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Lut thng mi quc t Trng i hc Ngn hng TP.

HCM

Tiu lun

PHN TCH HP NG THNG MI

GVHD: ThS. Phm c Huy Nhm Lm Phng Anh Trn Minh Bo Nguyn Th Thy Dng Nguyn Th Thanh H Siu Th Thu Hin u Th Qunh Phng Nguyn Anh Tho Nguyn Ngc Anh Th Th Mai Tnh Phan Th Nh

TP. HCM, thng 3/2011


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MC LC
Hp ng ..................................................................................................3 A. Phn cng cng vic ..........................................................................12 B. Phn tch hp ng ............................................................................13 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. iu I .......................................................................................13 iu II .....................................................................................15 iu III ....................................................................................16 iu VI ....................................................................................19 iu VIII .................................................................................26 iu IX ....................................................................................27 iu X .....................................................................................29 iu XII...................................................................................32 iu XIV .................................................................................34

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SALES CONTRACT
Date: December 17, 2010 BETWEEN: The Seller: TAN VIET MARTIAL ARTS UNIFORM & EQUIPMENT CO.,LTD. 18/58 Phan Van Hon St. Xuan Thoi Thuong Ward, Hoc Mon District - HCM City - VN Tel: 08 54 044 066 Fax: 08 386 8 3079 Represented by: Mr. LAM VI DUONG CEO AND: The Buyer: DOUBLE DRAGON INTERNATIONAL TRADING INC. 1717 S.Grand Ave. Santa Ana, CA 92705 Tel: (714) 259-1400 Fax: (714) 259-1600 Represented by: Mr. RANDY HOOD - CEO This Sales Contract supersedes and voids the Sales Contract signed on September 20, 2010. Any modification of this Sales Contract will be effective only if it is in writing, signed and agreed by both parties. Both Parties agreed to the following terms and conditions:

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Lut thng mi quc t It has been mutually agreed by both parties to sign this con tract under the following terms and conditions:

I. COMMONDITY - QUANTITY - UNIT PRICE - AMOUNT


QUANTITY (set) 83% polyester/ 17% cotton 20,000

COMMODITY

UNIT PRICE/ Set (FOB) $6.800 TOTAL

AMOUNT(USD)

Karate Uniforms

$136,000.00 $136,000.00

(In word: One hundred thirty four thousand and three hundred forty US dollars) 2% more or less in quantity and amount is accepted. Unit price: FOB, HCMC, INCOTERMS 2000

II. QUALITY & TECHNICAL CONDITION


The Trademark, YOUNG CHAMPIONS of AMERICAN , words and logo as used on the product and label and the Trademark, Double Dragon , words and logo are owed by Young Champions Recreation Programs, Inc, and must be solely used on the products of this contract. The finished garment must conform to counter samples and final production samples which are approved and confirm by the Buyer.

III. PACKING
The Product must be packed in 05 layer cartons with one PE bag for each uniform. Please see packing instructions attached.
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IV. SHIPMENT AND DELIVERY


Port of loading: HCM City, VN. Port of discharge: Long Beach, CA USA Transport: by sea vessel, to be designated by the Buyer Manufacturing completion date: March 31, 2011. Delivery date: as scheduled and agreed to by both parties, and accept partial shipments.

V. PAYMENT
Pre-payment of 40% T/T with placement of the order and payment of remaining 60% through the Letter of Credit as set up with the bank. Beneficiary: TAN VIET MARTIAL ARTS UNIFORM & EQUIPMENT.,LTD. 18/58 Phan Van Hon St. Xuan Thoi Thuong Ward, Hoc Mon District - HCM City - VN Account no in USD: 6368819 Swift code: ASCBVNVX

VI. SHIPPING DOCUMENTS REQUIRED


Full set of Bill of loading (B/L) Packing list Signed Commercial Invoice Single Country Declaration issued by the Seller Certificate of Origin (form B) issued by VCCI 03 originals 03 originals 03 originals 01 original, 01 copy 01 original, 02 copies
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VII. INSPECTION/ CLAIMS


The Seller will inspect the goods during production and before shipment. The Seller is responsible to work with the Buyer to solve any problems arising to avoid interruption of production and the shipping schedule.

VIII. BANK CHARGES


Bank charges arising in VN will be covered by the Seller. Bank charges and other fees arising outside VN will be covered by the Buyer.

IX. LIABILITY FOR BREACH OF CONTRACT


1. If the model, specification, and technical parameter of the goods consigned by Party A are not in accordance with the contract, Party B shall contact with Party A promptly according to the actual situation. Party A shall make confirmation and solution within 05 days. If there are any goods with quality problems confirmed by Party A, Party B shall be entitled to exchange at the next delivery taking. If both parties hereof confirm in writing on product returning, Party A shall refund to Party B the amount of money for the returned products. 2. In case of Party A's overdue delivery or Party B's overdue payment, the defaulting party shall pay the other party the penalty of 20% of the overdue product value or payment for each delayed day. 3. Any party breaching the Agreement shall take liabilities for breach of contract and compensate for the economic loss to the other party incurred by the violation. The compensation amount shall be equal to the loss caused by the breach, including the benefits that may be acquired after fulfillment the
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Lut thng mi quc t Agreement, but shall not exceed the possible loss that should be foreseen at establishment of contract by the defaulting party. 4. If the both parties hereof decide to terminate the Agreement after friendly consultation, the Seller shall within 05 working days refund the amount of advance payment 40% (USD 53,736.00), in case of failing to do that, 20% of the amount for each delayed day shall be paid as a penalty. 5. If Party B violate the Contract or fail to implement this Contract, Party A may withhold all the advance payment by Party B, and Party B shall compensate for the economic losses to Party A incurred by its no fulfillment of this Contract. 6. If Party A is of any of the following breaching activities, it shall pay a penalty to Party B according to the following provisions: For breach of the Contract or failing to supply with products, Party A must refund all the advance payment (free of interest) by Party B within 05 working days, and also bear the economic losses to Party B incurred by its failing to supply with products as required. In case that Party A fails to refund the advance payment in time, it shall pay Party B a penalty of 10% of the advance payment for each delayed day. 7. If the Seller does not perform the delivery within 05 days after payment, the party is regarded as breaking the contract and need to pay 5 times as the advance amount 5 times as compensation to the other party. The nonbreaching party is entitled to decide whether to continue the contract or not.

X. DISPUTE/ SETTLEMENT
All disputes arising out of the or covered by the execution of this contract will be settled by the Foreign Trade Arbitration Committee and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of VN whose judment will be final and binding on both parties.

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XI. CONFIDENTIALITY
All terms and conditions of this Contract as well as any supplement agreement shall be deemed as confidential information by both Parties and their employees, agents, representatives and consultants; Any party shall not disclose to any third party without the consent of the other party.

XII. FORCE MAJEURE


If any of the two parties fails to perform its obligations under this Contract due to any Force Majeure event, it shall inform the other party by written notice within 15 days since occurrence of the event, and shall submit the written certification issued by relevant authority within 15 days after ending of the event, in which way the Party may be exempted from the liabilities in terms of impact of the Force Majeure event. If the Force Majeure event occurs after the delayed implementation, the defaulting party shall not be exempted from the liabilities.

XIII. ANTI- FRAUD


If any party is found violating the principle of good faith and defrauding the other party by providing false registration materials, qualification certificate and information or covering up the truth, the defaulting party shall bear a penalty no more than USD100,000. This term does not affect the validity that the defaulting party shall take liabilities for breach of contract as stipulated in other provisions.

XIV. OTHER MATTERS:


1. Notice: Both parties have acknowledged that addresses and fax numbers set forth in the first page of this Contract are deemed as the addresses and fax numbers for both parties to contact each other, send written notices and letters. All notices and letters which are sent by one party to the other by the listed addresses and fax numbers for the purpose of implementation of this Contract shall be deemed as successful transmission.
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If either Party at any time changes its address and fax number, it shall promptly inform the other party with a written notice. In case of failing or delaying doing so, the former address and fax number shall be regarded as those for contact and communication. 2. If any consensus is reached after consultation, both Parties can enter into supplemental provisions.

XV. EFFECTIVENESS AND OTHERS:


1. This Contract becomes effective immediately after signing and stamping of both parties. The printed content of Contract, without modification, alteration, supplement or deletion, shall be taken as final. Any modification, alteration, supplement or deletion shall be deemed non-effective and the original content shall be taken as final. 2. This Contract is prepared in duplicate, each party holding one with the same legal effect. This contract is written in Chinese and English versions, in case of any ambiguities, it shall be subjected to the Chinese version.

THE BUYER

THE SELLER

Mr, Randy Hood, CEO Double Dragon International Trade

Mr. LAM VI DUONG, CEO Tan Viet Martial Arts Uniforms & Equipment

DATE

DATE
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TAN VIET MARTIAL ARTS UNIFORM AND EQUIPMENT CO., LTD


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18/58 Road 14, Xuan Thoi Thuong Ward, Hoc Mon District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Tel: 84 8 54044066 Fax: 84 8 38683079 www.tanvietco.com

EXPORT QUOTATION WORKSHEET


(PRICE FOB HO CHI MINH CITY PORT) Kindly to:Valid customers Address: Phone No. Validity: 15 days from the day of quotation Payment Term: T/T in Advance or L/C at sight Minimum order: 30 pcs for size each and 500 pcs for a shipment * The price list bellow is under the conditions as follow: 1 2 3 4 5 Exchange rate: The price was not included VAT. The price is under FOB condition. Please contact us for any other ways of transportation. The price does not included fees of Transportation to port and Documents. With special orders (e.g: special embroidery, special belts, equipment included or any other requirements), please add the cost of those products (please contact for more detail). (The detail cost will be informed for each special order). Price may change without notice. Please update regularly to get the correct information. Discount policy are following this condition: Height in (cm) 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 Price (USD) FOB Ho Chi Minh Port 9.79 9.42 9.05 8.68 8.32 7.95 7.58 7.21 6.84 9.79 9.42 9.05 8.68 8.32 7.95 7.58 7.21 6.84

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No.

Item No.

Photo

Product Name

Unit

Size

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

V2T-89 V2T-88 V2T-87 V2T-86 V2T-85 V2T-84 V2T-83 V2T-82 V2T-81 V2D-09 V2D-08 V2D-07 V2D-06 V2D-05 V2D-04 V2D-03 V2D-02 V2D-01

KARATE/JUDO UNIFORM Brand name: TANVIET With Belt Plain Khaki fabric Material: 65% Poly, 35% Cotton The weight of fabric: 202gsm

set

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 00 000 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 00 000

Traditional Unifrom Brand name: TANVIET With Belt Material: 65% poly, 35% cotton Plain Khaki fabric

set

A. Phn cng cng vic:


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Thnh vin Lm Phng Anh Trn Minh Bo (nhm trng) iu 5, 8 iu 10 Clip Tng hp Nguyn Th Thy Dng iu 12, 14 Clip Nguyn Th Thanh H iu 9 Clip Siu Th Thu Hin u Th Qunh Phng iu 9 iu 6 Clip Dch hp ng Nguyn Anh Tho Nguyn Ngc Anh Th iu 5, 8 iu 10 Clip Tng hp Th Mai Tnh iu 1, 2 Clip + kch bn Tm hp ng Phan Th Nh iu 12, 14 Cng vic

B. Phn tch hp ng:


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Lut thng mi quc t I. iu I: Phng thc giao hng


1. FOB (Free On Board) - Giao hng ln tu: Giao hng ln tu ngha l ngi bn giao hng khi hng qua khi lan can tu ti cng bc hng quy nh. iu ny c ngha l ngi mua phi chu mi chi ph v ri ro v mt mt h hng hng k t thi im hng qua lan can tu. iu kin FOB i hi ngi bn phi hon thnh th tc thng quan xut khu. iu kin FOB ch p dng cho vn ti ng bin hoc ng thy ni a. Nu cc bn khng mun giao hng qua lan can tu th nn s dng iu kin FCA. Kt lun: Ngi bn thc hin thng quan xut khu v giao hng qua lan can tu do ngi mua ch nh. Ngi mua chu mi chi ph v ri ro k t khi hng c giao qua lan can tu do ngi mua ch nh. qua lan can tu

Kho hng ca ngi bn Ri ro, chi ph do ngi bn chu - Thng bo cho ngi mua khi hon tt vic giao hng - Tr ph bc hng - Thng quan xut khu Ri ro, chi ph do ngi mua chu - Ngi mua k hp ng vn ti v chu cc ph cho chng vn ti chnh. im giao hng

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Nh vy, trong hp ng ny: Cng ty Tn Vit phi: lm thng quan xut khu v giao hng qua lan can tu do cng ty bn kia ch nh. Cng ty Double Dragon phi chu mi chi ph v ri ro k t khi hng c giao qua lan can tu do chnh cng ty ch nh. Ngi bn phi giao hng ng vo ngy giao hng m hp ng qui nh theo khon a, iu 33, mc 1, chng 2 Cng c Vin 1980. 2. CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight) - Tin hng, bo him v cc (...cng n quy nh): Tin hng, bo him v cc c hiu l ngi bn giao hng khi hng ha qua lan can tu ti cng bc hng quy nh. Ngi bn phi tr cc ph tn v cc vn ti cn thit a hng ti cng n quy nh NHNG ri ro v mt mt v h hi i vi hng ha cng nh mi chi ph pht sinh thm do do cc tnh hung xy ra sau thi im giao hng c chuyn t ngi bn sang ngi mua. Do vy, ngi bn s k hp ng bo him. Ngi mua cn lu rng theo iu kin CIF ngi bn ch phi mua bo him vi phm vi ti thiu, ngi mua cn tha thun vi ngi bn hoc t mnh mua bo him thm. iu kin CIF i hi ngi bn phi thng quan xut khu cho hng ha. iu kin ny ch s dng cho vn ti ng bin v ng thy ni a. Nu cc bn khng c nh giao hng qua lan can tu th nn s dng iu kin CIP. Kt lun: Ngi bn giao hng qua lan can con tu do chnh mnh ch nh v chu cc ph v ph bo him cho chng vn ti chnh. Ngi mua chu mi ri ro k t khi hng qua khi lan can tu ti cng bc.

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qua lan can tu

Kho hng ca ngi bn Ngi bn thu tu, chu cc ph v bo him ti cng n quy nh Ri ro do ngi bn chu - Bc hng ln tu v thng quan xut khu - Vn n cn phi th hin freight prepaid - Cn thng bo cho ngi mua khi hon tt vic bc hng. - Mua bo him vi mc bo him ti thiu Nh vy, trong hp ng ny: Cng ty Tn Vit phi giao hng qua lan can con tu do chnh mnh ch nh v chu cc ph v ph bo him cho chng vn ti chnh. Cng ty Double Dragon ch chu mi ri ro k t khi hng qua khi lan can tu ti cng bc. Ri ro do ngi mua chu - Chi ph d hng (nu khng c quy nh trong cc ph) v thng quan nhp khu - Nhn hng t ngi chuyn ch ti cng quy nh. im giao hng

II. iu II: Cht lng hng ha


Trng lng: 200g/m2 - 6 OZ ( 1OZ = 28,35gr) N V TNH: B + AI V phc Karate hiu TN VIT: mu trng, c x trng, qun lng thun, ng thng c may bng vi kaki vi thnh phn vi 83% polyester v 17% cotton to cm gic thoi mi cho ngi s dng, ng ch may chc chn, thm m gp phn tng bn cho trang phc.

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ai c lm t vi soa, dy, bng rng 4cm, c thu tn mn v. Mu thu p, r nt, ng ch may chc chn, kch thc ch cn i.

Ngi bn giao hng ng s lng, phm cht v m t nh qui nh trong hp ng, v ng bao b hay ng gi nh hp ng yu cu theo khon 1, iu 35, mc 2, chng 2 Cng c Vin 1980.
III. iu V:

Phng thc thanh ton


1. Telegraphic Transfer - chuyn tin bng in Chuyn tin bng in (T/T): N nm trong hnh thc thanh ton By remittance - By transfer. Hnh thc chuyn tin bng in c hiu: Ngn hng ca ngi mua s in ra lnh cho ngn hng i l ca mnh nc ngoi thanh ton tin cho ngi bn. i vi T/T th c 2 phng thc l chuyn tin tr trc v chuyn tin tr ngay hoc tr sau. Chuyn tin tr trc gm cc bc sau: B1: Ngi mua n ngn hng ca ngi mua ra lnh chuyn tin tr cho nh xut khu.
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B2: Ngn hng ngi mua gi giy bo n n ngi mua. B3: Ngn hng bn mua chuyn tin cho ngn hng bn bn. B4: Ngn hng ngi bn gi giy bo c cho ngi bn. B5: Ngi bn giao hng v b chng t hng ha cho ngi mua. Chuyn tin tr sau gm cc bc sau: B1: Ngi bn giao hng v b chng t hng ha cho ngi mua. B2: Ngi mua ra lnh cho ngn hng ngi mua chuyn tin tr. B3: Ngn hng ngi mua gi giy bo n cho ngi mua. B4: Ngn hng bn mua chuyn tin tr cho ngn hng bn bn. B5: Ngn hng bn bn gi giy bo c cho bn bn. Hnh thc chuyn tin tr sau ny t p dng v bn bn lc no h cng mun nm ng cn tr khi i tc ca h l mt khch hng lu nm v c uy tn. 2. Letter of credit Th tn dng Th tn dng (L/C): L mt bc th do Ngn hng vit ra theo yu cu ca ngi nhp khu (ngi xin m tn dng th) cam kt tr tin cho nh xut khu (ngi hng li) mt s tin nht nh, trong mt thi gian nht nh vi iu kin ngi ny thc hin ng v y nhng iu khon quy nh trong l th . i vi L/C c hai phng thc thanh ton: k qu 100% tr gi L/C (tr gi l hng nhp) v k qu nh hn 100% tr gi L/C. Quy trnh thanh ton k qu 100% tr gi L/C: B1: Ngi mua n ngn hng xin m L/C v np tin k qy 100% tr gi L/C ---> m TK tn dng th ti ngn hng. B2: Ngn hng m L/C chuyn L/C n cho ngn hng ngi bn. B3: Ngn hng ngi bn chuyn L/C n cho ngi bn. B4: Ngi bn chuyn giao hng ha cho ngi mua. B5: Ngi bn chuyn B chng t hng ha cho ngn hng ngi bn. B6: Ngn hng ngi bn chuyn giao b chng t hng ha n ngn hng ngi mua. B7: Ngn hng ngi mua kim tra b chng t v nu B chng t hng ha hp l th Ngn hng ngi mua tr tin cho ngn hng ngi bn. B8: Ngn hng ngi bn gi giy bo c cho ngi bn. B9: Ngn hng ngi mua gi giy bo n v B chng t hng ha cho ngi mua. Trng hp k qu nh hn 100% tr gi ca L/C: B1: Ngi mua xin m L/C, np tin k qu < 100% tr gi L/C ---> m ti khon tn dng th ti ngn hng. B2: Ngn hng m L/C chuyn L/C n cho Ngn hng ngi bn.
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B3: Ngn hng ngi bn chuyn L/C n ngi bn. B4: Ngi bn chuyn giao hng ha cho ngi mua. B5: Ngi bn chuyn B chng t hng ha cho ngn hng ngi bn. B6: Ngn hng ngi bn chuyn giao b chng t hng ha n ngn hng ngi mua. B7: Ngn hng ngi mua kim tra b chng t v nu B chng t hng ha hp l th Ngn hng ngi mua tr tin 100% tr gi L/C cho ngn hng ngi bn. B8: Ngn hng ngi bn gi giy bo c cho ngi bn. B9: Ngn hng m L/C thng bo i tin ngi mua v s tin k qu cha + bn sao B chng t hng ha ngi mua kim tra. B10: Trng hp kim tra B chng t hng ha nu thy n hp l ngi mua s thanh ton nt s tin cn li cho ngn hng hoc lm th tc vay ngn hng s tin hoc thc hin nghip v chp nhn tr tin theo B chng t nu thi hn thanh ton l tr chm. C 2 trng hp k qu ny khi kim tra B chng t hng ha thy bt hp l th ngi mua c quyn t chi thanh ton v ly li s tin k qu nh vy Ngn hng s hon ton chu trch nhim v l hng ny. Mt s loi th tn dng thng dng: Irrevocable L/C, Confirmed L/C, Reciprocal L/C, Back to back L/C, Transferable L/C, Revolving L/C, Cummulative Revolving L/C, Nocummylative Revolving L/C, Red clause L/C, Stand by L/C, Without recourse L/C. Nhng im cn lu khi la chn hnh thc thanh ton bng L/C i vi Ngi mua/ Ngi nhp khu: Trc khi m L/C, ngi mua cn tha thun c th vi ngi bn v cc khon thanh ton, lch giao hng, phng tin giao hng, v cc chng t cn xut trnh. Ngi mua phi nhn thc rng L/C khng phi l hnh thc thanh ton an ton tuyt i v ngn hng ch giao dch trn chng t ch khng bit n hng ha. Nu chng t ph hp vi cc iu kin, iu khon ca L/C th ngi mua phi tr tin mc d hng ha giao khng ng vi hp ng. m bo chc chn l L/C ph hp vi hp ng. Cc iu kin ca L/C phi m bo ngn gn, d hiu, khng nn a vo L/C cc ni dung qu chi tit v cc quy cch k thut qu phc tp. Trong qu trnh giao dch nu c nghi ng, ngi mua nn lin h ngay vi ngn hng phi hp x l. Ngi mua cm xem xt trnh ri ro do bin ng t gi ngoi t.

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Nhng im cn lu khi la chn hnh thc thanh ton bng L/C i vi Ngi bn/ Ngi xut khu: Trc khi k hp ng ngi bn cn nm c nng lc v tnh hnh kinh doanh ca ngi mua. Ngi hng cn thit phi hiu bit v uy tn ca ngn hng m L/C. Ngi bn cn xem xt mt cch k lng m bo chc chn rng cc iu kin ca L/C hon ton c th thc hin c, yu cu ngi m sa i nu thy rng L/C s c nhng iu kin kh c th thc hin c. Lp cc chng t c quy nh trong L/C mt cch chnh xc. Cn quan tm n nhng hn ch ngoi hi ca nc ngi mua v iu c th nh hng n vic thanh ton tin hng. Ngi mua phi thanh ton tin hng ng theo qui nh trong hp ng theo iu 54, mc 1, chng 3 Cng c Vin 1980.

IV. iu VI: B chng t gi hng yu cu


1. Vn ti n (Bill of Landing) 1.1. Khi nim Vn ti n l chng t th hin vic chuyn ch hng ha gia ngi chuyn ch v ngi gi hng. L chng t chng minh ngi gi hng s hu hng ha c chuyn ch. Dng thanh ton tin qua ngn hng (nu l vn n gc k hu). 1.2. Ni dung th hin trn vn n 1.2.1. Mt trc: Tn ngi chuyn ch: ngi pht hnh vn n Bill of Lading No. (S vn n): phi th hin tht chnh xc, s vn n l do mi ngi chuyn ch t t, bt buc phi c s, c th c thm ch hoc khng, khng cha cc k hiu c bit nh @, $, #, &,*, VD: 5020300 HCM/5020300 Shipper (Tn, a ch ngi gi hng): l tn ngi bn trong hp ng ngoi thng (Sales Contract), Commercial Invoice, Packing List (P/L),. Yu cu th hin phi tht chnh xc v khp vi cc chng t trn. Consignee (Tn, a ch ngi nhn hng): l tn ngi mua trong hp ng ngoi thng (Sales Contract), Commercial Invoice, Packing List (P/L), Yu cu th hin phi tht chnh xc v khp vi cc chng t trn.
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Notify Party (Tn, a ch ngi c thng bo): l tn ngi mua hoc i l, ngi khai thu hi quan (customs broker) ca ngi mua. Place of Receipt (Ni nhn hng): VD: HO CHI MINH CITY BIEN HOA CITY Port of Loading (Cng i): HO CHI MINH CITY, VIETNAM Vessel & Voyage (Tn tu v s chuyn): s chuyn thay i theo tng lt i VD: ACX CHERRY V. 072S Port of Discharge (Cng n): HAMBURG, GERMANY Place of Delivery (Ni giao hng): VD: HAMBURG, GERMANY PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC (hng cp cng HAMBURG v ko bng xe ko container ti PRAGUE) For Cargo Release, Please Contact (Tn, a ch, s in thoi ca i l ngi chuyn ch): nhm mc ch cho ngi nhn hng lin lc ly Lnh giao hng (Delivery Order). Container No/Seal No (S container v s ch): mi container s c mt s hiu ring bao gm 11 ch v s th hin cng ty s hu container , s container l c nh khng thay i, ch s cui cng l php tnh ton t c t 6 ch s trc (vd: TCLU4018114), s ch kp bn ca cont nhm bo v v chng thc hng c hi quan nc xut ng cho thng quan, ng thi nhm trnh mt cp trong qu trnh vn chuyn. S ch thay i theo tng l hng, s ch c th c c s v ch hoc ch c s (vd: SG6003648 hoc 6003648). No. of containers or packages (S kin, s chic ng trong cont): chnh xc nh th hin trong Packing List VD: 1800 ROLLS, 390 PACKAGES, 2000 CARTONS Description of package and goods (M t hng ha): th hin tn hng chnh xc nh trong hp ng, Commercial Invoice, Packing List Gross Weight (Tng trng lng c b) Measurement (Tng khi lng) S lng v Loi container: bao nhiu container, cont loi no (20DC, 40DC, 40HC, 45). C nhiu loi cont nhng bn loi trn l ch yu, DC (Dry Container) l cont thng, HC (High Cube) l cont cao. Service Type (Loi hnh ng hng):
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FCL/FCL: ng hng nguyn cont/giao hng nguyn cont FCL/LCL: ng hng nguyn cont/giao hng l LCL/FCL: ng hng l/giao hng nguyn cont LCL/LCL: ng hng l/giao hng l CY/CY: ng hng ti bi/giao hng ti bi (trng hp l FCL/FCL, FCL/LCL, LCL/FCL) CFS/CFS: ng hng ti kho ngi gom hng/giao hng ti kho ngi gom hng (trng hp l LCL/LCL) Freight Collect (cc tr sau): Th hin trn vn n l Freight Collect (cc tr sau) v Freight Prepaid (Cc tr trc) lm r ai s l ngi tr tin cc bin cho l hng ny. Nu l cc tr trc th tin cc do ngi gi hng tr. Nu l cc tr sau th tin cc do ngi nhn hng tr. Freight and Charges (Cc v Cc ph khc): th hin phn tin cc bin v cc ph khc (ph xng du, ph pht hnh vn n, ph giao nhn, v.v) m ngi chuyn ch s thu ngi gi v ngi nhn. Nu l cc tr trc s th hin s tin ct Prepaid, ngc li nu l tr sau s th hin s tin ct Collect. a s vn n khi th hin 1 trong 2 ct ny s l AS AGREED hoc AS ARRANGED ch khng th hin r s tin l bao nhiu. Place and date of issue (a im v ngy pht hnh vn n): ni ngi chuyn ch pht hnh, ngy pht hnh bng vi ngy tu chy K v ng du: ngi chuyn ch k v ng du (p dng vi vn n gc ch danh v vn n k hu) 1.2.2. Mt sau (nu dng vn n gc)

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Bao gm cc iu khon, iu kin s dng vn n, phng thc chuyn ch, quyn v ngha v ca ngi gi hng v ngi chuyn ch. Cc ni dung ny c in sn sau mi t, ngi thu dch v mc nhin phi chp thun. 1.3. Cc loi vn n: Vn n gc (original, endorsed original): Ngi chuyn ch s pht hnh 1 b vn n gc gm 03 t original, 03 t copy not-negotiable.

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Vn n ch danh (original): Tn ngi nhn s th hin y v chi tit Vn n k hu (endorsed original): Tn ngi nhn l TO ORDER, hoc TO ORDER OF (Tn ngn hng). Khi i l ngi chuyn ch s cn c theo ni dung k hu mt sau ca vn n gc (ngi gi hng k hu nu l TO ORDER, ngn hng th hng k hu nu l TO ORDER OF (Tn ngn hng) lm lnh giao hng theo ni dung (ngi gi hng/ngn hng k hu ngh giao hng cho ai). Thanh ton theo L/C s dng vn n c k hu ca ngn hng. Vn n gc phi c chuyn ti cho ngi nhn hng trc khi hng ti ngi nhn hng tin hnh cc th tc thanh ton v xut trnh cho i l ngi chuyn ch ly D/O v xung bi/kho CFS nhn hng. Vn n surrender: ngi chuyn ch pht hnh vn n gc cho ngi gi hng ngi gi hng lm cc th tc cn thit xut hng i, sau ngi gi hng em np li b gc cho ngi chuyn ch ngi chuyn ch pht hnh vn n surrender. Khi ngi nhn hng khng cn vn n original ly hng m ch cn dng vn n surrender (gi qua fax hoc email) l c th ly D/O t i l ngi chuyn ch ly hng. Vn n telex release/express: ngay t u ngi chuyn ch khng pht hnh vn n gc. Ngi chuyn ch gi in (telex) thng bo cho i l giao D/O cho ngi nhn hng theo yu cu ca ngi gi hng. 2. Phiu ng gi (Packing List)
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Th hin tn ngi mua, ngi bn, tn hng, s lng, trng lng, khi lng, tn tu, s chuyn, s cont/ch. Phiu ng gi c xut trnh cho hi quan cng n i chiu, so snh vi hp ng ngoi thng, Ha n thng mi, Vn n. Ngi bn s pht hnh 1 b gm 03 original, 03 copy gi cho ngi mua trc khi hng ti. 3. Ha n thng mi (Commercial Invoice)

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Th hin tn ngi mua, ngi bn, tn hng, s lng, n gi, tng tin, iu kin giao hng (FOB/CIF/CFR). Ngi mua xut trnh cho hi quan khi lm th tc khai bo. Hi quan s da vo tnh thu nhp khu cho l hng . Ngi bn s pht hnh 1 b gm 03 original, 03 copy gi cho ngi mua trc khi hng ti. 4. T khai xut x n/T khai xut x kp (Single Country Declaration/ Multiple Countries Declaration) Cc sn phm dt may khi xut sang th trng M, Hi quan M yu cu phi c chng t ny. T khai xut x n c dng khi nhp khu hng dt may c ngun gc xut x t mt quc gia hoc ch c gia cng ti mt quc gia bng cc nguyn liu sn xut ti Hoa K hoc t quc gia khc m n c sn xut.

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T khai xut x kp s dng khi nhp khu hng dt may m c sn xut hay gia cng v/hoc c cha cc nguyn liu t nhiu nc khc. T khai ny do chnh ngi gi hng pht hnh trong c tn ngi gi hng, tn hng, tn nc xut x, ngy xut hng, s L/C (nu c).

5. Giy chng nhn xut x hng ha (Certificate of origin)


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Do Phng Thng mi v Cng nghip ca nc xut hng cp chng nhn nguyn liu sn xut ra hng ha l ca nc . Ngi nhn hng trnh giy ny khi lm th tc nhn hng theo yu cu ca hi quan cng n chng minh xut x hng v c gim thu (nu c). VCCI = Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry): Phng Thng mi v Cng nghip Vit Nam)

V. iu VIII: Ph ngn hng


1. Bn mua: Ph in chuyn tin: pht sinh khi nh nhp khu p dng phng thc thanh ton bng in chuyn tin (telegrapic transfer). Ph m L/C: pht sinh khi nh nhp khu yu cu ngn hng cung cp dch v bo lnh thanh ton cho ngi th hng nc ngoi trn c s ngi th hng xut trnh b chng t ph hp vi cc iu kin, iu khon L/C do ngn hng pht hnh. Ph k hu vn n, bo lnh nhn hng theo L/C: pht sinh khi nh nhp khu s dng dch v ca ngn hng yu cu k hu vn n gc do ngi nhp khu nhn trc tip hoc pht hnh y quyn/Bo lnh nhn hng nhn hng theo L/C trc khi nhn chng t qua ngn hng.
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Hy th tn dng: khi nh nhp khu hy th tn dng m. Ph gia hn thanh ton: c p dng i vi hnh thc thanh ton L/C tr chm. Ph bt hp l chng t hay chnh sa chng t: pht sinh khi c bt k s thay i trong phng thc thanh ton so vi lc m L/C hay sa i thng tin ca ngi th hng. 2. Bn bn: Ph nhn b chng t v thanh ton L/C: pht sinh khi nh xut khu xut trnh th tn dng c ngn hng ca bn mua pht hnh nh ngn hng thu h tin. Ph thng bo km xc nhn L/C: ph pht sinh khi ngn hng thng bo km theo xc nhn L/C hoc sa i L/C theo yu cu ca ngn hng nc ngoi. Ph chuyn nhng L/C: ph pht sinh khi nh xut khu mun nhng tng phn hoc ton b tr gi L/C (L/C phi c Ngn hng pht hnh ch r l th tn dng c th chuyn nhng-irrevocable transferable credit). Ph chit khu b chng t theo phng thc tn dng chng t: pht sinh khi nh xut khu yu cu ngn hng ng vn trc ti thi im nh xut khu xut trnh b chng t ph hp vi quy nh ca L/C.

VI. iu IX: 1. Trch nhim vi phm:


1.1. i vi bn mua: Trch nhim bn Mua Phi tr cho bn Bn 20% gi tr sn phm b chm hoc mi ngy b chm. B gi li khon tr trc v phi bi thng thit hi kinh t cho bn Bn.

Vi phm bn Mua 1.Thanh tan chm tr. 2.Vi phm hp ng. 1.2. i vi bn bn:

Theo nh hp ng k kt th bn Bn c nhng trch nhim khi vi phm hp ng nh sau: Vi phm bn Bn Trch nhim bn Bn

1. Nu cht lng, chi tit k thut hng Xc nhn v a ra gii php trong vng ha bn Bn gi khng ph hp vi 5 ngy. hp ng th bn Mua s lp tc
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thng bo cho bn Bn. 2. Giao hng chm tr Tr cho bn Mua s tin pht l 20% ca gi tr sn phm b chm hoc cho mi ngy tr chm. Chu trch nhim v vic vi phm. Bi thng thit hi kinh t cho bn Mua do vic vi phm gy ra. S tin bi thng bng vi thit hi v bao gm c tin li. 4. Nu 2 bn kin quyt hy hp ng. Hon tr li 100% tin m bn Mua tr trc (53,736.00USD) trong vng 5 ngy. Nu tr khng ng ngy th chu pht 20% s tin tr trc cho mi ngy tr chm. 5. Khng cung cp hng Hon tr li 100% tin m bn Mua chuyn (khng tnh li) trong vng 5 ngy. Chu cc khon thit hi kinh t pht sinh cho bn Mua. Nu tr khng ng ngy th chu pht 10% s tin phi tr cho mi ngy tr chm. 6. Khng giao hng nh tha thun khi bn Mua thanh ton y trong 5 ngy th c xem nh ph hp ng. Tng kt: Trong cc trng hp chm tr trong vic thc hin hp ng, bn vi phm s phi tr tin pht vi t l 20% gi tr sn phm hoc tnh theo s ngy chm tr. iu khan chung v vi phm hp ng u ni v vic bi thng thit hi kinh t. S tin bi thng ny gm c khan thit hi d tnh cng c tin li. i vi tng mc vi phm, li c thm cc qui nh v mc tin "pht". Bn mua s b pht s tin l khan ng trc ( tc 40% gia 1tr sn phm). Bn bn ty theo trng hp: nu bn mua mi ng 40% gi tr sn phm th mc pht l 100%,
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3. Vi phm hp ng

Tr gp 5 ln phn tin tr trc cho bn Mua. Bn Mua c quyn tip tc hp ng hay l khng.

Lut thng mi quc t


nu bn mua thnh tan 100% th mc pht l 200% ( 5 ln s tin ng trc 40%).

VII.Thit hi d kin:
i vi bn mua nu bn bn khng thc hin theo ng hp ng. Nu bn bn giao hng chm c th nh hng n mt phn no hot ng kinh doanh lin quan n mt hng trong hp ng. Giao hng khng ng cht liu theo tha thun trong hp ng Ri ro trong vic vn chuyn hng Nu bn mua a tin trc m bn bn khng giao hng Nhng iu khon bt kh khng lm bn bn khng thc hin c hp ng c vi bn mua cng gy ra thit hi cho bn mua i vi bn bn nu bn mua khng thc hin theo ng hp ng Nu bn bn khng ly hng, bn bn phi tn chi ph lu kho bo qun, cng nh chi ph thanh l hoc chnh sa li s hng. S vn dng sn xut s hng khng thu li c. Nu bn mua thanh ton tr, bn bn khng thu li c vn ti sn xut. C th b nh hng n k hoch sn xut. Nu bn bn vay tin sn xut s hng hoc mua tr sau nguyn vt liu u vo, bn bn khng thu li c tin tr n gc ln li.

VII. iu X: Trng ti
Khi son tho mt hp ng thng mi quc t bt k th iu khon gii quyt tranh chp v ha gii bao gi cng l mt phn khng th thiu. V vn cc bn quan tm l "Khi tranh chp xy xa, ti c c x cng bng v nhanh chng khng?" Theo th cc bn phi quyt nh xem: "ai s x v tranh chp ca chng ti?", v "tn bao nhiu thi gian c c kt qu?". C th trong bn hp ng ny cng c iu khon v tranh chp v ha gii, theo c hai bn thng nht rng: mi vn pht sinh bn trong hoc bn ngoi hp ng s c gii quyt bi Trung tm trng ti Quc t Vit Nam bn cnh Phng thng mi v Cng nghip Vit Nam. Ti sao khng gii quyt tranh chp ti Ta n m phi thng qua Trng ti?. Trong bi cnh Vit Nam ngy cng hi nhp su rng th s ra i ca
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trng ti thng mi l cn thit. V c ch gii quyt tranh chp bng Trng ti c nhiu u th hn. Trc ht,c ch ny m bo b mt kinh doanh v uy tn ngh nghip cho cc thng nhn c lin quan ti v tranh chp. C c u im ny l do nguyn tc xt x ca trng ti l xt x b mt, tc l khng ai c quyn tham d phin hp xt x nu khng c s ng ca cc bn. Trong khi , nguyn tc xt x ca to n l xt x cng khai. Th hai, c ch gii quyt bng trng ti thng mi c th tc n gin, m bo gii quyt nhanh chng cc tranh chp, tit kim thi gian ch. Trong khi cc ta n quc gia lun b qu ti cng vic; th hai, th tc gii quyt ti ta n thng qua nhiu cp khc nhau (s thm, phc thm, gim c thm, ti thm). Th ba, trng ti thng mi khng i din cho quyn lc Nh nc nn rt ph hp gii quyt cc tranh chp m cc bn c quc tch khc nhau. V vy, h thng thch chn trng ti, nht l trng ti ca nc th ba m bo tnh khch quan trong vic gii quyt tranh chp. Th t, xt x bng trng ti tn trng ti a ch t do tha thun ca cc bn. V d nh quyn c chn trng ti vin gii quyt v tranh chp, c chn a im gii quyt v tranh chp, thi gian gii quyt v tranh chp, lut p dng gii quyt tranh chp (i vi v tranh chp c yu t nc ngoi), ngn ng s dng trong t tng trng ti (i vi v tranh chp c yu t nc ngoi). Trong khi t tng ta n thng cng nhc v nghim ngt. Th nm, ta n quc gia khng phi bao gi cng chuyn v cc vn thng mi v thm phn cha hn c kin thc gii quyt tranh chp thng mi quc t. Thc t l mt thm phn c th c phn cng gii quyt tranh chp lin quan n nhiu lnh vc khc nhau, khng c s phn chia theo lnh vc chuyn mn c th. Cn cc trng ti c kin thc chuyn mn rt tt. Cui cng, mt u th na l cc phn quyt ca trng ti c cng nhn v cho thi hnh nc ngoi. Nu tranh chp lin quan n yu t nc ngoi, phn quyt ca trng ti c phm vi thi hnh trn 150 quc gia nhng ni tham gia cng c New York m Vit Nam cng l thnh vin. Cn nu a ra ta n th cn ph thuc vo vic Vit Nam c k hip nh tng tr t php vi nc m b n c tr s hoc ti sn hay khng. Hin Vit Nam mi ch k hip nh tng tr t php vi trn 10 quc gia, nhng cha k vi i tc thng mi ln no c. Cho nn vic a n kin Vit Nam ly phn quyt ca ta n Vit Nam m c cng nhn v thi hnh nc ngoi l rt kh.

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Trong phm vi bn hp ng ny th hai bn thng nht chn Trng ti Vit Nam gii quyt tranh chp v nhiu l do. Nh chi ph trng ti hin nay ti cc Trung tm trng ti Vit Nam cn tng i thp v khng qui nh r cc bn c th phi tr thm chi ph i li, lu tr ca trng ti vin nu mi trng ti vin t a phng khc hay t nc ngoi hay khng. Tr gi tranh chp T 20.000 tr xung T 20.001 n 50.000 T 50.001 n 100.000 T 100.001 n 500.000 T 500.001 n 1.000.000 T 1.000.001 n 2.000.000 T 2.000.001 n 5.000.000 T 5.000.001 n 10.000.000 T 10.000.001 n 30.000.000 Trn 30.000.000 2.000 2.000 + 3% s tin vt qu 20.000 2.900 + 2,5% s tin vt qu 50.000 4.150 + 2% s tin vt qu 100.000 12.150 + 1,75% s tin vt qu 500.000 20.900 + 1,50% s tin vt qu 1.000.000 35.900 + 1% s tin vt qu 2.000.000 65.900 + 0,50% s tin vt qu 5.000.000 90.900 + 0,20% s tin vt qu 10.000.000 130.900 + 0,05% s tin vt qu 30.000.000 Ph Trng ti

Biu ph trn bao gm cc khon th lao cho cc Trng ti vin, ph hnh chnh ca Trung tm Trng ti Quc t Vit Nam lin quan n vic gii quyt v tranh chp. Khi np n kin, n kin li, cc bn phi np ton b cc khon ph ny. Tuy nhin, thng thng, cc bn hay chn c quan gii quyt tranh chp l trng ti nc ngoi hn l Ta n Vit Nam hay trng ti Vit Nam. Mt trong s nhng l do thng c nhc n l do Php lnh Trng ti Vit Nam cha ginh c s tn nhim ca cc doanh nghip nc ngoi. Nguyn nhn ch yu ca vn trn l do mt s iu khon trong Php lnh vn cha c th. Nh ti khon 3 iu 49 c qui nh: "Trng ti vin do cc bn chn hoc do Ta n ch nh c th l Trng ti vin c tn trong danh sch hoc ngoi danh sch Trng ti vin ca cc Trung tm Trng ti ca Vit Nam hoc l Trng ti vin nc ngoi theo quy nh ca php lut v trng ti nc ". Tuy nhin, qui nh ti iu 49 khng ni r bn nc ngoi c quyn chn trng ti vin theo "php lut v trng ti nc "
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khng, nu hp ng qui nh s gii quyt tranh chp theo lut Vit Nam v php lut trng ti ca Vit Nam. V phn ln cc Trung tm Trng ti vin Vit Nam hin nay ch c ngi Vit Nam l thnh vin. y l iu s lm cho bn nc ngoi e ngi. H khng th chn ngi nc ngoi lm trng ti vin v khng c tn trng danh sch. Nu h phi chn mt trng ti vin l ngi Vit Nam, cc nghi vn tip theo s l: "ti c th tin trng ti vin khng? Trng ti vin c v t khng? Trng ti c kh nng gii quyt vn phc tp ca ti khng?". Nu h khng chc nhng vn , s rt kh thuyt phc cc bn chn mt Trung tm trng ti Vit Nam gii quyt tranh chp. Gn y, VIAC nhn ra vn ny v kt np c 6 trng ti nc ngai. Ngoi ra, vic mt s trung tm vn qui nh ting Vit l ngn ng ca trng ti (trong khi Php lnh cho php cc bn la chn) cng l mt l do ti sao cc bn nc ngoi ngi la chn gii quyt tranh chp bng Trng ti ti Vit Nam. Mt vn c cc bn quan tm l thi gian xt x, Php lnh khng c qui nh c th khi no th phi kt thc xt x v ra quyt nh. y l mt vn c nhiu doanh nghip quan tm v mt trong nhng l do h quyt nh gii quyt tranh chp bng trng ti l c thi gian xt x nhanh chng. i vi nhng vn k thut, hoc cc qui nh lin quan n php lut nc ngoi, i khi hi ng trng ti khng kin thc gii quyt. Khi , cc bn c th mi gim nh (iu 32 Php lnh Trng ti). Tuy nhin khc vi Qui tc UNCITRAL, Php lnh khng qui nh v vic i chng gia cc gim nh vin nu gim nh vin mi bn ni mi khc. Nguyn tc gii quyt tranh chp: Php lnh tuy qui nh cc trnh t t tng trng ti, song khng qui nh r trng ti vin s xem xt v vic da trn tiu ch no, cng khng nu bt c nguyn tc gii quyt tranh chp. Vic xc nh mt tiu chun gii quyt tranh chp trng ti v mt ni dung l rt cn thit m bo tnh cng bng cho cc bn. Mt vn khc na l tnh php l ca phn quyt t trng ti li c th b ta n bc b trong cc trng hp ta n cho rng trng ti xt x sai phm vi ca mnh, hoc vic la chn trung tm trng ti gia cc bn t lc lp hp ng khng hp l Nu Php lnh khng gii quyt c nhng vn ny - thng qua vic cho php chn trng ti vin nc ngoi mt cch n gin hay rt ngn thi gian gii quyt tranh chp bng cch qui nh r cc thi hn; th s rt kh cc bn c th chn gii quyt tranh chp ti Vit Nam.
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Ngun: Vietnam Investment Review http://www.viac.org.vn - Trung tm Trng ti Quc t Vit Nam

VIII. iu XII: Trng hp bt kh khng:


Bt kh khng hay iu kin bt kh khng l mt iu khon ph bin trong cc hp ng, v c bn gii phng mt hay cc bn ra khi cc trch nhim php l hay cc bn phn khi cc s kin hay tnh hung bt thng ngoi tm kim sot ca cc bn, nh chin tranh, nh cng, ni lon, ti phm, thin tai (nh l lt, ng t, phun tro ni la), ch ha v.v xy ra, v vic ngn cn mt hay cc bn ca hp ng trong vic hon thnh bn phn v ngha v ca mnh theo hp ng. Tuy nhin, bt kh khng khng nhm mc tiu bo cha cho cc s sut hay hnh vi phi php ca cc bn, chng hn nh vic khng thc hin ngha v l do cc hu qu thng thng v t nhin ca cc sc mnh bn ngoi (v d mt trn ma c d bo lm ngng mt s kin din ra ngoi tri), hay khi cc hon cnh can thip vo vic thc thi hp ng c d tnh mt cch r rng. Cc hp ng c gii hn v thi gian v cc hp ng nhy cm khc c th c tho ra hn ch s che ch ca iu khon ny khi mt hay cc bn khng thc hin cc bc hp l (hay cnh bo r rng) ngn chn hay hn ch cc tc ng ca s can thip t bn ngoi, k c khi n c th xy ra ln c khi n xy ra trn thc t. Cng cn lu rng bt kh khng c th c hiu lc b qua mt phn hay ton b cc bn phn ca mt hay cc bn. V d, mt cuc nh cng c th ngn cn vic giao hng ng hn, nhng n khng th ngn cn vic thanh ton ng hn cho cc hng ha giao. Tng t, vic mt in trn din rng c th khng l l do bt kh khng nu nh hp ng c iu khon v ngun in d phng hay cc k hoch ng ph vi cc s kin bt ng m bo cho s lin tc ca cng vic. Tm quan trng ca iu khon bt kh khng trong hp ng, c th l trong cc hp ng vi di thi gian no , khng th c din gii nh l s lm gim nh trch nhim ca mt bn theo hp ng (hay tm thi ngng cc bn phn ). Mt s kin hay hon cnh no m c th coi l bt kh khng th u c th l ngun ca nhiu tranh ci trong m phn hp ng v mt bn ni chung c th chng li bt k nh no ca bn kia trong vic thm vo mt iu g m n c th, v c bn, l ri ro ca bn . V d trong mt tha thun cung cp than, mt cng ty khai thc m c th yu cu "ri ro a cht" c thm vo nh l s kin bt kh khng, tuy nhin cng ty khai thc m ny nn v cn phi thc hin kho st, phn tch trn din rng cc d phng v mt a cht ti khu vc khai thc than v thm ch l khng nn m phn v hp ng cung cp than nu nh cng ty ny khng th nm r cc ri ro m chng c th l hn ch v mt a cht trong vic cung cp than ca h t lc ny sang lc khc. Kt qu ca cng vic m phn nh vy, tt nhin l ph thuc vo kh nng thng
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Lut thng mi quc t


lng tng i ca cc bn v v th c nhng trng hp khi iu khon bt kh khng c th c mt hay cc bn s dng mt cch c hiu qu nhm thot khi cc trch nhim php l i vi vic thi hnh khng tt cc ni dung ca hp ng. Trong lut quc t, bt kh khng c hiu nh l sc mnh khng th chng li c hay s kin khng th bit trc, ngoi tm kim sot ca quc gia v lm cho nh nc ny v mt vt cht l khng th hon thnh bn phn quc t ca mnh. Bt kh khng ngn nga mt hnh ng quc t khi b coi l bt hp php m nu khc i th n c th l nh vy. Di y l mt v d v iu khon bt kh khng c th c thy trong mt hp ng no . "Khng bn no phi chu trch nhim cho vic khng thc hin cc ngha v ca mnh trong hp ng khi nguyn nhn ca vic khng thc hin xut pht t kt qu ca thin tai (bao gm ha hon, l lt, ng t, bo t hay cc thm ha t nhin khc), ch ha, chin tranh, bom mn cn st li sau chin tranh, hnh ng ca k th nc ngoi, th nghch (c tuyn b chin tranh hay khng), ni chin, ni lon, cch mng, khi ngha, sc mnh qun s hay tim nghch hoc sung cng, cc hot ng khng b, quc hu ha, s trng pht ca chnh quyn, bao vy, cm vn, tranh chp lao ng, bi cng, gin on hoc hng hc ca h thng in [hoc dch v in thoi], v khng c bn no c quyn chm dt tha thun ny theo iu abc (chm dt hp ng) trong nhng hon cnh nh vy." "Bt k bn no a ra khng nh bt kh khng nh l l do bin minh s c trch nhim chng minh rng cc bin php hp l c thc hin (ty theo hon cnh) gim thiu s chm tr hay cc tn tht pht sinh ra t cc s kin c th d on trc, rng tt c cc bn phn khng th c min trch nhim c thc thi y , v bn kia c thng bo kp thi v s kin c th xy ra hay s kin xy ra trn thc t v chng l c th bin minh cho khng nh nh vy, sao cc cnh bo thn trng khc c th c coi l c ."

IX. iu XIV: Thng bo a ch


iu 79.4 ca Cng c ca Lin hip quc v hp ng mua bn hng ha quc t nm 1980 quy nh: Bn khng thc hin hp ng phi thng bo cho pha bn kia bit v tr ngi v nh hng ca n n kh nng thc hin hp ng. Nu pha bn kia khng nhn c thng bo v iu trong thi hn hp l sau khi bn khng thc hin hp ng bit hoc buc phi bit v tr ngi , th bn khng thc hin hp ng phi chu trch nhim v nhng thit hi gy ra cho pha bn kia do khng nhn c thng bo.
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