# National Curriculum for

STATISTICS
2009

GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
ii
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
iii

Introduction......................................................................................................................................1
SECTION 1: CURRICULUM OF STATISTICS FOR GRADE XI...............................................3
Unit 1: Collection and Presentation of Data ........................................................................3
Unit 2: Measures of Central Tendency ................................................................................7
Unit 3: Measures of Dispersion, Skewness and Kurtosis ..................................................10
Unit 4: Index Numbers.......................................................................................................13
Unit 5: Simple Linear Regression and Correlation............................................................15
Unit 6: Time Series ............................................................................................................17
Unit 7: Vital Statistics ........................................................................................................18
Unit 8: Interpolation...........................................................................................................20
Unit 9: Linear Programming..............................................................................................21
SECTION 2: CURRICULUM OF STATISTICS FOR GRADE XII ...........................................23
Unit 1: Probability..............................................................................................................23
Unit 2: Random Variables and Probability Distributions ..................................................25
Unit 3: Special Discrete Probability Distributions.............................................................27
Unit 4: Special Continuous Probability Distributions........................................................28
Unit 5: Sampling and Sampling Distribution.....................................................................30
Unit 6: Estimation ..............................................................................................................32
Unit 7: Hypothesis Testing.................................................................................................34
Unit 8: Association of Attributes .......................................................................................35
Unit 9: Design of Experiment ............................................................................................36
SECTION 3: TEACHING STRATEGIES....................................................................................37
3.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................37
3.2 Teaching Statistics ......................................................................................................37
3.3 Statistics Problem Solving..........................................................................................38
3.4 Time Distribution........................................................................................................39
SECTION 4: ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION...................................................................40
4.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................40
4.2 Assessment in Statistics ..............................................................................................40
4.4 Unit-wise Weightages.................................................................................................42
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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SECTION 5: TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES......................................................44
5.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................44
5.2 The Textbook..............................................................................................................44
5.3 The Teacher’s Manual ................................................................................................46
5.4 The Web-based Resources..........................................................................................47
References......................................................................................................................................48
Curriculum Development Teams...................................................................................................49

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
1
INTRODUCTION

Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary
as the ability to read and write
H.G. Wells (1886-1946)

Importance of Statistics

An information- and technology-based society requires individuals, who are able to think
critically about complex issues, analyze and adapt to new situation, solve problems of various
kinds and communicate their thinking effectively. The study of statistics equips students with
knowledge, skills, powerful intellectual tools and habits of mind that are essential for successful
and rewarding participation in such a society.

information in ways that inform the user, providing a knowledge base for making decisions and
for facing uncertainties. According to Cobb and Moore (1997), statistics is a methodological
discipline. It exists not for itself, but rather to offer to other fields of study a coherent set of ideas
and tools for dealing with data. In GAISE report Franklin et al (2005) argue that a major
objective of statistics education is to help students develop statistical thinking. The statistical
thinking, in large part, must deal with the omnipresence of variability.

The world renowned education systems are responding to the increasingly important role
of statistics by including statistical strands in their curricula particularly in mathematics. The
fourth standard of National Curriculum for Mathematics (2006), the competency of which reads
as ‘Information Handling’, does cater for the similar expectations.

The curriculum issues in statistics education have long been under discussion of the
academia at different international forums. Articles regarding statistics education can be found in
the Statistics Education Research Journal (SER) and the Journal of Statistics Education (JSE)
Statistics Association (ASA) respectively.

The IASE Roundtable on Curriculum Development in Statistics Education, held in
Sweden in 2004, provided a platform to twenty six participants from nine countries to discuss
main issues of the statistics curriculum from primary school to tertiary level. Burrill (2005)
discusses the curriculum issues in statistics education and suggests that:

• More opportunities need to be created for students to question critically the statistical
claims from real-world contexts
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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• Frequent situations, appropriate to statistical understanding are required to be developed
so that students may become critical consumers of statistics
• Attention need to be paid that students learn the importance of careful designs for
collecting data

Through its articles the Sixty-eighth Yearbook (NCTM 2006) makes the vision come
alive that is highlighted in the Principles and Standards (NCTM 2000) and is stated as – the
students should be able to:

• Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize and display
• Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data
• Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions based on data
• Understand and apply basic concepts of probability

The Curriculum of Statistics

The main objective to review the national curriculum is to make it more vibrant and more
responsive to the modern, socio-economic, technical, professional, and labour market needs of
the country. It should be improved and uplifted to make it comparable with international
standards.

The National Curriculum of Statistics has been designed in the light of above
recommendations coupled with the suggestions of our stakeholders. The following themes
permeate the curriculum:

• The learning-outcomes oriented National Curriculum of Statistics extends the scope
of rudiments of statistics falling under the fourth standard (Information Handling) of
National Curriculum for Mathematics (2006)
• It helps students to build the solid conceptual foundation in statistics that will enable
them to apply their knowledge skillfully
• It stresses on visual communication – representing data, interpreting and depicting
situations
• The curriculum is not merely centered on the theoretical underpinnings of the subject
but emphasizes on real-life problems which enable the students to linkup their
thinking to the real-world contexts

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
3
CURRICULUM OF STATISTICS FOR GRADE – XI
UNIT 1 COLLECTION AND PRESENTATION OF DATA
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
1.1 Introduction i) Define statistics.
ii) Differentiate between:
• Population and sample
• Parameter and statistics
iii) Distinguish between descriptive and inferential statistics,
theoretical statistics and applied statistics.
iv) Define:
• Statistical inquiry (survey)
• Statistical observations
1.2 Variable i) Define:
• A constant
• A variable, its domain and its observed values
ii) Describe:
• The types of a variable; qualitative and quantitative
• The types of quantitative variable; discrete and
continuous
1.3 Measurement Scales i) Recognize the measurement scales:
• Nominal scale
• Ordinal (or ranking) scale
• Interval scale
• Ratio scale
ii) Apply an appropriate measurement scale when collecting
the statistical observations (data),
iii) Define an error of measurement,
iv) Explain the rules to round-off the numbers,
v) Apply the rules for rounding-off the numbers to desired
accuracy.
1.4 Statistical Data i) Define and identify the types of statistical data:
• Qualitative and quantitative data
• Discrete and continuous data

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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• Chronological (time series) and geographical (spatial)
data
• Primary and secondary data
ii) Describe the characteristics of statistical data.
iii) Explain how primary data are collected through:
• Direct personal investigation
• Indirect investigation
• Questionnaires to be filled in by the informants
/enumerators
• Registration by local correspondents
• Designed experiments
iv) Signify the sources of secondary data:
• Official and semi-official sources
• Research organizations
• Journals, newspapers and internet/electronic media
1.5. Presentation of
Statistical Data.
i) Condense the collected statistical data:
• Using the data array
• Through classification and tabulation,
• By diagrammatic/graphic representation
ii) Identify the merits and demerits of data arrays.
iii) Arrange a data array from the given individual
observations (raw data) and symbolize the observations
and the data array.
iv) Define tabulation and describe its main steps.
v) Specify the main parts of the table.
vi) Define:
• Classification
• Class
• Class frequency
vii) Classify the qualitative observations (up to two attributes).
viii) Define frequency distribution.
ix) Differentiate between discrete and grouped frequency
distributions.
x) Construct a discrete frequency distribution from the given
discrete observations and represent it symbolically.
xi) Define: (for continuous variables)
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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• Class limits
• Class boundaries
• Class width or interval
• Class mark or midpoint
xii) Describe the steps involved in the construction of a
grouped frequency distribution.
xiii) Construct a grouped frequency distribution from the given
continuous observations and represent it symbolically.
xiv) Define and construct:
• The cumulative frequency distribution
• The relative frequency distribution
• The cumulative relative frequency distribution
• The percentage frequency distribution
• The cumulative percentage frequency distribution
for continuous variables
xv) Describe diagrammatic/graphic representation of data and
identify its merits and demerits.
xvi) State the types of charts/diagrams.
xvii) Define and construct:
• Simple bar chart
• Multiple bar chart
• Subdivided / component bar chart
• Percentage subdivided rectangles
• Pie/sector chart
for a qualitative data.
xviii) Define and construct:
• Simple bar chart/histogram
• Cumulative frequency polygon
for a discrete frequency distribution.
xix) Define and construct:
• Histogram
• Frequency polygon
• Frequency curve
• Cumulative frequency polygon (ogive)
• Cumulative frequency curve
for a grouped frequency distribution.
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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1.6. Type of Frequency
Curves or
Distributions.
Recognize the types of frequency curves/distributions:
• Uniform distribution
• Symmetrical distribution
• Positively skewed distribution
• Negatively skewed distribution
• Moderately skewed distribution
• Extremely skewed distribution
• U-shaped distribution
• Bi-modal distribution
1.7. Summation and
Product Notations.
i) Recognize summation/sigma notation ‘∑’ to indicate the
sum of a sequence of observations.
ii) Expand a sum given in ‘∑’ notation into an explicit sum.
iii) Write an explicit sum in ‘∑’ notation where there is an
obvious pattern to the individual terms.
iv) Use the following rules to manipulate sums expressed in
∑’ notation:

∑ ∑ ∑
= = =
+ = +
n
i
n
i
n
i
i i i i
y x y x
1 1 1
) (

∑ ∑
= =
=
n
i
n
i
i i
x c cx
1 1
, where c is a constant

=
=
n
i
nc c
1
, where c is a constant
v) Describe the meanings of double-summation notation
∑∑
= =
n
i
m
j 1 1

vi) Use the following rules to manipulate double-summation
notation:

∑∑ ∑∑ ∑∑
= = = = = =
+ = +
n
i
m
j
n
i
m
j
n
i
m
j
ij ij ij ij
y x y x
1 1 1 1 1 1
) (

∑∑ ∑∑
= = = =
=
n
i
m
j
n
i
m
j
ij ij
x c cx
1 1 1 1
, where c is a constant

∑∑
= =
=
n
i
m
j
nmc c
1 1
, where c is a constant
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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∑∑ ∑∑
= = = =
=
n
i
m
j
m
j
n
i
ij ij
x x
1 1 1 1

∑∑ ∑ ∑
= = = =
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
n
i
m
j
m
j
j
n
i
i j i
y x y x
1 1 1 1

vii) Recognize product/pie notation ‘

’ to indicate the
product of a sequence of observations.
viii) Expand a product given in ‘

’ notation, into an explicit
multiplication from.
ix) Write an explicit multiplication form in ‘

’ notation
where there is an obvious pattern to the individual terms.
x) Use the following rules to manipulate products expressed
in ‘

’ notation:

∏ ∏
= =
=
n
i
n
i
i
n
i
x c cx
1 1
where c is a constant

n
n
i
c c =

=1
where c is a constant
• log
∑ ∏
= =
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
n
i
i
n
i
i
x x
1 1
) (log

∏ ∏ ∏
= = =
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
n
i
n
i
i
n
i
i i i
y x y x
1 1 1
) (

=
=
=
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
n
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
i
i
y
x
y
x
1
1
1

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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UNIT 2: MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
2.1 Central Tendency. i) Define central tendency.
ii) Know, what the measure of central tendency is.
iii) Define an average and list its types (arithmetic mean,
median, mode, geometric mean, harmonic mean and mid-
range).
iv) State the properties of an idea/good average.
2.2 Arithmetic Mean. i) Define arithmetic mean and weighted arithmetic mean.
ii) Recognize the properties of arithmetic mean.
iii) Identify the merits and demerits of arithmetic mean.
iv) Calculate arithmetic mean for individual observations
(raw data):
• By definition
• Using deviations from an assumed mean
v) Calculate arithmetic mean for a frequency distribution:
• By definition
• By coding and scaling
vi) Find arithmetic mean directly using the calculator in
statistical (STAT/SD) mode.
vii) Solve real life problems involving arithmetic mean.
2.3 Median. i) Define median, quartiles, deciles and percentiles.
ii) Recognize the properties of median.
iii) Identify the merits and demerits of median.
iv) Determine:
• Median and quartiles for individual observations (raw
data)
• Median, quartiles, deciles and percentiles for a discrete
frequency distribution
• Median, quartiles, deciles and percentiles for a grouped
frequency distribution
v) Estimate the median and quartiles through graph.
vi) Solve real life problems involving median, quartiles,
deciles and percentiles.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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2.4 Mode. i) Define mode.
ii) Recognize the properties of mode.
iii) Identify the merits and demerits of mode.
iv) Determine mode for:
• Individual observations (raw data)
• A discrete frequency distribution
• A grouped frequency distribution
v) Estimate the mode through graph for continuous and
discrete distribution.
vi) Discuss the empirical relationship between arithmetic
mean, median and mode.
vii) Solve real life problems involving mode.
2.5 Geometric Mean.

i) Define geometric mean and weighted geometric mean.
ii) Recognize the properties of geometric mean.
iii) Identify the merits and demerits of geometric mean.
iv) Calculate geometric mean for individual observations (raw
data):
• By definition
• Using logarithms
v) Calculate geometric mean for a frequency distribution.
vi) Solve real life problems involving geometric mean.
2.6 Harmonic Mean. i) Define harmonic mean and weighted harmonic mean.
ii) Recognize the properties of harmonic mean.
iii) Identify the merits and demerits of harmonic mean.
iv) Calculate harmonic mean for:
• Individual observations (raw data)
• A frequency distribution
iv) Verify the relations between arithmetic mean, geometric
mean and harmonic mean.
v) Solve real life problems involving harmonic mean.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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UNIT 3: MEASURES OF DISPERSION, SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
3.1. Dispersion. i) Define dispersion.
ii) Know, what the measure of dispersion is.
iii) State the properties of an idea/good measure of dispersion.
iv) Identify the types of measure of dispersion- absolute and
relative.
v) Know the types of absolute and relative measures of
dispersion:
• Range and coefficient of range
• Quartile deviation and coefficient of quartile deviation
• Mean deviation and coefficient of mean deviation
• Standard deviation and coefficient of variation
3.2. Range. i) Define range, semi-range and coefficient of range.
ii) Recognize the properties of range.
iii) Identify the merits and demerits of range.
iv) Determine the range, semi-range and coefficient of range
for:
• Individual observations (raw data)
• A discrete frequency distribution
• A grouped frequency distribution
v) Solve real life problems involving range.
3.3 Quartile Deviation. i) Define inter-quartile range, mid-quartile range, quartile
deviation (or semi-inter-quartile range) and coefficient of
quartile deviation.
ii) Recognize the properties of quartile deviation.
iii) Identify the merits and demerits of quartile deviation.
iv) Determine the inter-quartile range, mid-quartile range,
quartile deviation and coefficient of quartile deviation for:
• Individual observations (raw data)
• A discrete frequency distribution
• A grouped frequency distribution
v) Solve real life problems involving quartile deviation.
3.4 Mean Deviation. i) Define mean deviation and coefficient of mean deviation:
• From mean
• From median
• From mode
ii) Recognize the properties of mean deviation.
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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iii) Identify the merits and demerits of mean deviation.
iv) Calculate mean deviation and coefficient of mean
deviation for individual observations (a frequency
distribution):
• From mean
• From median
• From mode
v) Solve real life problems involving mean deviation.
3.5 Standard Deviation. i) Define variance, standard deviation and coefficient of
variation.
ii) Define mean square deviation.
iii) Recognize the properties of variance and standard
deviation.
iv) Identify the merits and demerits of standard deviation.
v) Describe the uses of standard deviation and coefficient of
variation.
vi) Calculate variance, standard deviation and coefficient of
variation for individual observations (raw data):
• By definition
• Using the deviations from an assumed mean
vii) Calculate variance, standard deviation and coefficient of
variation for a frequency distribution:
• By definition
• Using the deviations from an assumed mean (coding
and scaling)
viii) Calculate variance using the formula:
variance = (mean of the squares) – (square of the
mean).
ix) Recognize the error of grouping.
x) Describe and apply the Sheppard’s correction to variance
for a grouped frequency distribution.
xi) Find the standard deviation directly using the calculator in
statistical (STAT/SD) mode.
xii) Solve real life problems involving variance and standard
deviation.
3.6 Moments. i) Define moments:
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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arbitrary point and about the origin:
• For individual observations (raw data)
• For a frequency distribution
iii) Describe and apply:
• The relationship expressing moments about mean in
terms of moments about any arbitrary point
• The relationship expressing moments about mean in
terms of moments about the origin
iv) Describe and apply the Sheppard’s corrections to
moments for a grouped frequency distribution.
v) Define moment ratios.
vi) Calculate moment ratios.
3.7 Skewness. i) Define symmetrical distribution.
ii) Recognize the following properties of a symmetrical
distribution.
• Mean = median = mode
• Third quartile = median = median = first quartile
• All odd ordered moments about mean vanish
• First moment ratio = 0
iii) Define:
• Skewness
• Skewed distribution (positively or negatively)
• Coefficient of skewness
iv) Determine the coefficient of skewness using:
• Lyon Bowley’s formula
• Karl Pearson’s formulae (involving mode and median
only)
v) Interpret the coefficient of skewness.
vi) Solve real life problems involving coefficient of skewness.
3.8 Kurtosis. i) Define kurtosis.
ii) Identify a given symmetrical distribution as platykurtic,
mesokurtic or leptokurtic.
iii) Solve real life problems involving kurtosis.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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UNIT 4: INDEX NUMBERS
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
4.1 Index Numbers. i) Define index numbers.
ii) Describe the steps involved in the construction of
wholesale price index numbers:
• Purpose and scope
• Selection of commodities to be included
• Collection of prices
• Selection of base period (fixed base method, chain
base method and chain indices)
• Choice of average (arithmetic mean, median or
geometric mean) to be used
• Selection of appropriate weights
iii) Define simple and composite price index numbers.
iv) Calculate simple price index numbers:
• By fixed base method
• By chain base method
v) Describe the method of simple aggregates.
vi) Calculate composite price index numbers using the
method of simple aggregates.
vii) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of simple
aggregates
viii) Describe the method of simple average of relatives.
ix) Calculate composite price index numbers using the
method of simple average of relatives.
x) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of simple
average of relatives.
xi) Describe the method of weighted aggregates.
xii) Calculate weighted aggregative composite price index
numbers.
xiii) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of
weighted aggregates.
xiv) Calculate weighted aggregative composite price index
numbers using:
• Laspeyer’s formula
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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• Paache’s formula
• Fisher’s formula
xv) Describe the method of weighted average of relatives.
xvi) Calculate weighted average of relative composite price
index numbers.
xvii) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of
weighted average of relatives.
xviii) Calculate weighted average of relatives composite price
index numbers using:
• Laspeyer’s formula
• Paache’s formula
4.2 Consumer Price
Index Numbers.
i) Define the consumer price index (CPI) numbers.
ii) Discuss the steps involved in the construction of consumer
price index numbers:
• Scope
• Household budget inquiry
• Allocation of weights
• Collection of consumer prices
iii) Calculate consumer price index numbers using:
• Aggregate expenditure method
• Household budget method
4.3 Interpretation of
Index Numbers.
i) Describe:
• The uses of index numbers
• Limitations of index numbers
ii) Interpret the computed index numbers.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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UNIT 5: SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION AND CORRELATION
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
5.1 Simple Linear
Regression.
i) Define:
• Independent and dependent variables
• Simple regression
ii) Describe regression function and regression curve.
iii) Define scatter diagram and discuss its role.
iv) Define simple linear regression and identify its regression
coefficient.
v) Describe the least squares principle.
vi) Use the method of least squares to fit a regression line
(including coding and scaling).
vii) Interpret the regression coefficient.
viii) Recognize the properties of a least squares regression line.
ix) Fit a regression line directly using the calculator in LR
(linear regression) mode.
x) Use least squares approach to solve appropriate real life
problems.
5.2 Simple Linear
Correlation.
i) Define covariance between two variables.
ii) Define simple linear correlation between two random
variables.
iii) Describe:
• Positive correlation and perfect positive correlation
• Negative correlation and perfect negative correlation
• No correlation
iv) Differentiate between simple linear correlation and
regression.
v) Define simple linear correlation coefficient (also called
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient).
vi) Calculate Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient
between two variables using:
• The deviations from their respective means
• The deviations from respective assumed means
• The original respective observations

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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vii) Use the method of least squares to fit two regression lines
(including coding and scaling).
viii) Determine the correlation coefficient from two given
regression coefficients.
ix) Interpret the simple linear correlation coefficient.
x) Recognize the properties of simple linear correlation
coefficient.
xi) Find simple linear correlation coefficient directly using
the calculator in LR (linear regression) mode.
xii) Use the simple linear correlation coefficient to solve
appropriate real life problems.
5.3 Rank Correlation. i) Define:
• Rank correlation
• Coefficient of rank correlation
ii) Find the coefficient of rank correlation to measure the
association between two qualitative variables.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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UNIT 6: TIME SERIES
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
6.1 Time Series. i) Define time series.
ii) Define and construct historiogram.
iii) Describe the components of a time series:
• Secular trend
• Seasonal variations
• Cyclical fluctuations
• Irregular movements
iv) Explain ‘analysis of time series’.
v) Describe additive and multiplicative models utilized for
analysis of time series.
vi) Explain the technique of coding the time variable.
6.2 Measurement of
Secular Trend.
i) Describe and apply the method of freehand curve to
measure the secular trend.
ii) Identify the merits and demerits of the freehand curve
method.
iii) Describe and apply the method of semi-averages to
measure the secular trend including the algebraic form of
semi-averages trend line.
iv) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of semi-
averages.
v) Describe and apply the method of moving averages to
measure the secular trend.
vi) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of moving
averages.
vii) Describe and apply the method of least squares to
measure:
• Linear secular trend
for estimating trend values.
viii) Describe and apply the technique of shifting of origin in
the least squares secular trend.
ix) Identify the merits and demerits of the least squares
secular trend.
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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UNIT 7: VITAL STATISTICS
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
7.1 Introduction. i) Define:
• Vital events
• Vital statistics
ii) Know the sources of data:
• Vital registration system
• Population census
• Sample survey
iii) Discuss the uses and shortcomings of vital statistics.
7.2 Vital Ratios. i) Differentiate between rates and ratios.
ii) Define:
• Gender-sex ratio
• Child-women ratio
• Vital index (birth-death ratio)
7.3 Mortality Rates. i) Define:
• Mortality
• Crude death rate
• Specific death rates – age-specific, sex-specific and
age-sex-specific
• Infant mortality rate
• Neo-natal mortality rate
• Still-birth rate
• Maternal death rate
ii) Find crude death rate and specific death rates (age-
specific, sex-specific and age-sex-specific) from a given
data.
iii) Define the standardized death rate.
iv) Describe direct and indirect methods to find the
standardized death rate from a given data.
v) Calculate the standardized death rate from a given data
using direct and indirect methods.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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7.4 Measurement of
Fertility.
i) Define:
• Fertility
• Crude birth rate
• Crude rate of natural increase
• Population growth rate
• Age-specific birth rate
ii) Define the standardized birth rate.
iii) Describe the standardized birth rate using direct and
indirect methods.
iv) Define:
• General fertility rate
• Age-specific fertility rate
• Total fertility rate
v) Calculate general fertility rate, age-specific fertility rate
and total fertility rate from a given data.
7.5 Reproduction Rate. i) Define:
• Gross reproduction rate
• Net reproduction rate
ii) Find gross and net reproduction rates from a given data.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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UNIT 8: INTERPOLATION
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
8.1 Interpolation. i) Identify arguments and entries in a given table of values
( ) n i y x
i i
,......, 2 , 1 , 0 , , =
ii) Differentiate between equally-spaced and un-equally
spaced data.
iii) Define:
• Interpolation
• Interpolating polynomial
iv) Define ‘ ∆‘ as the forward difference operator.
v) Define , ,..., , ,
3 2
y y y y
n
∆ ∆ ∆ ∆ as 1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
, ..,nth
differences from the table of values ( ) n i y x
i i
,..., 2 , 1 , 0 , , =
vi) Construct forward difference table from a given equally-
spaced data.
8.2 Newton’s Forward
Difference
Interpolation
Formula.
i) Describe Newton’s forward difference interpolation
formula.
ii) Use Newton’s forward difference interpolation formula to
find interpolating polynomial for a given equally-spaced
data.
iii) Use Newton’s forward difference formula to interpolate
the value of y at a given x.
8.3 Lagrange’s
Interpolation
Formula.
i) Describe Lagrange’s interpolation formula.
ii) Use Lagrange’s interpolation formula to find interpolating
polynomial for a given equally- or unequally-spaced data.
iii) Use Lagrange’s interpolating formula to interpolate the
value of y at a given value of x.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
21
UNIT 9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING.
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
9.1 Linear Inequalities. i) Recall origin (O) and coordinate axes (x-axis and y-axis)
in Cartesian plane.
ii) Differentiate between linear equation and linear
inequality.
iii) Recognize:
• Upper-and lower-half planes
• Left-and right-half planes
iv) Solve a linear inequality in one variable and depict it on
the number line.
v) Draw the graph of a linear inequality in two variables.
vi) Identify graphically the common region bounded by a
system of (up to 3) linear inequalities of two non-negative
variables.
9.2 Linear
Programming.
i) Define:
• Linear programming (LP) problem
• Objective function
• Problem constraints
• Decision variables
• Corner points
• Feasible region
ii) Show graphically the feasible region (or solution space) of
an LP problem.
iii) Identify the feasible region of a simple LP problem.
iv) Find maximum and minimum values of objective function
in a simple LP problem.
9.3 Optimal Solution. i) Explain the term optimal solution of an LP problem.
ii) Find optimal solution, graphically, through the following
systematic procedure, that is:
• Establish the mathematical formulation of LP
problem
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
22
• Construct the graph
• Identify the feasible region
• Locate the solution (corner) points
• Evaluate the objective function at solution points
• Select the optimal solution
• Verify the optimal solution by actually substituting
values of variables from the feasible region
iii) Apply LP graphical technique to solve appropriate real life
problems,

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
23
UNIT 1: PROBABILITY
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
1.1 Counting Techniques. i) Know, n! (n factorial) as the notation to express the
product of first n natural numbers.
ii) Describe fundamental principle of counting and illustrate
it using tree diagram.
iii) Explain the meaning of permutation.
iv) Interpret
r
n
P as the number of permutations of n
different objects taken r at a time which is expressed by
the formula:
) 1 )...( 2 )( 1 ( + − − − = r n n n n P
r
n

v) Deduce that:

)! (
!
r n
n
P
r
n

=
• ! n P
r
n
=
• 1 ! 0 =
vi) Explain the meaning of combination.
vii) Interpret ‘C’, as the number of combinations of n different
objects taken r at a time which is expressed by the
formula:
)! ( !
!
r n r
n
r
n
C
r
n

=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
viii) Deduce that:

• 1
0
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
| n
n
n

|
|
¹
|

\
|

=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
r n
n
r
n

• n
n
n n
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|

=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
1 1

|
|
¹
|

\
| +
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|

+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
r
n
r
n
r
n 1
1

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
24
1.2 Introduction to
Probability.
i) Define the following:
• Random experiment (with real life examples)
• Sample space, sample point and random event
• Simple and compound events
• Impossible and sure events
• Complimentary events
• Equally likely events
• Exhaustive events
• Mutually exclusive events
ii) Elaborate the term ‘probability’ through:
• Its classical definition
• Its relative frequency definition
• Its axiomatic definition
iii) Recognize the formula for probability of occurrence of an
event A, that is,
1 ) ( 0 ,
) (
) (
) ( ≤ ≤ = A P
S n
A n
A P
iv) Apply the formula for finding probability in simple cases.
v) Use Venn diagrams to find the probability for the
occurrence of an event.
1.3 Laws of
Probability.

i) Describe:
• Probability of non-occurrence of an event
• Odds for the occurrence of an event
• Odds against the occurrence for an event
ii) Recognize the law of probability of complementation.
iii) State the laws of probability under addition.
iv) Apply the laws of probability under addition to solve real
life problems.
v) Differentiate between dependent and independent events.
vi) Define the conditional probability.
vii) State the laws of probability under multiplication.
viii) Apply the laws of probability under multiplication to
solve real life problems.
ix) Compute probabilities for real life problems involving:
• Counting techniques
• Infinite geometric progression
• Probability trees

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
25
UNIT 2 RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
2.1 Random Variable i) Define random variable.
ii) Differentiate between discrete and continuous random
variables with real life examples.
2.2 Discrete Random
Variable
i) Describe the probability distribution of a discrete random
variable.
ii) Find the probability distribution of a discrete random
variable.
iii) Recognize probability mass function.
iv) Describe the probability distribution of a function of
discrete random variable.
v) Find the probability distribution of a function of discrete
random variable.
vi) Define the expected value of a discrete random variable.
vii) Find the expected value of a discrete random variable.
viii) Define the expected value of a linear function of a discrete
random variable.
ix) Find the expected value of a linear function of a discrete
random variable.
x) Describe and verify the properties of expected value of a
discrete random variable.
xi) Apply the properties of expected value of a discrete
random variable.
xii) Define variance and standard deviation of a discrete
random variable.
xiii) Find variance and standard deviation of a discrete random
variable.
xiv) Define variance and standard deviation of a linear function
of a discrete random variable.
xv) Find variance and standard deviation of a linear function
of a discrete random variable.
xvi) Describe and verify the properties of variance and
standard deviation of a discrete random variable.
xvii) Apply the properties of variance and standard deviation of
a discrete random variable.
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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2.3 Continuous
Random Variable
i) Define:
• Probability distribution of a continuous random
variable
• Probability density function
ii) Define expected value, variance and standard deviation of
a continuous random variable.
iii) Find expected value, variance and standard deviation of a
continuous random variable.
2.4 Two Independent
Random Variables
i) Describe the following properties about the expected value
and variance for the sum/difference of two independent
random variable X and Y:
• ) ( ) ( ) ( Y E X E Y X E ± = ±
• ) ( ) ( ) ( Y bE X aE bY aX E ± = ±
• ) ( ) ( ) ( Y Var X Var Y X Var ± = ±
• ) ( ) ( ) ( Y bVar X aVar bY aX Var ± = ±
ii) Apply the above properties.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
27
UNIT 3 SPECIAL DISCRETE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
3.1 Discrete Uniform
Distribution
i) Define the following:
• A discrete uniform random variable
• A discrete uniform probability distribution
• A discrete uniform probability mass function
ii) Calculate mean, variance and standard deviation of a
discrete uniform probability distribution.
iii) Define random digits/numbers.
iv) Know, how the random digits/numbers are generated.
v) Solve real life problems using discrete uniform probability
distribution.
3.2 Bernoulli
Distribution
i) Define the following:
• The Bernoulli trials
• A Bernoulli random variable
• A Bernoulli probability distribution
• A Bernoulli probability mass function
ii) Calculate mean, variance and standard deviation of a
Bernoulli probability distribution.
iii) Solve real life problems using Bernoulli probability
distribution.
3.3 Binomial
Distribution
i) Define the following:
• A binomial experiment
• A binomial random variable
• A binomial probability distribution
• A binomial probability mass function
• A binomial frequency distribution
ii) Calculate mean, variance and standard deviation of a
binomial probability distribution.
iii) Solve real life problems using binomial probability
distribution.
3.4 Hyper geometric
Distribution
i) Define the following:
• A hyper geometric experiment
• A hyper geometric random variable
• A hyper geometric probability mass distribution
• A hyper geometric probability mass function
ii) Calculate mean, variance and standard deviation of a
hyper geometric probability distribution.
iii) Solve real life problems using hyper geometric probability
distribution.
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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UNIT 4 SPECIAL CONTINUOUS PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
4.1 Continuous
Uniform
Distribution
i) Define the following:
• A continuous uniform probability distribution
• A continuous uniform probability density
function
ii) Find mean, variance and standard deviation of a
continuous uniform probability distribution
iii) Solve real life problems using continuous uniform
probability distribution.
4.2 Normal
Distribution
i) Define the following:
• A normal probability distribution
• A normal probability density function
• A normal cumulative distribution function
• A standard normal random variable
• A standard normal distribution
• A standard normal probability density function
• A standard normal cumulative distribution
function
ii) Describe the properties of a normal probability
distribution.
iii) Find the ordinates of the standard normal curve using the
table of the ordinates of the standard normal curve.
iv) Find the probabilities for the standard normal random
variable using the table of the standard normal distribution
function.
v) Find the ordinates of a normal curve using the table of the
ordinates of the standard normal curve.
vi) Find the probabilities for a normal random variable using
the table of the standard normal distribution function.
vii) Use the table of quantiles of standard normal
curve/distribution(inverse standard normal cumulative
distribution function) to determine the value of:

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
29
• Standard normal random variable corresponding to
a given value of the standard normal cumulative
distribution function
• A normal random variable corresponding to a
given value of a normal cumulative distribution
function
• Parameter(s) of a normal random variable
viii) Describe the normal distribution as a limit of frequency
distribution.
ix) Solve real life problems using normal probability
distribution.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
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UNIT 5 SAMPLING AND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
5.1 Survey Sampling i) Define:
• Sampling
• Sampling units
• Sampling frame
• Sampling design
ii) Differentiate between:
• Finite and infinite populations
• Sample survey and complete enumeration
iii) Describe advantages and limitations of sampling.
iv) Distinguish between:
• Non-probability/non-random sampling and
probability / random sampling
• Random sampling with and without replacement
v) Differentiate between sampling and non sampling errors.
vi) Describe the sampling techniques:
• Simple random sampling
• Stratified random sampling
• Systematic random sampling
vii) Use the random digit/number table to select a simple
random sample from a given finite population.
5.2 Sampling
Distribution of
Sample Mean
i) Define:
• Sampling distribution of statistics
• Standard error of statistics
ii) Define a sampling distribution of sample mean.
iii) Describe the properties of a sampling distribution of
sample mean.
iv) Construct the sampling distribution of sample mean to
verify its properties about its mean and variance.
5.3 Sampling
Distribution of
Difference between
two Sample Means
i) Define a sample distribution of difference between two
sample means.
ii) Describe the properties of sampling distribution of
difference between two sample means.
iii) Construct the sample distribution of difference between
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
31
two sample means to verify its properties about its mean
and variance.
5.4 Sampling
Distribution of
Sample Proportion
i) Define sampling distribution of a sample proportion.
ii) Describe the properties of a sampling distribution of
sample proportion.
iii) Construct the sampling distribution of sample proportion
to verify its properties about its mean and variance.
5.5 Sampling
Distribution of
Difference between
Two Sample
Proportions
i) Define sampling distribution of difference between two
sample proportions.
ii) Describe the properties of sampling distribution of
difference between two sample proportions.
iii) Construct sampling distribution of difference between two
sample proportions to verify its properties about its mean
and variance.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
32
UNIT 6 ESTIMATION
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
6.1 Introduction i) Define:
• Estimation of a parameter
• Point estimation of a parameter:
- Point estimator
- Point estimate
ii) Differentiate between point estimator and point estimate.
iii) Describe, from a random sample, the point estimators and
point estimates for population mean (population variance)
and hence find their point estimates from the given
random sample.
6.2 Point Estimation i) Define:
• Unbiasedness
• Unbiased estimator
• Biased estimator
• Bias
ii) Describe the methods to reduce bias in sample surveys.
iii) Describe and verify the unbiasedness of:
• Sample mean
• Sample proportion
• Sample variance
iv) Use calculator in statistical (STAT/SD) mode to find
directly the unbiased estimates of mean and variance of
the population from which the sample was drawn.
v) Define efficiency
vi) Explain best estimator
vii) Identify the best estimator of:
• Population mean
• Population variance
• Population proportion
viii) Find the best estimates of population mean and population
variance from a given random sample.
ix) Find the best estimate of population proportion from a
given random sample.
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
33
x) Identify the pooled estimators, from two samples, of:
• Population mean
• Population variance
• Population proportion
xi) Find the pooled estimates of population mean and
population variance from two given random samples.
xii) Find the pooled estimate of population proportion from
two given random samples.
6.3 Interval Estimation i) Define:
• Interval estimation of a parameter;
- Confidence coefficient
- Interval estimate
ii) Explain and estimate the confidence interval for:
• The mean of a normal population (known and
unknown standard deviation)
• The difference between means of two normal
populations (known and unknown standard
deviations)
• The population proportion (large sample)
• The difference between proportions of two
populations (large samples).

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
34
UNIT 7 HYPOTHESIS TESTING
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
7.1 Introduction i) Describe statistical hypothesis and hypothesis testing.
ii) Differentiate between:
• Null and alternative hypotheses
• Simple and composite hypotheses
iii) Formulate null and alternative hypotheses.
iv) Recognize the elements involved in hypothesis testing:
• Test statistic
• Rejection and non-rejection regions
• Critical value(s)
• One-tailed (left-or right-tailed) test
• Two-tailed test
• Type-I and Type-II errors
• Level of significance
• Decision rule
• Conclusion
7.2 Hypothesis Testing Apply the test of hypothesis about:
• The mean of a normal population (known/ unknown
standard deviation)
• The population proportion (large sample)
• The difference between means of two normal
populations (known/unknown standard deviations)
• The difference between proportions of two populations
(large samples)

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
35
UNIT 8 ASSOCIATION OF ATTRIBUTES
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
8.1 Attribute i) Recall variable and attribute.
ii) Recognize the notations and terminology to represent the
presence and absence of attribute.
iii) Describe class and class frequency.
iv) Recognize the categorical data of two attributes.
v) Explain independence of two attributes.
vi) Know the criterion of independence of two attributes.
vii) Discuss the association of two attributes:
• Positive association
• Negative association
• Complete association
• Complete disassociation
viii) Define the coefficient of association.
ix) Find the coefficient of association and given its
interpretation.

8.2 Contingency Table i) Define a contingency table.
ii) Know the criterion of independence of two attributes in a
contingency table.
iii) Test whether two attributes, in a given contingency table,
are statistically independent or not.
iv) Describe Pearson’s coefficient of mean square
contingencies
v) Calculate Pearson’s coefficient of mean square
contingency for a given contingency table and find its
maximum value.
vi) Describe and apply Yate’s correction for continuity to test
the statistical independence of two given attributes.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
36
UNIT 9 DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT
Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills
The students will be able to:
9.1 Introduction i) Describe the meanings of the design of experiment.
ii) Explain the elements involved in designing an experiment:
• The experimental unit
• The treatment
• The replication
• The response
• The layout of the experiment
9.2 Completely
Randomized
Design
i) Define:
• Randomization
• Completely randomized design
ii) Give layout plan of completely randomized design.
iii) Identify the merits and demerits of completely randomized
design.
9.3 Analysis of
Variance
i) Know the meanings of analysis of variance.
ii) State the assumptions of analysis of variance.
iii) Describe and calculate:
• The total sum of squares
• The treatment sum of squares
• The error sum of squares
iv) Describe and calculate the degrees of freedom for:
• The total sum of squares
• The treatment sum of squares
• The error sum of squares
v) Describe and calculate:
• The treatment mean square
• The error mean square
vi) Test the equality of means of several normal populations.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
37
TEACHING STRATEGIES

Introduction

The interest towards beliefs, attitudes and expectations that students bring into statistics
classroom has been increasing in statistics education. In the technology-based society, teaching is
being recognized as a complex and multifaceted product of several variables and the culture of
teaching and learning is changing. Very often teaching and learning at college / university seems
to be focused on students’ passing the prescribed assessments (examinations) and gaining the
paper credentials for the required certificate/degree. Students seem to be mastering statistical
procedures and vocabulary but are not able to use statistical reasoning in a meaningful way. In
such an environment, obviously, long-term objectives of teaching or learning cannot be attained.

To capture all aspects of expertise, competence, knowledge and facility which are necessary to
learn and mathematical science like statistics the following interwoven but interdependent
strands, presented by Kilpatrick et al (2001) to attain mathematical proficiency, may be
incorporated.

• Conceptual understanding – comprehension of the concepts, operations and
relations
• Procedural fluency – skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately,
efficiently and appropriately
• Strategic competence – ability to formulate, represent and solve problems
• Adaptive reasoning – capacity for logical thought, reflection, explanation and
justification
• Productive disposition – habitual inclination to see the subject as sensible, useful
and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy

Part I: Teaching Statistics

According to Sowey (1995) following five important attributes of the discipline need to be
brought out in teaching statistics.

1. Coherence in exposition can reveal in three different ways:

• Theme coherence – makes the expository sequence: principle of a technique
in theory, use of that technique in practice
• Pattern coherence – unifies seemingly diverse topics by showing underlying
similarity
• Knowledge coherence – shows how statistics integrates with other disciplines
2. Perspective in presentation can reveal merits of a coherent exposition.
3. Intellectual excitement stimulates the student. It is evoked by: seeing scope for
advancing the subject; observing the teacher’s interest in the subject and own
discovery of the subject (especially when findings are surprising).
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
38
4. The discipline’s resilience to challenging questioning reassures the student.
Reassurance comes from a clear picture of both the strengths and weaknesses of
the discipline and an appreciation of how the former outweigh the latter.
5. Demonstrating practical usefulness implies career prospects that can fulfill the
student.

Gordon (1995) views learning statistics from the student’s perspective and finds three
useful principles to guide teaching. Firstly, the teachers must create a supportive environment in
the classroom. Classrooms should not recognize as just a place where students received
instructions but a social structure in which students’ action form. Secondly, guidance; is
important whereas the type of guidance is critical. If the teacher is the only one in the classroom
who is being creative and thoughtful, and students are expected merely to react to her or him,
then the guidance will not succeed in assisting students to become independent and confident
learners. Thirdly, teaching needs to build on the personal experience of the learner. Connecting
abstract statistical concepts with personal experiences, analogies, smiles and metaphors may be
useful instructional tools.

PART-II Statistical Problem Solving

It is observed that the subject of statistics is often illustrated with simple mathematical
exercises that have no practical application. Consequently the students are unable to transfer their
knowledge to real contexts. There is a need to engage the students in problem solving in an
applied context.

Solving statistical problems, being foundation of the subject, is an investigative process
that involves four components:

• Formulate question
• Collect data
• Analyze data
• Interpret result

According to Harradine (2004), problems are traditionally posed in ways that require students to
read within, between and beyond the data. He argues that prior to teaching standard statistical
tools and procedures, students should be taught the art of ‘distribution division’ where
distributions are sliced into chunks and each chunking is considered to see what information that
particular slicing configuration conveys. He also argues that application of the skills of
comparing and contrasting and forming arguments that support a conclusion or conjecture should
be taught prior to teaching standard statistical tools.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
39
PART- III Time Distribution

Teaching schedules are among the integral parts of classrooms. They help the management to
run and monitor the teaching of a particular subject. The following tables, indicating unit-wise
time distribution, will be supportive to the teachers and education planners.

UNIT-WISE TIME DISTRIBUTION – GRADE XI

Unit Title Period
(40 minutes each)
1. Collection and Presentation of Data 24
2. Measures of Central Tendency 24
3. Measures of Dispersion, Skewness and Kurtosis 30
4. Index Numbers 27
5. Simple Linear Regression and Correlation 24
6. Time Series 24
7. Vital Statistics 24
8. Interpolation 21
9. Linear Programming 12
Total: 210

UNIT-WISE TIME DISTRIBUTION – GRADE XII

Unit Title Period
(40 minutes each)
1. Probability 27
2. Random Variables and Probability Distribution 24
3. Special Discrete Probability Distributions 24
4. Special Continuous Probability Distributions 24
5. Sampling and Sampling Distribution 24
6. Estimation 21
7. Hypothesis Testing 24
8. Association of Attributes 21
9. Design of Experiment 21
Total: 210

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
40
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

Introduction
Assessment is the process of gathering information using a variety of tools and
techniques that reflect how well a student is achieving the curriculum expectations in a subject.
As part of assessment teachers provide students with descriptive feedback that guides their
efforts towards improvement. The quality of assessment largely determines the quality of
evaluation. Evaluation refers to the process of judgments and decisions based on the
interpretation of evidence gathered through assessment.

Rowntree (1990) defined assessment as having two purposes: firstly to support and provide
feedback to learners and improve their ongoing learning, and secondly to report on what they had
already achieved. In essence the first is formative assessment and the second is summative
assessment. Morgan and O’Reilly (1999) believe that assessment is the engine that drives and
shapes learning, rather than an end of course event that grades and reports on performance.

To ensure that assessment and evaluation lead to the improvement of student learning, teachers
must use specific assessment and evaluation strategies that

• Address both what students learn and how well they learn
• Are administered over a period of time and designed to provide opportunities
for students to demonstrate full range of their learning,
• Ensure that each student is given clear directions for improvement,
• Promote students’ ability to assess their own learning,
• Are communicated clearly to students and parents in advance.

PART-I Assessment in Statistics

It should be kept in mind that in Statistics a single type of assessment can frustrate students,
diminish their self-confidence and make them feel anxious about the subject. In reality the
understanding of statistical concepts encompasses a broad range of abilities. Examples of various
templates to assess different abilities are mentioned below.

Assessment must include by focusing on a student’s ability to:

• Communicate mathematically
• Reason and analyze, and to think and act in positive ways
• Comprehend the key concepts
• Evaluate the effectiveness of using different strategies to address the same
problem
• Use a variety of strategies to problem solving and to make statistical connections
• Discriminate between relevant and irrelevant attributes of a concept in selecting
examples
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
41
• Integrate and to make sense of statistical concept and procedure

Learning of Statistics, being a cumulative process, occurs as experiences contribute to
understanding. Suggested below are the assessment strategies to obtain valid and reliable picture
of students’ understanding and achievement.

i) Classroom-based assessments that include anecdotal records, checklists, rating
scales, portfolios peer-and self-assessment.
ii) Teacher-designed test formats that include oral examination, assignments/
projects/field-work, short answers, matching, multiple-choice, fill-in and true-
false items.

Bearing in mind the requirement of simplicity in considering assessment strategies, the
examinations in traditional paper-based mode with place and time-specific activities, are easy to
organize for institutions (Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education). When a formal
examination, for Secondary School Certificate (SSC) or Higher Secondary School Certificate
(HSSC), is used for assessment there are examination centres, infrastructure to supply and secure
examination papers before examination and arrangements to check the identities of the
candidates, invigilate the examination and collect the scripts for marking. Marks are then
gathered and results are published in a timely manner.

For the in-house assessment and evaluation the institutions adopt their own criteria. The means
by which each institution achieves quality should differ according to the circumstances in which
it operates, but each must give priority to meeting students’ expectations in terms of learning
outcomes they can legitimately expect to achieve. In essence an effective learning-outcomes-
oriented quality assurance system must be based on constant monitoring and effective learning-
outcomes-oriented quality assurance system must be based on constant monitoring and effective
feedback loops.

Instructions for Examining Bodies

The examining institutions or bodies including all Boards of Intermediate and Secondary
Education for the conduct of HSSC examination in the subject of Statistics should follow
instructions as given below.

a. The question papers should be balanced in all respect. Following table,
showing weightage to difficulty level of questions, is suggested to be a
practicable criterion for a balanced question paper of Statistics.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
42
Difficulty Level of Questions Weightage (%)
Easy 15
Average 70
Difficult 15

b. To the subject of Statistics 200 marks have been allocated for HSSC
examination. There will be only two papers (Paper-A and Paper-B) of
Statistics each carrying 100 marks. The students will not be assessed by the
Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISEs) through practical
(lab work) examination.

c. The examiners will set the questions keeping in view the unit-wise
weightages given below.

PART-III Unit wise Weightages

Following tables explain weightages of specified topics of Statistics for grade XI and
XII.

Unit Title Weightage (%)
1. Collection and Presentation of Data 12
2. Measures of Central Tendency 12
3. Measures of Dispersion, Skewness and Kurtosis 14
4. Index Numbers 12
5. Simple Linear Regression and Correlation 12
6. Time Series 12
7. Vital Statistics 12
8. Interpolation 8
9. Linear Programming 6
Total 100

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
43

Unit Title Weightage (%)
1. Probability 12
2. Random Variables and Probability Distributions 10
3. Special Discrete Probability Distributions 12
4. Special Continuous Probability Distribution 12
5. Sampling and Sampling Distribution 12
6. Estimation 10
7. Hypothesis Testing 12
8. Association of Attributes 10
9. Design of Experiment 10
Total 100

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
44
TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES

Introduction
Government prescribed textbook is the only teaching and learning tool used in most of the
schools and colleges. Though many other resources are also available, accessible and affordable,
teachers rarely use them to support the learning. In addition to the textbook, the teaching and
learning resources include teacher’s manual and electronic resources.

Part-I The Textbook
There are many important entities involved to revamp the entire education system. The
school/college has to play its own role, parents have to contribute their share and teachers have
to assume a significant place in fostering education. Print materials, particularly the textbooks,
have to play a key role towards providing quality education at all levels. Although there are
many stakeholders that contribute towards the overall learning of the child yet the importance of
textbook as a reservoir of information/knowledge cannot be ignored.

Textbook writers have a vital role to play in penetrating the young minds through their writing.
A textbook
• Whose content as well as presentation is thoughtfully planned
• Which is written by qualified and competent subject expert(s), and
• Which is attractive and engaging
must stimulate the interest of teacher and the taught.

Guidelines for Textbook Authors
Textbooks aimed at lower level tend to include more learning features than those at higher level.
However in textbook writing generally the following aspects may be taken into consideration.

• The textbook should be in line with the objectives of National Curriculum
• The author should bring himself to the mental level of students he is writing for
• The span of the textbook should be fairly reasonable
• The material should not be cramped. To make it more digestible, it may be
chunked into smaller parts with headings
• The textbook is expected to provide accurate and up-to-date information
• The text material should be arranged in a logical manner; simple to complex,
familiar to unfamiliar and concrete to abstract
• The text material must be free from ambiguities and errors
• The content provided in the textbook should not develop wrong concepts
• The text should be clear and concise. It should not give any other meaning than
the one intended
• Every table, diagram and graph should be labeled appropriately
• Footnotes and side notes may be inserted wherever necessary

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
45
Textbook Style and Structure

To make a textbook an effective teaching and learning tool its style and structure is given
due importance. The material needs to be structured in a coherent and logical way, and
that writing style should be reader friendly.

Unit Opening
Unit Outline Include list of headings
Student Learning
Outcomes (SLOs)
One SLO for each heading may be included. If they
are numerous then a reasonable number is
acceptable.
Real Life Relevance Illustrate the real life relevance of the unit, if
possible.
Short Introduction Explain what this unit covers and why.

Unit Body
Key Terms Use italics for emphasis and bold for key terms.
Define key terms when first introduced and collate
them with their definitions for the glossary.
Running Glossary Key terms and definitions may be pulled out from
the main body of text so that students spot them
easily in the unit body (e.g. in the margins).
Feature Boxes Regular feature boxes may include various contents
such as a statistical formula or a working rule.
Illustrative Examples Include illustrative examples to develop conceptual
understanding of the topic.
Problem Sets Special attention should be paid on preparation of
Problem Sets. Correlate the topic with real life
situations and include sufficient exercises on real life
problems almost in every problem set, if appropriate.
Learning Review
Points
Include bulleted questions for students to check their
understanding at regular intervals. Possible labels
include ‘self-test point’ or ‘checkpoint’.
Tips or Hints Separated from the main body of text, they allow the
author to speak directly to the student, offering
useful advice or flagging important points.
Visuals Tables, graphs, diagrams and lists may be used to
break up the text.

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
46
Unit Ending
Problem Set (Review) Include multiple-choice questions, interpretive
exercises and fill-in items. Students may also be
to short question.
Summary Include a review of the main concepts. This can
relate to the SLOs by covering each in turn (bullet
points work well). The summary should not
include any new information.

End of Textbook
Glossary Include only the key terms in the glossary.
Appendices Include extra information the student needs such as
list of statistical formulas, log tables and relevant
websites.
Bibliography Include bibliography and list of books for
Index Include index for the key terms used in the book

PART-II The Teacher’s Manual

Ideally the teacher’s manual should come with the textbook. The manual is aimed at
informing teachers how the textbook is written and how best to use it to facilitate student
learning. It can be seen as a means of helping teachers develop professionally. It provides
details explanation of key concepts and the way to teach a particular topic. Its basic
features are as below.

The teacher’s manual should
• Be easy to understand and use
• Help teachers teach text and extend activities
• Give sequenced instructions for each activity
• Include teaching learning resources
• Establish a question bank (having questions different from text) and suggest
interactive quizzes corresponding to each unit.
• Involve various up-to-date and relevant teaching strategies and rationale for
suggested teaching
• Explain how to implement each teaching strategy
• Identify constraints and strengths of each strategy or activity
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
47
• Identify resources needed for teaching strategies and extension of activities
• Expand and develop teachers repertoire of knowledge and skills
• Identify assessment strategies

PART-III The Web-based Resources

The World Wide Web is growing very fast to access an immense volume of rapidly
evolving information. It is acting as a driving force since its ease of use makes the
internet trivially accessible. Through web-based links like the ones mentioned below the
teachers and students can access

• Various sites around the world
• Additional information and currency on the topics

Title of Website Universal Resource Locator (URL)
Analyse-it http://www.analyse-it.com
Data Analysis and Probability http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/stat/stat.html
Electronic Encyclopaedia of
Statistical Examples &
Exercises
http://www.whfreeman.com/eesee/eesee.html
Exploring Data http://exploringdata.cqu.edu.au
Online Statistics http://onlinestatbook.com
Pink Monkey.Com Statistics
Study Guide
http://www.pinkmonkey.com/studyguides/subject
/stat/contents.asp
Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics http://onlinestatbook.com/rvls.html
Shodor Education Foundation
(Interactivate)
http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/lessons/
SPSS http://www.spss.com
Statistica http://www.statsoft.com
MAPLE http://www.maplesoft.com
MATHEMATICA http://www.wolfram.com/products/mathematica/
index.htm.
Minitab http://www.minitab.com/products/Minitab/

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
48
REFERENCES

1. Burrill,G. (2005): Curriculum issues in Statistics Education, in the 8
th
International
Conference of Mathematics Education into the 21
st
Century Project: ‘Reform, Revolution
and Paradigm Shifts in Mathematics Education’.

2. Cobb, G.W., and Moore, D.S. (1997): Mathematics, Statistics, and Teaching,
The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol 104, No.9, pp. 801-823.

3. Kilpatrick,J., Swafford, J., and Findell, B. (Eds) (2001): Adding it up: Helping children
learn mathematics, Mathematics Learning Study Committee, Centre for Education,

4. Franklin, C., Horton, N. Kader, G., Moreno, J., Murplhy, M., Snider, V., Stames, D.
(2005): Guidelines for Assesment andInstruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) Report,
American Statistical Association, Alexandria VA: http:// www. amstat. org/
education/gaise.

5. Gordon, S., (195): A theoretical approach to understanding earners of statistics, Journal
of Statistics Education, Vol 3, No.3.

6. Green, D. (1994): Teaching Statistics at its bet, Teaching Statistics Trust, University of
Sheffield England.

7. Harradine, A. (2004): Within, between and beyond, Curriculum Development in
Statistics Education, Round Table IASE, Lund, Sweden.

8. Morgan, C., and O’Reilly, M. (1999): Assessing open and distance learners, Kogan Page,
London.

9. National Curriculum of Mathematics (2006): Curriculum Wing, Ministry of Education,

10. NCTM (2000): Principals and standards for school mathematics, National Council for
Teachers of Mathematics, Reston, VA.

11. NCTM (2006): Thinking and reasoning with data and chance: 68
th
NCTM Yearbook,
National Council for Teachers of Mathematics. Reston, VA.

12. Rowntree, D.(1990): Teaching through self-instruction (Second Ed), Kogan Page.
London.

13. Sowey, Eric R. (1995): Teaching statistics: Making it memorable, Journal of Statiics
Education, Vol 3, No.2.
National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
49
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT TEAMS

Team of Curriculum Writers

Consultant (Sciences), Ministry of Education, Islamabad. (Supervisor and Coordinator)

Chairman Department of Statistics Associate Professor ® of Statistics

Principal/Associate Professor of Statistics Associate Professor
Government Degree College Department of Mathematics
Kharian Quaid-i-Azam University

Rector/Professor of Statistics Chairman Department of Statistics
National College of Business Quaid-i-Azam University,
Gulberg-III, Lahore.

Professor Dr. Faqir Muhammad Prof. Dr. Junaid Sagheer Siddiqui
Chairman Statistics & Mathematics Chairman Department of Statistics
Department University of Karachi
Allama Iqbal Open University, Karachi.

Professor Dr. Salah-ud-Din Dr. S.M. Hussain Bukhari
Department of Statistics Joint Director
University of Peshawar Statistics & Data Warehouse Department
Peshawar State Bank of Pakistan
Karachi

Dr. Muhammad Aleem Sardar Iftikhar Ahmed
Chairman Department of Statistics Chairman Department of Statistics
Bahawalpur Rawalakot (AJ&K)

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009
50
Team of Examination Experts

Mr. Gulzar Ahmad Bhatti Mrs Farkhanda Nasreen
Associate Professor Statistics Associate Professor of Statistics
Government Postgraduate College Government Girls College
Bahawalnagar Mastung (Balochistan)

Mr. Tariq Mehmood Mirza Mr. Irfan Ullah
Assistant Professor of Statistics Assistant Professor of Statistics
Lahore Nowshera

Mr. Iftikhar ud Din
Assistant Professor of Statistics
Peshawar.

ii

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009

Introduction......................................................................................................................................1 SECTION 1: CURRICULUM OF STATISTICS FOR GRADE XI...............................................3 Unit 1: Collection and Presentation of Data ........................................................................3 Unit 2: Measures of Central Tendency ................................................................................7 Unit 3: Measures of Dispersion, Skewness and Kurtosis ..................................................10 Unit 4: Index Numbers.......................................................................................................13 Unit 5: Simple Linear Regression and Correlation ............................................................15 Unit 6: Time Series ............................................................................................................17 Unit 7: Vital Statistics ........................................................................................................18 Unit 8: Interpolation...........................................................................................................20 Unit 9: Linear Programming ..............................................................................................21 SECTION 2: CURRICULUM OF STATISTICS FOR GRADE XII ...........................................23 Unit 1: Probability..............................................................................................................23 Unit 2: Random Variables and Probability Distributions ..................................................25 Unit 3: Special Discrete Probability Distributions.............................................................27 Unit 4: Special Continuous Probability Distributions........................................................28 Unit 5: Sampling and Sampling Distribution.....................................................................30 Unit 6: Estimation ..............................................................................................................32 Unit 7: Hypothesis Testing.................................................................................................34 Unit 8: Association of Attributes .......................................................................................35 Unit 9: Design of Experiment ............................................................................................36 SECTION 3: TEACHING STRATEGIES ....................................................................................37 3.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................37 3.2 Teaching Statistics ......................................................................................................37 3.3 Statistics Problem Solving ..........................................................................................38 3.4 Time Distribution........................................................................................................39 SECTION 4: ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION ...................................................................40 4.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................40 4.2 Assessment in Statistics ..............................................................................................40 4.3 The Traditional Examinations.....................................................................................41 4.4 Unit-wise Weightages.................................................................................................42

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009

iii

SECTION 5: TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES......................................................44 5.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................44 5.2 The Textbook ..............................................................................................................44 5.3 The Teacher’s Manual ................................................................................................46 5.4 The Web-based Resources ..........................................................................................47 References......................................................................................................................................48 Curriculum Development Teams...................................................................................................49

iv

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009

INTRODUCTION
Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary as the ability to read and write H.G. Wells (1886-1946)

Importance of Statistics
An information- and technology-based society requires individuals, who are able to think critically about complex issues, analyze and adapt to new situation, solve problems of various kinds and communicate their thinking effectively. The study of statistics equips students with knowledge, skills, powerful intellectual tools and habits of mind that are essential for successful and rewarding participation in such a society. Statistics is about data, information presented numerically, and about using that information in ways that inform the user, providing a knowledge base for making decisions and for facing uncertainties. According to Cobb and Moore (1997), statistics is a methodological discipline. It exists not for itself, but rather to offer to other fields of study a coherent set of ideas and tools for dealing with data. In GAISE report Franklin et al (2005) argue that a major objective of statistics education is to help students develop statistical thinking. The statistical thinking, in large part, must deal with the omnipresence of variability.

The world renowned education systems are responding to the increasingly important role of statistics by including statistical strands in their curricula particularly in mathematics. The fourth standard of National Curriculum for Mathematics (2006), the competency of which reads as ‘Information Handling’, does cater for the similar expectations. The curriculum issues in statistics education have long been under discussion of the academia at different international forums. Articles regarding statistics education can be found in the Statistics Education Research Journal (SER) and the Journal of Statistics Education (JSE) both published by International Association for Statistical Education (IASE) and American Statistics Association (ASA) respectively. The IASE Roundtable on Curriculum Development in Statistics Education, held in Sweden in 2004, provided a platform to twenty six participants from nine countries to discuss main issues of the statistics curriculum from primary school to tertiary level. Burrill (2005) discusses the curriculum issues in statistics education and suggests that: • More opportunities need to be created for students to question critically the statistical claims from real-world contexts

National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII, 2009

1

The following themes permeate the curriculum: • The learning-outcomes oriented National Curriculum of Statistics extends the scope of rudiments of statistics falling under the fourth standard (Information Handling) of National Curriculum for Mathematics (2006) It helps students to build the solid conceptual foundation in statistics that will enable them to apply their knowledge skillfully It stresses on visual communication – representing data. professional. It should be improved and uplifted to make it comparable with international standards. appropriate to statistical understanding are required to be developed so that students may become critical consumers of statistics Attention need to be paid that students learn the importance of careful designs for collecting data Through its articles the Sixty-eighth Yearbook (NCTM 2006) makes the vision come alive that is highlighted in the Principles and Standards (NCTM 2000) and is stated as – the students should be able to: • • • • Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect. 2009 . and labour market needs of the country. technical. organize and display relevant data to answer them Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions based on data Understand and apply basic concepts of probability The Curriculum of Statistics The main objective to review the national curriculum is to make it more vibrant and more responsive to the modern.• • Frequent situations. The National Curriculum of Statistics has been designed in the light of above recommendations coupled with the suggestions of our stakeholders. interpreting and depicting situations The curriculum is not merely centered on the theoretical underpinnings of the subject but emphasizes on real-life problems which enable the students to linkup their thinking to the real-world contexts • • • 2 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. socio-economic.

CURRICULUM OF STATISTICS FOR GRADE – XI UNIT 1 COLLECTION AND PRESENTATION OF DATA Contents and Scope 1. Statistical Data i) Define and identify the types of statistical data: • Qualitative and quantitative data • Discrete and continuous data 1. iv) Define: • Statistical inquiry (survey) • Statistical observations Variable i) Define: • A constant • A variable. iii) Define an error of measurement.4 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII.1 Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: Introduction i) Define statistics. discrete and continuous Measurement Scales i) Recognize the measurement scales: • Nominal scale • Ordinal (or ranking) scale • Interval scale • Ratio scale ii) Apply an appropriate measurement scale when collecting the statistical observations (data). its domain and its observed values ii) Describe: • The types of a variable. v) Apply the rules for rounding-off the numbers to desired accuracy. theoretical statistics and applied statistics.3 1. ii) Differentiate between: • Population and sample • Parameter and statistics iii) Distinguish between descriptive and inferential statistics. qualitative and quantitative • The types of quantitative variable.2 1. iv) Explain the rules to round-off the numbers. 2009 3 .

xi) Define: (for continuous variables) National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. v) Specify the main parts of the table.1. viii) Define frequency distribution. Presentation of Statistical Data. • By diagrammatic/graphic representation ii) Identify the merits and demerits of data arrays. Chronological (time series) and geographical (spatial) data • Primary and secondary data ii) Describe the characteristics of statistical data. iv) Define tabulation and describe its main steps. x) Construct a discrete frequency distribution from the given discrete observations and represent it symbolically. iii) Arrange a data array from the given individual observations (raw data) and symbolize the observations and the data array.5. newspapers and internet/electronic media i) Condense the collected statistical data: • Using the data array • Through classification and tabulation. iii) Explain how primary data are collected through: • Direct personal investigation • Indirect investigation • Questionnaires to be filled in by the informants /enumerators • Registration by local correspondents • Designed experiments iv) Signify the sources of secondary data: • Official and semi-official sources • Research organizations • Journals. vi) Define: • Classification • Class • Class frequency vii) Classify the qualitative observations (up to two attributes). 2009 • 4 . ix) Differentiate between discrete and grouped frequency distributions.

Define and construct: • Histogram • Frequency polygon • Frequency curve • Cumulative frequency polygon (ogive) • Cumulative frequency curve for a grouped frequency distribution. 2009 . Construct a grouped frequency distribution from the given continuous observations and represent it symbolically. Define and construct: • Simple bar chart/histogram • Cumulative frequency polygon for a discrete frequency distribution.xii) xiii) xiv) xv) xvi) xvii) xviii) xix) • Class limits • Class boundaries • Class width or interval • Class mark or midpoint Describe the steps involved in the construction of a grouped frequency distribution. Define and construct: • The cumulative frequency distribution • The relative frequency distribution • The cumulative relative frequency distribution • The percentage frequency distribution • The cumulative percentage frequency distribution for continuous variables Describe diagrammatic/graphic representation of data and identify its merits and demerits. 5 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Define and construct: • Simple bar chart • Multiple bar chart • Subdivided / component bar chart • Percentage subdivided rectangles • Pie/sector chart for a qualitative data. State the types of charts/diagrams.

ii) Expand a sum given in ‘∑’ notation into an explicit sum.1. 2009 . where c is a constant 6 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. iii) Write an explicit sum in ‘∑’ notation where there is an obvious pattern to the individual terms. Type of Frequency Curves or Distributions. Recognize the types of frequency curves/distributions: • Uniform distribution • Symmetrical distribution • Positively skewed distribution • Negatively skewed distribution • Moderately skewed distribution • Extremely skewed distribution • U-shaped distribution • Bi-modal distribution i) Recognize summation/sigma notation ‘∑’ to indicate the sum of a sequence of observations. where c is a constant i =1 ∑ c = nc .7.6. iv) Use the following rules to manipulate sums expressed in ∑’ notation: • • • v) ∑ (x i =1 n i =1 n n i + yi ) = ∑ xi + ∑ yi i =1 n i =1 n n ∑ cx i =1 i = c ∑ xi . where c is a constant i =1 j =1 ∑∑ c = nmc . Summation and Product Notations. where c is a constant m Describe the meanings of double-summation notation ∑∑ i =1 j =1 n vi) Use the following rules to manipulate double-summation notation: • • • ∑∑ ( xij + yij ) = ∑∑ xij + ∑∑ yij i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1 n m i =1 j =1 n m n m n m ∑∑ cx i =1 j =1 n m i =1 j =1 n m ij = c ∑∑ xij . 1.

Use the following rules to manipulate products expressed in ‘ ∏ ’ notation: n n i viii) ix) x) • • • • ∏ cx i =1 n i =1 =c n n ∏x i =1 i where c is a constant ∏c = c where c is a constant  n  n log  ∏ xi  = ∑ (log xi )    i =1  i=1  n  n  ( xi yi ) = ∏ xi  ∏ yi  ∏ i =1  i =1   i =1  n n • x ∏  yi  i =1  i n  =   ∏x i =1 n i ∏y i =1 i National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. 2009 7 . into an explicit multiplication from. Expand a product given in ‘ ∏ ’ notation.• • vii) ∑∑ x i =1 j =1 n m n m ij = ∑∑ xij j =1 i =1 m n   n  m ∑∑ xi y j = ∑ xi  ∑ y j  i =1 j =1  i =1   j =1  Recognize product/pie notation ‘ ∏ ’ to indicate the product of a sequence of observations. Write an explicit multiplication form in ‘ ∏ ’ notation where there is an obvious pattern to the individual terms.

iii) Identify the merits and demerits of arithmetic mean. quartiles. deciles and percentiles. vii) Solve real life problems involving arithmetic mean. median. quartiles. quartiles. Contents and Scope 2. iii) Identify the merits and demerits of median. mode. 2009 . i) Define arithmetic mean and weighted arithmetic mean. iii) Define an average and list its types (arithmetic mean.UNIT 2: MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Define central tendency. deciles and percentiles for a grouped frequency distribution Estimate the median and quartiles through graph. v) vi) Solve real life problems involving median. deciles and percentiles. iv) State the properties of an idea/good average. quartiles. iv) Determine: • Median and quartiles for individual observations (raw data) • Median. ii) Recognize the properties of median. i) Define median. 2. deciles and percentiles for a discrete frequency distribution • Median. harmonic mean and midrange).3 Median.2 Arithmetic Mean. what the measure of central tendency is.1 Central Tendency. 2. ii) Know. iv) Calculate arithmetic mean for individual observations (raw data): • By definition • Using deviations from an assumed mean v) Calculate arithmetic mean for a frequency distribution: • By definition • By coding and scaling vi) Find arithmetic mean directly using the calculator in statistical (STAT/SD) mode. ii) Recognize the properties of arithmetic mean. geometric mean. 8 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII.

Calculate geometric mean for individual observations (raw data): By definition Using logarithms Calculate geometric mean for a frequency distribution.6 Harmonic Mean. Define harmonic mean and weighted harmonic mean. Determine mode for: Individual observations (raw data) A discrete frequency distribution A grouped frequency distribution Estimate the mode through graph for continuous and discrete distribution. Recognize the properties of mode. Solve real life problems involving harmonic mean. Calculate harmonic mean for: Individual observations (raw data) A frequency distribution Verify the relations between arithmetic mean. Identify the merits and demerits of harmonic mean. Discuss the empirical relationship between arithmetic mean. Define mode. median and mode. Solve real life problems involving geometric mean. Identify the merits and demerits of mode. 2009 9 .4 Mode. National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII.2. Recognize the properties of harmonic mean. Identify the merits and demerits of geometric mean. Define geometric mean and weighted geometric mean.5 Geometric Mean. 2. Solve real life problems involving mode. geometric mean and harmonic mean. i) ii) iii) iv) • • • v) vi) vii) i) ii) iii) iv) • • v) vi) i) ii) iii) iv) • • iv) v) 2. Recognize the properties of geometric mean.

i) Define mean deviation and coefficient of mean deviation: • From mean • From median • From mode ii) Recognize the properties of mean deviation. semi-range and coefficient of range. quartile deviation (or semi-inter-quartile range) and coefficient of quartile deviation.3 Quartile Deviation. ii) Know. iii) Identify the merits and demerits of quartile deviation. SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Define dispersion. iii) State the properties of an idea/good measure of dispersion.UNIT 3: MEASURES OF DISPERSION. iv) Determine the inter-quartile range. Recognize the properties of range. semi-range and coefficient of range for: • Individual observations (raw data) • A discrete frequency distribution • A grouped frequency distribution v) Solve real life problems involving range. 3. ii) Recognize the properties of quartile deviation.4 Mean Deviation.1.absolute and relative. what the measure of dispersion is. ii) iii) Identify the merits and demerits of range. iv) Identify the types of measure of dispersion. mid-quartile range.2. v) Know the types of absolute and relative measures of dispersion: • Range and coefficient of range • Quartile deviation and coefficient of quartile deviation • Mean deviation and coefficient of mean deviation • Standard deviation and coefficient of variation i) Define range. Dispersion. mid-quartile range. Range. iv) Determine the range. 3. 2009 Contents and Scope 3. i) Define inter-quartile range. National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. quartile deviation and coefficient of quartile deviation for: • Individual observations (raw data) • A discrete frequency distribution • A grouped frequency distribution v) Solve real life problems involving quartile deviation. 10 . 3.

Find the standard deviation directly using the calculator in statistical (STAT/SD) mode. standard deviation and coefficient of variation for individual observations (raw data): • By definition • Using the deviations from an assumed mean Calculate variance. Recognize the error of grouping. Calculate variance. v) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) 3. Define variance. Calculate mean deviation and coefficient of mean deviation for individual observations (a frequency distribution): From mean From median From mode Solve real life problems involving mean deviation. Recognize the properties of variance and standard deviation.iii) iv) • • • 3. Describe the uses of standard deviation and coefficient of variation.5 Standard Deviation.6 Moments. Identify the merits and demerits of standard deviation. Describe and apply the Sheppard’s correction to variance for a grouped frequency distribution. Define moments: • About arithmetic mean • About any arbitrary point • About the origin Calculate moments about arithmetic mean. 2009 . i) ii) Identify the merits and demerits of mean deviation. standard deviation and coefficient of variation for a frequency distribution: • By definition • Using the deviations from an assumed mean (coding and scaling) Calculate variance using the formula: variance = (mean of the squares) – (square of the mean). about any 11 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Define mean square deviation. standard deviation and coefficient of variation. Solve real life problems involving variance and standard deviation.

mesokurtic or leptokurtic.iii) iv) v) vi) i) ii) 3.8 Kurtosis. 12 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Define symmetrical distribution. Define moment ratios. • Mean = median = mode • Third quartile = median = median = first quartile • All odd ordered moments about mean vanish • First moment ratio = 0 Define: • Skewness • Skewed distribution (positively or negatively) • Coefficient of skewness Determine the coefficient of skewness using: • Lyon Bowley’s formula • Karl Pearson’s formulae (involving mode and median only) Interpret the coefficient of skewness. Identify a given symmetrical distribution as platykurtic.7 Skewness. iii) iv) 3. Solve real life problems involving coefficient of skewness. Solve real life problems involving kurtosis. v) vi) i) ii) iii) arbitrary point and about the origin: • For individual observations (raw data) • For a frequency distribution Describe and apply: • The relationship expressing moments about mean in terms of moments about any arbitrary point • The relationship expressing moments about mean in terms of moments about the origin Describe and apply the Sheppard’s corrections to moments for a grouped frequency distribution. Recognize the following properties of a symmetrical distribution. Calculate moment ratios. Define kurtosis. 2009 .

xiii) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of weighted aggregates. ix) Calculate composite price index numbers using the method of simple average of relatives.1 Index Numbers. Describe the steps involved in the construction of ii) wholesale price index numbers: • Purpose and scope • Selection of commodities to be included • Collection of prices • Selection of base period (fixed base method. xi) Describe the method of weighted aggregates. National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. median or geometric mean) to be used • Selection of appropriate weights iii) Define simple and composite price index numbers. xii) Calculate weighted aggregative composite price index numbers. vii) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of simple aggregates viii) Describe the method of simple average of relatives. iv) Calculate simple price index numbers: • By fixed base method • By chain base method v) Describe the method of simple aggregates. xiv) Calculate weighted aggregative composite price index numbers using: • Laspeyer’s formula 13 Contents and Scope 4. x) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of simple average of relatives. 2009 .UNIT 4: INDEX NUMBERS Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Define index numbers. vi) Calculate composite price index numbers using the method of simple aggregates. chain base method and chain indices) • Choice of average (arithmetic mean.

xviii) Calculate weighted average of relatives composite price index numbers using: • Laspeyer’s formula • Paache’s formula i) Define the consumer price index (CPI) numbers. ii) Discuss the steps involved in the construction of consumer price index numbers: • Scope • Household budget inquiry • Allocation of weights • Collection of consumer prices iii) Calculate consumer price index numbers using: • Aggregate expenditure method • Household budget method i) Describe: • The uses of index numbers • Limitations of index numbers ii) Interpret the computed index numbers.3 Interpretation of Index Numbers. • Paache’s formula • Fisher’s formula xv) Describe the method of weighted average of relatives.4.2 Consumer Price Index Numbers. 14 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. xvii) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of weighted average of relatives. 2009 . xvi) Calculate weighted average of relative composite price index numbers. 4.

UNIT 5: SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION AND CORRELATION Contents and Scope 5. Simple Linear i) Define covariance between two variables. viii) Recognize the properties of a least squares regression line. vi) Use the method of least squares to fit a regression line (including coding and scaling). ix) Fit a regression line directly using the calculator in LR (linear regression) mode. v) Describe the least squares principle. vii) Interpret the regression coefficient. iii) Define scatter diagram and discuss its role.2 Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: Simple Linear i) Define: Regression. x) Use least squares approach to solve appropriate real life problems. • Independent and dependent variables • Simple regression ii) Describe regression function and regression curve.1 5. vi) Calculate Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between two variables using: • The deviations from their respective means • The deviations from respective assumed means • The original respective observations National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. v) Define simple linear correlation coefficient (also called Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient). 2009 15 . ii) Define simple linear correlation between two random variables. Correlation. iii) Describe: • Positive correlation and perfect positive correlation • Negative correlation and perfect negative correlation • No correlation iv) Differentiate between simple linear correlation and regression. iv) Define simple linear regression and identify its regression coefficient.

ix) Interpret the simple linear correlation coefficient. x) Recognize the properties of simple linear correlation coefficient. xi) Find simple linear correlation coefficient directly using the calculator in LR (linear regression) mode. Use the method of least squares to fit two regression lines (including coding and scaling). viii) Determine the correlation coefficient from two given regression coefficients. i) Define: • Rank correlation • Coefficient of rank correlation ii) Find the coefficient of rank correlation to measure the association between two qualitative variables. xii) Use the simple linear correlation coefficient to solve appropriate real life problems.3 Rank Correlation. vii) 16 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. 2009 .5.

iii) Describe and apply the method of semi-averages to measure the secular trend including the algebraic form of semi-averages trend line. viii) Describe and apply the technique of shifting of origin in the least squares secular trend. Define and construct historiogram. v) Describe additive and multiplicative models utilized for analysis of time series. 6. ii) Identify the merits and demerits of the freehand curve method.UNIT 6: TIME SERIES Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Define time series. vii) Describe and apply the method of least squares to measure: • Linear secular trend • Quadratic secular trend for estimating trend values. vi) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of moving averages. ii) iii) Describe the components of a time series: • Secular trend • Seasonal variations • Cyclical fluctuations • Irregular movements iv) Explain ‘analysis of time series’.1 Time Series. ix) Identify the merits and demerits of the least squares secular trend. 2009 17 . of i) Describe and apply the method of freehand curve to measure the secular trend. vi) Explain the technique of coding the time variable. Contents and Scope 6.2 Measurement Secular Trend. iv) Identify the merits and demerits of the method of semiaverages. National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. v) Describe and apply the method of moving averages to measure the secular trend.

sex-specific and age-sex-specific) from a given data. Define: ii) • Gender-sex ratio • Child-women ratio • Vital index (birth-death ratio) i) Define: • Mortality • Crude death rate • Specific death rates – age-specific. 18 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. 2009 . iii) Define the standardized death rate.UNIT 7: VITAL STATISTICS Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Define: • Vital events • Vital statistics ii) Know the sources of data: • Vital registration system • Population census • Sample survey iii) Discuss the uses and shortcomings of vital statistics. iv) Describe direct and indirect methods to find the standardized death rate from a given data.2 Vital Ratios. sex-specific and age-sex-specific • Infant mortality rate • Neo-natal mortality rate • Still-birth rate • Maternal death rate ii) Find crude death rate and specific death rates (agespecific. 7.1 Introduction. v) Calculate the standardized death rate from a given data using direct and indirect methods. Contents and Scope 7. 7.3 Mortality Rates. i) Differentiate between rates and ratios.

Describe the standardized birth rate using direct and indirect methods. Define: • General fertility rate • Age-specific fertility rate • Total fertility rate Calculate general fertility rate. of i) ii) iii) iv) v) 7. 2009 19 .7.4 Measurement Fertility. National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Define: • Gross reproduction rate • Net reproduction rate Find gross and net reproduction rates from a given data. age-specific fertility rate and total fertility rate from a given data.5 Reproduction Rate. i) ii) Define: • Fertility • Crude birth rate • Crude rate of natural increase • Population growth rate • Age-specific birth rate Define the standardized birth rate.

2nd. ∆3 y. as Contents and Scope 8.. 20 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII.3 Lagrange’s Interpolation Formula.. Describe Newton’s forward difference interpolation formula.. iv) v) vi) 8... i) ii) iii) 1st. 3rd. iii) 8.. i = 0.UNIT 8: INTERPOLATION Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Identify arguments and entries in a given table of values (xi ...2.. Use Lagrange’s interpolation formula to find interpolating polynomial for a given equally.1. Use Newton’s forward difference interpolation formula to find interpolating polynomial for a given equally-spaced data.2. Use Newton’s forward difference formula to interpolate the value of y at a given x.. . y i ). 2009 .nth differences from the table of values ( xi .2 Newton’s Forward i) Difference Interpolation ii) Formula.or unequally-spaced data..1 Interpolation. Describe Lagrange’s interpolation formula. ∆2 y. Define: • Interpolation • Interpolating polynomial Define ‘ ∆ ‘ as the forward difference operator. yi ). n ii) iii) Differentiate between equally-spaced and un-equally spaced data. Use Lagrange’s interpolating formula to interpolate the value of y at a given value of x. n Construct forward difference table from a given equallyspaced data..... i = 0..1. ∆n y. Define ∆y..

Recognize: • • Contents and Scope 9. that is: • Establish the mathematical formulation of LP problem National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Draw the graph of a linear inequality in two variables. linear equation and linear Upper-and lower-half planes Left-and right-half planes iv) v) vi) Solve a linear inequality in one variable and depict it on the number line.UNIT 9: LINEAR PROGRAMMING.2 Linear Programming. Differentiate between inequality. Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) ii) iii) Recall origin (O) and coordinate axes (x-axis and y-axis) in Cartesian plane. through the following systematic procedure.1 Linear Inequalities. Identify the feasible region of a simple LP problem. graphically. 2009 21 . Find optimal solution. i) ii) Show graphically the feasible region (or solution space) of an LP problem. Explain the term optimal solution of an LP problem. Identify graphically the common region bounded by a system of (up to 3) linear inequalities of two non-negative variables. Find maximum and minimum values of objective function in a simple LP problem. Define: • • • • • • 9. i) Linear programming (LP) problem Objective function Problem constraints Decision variables Corner points Feasible region ii) iii) iv) 9.3 Optimal Solution.

2009 . 22 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII.• • • • • • Construct the graph Identify the feasible region Locate the solution (corner) points Evaluate the objective function at solution points Select the optimal solution Verify the optimal solution by actually substituting iii) values of variables from the feasible region Apply LP graphical technique to solve appropriate real life problems.

iv) Interpret n Pr as the number of permutations of n different objects taken r at a time which is expressed by the formula: n Pr = n(n − 1)(n − 2).CURRICULUM OF STATISTICS FOR GRADE-XII UNIT 1: PROBABILITY Contents and Scope 1.. 2009 23 .(n − r + 1) v) Deduce that: n! • n Pr = (n − r )! • n Pr = n! • 0!= 1 vi) Explain the meaning of combination. iii) Explain the meaning of permutation. ii) Describe fundamental principle of counting and illustrate it using tree diagram. n! (n factorial) as the notation to express the product of first n natural numbers..1 Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: Counting Techniques. as the number of combinations of n different objects taken r at a time which is expressed by the formula: n n! n Cr =   =  r  r!(n − r )!   viii) Deduce that: • • • • n n   =   =1 n 0     n  n   = r  n − r      n  n   =  1   n − 1 = n       n   n   n + 1  +  r   r − 1 =  r           National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. i) Know. vii) Interpret ‘C’.

i) Describe: • Probability of non-occurrence of an event • Odds for the occurrence of an event • Odds against the occurrence for an event ii) Recognize the law of probability of complementation.2 Introduction to Probability. v) Differentiate between dependent and independent events. ix) Compute probabilities for real life problems involving: • Counting techniques • Infinite geometric progression • Probability trees i) 24 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII.0 ≤ P ( A) ≤ 1 n( S ) iv) Apply the formula for finding probability in simple cases.3 Laws of Probability. v) Use Venn diagrams to find the probability for the occurrence of an event. 1. iii) State the laws of probability under addition. sample point and random event • Simple and compound events • Impossible and sure events • Complimentary events • Equally likely events • Exhaustive events • Mutually exclusive events Elaborate the term ‘probability’ through: ii) • Its classical definition • Its relative frequency definition • Its axiomatic definition iii) Recognize the formula for probability of occurrence of an event A. vi) Define the conditional probability. n( A) P ( A) = . 2009 .1. Define the following: • Random experiment (with real life examples) • Sample space. that is. viii) Apply the laws of probability under multiplication to solve real life problems. iv) Apply the laws of probability under addition to solve real life problems. vii) State the laws of probability under multiplication.

ix) Find the expected value of a linear function of a discrete random variable. xiii) Find variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable. xi) Apply the properties of expected value of a discrete random variable.1 Random Variable 2. xiv) Define variance and standard deviation of a linear function of a discrete random variable. viii) Define the expected value of a linear function of a discrete random variable. ii) Find the probability distribution of a discrete random variable. x) Describe and verify the properties of expected value of a discrete random variable.UNIT 2 RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Define random variable. xv) Find variance and standard deviation of a linear function of a discrete random variable. v) Find the probability distribution of a function of discrete random variable. vi) Define the expected value of a discrete random variable. xvi) Describe and verify the properties of variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable. iv) Describe the probability distribution of a function of discrete random variable. i) Describe the probability distribution of a discrete random variable. iii) Recognize probability mass function. Differentiate between discrete and continuous random ii) variables with real life examples. 25 Contents and Scope 2. xvii) Apply the properties of variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable.2 Discrete Random Variable National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. vii) Find the expected value of a discrete random variable. xii) Define variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable. 2009 .

26 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII.4 Two Independent Random Variables i) Define: • Probability distribution of a continuous random variable • Probability density function Define expected value.3 Continuous Random Variable i) ii) iii) 2. variance and standard deviation of a continuous random variable. 2009 .2. variance and standard deviation of a continuous random variable. Describe the following properties about the expected value and variance for the sum/difference of two independent random variable X and Y: • E ( X ± Y ) = E ( X ) ± E (Y ) • • • ii) E (aX ± bY ) = aE ( X ) ± bE (Y ) Var ( X ± Y ) = Var ( X ) ± Var (Y ) Var (aX ± bY ) = aVar ( X ) ± bVar (Y ) Apply the above properties. Find expected value.

4 Hyper geometric Distribution National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. i) Define the following: • The Bernoulli trials • A Bernoulli random variable • A Bernoulli probability distribution • A Bernoulli probability mass function ii) Calculate mean. variance and standard deviation of a discrete uniform probability distribution.1 Discrete Uniform Distribution 3. iii) Define random digits/numbers. 2009 . v) Solve real life problems using discrete uniform probability distribution.3 Binomial Distribution 3.UNIT 3 SPECIAL DISCRETE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Define the following: • A discrete uniform random variable • A discrete uniform probability distribution • A discrete uniform probability mass function ii) Calculate mean.2 Bernoulli Distribution 3. how the random digits/numbers are generated. variance and standard deviation of a hyper geometric probability distribution. i) Define the following: • A binomial experiment • A binomial random variable • A binomial probability distribution • A binomial probability mass function • A binomial frequency distribution ii) Calculate mean. iii) Solve real life problems using binomial probability distribution. iii) Solve real life problems using Bernoulli probability distribution. variance and standard deviation of a Bernoulli probability distribution. i) Define the following: • A hyper geometric experiment • A hyper geometric random variable • A hyper geometric probability mass distribution • A hyper geometric probability mass function ii) Calculate mean. iv) Know. variance and standard deviation of a binomial probability distribution. iii) Solve real life problems using hyper geometric probability distribution. 27 Contents and Scope 3.

4. vi) Find the probabilities for a normal random variable using the table of the standard normal distribution function. v) Find the ordinates of a normal curve using the table of the ordinates of the standard normal curve.1 Continuous i) Define the following: Uniform • A continuous uniform probability distribution Distribution • A continuous uniform probability density function ii) Find mean.2 Normal i) Define the following: Distribution • A normal probability distribution • A normal probability density function • A normal cumulative distribution function • A standard normal random variable • A standard normal distribution • A standard normal probability density function • A standard normal cumulative distribution function ii) Describe the properties of a normal probability distribution. vii) Use the table of quantiles of standard normal curve/distribution(inverse standard normal cumulative distribution function) to determine the value of: 28 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. iii) Find the ordinates of the standard normal curve using the table of the ordinates of the standard normal curve. iv) Find the probabilities for the standard normal random variable using the table of the standard normal distribution function. variance and standard deviation of a continuous uniform probability distribution iii) Solve real life problems using continuous uniform probability distribution. 2009 .UNIT 4 SPECIAL CONTINUOUS PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS Contents and Scope Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: 4.

Standard normal random variable corresponding to a given value of the standard normal cumulative distribution function • A normal random variable corresponding to a given value of a normal cumulative distribution function • Parameter(s) of a normal random variable viii) Describe the normal distribution as a limit of frequency distribution. • National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. ix) Solve real life problems using normal probability distribution. 2009 29 .

2 Sampling Distribution of Sample Mean 5. i) Define a sample distribution of difference between two sample means. iii) Describe the properties of a sampling distribution of sample mean.1 Survey Sampling 5. iv) Distinguish between: • Non-probability/non-random sampling and probability / random sampling • Random sampling with and without replacement v) Differentiate between sampling and non sampling errors. i) Define: • Sampling distribution of statistics • Standard error of statistics ii) Define a sampling distribution of sample mean. ii) Describe the properties of sampling distribution of difference between two sample means. vi) Describe the sampling techniques: • Simple random sampling • Stratified random sampling • Systematic random sampling vii) Use the random digit/number table to select a simple random sample from a given finite population. iii) Construct the sample distribution of difference between National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. iv) Construct the sampling distribution of sample mean to verify its properties about its mean and variance.UNIT 5 SAMPLING AND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Define: • Sampling • Sampling units • Sampling frame • Sampling design ii) Differentiate between: • Finite and infinite populations • Sample survey and complete enumeration iii) Describe advantages and limitations of sampling.3 Sampling Distribution of Difference between two Sample Means 30 . 2009 Contents and Scope 5.

4 Sampling Distribution of Sample Proportion i) ii) iii) 5. 2009 31 . Define sampling distribution of difference between two sample proportions.5 Sampling Distribution of Difference between Two Sample Proportions i) ii) iii) two sample means to verify its properties about its mean and variance. Define sampling distribution of a sample proportion. Describe the properties of sampling distribution of difference between two sample proportions. National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Describe the properties of a sampling distribution of sample proportion. Construct the sampling distribution of sample proportion to verify its properties about its mean and variance.5. Construct sampling distribution of difference between two sample proportions to verify its properties about its mean and variance.

2 Point Estimation 32 . National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. from a random sample.1 Introduction 6. 2009 Contents and Scope 6. the point estimators and point estimates for population mean (population variance) and hence find their point estimates from the given random sample. v) Define efficiency vi) Explain best estimator vii) Identify the best estimator of: • Population mean • Population variance • Population proportion viii) Find the best estimates of population mean and population variance from a given random sample. ix) Find the best estimate of population proportion from a given random sample. iii) Describe and verify the unbiasedness of: • Sample mean • Sample proportion • Sample variance iv) Use calculator in statistical (STAT/SD) mode to find directly the unbiased estimates of mean and variance of the population from which the sample was drawn.UNIT 6 ESTIMATION Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Define: • Estimation of a parameter • Point estimation of a parameter: .Point estimate ii) Differentiate between point estimator and point estimate. iii) Describe. i) Define: • Unbiasedness • Unbiased estimator • Biased estimator • Bias ii) Describe the methods to reduce bias in sample surveys.Point estimator .

3 Interval Estimation i) ii) Identify the pooled estimators. Confidence coefficient Interval estimate Explain and estimate the confidence interval for: • The mean of a normal population (known and unknown standard deviation) • The difference between means of two normal populations (known and unknown standard deviations) • The population proportion (large sample) • The difference between proportions of two populations (large samples). Find the pooled estimate of population proportion from two given random samples. of: • Population mean • Population variance • Population proportion Find the pooled estimates of population mean and population variance from two given random samples. National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Define: • Interval estimation of a parameter. from two samples. 2009 33 .x) xi) xii) 6.

2 Hypothesis Testing 34 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII.UNIT 7 HYPOTHESIS TESTING Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Describe statistical hypothesis and hypothesis testing. Differentiate between: ii) • Null and alternative hypotheses • Simple and composite hypotheses iii) Formulate null and alternative hypotheses. 2009 .1 Introduction 7. iv) Recognize the elements involved in hypothesis testing: • Test statistic • Rejection and non-rejection regions • Critical value(s) • One-tailed (left-or right-tailed) test • Two-tailed test • Type-I and Type-II errors • Level of significance • Decision rule • Conclusion Apply the test of hypothesis about: • The mean of a normal population (known/ unknown standard deviation) • The population proportion (large sample) • The difference between means of two normal populations (known/unknown standard deviations) • The difference between proportions of two populations (large samples) Contents and Scope 7.

Recognize the notations and terminology to represent the ii) presence and absence of attribute.UNIT 8 ASSOCIATION OF ATTRIBUTES Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Recall variable and attribute. iv) Recognize the categorical data of two attributes. ix) Find the coefficient of association and given its interpretation. in a given contingency table. vi) Know the criterion of independence of two attributes. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Define a contingency table. Describe Pearson’s coefficient of mean square contingencies Calculate Pearson’s coefficient of mean square contingency for a given contingency table and find its maximum value. Contents and Scope 8.2 Contingency Table vi) National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. 2009 35 . vii) Discuss the association of two attributes: • Positive association • Negative association • Complete association • Complete disassociation viii) Define the coefficient of association. iii) Describe class and class frequency.1 Attribute 8. are statistically independent or not. Know the criterion of independence of two attributes in a contingency table. Test whether two attributes. Describe and apply Yate’s correction for continuity to test the statistical independence of two given attributes. v) Explain independence of two attributes.

ii) iii) Identify the merits and demerits of completely randomized design.UNIT 9 DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT Learning Outcomes/Skills The students will be able to: i) Describe the meanings of the design of experiment. i) Know the meanings of analysis of variance. Contents and Scope 9. 2009 .1 Introduction 9.3 Analysis of Variance 36 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Explain the elements involved in designing an experiment: ii) • The experimental unit • The treatment • The replication • The response • The layout of the experiment i) Define: • Randomization • Completely randomized design Give layout plan of completely randomized design.2 Completely Randomized Design 9. ii) State the assumptions of analysis of variance. iii) Describe and calculate: • The total sum of squares • The treatment sum of squares • The error sum of squares iv) Describe and calculate the degrees of freedom for: • The total sum of squares • The treatment sum of squares • The error sum of squares v) Describe and calculate: • The treatment mean square • The error mean square vi) Test the equality of means of several normal populations.

To capture all aspects of expertise. operations and relations Procedural fluency – skill in carrying out procedures flexibly. efficiently and appropriately Strategic competence – ability to formulate. useful and worthwhile. observing the teacher’s interest in the subject and own discovery of the subject (especially when findings are surprising). long-term objectives of teaching or learning cannot be attained. attitudes and expectations that students bring into statistics classroom has been increasing in statistics education. explanation and justification Productive disposition – habitual inclination to see the subject as sensible. 2009 . 3. may be incorporated.TEACHING STRATEGIES Introduction The interest towards beliefs. Intellectual excitement stimulates the student. knowledge and facility which are necessary to learn and mathematical science like statistics the following interwoven but interdependent strands. obviously. 1. It is evoked by: seeing scope for advancing the subject. presented by Kilpatrick et al (2001) to attain mathematical proficiency. In such an environment. National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. 37 • 2. • • • • • Conceptual understanding – comprehension of the concepts. use of that technique in practice • Pattern coherence – unifies seemingly diverse topics by showing underlying similarity • Knowledge coherence – shows how statistics integrates with other disciplines Perspective in presentation can reveal merits of a coherent exposition. In the technology-based society. Coherence in exposition can reveal in three different ways: Theme coherence – makes the expository sequence: principle of a technique in theory. competence. Very often teaching and learning at college / university seems to be focused on students’ passing the prescribed assessments (examinations) and gaining the paper credentials for the required certificate/degree. reflection. represent and solve problems Adaptive reasoning – capacity for logical thought. Students seem to be mastering statistical procedures and vocabulary but are not able to use statistical reasoning in a meaningful way. accurately. coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy Part I: Teaching Statistics According to Sowey (1995) following five important attributes of the discipline need to be brought out in teaching statistics. teaching is being recognized as a complex and multifaceted product of several variables and the culture of teaching and learning is changing.

smiles and metaphors may be useful instructional tools. is an investigative process that involves four components: • • • • Formulate question Collect data Analyze data Interpret result According to Harradine (2004). Connecting abstract statistical concepts with personal experiences. students should be taught the art of ‘distribution division’ where distributions are sliced into chunks and each chunking is considered to see what information that particular slicing configuration conveys. 38 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. problems are traditionally posed in ways that require students to read within. Demonstrating practical usefulness implies career prospects that can fulfill the student. teaching needs to build on the personal experience of the learner. Gordon (1995) views learning statistics from the student’s perspective and finds three useful principles to guide teaching. then the guidance will not succeed in assisting students to become independent and confident learners. Reassurance comes from a clear picture of both the strengths and weaknesses of the discipline and an appreciation of how the former outweigh the latter. Secondly. being foundation of the subject. He argues that prior to teaching standard statistical tools and procedures. He also argues that application of the skills of comparing and contrasting and forming arguments that support a conclusion or conjecture should be taught prior to teaching standard statistical tools. There is a need to engage the students in problem solving in an applied context. Consequently the students are unable to transfer their knowledge to real contexts. analogies. Classrooms should not recognize as just a place where students received instructions but a social structure in which students’ action form. 2009 . between and beyond the data. Solving statistical problems. 5. and students are expected merely to react to her or him. guidance. Firstly.4. If the teacher is the only one in the classroom who is being creative and thoughtful. PART-II Statistical Problem Solving It is observed that the subject of statistics is often illustrated with simple mathematical exercises that have no practical application. the teachers must create a supportive environment in the classroom. Thirdly. The discipline’s resilience to challenging questioning reassures the student. is important whereas the type of guidance is critical.

7. 2. The following tables. UNIT-WISE TIME DISTRIBUTION – GRADE XI Unit 1. 5. 6. 7. 9. 8.III Time Distribution Teaching schedules are among the integral parts of classrooms. Title Collection and Presentation of Data Measures of Central Tendency Measures of Dispersion. They help the management to run and monitor the teaching of a particular subject. indicating unit-wise time distribution. 2. 3. 9.PART. 8. Title Probability Random Variables and Probability Distribution Special Discrete Probability Distributions Special Continuous Probability Distributions Sampling and Sampling Distribution Estimation Hypothesis Testing Association of Attributes Design of Experiment Period (40 minutes each) 27 24 24 24 24 21 24 21 21 Total: 210 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. 6. 2009 39 . 5. 4. will be supportive to the teachers and education planners. 4. Skewness and Kurtosis Index Numbers Simple Linear Regression and Correlation Time Series Vital Statistics Interpolation Linear Programming Period (40 minutes each) 24 24 30 27 24 24 24 21 12 Total: 210 UNIT-WISE TIME DISTRIBUTION – GRADE XII Unit 1. 3.

diminish their self-confidence and make them feel anxious about the subject. PART-I Assessment in Statistics It should be kept in mind that in Statistics a single type of assessment can frustrate students. The quality of assessment largely determines the quality of evaluation. and secondly to report on what they had already achieved. Assessment must include by focusing on a student’s ability to: • • • • • • Communicate mathematically Reason and analyze. Promote students’ ability to assess their own learning. 2009 40 . In reality the understanding of statistical concepts encompasses a broad range of abilities. Examples of various templates to assess different abilities are mentioned below. Rowntree (1990) defined assessment as having two purposes: firstly to support and provide feedback to learners and improve their ongoing learning. To ensure that assessment and evaluation lead to the improvement of student learning. rather than an end of course event that grades and reports on performance. and to think and act in positive ways Comprehend the key concepts Evaluate the effectiveness of using different strategies to address the same problem Use a variety of strategies to problem solving and to make statistical connections Discriminate between relevant and irrelevant attributes of a concept in selecting examples National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Morgan and O’Reilly (1999) believe that assessment is the engine that drives and shapes learning. As part of assessment teachers provide students with descriptive feedback that guides their efforts towards improvement. Evaluation refers to the process of judgments and decisions based on the interpretation of evidence gathered through assessment.ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION Introduction Assessment is the process of gathering information using a variety of tools and techniques that reflect how well a student is achieving the curriculum expectations in a subject. In essence the first is formative assessment and the second is summative assessment. Ensure that each student is given clear directions for improvement. Are communicated clearly to students and parents in advance. teachers must use specific assessment and evaluation strategies that • • • • • Address both what students learn and how well they learn Are administered over a period of time and designed to provide opportunities for students to demonstrate full range of their learning.

Suggested below are the assessment strategies to obtain valid and reliable picture of students’ understanding and achievement. is used for assessment there are examination centres. a. is suggested to be a practicable criterion for a balanced question paper of Statistics. When a formal examination. PART-II The Traditional Examinations Bearing in mind the requirement of simplicity in considering assessment strategies. National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII.• Integrate and to make sense of statistical concept and procedure Learning of Statistics. portfolios peer-and self-assessment. but each must give priority to meeting students’ expectations in terms of learning outcomes they can legitimately expect to achieve. Teacher-designed test formats that include oral examination. the examinations in traditional paper-based mode with place and time-specific activities. The question papers should be balanced in all respect. invigilate the examination and collect the scripts for marking. matching. rating scales. Following table. short answers. Instructions for Examining Bodies The examining institutions or bodies including all Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education for the conduct of HSSC examination in the subject of Statistics should follow instructions as given below. showing weightage to difficulty level of questions. for Secondary School Certificate (SSC) or Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC). infrastructure to supply and secure examination papers before examination and arrangements to check the identities of the candidates. 2009 41 . are easy to organize for institutions (Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education). being a cumulative process. multiple-choice. In essence an effective learning-outcomesoriented quality assurance system must be based on constant monitoring and effective learningoutcomes-oriented quality assurance system must be based on constant monitoring and effective feedback loops. Marks are then gathered and results are published in a timely manner. fill-in and truefalse items. The means by which each institution achieves quality should differ according to the circumstances in which it operates. For the in-house assessment and evaluation the institutions adopt their own criteria. occurs as experiences contribute to understanding. i) ii) Classroom-based assessments that include anecdotal records. assignments/ projects/field-work. checklists.

8. 5. There will be only two papers (Paper-A and Paper-B) of Statistics each carrying 100 marks. 3. 6. The students will not be assessed by the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISEs) through practical (lab work) examination.Difficulty Level of Questions Easy Average Difficult b. PART-III Unit wise Weightages Following tables explain weightages of specified topics of Statistics for grade XI and XII. Skewness and Kurtosis 14 Index Numbers 12 Simple Linear Regression and Correlation Time Series Vital Statistics Interpolation Linear Programming Total 12 12 12 8 6 100 42 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Title Weightage (%) Collection and Presentation of Data 12 Measures of Central Tendency 12 Measures of Dispersion. 7. 4. 2. 2009 . The examiners will set the questions keeping in view the unit-wise weightages given below. Weightage (%) 15 70 15 To the subject of Statistics 200 marks have been allocated for HSSC examination. UNIT-WISE WEIGHTAGES – GRADE XI Unit 1. 9. c.

5.UNIT-WISE WEIGHTAGES – GRADE XII Unit 1. 2009 43 . 3. 2. 4. Title Weightage (%) Probability 12 Random Variables and Probability Distributions 10 Special Discrete Probability Distributions 12 Special Continuous Probability Distribution 12 Sampling and Sampling Distribution Estimation Hypothesis Testing Association of Attributes Design of Experiment Total 12 10 12 10 10 100 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. 9. 6. 8. 7.

Though many other resources are also available. and • Which is attractive and engaging must stimulate the interest of teacher and the taught. Textbook writers have a vital role to play in penetrating the young minds through their writing. It should not give any other meaning than the one intended Every table. Guidelines for Textbook Authors Textbooks aimed at lower level tend to include more learning features than those at higher level. familiar to unfamiliar and concrete to abstract The text material must be free from ambiguities and errors The content provided in the textbook should not develop wrong concepts The text should be clear and concise. To make it more digestible. The school/college has to play its own role. Although there are many stakeholders that contribute towards the overall learning of the child yet the importance of textbook as a reservoir of information/knowledge cannot be ignored. Print materials. diagram and graph should be labeled appropriately Footnotes and side notes may be inserted wherever necessary 44 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. the teaching and learning resources include teacher’s manual and electronic resources. Part-I The Textbook There are many important entities involved to revamp the entire education system.TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES Introduction Government prescribed textbook is the only teaching and learning tool used in most of the schools and colleges. it may be chunked into smaller parts with headings The textbook is expected to provide accurate and up-to-date information The text material should be arranged in a logical manner. accessible and affordable. have to play a key role towards providing quality education at all levels. 2009 . particularly the textbooks. • • • • • • • • • • • The textbook should be in line with the objectives of National Curriculum The author should bring himself to the mental level of students he is writing for The span of the textbook should be fairly reasonable The material should not be cramped. teachers rarely use them to support the learning. simple to complex. A textbook • Whose content as well as presentation is thoughtfully planned • Which is written by qualified and competent subject expert(s). parents have to contribute their share and teachers have to assume a significant place in fostering education. However in textbook writing generally the following aspects may be taken into consideration. In addition to the textbook.

and that writing style should be reader friendly. if possible. Unit Opening Unit Outline Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) Real Life Relevance Short Introduction Unit Body Key Terms Include list of headings One SLO for each heading may be included. if appropriate. 2009 45 .g. they allow the author to speak directly to the student. Explain what this unit covers and why. Special attention should be paid on preparation of Problem Sets. Separated from the main body of text. diagrams and lists may be used to break up the text.Textbook Style and Structure To make a textbook an effective teaching and learning tool its style and structure is given due importance. Running Glossary Feature Boxes Illustrative Examples Problem Sets Learning Review Points Tips or Hints Visuals Use italics for emphasis and bold for key terms. If they are numerous then a reasonable number is acceptable. Include bulleted questions for students to check their understanding at regular intervals. Possible labels include ‘self-test point’ or ‘checkpoint’. in the margins). Tables. National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. offering useful advice or flagging important points. Define key terms when first introduced and collate them with their definitions for the glossary. Correlate the topic with real life situations and include sufficient exercises on real life problems almost in every problem set. Key terms and definitions may be pulled out from the main body of text so that students spot them easily in the unit body (e. Illustrate the real life relevance of the unit. graphs. Regular feature boxes may include various contents such as a statistical formula or a working rule. Include illustrative examples to develop conceptual understanding of the topic. The material needs to be structured in a coherent and logical way.

The summary should not include any new information. Include extra information the student needs such as list of statistical formulas. 2009 . • Involve various up-to-date and relevant teaching strategies and rationale for suggested teaching • Explain how to implement each teaching strategy • Identify constraints and strengths of each strategy or activity 46 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. It can be seen as a means of helping teachers develop professionally. This can relate to the SLOs by covering each in turn (bullet points work well). log tables and relevant websites. Include answers to the problem sets unit wise. Its basic features are as below. Students may also be asked to label diagrams or write a one word answer to short question. End of Textbook Glossary Answers to Problems Appendices Bibliography Index Include only the key terms in the glossary. Include index for the key terms used in the book PART-II The Teacher’s Manual Ideally the teacher’s manual should come with the textbook. Include bibliography and list of books for suggested reading where appropriate. Include a review of the main concepts. The manual is aimed at informing teachers how the textbook is written and how best to use it to facilitate student learning. interpretive exercises and fill-in items. It provides details explanation of key concepts and the way to teach a particular topic.Unit Ending Problem Set (Review) Summary Include multiple-choice questions. The teacher’s manual should • Be easy to understand and use • Help teachers teach text and extend activities • Give sequenced instructions for each activity • Include teaching learning resources • Establish a question bank (having questions different from text) and suggest interactive quizzes corresponding to each unit.

maplesoft.whfreeman.com/rvls.cqu.com/studyguides/subject /stat/contents.shodor.org/interactivate/lessons/ http://www.com http://www. http://www.minitab.mste.• Identify resources needed for teaching strategies and extension of activities • Expand and develop teachers repertoire of knowledge and skills • Identify assessment strategies PART-III The Web-based Resources The World Wide Web is growing very fast to access an immense volume of rapidly evolving information.com http://www.com http://www.html http://www.html http://www.edu.com/eesee/eesee.html http://exploringdata.au http://onlinestatbook. 2009 47 .statsoft.com/products/Minitab/ National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. It is acting as a driving force since its ease of use makes the internet trivially accessible.analyse-it.asp http://onlinestatbook.pinkmonkey.com/products/mathematica/ index.edu/stat/stat.com http://www.wolfram.spss.uiuc.com http://www.htm.Com Statistics Study Guide Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics Shodor Education Foundation (Interactivate) SPSS Statistica MAPLE MATHEMATICA Minitab Universal Resource Locator (URL) http://www. Through web-based links like the ones mentioned below the teachers and students can access • Various sites around the world • Additional information and currency on the topics Title of Website Analyse-it Data Analysis and Probability Electronic Encyclopaedia of Statistical Examples & Exercises Exploring Data Online Statistics Pink Monkey.

Cobb. VA. A. D. 48 . Stames.(1990): Teaching through self-instruction (Second Ed). B.. 12. and O’Reilly. J.. org/ education/gaise. G. American Statistical Association. Eric R. Statistics. M. (2004): Within. London. Mathematics Learning Study Committee.. Swafford.. Government of Pakistan.S. Kader. Vol 104.9. 6. 3. Green. Curriculum Development in Statistics Education. pp. 9. Rowntree... National Council for Teachers of Mathematics. N. (Eds) (2001): Adding it up: Helping children learn mathematics. Ministry of Education. 7. The American Mathematical Monthly. London. Snider. Vol 3. Gordon. (195): A theoretical approach to understanding earners of statistics. S. Murplhy. 801-823.2. (2005): Curriculum issues in Statistics Education. Kogan Page. Islamabad. Moreno. D. 2009 2. NCTM (2006): Thinking and reasoning with data and chance: 68th NCTM Yearbook. amstat. M.. No. Teaching Statistics Trust. (1999): Assessing open and distance learners. 11.. No. in the 8th International Conference of Mathematics Education into the 21st Century Project: ‘Reform. Journal of Statistics Education. C. 13.REFERENCES 1. No. V. Centre for Education.3. National Curriculum of Mathematics (2006): Curriculum Wing. Lund. and Findell. (1994): Teaching Statistics at its bet. Kogan Page. University of Sheffield England.. D.G. 5. Horton. Sowey.W. G. Franklin. Burrill. between and beyond. 10. Kilpatrick. Morgan. D. Sweden. 4. DC: National Academies Press. J. Washington. and Moore. National Council for Teachers of Mathematics. (1997): Mathematics. C.. National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Vol 3. Reston. Round Table IASE.J. Reston. Alexandria VA: http:// www. Revolution and Paradigm Shifts in Mathematics Education’. Harradine. (1995): Teaching statistics: Making it memorable. (2005): Guidelines for Assesment andInstruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) Report. NCTM (2000): Principals and standards for school mathematics. and Teaching. Journal of Statiics Education. VA. 8.

Ministry of Education. Lahore. Professor Dr. Muhammad Riaz Chaudhry Principal/Associate Professor of Statistics Government Degree College Kharian Mr. Islamabad.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT TEAMS Team of Curriculum Writers Professor Dr. Islamabad. Gulberg-III. Muhammad Aleem Chairman Department of Statistics Islamia University Bahawalpur National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Dr. Prof. Junaid Sagheer Siddiqui Chairman Department of Statistics University of Karachi Karachi. Professor Dr. Muhammad Tahir Consultant (Sciences). Dr. Islamabad. Salah-ud-Din Department of Statistics University of Peshawar Peshawar Professor Dr. Muhammad Rauf Chaudhry Associate Professor ® of Statistics Government Postgraduate College Gujranwala Dr. S. Munir Ahmad (Focal Person) Rector/Professor of Statistics National College of Business Administration & Economics. Hussain Bukhari Joint Director Statistics & Data Warehouse Department State Bank of Pakistan Karachi Sardar Iftikhar Ahmed Chairman Department of Statistics Government Postgraduate College Rawalakot (AJ&K) Dr.M. Faqir Muhammad Chairman Statistics & Mathematics Department Allama Iqbal Open University. Malik Muhammad Yousaf Associate Professor Department of Mathematics Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad Team of Advisors Professor Dr. Muhammad Aslam Chairman Department of Statistics Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad Mr. (Supervisor and Coordinator) Professor Dr. 2009 49 . Muhammad Aslam Chairman Department of Statistics Quaid-i-Azam University.

Gulzar Ahmad Bhatti Associate Professor Statistics Government Postgraduate College Bahawalnagar Mr.Team of Examination Experts Mr. Peshawar. Mrs Farkhanda Nasreen Associate Professor of Statistics Government Girls College Mastung (Balochistan) Mr. Iftikhar ud Din Assistant Professor of Statistics Government Degree College. Tariq Mehmood Mirza Assistant Professor of Statistics Government Islamia College Railway Road Lahore Mr. 2009 . Irfan Ullah Assistant Professor of Statistics Government Postgraduate College Nowshera 50 National Curriculum for Statistics Grades XI-XII. Hayatabad.