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- Is the intentional act of killing oneself.

- The second leading cause of death.

The rate of suicide is increasing most rapidly

in 25 to 24 years of age.

People with increased rates of suicide:

Single adults, divorced men, adolescents, older adults, the very poor or very wealthy, urban dwellers, migrants, students, people with mood disorders, substance abusers, people with medical or personality disorders and people with psychosis.

Factors that Increase Suicidal Risk:

  • 1. Environmental Factor

- isolation, recent loss, lack of social support, unemployment, critical life events and family history of depression or suicide.

  • 2. Behavioral Factor - impulsivity, erratic or unexplained

changes from usual behavior, and

unstable lifesyle.


  • - Means thinking about killing oneself.

    • 1. Active Suicidal Ideation

- is when a person thinks about and

seeks ways to commit suicide.

  • 2. Passive Suicidal Ideation

- is when a person thinks about wanting to die or wishes he or she were dead but has no plans to cause his or her death.


- is a suicidal act that either failed or was incomplete.

The person did not finish the act because:

  • 1. Someone recognized the suicide attempt as a cry for help and responded

  • 2. The person was discovered and rescued


-The first 2 years after the attempt represent the highest risk period, especially the first 3 months.

Increased Risk For Suicide:

History of previous suicide

Those with relatives who committed suicide (the closer the relationship, the

greater the risk).

The nurse must be alert to clues to a client’s

suicidal intent-both:

*Direct Signal (making threats of suicide)

*Indirect Signal (giving away prized

possessions, putting his or her life in order, making vague good-byes).


  • 1. Keeping the person safe.

  • 2. Instituting a no-suicide contract.

  • 3. Ensuring close supervision.

  • 4. Removing objects that the person could use to commit suicide.