budynas_SM_ch20.

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FIRST PAGES

Chapter 20
20-1
(a)

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

60

70

80

90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210

(b) f/(Nx) = f/(69 · 10) = f/690

Eq. (20-9)
Eq. (20-10)

x

f

fx

f x2

f/(Nx)

60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210

2
1
3
5
8
12
6
10
8
5
2
3
2
1
0
1
69

120
70
240
450
800
1320
720
1300
1120
750
320
510
360
190
0
210
8480

7200
4900
19 200
40 500
80 000
145 200
86 400
169 000
156 800
112 500
51 200
86 700
64 800
36 100
0
44 100
1 104 600

0.0029
0.0015
0.0043
0.0072
0.0116
0.0174
0.0087
0.0145
0.0116
0.0174
0.0029
0.0043
0.0029
0.0015
0
0.0015

8480
= 122.9 kcycles
69 
1/2 

1 104 600 − 84802 /69
sx =
69 − 1
x¯ =

= 30.3 kcycles

Ans.

budynas_SM_ch20.qxd

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Page 2

FIRST PAGES

2

20-2

Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

Data represents a 7-class histogram with N = 197.
x

f

fx

f x2

174
182
190
198
206
214
220

6
9
44
67
53
12
6
197

1044
1638
8360
13 266
10 918
2568
1320
39 114

181 656
298 116
1 588 400
2 626 688
2 249 108
549 552
290 400
7 789 900

39 114
= 198.55 kpsi Ans.
197 
1/2 

7 783 900 − 39 1142 /197
sx =
197 − 1
x¯ =

= 9.55 kpsi

Ans.

20-3
Form a table:
x

f

fx

f x2

64
68
72
76
80
84
88
92

2
6
6
9
19
10
4
2
58

128
408
432
684
1520
840
352
184
4548

8192
27 744
31 104
51 984
121 600
70 560
30 976
16 928
359 088

4548
= 78.4 kpsi
58 
1/2 

359 088 − 45482 /58
sx =
= 6.57 kpsi
58 − 1
x¯ =

From Eq. (20-14)   

1 x − 78.4 2
1
f (x) =
√ exp −
2
6.57
6.57 2π

206 818 − ln 1 + 0.000 295 0.625 5.060 4742 = 1.9219 131.125 7.63 7.63 5.375 6.875 6.75 110.9732 2 g( y) = exp − √ 2 0.125 396.625 76.9732.727 273 0.099 492 0.282 608 0.25 99.015 63 2866.13 6.75 8.125 6.38 6.393 667 0. √ √ x¯ = ln 7.8594 581.2 0 5.544 251 0.375 493 0.88 8. sx = ln 1 + 0.375 31.685 057 0.090 909 0.4063 124.8 0.88 6.106 72 For a normal distribution.125 19.031 194 0.849 697 0.218 182 0.875 7.budynas_SM_ch20.7188 815.88 7.218 182 0.4 0.207 2 1 f ( y) = √ exp − 2 0.625 0 0 19.822 462 0.375/55 = 7.008 586 0.072 727 0 0 0.4358 For a lognormal distribution.899 389 0.577 665 0.875 7.001 262 0.148 106 0.145 455 0.125 6.38 7.640 63 0 0 121.2 Data N LN 1 0.042 038 0.072 727 0.875 8.004 088 0.125 0.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 3 FIRST PAGES 3 Chapter 20 20-4 (a) y f fy f y2 y f/(Nw) f (y) g(y) 5.4358 2π 1/2 = 0.625 7.0604)( 2π) (b) Histogram f 1.  2866.875 41.875 8.0313 66.0604    1 1 ln x − 1.859 5.915 128 0.13 log N 7.207.625 5.625 6. sy = 55 − 1    1 x − 7.375 6.859 − (396.018 182 1.725 002 0.875 6.273 138 0.375 7.25 15.625 7.0604 x(0.4358 0.125 7.3752 /55) y¯ = 396.6719 283.436 364 1.6 0.63 6.060 4742 = 0.125 1 0 0 3 3 6 14 15 10 2 1 55 5.5938 710.625 6.13 .375 7.140 262 0.

5002) 0.5000 to 0.5008  1 x > 0.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 4 FIRST PAGES 4 20-5 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design Distribution is uniform in interval 0.5008  1 x > 0.5002 0 F(x) = 1666. range numbers are a = 0. a = 0. .5000 0 F(x) = (x − 0. (20-23) σx = b−a 0.5)/0.623 in 0.5002 ≤ x ≤ 0. √ √ a = µx − 3s = 0.5000 ≤ x ≤ 0.5002.5000 ≤ x ≤ 0.5008 = = 0. (20-22) µx = a+b 0. (20-22) and (20-23). (a) Eq.5000.6241 + 3(0. b = 0.budynas_SM_ch20.5002 = 0. From Eqs.5008 in.5008 20-6 Dimensions produced are due to tool dulling and wear.7 0.5008 − 0.0008 0. b = 0.000 231 √ = √ 2 3 2 3 (b) PDF from Eq.5002 + 0.5000 = 0.5008 in 0 otherwise (c) CDF from Eq.6231 in √ √ b = µx + 3s = 0.000 581) = 0.5008 in.5002 ≤ x ≤ 0.000 173 in √ 2 3  1666.5008 µx = 0.5008 If all smaller diameters are removed by inspection.5005 in 2 0. the distribution is uniform.5000 + 0. (20-21)  x < 0.000 581) = 0.5008 = 0.6251 in We suspect the dimension was 0. When parts are mixed.5008 f (x) = 0 otherwise σˆ x =  x < 0.625 Ans.7(x − 0.5008 − 0.5004 2 2 Eq. (20-20)  f (x) = 1250 0.6241 − 3(0.

112 1/2  (0.26 − 59.26 mm.46 ≤ x ≤ 61.46 + 61. From the range numbers.46 ≤ x ≤ 61. Therefore.083332 + 0.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 5 FIRST PAGES 5 Chapter 20 20-7 F(x) = 0. for σ µF 3600 = = 32 143 psi Ans.26 mm f (x) = 0 otherwise Ans.112 = 0.26 mm The PDF is d F/dx .46 mm. C A = 0. thus the range numbers are:  0. A¯ = 0.36 mm Ans. division is closed and σ is lognormal too. .0089292 ) σ¯ = Cσ = 2694/32 143 = 0.46 mm 0 F(x) = 0.520 mm Ans.  x < 59. 2694) psi Ans.083 33.46 σˆ x = = 0.001/0.budynas_SM_ch20.555x − 33 59. the distribution is uniform at x = a F(a) = 0 = 0. Therefore.555(a) − 33 ∴ a = 59. (1 + 0. 2 61.555b − 33 ∴ b = 61.555 59.112 in2 C F = 300/3600 = 0.0089292 ) σˆ σ = 32 143 = 2694 psi Ans.26 mm  1 x > 61. µA 0. µx = 59. Since F and A are lognormal.555x − 33 mm (a) Since F(x) is linear. σ = LN(32 143. √ 2 3 1 (b) σ is an uncorrelated quotient F¯ = 3600 lbf.26 = 60.0838 Ans.008 929 From Table 20-6. at x = b F(b) = 1 = 0.

00 2. x x 2 xx 3 − (x 2 ) 2 x 2 x 3 y x 2 xx y − yx 2 x x y a2 = = Ans.2 0.01 0.4 0.3 Data Regression 0.25 0.36 0.247 714 0.008 0.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 6 FIRST PAGES 6 20-8 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design Cramer’s rule y x 2 x y x 3 yx 3 − x yx 2 = a1 = Ans.05 x 0 0.166 286 0.010 0.82 0 0.064 0.25 0.136 −0.20 0 0.000 1.162 857 −0.64 1.6 0.8 1 .15 0.406 a1 = 1.030 0.25 0.2 0.25 0.046 43 Ans.512 1.0 3.150 0. x Data y Regression y 0 0.6 0.800 0 0.005 71 y 0.17 −0.8 1.2 0.25 0.216 0.6 0.15 0.1 0.040 714 a2 = −1.05 0 0.04 0.01 0.budynas_SM_ch20.248 857 0.4 0.100 0.17 −0.16 0.0 0.8 1.0 0.4 0.01 0. x x 2 xx 3 − (x 2 ) 2 x 2 x 3 x y x2 x3 xy 0 0.15 0.01 0 0.2 0.

budynas_SM_ch20.312 067 Se 140 Regression Se 20.132 2 94.778 6 131.946 26 51.571 87 90.054 6 107.877 01 103.492 75 57.173 75 65.528 84 81.140 6 Su2 Su Se 3 600 4 096 4 225 6 724 10 201 14 161 14 400 16 900 17 956 21 025 32 400 38 025 42 025 42 849 44 100 45 369 50 625 50 625 51 529 52 900 56 644 58 564 70 225 78 400 87 025 105 625 105 625 126 025 1 251 868 1 800 3 072 1 917. Data Regression 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 Su .209 85 84.356 75 39.329 05 40.804 81 60.356 75 Ans.5 45 51 50 48 67 60 64 84 78 96 87 87 75 99 87 116 105 109 106 105 96 99 114 117 122 2274.5 3 690 5 151 5 950 5 760 8 710 8 040 9 280 15 120 15 210 19 680 18 009 18 270 15 975 22 275 19 575 26 332 24 150 25 942 25 652 27 825 26 880 29 205 37 050 38 025 43 310 501 855.890 86 86.628 74 95.080 78 40.954 66 85.925 48 62.735 6 112.416 6 121.330 52 84.196 92.606 49 76.5 b = 20.875 54 57.778 6 121.827 06 90.5 m = 0.571 87 91.641 12 45.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 7 FIRST PAGES 7 Chapter 20 20-9 Su 0 60 64 65 82 101 119 120 130 134 145 180 195 205 207 210 213 225 225 227 230 238 242 265 280 295 325 325 355 5462 Data Se 30 48 29.

budynas_SM_ch20.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 8 FIRST PAGES 8 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design 20-10 E = .

y − a 0 − a2 x 2 2 .

 ∂E = −2 y − a 0 − a2 x 2 = 0 ∂a0 .

.

.

.

y − na0 − a2 x2 = 0 ⇒ x2 y = na0 + a2 .

.

.

.

8 12. .  ∂E x + a2 x3 =2 y − a0 − a2 x 2 (2x) = 0 ⇒ x y = a0 ∂a2 Cramer’s rule y x y a0 = n x n x a2 = n x x 2 x 3 x 3 y − x 2 x y = x 2 nx 3 − xx 2 3 x y nx y − xy x y 2 = x nx 3 − xx 2 x 3 x Data y Regression y x2 20 40 60 80 200 19 17 13 7 56 19.2 400 1600 3600 6400 12 000 x3 xy 8 000 380 64 000 680 216 000 780 512 000 560 800 000 2400 a0 = 800 000(56) − 12 000(2400) = 20 4(800 000) − 200(12 000) a2 = 4(2400) − 200(56) = −0.002 4(800 000) − 200(12 000) y 25 Data Regression 20 15 10 5 0 x 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ans.8 7.2 16.

166 666 1.8 1 2 5 7. 0.16 0.884 918 11.1 10.41 106.033 333 333 mˆ = k¯ = 6(90.117 6 Eq.8 16.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 9 FIRST PAGES 9 Chapter 20 20-11 x Data y Regression y 0.6 0.433 333 −0.04 0.44) 6−2 = 0.2 50.44 635.7) − 9.40 90.9787(84.233 333 −0.791 147 15.633 333 −0.7656(5) = 5.931 803 9.5 84.04 1390.12 7.26 11.1 13.83 1.054 444 444 0.2 84.3964) lbf Ans.00 4.556 1 (5/6) 2 + = 0. 6 (a) 1 y¯ = 1.2) − (5) 2 84.166 666 0 0.83 − 5.7656 6(6.5 2 2.04 16.44) − 5(84.41 190.4 0.033 333 0.64 1.0333 Fi = (5.401 111 111 0.838 032 13. (20-36)  sbˆ = 0.9787 bˆ = F¯i = 6 F 30 Data Regression 25 20 15 10 5 0 x 0 0.7) = 9.027 777 778 1.361 111 111 2.9787.7 = 14.5 5 x¯ = .44 −0.7 − 9.001 111 111 0. .09 146.00 6.20 50.7 7.7656(90.744 262 25.2 0.44 262.42 4.556 Eq.36 0.budynas_SM_ch20.3 12.187 777 778 0.3964 lbf 6 2. (20-37)  s yx = 1390.509 836 x2 y2 xy x − x¯ (x − x) ¯ 2 0.2 25.

qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 10 FIRST PAGES 10 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design (b) Eq.0884 .0333 k = (9. 0.0005.0885/29. 0.003) in2 .000 75 From Table 20-6.000 = 0.000 034/0. y Table 20-6 σ¯ = ¯ E¯ = 0. 20-13 σ = E  = (0.226 = 0.7656.0613 C y = 0. (20-35) 0. C E = 0.5.030 σ is of the form x.0005 = 0. E = (29. 0.226. 20-12 The expression  = δ/l is of the form x/y.004/1.000.5. C A = 0. 0.0133 .000 092) in.000 75 1 + 0.068. A = (0.000 046 We can predict ¯ and σˆ  but not the distribution of .885) Mpsi. distribution unspecified. C x = 0.3899 lbf/in 2. C x = 0.7 psi Cσ = 1096.000 = 0.0015/2.003/0. 0. l = (1.607(10−5 ) = 0.5 = 0.0302 ) 1/2 = 1096. 0. C y = 0.00267 . l = (2. unspecified distribution. E = (29.0015.004 052 σˆ  = 0.3899) lbf/in Ans. Now δ = (0. 1.5 = 0.074 35 20-14 δ= Fl AE F = (14.5 = 0.3/14.000 034) distribution unspecified.000 092/0.3) kip.03 Mean of δ:    1 1 Fl = Fl δ= AE A E Cl = 0.556 smˆ = √ = 0.885) Mpsi distributions unspecified.7 = 0. .0081/2.0015 = 0.0081) in.7/14 750 = 0.004 052 = 4. unspecified distribution.budynas_SM_ch20.0682 + 0. 0.5.06132 + 0.004) in. C F = 1.7.885/29.0682 + 0. ¯ = 0.000 75 1/2  0.0302 + 0. 0.5)106 = 14 750 psi σˆ σ = 14 750(0.0005(29.

COV: Cσ = 1725 = 0. Mean: σ¯ = 32(15 000) 32 M¯ .0025 2. distribution unspecified. πd3 CM = 1350 = 0.00752 )]1/2 = 1725 psi Ans.09 . There is no distributional information on δ.budynas_SM_ch20.002672 + 0.003 31 in Ans.00 σ is of the form x/y. d = (2.00752 )/(1 + 0.226 29. No information of distribution of σ. 1350) lbf · in. For the standard deviation.5) 0.003 31(0.005 = 0.01332 + 0. 15 000 Cd = 0.003 31 = 0.5(106 ) = 0. Standard Deviation: From Table 20-6.032 ) 1/2 = 0. 0. ¯ A)(1/ ¯ ¯ δ¯ = F¯ l(1/ E) 1 1 δ¯ = 14 700(1.00. 20-15 M = (15 000.005) in distribution unspecified. 1/2 1/2 .qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 11 FIRST PAGES 11 Chapter 20 From Table 20-6.000 313 in Ans. . σ= 32M . Cd 3 = 3Cd = 3(0.0945 Ans. Stress COV dominates.08842 + 0. COV Cδ = 0.000 313/0. using the first-order terms in Table 20-6.092 + 0.0025) = 0. 32 M¯ = = π(23 ) π d¯3 π d3 = 19 099 psi Ans.  2  1/2 σˆ σ = σ¯ C M + Cd23 1 + Cd23 .0075  2  1/2 + (3Cd ) 2 (1 + (3Cd )) 2 σˆ σ = σ¯ C M = 19 099[(0. Table 20-6. Force COV dominates. F¯ l¯ 2 = δ¯ C F2 + Cl2 + C 2A + C 2E σˆ δ = C F + Cl2 + C 2A + C E2 A¯ E¯ σˆ δ = 0.0903 19 099 Ans.

751 − 0.751 − 0. the ordinates to the truncated PDF are multiplied by a.748 .748 F(x) = x − 0.7495 in 2 σˆ d = 0. Having discarded α + β fraction.000 866 in √ 2 3 f (x) = 1 1 = = 333.748 = 0.748 = 333.3(x − 0.751] µd = 0.751 − 0. a= 1 1 − (α + β) New PDF.748.751 + 0. 0.748 = 0. g(x) .748) 0. The area under the PDF was unity.3 in−1 b−a 0. is given by  f (x)/[1 − (α + β)] x1 ≤ x ≤ x2 0 otherwise g(x) = More formal proof: g(x) has the property  x2 1=  x1 f (x) dx x1  1=a x2 g(x) dx = a ∞ −∞  f (x) dx − x1  f (x) dx − 0 ∞  f (x) dx x2 1 = a {1 − F(x1 ) − [1 − F(x2 )]} a= 1 1 1 = = F(x2 ) − F(x1 ) (1 − β) − α 1 − (α + β) 20-17 (a) d = U[0.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 12 FIRST PAGES 12 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design 20-16 f (x) ␣ ␤ x1 x2 x Fraction discarded is α + β.budynas_SM_ch20.

9 = σˆ 30.748) = 0 (b) F(x2 ) = (0. k1 = µ + z 1 σˆ k2 = µ + z 2 σˆ From which z 2 k1 − z 1 k2 1.6667 − 0 µx = a  + b 0.6 − (−1.4 and 5.9 kcycles and σˆ = 30.282 x10 = 122.9 + 30.3 kcycles.748 0.1 kcycles Ans. µ = 122.748 = 0.4) µ= = 9.6667 20-19 From Prob.3 = = 500 in−1 F(x2 ) − F(x1 ) 0.750 = = 0. z 10 = −1.933 σˆ = = k2 − k1 z2 − z1 11 − 9 = 0.748)333.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 13 FIRST PAGES 13 Chapter 20 F(x1 ) = F(0. 20-1.budynas_SM_ch20.000 577 in √ = √ 2 3 2 3 20-18 From Table A-10.1% corresponds to z 1 = −1.6667 2π 1  k − 9. z 10 = x10 − µ x10 − 122.750 0.748 + 0.282) = 84. 8.6.6(9) − (−1.751 x f (x) 333.6 − (−1.3z 10 From Table A-10. .9 + 30.3 x10 = 122. for 10 percent failure.750 − 0.933 0.750 − 0.6667 If g(x) is truncated.4) The original density function is  1 f (k) = √ exp − 2 0.4)11 = z2 − z1 1.3(−1.6667 1.5% corresponds to z 2 = +1.749 in 2 2 σˆ x = b − a  0.3 = 0. PDF becomes g(x) = g(x)  500 f (x)  333.749 0. 2  Ans.3 0.

008 292 0.002 899 0.002 899 0.002 899 0.31E-06 .015 157 145 145 155 155 165 165 175 175 185 185 195 195 205 205 215 215 0.008 647 0.011 594 0.008 696 0.31E-06 5.000 214 0.016 423 0.8E-05 2.004 348 0.007 246 0.000 237 5.000 711 0.002 899 0.001 449 0.001 449 0.017 391 0.002 097 0.000 439 0.004 348 0.8986 sx = 22.003 21 0.8E-05 5.006 518 0.887 19 x f/(Nw) f (x) x f/(Nw) f (x) 55 55 65 65 75 75 85 85 95 95 105 105 115 115 125 125 135 135 0 0.000 122 0.004 348 0.budynas_SM_ch20.000 122 2.000 711 0.017 357 0.004 425 0.004 348 0.010 935 0.004 685 0.006 518 0.007 246 0.001 951 0.002 899 0.017 391 0.013 185 0.006 204 0.001 499 0.008 696 0.014 493 0.007 246 0.000 439 0.008 292 0.010 935 0.001 306 0.002 899 0.001 951 0.011 594 0.002 899 0.011 594 0.001 449 0 0 0.25E-05 x¯ = 122.000 214 0.017 357 0.011 594 0.016 612 0.001 499 0 0.014 493 0.011 594 0.014 871 0.017 292 0.98E-05 1.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 14 FIRST PAGES 14 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design 20-20 x f fx f x2 x f/(Nw) f (x) 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 2 1 3 5 8 12 6 10 8 5 2 3 2 1 0 1 69 120 70 240 450 800 1320 720 1300 1120 750 320 510 360 190 0 210 8480 7200 4900 19 200 40 500 80 000 145 200 86 400 169 000 156 800 112 500 51 200 86 700 64 800 36 100 0 44 100 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 0.008 696 0.002 899 0.004 425 0.007 246 0.017 391 0.007 246 0.015 157 0.001 449 0.003 21 0.001 449 0.003 009 0.001 206 0.002 899 0.001 449 0 0.000 399 0.000 776 0.001 449 0.016 423 0.007 246 0.011 594 0.004 348 0.014 493 0.004 348 0.012 839 0.012 839 0.001 306 0.010 567 0.

017 663 0.041 068 0.005 711 0.036 752 0.003 807 0.042 513 0.020 635 0.695 071 f (x) 0.014 0.03 0.025 0.033 629 0.01 0.000 76 0.01 0.005 568 0.003 807 0 sx = 9.027 919 0.005 711 0.027 742 0.009 485 0.000 76 f 0.035 0.02 Histogram PDF 0.004 0.003 807 0.000 529 0.003 807 0.005 568 0.011 671 0.003 807 0.018 0.002 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 x 20-21 x f fx f x2 f/(Nw) f (x) 174 182 190 198 206 214 222 1386 6 9 44 67 53 12 6 197 1044 1638 8360 13 266 10 918 2568 1332 39 126 181 656 298 116 1 588 400 2 626 668 2 249 108 549 552 295 704 7 789 204 0.042 513 0.007 614 0.015 0.000 529 0.033 629 0.003 807 0.005 0 150 x 170 190 210 230 .qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 15 FIRST PAGES 15 Chapter 20 f 0.038 708 0.012 0.045 0.036 752 0.001 642 0.027 919 0.038 708 0.020 635 0.004 297 0.016 0.04 Data PDF 0.033 629 0.004 297 0.007 614 0.042 513 0.002 241 x¯ = 198.027 919 0.006 0.02 0.008 0.030 773 0.007 614 0.017 663 0.6091 x 170 170 178 178 186 186 194 194 202 202 210 210 218 218 226 226 f/(Nw) 0 0.005 711 0.budynas_SM_ch20.

056 742 0.012 833 0.008 621 x 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 624 x¯ = 78.003 647 f 0.042 298 0.037 705 0.025 862 0.04 0.081 897 0.008 621 0.025 862 0.03 0.82 kpsi 2 πd π(12 ) σˆ s y = 5.01 x 0 60 70 80 90 20-23 σ¯ = 4(40) 4 P¯ = = 50.008 621 0.012 833 0.031 18 0.002 684 0.025 862 0.060 581 82 82 86 86 90 90 94 94 0.008 621 0 0.025 862 0.008 621 0.043 103 0.02 0.413 79 f (x) 0.017 241 0.043 103 0.008 621 0.048 446 0.010 197 0.572 229 x f/(Nw) f(x) x f/(Nw) f(x) 62 62 66 66 70 70 74 74 78 78 0 0.060 581 0.007 165 sx = 6.038 793 0.002 684 0.07 0.9 kpsi 100 .081 897 0.025 862 0.038 793 0.020 952 0.038 793 0.017 241 0.031 18 0.5) = = 10.003 647 0.budynas_SM_ch20.026 749 0.048 446 0.05 0.08 0.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 16 FIRST PAGES 16 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design 20-22 f fx f x2 f/(Nw) 2 6 6 9 19 10 4 2 58 128 408 432 684 1520 840 352 184 4548 8192 27 744 31 104 51 984 121 600 70 560 30 976 16 928 359 088 0.017 241 0.025 862 0.081 897 0.058 959 0.052 305 0.043 103 0.09 Data PDF 0.06 0.93 kpsi 2 πd π(12 ) σˆ σ = 4 σˆ P 4(8.052 305 0.010 197 0.026 749 0.005 48 0.017 299 0.

1700 Cσ = 38.0129 R = 1 − p f = 1 − 0.6 σˆ σ = .47 kpsi.494 kpsi 2 πd π(12 ) 6.0129 = 0. 20-24 For a lognormal distribution.076 81 49. (20-19) From Prob.197 kpsi 2 πd π(12 ) 4 σˆ P 4(5.32 kpsi σˆ m = σˆ σ + σˆ Sy z= z= −27.81 C Sy = = 0. (20-18) Eq.230 12.47 = −2.197 3.32 m 0 From Table A-10.987 Ans.1) = = 6.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 17 FIRST PAGES 17 Chapter 20 For no yield.494 = 0. m = S y − σ ≥ 0 0 − µm µm m − µm = =− σˆ m σˆ m σˆ m ¯ µm = S y − σ¯ = 27.  µ y = ln µx − ln 1 + C x2   σˆ y = ln 1 + C x2 Eq. p f = 0.budynas_SM_ch20. (20-23) µm = S¯ y − σ¯ = µx       2 2 µ y = ln S¯ y − ln 1 + C Sy − ln σ¯ − ln 1 + Cσ  S¯ y = ln σ¯  1 + Cσ2 1 + C S2y     1/2 σˆ y = ln 1 + C S2y + ln 1 + Cσ2     2 2 = ln 1 + C Sy 1 + Cσ    S¯ y 1 + Cσ2 ln σ¯ 1 + C S2 µ y z = − = −     σˆ ln 1 + C S2y 1 + Cσ2 σ¯ = 4 P¯ 4(30) = = 38.  1/2 2 2 = 12.

26 = 0.3 kpsi Ans.30/98.26) − 0.3267) .budynas_SM_ch20.30 kpsi 135 Under normal hypothesis.30 kpsi. = 88.01 = 98.26)/4.26 + 4. z 0.1702 ) From Table A-10 p f = 0. z 0.197  1 + 0.043 762 /2 = 4. (20-18) and (20-19). µx = 98.587 ! σˆ y = ln(1 + 0. 20-25 x n nx nx 2 93 95 97 99 101 103 105 107 109 111 19 25 38 17 12 10 5 4 4 2 136 1767 2375 3685 1683 1212 1030 525 428 436 222 13 364 164 311 225 625 357 542 166 617 122 412 106 090 55 125 45 796 47 524 24 624 1315 704 x¯ = 13 364/136 = 98.01 − 98.043 74 For a yield strength exceeded by 99% of the population. 20-26 From Prob.01 .qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 18 FIRST PAGES 18 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design  ln   49.043 76 From Eqs.01 = 98.076 812 2 z = −   = −1.26 kpsi.26 kpsi 1/2  1 315 704 − 13 3642 /136 sx = = 4.01 = (ln x0.043 762 ) = 0.929 Ans.26 + 4.01 = µ y + σˆ y z 0. C x = σˆ x /µx = 4. 20-25.170  1 + 0.01 = (x0.470 ln (1 + 0.0708 R = 1 − p f = 0.6 38.26 = 88.30(−2.30z 0.01 − µ y )/σˆ y ⇒ ln x0.076 812 )(1 + 0.30 x0. and σˆ x = 4. µ y = ln(98.

007 35 0.26 2 f (x) = √ exp − 2 4.043 74) 2π x (kpsi) f/(Nw) f (x) g (x) x (kpsi) f/(Nw) f (x) g (x) 92 92 94 94 96 96 98 98 100 100 102 0.083 08 0.014 71 0.002 86 0.058 90 0.083 67 0.1 0.032 15 0.007 35 0.044 12 0.063 56 0. (20-14) as    1 1 x − 98.083 67 0.    1 ln x − 4.000 56 0.061 34 102 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112 112 0.326. for 1% failure.069 85 0.037 08 0.058 90 0.16 Probability density 0.139 71 0.485 x0.06 0.14 0.587 2 1 g(x) = √ exp − 2 0.036 76 0.002 23 0.036 76 0. The normal PDF is given by Eq.037 08 0.018 36 0.085 48 0.014 71 0.000 89 0.062 50 0.12 0.000 89 Note: rows are repeated to draw histogram Histogram f (x) g(x) 0.056 80 0.061 34 0.091 91 0. (20-17).032 63 0.018 69 0.018 38 0.018 38 0.budynas_SM_ch20.092 97 0.038 06 0.007 93 0.038 06 0.032 63 0.30 4.085 48 0. defining g(x).014 71 0.139 71 0.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 19 FIRST PAGES 19 Chapter 20 From Table A-10. from Eq.000 56 0.069 85 0.018 36 0.043 74(−2.062 50 0. ln x0.063 56 0.092 61 0.080 81 0.7 kpsi Ans.083 08 0.000 00 0.01 = 4.326) = 4.091 91 0.007 93 0. z 0.043 74 x(0.014 71 0.002 86 0.04 0.002 23 0.092 97 0.056 80 0.018 69 0.587 + 0.30 2π For the lognormal distribution.02 0 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 x (kpsi) 104 106 108 110 112 The normal and lognormal are almost the same. Thus.032 15 0.08 0. However the data is quite skewed and perhaps a Weibull distribution should be explored.044 12 0.01 = 88.007 13 0. For a method of establishing the .01 = −2.080 81 0.007 13 0.092 61 0.000 00 0.

64 = = 0.38 kpsi Ans.2 − 79)[(1 + 2/2. (20-29) Ans.55 kpsi Ans. and C. σˆ x 2.2 (1.6)]1/2 = 7.2[0.7 + 18.031 Ans.38 µx = 27.4 20-28 x = Sut x0 = 27. θ = 86.64 kpsi Ans.6) = 79 + 7. σˆ x = (46.2 − 27.7. R. b = 2. b = 4. 4-12. McGraw-Hill.qxd 12/06/2006 19:32 Page 20 FIRST PAGES 20 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design Weibull parameters see Shigley.38) −  2 (1 + 1/4. (20-28) x¯ = x0 + (θ − x0 )(1 + 1/b) x¯ = 79 + (86. σˆ x = (θ − x0 )[(1 + 2/b) −  2 (1 + 1/b)]1/2 = (86.8856 − 0.23)]1/2 = 18.46) −  2 (1. Mischke.55 From the Weibull survival equation     x − x0 b =1− p R = exp − θ − x0 .888 54 x¯ = 79 + 7.2 − 79)(1 + 1/2.7)(1 + 1/4. 20-27 Let x = (S fe ) 104 x0 = 79 kpsi.38) = 0.38) From Table A-34. E.budynas_SM_ch20.910 75) = 44.6 Eq.38)]1/2 = 18.23) = 27.4 kpsi Eq.2(0.2 − 27.6) −  2 (1 + 1/2.2. 1989. Sec. 4.923 76 − 0.5 (1.888 54) = 85.5[(1. Mechanical Engineering Design.7 + (46. J. Cx = 44.38 = 0. 5th ed.910 752 ]1/2 = 4.5[0..2 kpsi.7 + 18.38) = 27. θ = 46.7)[(1 + 2/4. (1. Cx = x¯ 85.5(0..098 Ans.888 542 ]1/2 = 2.

6 11.7 4.2 kpsi Ans.030 191. 20-29 x = Sut x0 = 151.6 + 78(0. σˆ x = (193.6 − 151.84 x¯ = 47.4% Ans.9.9 + 41.84 = 1 − exp − 125.959 73 − 0.6)(1 + 1/11.25) −  2 (1.6)[(1 + 2/11.9)[(1 + 2/8) −  2 (1 + 1/8)]1/2 = 41.7 p40 = 1 − R40 = 1 − 0. θ = 193.4 kpsi From Prob.6 − 151.6 + 78 (1.846 = 0.84)]1/2 = 78[(1.17)]1/2 = 78(0.941 76) = 191.7 (1.9)(1 + 1/8) = 151. θ = 125.82 Cx = = 0.125) = 151.6 = 0. 5. b = 11.08) = 47. b = 8 µx = 151.84) −  2 (1 + 1/11.7[0.959 73) = 122. .936 702 ) 1/2 = 22.9 + (193.154 = 15.08) −  2 (1.6.7(0.budynas_SM_ch20.6. 20-28    x − x0 b p = 1 − exp − θ − θ0     100 − 47.941 762 ]1/2 = 5.6 − 47.2 20-30 x = Sut x0 = 47.6 − 47.82 kpsi Ans.7[(1.qxd 12/06/2006 19:48 Page 21 FIRST PAGES 21 Chapter 20 R40     x40 − x0 b = 1 − p40 = exp − θ − x0     40 − 27.906 40 − 0.6 − 47.846 = exp − 46.9 + 41.38 = 0.6.2 − 27.84) x¯ = 47.0090 Ans.125)]1/2 = 41.5 kpsi σˆ x = (125.6 + (125.

64 p(x > 133) = exp − 134.77 p = 1 − exp − = 0.6 − 36.3 3.79/122.887 57) − 0.1 + 16. (20-28) and (20-29) and Table A-34.6.1 + (81.66 n − 36.9 exp − f W (n) = 133.902 50) = 79.    2. θ = 81.77) = 64. b = 3.1)[(1 + 2/3.85 kcycles σˆ n = (θ − n 0 )[(1 + 2/b) −  2 (1 + 1/b)] = 34.6 − 36.902 502 ]1/2 = 4.2778 From Eq.771 0.019 Ans. Eq. (20-18) and (20-19) give.66  n − 36. p(x > 120) = 1 = 100% since x0 > 120 kpsi     133 − 122. the lognormal PDF is  1 f L N (n) = √ exp − 2 0.budynas_SM_ch20. (2-27).66) = 122.1 20-31 x = Sut = W[122.3.85) 2 ] = 0. 2  .9 2.9 + (133.57 kpsi     y − y0 3.79/122.35 kpsi σ y = (81 − 64.6 − 36. 134.1.6 − 36.2778 n 2π 1  ln n − 4. µn = n 0 + (θ − n 0 )(1 + 1/b) = 36.77 y¯ = 64.9(0.77 p = 1 − exp − θ − y0     70 − 64.3 = 0.9 133. µ y = ln(122.66−1 2. (20-17). 81 − 64.27) = 64.9[(0. 20-32 Using Eqs.1 3.1)(1 + 1/3.79 kcycles For the Weibull density function.9)(1 + 1/2.qxd 12/06/2006 19:48 Page 22 FIRST PAGES 22 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design y = Sy y0 = 64.77)]1/2 σ y = 16.0 − 64.771  σˆ y = [1 + (34.85) 2 /2 = 4.8% Ans.2778 We form a table of densities f W (n) and f L N (n) and plot.548 = 54.77) − (1 + 1/3.1 + 16.6 − 122.0.85) − (34. 3.9 For the lognormal distribution.64] kpsi. Eqs.9 (1.9 133.

Thus.004 926 0.002 515 0. for R = 0.9 + (133 − 36. Thus.7 kcycles Ans.009 822 0.90.004 507 0. That is.90.010 965 0.011 947 0.010 0. n 0 = exp[4.budynas_SM_ch20. .000 529 f (n) 0.003 501 0.001 739 0.000 991 0.003 564 0.006 0.012 644 0.004 380 0.90)]1/2.008 0.012 0.771 + 0.000 336 1.010 399 0.006 739 0.012 022 0.006 139 0.66 = 78.9)[ln(1/0.009 346 0.008 301 0.010 459 0.014 LN W 0. z = −1.004 0.2778(−1.002 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 n. n 0.82E-05 0. kcycles The Weibull L10 life comes from Eq.282)] = 82.qxd 12/06/2006 19:48 Page 23 FIRST PAGES 23 Chapter 20 n (kcycles) f W (n) f L N (n) 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 9.000 241 0.000 654 0.006 597 0.001 184 0.282.001 180 0.010 750 0.1E-05 0.003 092 0.006 401 0. ln n 0 = µ y + σˆ y z or n 0 = exp(µ y + σˆ y z) From Table A-10.001 233 0.009 913 0. The lognormal L10 life comes from the definition of the z variable.001 979 0.000 795 0.002 498 0. (20-26) with a reliability of R = 0.10 = 36.008 492 0.1 kcycles Ans.007 827 0.

8325 257.05 6.65 39.50 2 −10 f i x (10 ) 27.2175 180.24 535.4275 331.295(105 ) − 0.55 72.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 24 FIRST PAGES 24 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design 20-33 Form a table i x L(10−5) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 3.319(105 ) cycles Ans.0038 x¯ = 529.55 7. 1/2  2975.0069 0.3168 0.9075 88.05 8.5(105 )/100 = 5.05 3.80 106.3075 0 0 101.55 6.3216 0.0124 0.1474 0.55 10.628 1 ln x − 13.15 78.1000 0.5525 400.2492 ) = 0.55 5.20 25.149 2 g(x) = exp − x 2 0.budynas_SM_ch20.85 44.2789 0.05 7.55 9.149 ! σˆ y = ln(1 + 0.0218 0.405 0 259. C x = s/x¯ = 1.15 24.415 99.05 9.0557 0.05 5.245    1 ln x − µ y 2 1 g(x) = √ exp − 2 σˆ y x σˆ y 2π    1.249 µ y = ln 5.10 0 32.5(105 )]2 /100 sx = 100 − 1 = 1.295 = 0.245 .05 −5 fi f i x(10 ) 3 7 11 16 21 13 13 6 2 0 4 3 0 0 1 100 9.55 4.0625 0.0375 0.1517 0.295(105 ) cycles Ans.4325 475.21 219.05 4.65 0 0 10.2492 /2 = 13.2514 0.05 529.95(1010 ) − [529.0025 2975.55 8.2151 0.05 72.30 14.319/5.95 g(x) (105 ) 0.

2763 = − 1 = 49 − 33.4 − 70.4 − 70.3)0.3. (20-29) x = Su = W[70. σˆ x [ (1 + 2/b) − 2 (1 + 1/b)]1/2 = x¯ − x0 (1 + 1/b)  √ 4.8 20-35 Take the Weibull equation for the standard deviation σˆ x = (θ − x0 )[ (1 + 2/b) − 2 (1 + 1/b)]1/2 and the mean equation solved for x¯ − x0 x¯ − x0 = (θ − x0 ) (1 + 1/b) Dividing the first by the second. (20-28) Eq.01] µx = 70.3)[ (1 + 2/2.01)]1/2 σˆ x = 14.3 0.997 91 − 0.8 kpsi Ans.budynas_SM_ch20.3 + (84.3 + (84.5 Superposed histogram and PDF 0.4 − 70.498) = 70.886 17 = 82.01) = 70.4 − 70.502 kpsi Cx = 6. 84.05(105) x.3) (1.2 0.1[0.3) (1 + 1/2.502 = 0. cycles 20-34 Eq.05(105) 10.01) − 2 (1 + 1/2.2 (1 + 2/b) R = 0.079 Ans. 2.886 172 ]1/2 = 6.1 0 3.4 0.4.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 25 FIRST PAGES 25 Chapter 20 105 g(x) 0.3 + (84.8 2 (1 + 1/b) . 82. σˆ x = (84.

7 + 4.93)]1/2 = 4.3 (1.3(0.658/5.068) = 49.24 0.658(106 ) cycles 237 − 1 C x = 2.903 30 0.034 = 0.49 1.892 222 ]1/2 = 1.363 0.893 38 0.34) = 34.68) − 2 (1.068 Using MathCad Ans.7.034(106 ) cycles  7673(1012 ) − [1193(106 )]2 /237 σˆ x = = 2.5 1. 39.93] kpsi x¯ = 34.8 kpsi Ans.25 1.42 kpsi Ans.42/38.886 23 0. 2.7) (1 + 1/2.3[0.1 1 + 2/b 1 + 1/b (1 + 2/b) (1 + 1/b) 1.8 θ = x0 + = 33.67 1. 20-36 x = S y = W[34.5 kpsi σˆ x = (39 − 34.93) = 34.280 0.885 95 0. 20-37 x (Mrev) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sum 78 f fx f x2 11 22 38 57 31 19 15 12 11 9 7 5 237 11 44 114 228 155 114 105 96 99 90 77 60 1193 11 88 342 912 775 684 735 768 891 900 847 720 7673 µx = 1193(106 )/237 = 5.905 00 − 0.3[ (1. b = 4. x¯ − x0 49 − 33.93) − 2 (1 + 1/2.037 Ans.8 + (1 + 1/b) (1 + 1/4.5 = 0.budynas_SM_ch20.34)]1/2 = 4.528 . C x = 1.7)[ (1 + 2/2.271 .906 40 0.908 52 0.33 1.892 22) = 38.qxd 12/06/2006 18:53 Page 26 FIRST PAGES 26 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design Make a table and solve for b iteratively b 3 4 4.7 + (39 − 34.7 + 4.

5 4. (20-18) and (20-19).5 7.496z L10 life. ln x = 15.038 69 0.5 0.037 97 0.5 1.15 0.12/06/2006 18:53 Page 27 FIRST PAGES 27 Chapter 20 From Eqs.5 2.092 83 0.496 2  Histogram PDF 0.5282 /2 = 15.063 29 0.090 11 0.5 0.5 10.1 0.5 2. µ y = ln[5.05 0 0 2 4 6 x.021 10 0.5282 ) = 0.5 5.000 11 0.130 80 0.050 63 0.5 4.037 97 0.5 1.090 11 0.059 53 0.5 8.2 g(x)(106) budynas_SM_ch20.050 63 0.006 87 z= ln x − µ y σˆ y ⇒  ln x − 15.5 10.000 00 0.131 58 0.5 9.66 ∴ x = 2. where 10% of bearings fail.080 17 0.092 83 0.496(−1.063 29 0.5 7.282) = 14. Thus.000 00 0.5 6.038 69 0.059 53 0.130 80 0. from Table A-10.016 18 0.000 11 0.010 51 0.025 01 0.496) 2π 1 x (Mrev) f/(Nw) g (x) · (106 ) 0.5 3.080 17 0.034(106 )] − 0.025 01 0.240 51 0.029 54 0. z = −1.052 04 0.207 54 0.021 10 0. Mrev 8 ln x = µ y + σˆ y z = 15.292 ! σˆ y = ln(1 + 0.  1 g (x) = √ exp − 2 x(0.016 18 0.5 12.160 34 0.046 41 0.052 04 0.010 51 0.5 3.5 11.5 12.046 41 0.292 0.046 41 0. 10 12 .131 58 0.282.240 51 0. (20-17).006 87 0.5 9.25 0.207 54 0.292 + 0.178 48 0.178 48 0.029 54 0.160 34 0.qxd 0.32 × 106 rev Ans.5 11.5 5.046 41 0.169 92 0.5 8.169 92 0. defining g(x).5 6.496 From Eq.292 + 0.

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