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a solid is melted, heated to proper temperature (sometimes treated to modify its chemical composition), and is then poured into a cavity or mould, which contains it in the proper shape during solidification. Thus, in a single step, simple or complex shapes can be made from any metal that can be melted. The resulting product can have virtually any configuration the designer desires. OBTAINING THE CASTING GEOMETRY-The traditional method of obtaining the casting geometry is by sending blueprint drawings to the foundry. This is usually done during the request for quotation process. However, more and more customers and foundries are exchanging part geometry via the exchange of computer aided design files. PATTERNMARKING-The pattern is a physical model of the casting used to make the mould. The mould is made by packing some readily formed aggregate material, such as moulding sand, around the pattern. When the pattern is withdrawn, its imprint provides the mould cavity, which is ultimately filled with metal to become the casting. If the casting is to be hollow, as in the case of pipe fittings, additional patterns, referred to as cores, are used to form these cavities. COREMAKING-Cores are forms, usually made of sand, which are placed into a mould cavity to form the interior surfaces of castings. Thus the void space between the core and mould-cavity surface is what eventually becomes the casting. MOULDING-Moulding consists of all operations necessary to prepare a mould for receiving molten metal. Moulding usually involves placing a Differences Working Principle Metal forming process The plastic deformation of a metal in order to produce a useful shape. Metal forming is done at elevated or hot-working temperatures with processes such as forging, or it is done at coldworking room temperatures with processes such as stamping or bending.
Metal-forming processes: Processes that cause changes in the shape of solid metal articles via plastic (permanent) deformations. Drawing: Metal forming process whereby the workpiece is a shaped longitudinal prism that undergoes a reduction and change in its cross section area and shape while being pulled through a shaped converging die. Extrusion: Metal forming process whereby the workpiece is placed in a chamber with an opening and is forced to escape through the opening, usually being pushed out by a mandrel. Forging: Metal forming process whereby the workpiece is placed between an anvil and a hammer and subjected to compressive force between them. Rolling: Metal forming process whereby the workpiece is a longitudinal prism, which is placed between two opposing circular rolls that rotate in opposite directions, drag the workpiece along, and force it to reduce in cross section. Metal forming performed after is normally the primary
moulding aggregate around a pattern held with a supporting frame, withdrawing the pattern to leave the mould cavity, setting the cores in the mould cavity and finishing and closing the mould. MELTING AND POURING-The preparation of molten metal for casting is referred to simply as melting. Melting is usually done in a specifically designated area of the foundry, and the molten metal is transferred to the pouring area where the moulds are filled. CLEANING-Cleaning refers to all operations necessary to the removal of sand, scale, and excess metal from the casting. The casting is separated from the mould and transported to the cleaning department. Burned-on sand and scale are removed to improve the surface appearance of the casting. Excess metal, in the form of fins, wires, parting line fins, and gates, is removed. Castings may be upgraded by welding or other procedures. Inspection of the casting for defects and general quality is performed. OTHER PROCESS-Before shipment, further processing such as heattreatment, surface treatment, additional inspection, or machining may be performed as required by the customer's specifications. -the most intricate of shapes, both external and internal, may be cast. As a result, many other operations, such as machining, forging and welding can be minimized or eliminated. -due to their physical properties, some metals can only be cast to shape (since they cannot be hotworked into bars, rods, plates, or other shapes) from ingot form as a preliminary to other processing. -construction may be simplified. Objects may be cast in a single piece which would otherwise require assembly of several pieces if made by other methods. -casting is a process highly adapted to the requirements of mass
processes of extraction, casting, and powder compaction and before the finishing processes of metal cutting, grinding, polishing, painting, and assembly. With few exceptions, the bulk of the products of the metal fabrication industry are shaped by forming or a combination of forming and other processes like metal cutting or joining. Forming operations are classified as those processes where the desired shape is achieved by imparting plastic deformation to the workpiece in the solid state. Classification by (1) product, (2) material, (3) forming temperature, and (4) Nature of deformation (sheet metal versus bulk deformation) can also be helpful. However, the boundaries between categories are not perfectly defined.
-no or very small loss of material -little or no scrap -increase in ductility (hot forming of cast ingots) -increase in strength and hardness -high production rate, generate final shape in short time -better mechanical and metallurgical properties (strength, toughness, grain size)
Place a pattern in sand to create a mould. shell. and need gravity to help force molten fluid into casting cavities. The mould is then cooled until the metal has solidified. Remove the pattern. 4. die. which can be produced only as castings. Large numbers of a given casting may be produced very rapidly. centrifugal. TYPES OF CASTING PROCESS FOR EXPANDABLE AND NON EXPANDABLE MOULD CASTING Expandable mould Sand Casting A sand casting or a sand moulded casting is a cast part produced by forming a mould from a sand mixture and then pouring molten liquid metal into the cavity in the mould. 5. and investment (lost-wax technique) mouldings. 6. Incorporate a gating system. -limitation on mechanical properties -porosity -surface finish -dimensional accuracy -safety hazards to humans -environmental concerns -more uniform properties from a directional standpoint -strength and lightness in certain light metal alloys. plaster. There are six steps in this process: 1. Non-Expandable mould Non-expendable mould casting differs from expendable processes in that the mould need not be reformed after each production cycle. Fill the mould cavity with molten metal. and continuous casting. 2. This technique includes at least four different methods: permanent. All of these involve the use of temporary and non-reusable moulds. plastic. This form of casting also results in improved repeatability in parts produced and delivers Near Net Shape results. 3. -large and heavy objects may be cast when they would be difficult or uneconomic to produces otherwise. In this process the mould is used only once. In the last stage the casting is separated from the mould. Allow the metal to cool. Break away the sand mould and remove the casting .production. -good bearing qualities are obtained in casting metals Limitations Quality -equipment expensive because of the large forces involved -suited for a large number of parts only -Large capital expenditure because of heavy presses and die -near net-shaping forming METAL CASTING (EXPANDABLE AND NON EXPANDABLE MOULD) Expandable mould Expendable mould casting or “one use mould” is a generic classification that includes sand.
The molten metal funnels out of the bottom of this basin and down the main channel. As a result. In addition to the external and internal features of the casting. After solidification. After the sand has been packed and the pattern is removed. a cavity will remain that forms the external shape of the casting. The mould cavity is formed by packing sand around the pattern in each half of the flask. These are small metal pieces that are fastened between the core and the cavity surface.Figure: Sand casting overview Equipment Mould In sand casting. which carries the molten metal into the cavity. called a flask. the primary piece of equipment is the mould. the molten metal enters the cavity through a gate which controls the flow rate . sand cores allow for the fabrication of many complex internal features. Cores are additional pieces that form the internal holes and passages of the casting. which itself is divided along this parting line. the chaplets will have been cast inside the casting and the excess material of the chaplets that protrudes must be cut off. called runners. Cores are typically made out of sand so that they can be shaken out of the casting. Each core is positioned in the mould before the molten metal is poured. the pattern has recesses called core prints where the core can be anchored in place. which contains several components. The sprue then connects to a series of channels. Some internal surfaces of the casting may be formed by cores. but machines that use pressure or impact ensure even packing of the sand and require far less time.the cope (upper half) and the drag (bottom half). Both mould halves are contained inside a box. which is a large depression in the top of the sand mould. In order to keep each core in place. rather than require the necessary geometry to slide out. The sand can be packed by hand. Chaplets must be made of a metal with a higher melting temperature than that of the metal being cast in order to maintain their structure. Further support is provided to the cores by chaplets. called the sprue. The mould is divided into two halves . At the end of each runner. which meet along a parting line. thus increasing the production rate. the core may still shift due to buoyancy in the molten metal. However. other features must be incorporated into the mould to accommodate the flow of molten metal. The molten metal is poured into a pouring basin.
The mould is strengthened by baking it in an oven. but is expensive and results in a lower production rate. and a clay or binder.In a dry sand mould. The first material to enter the cavity is allowed to pass completely through and enter the open riser. The porosity of the sand also allows air to escape. the molten metal will shrink and additional material is needed. but will lower the collapsibility.The sand in a no-bake mould is mixed with a liquid resin and hardens at room temperature. and 7% clay or binder. Using sand as the mould material offers several benefits to the casting process. Risers are chambers that fill with molten metal. No-bake mould . There are different preparations of the sand for the mould. A similar feature that aids in reducing shrinkage is an open riser. When the casting cools. Dry skin moulds are more expensive and require more time. Skin-dried mould . providing an additional source of metal during solidification. water. The resulting mould has high dimensional accuracy. Doing so also improves the dimensional accuracy and surface finish. allowing many metals to be cast that have high melting temperatures. small channels are included that run from the cavity to the exterior of the mould. o o o The quality of the sand that is used also greatly affects the quality of the casting and is usually described by the following five measures: o Strength . thus lowering the production rate. o Greensand mould . Lastly. The molten metal that flows through all of the channels (sprue. but additional bonding materials are added and the cavity surface is dried by a torch or heating lamp to increase mould strength. Sand The sand that is used to create the moulds is typically silica sand (SiO2) that is mixed with a type of binder to help maintain the shape of the mould cavity.Ability of the sand to maintain its shape.Greensand moulds use a mixture of sand. which characterize the following four unique types of sand moulds. sometimes called a cold box mould. Dry sand mould . These channels act as venting holes to allow gases to escape the cavity.A skin-dried mould begins like a greensand mould. Greensand moulds are the least expensive and most widely used. runners. This strategy prevents early solidification of the molten metal and provides a source of material to compensate for shrinkage. the sand is mixed only with an organic binder. Sand is very inexpensive and is resistant to high temperatures. Typical composition of the mixture is 90% sand. and risers) will solidify attached to the casting and must be separated from the part after it is removed. . Often connected to the runner system are risers. but additional vents are sometimes needed. 3% water.and minimizes turbulence.
and molten metal. A reusable pattern allows for higher production rates. 3. Can produce very large parts Can form complex shapes Many material options Low tooling and equipment cost Scrap can be recycled Short lead time possible Disadvantages 1. If the sand can not compress. is reused to form multiple shell moulds.o Permeability . Poor material strength High porosity possible Poor surface finish and tolerance Secondary machining often required Low production rate High labour cost Shell Casting Shell mould casting is a metal casting process similar to sand casting. 2. 3. and lever arms. during solidification of the casting. the mould is a thinwalled shell created from applying a sand-resin mixture around a pattern. sand-resin mixture. most commonly using cast iron. such as cracking. Reusability . while the disposable moulds enable complex geometries to be cast. 4. and copper alloys. Permeability is determined by the size and shape of the sand grains. then the casting will not be able to shrink freely in the mould and can result in cracking. o o o Advantages 1. a metal piece in the shape of the desired part. from the heat of the molten metal.Ability to resist damage. 6. 6. Shell mould casting allows the use of both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 2. stainless steel. carbon steel. Typical parts are small-to-medium in size and require high accuracy.Ability to allow venting of trapped gases through the sand. Collapsibility . dump box. However.Ability of the sand to be reused for future sand moulds. aluminium alloys. 5. Shell mould casting requires the use of a metal pattern. alloy steel. cylinder heads. The pattern. but a lower permeability can result in a better surface finish. 4. in that molten metal is poured into an expendable mould. oven.Ability of the sand to collapse. . in shell mould casting. A higher permeability can reduce the porosity of the mould. or more accurately compress. 5. connecting rods. Thermal stability . such as gear housings.
The shell mould casting process consists of the following steps: 1. allowing this sand-resin mixture to coat the pattern. Casting removal . which contains a mixture of sand and a resin binder.After the mould has been filled. the mould can be broken and the casting removed. the heated pattern is clamped to a dump box. each pattern half is heated to 175-370°C (350-700°F) and coated with a lubricant to facilitate removal. 6. Other materials are sometimes used. If any cores are required. 5. Mould assembly .The two shell halves are joined together and securely clamped to form the complete shell mould. The dump box is inverted.A two-piece metal pattern is created in the shape of the desired part. Figure: Shell moulding overview Advantages 1. The shell mould is then placed into a flask and supported by a backing material. 4. Can form complex shapes and fine details Very good surface finish High production rate Low labour cost Low tooling cost Little scrap generated Disadvantages . they are inserted prior to closing the mould. Trimming and cleaning processes are required to remove any excess metal from the feed system and any sand from the mould. 5. 6.First. 2.After the molten metal has cooled. The heated pattern partially cures the mixture. Cooling . Mould creation . 2.The mould is securely clamped together while the molten metal is poured from a ladle into the gating system and fills the mould cavity. Pattern creation . Each pattern half and surrounding shell is cured to completion in an oven and then the shell is ejected from the pattern. Pouring . typically from iron or steel. 4. which now forms a shell around the pattern. such as aluminium for low volume production or graphite for casting reactive materials. the molten metal is allowed to cool and solidify into the shape of the final casting. 3. 3. Next.
Pattern creation . parts with complex geometries and intricate details can be created.a disposable piece in the shape of the desired part. Lox-wax processes are one-to-one (one pattern creates one part). which includes parts for the automotive. cutting. Several of these patterns are attached to a central wax gating system (sprue. 3. hence the name "lost wax" casting. High temperature applications are also common. in which molten metal is poured into an expendable ceramic mould. However. and military industries. Pouring is typically achieved manually under the force of gravity. Investment Casting Investment casting is one of the oldest manufacturing processes. Investment casting is often referred to as "lost-wax casting" because the wax pattern is melted out of the mould after it has been formed. High equipment cost 2. Investment casting requires the use of a metal die. and then dried to form a ceramic shell around the patterns and gating system. The gating system forms the channels through which the molten metal will flow to the mould cavity. magnesium alloys. and any machines needed for sandblasting. but other methods such as vacuum or pressure are sometimes used. furnace. Parts that are typically made by investment casting include those with complex geometry such as turbine blades or firearm components.The wax patterns are typically injection moulded into a metal die and are formed as one piece. stainless steel.The mould is preheated in a furnace to approximately 1000°C (1832°F) and the molten metal is poured from a ladle into the gating system of the mould. or "invested". molten metal. The mould is formed by using a wax pattern . Since the tooling requires heat to cure the mould. into ceramic slurry that hardens into the mould. 4. runners. since the mould is destroyed during the process. filling the mould cavity. or grinding. Investment casting can make use of most metals. most commonly using aluminium alloys. ceramic slurry. which increases production time and costs relative to other casting processes. coated with more coarse particles. Energy costs are higher. aircraft.1. . Mould creation . Cores may be used to form any internal features on the pattern. and risers). The pattern is surrounded. This process is beneficial for casting metals with high melting temperatures that cannot be moulded in plaster or metal. bronze alloys. cast iron. and tool steel. The shell is then placed into an oven and the wax is melted out leaving a hollow ceramic shell that acts as a one-piece mould. The process steps include the following: 1. to form a tree-like assembly.This "pattern tree" is dipped into a slurry of fine ceramic particles. This process is repeated until the shell is thick enough to withstand the molten metal it will encounter. pattern costs and pattern wear can be higher. 3. Pouring . 2. Material costs are higher than those for green sand moulding. wax. dating back thousands of years.
The ceramic mould is typically broken using water jets. finishing operations such as grinding or sandblasting are used to smooth the part at the gates. 3. the expensive work of bronze casting or stone carving may be deferred until a patron is found. and the material used. Casting removal . With the low cost plaster at hand. and as such work is .After the molten metal has cooled. Heat treatment is also sometimes used to harden the final part. the work is more durable (if stored indoors) than a clay original which must be kept moist to avoid cracking. With the completion of a plaster. thickness of the mould. Can form complex shapes and fine details Many material options High strength parts Very good surface finish and accuracy Little need for secondary machining Disadvantages 1. the parts are separated from the gating system by either sawing or cold breaking (using liquid nitrogen).After the mould has been filled.Often times. 3. Finishing . Once removed. 4. Cooling . Cooling time depends on the thickness of the part. but several other methods exist. 5. 4. 2. 6. Time-consuming process High labour cost High tooling cost Long lead time possible Plaster Mould Casting A durable plaster intermediate is often used as a stage toward the production of a bronze sculpture or as a pointing guide for the creation of a carved stone. 2. the mould can be broken and the casting removed. Figure: Investment casting overview Advantages 1.4. the molten metal is allowed to cool and solidify into the shape of the final casting. 5.
Common permanent mould parts include gears and gear housings. incidentally destroying the fine details in undercuts present in the clay. The plaster sets. like die casting. The used plaster cannot be reused. molten metal is poured into a mould which is clamped shut until the material cools and solidifies into the desired part shape. irons and steels can also be cast using graphite moulds. magnesium alloys. When cured. the plaster is broken from the cast part. and other automotive and aircraft components such as pistons. As in sand casting. excellent surface finish and good dimensional accuracy 2. The surface of this plaster may be further refined and may be painted and waxed to resemble a finished bronze casting. simple metal parts with uniform wall thickness. permanent mould casting is often referred to as gravity die casting. uses a metal mould (die) that is typically made from steel or cast iron and can be reused for several thousand cycles. The mould may then at any later time (but only once) be used to cast a plaster positive image. such as aluminium alloys. However. and the pattern are removed. pipe fittings. and the metal poured. 3. the plaster is mixed and the pattern is sprayed with a thin film of parting compound to prevent the plaster from sticking to the pattern. rather than artistic process. The mould is then baked. to remove any excess water. produces minimal scrap material Disadvantages 1. usually in about 15 minutes. The plaster is then poured over the pattern and the unit shaken so that the plaster fills any small features. it is then removed from the damp clay. First. Permanent mould casting is typically used for high-volume production of small. Because the molten metal is poured into the die and not forcibly injected. between 120 °C (248 °F) and 260 °C (500 °F). The process steps include the following: 1. is cast over the original clay mixture. can produces complex parts 3. preheated. Advantages 1. it may even be deferred beyond the lifetime of the artist. 6. can only be used with lower melting temperature non-ferrous materials 2. 2. sand casting uses an expendable mould which is destroyed after each cycle. In waste moulding a simple and thin plaster mould. 4. and copper alloys. reinforced by sisal or burlap. The dried mould is then assembled.considered to be a technical. 5. after the metal has solidified. Permanent mould casting. long cooling times restrict production volume Non-expandable Mould Permanent Mould Casting Permanent mould casting is a metal casting process that shares similarities to both sand casting and die casting. Non-ferrous metals are typically used in this process. . However. but which are now captured in the mould. Finally. identical to the original clay.
other variations on permanent mould casting have been developed to accommodate specific applications. but expendable sand cores are sometimes used. 6. Trimming . Also. 5.After the metal has solidified. the cores are inserted and the mould halves are clamped together. As a result. the molten metal is poured into the mould and begins to solidify at the cavity surface.As in permanent mould casting. Figure: Permanent mould casting overview Using these basic steps. 3.During cooling. the two mould halves are opened and the casting is removed. The application of pressure allows the mould to remain filled and reduces shrinkage during cooling. Mould preparation . the mould is pre-heated to around 300-500°F (150-260°C) to allow better metal flow and reduce defects. Then. Examples of these variations include the following: 1. the metal in the runner system and sprue solidify attached to the casting. Such cores are typically made from iron or steel. Mould assembly .the two mould halves and any cores used to form complex features. Low Pressure Permanent Mould Casting . 2. Slush Casting .The molten metal is allowed to cool and solidify in the mould. the remaining slush (material that has yet to completely solidify) is poured out of the mould.The mould consists of at least two parts .impellers. the molten metal is forced into the mould by low pressure air (< 1 bar). steps: 1. slush casting is used to produce hollow parts without the use of cores. a ceramic coating is applied to the mould cavity surfaces to facilitate part removal and increase the mould lifetime. The metal flows through a runner system and enters the mould cavity. When the amount of solidified material is equal to the desired wall thickness. . 4. finer details and thinner walls can be moulded. This excess material is now cut away. In this step. 2.First. Cooling .The molten metal is poured at a slow rate from a ladle into the mould through a sprue at the top of the mould.Instead of being poured. The permanent mould casting and process consists of the following wheels. Pouring . Mould opening .
typically between 2 seconds and 1 minute. The total cycle time is very short. The die casting method is especially suited for applications where many small to medium sized parts are needed with good detail. copper.Similar to low pressure casting. such as zinc) and cold chamber machines (used for alloys with high melting temperatures. and aluminium based alloys.hot chamber machines (used for alloys with low melting temperatures. 3. Clamping . 1. 5. Advantages 1. In both machines.3. a fine surface quality and dimensional consistency. after the molten metal is injected into the dies. Can form complex shapes Good mechanical properties Many material options Low porosity Low labour cost Scrap can be recycled Disadvantages 1. called the casting. but ferrous metal die castings are possible. 2. Most die castings are made from nonferrous metals. Vacuum Permanent Mould Casting . but vacuum pressure is used to fill the mould. 6. There are two main types of die casting machines . Figure: Die casting cold and hot chamber machine overview The process cycle for die casting consists of five main stages. it rapidly cools and solidifies into the final part. such as aluminium). specifically zinc. 4. which are explained below. As a result. High tooling cost 2. Long lead time possible Die Casting The die casting process forces molten metal under high pressure into mould cavities (which are machined into dies). finer details and thin walls can be moulded and the mechanical properties of the castings are improved.
Each die half is first cleaned from the previous injection and then lubricated to facilitate the ejection of the next part. A greater wall thickness will require a longer injection time. This time can be estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine. lubrication may not be required after each cycle. in order to prevent early solidification of any one part of the metal. along with any flash that has occurred. but after 2 or 3 cycles. and the complexity of the die. is next transferred into a chamber where it can be injected into the die. When the entire cavity is filled and the molten metal solidifies. This excess material. The method of transferring the molten metal is dependent upon the type of die casting machine. as well as the wall thickness of the casting.000 to 20. which is maintained at a set temperature in the furnace. the maximum wall thickness of the casting. which are attached inside the die casting machine.The first step is the preparation and clamping of the two halves of the die.The molten metal.During cooling. Sufficient force must be applied to the die to keep it securely closed while the metal is injected. the final shape of the casting is formed. The proper injection time can be determined by the thermodynamic properties of the material. Once transferred. 4. typically less than 0. The amount of metal that is injected into the die is referred to as the shot. Typical injection pressure ranges from 1.larger machines (those with greater clamping forces) will require more time. 3. This time is very short. the die can be clamped shut for the next injection. must be trimmed from the casting either manually via cutting or sawing. . The time to open the die can be estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine and the ejection time is determined by the size of the casting's envelope and should include time for the casting to fall free of the die. the material in the channels of the die will solidify attached to the casting. Trimming . as well as the number of cavities and side-cores. Also.1 seconds. Once the casting is ejected. the two die halves. The geometric complexity of the die also requires a longer cooling time because the additional resistance to the flow of heat. After lubrication. The lubrication time increases with part size. A greater wall thickness will require a longer cooling time. The injection time is the time required for the molten metal to fill all of the channels and cavities in the die.000 psi. or using a trimming press. Injection . The time required to trim the excess material can be estimated from the size of the casting's .2. The cooling time can be estimated from several thermodynamic properties of the metal. the injection time must also include the time to manually ladle the molten metal into the shot chamber. The ejection mechanism must apply some force to eject the part because during cooling the part shrinks and adheres to the die. The die cannot be opened until the cooling time has elapsed and the casting is solidified. Cooling . the molten metal is injected at high pressures into the die. The time required to close and clamp the die is dependent upon the machine .After the predetermined cooling time has passed. The difference in this equipment will be detailed in the next section. Ejection .The molten metal that is injected into the die will begin to cool and solidify once it enters the die cavity. depending upon the material. whether a hot chamber or cold chamber machine is being used. the die halves can be opened and an ejection mechanism can push the casting out of the die cavity. are closed and securely clamped together. In the case where a cold chamber die casting machine is being used. 5. This pressure holds the molten metal in the dies during solidification.
which involves a few steps (application. 4.3-4. 4.Molten metal is poured directly into the rotating mould. drying. The centrifugal force drives the material towards the mould walls as the mould fills. the mould is rotated about its axis at high speeds (3003000 RPM). . Semi. rotation. 7. typically around 1000 RPM. Advantages 1.and true-centrifugal processing permit 30-50 pieces/hrmould to be produced.The walls of a cylindrical mould are first coated with a refractory ceramic coating. Industrially. without the use of runners or a gating system. The casting process is usually performed on a horizontal centrifugal casting machine (vertical machines are also available) and includes the following steps: 1. The scrap material that results from this trimming is either discarded or can be reused in the die casting process. the centrifugal casting of railway wheels was an early application of the method developed by German industrial company Krupp and this capability enabled the rapid growth of the enterprise. 3.and pressure-independent since it creates its own force feed using a temporary sand mould held in a spinning chamber at up to 900 N. Trimming is required High tooling and equipment cost Limited die life Long lead time Centrifugal Casting Centrifugal casting is both gravity. Recycled material may need to be reconditioned to the proper chemical composition before it can be combined with non-recycled metal and reused in the die casting process. and baking). Small art pieces such as jewellery are often cast by this method using the lost wax process. 2. also applied to jewellery casting. 3. Once prepared and secured. as the forces enable the rather viscous liquid metals to flow through very small passages and into fine details such as leaves and petals. This effect is similar to the benefits from vacuum casting. Mould preparation . 2. 6. with a practical limit for batch processing of approximately 9000 kg total mass with a typical per-item limit of 2. Can produce large parts Can form complex shapes High strength parts Very good surface finish and accuracy High production rate Low labour cost Scrap can be recycled Disadvantages 1.envelope. Lead time varies with the application.5 kg. 2. 5. Pouring .
water-cooled copper mould. Cooling . 4. Casting removal . any less dense impurities or bubbles flow to the inner surface of the casting. or sand-blasting. or to a stockpile. 4.After the casting has cooled and solidified the rotation is stopped and the casting can be removed. is withdrawn from the mould and passed into a chamber of rollers and water sprays. grinding. The strand. high-volume production of metal sections with a constant cross-section. Limited to cylindrical parts 2. which allows a 'skin' of solid metal to form over the still-liquid centre. predetermined lengths of the strand are cut off by either mechanical shears or travelling oxyacetylene torches and transferred to further forming processes. Cast sizes can range from strip (a few millimetres thick by about five metres . After solidification.While the centrifugal force drives the dense metal to the mould walls. 6. Can form very large parts Good mechanical properties Good surface finish and accuracy Low equipment cost Low labour cost Little scrap generated Disadvantages 1. Molten metal is poured into an open-ended. the rollers support the thin skin of the strand while the sprays remove heat from the strand. As a result. 3. the mould remains spinning as the metal cools. are required to clean and smooth the inner diameter of the part.3. 5. Figure: Centrifugal casting overview Advantages 1. 5. Finishing . Cooling begins quickly at the mould walls and proceeds inwards.With all of the molten metal in the mould. Long lead time possible Continuous Casting Continuous casting is a refinement of the casting process for the continuous. secondary processes such as machining. Secondary machining is often required for inner diameter 3. 2. gradually solidifying the strand from the outside in. as it is now called.
As it drawn. capital investment and the cost of operation can be reduced substantially. Further cooling to ensure solidification 5.25 m wide by 230 mm thick). Molten steel is poured continuously into a bottomless mould.wide) to billets (90 to 160 mm square) to slabs (1. Increased Yield. Disadvantages 1. Cut to required length Figure: Continuous casting overview Advantages 1. 3. 2. . Continuous casting is used due to the lower costs associated with continuous production of a standard product. The continuous casting process includes: 1. since it is not necessary to crop the ends of continuously cast slabs. The cast metal is then drawn downwards guided by a series of rollers. 2. Continuous casting helps in saving many steps that would be required in the convention casting technologies. By the time it reaches the end. and also increases the quality of the final product. the steel is completely solidified. through a tundish. Therefore. Metals such as steel. less variability in chemical composition both along the thickness and along the length and surface has fewer defects. Molten metal flows from ladle. Mould cooling controlled such that outside has solidified before the metal exits 4. Less pollution 6. 4. while it continuous to cool. and begins to solidify. the strand may undergo an initial hot rolling process before being cut. Product has good consistent soundness. 3. Reduced Energy costs. Improved Quality. Sometimes. to a bottomless mould. copper and aluminium are continuously cast. and is immediately cut into the required lengths. Not suitable for small quantity production. with steel being the metal with the greatest tonnages cast using this method. The slabs are sent directly to hot rolling and do not require pits for reheating and also the thickness of continuously cast slabs is half the thickness of ingot castings and thus require lower energy for hot rolling 5. the steel comes into contact with the water-cooled interior surface of the mould.
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