework. Not only can these batteries charge at a phenomenally fast rate, the unique interior design can also double the lifetime of these lithium ion batteries. Since these batteries contain more lithium per unit volume, commercial versions would be thinner,
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NFC: NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION
By – B. Anusha
you ever wanted to get
things done with just a tap or a swipe of your smart phone? With the NFC fever spreading across the wireless industry, this has become a reality. As the name suggests, Near Field Communication or NFC, in short, is an electromagnetic wireless technology that comes into operation in a very short range of 20 cm or less. NFC has provided a new and universal interface for mobile phones and other electronic devices through a simple one-touch set up. The origin of this contactless technology dates back to 2003, when it was approved as an open ISO/IEC standard. The NFC forum, initially founded by the leading mobile phone makers Nokia, Sony and Philips, aims to standardize, implement and promote the NFC technology. Exploring the technical side of the technology reveals that it is based on RFID technology and uses the principle of magnetic induction between two loop antennae placed in each other’s field effectively forming an air-core transformer. Operating at a frequency of 13.56 MHz with data rates ranging from 106 kbps to 424 kbps, NFC has a reader mode wherein the active NFC device reads a passive RFID tag, and a peer-to-peer mode which enables two NFC devices to communicate. NFC tags embedded within electronic devices make them NFC enabled. Low power consumption, onetouch-triggered pairing of NFC devices and
compatibility with RFID technology would be the answer to the probable question, “Why not Bluetooth?” that arises in the minds of many. Moving on to the NFC applications, they are limited only by our imagination. Though NFC is yet to revolutionise, it has far-reaching impact on broadest range of industries, essentially due to its reach and availability, versatility of use and compatibility with existing infrastructure. Presently, contactless payments, ticketing, data sharing, electronic identification, access control, social networking, multiplayer games on distinct devices, patient health monitoring and information access through smart posters are some of the uses that NFC has found and the avenues are still growing. Though NFC has begun to show its influence in almost all walks of life, it still has a long way to go before it can carve a niche for itself, in the wireless industry. NFC, being primarily dependent on the mobile phone system, has the potential to be tapped to the maximum extent possible, only by the interoperation of, mainly, mobile phone manufacturers and network operators. Co-operation of banks and credit card companies is also needed to support highly secure transactions using NFC. Finally, the developer community, which drives the technology forward, by delivering NFC-based simple and effective solutions, is inevitable.
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DECODE THE CODE…
By- Sagarika A girl facing the gunpoint was asked by the assassin what her last wish before dying was. In reply, she said she wanted to message her dad about how much she loved him. So, she typed in the assassin’s phone, “I miss inspiring nana good bye parents are real kings home ever lain peace”. The assassin sensed nothing threatening and found no clue about their hideout, so he clicked send and snapped the sim card into two. Half an hour later the girl happily walked off with her dad back home. The girl survived because she and her dad always used inconspicuous messages to communicate where they follow a code picking the first letter of every word. Hence her dad figured she meant, “I M IN G.B PARK HELP” and drove straight to the almost dilapidated park with the police. This is precisely an example of the simple yet complicated art of steganography in the form of null ciphers. Steganography is the art of hiding information, which follows a code of which only the sender and recipient are aware of and raises no suspicions at all. It is famously known as ``security via obscurity’’.One of the most ancient steganography techniques was in ancient Greece where the head of the messenger was shaved and tattooed with the message and when the hair regrows he was sent to the recipient and shaved again. This was the literal translation of steganography in Greek meaning, “covered writing”. Other techniques, include pinpricks on certain letters on paper, misspelling words and even change in spacing are used to indicate hidden messages. It is a vast area of field, not limited only to writing, but also radio, T.V, e-mail and blogs. It is speculated that the videos of Osama Bin Laden and other terrorists shown now and then on T.V have a coded message, perhaps to instigate people worldwide. It is also suspected that attacks made in New York, Washington D.C., Pittsburgh on 9/11 were using e-mail spam. What makes steganography so special is that it is really sophisticated because it not only encodes, but also hides the information leaving the third party a tougher job to not only find, but also decrypt the message. While cryptography is the science of writing secret codes when compared to steganography it sticks out like a sore thumb. It was in Sherlock Holmes’s “Study in Scarlet” where the word ‘rache’ written by the deceased leaves everyone whacking their brains to figure out the meaning. The Scotland Yard tells Holmes that it means revenge in German and holds no significance at all. But it was a vital clue and meant Rachel, the daughter of the deceased. Even the famous portrait Mona Lisa, appears to have tiny letters and numbers in her eyes, which are only apparent when viewed with a magnifying glass. Steganography is a wonderful art beautifully visualized in movies holding a much higher value in reality. It is in the interpreter’s mind and what he sees. So, keep looking for those clues you have to find to unravel your mystery.
Photo Credit :Ankush Choudhary
From Left to Right: Top Row: Sanjana Shah,Apeksha Singhaneri,Garv Malik,Himanshu Rai Middle Row : Sumeda Acharya, Aishwarya KVN,Sahaja Thallam , K. Soumya, Jatin Chuglani, Arshdeep Singh, Jatin Adlakha Bottom Row: Vaidehi Murarka, Kriti Poddar, Srishti Rani, Aishwarya Srivastava, Jasleen Sachdeva, N. Sai Chaitanya, Ramit Mehta, Vaishnavi, Palak Jha, Sripriya , Anusha B. , Prathima
Reporters: 1. Kedar Apsingekar(Reporting Team Head) 2. Jatin Adlakha 3. Prakhyat 4. Jatin Chuglani 5. Srishti Rani 6. Veda Samhita 7. Sumedha Acharya 8. Aishwarya Reddy 9. Himshi Bachchas 10. Sheetal Modi 11. Spandana 12. Apeksha 13. Shubhankar 14. Sanjana Shah 15. Kriti Poddar 16. Sripriya P. 17. Ramit Mehta 18. Himanshu Rai 19. Garv Malik
Editors & Designers: 1. Arshdeep Singh Takkar (Secretary) 2. Ankush Choudhary (Editing & Designing Team Head) 3. B.Anusha (Designing team leader) 4. Adharsh Raghavan(Editing team leader) 5. Chaitanya (Assistant Editor) 6. Vaidehi Murarka (Treasurer) 7. Prathima Devarasetty 8. Aishwarya Srivastava 9. Sri Vaishnavi V. 10. Sahaja 11. Palak Jha 12. T.Sagarika 13. K.Sowmya 14. Jasleen Sachdeva
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