You are on page 1of 1

The two basic transport mechanisms are drift, due to an applied electric field. and diffusion.

due to a density gradient. Carriers reach an average driti velocily in the presence of an applied electric field, due to scattering events. Two scattering proccsscs within a semiconductur are lattice scattering and impurity scattering. The average drift velocity is a linear function of the applied electric field for small values of electric field, hut the drift velocity reaches a saturation limit that is on the order or 10' ctnls at high electric fields. Carrier mobility i~ the ratio of the average drift velocity and applied elechic field. The electron and hole mobilities are functions of temperature and of the ionized impurity mncentration. 1 The drift current density i~ thc pnduct of conducti~ritya nd electric field (a form of Ohm's law). Conductivity is a function of the carrier concentrations and mobilities. Resistivity is the inverse of conductivity 1 The diffmion cunent density is proportional to the carrier diffusion coefficient and the canier density gradient. 1 The diffusion coefficient and mobilitv are related throup-h the Einstein relation. I The Hall effect IS a consequence of a charged carner moving m the pre5ence of perpendicular electnc and magnetc fields The charged Larrrer is deflected. lnducmg ~ ~ a Hall voltage. The polarity of the Hall voltage is a function of the semiconductor conductivity type. The majority carrier concentration and mobility can he determined from the Hall voltage.