α=significance level μ0=null hypothesis value of mean vs.

p0=null hypothesis value of proportion


Confidence Interval Sample Size for

Proportions Problems: parameterproportion p Point Estimate se
estimating population proportion with MoE=m

MoE

(if do not know

use 0.50, which will guarantee the sample size is large enough)
MoE for C.I. for population mean Confidence

*USE 1-PropZInt for (single) Population Proportion Confidence Interval USE 1-PropZTest for (single) proportions hypothesis test*
Means Problems: parameterMean μ Point Estimate
Sample Size for estimating a Population

se

MoE

Interval
or ( –

Mean, margin of error mn=(σ2z2)/m2

For a single hypothesis population Mean test statistic t=

μ0)/

where μ0=the null value

When asked for critical value use Solver: tcdf and enter the df and C.I.

σ=population standard deviation

*USE TInterval for (one sample) Confidence Interval & TTest for (one sample) or (matched-pairs) population mean*

Point Estimate—(for a population proportion is the sample proportion symbolized by ) a single # that is our ―best guess‖ for the parameter, does not tell how close the estimate is likely to be to the parameter (an interval estimate is more useful, it incorporates a margin of error, which helps to gauge accuracy of the Point Estimate). EXof the possible responses, 627 picked ―definitely or probably should be,‖ and 546 picked ―probably or definitely should not be.‖ 627+546=1173 for the population size and 627 answered definitely or probably so for the point estimate. A POINT ESTIMATE alone may be highly inaccurate, especially with a small sample. Interval Estimate—is an interval of numbers within which the parameter value is believed to fall (indicates precision by giving an interval of #’s around the point estimate). Confidence Interval—(are a function of 3 things: data in the sample, the confidence level & sample size) An interval of values (range) that contains the most believable (plausible) value for the population parameter. Is constructed by taking a point estimate and adding & subtracting a MoE. The MoE is based on the SE of the sampling distribution of that point estimate. The CI tells us the ―likelihood‖ the ―most informative estimation‖ method constructs an interval of #’s called the confidence interval, within the unknown parameter value is believed to fall. Ex. 95% confidence interval says the we have a ―95% confidence‖ (refers to long-run interpretation) in the long run about 95% of those intervals would give correct results, containing the population proportion. Has standard deviation called standard error, also has mean equal to population proportion. Is approximately normal distribution, for large random samples, because of the central limit theorem. That the interval contains the parameter (must compromise between the desired margin of error and the desired confidence of a correct inference) to achieve greater confidence; we make the sacrifice of a larger margin of error and wider confidence interval. MoE for C.I. found by multiplying the critical value by the se C.I. for pop proportion is CI for population mean (1.96 Critical Value for 95%, 2.576 for 99%, 1.645 for 90% Confidence Intervals) √ A GOOD Estimator of a parameter has 2 desirable properties—1) A good estimator has a sampling distribution that is centered at the parameter, in the sense that the parameter is the mean of that sampling distribution, an estimator with this property is said to be unbiased. 2) A good estimator has a small standard error compared to the other estimators. MoE—(depends on the standard error of the sampling distribution of the point estimate) also how close the sample proportion should be to the population proportion. MoE also measures how accurate the point estimate is likely to be in estimating the parameter. (Increases as the confidence level increases; Decreases as the sample size increases) z-score—measures the number of standard errors between the sample proportion p and the null hypothesis p0 In a test of hypothesis, the null hypothesis is that the population mean is less than or equal to 45 and the alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is greater than 45. The test is to be made at the 2.5% significance level. A sample of 81 elements selected from this population produced a mean of 47.3 and a standard deviation of 4.5. What is the critical value of z? 1.96 *Both Z & T statistics have the form test – Completely Randomized Design—subjects are randomly assigned to one of the treatments. Null Hypothesis—is a statement that the parameter takes a particular value (means ―no effect‖ or of no consequence).(in hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis is a claim about a population parameter that is assumed to be false until it is declared true) whenever the null is not rejected the alt. is rejected. A null hypothesis can only be rejected at the 5% significance level if and only if: a 95% confidence interval does not include the hypothesized value of the parameter. The null & alternative divide all possibilities into two non-overlapping sets. A two-tailed test is one where results in either of two directions can lead to rejection of the null hypothesis Alternative hypothesis states that the parameter falls in some alternative range of values (where the burden of proof lies). Is a claim about a population parameter that will be true if the null hypothesis is false. Statistical inference–uses sample statistics to make decisions and predictions about population parameters. There are, generally speaking, two types of statistical inference: sample estimation and population estimation. Ordinal Variable—is a categorical variable for which the categories are ordered from low to high in some sense. Case-Control Study–a retrospective study. Subjects who have a response outcome of interest(ex cancer serves as
cases) other subjects not having that outcome serve as (controls). The cases and controls are compared on an explanatory variable, like whether they were smokers.

Standard Error—estimated value. Is an estimated standard deviation of a sampling distribution (Depends on the sample size) Error Probability—the probability that the method results in an incorrect inference, that the data generates a confidence interval that does NOT contain the population proportion. Degrees of freedom—(df) , one less than the sample size. Statistic—describes a sample Parameter—describes a population (i.e. σ & μ) Mean—one way to summarize the center of the observations for a quantitative variable. Bayesian statistics–Statistical inference based on the subjective definition of probability. Proportion—equals the # of items in a category divided by the sample size, it summarizes the relative frequency of observations in a category for a categorical variable. Properties of of t distribution—t score is slightly larger than a z score 1) the t distribution is bell shaped and symmetric about 0 2) The probabilities depend on the degrees of freedom, df. The t distribution has a slightly different shape for each distinct value of df, and different t-scores apply for each df value. 3) The t distribution has thicker tails and is more spread out than the standard normal distribution. The larger df value the closer it gets to the standard normal. When df is about 30 or more, the t-score & z-score distributions are nearly identical. 4) A t-score multiplied by the standard error gives the margin of error for a confidence interval for the mean. T confidence interval does NOT work well when the data contains extreme outliers. However, the t distribution when estimating the mean accounts for the extra variability due to using the sample SD s to estimate the population SD in finding a standard error. As the sample size increases, the t distribution becomes more similar to the normal distribution. Cohort Study Design—at the beginning none have disease, group of subjects is studied over time. Matched Pairs—each subject in one sample is matched with a subject on the other sample. (i.e. a set of married couples with the men in one sample and the women in the other) two observations for a particular subject, because they both
come from the same person.

Crossover Design (Really Good Design) a matched pair’s design in which subject’s crossover during the experiment from using one treatment to using another treatment.

Dependent samples—when the two samples have the same subjects, they are also dependent if each subject in one sample is naturally paired with a subject in the other(i.e. husband in one sample and wife in the other) Robust—a statistical method is said to be robust with respect to a particular assumption if it performs adequately even when that assumption is violated. Confidence intervals for a mean using the t distribution are robust against most violations of the normal population assumption. (t confidence interval score is not robust to violations of the random sampling assumption. Factors in determining a study’s sample size1) desired precision (measured by MoE) 2) Confidence level, which determines the z-score or t-score in the sample size formulas 3) Variability in the data 4) financial Significance Level—is a number such that we reject H0 if the P-value is less or equal to that number (most common significance level is 0.05). ≤0.05 reject the H0 if >0.05 Do not reject. To avoid bias we select the significance level before looking at the data. REMEMBER—the smaller the p-value the stronger the evidence against the null hypotheses. Test Statistic—is calculated by taking the difference between the sample proportion and the null proportion and dividing it by the standard error. Use the value of the test statistic to find the two-tail probability from the standard normal distribution to the left and right of the test statistic value. The p-value tells use that if the null hypotheses were true, a proportion of ## samples would fall at least this far from the null hypotheses. Hypothesis—a statement about the population, usually of the form that a parameter takes a particular numerical value or falls in a certain range of values. Significance test (―test‖ for short) is a method for using data to summarize the evidence about a hypothesis. A significance test merely indicates whether the particular parameter values in H0 (such as μ=0) is plausible. A confidence interval is more informative, because it displays the entire set of believable values. Exif a high proportion of the astrologers’ predictions are correct, the data might provide strong evidence against the hypothesis that p=1/3 in favor of an alternative hypothesis representing the astrologers’ claim the p>1/3. P-value—is a tail probability beyond the observed test statistic value. A small P-value usually below .05 provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis or the result is statistically significant, the probability that the test statistic equals the observed value or a value even more extreme. It is calculated by presuming that the null hypothesis H 0 is true. Considered ―convincing if less than 0.01 Assumptions for a 95 & 99% population proportion C.I. 1) Data obtained by randomization (such as a random sample or a randomized experiment) and a large enough sample size of at least 15 successes and failures. Assumptions for a C.I. for a population mean 1) Data obtained by randomization 2) An approximately normal population distribution. Sample Size Needed for Large-Sample C.I. for a Proportion- For a 95% C.I. for a proportion p to be valid, you should have at least 15 successes & 15 failures. and – if it is less than 15 successes and failures add 2 to the success and 4 to the total count. Find the needed sample size to estimate a pop. Proportion EXstudents at a school were surveyed, and it was estimated that 26% of students abstain from drinking alcohol. To estimate this proportion in your school, how large a random sample would you need to estimate it to within 0.04 with probability 0.99, if before conducting the study (a) you are unwilling to predict the proportion value at your school and (b) you use the results from the surveyed school as a guideline. (a)=.50(1-.50)*2.582/.042=1040 (b)=.26(1-.26)*2.582/.042=800. So strategy (a) would be inappropriate because it overestimates the sample size. EX estimating pop. meanan estimate is needed of the mean acreage of farms in a city. A 95% C.I. should have a MoE of 35 acres. A study 10 years ago in this city had a sample SD of 190 acres for farm size. About how large of a sample of farms is needed? 190 2(1.96)2/352=113 acres. Part (b) the sample size of 113 acres abovehowever, the sample in fact has a SD 290 acres instead of 190. What is the MoE for a 95% C.I. for the mean acreage of farms? √(2902(1.96)2/113=53.5 so when the SD increases from 190 to 270 the MoE increases from 35 to 53.5 EXHow large a sample size is needed to estimate the mean annual income of all people in a certain county, correct to within $1,200 with probability of 0.99? No information is available about the SD of their income. It is estimated that nearly all of the incomes fall between $0 & $180,000 and that this distribution is approximately bell-shapeds=30,000 because from -3 to 3 SD’s is 6 so 180k/6=30k n=z2*s2/m22.582*30,0002/1,2002=4160 round to nearest whole #. EXA survey asked, ―During the last year, did anyone take something from you by using force - such as a stickup, mugging, or threat?‖ Of 955 subjects, 14 answered yes and 941 answered no. FIND the Point Estimate or 1-PropZInt(x:14 n:955 c-level: .95)=(.00704, .02228) for the C.I. =.014659 FIND the standard error of this estimate√ =.00389 FIND the MoE for a 95% confidence interval CONSTRUCT the 95% confidence interval for the population proportion1-PropZInt(x:14 n:955 c-level: .95)=(.00704, .02228) for the C.I. =.014659 Can you conclude that fewer than 10% of all adults were victims? Yes, fewer than 10% of all adults were victims. EX590 believe in carnation, 2201 do not. The sample p is 0.268060 and the 95% CI is (0.24955, 0.28656) Explain how to interpret the ―Sample p‖ and the 95% CIThe ―sample p‖ is the proportion of all respondents who believe in reincarnation, 590/2201=0.27. The ―95% CI‖ is the 95% confidence interval and it means that we can be 95% confident that the population proportion falls between .25 and .29 Using the CI shown, find the 95% CI for the population proportion who do not believe in reincarnation1–.29=.71 for the lower bound and 1–.25=.75 for the upper bound. The 99% CI would be wider than a 95% CI because the 99% CI z-score is higher than the 95% CI z-score, thus making the margin of error for a 99% CI larger than the margin of error for a 95% CI. The MORE CONFIDENT you want to be about the results, the wider the CI will be. MoE for POP MEAN EXFind the MoE for a 95% CI for estimating the population mean when the sample SD=104, with a sample size of 400 then 1600. What is the effect of the sample size? MoE for a 95% CI with 400 is 104/√ =5.2 then 5.2*(1.96-Critical Value for 95%, 2.576 for 99%, 1.645 for 90% C.I.) =10.2, for 1600 its = 5.1 so as Sample size increases MoE becomes smaller, MoE becomes bigger when going from 95% to 99% CI Factors that affect Sample Size: 1stprecision-as measured by MoE. 2ndconfidence level-which determines the z-score or t-score in sample size formula. 3rdvariability in the data 4thFinancial EX less the 15 successes or failuresSuppose a random sample does not have at least 15 successes and 15 failures. The C.I. formula ± z√ ̂ still is valid if we use it after adding 2 to the original number

2) Hypotheses H0: μ1=μ2 Ha: μ1≠μ2 3) function used & test statistic ( 1– 2) where √ 4) List the P-value. If you don’t use the pooled 4) P-value = two-tail probability from standard normal distribution of values even more extreme than observed z test statistic. p1-p2=0) Alternative Ha: p1≠p2 (onesided Ha also possible) 3) Test Statistic which is the 3rd – then use se=√ (p1–p2)–0/se0 with se0=√ where h POOLED ESTIMATE when using 2-PropZTest. When the drug was tested. that is.1671).r.5 Check that sample size guidelines are satisfied for that testYes. Find the se√ =. the degrees of freedom for the test statistic.6% of 13. 5)conclusion–check whether 0 falls in the C.2=.50 y √ ’d or (the sum of P-values for two possible 1-sided tests must=1) also. Single Proportions EXIn the general US population. Assumptions 1a) Quantitative Variable. Since the p-value is less the S.40.17. we fail to reject the null.0149 d.66 FIND the P-value for Ha: p>0.776 Is there sufficient evidence to support the claim that captopril is effective in lowering systolic blood pressure? Use an α =. the mean of a measure of nicotine dependence (HONC) was 4. B)Give the null and alternative hypotheses to be tested. the sample proportion is 0. Confidence Interval for the difference between two population proportions USE 2-PropZInt (p1-p2)±z critical value*(se). Test statistic (Estimate of parameter–H0 value of parameter/se of estimate)t=( –μ0)/se where remember p-value<0.95.86. 1.11. Construct a 99% confidence interval for the true proportion in our population who smoke. EXSuppose the following data show a comparison of females and males on the numbers of hours a day that the subject watched TV. if it is a not equal sign just multiply the answer by 2 for a two tail (≠). Conclusion.For a test of H0: p=0. you can infer that (p1-p2)>0. Therefore. either from random sampling or a randomized experiment.09033.< (left-tail probability). Type I & type II test errors (as P(Type I error) goes down. 1c)Population distribution is approximately normal (mainly needed for one-sided tests with small n) 2. and we’re told this is reasonable. do the data support the null hypothesis.9.5 x:49 n:100 FIND the p-value for Ha: p<0. the test statistic is a z-score that measures the number of standard errors between the sample proportion and the Ho value of 0. ESTIMATE the difference between the proportions in 2000 and 1992. tells you how large any true difference is. p=0. Does this suggest a real difference between garlic and placebo. the inferences compare proportions. the true difference may be relatively small in practical terms.2. we will use 2-SampTTest on the calculator.50use if been Ha: <0. EXRandom samples of students at 115 4-year colleges were interviewed several times since 1992.67 FIND the p-value. Give the assumptions necessary for the test. Interpret the interval. Since the two samples are different subjects. however this method is robust to Two-Sided Significance Test for Comparing two INDEPENDENT population means 2-SampTTest 1) Assumptions for Two-sided Significance test comparing two population means 1a)Quantitative response variable for two groups 1b)Independent random samples 1c)approximately normal distribution for each group. Since samples are smaller than 30. p1<p2. it does. so we can be 99% confident the population proportion is NOT .8) for the 223 females and 3.05 gives strong evidence against the null H0 and supporting Ha Reject H0 if p-value is ≤α to be true. Enter x=65 and n=505. it is plausible (but not necessary) that the population proportions are equal.0068 Confidence Interval for the difference between two population means USE 2-SampTInt violations of this assumption. or a randomized experiment.1671 – . the mean was 45.7.4 or more hours assuming that the null hypothesis were true. 1c) n1 and n2 are large enough that there are at least 5 successes and 5 failures in each group. For categorical variables. but they require a margin of error of only 4%. SD=5.5.3. InterpretationThere is not enough evidence to conclude that gender has an effect on the mean HONC score. there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis and to conclude that the population mean work week for men exceeds 39 hours. A major benefit in using PAIRED samples instead of INDEPENDENT samples is that many sources of potential bias are controlled so we can make a more accurate comparison.2. the % who reported injecting daily was 39. The P-value is the √ probability the test statistic takes the observed value or a value more extreme.25.450 students in ’92 and 47.01.396=. The parameter of interest is the population mean work week (in hrs. Answer: Yes. a. these are independent samples. SE=5. Reject H0 if p-value is ≤α.40 If z=0. P-value=two-tail probability from t-distribution of values even more extreme than observed t test statistic. H0 (a single parameter value.49 based on a sample size of 100. E)Give the conclusion of the test. We are 95% confident the true difference in blood pressure is in this interval.711. df = 17. of . Provide the correct interpretation of the interval.05 se Mean=. you can infer that (p1- p2)<0.15.2% of 8749 students in 2000.? MoE is the upper end of the C. with the summary statistics of the results given in the table below.1287 = . We are 99% confident that the true proportion of smokers in our population is in this interval. The study used a crossover design where half of the subjects used place 1 st and garlic 2nd and half the reverse.2) where √ This method assumes—Independent random samples from the two groups & an approximately normal population distribution for each group. FIND the test statistic zeither manually take . The P-value is the probability the test statistic takes the observed value or a value more extreme. it should be greater) C)Determine the correct test procedure to use. .13 SD=2. The magnitude of values in the C.50use 1-PropZTtestsimply change prop to < p0calculate0. and another 10 subjects were randomly chosen to receive the active drug.0384 Or you could use the formula for SE and MoE. EX single prop.01.674. If all values in the C.15/√ =1. Smaller P-values represent stronger evidence against Use t-distribution with df=n-1 5.5 Ha: p≠0. All subjects had their blood pressures recorded (in mm of mercury) at the end of the study. What was the MoE for the interval in part a.8 sd=14.50. and the p-value of the test.50 x:48 n:81 because of 48+33=81z=1. sx2: 4.8.076 so the proportions appear to have increased from 1992 to 2k. 26. H0: p=0.07 so we need 465 subjects. in each sample. so .L. EX find p-value from ZFor a test of H0: p=0. The probability of committing a Type I error is called the significance level.31) Males: .6.472–.1 The p-value is greater then the S. Based on the P-value. 10 subjects were randomly chosen to receive placebo drug.25. Since the p-value is greater than alpha=. b.09X1e-38 which rounds to 0. Type II (the null hypothesis is incorrectly accepted when it is false) occurs when H0 is not rejected. se=√ =.I. with df 5) Conclusion |**IF samples are INDEPENDENT DISREGARD the DIFFERENCES Use the actual data from the two SAMPLES**| One of the first steps in comparing the means of two groups is determining whether the two samples are INDEPENDENT or DEPENDENT. 4.   use 1-PropZTestp0:. What size sample would they need to have? =465. n2: 80t=1.074). Placebo n=10 mean=179.3. This results in adding 4 to the sample size n.0. degrees of freedom from the 2-SampTTest function (NOT SOLVER) and test statistic. and check whether each is met. Use 1-PropZInt on the TI-83.96 & p=1. usually ―no effect‖.8 Does this suggest that the population mean work week exceeds 39 hours? The relevant variable is the # of hours worked in the previous week by male workers. minus . Females: n=502 mean=3. 2: 3.50. The test statistic is where se0 is && P-value—presume H0 to be true normal distribution. The interval level shows just how much larger p1 might be. The test statistic is t=1.H0: (since I'm calling group 1 the placebo group.L.40 that a population proportion equals 0. are negative.‖ Two-Sided Significance Test for Comparing two population proportions 2-PropZTest 1) Assumptions1a) Categorical response variable for two groups. or do they give strong evidence against it? The data supports the null hypothesis because the sample proportion falls within three standard errors from the null hypothesis value. 1b) Independent random samples. P(type II Error) goes up)—type I (the null hypothesis is incorrectly rejected when it is true) occurs when H0 is rejected (type I is the more serious of the two errors). EXA study considered whether daily consumption of garlic could reduce tick bites. ( 1.806. the z test statistic equals 1. Of the students who reported using intravenous drugs. This is a means problem. For quantitative variables inferences compare means.4 with a SD of 14. "About how many hours per week do you spend sending and answering e-mail?" the 7 females in the survey sample of age at least 80 had the responses 0. Blood pressure is reasonably normally distributed.95.421 Significance test about means1. D)Give the test statistic.0522.064 Active Drug n=10 mean=167. of 0. P-value—presume H0 sided) or Ha: μ< μ0 (one-sided) or μ> μ0 (one-sided) 3. with population mean μ defined in context.where se=√ To use this method. Therefore we conclude there is not sufficient evidence to support that captopril lowers blood pressure. make a decision about H0 if one is needed. Find the test statistic value z USE 1-PropZTest enter p0: 0. FIND the standard error for this differenceUse 2-PropZtest to find the pooled then use √ ̂ ̂ )=√ =. Does the interval provide sufficient evidence to conclude the proportion in our population who smoke is different than .6) Even though the distribution is likely skewed to the right the CI is still valid because the t distribution is a robust method.) for men. If all values in (p1-p2) are positive. FIND the t-statistic and p-value: Use 2-SampTTest: 1: 4. Find the 90% CITInterval(1.of successes and 2 to the original number of failures.3. Suppose some researchers want to repeat this study in a similar population at another university. Assumptions: 1. such as s. (Note 0 is included.) EXOf people who had tried tobacco. type II usually occurs when we do not reject H0 when it is actually false. Independent pop mean exCaptopril is a drug designed to lower systolic blood pressure. Always an (=) The alternative refers to an alternative parameter value from the # in the null hypothesis the alternative has either a. c. that is.3 (s=4. If so. Independent so IGNORE the differences. p1>p2. the sample size was large enough to make that inference. you need 1)categorical response variable for two groups 2) Independent random samples for two groups. Smaller P-values represent stronger evidence against H0 5) Conclusion—report and interpret the P-value in the context of the study. Answer: The interval is (. USE TTesttest statistic is t=12.05 so we do not reject the null.317 What conclusions about the means can be made? The means can not be said to be different because the p-value is greater than 0.5 sd=16. there are at least 10 ―successes‖ and 10 ―failures.597 What does the se indicate? The se describes the spread of the sampling distribution of 1- 2. If all values are near 0. POP MEAN EXWhen a survey asked. Significance Test about Proportions USE 1-PropZTest for (single) hypothesis test1)Assumptions—i)the variable is categorical ii) The data are obtained by randomization (most important assumption for any significance test) iii) n is large enough to expect at least 15 successes and 15 failures 2)Hypotheses—Null hypothesis. There is not sufficient evidence garlic is more effective than placebo. 8.01 level of significance. blood pressure needs to be normally distributed.7 sd=9. the interval is (-2.I. From 2-SampTInt. 95%CI= (2. and the p-value is . In our class survey. it has been reported that 25% of adults smoke.I. 1b)data are obtained by randomization(most important assumption for any significance test). Random and INDEPENDENT samples: We’re told they were randomly assigned. Exwhen 898 male workers were asked about how many hours they worked in the previous week. there were 65 out of the 505 subjects that said they smoked.05.s. n1: 223.00.5) for the 80 males.7 (s=4.I. Interpret the p-valuethe p-value is the probability of obtaining a sample with a mean of 45. and they used different subjects so they are independent. 3) Large enough sample sizes n1 and n2 so that. a. 2) HypothesesNull H0: p1 =p2 (that is. or are the results consistent with random variation? State hypotheses for a large-sample two sided test.25? Explain why or why not.1.467 difference n=10 mean=11. F)Provide a 95% confidence interval for the population difference in mean blood pressure between Captopril and Placebo. EXTo test Ho: p=0. sx1: 4. either from random sampling or a randomized experiment. because the interval excludes .0915. The authors described garlic being more effective with 48 subjects and placebo being more effective with 33 subjects.> (right-tail probability) or a ≠ which is a two-sided test) 3)Calculator Method used and values entered 4) List the t-statistic & p-value. with two samples. Null: H0: μ–μ0 wh μ0 is the hypothesized value (such as H0: μ=0) Alternative: Ha: μ≠μ0 (two√ 4.

0. so the T critical value from the table is 2.1065 95%CI=(2. Show all five step s of the test. we use "TInterval" on the calculator. Using "TTest" on the calculator. using the summary statistics for "Difference. Dependent Samples– use T-Test & TInterval because they are dependent so we USE THE DIFFERENCE of the TWO samples. but since the differences are a biological measurement and can be either positive or negative.14 se mean=. McNemar’s test for DEPENDENT samples EXThe results are 420 said ―yes‖ each time. During one of the tests." The means for each music type are not needed here. so we are 95% confident the true population difference in mean strength during the two music types is in this interval.2) between the means of the two samples equals the mean d of the difference scores for the matched pairs. DEPENDENT samples EXTwelve subjects are asked to test their grip strength on each of two consecutive weeks. C) Does this interval provide evidence that there is a difference in the mean strength for the two music types? Why or Why Not? Yes.23.479 SD=1. (ii) last month(i)= The test statistic is √ (ii)= FIND the P-value 420 70 90 420 Do not reject the claim that the population proportion was the same each month because the p-value is greater than the significance level. since it excludes 0. measured twice. the differences ( 1.465).362 Because their dependent samples disregard Classical and Rock and ONLY USE THE DIFFERENCE. but their difference.73 SD=2. Since this less than alpha=. Assumptions: We aren't told if the 12 were a random sample. 1. B) Give the critical value and margin of error used in the interval. Therefore. E) Conduct a test of the hypothesis that there is no difference in the mean strength for the two music types. . the subjects wear headphones playing classical music. Interpret the interval.196 Rock–n=12 mean=31.94) Set up a hypothesesH0: μ1=μ2 and Ha: μ1≠μ2 What is the p-valueuse 2SampTTestp=.292 Difference–n=12 mean=. There are 12–1=11 df. 420 said ―no‖ each time.n=404 mean=2.05.235 = 0. such as pretest/posttest for each person or husband/wife pairs. 0. D) What is the design of this study called? This is a cross-over experiment.0460.465 . The results (in pounds/square inch) are given below. The interval is (0. When the data are matched pairs. H0: D = 0 Ha: D ≠ 0 3. we can be 95% confident there is a difference. it is a reasonable assumption. 90 said ―yes‖ on the first survey and ―no on the second survey. The Classical music and Rock music samples are dependent (paired). the test statistic is T = 2. 2. We aren't told this either.004 which means the H0 should be rejected.005. For dependent samples. the samples that result are DEPENDENT When the samples we want to compare are paired in some natural way. a more appropriate form of analysis is to not compare two separate variables. but they did randomize treatment order. The P-value is 0. If p-value < a reject the null hypothesis.249 4. 5.2. DATA–Classical–n=12 mean=31. Mean of Differences = Difference of Means…For dependent samples.244 SD=1. and 70 said ―no‖ on the first survey and ―yes‖ on the second survey.52. We conclude there is sufficient evidence to support that there is a difference between the strengths measured during the two types of music. where strength was measured by squeezing pressure. A) Construct a 95% confidence interval for the true difference in the mean grip strength while listening to the two music types. Second Y N First Y N Estimate the probability of favorable rating for (i) last month. we reject the null hypothesis.235 SD=. since they contain the same subjects. since n < 30.201. The MoE is 0. The strength differences need to be normally distributed. and during the other listen to rock and roll. Which order they hear the different music types was determined at random.

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