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# High School Mathematics Grade 10-12

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The Free High School Science Texts: Textbooks for High School Students Studying the Sciences Physics Grade 12 Copyright c 2007 “Free High School Science Texts” Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front- Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” Webpage: http://www.fhsst.org/
The Free High School Science Texts: Textbooks for High School Students Studying the Sciences Physics Grade 12 Copyright c 2007 “Free High School Science Texts” Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front- Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” Webpage: http://www.fhsst.org/

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It is often useful to look at the frequency with which certain values fall in pre-set groups or

classes of speciﬁed sizes. The choice of the groups should be such that they help highlight
features in the data. If these grouped values are plotted in a manner similar to a bar graph, then

the resulting graph is known as a histogram. Examples of histograms are shown in Figure 15.3

for Data Set 2, with group sizes of 1 and 2.

Groups 0 < n≤1 1 < n≤2 2 < n≤3 3 < n≤4 4 < n≤5 5 < n≤6

Frequency 30

32

35

34

37

32

Table 15.6: Frequency table for Data Set 2, with a group size of 1.

The same data used to plot a histogram are used to plot a frequency polygon, except the pair of

data values are plotted as a point and the points are joined with straight lines. The frequency
polygons for the histograms in Figure 15.3 are shown in Figure 15.4.

217

15.5

CHAPTER 15. STATISTICS - GRADE 10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Relative

Frequency

(%

)

Bar Graph

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

TotalRelative

Frequency

(%

)

Compound Bar Graph

Tails

Figure 15.2: Examples of a bar graph (left) and compound bar graph (right) for Data Set 1.
The compound bar graph extends from 0% to 100%.

Groups 0 < n≤2 2 < n≤4 4 < n≤6

Frequency 62

69

69

Table 15.7: Frequency table for Data Set 2, with a group size of 2.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Frequency

Histogram - group size=1

0 2 4 6

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Frequency

Histogram - group size=2

Figure 15.3: Examples of histograms for Data Set 2, with a group size = 1 (left) and a group
size = 2 (right). The scales on the y-axis for each graph are the same, and the values in the

graph on the right are higher than the values of the graph on the left.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Frequency

Histogram - group size=1

0 2 4 6

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Frequency

Histogram - group size=2

Figure 15.4: Examples of histograms for Data Set 2, with a group size = 1 (left) and a group

size = 2 (right). The scales on the y-axis for each graph are the same, and the values in the
graph on the right are higher than the values of the graph on the left.

Unlike histograms, many frequency polygons can be plotted together to compare several fre-

218

CHAPTER 15. STATISTICS - GRADE 10

15.5

quency distributions, provided that the data has been grouped in the same way.

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