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Prepared by Noor Suhaila Haikal binti Haji Subki 08-04-191

It is the voluntary prevention of conception.

Synonyms : birth control, fertility control, planned parenthood, family planning & etc.

Indication :
It is personal based on
socio-economic Political medical reason
Temporary or chronic disease Previous serious obstetric complications Disease that can be transmitted to the foetus to avoid inherited physical or mental defects

1. To the wife
Improve the general health status Prevention the hazardous of high parity

2. To both parents

Better marital adjustment and sexual enjoyment Socio-economic benefits. Less financial burden & better living standard Avoidance of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortion Prevention of STD

3. To the children

Lower perinatal and infant mortality and morbidity rates Better general health and intellectual capacity Enjoy a higher standard of living & education Less incidence of transmitted hereditary disease

Sexual inhibition & reduce pleasure Side effects & complications of the contraceptive used Lower fertility & postponed first pregnancy may encourage development of fibroids and endometriosis

Cheap & available Easy to use Without side-effects and complications 100% efficacy against pregnancy Non-offensive and unrelated to the act of coitus Reversible and does not delay the return of fertility Does not need continuous motivation

FACTOR INVOLVE IN EFFICACY : -Type of method -Regularity of usage -Proper use

1. Theoretical effectiveness 2.Use effectiveness

1. Theoretical Effectiveness
The degree of protection offered by the method when regularly and properly used i.e. maximal effectiveness of a method

2. Use Effectiveness
The degree of protection during the use of a method over a period of time even if used incorrectly or regularly i.e. efficacy in real life as used in practice

Pearl method = Pearl index -For calculating contraceptive efficacy -Expresses the pregnancy rate per 100 women among users of a method for a year