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# Impedance Parameters

An impedance is the complex ratio between a voltage and a current. The analyzer provides two independent sets of impedance parameters, essentially based on different n-port circuit models:
Matched-circuit Open-circuit

## impedances, converted from reflection S-parameters

Z-parameters

Converted Impedances
The converted, matched-circuit impedances describe the impedances of a DUT that is terminated at its outputs with the reference impedance Z0i displayed in the Port Configuration dialog. i numbers the analyzer/DUT port.

The analyzer converts the measured S-parameters to determine the matchedcircuit impedances.

## Relation with S-parameters Examples:

Z11 is the input impedance of a 2-port DUT that is terminated at its output with the reference impedance Z0 (matched -circuit impedance measured in a forward reflection measurement). The extension of the impedances to more ports and mixed mode measurements is analogous to S-parameters. Zdd44 is the differential mode input impedance at port 4 of a DUT that is terminated at its other ports with the reference impedance Z0. See More Impedances for detailed information.

You can also read the converted impedances in a reflection coefficient measurement from the Smith chart.

Z-Parameters
The Z-parameters describe the impedances of a DUT with open output ports (I = 0). The analyzer provides the full set of open-circuit impedances including the transfer impedances (i.e. the complete nxn Z-matrix for an n port DUT).

This means that Z-parameters can be used as an alternative to S-parameters (or Y-parameters) in order to completely characterize a linear n-port network.

## 2-Port Open-Circuit Z-Parameters

In analogy to S-parameters, Z-parameters are expressed as Z<out>< in>, where <out> and <in> denote the output and input port numbers of the DUT. The open-circuit Z-parameters for a two-port are based on a circuit model that can be expressed with two linear equations:

Meaning of Z-parameters Z-parameters can be easily extended to describe circuits with more than two ports or several modes of propagation; see section More Z-Parameters.