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Key Elements in Management & Delivery of Event Staging and Production Early planning and communication between the

key building and event personnel are crucial. Events providing technical riders should do so at their earliest opportunity. As a building manager you should, through experience, realize that when event personnel are reluctant to provide you with technical data in a timely manor, they are generally ill prepared or dont know the answers to your questions. A special effort should be made to get this information in the discussion stages as soon as possible. Early planning helps to avoid un-preparedness and surprises that have to be dealt with in a short period of time. As part of the planning function not only staging requirements such as size, loads, rigging requirements and configuration but full floor plans, seating charts, sound and light equipment locations and control panels should be part of the pre-planning exercise. A clear understanding up front should be arrived at as to the times the doors will open, plus the starting and ending time of events. It is critical that all technical assistance calls for personnel are clearly established as well as all other support people. Parking lot attendants, ushers, ticket takers, food service, box office personnel, police, security as well as operational staff and housekeeping schedules are all critical to the production of a successful event. The earlier these items are known and distributed to the various departments the more time you can allow to deal with unknown problems that always crop up in the presentation of an event. Last but not least, compliance with all safety regulations are critical to the successful staging of an event, including fire exits, levels of lighting required, emergency procedures, pyrotechnic licenses and other such measures. Procedures & Strategies Fundamental to Quality Food and Beverage Service Delivery of quality food and beverage service is always one of the most important elements of any event. Planning, product quality, presentation, timeliness, temperature and attitude are keys of excellent food service. Planning begins with the proper equipment and trained personnel. Quality standards for food purchasing, menu selection, storage, preparation and presentation should be established before a facility opens and committed to writing. These standards can be simple but clearly articulated to the staff over and over. Selling the proper menus and the delivery system of serving foods at the correct temperatures are essential to success. Proper advance planning for food preparation and the number of kitchen serving and stewarding staff are essential. Constant training of all personnel and expectations reiterated assist in a high level of service. Training should include proper etiquette, grooming, uniforms, acceptable and unacceptable adornments and delivering service with a smile. In addition to main dining areas, breaks concessions and kiosk should be creative, have flexible menus, and attractively presented. The menu variance should be properly suited to the group for which they are designed to serve, both in menu selection and price.

The Role of Upper Management in Insuring Customers Receive Excellent Service The key role for upper management in delivering excellent service is to realize that when you treat people well they have a tendency to treat others well. The better a manager makes the work environment for employees, the better the employees will deliver excellent customer service. If they work for an organization they enjoy, they have a vested interest, pride and positive attitude in their workplace and in their delivery of service. Obviously developing a Goals and Objectives program for the organization is critical. One such goal should obviously be providing Excellent Customer Service. Goals and objectives should be established with the input of all department heads and business partners. In many cases a review of these should take place with the supervisors and representative line employees. A mission statement should be developed that is simple and to the point. Standards should be developed at all levels of management. A Business Plan, Marketing Plan and Sales Plan should be developed along with an Operational Manual describing procedures for all departments. Once this is done meetings should be held with all departments and business partners (outside contractors such as food service, telephone, audiovisual etc. as a beginning to a full training program for all employees. A clear-cut Level of Expectations statement should be developed and discussed with all employees. New employees should go through an orientation program spending time training and learning these materials and spending time in each department to gain a better understanding of how all the departments fit into the whole picture. This process should also include as many part-time employees as possible. These guidelines, standards and expectations should be constantly taught and practiced. A standard of attitude, services and acceptable practices should be included in the overall plans. Authority should be delegated and empowerment must be relied upon. Each employee should understand that when a client comes to him or her with a problem, that problem is theirs to solve and follow through as necessary to get it resolved. Employees should be taught that a question from a client or attendee should be handled with the employee walking with the customer to put them in contact with the person who can solve it for them, and not just tell them where someones office is located. An environment that allows empowered employees the ability and the authority to make binding decisions is essential. Later a better solution can be discussed prior to the problem arising again. Employees should be taught that constructive criticism is designed to get to the right way of solving a problem. Additionally employees should be taught that there is more than one right way to solve a particular task. Employees should be told that a task however performed reflects on the organization and them as an employee. As mentioned earlier managers should practice Management By Walking Around and be Good Finders instead of just problem finders. Employees should be constantly reminded that they are a team and each plays an important role in producing successful events. Constant and frequent monitoring should be practiced to assure delivery of error free events. Constant and frequent Thank You to the staff will assure excellent customer service.

A good measurement of a successful event would be that a patron should find parking easy. He should be well directed to his event without having to search. Food and beverage should be on time, presented well, attractive and flavorful. A patron should not have to stand in long lines before service is rendered. The event should start on time, be well-orchestrated and free of technical errors. The patron should leave the event satisfied that he got value for his dollar. At the conclusion of the event they should find their car easily and traffic flow adequate for easy exiting. All this should be supplemented at every level with courtesy, grace, a smile, a good attitude and an informed and helpful staff.

Planning, Building or Expanding Public Assembly Facilities, Where to Begin?

Phase I - Market Overview Preliminary Market Reconnaissance Collaborative Workshop Summary Report Proposal Phase II Facility Analysis Procedural Processes Site Requirements and Alternatives Facility Size and Components Competitive Analysis Market Demand Analysis Financing Options Community Consensus Development Directional Responsibilities Assignments Report Phase III Preliminary Project Development Site Selection Facility Programming Architect Selection Project Cost Estimate Critical Path Preliminary Schedule Contractor Selection Phase IV Project Endorsement Finalize Project Cost Finalize Project Schedule Finalize Financing Operating and Return on Investment Pro forma

Development Contract Management Contract Phase V Facility Management Pre-Opening and Management Services Licensing Agreements Operating Polices and Procedures Food Service Planning and Agreements Personnel Hiring and Training Strategic Marketing, Branding and Sales Plan Advertising and Public Relations Program Development Telecommunications Specifications and Purchasing Electronic Systems Installation and Programming Develop FF&E Specifications, Budget and Purchasing Procedures Booking Policies and Procedures Grand Opening Services PhaseVI Project Development Comprehensive Workplan Development Project Design Overview Project Scheduling Overview Project Communication Procedure Implementation Project Success Requirements Implementation Quality Management Plan Development and Enforcement Change Management Plan Development and Enforcement Closure Plan Certificate of Occupancy and transfer of Warranties This gargantuan task requires an alliance of highly-skilled professionals assisting communities to transform their vision for public assembly facilities into reality.
Transform Your Location Into a Destination

The key to the future for all communities is to approach new facilities and enhance older ones by creating more than just another location to vacation or meet. It is to broaden the thinking to creating a destination both locally and from out of town, while improving the quality of life. To sell a destination you have to actually have a product that creates an experience. Community pride is a wonderful thing but it sometimes gets in the way of building a destination and enhancing a communitys ability to compete. You can imagine that you have a destination and lots of things local people are proud of but when you have to compete with Orlando, Las Vegas or New York, where will people choose to go? Destination Marketing is as important as building a destination. Once you have built a destination it is vital that you choose the right Branding mechanism. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines a brand as a "name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination

of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of other sellers. Therefore it makes sense to understand that branding is not about getting your target market to choose you over the competition, but it is about getting your prospects to see you as the only one that provides a solution to their problem. The objectives that a good brand will achieve include: Deliver the message clearly Confirms your credibility Connects your target prospects emotionally Motivates the buyer Concrete User Loyalty To succeed in branding you must understand the needs and wants of your customers and prospects. A brand is the most valuable real-estate in the world, a corner of the consumers mind.

BACK STAGE MANAGEMENT


Definition of Stage Manager Sample Production Schedules Sample Contract Sheets Production meeting Notes Rehearsal Schedules Scene Breakdowns Rehearsal Report Form Sample Cue Sheet Tracking Sheet and Prop List Technical Rehearsal Schedules Cue Lights Actors Work Rules Performance Report Forms Production Schedules for Touring/Closing the show Spreadsheet of a Production Schedule Site Survey for the event Scheduling & Running events in Hotel Situations Discussion Agenda for Planning and Producing a Performance in a NonPerformance Space Along with Load-in and Trucking Schedule

SITE PLANNING
By virtue of its name, comprehensive land use planning suggests a broad approach to the process of new development or expansion of existing development within the environment on the basis

of a range of considerations including economic, social and physical factors among others. It certainly implies planning within a larger context beyond the individual site. In practice however, this may often not be the case. Steiner criticizes Lynchs site planning model (See ensuing section for an explanation of this model), stating that design is not part of the broader planning concerns, except in its response to government restrictions, nor is the site linked to its larger context (Steiner 208). Simonds acknowledges that in traditional land planning (s)ometimes the effects on the neighboring lands and waters were considered. Sometimes they were not. In our emerging environmental and land use ethic it is believed that they should and must be (Simonds 118). In fact, comprehensive land use planning is a complementary process. An understanding of landscape at the regional scale is an essential prerequisite to smaller scale site planning and detailed landscape design... . Conversely many of the criteria for land use in regional land use planning should be based on an understanding of construction and grading techniques used in site planning (Laurie 117). The essence of this discussion is the importance of planning and design within a context rather than in a vacuum. A. Site Planning / Design Process Planning and design occur as a process, by which we mean that they follow a logical sequence of actions or events that must be carried out to arrive at a viable solution. It is a multidisciplinary problem-solving operation often involving architects, landscape architects and engineers, and frequently may require input from physical scientists as well to address environmental issues. It requires a logical objectivity for some steps, but also allows room for subjective design interpretation at others. There are several notable models from which we can draw to understand the basic components of the site planning and design process. Kevin Lynch outlines an eight-stage site planning cycle (see Fig. 1) that includes: 1. Defining the problem 2. Programming and the analysis of site and user 3. Schematic design and the preliminary cost estimate 4. Developed design and detailed costing 5. Contract documents 6. Bidding and contracting 7. Construction 8. Occupation and management (Lynch 11)

John Simonds outlines a six-phase planning-design process that applies to architecture, landscape architecture, and engineering. This process, (see Fig. 2), is organized as follows:

1. Commission 2. Research 3. Analysis 4. Synthesis

5. Construction 6. Operation (Simonds 128-129)

There are many variations on these models. They differ essentially in the breakdown of component phases and some, such as Simonds, extend the process to include preliminary contractual agreement and post-construction operations. However, most discussions of this process agree that it is not linear (including Simonds, despite its appearance) but rather loops back on itself. Knowledge of a later phase influences conduct of an earlier one, and early decisions are later reworked (Lynch 11). Secondly, no matter how many subparts are included, most process models can be divided into three general activities: Research (Program Development, Site Inventory); Analysis (Site Analysis); Synthesis (Conceptual Design, Preliminary Design, and Site Plan/Master Plan). For this discussion, we will look at the planning and design process under this general breakdown. We will begin with the program and conclude with the site plan or master plan. We will then look at the implementation of the design in terms of construction drawings and specifications. We will conclude this segment with a look at design guidelines, which relate to the postconstruction operational/management issues. 1. Research and Analysis Phases The entire process begins with the determination of a problem to be solved. Obviously, it is land use related, frequently initiated by a client contacting a planner to design a particular

facility, often for a predetermined site. Program development is a good example of the cyclical nature of the design process. We begin with the clients wishes what sort of development is he/she looking for? What are the clients expressed goals and objectives? The answers to these questions put the planner into an appropriate mindset to begin the process. But, to develop the maximum site potential he/she does not want to restrict his/her ideas only to these uses or facilities. So, we use these responses as the initial determination of a program and will return to this issue a bit later in the process. The examples used to illustrate the first part of the design process for this text have been taken from a West Virginia University Landscape Architecture Senior Project completed by R.M. Lilly and W.S. Loll during the spring 1999 semester. The project client wished to expand and diversify the operation of a beef cattle production enterprise on a site partially undergoing surface mining activities. The initial program statement referred to the application of land management practices to multiple uses including wildlife management, outdoor recreation and natural resource utilization. This very general expression provided guidance in the first phase of the design process. At this point in the process, the designer can use this general goal statement plus the identification of the site to begin collecting information relevant to the site and the surrounding area and compiling it in a form in which it can be mapped. This data is then analyzed in terms of its implications for development of the site for the stated purpose. These are in fact two distinct steps, inventory or research and analysis. We first need to identify the factors (inventory) and then analyze each factors potential impact upon the proposed development. Most of the considerations in this phase of site planning have economic as well as environmental implications. The end objective relates to the efficient establishment of the proposed development while being sensitive to the environmental characteristics of the site and its surroundings. As Laurie points out, inventory and analysis of a selected parcels characteristics, as well as its relationship with adjacent land uses, will provide determinants of form, constraints, and opportunities for the location of buildings [and other site facilities] and the conservation of amenities (Laurie 118). In the interest of efficiency as well as clarity we are going to identify the major components and discuss their implications simultaneously. a. Site Location The site must be placed within its proper geographical, political, and functional context. This fixes the site in relation to adjacent land uses, community transportation patterns, utility and infrastructure availability, employment, commercial, cultural and recreational centers. Each of these has a bearing on the site development potential. For example, the adjacent land use patterns will determine the appropriate land use for a proposed site based upon the comprehensive plan. The availability of roads, and in some cases mass transit may have a significant influence on if, and for what, a site is suitable in terms of access. The presence of water, sewers, and other utilities can also dictate the suitability of a site as a target for expansion. And of course the proximity to work, jobs, and schools are a factor in real estate suitability.

b. Existing Conditions Depending upon the size and complexity of the site, this may be one or a series of base plans or maps that delineates and evaluates the physical attributes and constraints for the parcel of land. It will cover such items as: 1) Topography and Slopes Treatment of these factors requires base information in the form of contours and elevations to a degree of accuracy appropriate to the proposed development. For general planning, topographic information such as is available from U.S. Geological Survey quadrangle maps may be suitable. However, more detailed site design requires more specific elevations from aerial or field surveys. Visually, as well as functionally, the form of the landscape, its slopes and patterns are one of the most important categories to consider, no matter what the proposed land use. The topographic map provides a considerable amount of information including drainage patterns and problems, potential on-site and off-site views, erosion and sedimentation potential, as well as potential for development. There are standards that establish categories of slopes related to suitability for different uses and activities. These standards are somewhat regional. For example, the acceptable range of slopes in the mid-West is apt to be more restricted than that used in western Pennsylvania or West Virginia where steeper natural slopes are more prevalent. A typical slope breakdown might include: 0-2% - Most developable 2-8% - Easily accommodates most categories of development 8-16% - Some development restrictions; upper limits for roads and walks 16-24% - Significant restrictions to most development 24%+ - Generally restricted for development
Recreation Facilities Wetlands Lodge Wildlife Habitat Rental Cabins Fencing Cart Drop-off Area Parking Fishing Trails Blinds

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