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rPNlhtpd; epoyhf muirf; fz;fhzpj;jy;

,yq;if murrhu;gw;w epWtdq;fshy; njhFf;fg;gl;l epoy; mwpf;ifAk; gbKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;l jfty;fSk; Nfs;tpfSk; kw;Wk; NtW Mtzq;fSk;

2010/2011

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ngz;fs; njhlu;G Clfq;fSf;fhd $l;likg;G
Kjy; gjpg;G - Mdp 2011

Mrpupau; FO #ydp nfhbfhu FOjpdp rhKNty; Nrghyp Nfhl;Nlnfhl ,izg;ghsu; n[ae;jp FU cJk;ghy jkpo; tbtg; gjpg;G v];. rptFUehjd;> Mu;. RNu\;tud;> vk;. ku;#f;> ru;tk; ifyhrgjp> gtpj;uh ifyhrgjp> Ffepjp FfNerd; ml;ilfs; kw;Wk; gf;fq;fs; NtyhAjk; n[ar;rpj;uh

ntspaPL ngz;fs; njhlu;G Clfq;fSf;fhd $l;likg;G 174> my;tp]; mntdpA. fhry; tPjp nfhOk;G -8> ,yq;if
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International Womens Rights Action Watch Asia Pacific (IWRAW-AP)

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iv

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#ydp nfhbfhu FKjpdp rhKNty; Mdp 2011

6| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

,yq;if epoy; mwpf;if


ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd vy;yh tpjkhd ghugl;rq;fisAk; xopg;gjw;fhd FOtpw;F

nfhOk;G ngz;fs; njhlu;G Clfq;fSf;fhd $l;likg;gpduhy; jahupf;fg;gl;lJ Mb 2010

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

|7

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8| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

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,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61.

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ngz;fs; njhlu;G Clfq;fSf;fhd $l;likg;G (WMC) Mb 2010

10| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

epiwNtw;Wr; RUf;fk;
yq; i f mjd; tuyhw; w py; jP u ; f ; f khd xU fl; l j; j py; ,Ue;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. Rkhu; 30 tUlq;fspd; gpd;du;> ,yq;if murhq;fj;Jf;Fk; vy;.up.up.<.,w;Fk; ,ilapyhd MAj Kuz;ghL 2009Mk; Mz;L ,uhZt uPjpahfj; jPu;f;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. Kuz;ghl;bd; rpwg;gk;rkhfj; jpfo;ej gutyhd td;Kiw KbTf;F te;Js;sJ. vdpDk;> ngz;fs; mlq;fyhf ; vy; y h kf; f spdJk; jdpj; J tq; f isAk; cupikfisAk; mq; f P f upj; J kjpg;gspf;Fk; ePjpahdJk; Neu;ikahdJkhd r%fj;ijf; fl;bnaOg;Gk; rthy; ,d;Dk; vQ;rpAs;sJ. fle;j Ie;J jrhg;jq;fspy; ,yq;ifapy; cs;s ngz;fs; r%f> nghUshjhuj; Jiwapy; ghupa Kd;Ndw;wj;ij mile;Js;shu;fs; vd;gjpy; thjj;Jf;F ,lkpy;iy. jw;NghJ ngz;fs; 90% vOj;jwpT cilatu;fshff; fhzg;gLtJld; rpwe;j Rfhjhuf; Fwpfhl;bfisAk; mDgtpf;fpd;wdu;. mur mjpfhuk; (bureaucracy) ,uh[ je;jpu Nritfs;> jdpahu; Jiw> kUj;Jt> rl;l> fw;gpj;jy; njhopy;fs;> fiyfs; kw;Wk; Vida gy tplag;gug;Gfs; mlq;fyhf nghJ Jiwfspy; Kd; d u; vg; N ghJkpy; y hjthW ngz; f s; mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wdu;. gFjpasT Nju;r;rpAs;s kw;Wk; Nju;r;rpaw;w njhopy;fspYk; ngz; njhopyhsu; f spd; tpfpjk; mjpfupj; J s; s J. rdj; n jhifapd; gpupTfspilNa ghy; e piy mbg; g ilapyhd ghugl; r rl; l q; f s; gw; w pa kWrPuikg;Gj; njhlu;ghf XusT Kd;Ndw;wk; fhzg;gLtJld; ghy;epiy kw; W k; ngz; f s; cupikg; gpur; r pidfs; njhlu; g hfTk; tpopg; G zu; r ; r p mjpfupj;Jf; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. vdpDk;> NkYk; gy tplaq;fs; epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;bAs;sd. murpaypy; ngz;fs; njhlu;r;rpahd Gwf;fzpg;ig vjpu;Nehf;FtJld; r%f uPjpahd ghugl;rq;fs; kw;Wk; ghy;epiy td;Kiwf;Fk; cl;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wdu;. ngz;fs; kPjhd je;ijahjpf;f (Patriarchal) eltbf;iffs; kw;Wk; ghugl;r kdg;ghq;F ,d;Dk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. njhopy; re;ijapy; mjpfupj;j uPjpapy; ngz;fs; Eioe;j NghjpYk;> njhopy; Jiwapy; ghy;epiy NtWghL ,d;Dk; khwhJs;sJ. tPl;L Ntiy kw; W k; Foe; i jg; guhkupg; g py; ngz; f s; njhlu; e ; J k; ghupa nghWg; g pidf; nfhz; L s; s du; . ,yq; i f mbf; f b ngUkpjk; nfhs; S k; rhjfkhd r%f mgptpUj; j pf; Fwpfhl; b fis midj; J g; ngz; f Sk; mDgtpf; f tpy; i y. Kuz; g hl; b dhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l gpuNjrq; f spYk; ngUe;Njhl;lj; JiwapYk; efu kw;Wk; fpuhkpag; gpuNjrq;fspYk; tWikahd my; y J Fiwe; j tUkhdk; cs; s rKjhaq; f spy; fy; t p kw; W k; Rfhjhu Nritfisg; ngWtjpYk; ngz; f s; ghupa rthiy vjpu; N ehf; F tJld; nghUshjhu Ruz;lYf;Fk; cs;shfpd;wdu;. Kg;gJ tUlq;fs; ePbj;j cs;ehl;L MAj Kuz; g hl; b d; tpisthfg; ngz; f Sk; gps; i sfSk; jkJ Mz; cwtpdiug; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; ,oe;jJ kl;Lkd;wp> mtu;fs; ,lk;ngau;e;Njhupy; 80% MfTk; cs;sdu;. ,yq;ifapy; jw;NghJs;s FLk;gq;fspy; 23.4% ,w;Fk; mjpfkhd FLk;gq;fs; gpuj;jpNafkhf ngz;fshy; jiyik tfpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 11

jw; N ghJ ngz; f s; gw; w pa Njrpa mikg; G rpWtu; mgptpUj; j p ngz; f s; tYT+l;ly; mikr;R (MCD&WE)> ngz;fs; gzpafk; kw;Wk; ngz;fs; gw;wpa Njrpaf; FO (NCW) Mfpatw; i w cs; s lf; f pAs; s J. td; K iw kw; W k; J\;gpuNahfq;fspypUe;J ngz;fisg; ghJfhj;jy;> nghUshjhu> r%f kw;Wk; murpay; Jiwfspy; ngz; f Sf; F tYT+l; l y; > midj; J jP u ; k hdk; Nkw; n fhs; S k; FOkq; f spYk; ngz; f spd; gq; N fw; i g ,ayr; nra; j y; Mfpatw;iw mjd; Fwpf;Nfhs;fs; cs;slf;Ffpd;wd. vdpDk;> njhopw;ghLfspd; Nkw;ftpif kw;Wk; %d;W epWtdq;fspilNa xj;Jiog;gpd;ik> gpujhd mjpfhupfspilNa ghy; e piy tplaq; f s; njhlu; g hfg; Gupe; J zu; t pd; i k> ngz;fspd; tYT+l;ly; kPJ cupikfs; njhlu;ghd mZFKiwia tpl eyNdhk; g y; mZFKiw mbf; f b cr; r upf; f g; g Ljy; > nfhs; i fj; jd;dhl;rpAupik ,d;ik (autonomy) kw;Wk; Njrpa jPu;khdk; Nkw;nfhs;sy;> jpl; l kply; eltbf; i f KiwfspypUe; J ghugl; r g; g Lj; j y; Mfpait fhuzkhfj; Njrpa ghy;epiy mikg;G ,e;jf; Fwpf;Nfhs;fis miltjw;F jilia vjpu;nfhs;fpwJ. gP[pq; (Beijing) ru;tNjr ngz;fs; khehl;bw;Fg; gpe;jpa fhyg;gFjpapy; kfspu; tptfhu mikr;R jdpj;J nraw;gLfpd;w xd;whf khwpaJld; Vida rpy tplaq;fNshL njhlu;Gglhik (Rfhjhuk; kw;Wk; Nghjdh itj;jparhiyfs;> Nghf;Ftuj;J kw;Wk; Rw;whly; Nghd;wit) Mfpait Fwpg;gplj;jf;fitahFk;. vdpDk;> jw;Nghija Nghf;F ahnjdpy;> rpWtu;fs; Kw;wpYk; ngz;fspd; nghWg; g py; cs; s tu; f shtu; vd; D k; nghJthd kdg; g hq; i f typAWj;Jfpd;wjhd rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp vd;Dk; tplaj;ij kfspu; mikr;Rld; ,izg; g J mikfpd; w J. ,J ngz; f isj; jha; k hu; f shf mtu; f spd; ,dg;ngUf;f ghj;jpuq;fSf;F vjpuhfg; ngz;fis jkJ nrhe;j cupikfisf; nfhz;l jdp Ml;fshf mq;fPfupg;gijj; jtpu;j;J ngz;fis Nehf;Ftij kl; L Nk mJ Cf; F tpf; f pd; w J. ,jd; tpisthf nfhs; i f tFg; g jpy; Kuz;ghlhd fUj;jpay;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

12| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

cA cA 22

rkj;Jtk;
yq;ifapy; mLj;jLj;J Ml;rpf;F te;j murhq;fq;fs; murpayikg;gpy; (cWg;Giu 12) njspTgLj;jg;gl;lthW ngz;fSf;nfjpuhf ghugl;rk; fhl;lhik njhlu;ghd Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij Vw;Wf; nfhz;L nfhs;if Mtzj;jpy; mjhtJ CEDAW kw; W k; ngz; f s; rkthak; - 1993> gy; N tW ghy; e piy rkj; J tj; i j miltjw; f hd topKiwfspy; 1993 Kjy; 2005 tiu Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l; l gy; N tW rl; l kw; W k; nfhs; i f Kd; n dLg; G fs; Mfpatw; i wAk; cs; s lf; f p ghy; e piy rkj; J tj; i j czu; t jw; F Njrpa eltbf;ifj; jpl;lj;ij tFj;jd. 2002Mk; Mz;L tiu Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l Kd;ndLg;Gfs; Kd;ida mwpf;ifapy; gjpag;gl;Ls;sd. 2002 - 2005 tiu mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l rl;lq;fSk; nfhs;iffSk; ,e;j mwpf;ifapy; gy;NtW gpupTfspy; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sd. cWg;Giu 2 ,d; fPo; ,e;jg; nghJ kPsha;tpy;> ghugl;rk; fhl;Ljy; kw;Wk; rkj;Jtkpd;ik Mfpa gpur;rpidfis eptu;j;jpg;gjw;F mtrpakhd murpay; tpUg;gj;ij muR fhl; b As; s jh vdTk; > nrayhw; W tjw; f hd Fiwghl; i lf; Nfhbl; L f; fhl; b As; s NjhL> 2002 - 2010 fhyg; gFjpapy; mjd; flg; g hl; i l epiwNtw;Wtij Nehf;fpr; nraw;gl;Ls;sjh vdTk; ,e;j mwpf;if kjpg;gPL nra;Ak;.

cWg;Giu 2(m) kw;Wk; 2(c)


ngz;fspd; cupikfs; rl;lk;
,yq;ifapy; 1978 murpayikg;G rkj;Jtj;jpw;fhd mbg;gil cupik gw;wpa nghJthd cWg;Giu xd;iwf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. nghUz;ikr; rkj;Jtj;ij (substantive equality) miltjw; F jw; f hypf tpNrl eltbf; i ffis mwpKfg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; Vw;ghL fhzg;gLfpd;wJ [cWg;Giu 12(4)]. vdpDk;> ghypaYf;F vjpuhd ghugl;rk;> rkj;Jt tha;gGfs;> ngz;fs; cupikfs; rl;lk; ; Mfpatw;wpy; ,e;j epakk; mgptpUj;jp nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. 2002 - 2003 ,y;

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 13

,yq;if murhq;fk; mj;jifanjhU rl;lj;ij gpNuupj;jJ. vdpDk; cj;Njr rl; l j; j pd; mikg; G k; Vw; g hLfSk; murpayikg; G my; y J CEDAWtpd; epakj; i j <Lnra; a tpy; i y. mj; J ld; mJ ngz; f s; FOf; f shy; tpku;rpf;fg;gl;lJ. 2004 ,y;> Gjpa rl;lnkhd;iw tiutjw;F CEDAW FOtpd; Kd;dhs; cWg;gpdupd; jiyikapy; xU tpNrl FO epakpf;fg;gl;lJ. njhlu;r;rpahd gy fye;jhuha;Tfspd; gpd;du; murpayikg;gpd; epakq;fis <Lnra; f pd; w Jk; ngz; f s; rhrdj; j py; (1993) nrhy; y g; g l; l CEDAW flg; g hLfis cs; s lf; f paJkhf Gjpa efy; rl; l nkhd; i w ,e; j f; F O jahupj;jJ. muR my;yhj nraw;ghl;lhsu;fs; rkj;Jtk; gw;wpa murpayikg;gpd; epakj;ij gpd;gw;WtijAk; ngz;fSf;nfjpuhf ghugl;rk; fhl;lhjpUg;gijAk; cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; f hf CEDAW cWg; G iu 2 (c) ,zq; f p xOFtjw; f hd Njitia Gjpa efy; Fwpg;ghf eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wJ.1 Gjpa efYk; ngz; f spd; cupikfis gpupf; f Kbahik njhlu; g hd vz;zf;fUit cs;slf;Ftjw;F Kaw;rpj;jJld; rl;lk; kw;Wk; nfhs;if kWrPuikg;gpy; jiyikj;Jtj;ij toq;ff;$ba tYT+l;lg;gl;lJk; ed;F ts%l; l g; g l; l Jkhd ngz; f s; gw; w pa RahjP d Njrpa Mizf; F Oit mikg;gjw;Fk; Kd;nkhope;jJ. Gjpa ngz;fs; cupikfs; rl;lj;jpd; efy;> kfspu; ; tptfhu mikr;R (ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp mikr;R vd 2005 ,y; ngauplg;gl;lJ)> mikr;ruit Mfpatw;wpdhy; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;lJld; ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; rku;g;gpf;fg;glTs;s rl;lthf;fj;ij Kbthf;Ftjw;Fg; nghWg; g hd rl; l j; J iwj; jiyik mjpfhupapd; jpizf; f sj; j pw; F k; mDg;gpitf;fg;gl;lJ. 2009Mk; Mz;bd; ,WjpapNy Gjpa efy; xu; rl;l%ykhf ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; Kd;itf;fg;gl;ljhf ngz;fs; FOf;fSf;Fj; njuptpf;fg;gl;lJ. rl;l%yj;jpd; gpujpfs; ngwg;gl;lNghJ> Gjpa efy; rl;l%yj;jpNy ngz;fspd; cupikfs; gw; w pa Kjyhk; ghfk; KOtJNk jtpu; f ; f g; g l; b Ue; j J. jw; N ghJ ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;Ls;s rl;lthf;fk; ngz;fs; gw;wpa Njrpa Mizf; F O xd; i wj; ]; j hgpg; g jw; f hd Vw; g hLfis kl; L Nk Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wJ. vdpDk;> ,yq;ifapd; Vida RahjPd Mizf;FOf;fs; gw; w pa rl; l thf; f j; j pd; fP o ; Vw; W f; n fhs; s g; g l; l jpypUe; J NtWgl; l xU eltbf;if Kiwahd> epiwNtw;W mjpfhuk; nfhz;l [dhjpgjpapdhy; Mizf;FOtpw;fhd epakdq;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd cj;Njr rl; l %yk; Vw; g hL nra; t jhy; > RahjP d Mizf; F O vz; z f; f U cs;slf;fg;gltpy;iy. Gjpa efy; ngz; f s; cupikfs; rl; l j; i j Kw; w pYk; NtWgl; l xU epajpr;rl;lkhf khw;wpaik gw;wp ngz;fs; FOf;fs; vjpu;g;igj; njuptpj;jd. ,e;epiyapy; $l me;jr; rl;l%yk; jpUk;gg; ngwg;gLk; vdTk; Kd;ida efYf;F epfuhd xU rl;lk; ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; Kd;itf;fg;gLk; vdTk; ehk; ek;Gfpd;Nwhk;. cWg;Giu 2> KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfs; ( (COs) 277Mk; ge;jpapd; ) fPo; flg;ghl;Lf;F mikthf ngz;fspd; cupikfs; gw;wpa murpayikg;Gg; gupfhuj;jpy; jw;NghJs;s ,ilntspia epug;Gtjw;F G+uzkhd ghugl;rk; fhl;LjYf;F vjpuhd rk tha;g;Gfs; rl;lj;ij rl;lthf;fk; nra;tjpy; murpay; tpUg;gk; ,d;ikia ,e;j mDgtk; Fwpj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

14| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

ghugl;rk; fhl;Ljy; njhlu;ghd Vida tplag;gug;Gfs;


murhq;fj;jpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;ej Kd;ndLg;Gfshf tPlL td;Kiwj; jLg;Gr; ; ; rl; l k; (2005) (PDVA) kw; W k; gpu[hTupikr; rl; l k; (2003) Mfpaw; w pd; rl; l thf; f j; i j ehk; ghuhl; L fpd; N whk; . 2 vdpDk; > 2005 Kjy; 2010 tiu cWg;Giu 2 (M) (C) 2 (v),w;F mikthf jw;NghJs;s ghugl;rk; fhl;Ljy; tplag;gug;Gfspy; rl;l my;yJ nfhs;if khw;wq;fis mwpKfg;gLj;Jtjw;F rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; mikr;R kw;Wk; ngz;fSf;fhd Njrpa FO (NCW) Mfpatw;wpdhy; ngz;fspd; gpur;rpidfs; gw;wp fpilf;ff;$ba G+uzkhd Muha;r;rpj; jsk; gad;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy.

fhg;GupikAk; ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd td;KiwAk;


ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd td;Kiw gw;wpa fhg;Gupikg; gpur;rpid kw;Wk; eypthd tYT+l; l y; > Fwpg; g hf Kuz; g hl; L g; gpuNjrq; f spy; > KbTWj; J k; (COs) ge;jp 287 rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( ) mikr;R kw;Wk; ngz;fSf;fhd Njrpa FO Mfpatw;wpypUe;J Nghjpa gjpy; eltbf;ifiag; ngwtpy;iy.3 rpyNtisfspy; ngz;fs; FOf;fSlDk; rl;l tYthf;fy; mjpfhupfSlDk; fye;Jiuahly;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ld. Mdhy; ,e; j f; fye; J iuahly; f spd; tpisthf ghy; e piy mbg; g ilapyhd td;Kiwf;F fhg;Gupikj; jPuit toq;Fk; eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy. ; mjidj; njhlu;eJ Fwpg;gpl;l fhyg;gFjpapy; cWg;Giu 2 (,) kw;Wk; (<) gw;wpa ; nrayhw;wypy; jtwpiof;fg;gl;lJ.4

murpaypYk; jPu;khdk; Nkw;nfhs;tjpYk; cWjpahd eltbf;if


murpaypYk; jP u ; k hdk; Nkw; n fhs; t jpYk; ngz; f spd; rkj; J tkw; w gpujpepjpj;Jtj;ij xopg;gjw;F cWjpahd rl;lq;fisAk; nfhs;iffisAk; mwpKfg; g Lj; J tjw; f hd Njit gw; w pa eltbf; i fia muR (COs) ge;jp 278 kw;Wk; Nkw;nfhs;stpy;iy KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( ) 279. midj;Jf; fl;rp ghuhSkd;w kfspu; mzp> rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp ngz;fs; tYT+l; l y; mikr; R > ngz; f Sf; f hd Njrpa FO Mfpait murpaypy; ngz;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtj;ij mjpfupg;gjw;F Nju;jy; kWrPuikg;G njhlu;ghf ghuhSkd; w j; njupTf; F Otpw; F njhlu; r ; r pahd gpNuuizfisr; rku;g;gpj;jNghjpYk; mg;gpNuuizfspy; vJTk; FOtpd; ,Wjp mwpf;ifapy; ,lk;ngwtpy;iy.5 murpayikg; G Nguitf; F murpayikg; g pd; 17MtJ jpUj; j j; j pd; fP o ; ];jhgpf;fg;gl;l cau; epakdf;FO xu; ngz;zpd; ngaiuf;$l ngau; epakdk; nra;ag;gLtij my;yJ epakpf;fg;gLtij ghy;epiy Kftu;fshy; cWjpg;gLj;j Kbatpy; i y. MfNt ,e; j tplag; gug; G fspy; murpd; nraiy cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F mur ghy;epiy Kftu;fshy; Kbatpy;iy. cWg;Giu 2(m)> 2(C) kw; W k; 2(c) Mfpatw; w pd; fP o ; murhq; f j; j pd; flg; g hLfis epiwNtw;Wtjw;F mtrpakhd khw;wq;fis Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhd Kd;ndLg;ig Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F kw;Wk; jiyikj;Jtk; toq;Ftjw;F mtu;fs; jtwptpl;ldu;.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 15

Njrpa ghy;epiy mikg;G


kfspu; mYty;fs; mikr;ir 2005 Mk; Mz;L Kjy; rpWtu; mgptpUj;jpAld; ,ize;j ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; mikr;rhf khw;wpaik $l vkJ ghu;itapy; ghu;f;Fk; NghJ mur ghy;epiy Kftu;fSf;Fk; ngz;fs; FOf;fSf;Fkpilapy; gy tUl Njhoik Clhf kpff; ftdkhff; fl;bnaOg;gg;gl;l rkj;Jt epfo;r;rp epuYf;fhd ngz;fspd; cupikiaf; FopNjhz;bg; Gijj;Jtpl;lJ vd;Nw $wyhk;. Njrpa nfhs;if Mtzq;fSk; epfo;rrpfSk; FLk;gj;jpy; cs;s ; Mz; f Sld; rkj; J t tho; f ; i f tha; g ; G fSf; F k; gfpug; g l; l r%fg; nghWg;GfSf;Fkpilapy; murpayikg;Gk; CEDAWTk; miltjw;F ehLfpd;w mtrpakhd rkepiyiag; Gwf;fzpj;J gpujhdkhf ngz;fis jha;khuhf ftdk; nrYj;jp ngz;fs; gw;wpa khwhj vjpu;f;fzpa fyhrhu tpOkpaq;fis kP z ; L k; typAWj; J k; mjpfupj; j Nghf; i ff; nfhz; L s; s d. ngz; f isj; jha;khuhff; fzpf;Fk; Ftpika khw;wj;jpd; tpisthf ngz;fspd; cupikfs; gw;wpa tplaq;fspy; Gupe;J nfhz;L njhlu;GgLj;Jtjw;fhd mikr;rhdJ Mw; w ypd; w p cs; s J. CEDAW gw; w pa my; y J ghy; e piy rkj; J tk; gw; w pa murpayikg; G epakq; f s; kP j hd mf; f iw gw; w pa mikr; r pd; Gupe;Jzu;tpd;ikia mjd; rpy gpNuuizfs; fhl;Lfpd;wd. guhakilahj rpWtu;fisf; nfhz;l ngz; Gyk;ngau; njhopyhsu;fspd; ntspehl;L Ntiy tha;g;ig rpWtu;fspd; mf;fiwiaf; ftdj;jpy; nfhz;L tiuaWg;gjw;F Kaw;rpj;j xu; gpNuuiz Ml;Nrgidfs; fhuzkhff; iftplg;gl;lJ. kWGwj; j pNy ghy; e piy Kftu; f Sk; Njrpakl; l nfhs; i f tFg; g py; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gl;Ls;sdu;. gj;J tUl Njrpa nfhs;ifj; jpl;lkply; Mtzk; 2005 - 2010 tiutjpy; mtu;fSf;F ngUk;ghYk; vt;tpj gq;Fk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Kuz; g hl; b dhYk; Rdhkp (2004) Nghd; w Njrpa mdu; j ; j q; f spdhYk; ghjpf; f g; g l; l ngz; f spd; Fwpg; g hd gpur; r pidfs; gw; w pa Ma; t pd; mbg;gilapyhd ngUkstpyhd rhd;Wfs; fhzg;gl;lNghjpYk; Njrpa mdu;jj Kfhikj;Jtg; Nguitapd; cWg;gpdu;fshfTs;s mikr;ru;fspilNa ; rpWtu; mgptpUj; j p ngz; f s; tYT+l; l y; mikr; r pd; mikr; r u; cs; s lf; f g; g ltpy; i y. mur Jiwapy; cs; s tu; f Sf; f hd kfg; N gw; W tpLKiwapd; ePbg;G gw;wpa murhq;fj;jpd; mtru jPu;khdkhdJ njhopy;fisg; ngWtjpy; ngz;fs; kPJ vjpu;j;jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ,e;jf; nfhs;iffs; rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; mikr;RlNdh my;yJ ngz;fSf;fhd ; Njrpaf; FOTlNdh fye;Jiuahlg;glhJ tFf;fg;gl;litNaahFk;. mit Njrpa tuT nryTj; jpl; l eltbf; i f KiwA+lhf Kd; i tf; f g; g l; l murhq;fj;jpd; Kd;ndLg;ghFk;. ngz;fSf;fhd Njrpaf; FO 2005 Kjy; rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; mikr;rpd; fPo; xu; jpizf;fskhff; fUjg;gl;L tUfpd;wJ. ,e;j Kftuhz;ik ngz; Mu;tyu;fs; mlq;fyhf murhq;f kw;Wk; murrhu;gw;w Jiwiar; Nru;e;j ghy; e piy epGzu; f s; gyiuf; nfhz; b Ue; j NghjpYk; > ngz; f spd; tho;fifiag; ghjpf;Fk; tplaq;fs; gw;wpa ghy;epiy Kftu;fs; kw;Wk; murhq;f ; epWtdq; f spd; nraw; g hl; b Ds; > murpayikg; G kw; W k; CEDAW mbg; g ilapyhd ngz; f spd; kdpj cupikfs; Njhw; w g; g hl; i l xUq;fpizg;Gr; nra;tjpy; fle;j fhyq;fspy; Nkw;nfhz;l jiyikj;Jtj;ij toq;Ftjw;F ngz;fs; Mu;tyu;fs; cs;spl;l ngz;fSf;fhd Njrpa FO mjd; Mw;wiy ,oe;Js;sJ.

16| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

ngz; f s; gzpafk; 1977 Kjy; ,yq; i fapy; ngz; f spd; me; j ]; i j Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd Miziaf; nfhz;l kpfg;gioa epWtfkhFk;. mJ jw;NghJ gpujhdkhf tUkhd cUthf;fj;jpYk; tpopg;Gzu;it Vw;gLj;JtjpYk; ftdk; nrYj;Jfpd;wJ. gzpafk; mjd; gzpfis fhe;jh fhu;a rkh[ vd miof;fg;gLk; rq;fq;fs; mbg;gilapyhd cWg;gpdu;fspd; tiyaikg;gpd; Clhf eilKiwg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. 2007 fhu;j;jpifapy; cs;sthW> 120>000jpw;Fk; mjpfkhd ngz; cWg;gpdu;fisf; nfhz;l 6>693 gjpT nra;ag;gl;l rq;fq;fs; fhzg;gl;ld. Jujp\;ltrkhf ,e;jg; ngUk; vz;zpf;ifapyhd ngz;fs; mikr;rpdhy; my;yJ ngz;fSf;fhd Njrpaf; FOtpdhy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l rl;l kw;Wk; nfhs;if kWrPuikg;gpw;F Mjuthf xUNghJk; ,aq;ftpy;iy. 1980 Kjy; ]; j hgpf; f g; g l; l nghJthd Ftp ikaq; f s; fz; f hzpg; G cghaq;fspd;ik> jpl;lkply; kw;Wk; xUq;fpizg;gpd;ik> Mw;wy; mgptpUj;jp epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fs; ,y;yhik> fdp\;l mYtyu;fis epakdj;jpd; gpd;du; mbf;fb ,lkhw;wk; nra;ag;gl;lik Nghd;w fhuzq;fspdhy; mtw;wpdhy; vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gl;l Fwpf;Nfhis mila Kbatpy;iy. rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; mikr;R ,e;jf; Ftp ikaq;fis rpuj;ijAld; ftdj;jpy; nfhz; l jhfj; njupatpy; i y. 1990fspy; tFf; f g; g l; l ngz; f Sf; f hd eltbf;ifj; jpl;lk; 2006/2007,y; jpUj;jg;gl;lJ. Mdhy;> mJ ,d;dKk; mikr; r uitapdhy; mq; f P f upf; f g; g l; L eilKiwg; g Lj; j g; g ltpy; i y. (COs) ge;jp 279. KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( ) rpWtu; mgptpUj; j p mikr; i r ngz; f s; tYT+l; l ypy; ,Ue; J gpupj; j y; mtrpakhFk; . ngz; f s; cupikfs; rl; l j; j pd; KjyhtJ efypy; Fwpg; g plg; g l; l thWk; murpayikg; g pd; 17MtJ jpUj; j j; j pd; gpufhuKk; ngz;fSf;fhd RahjPd Njrpa Mizf;FOitj; ];jhgpj;jYk; Kf;fpakhFk;. Vida mikr; R fSld; xUq; f pizg; i g Nkw; n fhs; t jw; f hd Nghjpa tsq;fis toq;f Ntz;ba NjitAk; cs;sJ. ghy; gw;wpa ntt;Ntwhd juTfis Nrfupj;jy; kw;Wk; juT eltbf;if Kiwf;F cl;gLj;jy; Mfpa Mw; w y; f is cUthf; F tjw; f hf Fbrd kjpg; g P l ; L g; Gs; s ptpgutpay; jpizf;fsj;Jld; Kiwrhu; njhlu;Gk; mtrpakhdjhFk;.

ghy; gw;wpa ntt;Ntwhd juTfs; ,d;ik - KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; (COs) ge;jpfs; 284> 256> 290> 2591> 295.
ghy;epiy gw;wpa ntt;Ntwhd juTfSf;fhd Njitg;ghL ,e;j mwpf;ifapd; gy;NtW mj;jpahaq;fspy; Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;lg;gl;Ls;s xu; gpur;rpidahFk;. ,yq;if jplkhd Gs;sptpgutpay; jfty; jsj;ijf; nfhz;l xU ehlhf Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sNghjpYk;> rhu;f; ghy;epiy jfty; jsk; vd;Dk; mz;ikf;fhy ; gpuhe;jpa Kd;ndLg;gpd; Fwpf;Nfhis miltjpy; Nkhrkhfr; nraw;gl;Ls;sJ. rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; mikr;rpw;F ,e;j Kd;ndLg;ig Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhd Mw;wy; ,y;iy. juTfs; gw;wpa Njrpa Kftu;fshd Fbrd kjpg;gPl;Lg; Gs;sptpgutpay; jpizf;fsk; kw;Wk; rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp ngz;fs; tYT+l; l y; mikr; R Mfpait rhu; f ; gpuhe; j paj; j py; Vida ehLfspy; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l; l ijg; Nghd; W ,e; j f; fUj; j pl; l j; j py; gaDWjpAld; xj;Jiof;fNth tiyaikg;ig Vw;gLj;jNth ,y;iy. rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 17

ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; mikr;rpw;F ntspapy; Muha;r;rp kw;Wk; njhopy;thz;ik epGzj; J tj; j py; jq; f papUg; g jw; f hd tpUg; g kpd; i kapy; mjpfupg; G f; fhzg; g Lfpd; w J. ,jdhy; mikr; r pw; F Mw; w y; ,y; y hj xU #o; e piy Vw; g Lfpd; w J. Mdhy; > ehl; b y; fpilf; f f; $bajhf cs; s Njitahd epGzj;Jtj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;stpy;iy. mur ghy;epiy Kftu;fSld; nrayhw;wp ghy;epiy rkj;Jtj;ij miltjw;F rk;ge;jg;gl;l mf;fiwAs;s Kf; f paj; J tk; tha; e ; j tplag; g ug; G fspy; jhf; f j; i j Vw; g Lj; J tjw; f hfg; gzpahw;w Ntz;ba trjp ngz;fs; FOf;fSf;F ,y;iy.

Fw;wtpay; rl;lq;fs;
cWg; G iu 2 (v)I mq; f P f upj; J muR nrayhw; w tpy; i y. Fw; w tpay; eltbf;ifKiw kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; ePjpKiwapy; vjpu;j; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk; Vw;ghLfs; gw;wpa fhydpj;Jt rl;lq;fspy; cs;s ghugl;rk; fhl;Lk; Vw;ghLfs; 1995 Mk; Mz; b d; jz; l idr; rl; l f; Nfhitia tYg; g Lj; J tjw; F kWrP u ikf; f g; g l; b Uj; j y; Ntz; L k; . ,e; j kWrP u ikg; G fs; rl; l thf; f k; nra;ag;gltpy;iy. 1995Mk; Mz;bd; kWrPuikg;gpy; gjpdhwhf cau;j;jg;gl;l epajpr; rl;lKiwahd ghypay; ty;YwT taijf; Fiwg;gjw;fhd murhq;fj;jpd; gpNuuizf;F mjpfsT tpsk;guk; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jg; gpNuuiz gw;wp ghy;epiy Kftu;fSld; fye;Jiuahlg;gltpy;iy. ngz;fs; FOf;fspd; vjpu;g;gpdhy; mJ iftplg;gl;lJ. fUr;rpijTr; rl;l kWrPuikg;gpw;fhd Njit - KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ) (COs) ge;jp 283 njhlu;ghf eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy. Vnddpy;> mj;jifa kWrPuikg;G murpay; czu;T kpf;fjhff; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ.6 epfo;epiyj; jpupG tho;f;ifia cs;slf;Ftjw;F kzk;rhu; ghypay; ty;YwT gw;wpa rl;lj;ij muR kPsha;T nra;atpy;iy. KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; (COs) ge;jp 284.

18| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

cA 7

murpay; gq;Nfw;Gk; gpujpepjpj;JtKk;


njupTnra;ag;gl;l murpay; FOkq;fspy; ngz;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtk;
KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( ) (COs) ge;jp 278 kw;Wk; 279,d; gpufhuk;> khfhz kw;Wk; cs;@uhl;rp kl;lq;fspy; ngz;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; cz;ikapy; Fiwe; J s; s mNjNtis 2002 Kjy; ghuhSkd; w j; j py; ngz; f spd; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; khwhJs;sJ. jw;NghJ njupT nra;ag;gl;l murpay; FOkq;fspy; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;Ak; ngz;fspy; ngUk;ghyhdtu;fs; rpq;fs rKjhaj;ijr; Nru;e;j ngz;fshtu;. rpWghd;ikapd jkpo; kw;Wk; K];ypk; rKjhaq;fisr; Nru;ej ngz;fs; ,e;jf; FOkq;fspypUe;J NkYk; ghugl;rg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sdu;. ; jw;Nghija ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; xNunahU jkpo; ngz; ,Uf;fpd;whu;. K];ypk; ngz;fs; vtUNk ,y;iy.

ngz;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtj;ij mjpfupg;gjw;F murpay; fl;rpfspDs; mu;g;gzpg;gpd;ik


vkJ gFg; g ha; t pd; gpufhuk; ngz; f spd; rkj; J tkhd murpay; gpujpepjpj; J tj; j pw; F gpujhd jil murpay; fl; r pfspDs; N sNa cs; s J. Vnddpy; mtu; f s; Nju; j y; f spy; Nghl; b apLtjw; F rk vz; z pf; i fahd ngz;fis ngau; epakdk; nra;tjpy;iy.

ml;ltiz 1: murpaypy; ngz;fSf;fhd gpujpepjpj;JtKk; ngau; epakdKk;7

%yk;: Fbrd kjpg;gPl;L Gs;sptpgutpay; jpizf;fsj;jpypUe;J ngwg;gl;lJ )Gs;sptpguq;fs; ,e;j mj;jpahaj;jpd; Mrpupauhy; jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; njhFf;fg;gl;lit

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 19

ngz;fspd; ngau; epakd kl;lq;fspy; mjpfupg;G fhzg;gl;l mNjNtis ,e;j mjpfupg;G ,yq;ifapy; tpfpjhrhu gpujpepjpj;Jtj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; Nju;jy;fs; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lijj; njhlu;e;J Njhd;wpa rpwpa murpay; fl;rpfspypUe;Jk; RahjPdf; FOf;fspypUe;Jk; Vw;gl;ljhFk;. = yq;fh Rje;jpuf; fl;rpia (SLFP) cs;spl;l MSk; If;fpa kf;fs; Rje;jpu Kd;dzp (UPFA)> If;fpa Njrpaf; fl;rpia (UNP) cs;spl;l If;fpa Njrpa Kd;dzp (UNF) Nghd;W Nju;jy;fspy; mjpf vz;zpf;ifahd thf;Ffisg; ngw;w fl;rpfs;/$l;likg;Gfs; Mfpait ngz; Ntl; g hsu; f isg; ngau; epakdk; nra; j tjw; F kpfTk; jaf; f KilaitahFk; . 2004Mk; Mz; L ghuhSkd; w j; Nju; j ypy; > ngz;fSf;fhd nkhj;j 375 ngau; epakdq;fspy; UPFA, UNF Mfpait KiwNa 15 (5.2%) kw;Wk; 11 (4%) ngz;fisAk; fsj;jpy; ,wf;fpd.8 ,Nj Nghf;F 2008/ 2009,y; eilngw; w khfhz rigj; Nju; j y; f spYk; 2010,y; eilngw; w ghuhSkd;wj; Nju;jy;fspYk; mtjhdpf;fg;gl;lJ.

ml;ltiz 2: ghuhSkd;wj; Nju;jy;fs; 2010 kw;Wk; khfhz rigj; Nju;jy;fs; 2008/2009: gpujhd murpay; fl;rpfshy; ngz;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;l ngau; epakdq;fs;:

%yk;: ,e;j mj;jpahaj;jpd; Mrpupauhy; jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; njhFf;fg;gl;l Gs;sp tpguq;fs;

gpujhd ePNuhl;lj;jpYs;s murpay; fl;rpfspDs; ngz;fisg; ngau; epakdk; nra;tjw;Fk; Nju;jy;fspy; Nghl;bapLtjw;fhfg; ngz;fis ,ayr; nra;tjw;F tsq;fis xJf;Ftjw;Fk; vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf ngz;fs; Nju;jy;fspy; Nghl;bapl;L ntw;wp ngWtjw;F jplkhd eltbf;ifia cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; njhlu;r;rpahd murpay; tpUg;gKk; cs;sf [dehafKk; Fiwthf cs;sij ehk; mtjhdpf;fpd;Nwhk;. vdNt ,yq;if murhq;fj;jpd; gUtfhy mwpf;ifapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;s gpd;tUk; cWjpnkhopfis epuhfupf;fpd;Nwhk;. Njrpa> khfhz kw;Wk; cs;@uhl;rpj; Nju;jy;fspy; epw;fpd;w kw;Wk; me;jf; FOkq;fSf;Fj; njupT nra;ag;gLfpd;w ngz;fspd; vz;zpf;ifahdJ jPtpukhd murpay; gzpapy; <LgLtjw;F ngz;fisg; nghWj;jtiu jaf;fk; fhl;Ltij Fwpj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ... mj;Jld; ngz; f Sf; F gpuj; j pNafkhf ngau; epakdg; g l; b aypy; fl; l ha xJf;fPl;il Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F Kaw;rpfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lNjhL ,f; Nfhl;ghl;ilf; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;SkhW murpay; fl;rpfSf;F MNyhrid

20| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

$wg;gl;Ls;s NghjpYk;> jhk; <Lglf;$ba xU tplak; ,JthFk; vd ngz;fspilNa ek;gpf;if czu;it Vw;gLj;Jtjw;F #o;epiy cfe;jjhf ,y;iy.
1994,w; F k; 2008,w; F k; ,ilapy; murpay; jiyikj; J tj; i jg; nghWg;Ngw;gjw;F gy;;NtW murhq;fq;fspd; fPo; ngz;fSf;fhd Njrpaf; FO kw;Wk; ngz;fs; tptfhuq;fSf;Fg; nghWg;ghd mikr;Rfs; cs;spl;l mur kw; W k; mur rhu; g w; w epWtdq; f shy; 5>000,w; F k; Nkw; g l; l ngz; f s; gapw;wg;gl;Ls;sjhf UNDPapdhy;9 Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l xu; Ma;T njuptpf;fpd;wJ. ,e;jg; gapw;rp epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fspd; jFe;j kjpg;gPL Nkw;nfhs;sg;glhtpbDk;> ngz; f spd; Mw; w iyAk; ek; g pf; i fiaAk; fl; b naOg; G tJ kl; L kd; w p> murpaypy; njhopnyhd; i w Nkw; n fhs; t jw; f hf mtu; f isj; Jhz; b Cf; f kspg; g jw; f hd Kf; f pakhd Njitnahd; i w mtu; f s; G+u; j ; j p nra;Js;shu;fs; vd;gJ njspT. mt;thwpd;Nwy; mtu;fs; mjidr; nra;tjw;F tpUk;ghjpUe;jpUf;fyhk;. vdNt murpay; ngUk;ghd;ikahd ngz;fspd; tpUg;gj;jpw;Fupa njupthfg; Gyg;gltpy;iy vd;Dk; ,yq;if murhq;fj;jpd; $w;W Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F rpukkhd xd;whFk;.

murpay; fl;rpfspd; ngau; epakdk; njhlu;ghd ghy; uPjpahd gFg;Gj; juTfs; ,y;yhik
Nju;jy;fspy; ngz;fSf;fhd ngau; epakdq;fspd; ghy; uPjpahd gFg;Gj; juTfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tJ mjpfupj;j uPjpapy; rpukkhfp tUtijj; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs; s tpUk; G fpd; N whk; . Nju; j y; f s; jpizf; f sk; ,e; j j; juTfis ntspapLtjpy;iy. rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; mikr;rplk; my;yJ ngz;fSf;fhd Njrpa FOtplk; (NCW) ,e;jj; juTfs; ,y;iy. mtw;iwr; Nrfupg;gjpy; mtu;fs; mf;fiw fhl;lTkpy;iy. ghy; uPjpahfg; gFf;fg;gl;l ngau; epakdq;fspd; Gs;sptpguq;fs; NkYk; fl;rpfshy; khw;wg;gLjy; Fwpg;ghf Kf; f paj; J tk; tha; e ; j jhFk; . mjd; %yk; ve; j f; fl; r pfs; mt; t hW Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wd vd;gijAk; ve;jf; fl;rpfs; ngz;fis ngau; epakdk; nra;tjpy;iy vd;gijAk; njupe;J nfhs;s KbAk;.

cs;@uhl;rp rig kl;lj;jpy; $l ngz;fSf;fhd gq;F tPjj;ij eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;F murpay; tpUg;gkpd;ik


murpay; epWtdq; f spYk; Fwpg; g hf cs; @ uhl; r p kl; l j; j py; murpay; fl; r pfSlDk; 2003,y; epakpf; f g; g l; l Nju; j y; f s; kWrP u ikg; G gw; w pa ghuhSkd;wj; njupTf; FOtpd; Kd;dpiyapYk; (2006,y; kPsikf;fg;gl;lJ) ngz;fs; epWtdq;fs; njhlu;e;Jk; ngz;fSf;fhd gq;F tPjj;ij thjhbd. ,uz; L gpujhd fl; r pfSk; / $l; l ikg; G fSk; jkJ fl; r p nfhs; i fg; gpufldq; f spy; ngz; f spd; gpujpepjpj; J tj; i j mjpfupg; g jw; f hd jkJ flg;ghl;il cs;slf;f Muk;gpj;Js;sd. cjhuzkhf> 2005Mk; Mz;by; [dhjpgjp uh[gf;\tpd; murpay; nfhs;ifg; gpufldj;jpy; (k`pe;j rpe;jidapy;) khfhz rigfs; kw;Wk; cs;@uhl;rpr; rigfspy; Ntl;ghsu;fspd; nkhj;j vz;zpf;ifapy; Mff;Fiwe;jJ 25% jpw;F ngz;fspd; ngau; epakd vz;zpf;ifia mjpfupg;gjw;F xOq;Ffis Nkw;nfhs;Ntd;

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 21

(gf; f k; : 14) vd $wg; g l; L s; s J. vdpDk; > ,e; j f; flg; g hL epiwNtw; w g; g ltpy; i y. [dhjpgjpj; Nju; j iy mbg; g ilahff; nfhz; b Ue; j k`pe; j rpe; j id 2,y; > vkJ fy; t pawpT ngw; W s; s ngz; f Sf; F cupa ,lk; toq; f g; g Ltij cWjpg; g Lj; j f; $ bathW murpay; kw;Wk; epu;thf tiur;rl;lj;jpDs; ngz;fspd; gpujpepJj;Jtj;ij mjpfupf;Fk; eltbf;iffs; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk; (gf;fk; 23) vd;W cWjp $wg;gl;bUe;jJ.
gpujhd vjpu;f;fl;rpahd I.Nj.f/I.Nj.K. $l 2010Mk; Mz;by; cs;@uhl;rp mjpfhu rigfspYk; mt;thNw khfhz rigfspYk; ngz;fSf;fhd 25 rj tPj gpujpepjpj;Jtj;ij cUthf;Ftjw;F thf;FWjp mspj;jJ. vdpDk;> mz;ikf; fhyj; Nju;jy;fspy; I.Nj.f.tpd; ngau; epakdq;fs; ek;gpf;if mspg;gjhf ,y;iy. njupFOtpd; ,ilf; f hy mwpf; i f (2007 Mdp 5) murpaypy; ngz; f spd; gpujpepjpj;Jtj;ij mjpfupf;f Ntz;ba Njitia czu;fpd;w mNjNtis gpd;tUk; eypthd tpjg;Giufis Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wJ: (i) ghuhSkd;wk;> khfhz rigfs; kw;Wk; cs;Suhl;rp rigfspy; ngz;fspd; rpwg;ghd gpujpepjpj;Jtj;jpw;F cj;juthjkspg;gjw;fhf ngz; Ntl;ghsu;fspd; ngau; epakdq;fis cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F murpay; fl;rpfs; jkJ nfhs;iffspy; Vw;ghLfis cs;slf;Fjy; Ntz;Lk;> mj;Jld; (ii) Njrpag; gl;baypy; ,Ue;J xU fl;rpapd; nrayhsupdhy; ngau; epakdk; nra;ag;gLk; xt;nthU %d;whtJ Ntl;ghsUk; xU ngz; Ntl;ghsuhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;gij fl;lhakhf;Ftjw;F mtrpakhd rl;l Vw;ghLfs; cUthf;fg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. cs;@uhl;rpj; Nju;jy;fspy; thl; Kiwik (ward system) kPz;Lk; mwpKfk; nra;ag;gLjy; Ntz;Lk; vdTk; FO tpje;Jiuf;fpd;wJ. mjidj; njhlu;e;J tiuT nra;ag;gl;L 2008 brk;gu; 7Mk; jpfjp ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; rku;ggpf;fg;gl;l ; ,uz;L rl;l %yq;fSk; ngz;fSf;fhd gq;F tPjk; gw;wpNah ngz;fspd; gpujpepjpj; J tj; i j mjpfupg; g jw; f hd NtW VNjDk; rl; l uP j pahf tYg;gLj;jf;$ba cghak; gw;wpNah vijAk; Fwpg;gplhjij Vkhw;wj;Jld; ehk; mtjhdpf;fpd;Nwhk;. Nju;jy; njhFjp Kiwapy; Ntl;ghsu;fs; njupTnra;ag;gLk; cs;@uhl;rp rigj; Nju; j y; f spy; 79%khd Mrdq; f Sf; F thl; Kiwikf; F j; jpUk; G tij cs;@uhl;rp mjpfhu rigj; Nju;jy;fs; (jpUj;jr;) rl;l%yk; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. vQ; r pa 30% Mrdq; f Sf; F tpfpjhrhu gpujpepjpj; J tj; j pd; mbg; g ilapy; cWg;gpdu;fs; njupTnra;ag;gLtu;. ,yq;ifapy; jpifg;G+l;Lk; Gs;sptpguq;fs; fhzg;gbDk;> njupT nra;ag;gl;l murpay; FOkq;fSf;F tha;g;ghd #o;epiy fhzg;gLtjhfTk; rkkhd tha; g ; G fs; cs; s jhfTk; nfhs; i f tFg; g hsu; f s; njhlu; ; e ; J k; typAWj;Jfpd;wdu;. vkJ gFg;gha;tpd; gpufhuk; ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd tuyhw;W uPjpahd ghugl;rq;fis Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F kWf;Fk; kw;WnkhU njspthd re;ju;g;gkhFk;.

22| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

murpaypy; ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd td;Kiw


Kul; L j; j dk; > thf; f hsu; mr; R Wj; j g; g ly; > Ntl; g hsu; f Sf; F k; Mjuthsu; f Sf; F k; vjpuhd jhf; F jy; Nghd; w Fwpg; g hfj; Nju; j y; f hy td; K iwahd murpay; fyhrhuj; j pdhy; ,yq; i fapy; ngz; f Sk; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wdu;. ghy;epiy Fwpj;j kw;Wk; ghypay; Kiwg;gLj;jg;gl;l td;Kiw tbtq;fSf;Fk; rpy Nju;jy;fs; rhd;whf cs;sd. Nju;jy; fhyq;fspy; ghy; e piy Fwpj; j tbtpyhd td; K iwfs; njhlu; g hd eltbf; i ffs; Nkw; n fhs; t jw; F Fwpg; g hd Kd; n dLg; G fs; vJTk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;glhjijapl;L ehk; kpfTk; mf;fiwAld; ,Uf;fpd;Nwhk;.

gpurhu epjpaply;
,yq;ifapy; Nju;jy; gpurhuq;fs; Rtnuhl;bfs;> gjhiffs;> Nghf;Ftuj;J> mr;R kw;Wk; ,yj;jpudpay; Cflfq;fspy; tpsk;guk; nra;jy; Mfpatw;wpw;fhf ngUk; njhif nrythfpd; w J. NkYk; gpurhuq; f is Nkw; n fhs; N thu; jkJ Mjuthsu;fSf;fhd gfYzT / ,uT czTg; nghjpfs; kw;Wk; kJghdg; Nghj; j y; f s; Mfpatw; W f; F jhuhskhfr; nryT nra; f pd; w du; . ntw; w p ngwf;$batu;fs; vd milahsk; fhzg;gLk; Mz; Ntl;ghsu;fs; jdpahu; gq;fspg;Gfs; kw;Wk; $l;bize;j JiwfspypUe;J epjpiaj; jpul;Lfpd;wdu;. kWGwj;jpy; ngz;fs; ngUe;njhifahd gzj;ijj; jpul;Ltjpy; kpFe;j rpukj;ij mDgtpf;fpd;wdu;.

ngsj;j Nfhapy; cilikfs; fl;lisr;rl;lk;


1931Mk; Mz;bd; Nfhapy; cilikfs; fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo;> jpatjd epyNk 10 kw; W k; ngsj; j tpfhiufspd; xj; j ek; g pf; i fg; nghWg; g hsu; gjtpfSf;fhd Nju;jy;fspy; Mz; murhq;f Copau;fs; kl;LNk thf;fspf;Fk; cupikiaf; nfhz;Ls;sdu;. ,e;jr; rl;lk; cUthf;fg;gl;lNghJ ngz;fs; murhq; f Nritf; F Ml; N rug; G r; nra; a g; g ltpy; i y. ,J eP z ; l fhykhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;glhJs;s xu; jpUj;jkhFk;.

thf;Fupikfs;
jw;NghJ ntspehLfspy; gzpGupAk; ,yq;ifau;fs; Nju;jy; fhyq;fspy; jkJ thf; F upikiag; gpuNahfpg; g jw; f hd vt; t pj cghaq; f Sk; ,y; i y. jkJ cupikfis ghJfhg; g jw; f hff; nfhs; i f tFg; g jpy; nry; t hf; F r; nrYj; J tjw; f hd nray; j pwid thf; f pd; i k ,y; y hky; nra; t jhy; > ngUk;ghd;ikahdtu;fs; ngz;fshf cs;s Gyk;ngau; njhopyhsu;fSf;F ,J ; ghjfkhdjhFk;.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 23

cA 10

fy;tp
nghwpapay; kw;Wk; njhopy;El;gj; Jiwapy; cs;s ngz;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; gw;wpa KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( (COs) ge;jpfs; 280> 281 kw;Wk; ngz;fs; ) gw;wpa khwhepiy kdg;ghq;F njhlu;ghd KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( (COs) ) ge;jp 289 rk;ge;jkhf gpd;tUk; tplaq;fis ehk; $w tpUk;Gfpd;Nwhk;:

nghwpapay; kw;Wk; njhopy;El;gtpay; njhlu;ghd fw;if newpfspy; ghy;epiy rkj;Jtkpd;ik


tPlby; Muk;gpj;J xt;nthU fy;tp kl;lj;jpYk; tYg;gLj;jg;gLk; r%fkakhjy; ; ghy;epiyg;gLj;jg;gl;l eltbf;ifKiw %yk; epu;zapf;fg;gLk; Nghf;iff; nfhz;l njhopy; njupTfshf nghwpapay; kw;Wk; njhopy;El;gtpay; njhlu;ghd fw;if newpfspy; Ml;Nrug;gjpy; ,d;Dk; ghupa ghy;epiy rkj;Jtkpd;ik fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. gy ngz; gl;ljhup khztu;fspilNa ghy;epiy ghj;jpuj;jpd; kuGKiw rhu;e;j czu;it gy;fiyf;foff; fy;tp khw;wtpy;iy vd;gij mz;ikf;fhy Ma;nthd;W fz;lwpe;Js;sJ.11 njhopy; E l; g tpay; > njhopy; E l; g kw; W k; tho; f ; i fj; njhopy; fy; t p epWtdq; f spYk; epfo; r ; r pj; jpl; l q; f spYk; cs; s ,e; j Ml; N rug; G r; rkepiyapd;ik njhopw;re;ijapy; ghy;epiy gpupit NkYk; tYT+l;Lfpd;wJ. fle;j fhyq;fspy; xUq;fpizg;Gr; nra;ag;glhjJk; mt;tg;Nghijf;fhdJkhd nfhs; i ffs; kw; W k; epfo; r ; r pj; jpl; l q; f spd; tpisthf njhopy; E l; g f; fy;Yhupfs;> tho;fifj; njhopw;gapw;rp mjpfhu rig epiyaq;fs;> Njrpa ,isQu; ; Nritfs; kd;wk; kw;Wk; Njrpa gapYdu; njhopw;gapw;rp mjpfhu rig epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fs; Nghd;w gapw;rp epWtq;fspy; ehd;F ehlshtpa tiyaikg;gpd; Ml; N ru; g ; G j; juTfspy; fhzg; g Lfpd; w thW njhopy; E l; g k; njhlu; g hd epfo;rrpj; jpl;lq;fspy; njhlu;eJk; Fiwthd khztu;/gapYdu; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; ; ; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.12 %d;whk; epiyf; fy;tp kl;lj;jpy; ngz;fs; ,g;NghJk; Nritj;Jiw njhlu;ghd epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fspy; ftdk; nrYj;Jk; Nghf;iff; nfhz;Ls;sdu;. tpuptile;J nry;Yk; jfty; njhopy;El;gj;jpy; kl;LNk khw;wk; epfo;e;Js;sJ. Mdhy;> ,q;Fk; Kd;ida jl;lr;Rf; fw;if newpf;F rkkhd etPd Ntl; GNwhrrpq; (word processing) Nghd;w Fiwe;j jpwd; kl;l fw;if newpfis Nehf;fpNa mtu;fs; ftug;gLk; Nghf;Ff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.13

24| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

vdpDk;> njhopy;El;gf; fy;tp kw;Wk; tho;fifj;njhopy; gapw;rpj;Jiw mz;ika ; Mz; L fspy; rpy rhjfkhd mgptpUj; j pfisf; fz; b Ug; g ij ehk; czu;fpd;Nwhk;. Njrpa tho;fifj; njhopypd; VO kl;l fl;likg;G jifikfs; ; gy;fiyf;fof EioTf;F toptFf;fpd;wJ. ,J vy;yh mur kw;Wk; jdpahu; Jiw gapw; r p epWtdq; f Sf; F k; njhopy; topfhl; b epiyaq; f Sf; F k; njhopw;re;ijj; njhlu;GfSf;Fk; ftu;r;rpfukhd khw;W njhopy; topfhl;liy toq;Fk; xU ek;gpf;ifahd jpl;lkhFk;. gj;J tUlj; jpl;lk; Kjd;Kiwahf mjd; nrhy;yg;gl;l Fwpf;Nfhs;fspy; xd;whf Ml;Nru;ggpy; ghy;epiy rkepiyf; ; Fiwg;igf; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. ve;jnthU epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpYk; ngz;fs; Nru;e;J nfhs;tjpy; rl;l uPjpahf vt;tpjj; jilAk; ,y;iy. njhopy;El;gk; njhlu;ghd fw;if newpfspy; ngz;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtj;ij mjpfupg;gjw;F kdg;ghq;F uPjpahd khw;wq;fis Vw;gLj;j KbAkh vd;gNj vQ;rpAs;s tplakhFk;.

ghypay; njhlu;ghd khwhepiy


(COs) ge; j p 289 289,d; gpufhuk; > mj; j ifa KbTWj; J k; mtjhdpg; G fspd; ( ) khwhepiyia xopg;gjw;F czu;TG+u;tkhd Kaw;rp Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lij Kf; f pakhd rpy ghlq; f spy; ,uz; l hk; epiy ghlrhiy E}y; f spd; mz;ikf;fhy ghy;epiyg; gFg;gha;T mtjhdpj;jJ. vdpDk;> mNjNtisapy; vjpu; f ; f zpa ghy; e piy khjpupia Vw; W f; n fhs; t jpypUe; J khwp r%f mOj; j q; f Sf; F rthy; tpLtjw; F k; njhopy; njupTfis gy;tifg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; rpWkpfSf;F tYT+l;Ltjw;fhd fy;tp eltbf;if Kiwia tbtikg;gjw;F ghlg;Gj;jf Mrpupau;fSf;F ,d;Dk;

ghy;epiy mirah epakf;fUj;Jfs;


xu; rpy cs; i ka tplaq; f spyhd ,uz; l hk; epiyg; ghlrhiyg; ghlg;Gj;jfq;fspd; xU rkPgj;jpag; ghy;epiyg; gFg;gha;T tho;f;ifg;gzp tpUg;gj; njhpTfspd; 289MtJ ge;jp rk;ge;jkhf ,j;jifa mirah epakf; fUj; J fis xopg; g jw; F czh; T G+h; t khd Kaw; r pnahd; W Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;bUg;gjhfj; njhptpj;jJ. vt;thwhapDk; mNjNtisapy;> ghlg; G j; j fq; f spd; Mrphpah; f shy; ,d; d Kk; vjph; k iwahd ghy; e piyj; juepakq;fis Vw;Wf;nfhs;tijtpLj;J> r%f mOj;jq;fSf;Fr; rthy;tpLk; msTf;F ngz; gps;isfSf;F tYT+l;Lk;14 tplaj;jpy; fy;tpr; nray;Kiwiag; gad;gLj;Jtjw;Fk;> tho;f;ifg; ghzp tpUg;Gj; njhpTfisg;15 gy;tifik kpf; f jhf; F tjw; F k; Kd; n ry; t jw; F Kbahj epiyapy; Nghjpa mwpNth> czh;jpwNdh ,y;yhj epiyapNyNa fhzg;gLtjhfj; Njhd;wpaJ.16 Kd; g s; s pf; f y; t p Fwpj; j xu; ghy; e piyf; fz; N zhl; l j; j pyhd Ma; T k; nghUj; j khd gzpfs; kw; W k; njhopy; f spd; ghy; e piyg; g Lj; j g; g l; l juepakq;fs; fy;tpapd; ,e;j Muk;g tUlq;fspy; fw;wy; nray;Kiwfspdhy; tYT+l;lg;gLfpd;wd vd;gijf; fz;lwpe;jJ. vt;thwhapDk;> ghy;epiy rkj;Jtk; vd;Dk; vz;zf;fUit Kd;Ndw;Wk; tifapy; Mrphpah;fy;tp kw;Wk; ,uz;lhk; epiyg;ghlrhiyg; ghltpjhdq;fspy; ghy;epiyr; rq;fpufq;fs; (modules) mwpKfk; nra;ag;gl;L tUfpd;wd.17 ,t;thwhf> ngz;gps;isfSf;Fg; gq;Nfw;G tpfpjq;fs;> jf;fitj;Jf;nfhs;Sk; tpfpjhrhuq;fs;> kw;Wk; nkhj;j cs;thq;fypy; gpujp$yepiy Vw;glhtpl;lhYk;> ngz; g ps; i sfSk; > ngz; f Sk; jkJ fy; t papd; gad; f isg;

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 25

gaDWjpAs; s tifapy; r%f kw; W k; nghUshjhug; gad; f shf khw; w pf; nfhs; t jpy; njhlh; e ; J k; ,lh; g ; g hLfis vjph; N ehf; F fpd; w dh; . ngw; N whh; f spdJk; > fy; t pahsh; f spdJk; GydwpTfs; kw; W k; csg; g hq; F fs; k P J k; > ngz; g ps; i sfspd; mgpyhi\fs; k P J k; ghy; e piyg; g Lj; j g; g l; l juepakq; f s; nfhz; L s; s jhf; f j; j pd; tpisNt ,jw;fhd fhuzkhFk;. midtUf;Fk; fy;tp fpl;Ltjpyhd jilfs;: fy;tp rk;ge;jkhf <l;lg;gl;Ls;s rhjidfis ehk; mwpNthk; . midtUf; F k; fy; t p fpl; L tjpYs; s kl;Lg;ghLfis Nehf;Fk;NghJ> tlf;F> fpof;fpy; ,lk;ngw;w> 2006 ,y; ngUk; Aj;jkhf khwpa4 ,uz;L jrhg;jfhy MAjNkhjy; fhyf;fl;lj;jpd;NghJ 70% Mrphpah;fs; ngz;fshf ,Ue;jNghjpYk;> 25% ngz;fs; khj;jpuNk mjpgh;fshf ,Ue;jdh;.

26| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

cA 11

njhopyhsu;
ngz;fspd; nghUshjhug; gq;Nfw;gpy; Fiwthd kl;lq;fs;
tpUg;gj; njhpTfspd; 291 Mk; ge;jp rk;ge;jkhf> ehk; gpd;tUk; tplaq;fis vLj; J iuf; f tpUk; G fpd; N whk; . ,yq; i f murhq; f mwpf; i fapy; gpujpgypg; g JNghd; W > ngz; f spd; ciog; g hsh; mzpg; gq; N fw; g pNyh> mzpg;gq;Nfw;G tpfpjhrhuq;fspNyh> vt;tpjkhd fzprkhd khw;wq;fSk; ,lk; n gwtpy; i y. ngz; f spd; ciog; g hsh; mzpg; g q; N fw; G (51.3) 45-49 taJf;FOtpNyNa mjpAah;thfTs;sJ vd;gijf; ftdpj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.18

,jw;fhd fhuzq;fs; gpd;tUkhW:


- ngz;fs; gps;is tsh;g;G kw;Wk; ftdg; guhkhpg;Gf; flg;ghLfis Kbj;jgpd;dh; khj;jpuNk fpukkhd nfhLg;gdTld;$ba Ntiyia Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; epiyapy; cs;sdh;;19 - tP l ; b y; ngz; f spd; nghUshjhug; gq; f spg; G fs; ftdj; j py; nfhs;sg;glhikAk;> tPl;Lj;Njhl;lk; kw;Wk; FLk;g mbg;gilapyhd rpwpa mstpyhd nraw;ghLfs; %yk; nghUshjhu hPjpapy; kjpg;G tha;ej ; czTg; nghUl;fis toq;Ftjpy; mth;fspd; ghj;jpuk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs; s g; g lhikANk ,jw; f hd fhuzq; f shFk; . ,J Njrpag; nghUshjhug; gq; f spg; G Fiwthf kjpg; g plg; g Ltjw; F ,l; L r; nry;Yfpd;wJ. - mh;j;jKs;s je;ijepiy yPT (Paternity Leave) gpukhzq;fs; Fwpj;Jk;> Mz;fSf;Fk; ngz;fSf;Fkpilapy; khwptUk; FLk;gf; $l;likg;Gfs; kw;Wk; nghWg;Gfs; rk;ge;jkhf ehlshtpa hPjpapyhd MjuT kw;Wk; Vw;ghLfs; Fwpj;Jk; nfhs;iff; ftdkpd;ikAk; ciog;ghsh; mzpg; gq; N fw; g py; ghy; e piy mbg; g ilapyhd NtWghLfSf; f hd xu; fhuzkhFk;.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 27

Ntiytha;g;G me;j];J
Ntiytha;g;Gg; ngw;w mNdfkhd ngz;fs; tptrhaj;JiwapYk; (36.9%) Nritfs; JiwapYk; (37.6%) ,Ug;gJ fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sJ. ifj;njhopy; Jiwapy; 25.4% ngz;fNs cs;sdh;. 20 NkYk;> rpNu\;l ,uz;lhk; epiy cah; g hlrhiyf; fy; t pia (GCE A/L) Kbj; j 21 tP j khd ngz; f Ns Ntiytha; g ; i gg; ngw; W s; s dh; . mNjNtisapy; ,Njtpjkhd fy; t pj; jfikfisf; nfhz;l 47.9% ngz;fs; Ntiyapd;wpAs;sdh;.21 ngz;fis kidtpkhhpdJk;> jha;khhpdJk; ghj;jpuq;fis Vw;Wf;nfhs;s itg;gJk;> mth; f s; fpukkhd Ntiytha; g ; i gj; NjLtijj; jLg; g Jk; my; y J gzpnfhs;Nthh; fUj;jhpf;Fk; tajpYs;s ngz;fis ciog;ghsh; mzpAs; Nrh;jJf; nfhs;sj; jaf;fk; fhz;gpf;f itg;gJkhd ghy;epiy mbg;gilapyhd ; ngz;fspd; elj;ij rk;ge;jkhd r%fj; juepakq;fspd; Nrh;f;if xd;Ws;sJ.

jha;ikg;NgW fhy yPT


,yq;if tpjpKiwahd Jiwapy; ngz;fSf;Fj; jha;ikf;fhy mD$yq;fis toq;Fk; xU ePz;lfhy tuyhw;iwf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. 1985Mk; Mz;bd; 43Mk; ,yf;f jha;ikg;NgWfhy mD$yq;fs; (jpUj;j) rl;lk; jha;ikg; NgWfhy yPtpy; ,uz;L kl;Lg;ghLfis tpjpj;Js;sJ. () mJ ngz; Copah; xUthpd; Kjy; ,uz;L gps;isfs; tplaj;Jf;F khj;jpuk; kl;Lg;gl;ljhFk;.() mJ Foe;ijfs; capUld; gpwe;jhy; khj;jpuNk nghUe;JtjhFk;. ,r; r l; l k; fUj; j hpj; J s; s fhyj; j py; ve; j g; g bepiyapYk; ,aw; i fahd fUr;rpijT Vw;gl;l ve;jg; ngz;fspdJk; jha;ikf;fhy yPT chpj;Jfis tpjpKiwahf mq;fPfhpf;ftpy;iy. tpjpKiwaw;w Jiwfspy; jha;ikg;NgWfhy yPT mD$yq;fs; gpuNahfkhtjpy;iy. mj;NjhL> 1985 ];jhgdf;Nfhit> mj;jpahak; x gpd;tUkhW vLj;Jiuf;fpd;wJ:

jpUkzj;jpd;NghJ NtiyapypUe;J Xa;TngwNtz;Lnkd;w epge;jidj; NjitAs;s xU ngz; cj;jpNahfj;jh; ,g;gphptpd;fo; xU rl;lKiwaw;w P gps;is tplaj;jpy; jha;ikg;NgWfhy yPTf;Fj; jFjpaw;wtuhthh;.22
,g;gpukhzj;jpd; nraw;ghL tpUg;Gj; njhptpf;FhpajhFk;. gzpnfhs;gth; gps; i s rl; l KiwAs; s jh (tpjp Kiwahd jpUkzj; j py; fUj; j hpj; j J) ,y;iyah vd;gjd; mbg;gilapy; xU fh;g;gpzpg; ngz;Zf;Fj; jz;lid toq;fyhk; my;yJ mt;thW nra;ahJ tplyhk;. vt;thwhapDk;> ,g;gpukhzk; ,Ug;gJ jpUkzk; Fwpj;j r%f tud;Kiw epakq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; xU ngz; Z f; n fjpuhfg; ghugl; r kpiof; F k; tpjpKiwfs; ,Ug; g ij vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ. mj;NjhL> iff;Foe;ijfisr; RtPfhuk; vLf;Fk; ngz;fSf;Fr; rk;gsj;Jld; $ba jha; i kf; f hy yP T chpik tplaj; j py; njspthd topfhl; l y; f s; vJTkpy;iy. je;ijepiy yPT %d;W ehl;fSf;Fg; khj;jpuNk kl;Lg;gl;ljhFk;. NkYk; > jha; i kf; f hy mD$yq; f s; fl; l isr; rl; l k; > gphpT 12A () Fwpj; J iug; g hd njhopy; f spy; . Fwpj; J iuj; j vz; z pf; i fapyhd ngz; Copah;fs; ,Ug;gpd;> gps;isfs; guhkhpg;G epiyaq;fis (Creches) ];jhgpj;J>

28| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

guhkhpg; g jw; F mtrpakhd gpukhzq; f is Vw; g Lj; J k; mjpfhuk; mikr; r Uf; F s; s J vd; W njhptpf; f pd; w J. ,e; j Vw; g hLfs; rk; g e; j khd gpukhzq;fs; ,Jtiu Vw;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy. nghJj;Jiwapy; jha;ikf;fhy yPT rk;ge;jkhd xU rkPgj;jpa Ntisf;Nfw;w (ad hoc) tp];jhpg;G gzpnfhs;Nthh; kw; W k; ngz; f s; FOf; f Sld; fye; j hNyhrid vJTkpd; w p Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ljhy;> ,J ngz; Copah;fs; kj;jpapYk;> gzp nfhs;Nthh; kj;jpapYk; Fog;gepiyia cUthf;fpAs;sJ.

khw;W ,aYik nfhz;l ngz;fs; (Disabled Women)


2001 Njrpa Fbrd kjpg;gpy; khw;W ,aYik nfhz;l ngz;fs; mz;zsthf 158>446 Ngh; ,Ug;gjhfj; njhptpf;fg;gl;lJ. Aj;jk; kw;Wk; Vida fhuzpfspd; epkpj;jk; ,d;W ,e;j vz;zpf;if NkYk; mjpfhpj;jpUf;ff;$Lk;. ,th;fSs; gyh; r%f> fyhrhu chpikfisAk; (jpUkzk; > Foe; i jg; N gW) nghUshjhu chpikfisAk; (Ntiytha; g ; G ) mDgtpf; f Kbahj epiyapy; Xuq;fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sdh;. khw;W ,aYik nfhz;l egh;fSf;F Ntiytha;g;G kw;Wk; cah; jpwd;fs; gapw;rpiag; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;fhd kpfTk; Fiwthd Vw;ghLfNs cs;sd. mNdfkhd murhq;f kw;Wk; jdpahh; ghlrhiyfSk;> gzpnra;Akplq;fSk; khw;W ,aYik nfhz;l egh;fs; nrd;Wtuf;$ba Kiwapy; eph;khzpf;fg;gltpy;iy. khw;W ,aYik nfhz;l gy ngz;fs; FLk; g kw; W k; rdr%f #oypDs; S k; > ntspapYk; J\; g puNahfq; f Sf; F ,yFtpy; gypahff;$ba epiyapYs;sdh;.23 1. mNgNrfu> M\h (2008) ghlrhiyg; ghltpjhdj;jpy; ghy;epiyj; jj;Jthh;j;jq;fs;. ,uz;lhk; epiyg; ghlrhiyg; ghlE}y;fspd; xU tplag;nghUs; Ma;T> ngz;fs; Ma;T ikak;> nfhOk;G. mgaNjt> rpj;jpuhq;fdp (2008)> ghy;epiy kw;Wk; Kd;gs;spf; fy;tp> ngz;fs; Ma;T ikak;> nfhOk;G.fw;ifj; njhlh; ,y.37. CENWOR 2009> 2010 MAjNkhjy; Fwpj;j mj;jpahaj;ijg; ghh;f;fTk;. Mz; f spilNa 35-39 taJf; FOtpNyNa mjpAah; t hd gq; N fw; G tpfpjhrhuk; mwpf;ifaplg;gl;lJ. Fbrd kjpg;G kw;Wk; Gs;sp tpgutpay; jpizf;fsk;. epjp kw;Wk; jpl; l kply; mikr; R (2009) ,yq; i fapy; ciog; g hsh; mzpg;Gs;sptpguq;fs; Fwpj;j fhyhz;L mwpf;if. (tlkhfhzk; jtph;ej ; epiyapy;) Fbrd kjpg;G kw;Wk; Gs;sp tpgutpay; jpizf;fsk;. epjp> jpl;lkply; mikr;R (2009) ,yq;ifapy; ciog;ghsh; mzprk;ge;jkhd Gs;sp tpguq;fs; Fwpj;j fhyhz;L mwpf;if. tlkhfhzk; jtph;e;j tifapy;.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

7.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 29

8.

Fbrd kjpg;G kw;Wk; Gs;sptpgutpay; jpizf;fsk;. epjp> jpl;lkply; mikr;R (2009) ,yq;ifapy; ciog;ghsh; mzprk;ge;jkhd Gs;sp tpguq;fs; Fwpj;j fhyhz;L mwpf;if. tlkhfhzk; jtph;e;j tifapy;. nghJ eph;thf mikr;R (1985) ,yq;if [dehaf Nrh\yp]f; Fbaurpd; ];jhgdf; Nfhit. ghfk; 1> nfhOk;G.

9.

10. khw;W ,aYik nfhz;l ngz;fspd; mikg;G> 2010. khw;W ,aYik nfhz;l ngz;gps;isfSk;> ngz;fSk;> nfhOk;G.

Gyk; ngau;e;j njhopyhsu;fs;


(COs) ge;jpfs; 292 kw;Wk; 293 Mfpatw;wpd; KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( ) gpufhuk;;> ,yq;iff;fhd Njrpa njhopyhsu; Gyk;ngau; nfhs;if cldbahf eilKiwg;gLj;j Ntz;ba ed;F tFf;fg;gl;l MtzkhFk;.24 ngz;fspd; ntspehl;Lg; Gyk; ngau;T FLk;gq;fs;> FLk;gr; #o;epiy kw;Wk; nghJthf r%fj;jpy; kpf Nkhrkhd jhf;fj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;sJ vd;w mbg;gilapy; Mz; ntspehl;L njhopy;tha;g;G Gyk;ngau;it muR Kidg;ghf Cf;Ftpf;fpd;wJ. vdpDk; > tP l ; L g; g zpg; ngz; f shfg; Gyk; n gau; e ; j ngz; f spy; 42 rjtPjkhdtu;fspd; taJ 30 Kjy; 44 tiuahFk;25 vd;gJ ngz;fs; (Foe;ij ngwf; $ ba ngz; f s; ) ntspehLfspy; $ba tUkhdk; <l; b j; juf; $ ba toptiffisg; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wdu; vd Fwpj;Jf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ. ntspehLfspy; njhopy; ngw;Ws;s jkJ gpui[fspd; cupikfs; kPwg;gLk; vy;iyiaAk; msitAk; ,yq; i f murhq; f k; rkhspf; f Kbahky; cs; s J vd; g jw; F mjpfupj;j rhd;Wfs; cs;sd. ntspehl;by; cs;s Gyk; ngau;e;j ,yq;ifj; njhopyhsu;fspd; thf;fspf;Fk; cupik ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. Gyk; ngau;e;j njhopyhsu;fs; ,yq;iff;Fj; jpUk;gpaJk; mtu;fSf;F r%fg; ghJfhg; G g; gad; f s; vJTk; njhlu; e ; J k; ,y; i y. vjpu; n fhs; s f; $ba nghUshjhu jiyaPLfSf;fhd Nkyjpf gzpg;GfSk; mt;thNw jpUk;gp tUk; Gyk; ngau; e ; j njhopyhsu; f Sf; F f; fpilf; f f; $ bajhd r%f Nritj; jpizf;fsj;jhy; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk; jd;dpr;irahd Xa;T+jpaj; jpl;lKk; toq;fg;glyhk;.

Nkhrb tQ;rf;flj;jy;
ghypay; njhopYf;fhf ngz;fisAk; rpWtu;fisAk; tpw;wy; rhu;f; rkthak; njw; f hrpag; gpuhe; j paj; j py; (2002) cs; s gpur; r pidapd; gupkhzj; i j czu;fpd;wJ. ,yq;if murhq;fk; Ml;fis tpw;wYf;F vjpuhd xOq;Ftpjpfis jz;lidr; rl;lf;Nfhit 2006 jpUj;jj;jpy; 20 tUl rpiwj;jz;lidahf ,Wf;fkhf;fpaJ. vdpDk;> ngz;fis Nkhrb tQ;rf; flj;jy; nra;tjhdJ Gyk;ngau; njhopyhsu;fshf ntspehl;Lf;Fg; gpuahzk; Nkw;nfhs;Sk; ngz; njhopyhsu;fspd; vz;zpf;ifAld; xg;gpLk;NghJ njhlu;e;Jk; rpwpa mstpy; ,lk;ngWfpd;wJ. Clfq;fspd; gUt fhy mwpf;iffspy; fhzg;gLfpd;wthW ngz;fis tpw;gJ mjpfupj;jjhff; fhzg;gLtJld; mJ Njhw;wk;ngWk; mf;fiwf;Fupa tplag;gug;ghff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.

30| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

Rje;jpu tu;j;jf tyag; ngz; njhopyhsu;fs;


KjyPLfs; Fiwthff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJk; ,yq;ifapypUe;J cw;gj;jpfis NfhUfpd;wJkhd cyfr; re;ijapd; khw;wq;fspdhy; gpujhdkhf Milj; njhopw;rhiyfspy; njhopy; ngw;Ws;s 50>000,w;Fk; Nkw;gl;l ngz;fs; ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sdu;. 18 tajpw;Fk; 30 tajpw;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l ngUk;ghyhd njhopyhsu;fs; ,e;j Vw;Wkjpfs; Clhf murhq;fj;jpw;Ff; fpilf;Fk; Neubahd gzk; my;yJ NtW gad;fisg; ngWtjpy;iy. Fwpg;ghf mz;ikf; fhyq;fspy; ru;tNjr r%fj;jpdhy; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sg;gl;l ,yq;iff;F vjpuhd tu;j;jfj; jilfs; %yk; mtu;fs; njhopiy ,oe;J ghjpg;gilaf; $Lk;. cjhuzkhf> 2010 Ig;grp khjj;jpy; [p.v];.gp. gps]; tu;;j;jf rYif GJg;gpf;fg;glhtpby; ngz;fSf;F khw;Wj; njhopy; tha;gGfis murhq;fk; milahsk; fz;Ls;sjh ; vd;gJk; njspthfj; njupatpy;iy.

tWikapy; cs;s ngz;fs;


cj; j pNahfG+u; t Gs; s ptpguq; f s; ghy; e piy mbg; g ilapyhd tWikj; Njhw;wg;ghL fpilg;gij tiuaiw nra;Ak; kpfTk; tiuaWf;fg;gl;l ghy; uPjpahfg; gFf;fg;gl;l jfty;is toq;Ffpd;wJ. cjhuzkhfj; Jiw thupahf Ml;fspd; vz;zpf;if kw;Wk; twpa FLk;gq;fspd; vz;zpf;if gw;wpa ghy; uP j pahfg; gFf; f g; g l; l juTfs; my; y J tWik me; j ]; J thupahf FLk; g j; j pdu; f spd; msT fpilahJ. murhq; f j; j pd; kpFe; j ghy; e piy mbg;gilapyhd tWik xopg;G epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpy; FLk;g mbg;gilapyhd FbapUg; g hsuhdtu; Mz; f spd; jiyikapy; cs; s jhff; fUj; J cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. Mjyhy;> cz;ikapy; FLk;gj;jpd; gpujhd tUkhdj;ij ; toq;Fduhf ngz; ,Uf;fpd;w #o;epiyfspy; mj;jifa epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fspd; cldbahd gad;fisg; ngWtjw;F mtSf;F jhdhfNt cupj;Jf; fpilf;fhky; Nghfpd;wJ.

ngUe;Njhl;lj; JiwapYs;s ngz;fs;


fle;j jrhg;jj;jpy; ngUe;Njhl;lj;Jiw jdpahu; kag;gLj;jg;gl;lJk;> ghy;epiy mbg;gilapyhd Cjpa ghugl;rk; kw;Wk; cupj;Jj; njhlu;ghf ngz;fSf;F njhopy; nra;Ak; epiyikfspy; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f Kd;Ndw;wk; vJTk; ,y;iy. ngUe;Njhl;lj;Jiwapy; ,Uf;fpd;w rpy ngz;fSf;F re;ijg;gLj;jg;glf;$ba jpwd;fs; ,Ug;gjhy; mjd; tpisthf mtu;fs; njhlu;e;Jk; Cjpak; Fiwe;j njhopy;fspy; cs;sdu;.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 31

cA 13

Rfhjhuk;
ngz;fSf;fhd Rfhjhug; guhkupg;G
rpwe;j gpujhd Rfhjhuf; Fwpfhl;bfspd; miltpw;F ,yq;ifapy; Rfhjhu guhkupg;G Vw;ghL cWjpahd xU eltbf;ifahFk; vd;gij ,e;j mwpf;if czu;fpd;wJ. khfhz Rfhjhu epu;thfj;ij gd;Kfg;gLj;jp cWjpg;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; Rfhjhug; guhkupg;G Vw;ghLfSf;F murhq;fk; Nkw;nfhs;Sk; Kaw;rp ghuhl;lj;jf;fjhFk;. vdpDk;> ngz;fs; Rfhjhug; guhkupg;igg; ngWtjpy; gpuhe;jpa uPjpahf NtWghLfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.26 NkYk;> rpy guhkupg;G toq; F du; f spd; r%f> fyhrhu kdg; g hq; F rpy Nritfis (cjhuzk; : fUj;jilr; Nritfs;) jpUkzkhfhj fl;bsk; gUtg; ngz;fs;> KJikg; ngz; f s; kw; W k; tpjitfs; Nghd; w rpukg; g Lk; rdj; n jhifapd; rpy gpuptpdUf;F cjtyhk;. Rfhjhuj;jpw;fhd nkhj;j nrytpdk; nkhj;j cs;ehl;L cw; g j; j papd; (nkh.c.c) Ehw; W tP j khf xg; g P l ; l stpy; nrhw; g khdjhff; fhzg;gbDk;> mJ gy tUlq;fshf khwhJs;s mNjNtis> (nkh.c.c.tpd; 4.1%) jdpahu; nrytpdk; Rfhjhu epjpaplypd; Kf;fpakhd %ykhfj; Njhd;wp27 Rfhjhug; guhkupg; G ngz; f Sf; F f; fpilf; F k; tha; g ; i g mjpfupf; f pd; w J. murhq;f mYtyu;fspy; ,UghyhiuAk; Fwpf;Nfhshff; nfhz;l Rfhjhuf; fhg;GWjpj; jpl;lk; xd;W (mf; u `uh) jw; N ghJ fpilf; f pd; w mNjNtis> Fwpg;ghf Kiwrhuh JiwapdJk; njhopy;tha;gGfisg; ngwhj ngz;fspdJk; ; ,dg;ngUf;f kw;Wk; Rfhjhuj; Njitfisf; Fwpf;Nfhshff; nfhz;l ,jid xj;j fhg;GWjpj; jpl;lk; Njitahf cs;sJ.

kfg;Ngw;W Rfhjhuk;
%d;W NtWgl;l mur epWtdq;fshy; njhFf;fg;gl;l MMR (jhapd; ,wg;G tPjk;) juTfs; njhlu;ghf Kuz;ghLfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. FLk;g Rfhjhug; gzpafj; j pd; gpufhuk; > 28 jhapd; ,wg; G tP j k; 100>000,w; F 38Mff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.29 jhapd; ,wg;G tPjk; Fiwthff; fhzg;gbDk;> Nkyjpff; fy;tpf;fhf kuzq;fs; njhlu;ghd tpupthd Gydha;Tfs; mtrpakhFk;. jhapd; ,wg;G tPjj;ijf; Fiwg;gjw;Fj; Njitahd Fwpj;j jiyaPLfis milahsk; fhz; g jw; F jw; N ghija kP s ha; T Kiwik ek; g fkhd tprhuizahf Nkk;gLj;jg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;.

32| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

jifikAs;s jha;khupd; gjpitg; NgZk; Rfhjhu mikr;rpd; Rfhjhu kUj;Jt khJkhu; (midwives) fu;g;gpzpj; jha;khupd; Kd;$l;ba Rkhu; 100% gjpit cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;wdu;. vdpDk;> Etnuypah> kd;dhu; kw;Wk; Ky;iyj;jT P Nghd;w rpy khtl;lq;fs; 65%,w;Fk; Fiwthd tPjj;ijNa gjpT nra;jd.30 ,jw;Ff; fhuzk; ,k;khtl;lq;fspy; nghJ Rfhjhu kUj;Jt khJkfSf;fhd kpFe;j gw;whf;Fiw kw;Wk; jw;NghJ epyTk; ghJfhg;G epiyik Mfpaitahf ,Uf;fyhk;.31 jw; N ghJ 96% Md gpurtq; f s; murhq; f j; j pdhy; elj; j g; g Lk; itj; j parhiyfshfpa Rfhjhu epWtdq; f spy; epfo; f pd; w d. 32 nkhj; j vz; z pf; i fahd gpurtq; f spy; tP l ; b y; epfOk; gpurtq; f s; kpfr; r pwpa E}w;WtPjkhf kl;Lk; ,Ug;gpDk;> mit gpurtj;jpw;Fg; gpe;jpa ,uj;jg; Nghf;fpd; fhuzkhf epfOk; jha;khupd; ,wg;G tPjkhFk;. Kuz;ghl;Lg; gpuNjrq;fspy; fhzg;gLk; guhkupg;G toq;Fk; cghak; kw;Wk; Nghf;Ftuj;J Nritapd; rP u ; F iyT fhuzkhfNt jq; f is kpFe; j Mgj; J f; F s; s hf; F k; tP l ; L g; gpurtj;ijg; ngz;fs; tpUk;gf;$Lk;.

fU ts tPjk; (Fertility Rate)


2000Mk; Mz;by; gjpyPL nra;af;$ba kl;lk; 1.9 ,ypUe;J 2006/7,y; 2.4 Mf mjpfupj;j nkhj;j fU ts tPj mjpfupg;ig kpfTk; gpe;jpa Fbkjpg;gpay; kw;Wk; Rfhjhu mstPL (DHS)33 fhl;Lfpd;wJ. Njhl;lj;Jiwapy; fU ts tPjk; 2.8 tPjj;ij mile;J mjpfupj;Jf; fhzg;gl;lJ. fU ts tpUg;G khw;wj;jpw;fhd fhuzk; Rdhkp my;yJ Kuz;ghl;bd;NghJ capupog;gpd; gpujpgypg;G Nghd;w gy;tiff; fhuzpfshf ,Uf;fyhk;. FLk;gj; jpl;lkply; epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fs; Fwpj;j xU FOtpw;F mr;RWj;jyhf> jtwhf czu;ej mbg;gil murpay; kw;Wk; ; rka FOf; f spd; mOj; j j; j pypUe; J ,J mjpf rpf; f yhdjhf Mf; f g; g l; b Uf; f yhk; . ,J rpyUf; F fUj; j il Nritfs; Nghjpastpy; fpilf;fhikapdhYk; epfo;e;jpUf;fyhk;.

FLk;gj; jpl;lk;
khtl; l q; f spilNa ghtpf; f g; g Lk; fUj; j il Kiwfspy; NtWghLfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. Kuz;ghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l kl;lf;fsg;G khtl;lj;ij vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> Mff; Fiwe;j ghtid tPjk; ve;jnthU Kiwikf;Fk; 34.5 tP j khff; fhzg; g l; l J. jdpg; g l; l ngz; f Sf; F fUj; j il kw; W k; FLk;gj;jpl;l cupikfs; fpilj;jy; gw;wpa njspthd topfhl;ly; ,y;iy. mit fpilg;gjhdJ kUj;Jtupd; tpUg;gj;ijg; nghWj;Nj mikfpd;wJ. ghypaypy; jPtpukhf ,Ug;gpDk; jpUkzkhfhj ngz;fspilNa fUj;jil ghtid gw;wpa juTfs; fpilf; f tpy; i y. murJiw rhu; e ; j fUj; j ilr; Nritapy; ,e; j g; ngz;fis miltjw;fhd jpl;lkplg;gl;l cghak; vJTk; ,y;iy. jpUkzkhd taJ te;jtu;fSf;F FLk;gj; jpl;l Kiwfs; gw;wpa jfty;fs; ,yFthff; fpilg;gpDk;> mj;jifa jfty;fs; fl;bsk; gUtj;jpdUf;Fk; ,sk; Ml;fSf;Fk; fpilg;gjpy;iy. mNdfkhd nfhs;if Mtzq;fs; fUj;jil Nritfisg; ngWtjw; f hd fl; b sikg; gUtj; j pdupd; cupikfis czu;tjpy;iy. Mdhy;> ,sk; Ml;fspd; Rfhjhuk; gw;wpa Njrpaf; nfhs;if ,e;j tplaj;ij cs;slf;fpAs;sJ. ,e;jf; nfhs;if ,d;Dk; efy; tbtpy;

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 33

cs;sJ. fl;bsikg; gUtj;jpdiug; nghWj;jtiu> fUj;jilj; Njitfspd; gjpy; eltbf;iff;F ngUk;ghYk; ngw;Nwhupd; rk;kjk; Nfhug;gLtJld; me; j uq; f j; i jg; NgZtjw; F k; ngw; N whupd; nghWg; G fis kjpg; g jw; F k; ,ilapy; eyd; NgZgtu; ngUk;ghYk; Kuz;gLfpd;wdu;. eyd; toq;Fdiu topfhl;Ltjw;fhd njspthd topfhl;ly;fs; tFf;fg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. ghlrhiyf; fiyj;jpl;lj;jpy; cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;s ,dg;ngUf;f Rfhjhu nkhbA+y; fUj;jil gw;wpa vt;tpjj; jftiyAk; cs;slf;ftpy;iy. mur Kftu;fspdhy; ghlrhiy khztu;fSf;F jahupf;fg;gl;l fy;tpr; rhjdq;fs; fUj;jil gw;wpa jfty;fis cs;slf;fpapUe;jjhYk; mjpfhupfspdJk; Mrpupau;fspdJk; vjpuhd kdg;ghq;F fhuzkhfj; jw;Nghija fiyj;jpl;lk; gaDWjpahf mikahjjhYk; mit xUNghJk; gad;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy.

,staJf; fu;g;gq;fs;
fl;bsk; gUtj;jpdupd; MNuhf;fpa tho;Tf;F fzprkhd rthyhf mikAk; Njitaw;w fu;g;gq;fis Rfhjhu Kjd;ikj; jpl;lk; (Health Master Plan) (20072016) milahsk; fhz;fpd;wJ. fl;bsk; gUtj;jpd; capupay;> cstpay;> r%f fyhrhu kw;Wk; ,dg;ngUf;fg; gupkhzq;fs; njhlu;ghf mtu;fspd; mwpT> tpOkpaq; f s; > jpwd; f s; kw; W k; elj; i jfis tpUj; j p nra; t ij mJ Kd; n khopfpd; w J. khtl; l q; f spilNa ,staJf; fu; g ; g q; f spy; ghupa NtWghLfs; fhzg; g Ltjhf mz; i kf; f hy Fbkjpg; g pay; Rfhjhuf; fzf;nfLg;G fhl;baJ. mk;ghiw kw;Wk; jpUNfhzkiy khtl;lq;fs; cau;ej ; tPjj;ijAk; fhyp> fz;b kw;Wk; fk;g`h khtl;lq;fs; Fiwthd tPjj;ijAk; gjpT nra;jd.34 rl;l uPjpahd jpUkz tajhfpa 18 tajpw;Ff; fPo; cs;s jha;khupd; gjpT nra; a g; g l; l gpwg; G fspd; vz; z pf; i f rl; l j; i jg; gw; w pa mwpT my; y J Gupe;Jzu;T ,d;ikiaf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

ml;ltiz 3

%yk;: gjpthsu; ehafj;jpd; jpizf;fsk;

34| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

epue;ju FLk;gj; jpl;lkply; Kiwf;fhd rk;kjk;


ngz;zpd; fUj;jilr; rj;jpurpfpr;ifapd; NghJ kidtpapd; rk;kjj;Jld; fztdpd; rk; k jKk; > Mzpd; fUj; j ilr; rj; j purpfpr; i rapd; NghJ kWjiyahfTk; rk; k jk; ngwg; g Ljy; Ntz; L k; . tpjitahd my; y J jpUkzkhfhj ngz;Zf;Ff; fUj;jilr; rj;jpu rpfpr;ir nra;a kWg;gjw;F vt;tpjkhd rl;l MjhuKk; fpilahJ. vdpDk;> r%f fsq;fk; mt;thW ngz;fs; Nfl;gijj; jtpu;g;gJld;> mj;jifa re;ju;g;gq;fspy; rj;jpu rpfpr;ir epGzupd; kdg;ghq;Fk; nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;Jfpd;wJ. fU tsj;ij mopg;gjw;fhd tpjpj;Jiuf;fg;gl;l gbtq;fs; Kk;nkhopfspYk; Rfhjhu mikr;rpy; ,Ug;gpDk; $l> fy;tp mwpT kl;lk; Fiwe;j Njhl;lg; gpuNjrq; f spy; cs; s ngz; f s; ,e; e ltbf; i f Kiwapd; KOikahd Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij tpsq;fpf; nfhs;tjpy; rpukg;gLtJld; fztdhy; my;yJ Cf; F tpg; G f; nfhLg; g dtpd; nghUshjhu ed; i kapdhy; mOj; j k; nfhLf; f g; g lyhk; . vspa nkhopeiliaf; nfhz; l tpNrlkhf me; j g; gpuNjrq; f Sf; F tbtikf; f g; g l; l jkpo; nkhopapy; mD$yq; f isAk; gpujp$yq;fisAk; tpsf;Fk; Jz;Lg;gpuRuk; ,e;jg; gpur;rpidiaj; jPu;g;gjw;F cjTk;.

fUr;rpijT
(COs) ge;jp 283,d; gpufhuk; fUr;rpijT> KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( ) ghugl; r k; kw; W k; Rfhjhu rl; l thf; f j; j py; mJ njhlu; g hf eltbf; i f Nkw;nfhs;Sjy; Mfpait Nkw;nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy. vdpDk; ,J ngz;zpd; Rfhjhu cupikapd; Njhw; w g; g hl; b y; kpFe; j mf; f iwf; F upa tplakhFk; . J}z;lg;gl;l fUr;rpijTfspd; mjpfupj;j vz;zpf;ifiag; nghWj;jtiu mJ jw; N ghJ Mz; L NjhWk; 125>000-175>000 vd kjpg; g plg; g l; L s; s J. 35 fUr;rpijTfis ehLNthupy; mNdfkhdtu;fs; (86% - 96%) jpUkzkhdtu;fs;. fUr;rpijitf; NfhUtjw;F toq;fg;gLk; kpfg; nghJthd fhuzk; filrpf; Foe;ij kpfTk; taJ Fiwe;jJ vd;gjhFk;. kpfTk; nghJthd taJf;FO 2529 tUlq;fshFk;. rpy FLk;gq;fs; FLk;gj;jpl;l Kiwikapy; xd;whff; fUr;rpijit ehlyhk;. fUr;rpijTr; rl;lj;jpd; ,Wf;fkhd eilKiwg;gLj;jy; Nrit fhuzkhf ,e;j toq;Fdu;fis ntspg;gLj;jhj fhuzj;jpdhy;> ghuk;gupakhdJk; ngUk;ghYk; jP q ; f hdJkhd Kiwfis ngz; f s; ehLtjw; f hd tha; g ; G cz; L . J}z;lg;gl;l fUr;rpijT njhlu;ghf ghuhKfkhf ,Ug;gjw;Fg; gjpyhf murhq;fk; mjidj; jtpu;j;jy; Ntz;Lk; my;yJ mjidr; rl;lKiwahf;Fjy; Ntz;Lk; my;yJ mjid Mff;Fiwe;jJ rpy epge;jidfspd; fPo; jhuhskakhf Mf;f Ntz;Lk;; vd FLk;gj;jpl;lkply; rq;fj;jpd; kUj;Jtg; gzpg;ghsu; 2004,y; fUj;Jiu $wpdhu;.36

vr;.I.tp./va;l;];
,yq;ifapy; 1987 Kjy; vr;.I.tp./va;l;]; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;bUg;gpDk; $l ,yq;ifapy; me;Neha; FiwthfNt fhzg;gLk; xU ehlhfNt ,d;Wk; cs;sJ. vdpDk; MZiw ghtpg; G xg; g P l ; l stpy; Fiwthf mjhtJ Rkhu; 5% fhzg; g Ltjhy; ngz; f s; vr; . I.tp./va; l ; ] ; ,dhy; ghjpg; g ilaf; $ ba

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 35

epiyapy; cs;sdu;.37 ngz;Ziw gad;gLj;jg;gLtjpy;iy. mj;Jld; mtw;wpd; mjpf tpiy fhuzkhf kPs;ghtidf;F cl;gLj;jf;$Lk; vd;gjhy; ghypay; njhopyhsu;fs; mlq;fyhf kpfTk; Mgj;Jf;Fs;shff;$ba FOf;fspilNa $l mjidg; gad;gLj;Jtjw;F Cf;Ftpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. njhopw;rhiy Copau;fs;> gy;fiyf;fof khztu;fs; kw;Wk; fl;bsk; gUtj;jpdu; Nghd;w ghypay; uPjpahfj; jPtpukhf cs;s FOf;fSf;F MZiw ,yFthff; fpilg;gJld; mJ cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;ba xU tplaKk; MFk;. MZiw tpw;gid nra;Ak; ,ae;jpuq;fs; ,y;iy. ghypay; njhopyhsu;fs; vd re;Njfpf;fg;gLgtu;fs; MZiw itj; j pUe; j ikf; f hf ifJ nra; a g; g LtjhfTk; eilngw; w rk;gtq;fspd; mDgt rhd;Wfs; cs;sd.

khw;whw;wy; cs;s rpWkpfSk; ngz;fSk;


,ytr Rfhjhug; guhkupg; G fpilg; g pDk; $l> ngz; f s; mlq; f yhf kpff;fLikahd khw;whw;wy; cs;stu;fSf;F mNdfkhd Rfhjhu epWtd uPjpahd cl;fl;likg;Gfspy; tpNrl EioT trjpfs; ,y;iy.

ghy; uPjpahfg; gFf;fg;gl;l jfty;


ghy; uPjpahfg; gFf;fg;gl;l jfty;fs; Nrfupf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. mj;Jld; mit fpilf;ff;$bajhf ,Ug;gpDk; $l> Rfhjhuj; Jiwapdhy; ntspaplg;gLk; Gs;sp tpgutpay; juTfspy; gFg;ghag;gLtjpy;iy. ,e;jg; gFf;fg;gl;l juTfs; fpilf;Fkhapd;> mit ngz;fSf;Fg; gadspf;ff;$ba gy jiyaPLfisj; jpl;lkpLtjw;F cjTk;.

,uj;jr;Nrhif kw;Wk; gpwg;G epiw Fiwthd Foe;ijfs;


murhq;f Rfhjhug; guhkupg;G epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs; fu;g;gpzpg; ngz;fSf;F Nghrhf; F s; s epiwAzT toq; f y; f s; Nghd; w tw; i w cs; s lf; F fpd; w mNjNtis> mjpf tP j j; j py; Fiwe; j epiwAs; s gps; i sfspd; gpwg; G f; F mbg; g ilahd fhuzp ngz; f spilNa ,uj; j r; Nrhif NehahFk; . `PNkhFNshgpd; kl;lg; gjpTfspd; %yk; ngz;fspd; ,uj;jr;Nrhif epiy gw;wpa Ma;nthd;wpd; gpufhuk; ,uj;jr;Nrhif kl;lq;fs; tUkhW: 20 - 29 tajpw;Fl;gl;l ngz;fspilNa 32.0> 30 - 35> tajpw;Fl;gl;l ngz;fspilNa 35.0 kw;Wk; 40 - 49 tajpw;Fl;gl;l ngz;fspilNa 46.0 MFk;.38 ,e;j tplaq;fs; tPl;by; ghy;epiy mbg;gilapy; NtWgl;L czT fpilg;gij kpf cWjpahff; Fwpj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wd.

36| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

cA 14

fpuhkpag; ngz;fs;
Ez; kl;l nghUshjhu kw;Wk; r%f nfhs;iffSk; mgptpUj;jpj; jpl;lq;fSk; fpuhkpa kf; f s; kP J k; nghJthf mtu; f spd; ey; t ho; t pYk; jhf; f j; i jf; nfhz;bUg;gpDk;> epyTfpd;w je;ijahjpf;f (patriarchal) tpOkpaq;fs; kw;Wk; kdg;ghq;Ffspd; fhuzkhf Mz;fs; kw;Wk; ngz;fs; kPJ NtWghlhd jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk; Nghf;if mit nfhz;Ls;sd. vdNt> murplkpUe;Jk; murrhu;gw;w epWtdq;fsplkpUe;Jk; Fwpj;j rpy jiyaPLfs; fhzg;gl;l NghjpYk;> fpuhkpag; ngz;fs; njhlu;e;Jk; ghugl;rq;fisAk; rpukq;fisAk; vjpu;Nehf;Ffpd;wdu;.

fpuhkpag; nghUshjhuj;jpy; ngz;fspd; gq;fspg;G czug;glhik:


fpuhkpa cw;gj;jp gw;wpa ghy; uPjpahfg; gFf;fg;gl;l juTfisr; Nrfupg;gjd; %yk; nghUshjhuj;jpy; fpuhkpag; ngz;fspd; gq;fspg;ig czu;tjw;fhd murhq;fj;jpd; mtrpaj;ij CEDAW FO KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( (COs) ) ge; j p 295,y; ; typAWj; J fpd; w J. ,J njhlu; g hd rpy eltbf; i ffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;bUg;gpDk;> ghy; uPjpahfg; gFf;fg;gl;l juTfs; ,d;Dk; ,y; i y. vdNt Njrpa Gs; s p tpguq; f spy; Gyg; g lhj ngz; f s; ghjpg; g iltJld; Rdhkp tho; t hjhu kP l ; G epfo; r ; r pj; jpl; l fspd; eilKiwg; g Lj; j ypy; fhzg; g l; l thW rpy cupj; J fisg; ngWtjw; f hd Mw;wiy ,of;fpd;wdu;. fUj; j pl; l Kd; n khopTfspy; ngz; tptrhapfs; tP l ; b Ds; Klf;fg;gLfpd;wdu;. NritfSk; fUj;jpl;lq;fSk; nghJthf Mz; FLk; g j; jiytiu Fwpf; N fhshff; nfhz; L s; s d. fUj; j pl; l g; gadhspfshfg; ngz;fs; milahsk; fhzg;gLfpd;wNghJ> tPl;Lg; nghUshjhuj;jpw;Fg; gq;fspg;Gr; nra;fpd;w mNjNtis> tPl;Lj; Jiwapy; ghupa nghWg;Gfisr; Rkf;Fk; ngUk;ghd;ikahd twpa ngz;fisg; Gwf;fzpj;J gpujhdkhd ftdf;Ftpg;G nghJthf tpjitfs; kw;Wk; ngz;fs; jiyikapyhd FLk;gq;fs; kPJ nrYj;jg;gLfpwJ. tptrhapfs; jkJ nrhe;j cupikfisf; nfhz;bUg;gpDk;> tptrhapfs; rq;fq;fspy; my;yJ Vida fkj;njhopy; - nghUshjhu mbg;gilapyhd rq;fq;fspy; ngz;fspd; cWg;ghz;ik tiuaWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJld; mtu;fs; kpf mupjhfNt mjpfhug; gjtpfis tfpf;fpd;wdu;39 vdr; nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 37

murhq;fk; fpuhkpa mgptpUj;jpia typAWj;jpAs;sikia ehk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpd;w mNjNtis> fpuhkpa rKjhaq; f spy; ngz; f spd; mf; f iwfisAk; ghugl;rq;fisAk; eptu;j;jpg;gjw;F VNjDk; typAWj;jy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ njhlu;ghf ehk; fhztpy;iy.

fkj;njhopy; nraw;ghLfspy; Mz;fSf;Fk; ngz;fSf;Fk; ,ilapy; Cjpa NtWghLfs;


NkYk; KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( (COs) ge;jp 295; njhlu;ghf> new;gapu;r; ) nra;ifapYk; Vida ghuk;gupa fkj;njhopy; nraw;ghLfspYk; Kiwrhu; $yp fl;likg;G kw;Wk; Mff;Fiwe;j Cjpak; kl;lk; fpilahJ. fpuhkpa fkj;njhopy; nraw;ghLfspy; Mz;fSf;Fk; ngz;fSf;Fkhd Cjpaq;fspy; njspthd ghugl;rk; epyTfpd;wJ. Mz;fs; ngz;fis tpl $Ljyhd Ntiy nra;gtu;fs; vd;Dk; ghy;epiyf; fUj;jpay; kw;Wk; ngz;fspd; Copak; Mz;fis tpl Fiwe; j ngWkjp cilajhff; fUjg; g Ljy; Mfpait fhuzkhf xNu fkj;njhopy; nraw;ghLfspy; <Lgl;lhYk; ngz;fSf;F Mz;fis tplf; Fiwe;j nfhLg;gdT nrYj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. cjhuzk;: ngz;fSf;F ruhrupahf ehnshd;Wf;F &gh 200 nrYj;jg;gLfpd;w mNjNtis Mz;fSf;F &gh 350 400 nrYj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. Mz;fs;> ngz;fs; Mfpa ,U gpuptpdUk; mj;jifa Cjpa NtWghLfis Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjhy; ,e;jg; ghugl;r eilKiw ,ilawhJ Ngzg;gLfpd;wJ.

cw;gj;jp eltbf;ifapy; ngz;fis rkj;Jtkhd gq;fhsu;fshf Vw;Wf; nfhs;shik


,yq;ifapd; fiuNahug; gpuNjrq;fspy; flw;nwhopy; ghupa nghUshjhur; nraw; g hlhFk; . Mz; f Sk; ngz; f Sk; NtWgl; l jifikfspy; ,e; j r; nraw;ghLfspy; <LgLfpd;wdu;. Mz;fs; flypy; my;yJ cs;@upy; kPd;gpbj; njhopypy; Neubahf <LgLfpd;wdu;. mtu;fs; ngupa my;yJ rpwpa mstpy; kPd; tpw;gidapYk; <LgLfpd;wdu;. nghJthf Mz;fs; jhd; glFfisAk; kPdgpbf; ; fUtpfisAk; cilikahff; nfhz;Ls;sdu;. gpuNjrj;ijAk; gpuhe;jpaj;ijAk; nghWj;J ngz;fspd; <LghL NtWgLfpd;wJ. rpy khtl;lq;fspy; ngz;fs; Neubahf flypy; kP d ; g pbg; g jpy; <LgLfpd; w du; . mtu; f s; jhkhfNt nry;fpd;wdu;. Mdhy; mtu;fs; jkJ fztd;khUld; nry;Yk; re;ju;g;gq;fSk; cz;L. ,e;jg; gpuNjrq;fspy; ngz;fs; flYf;Fr; nry;tjpy; vt;tpj jilAk; ,y;iy. NtW rpy gpuNjrq;fspy; ngz;fs; cs;@upy; MWfspYk; VupfspYk; kPd;gpbg;gjpy; <LgLfpd;wdu;. ngz;fs; kPidg; gjdpLjy; kw;Wk; tpw;gid nra; j y; Nghd; w tw; w pYk; <LgLfpd; w du; . vdNt> ngz; f s; flw; n whopy; Jiwapy; fzprkhd gq; f spg; g pid toq; F fpd; w du; . vdpDk; ngz; f s; flw;nwhopy; rq;fq;fspy; kpf mupjhfNt cWg;gpdu;fshf cs;sdu;. mtu;fs; cWg;gpdu;fshf ,Ue;jhy; $l> flw;nwhopy; rq;fq;fspy; Mz; Mjpf;fk; fhzg;gLtjhy; ngz;fs; mupjhfNt Fuy; vOg;Gfpd;wdu;. NkYk;> flw;nwhopy; Jiw Mz;fis ikakhff; nfhz;Ls;sjhy;> ngz;fs; jkJ cw;gj;jpfis tpw;gid nra;tjpy; rpukj;ij vjpu;nfhs;fpd;wdu;. re;ijfs; Mz;fshy; Mjpf;fk; nrYj; j g; g Lfpd; w d. ngz; f s; jkJ cw; g j; j pfis tpw; g id nra; t jw; F ,lkpy;iy. ngz;fs; re;ijf;F mg;ghy; js;sg;gLfpd;wdu;. mjdhy; mtu;fs; jkJ cw;gj;jpfis tPl;Lf;F tPL nfhz;L nry;fpd;wdu; my;yJ mtw;iw jk;ikr; Ruz;Lfpd;w KjyhspkhUf;F (,ilj; jufu;fs;) tpw;gid nra;fpd;wdu;.

38| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

jkJ cw;gj;jpfis jhkhfNt re;ijg;gLj;Jk; ngz;fs; tiuaWf;fg;gl;l ,af;fj;ijf; nfhz;bUg;gjhy; rpwpa xU gpuNjrj;jpNyNa mtu;fs; epd;W tpLfpd; w du; . ,t; t hwhf> Mz; f NshL xg; g pLk; N ghJ flw; n whopypy; <Lgl; L s; s ngz; f s; jkJ nraw; g hLfis tpupthf; f k; nra; J Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd Fiwe;j tha;g;igNa nfhz;Ls;sdu;.

fkj;njhopy; nraw;ghLfs; rpy ,ae;jpukag;gLj;jg;gLtjhy; ngz;fs; rpyu; NtiyapypUe;J xJf;fg;gLfpd;wdu;


ghuk;gupakhf fkj;njhopy; cw;gj;jpfspy; ngz;fs; Mz;fSf;Fr; rkdhd gq;fhspfshtu;. ngz;fs; new;gapu;r;nra;if kw;Wk; Nridg; gapu;r;nra;ifapy; gythwhd nraw;ghLfspy; (ntl;Ljy;> vupj;jy;) <LgLfpd;wdu;. mj;NjhL tPl;Lj;Njhl;lr; nra;if kw;Wk; tho;thjhu fkj;njhopy; Nghd;wtw;wpYk; <LgLfpd;wdu;. ,ae;jpuq;fspd; mwpKfk; fhuzkhf ngz;fs; fhyj;jpw;Ff; fhyk; fkj;njhopypy; jkJ ghuk;gupa nraw;ghLfspypUe;J xJf;fg;gLfpd;wdu;. mWtil nra;jy;> juk; gpupj;jy;> fjpubj;jy;> J}w;Wjy; Nghd;w gy fkj;njhopy; nraw;ghLfis Mw;wty;y gy Nehf;F ,ae;jpuj;jpd; mz;ikf;fhy mwpKfk; cly; ciog;ghspfspd; Njitia ntFthff; Fiwj;Js;sJ. ,e;j Gjpa njhopy; E l; g k; Mz; f s; kP J k; ngz; f s; kP J k; NtWgl; l jhf; f q; f is Vw; g Lj; j pAs; s J. ,d; W ngUk; g hyhd Ntiyfs; Mz; f shy; epiwNtw;wg;gLfpd;w mNjNtis> ngz;fs; Mw;wy; ,y;yhj njhopw;ghl;L ,ae;jpuq;fshff; nfhs;sg;gLtjhy; Gwe;js;sg;gLfpd;wdu;. vdNt> ngz;fs; jq;fs; ghuk;gupa ifj;njhopw; nraw;ghLfis ,oe;Js;sdu;.

nfhLg;gdtw;w FLk;g Ntiy


nfhLg;gdtw;w FLk;g Ntiy ngz; njhopw;gilapdupd; gq;Nfw;G njhlu;ghd xU gpur;rpidahFk;. Ntiy nra;Ak; taJf;FOtpd; rdj;njhifapy; 6.6% ngz;fs; nfhLg;gdtw;w FLk;gj; njhopyhsu;fshf cs;s mNjNtis> mJ Mz;fisg; nghWj;jtiu 2.9% kl;LNk MFk; vd njhopw;gilg; gq;Nfw;G mstPL 2007 fhl;Lfpd;wJ. NkYk;> nfhLg;gdtw;w FLk;gj; njhopyhsu;fspy; ngz;fs; 71.6%Mf mike;jpUe;jij me;j mstPL Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;baJ. nkhj;j Ntiy tha;g;gpy; nfhLg;gdtw;w FLk;gj; njhopyhsu;fshy; toq;fg;gLk; gq;fspg;G xg;gPl;L uPjpapy; mDuhjGuk;> nkhduhfiy kw;Wk; gJis Nghd;w khtl;lq;fspy; mjpfkhFk;. ,it mjpf ngz; njhopw;gilg; gq;Nfw;igf; nfhz; l khtl; l q; f shf milahsk; fhzg; g l; L s; s d. fkj; n jhopy; JiwahdJ nrwpe;J fhzg;gLk; khtl;lq;fSk; ,itfshFk;. ,j;jifa ghugl; r eltbf; i ffs; ngz; f spd; ey; t ho; i tg; ghjpg; g jhy; mit Vw;Wf;nfhs;s KbahjitahFk;.

ngUe;Njhl;lj;JiwapYs;s ngz;fs;
ngUe; N jhl; l j; Jiwapy; Mz; f Sf; F k; ngz; f Sf; F k; rkkhd Cjpak; nrYj;jg;gLfpd;w mNj Ntis> ngz;fs; ePz;l Neuk; Ntiy nra;fpd;wdu;. Mdhy; Ntiyapd; ngWkjpf;Fr; rkdhd Cjpaj;ij mtu;fs; ngWtjpy;iy.40 ngz;fs; Nkyjpf Ntiy Neuf; nfhLg;gditg; ngWtjw;F mjpfupj;j epiwahd 1 fpNyhfpwhk; Njapiyf; nfhOe; J gwpf; f Ntz; L k; vd vjpu;ghu;ffg;gLfpd;wdu;. NkYk;> ngUe;Njhl;lj;jpy; ve;jnthU CopaUk; tPlL ; ; trjpiag; ngWtjw;fhd jifikiaf; nfhz;bUg;gpUk;> jw;NghJ tPl;L

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 39

trjpf; f hd FO cWg; g pdu; f Sf; F kl; L Nk tP L fs; toq; f g; g LtJld; cWg; g pdu; f s; epiyahf tP l ; L jiytu; f shf ,Ug; g jhy; (Mz; f s; vd nfhs;sg;gLtjhy;) ngz;fs; jFjpaw;wtu;fshfpd;wdu;.

fpuhkpag; gpuNjrq;fspy; Ra njhopy; nraw;ghLfspd; / Ez;njhopy; Kaw;rpfspd; tpUk;gj;jfhj #o;epiy


fpuhkpag; gpuNjrq;fspy; fkj;njhopy; rhuhj nraw;ghLfspd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; Jupjkhf mjpfupj;J tUfpd;wJ. fpuhkpag; gpuNjrq;fspy; ifj;njhopy; mgptpUj;jp ,y; y hjpUf; f pd; w mNjNtis> fpuhkpag; nghUshjhuj; j py; Ranjhopy; / Ez;njhopy; Kaw;rp Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngw;Ws;sJ. mtw;Ws; mNdfkhdit tP l ; i l mbg; g ilahff; nfhz; l rpwpa nghUshjhur; nraw; g hLfshf tifg;gLj;jg;gLtjhy; mj;jifa nraw;ghLfspy; gy ngz;fs; rpukj;Jld; <LgLfpd; w du; . vdpDk; > fpuhkpaf; FLk; g q; f isg; nghWj; j tiu mit Kf;fpakhd tUkhd %yq;fshFk;. mj;jifa tPlil mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l ; nraw; g hLfs; ghugl; r g; g Lj; j g; g LtJld; > mit mur cjtpfisg; ngWtjpy; i y. mj; j ifa nraw; g hLfspy; <Lgl; L s; s ngz; f s; %yg;nghUl;fs;> fld;> cw;gj;jpfisr; re;ijg;gLj;jy; Mfpa trjpfisg; ngWtjpy; rpukj;ij vjpu;Nehf;Ffpd;wdu;. murrhu;gw;w epWtdq;fs; kWGwj;jpy; ngz;fspd; Ranjhopy; Kaw;rpfspy; XusTf;F mf;fiw nrYj;jpAs;sd. Mdhy; > mj; j ifa Kaw; r pfSf; F j; Njitahd ghJfhg; G ,d; D k; fpilf;ftpy;iy. ngz;fspd; tho;thjhur; nraw;ghLfSf;fhd ghJfhg;gpd;ik Rdhkpapd; NghJ njspthff; fhzg;gl;lJ. gy ngz;fspd; nghUshjhur; nraw;ghLfs; gjpT nra;ag;glhjjhy; mtu;fshy; mur cjtpfisg; ngw Kbatpy;iy.

khw;whw;wYs;s fpuhkpag; ngz;fs;


midj;J ngz;fSk; ghugl;rj;ij vjpu;Nehf;fp gpujp$yq;fis mDgtpj;j mNjNtisapy; fpuhkpag; ngz;fisg; nghWj;jtiu tWik> gpd;jq;fpa gpuNjrj;jpy; ,Uj;jy;> Nritfs; Fiwthff; fpilj;jy;> Fiwthd mwpT kw;Wk; tpopg;G epiy fhuzkhf #o;epiy NkYk; NkhrkhdJ vd khw;whw;wy; cs;s ngz;fs; gw;wpa Ma;T (NkNy ghu;f;f) njuptpj;jJ.

fpuhkpag; ngz;fSk; J}a ePu; fpilj;jYk;


If;fpa kf;fs; Rje;jpuf; $l;likg;gpd; gpufhuk; (I.k.R$)> (2002) ,yq;ifapy; 83% kf; f Sf; F J}a eP u ; fpilf; f pd; w J. J}a eP u ; fpilf; f pd; w tplaj; i jg; nghWj;jtiu fpuhkpag; gpuNjrq;fs; efug; gpuNjrq;fis tpl mjpf gpujp$yk; milfpd;wd. mJ fpuhkpag; ngz;fs; kPJ Neubahd jhf;fj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. J}uj;jpypUe;J ePiu Rkg;gjhdJ ngz;fis ,uz;L tpjj;jpy; ghjpf;fpd;wJ. mitahtd> mtu;fspd; MNuhf;fpak; kw;Wk; mtu;fspd; Mf;f Ntiyf;fhd Neuj;jpd; tPz; tpuak; MfpadthFk;.

40| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

cA 15

rl;lj;jpd; Kd; rkj;Jtk;


cWg;Giu 15 (1)
vkJ ghu;itapy;> cWg;Giu 15 MdJ> jhf;fk; kw;Wk; ngWNgw;wpd; ngUksthd rkj;Jtj;jpd; epakj;ij miltijAk; ntWkNd Kiwrhu; rkj;Jtj;jpy; my; y hJ ngWNgw; w py; rkj; J tj; i j cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; f hd ghy; e piyj; njhlu;Gfspd; khw;wj;ijAk; Njitg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. vdNt cWg;Giu 15(1) rkthaj;jpd; Vida cWg;Giufspy; tpNrlkhff; Fwpg;gplg;glhj rl;lj;jpd; Kd; rkj;Jtj;jpd; rpy tplag;gug;Gfis cs;slf;Ftjw;F epoy; mwpf;ifapy; nghUs; nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ.41

cWg;Giu 15(2) kw;Wk; 15(3) xg;ge;jq;fs; mlq;fyhf rptpy; tplaq;fspy; rl;l Mw;wy;
nghJr;rl;lk; kw;Wk; K];ypk; gpuj;jpNafr; rl;lj;jpd; (personal law) fPo; rptpy; tof;FfspYk; xg;ge;jq;fs; njhlu;ghfTk; rl;lG+u;tkhd me;j];J mlq;fyhf rl;l Mw;wiy ngz;fs; nfhz;Ls;sdu;. 2002Mk; Mz;by; rl;lj; jpUj;jk; xd;wpd; %yk; gps;isfs; rhu;ghf ePjpkd;wj;jpy; Njhd;Wtjw;fhd jpUkzkhd ngz;zpd; cupik gw;wpa fhydpj;Jt rl;lj;jpd; xU tiuaiw ePf;fg;gl;lJ. ,J xu; Ntisf;Nfw;w jpUj;jkhFk;. ,J jpUkzkhd ngz; guhakilahj gps; i sfspd; Nkyhd my; y J tpUg; G f; F upa ghJfhtyuhf fUjg; g Lk; jw;Nghija nghJr;rl;lj;jpd; ghupa ghugl;rk; fhl;Lk; tplak; njhlu;ghf vt;tpj eltbf;ifAk; Nkw;nfhs;stpy;iy. (COs) ge;jpfs; 274 kw;Wk; 275,y; CEDAW FO> KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( rpWghd;ikr; rKjhaq;fSf;Fg; gpuNahfpf;fj;jf;f gpuj;jpNaf rl;lj;ij kPsha;T nra; J ,yq; i fapy; murpayikg; G lDk; CEDAW tpjpKiwfSlDk; ,irTgLj;JkhW muir typAWj;jpaJ. cs;ehl;L Kuz;ghL kw;Wk; jdpj;Jt murpay; Mfpait ,e;jf; fhyg;gFjpapy; ,e;jr; rl;lq;fis kPsha;T nra;tjpy; my; y J KbTWj; J k; fUj; J iufspd; gpujpgypg; g hf Kd; n dLg; G fis Nkw;nfhs;tjpy; <LgLtjw;fhd murpay; tpUg;gkpd;ikf;F gq;fspg;Gr; nra;jJ.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 41

mjd; tpisthf K];ypk; tpthf> tpthfuj;Jr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; gpuNahfpf;fj;jf;f ,]; y hkpa rl; l j; j pd; vz; z f; f Uf; f Sf; F Kuzhf tiuaiwfis mwpKfg; g Lj; j pa eP j pkd; w q; f spy; rl; l tpay; fhuzkhf jkJ gpuj; j pNaf Mjdj;ij Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;tjw;fhd rl;l Mw;wiy K];ypk; ngz;fs; njhlu; e ; J k; ,of; f pd; w du; . mt; t hNw ,yq; i fapd; tl khfhzj; j py; gpuNahfpf; f j; j f; f kuGtop jkpo; gpuj; j pNaf rl; l j; j pdhy; (Njrtoik) fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLk; ngz;fisf; Fwpg;gplyhk;. xU jpUkzkhd ngz; fhzpfs; njhlu;ghd nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fspy; jkJ fztdpd; vOj;jpyhd rk;kjj;ijg; ngw Ntz; L k; vdf; fl; l hag; g Lj; j g; g l; L > 1911,y; fhydpj; J t rl; l thf; f j; j pdhy; mwpKfg; g Lj; j g; g l; l kuGtopr; rl; l j; j pd; jpUj; j q; f Sf; f ikthfj; njhlu; e ; J k; cs; s du; . gpd; d u; eP j pkd; w j; j py; Njhd; W tjw; f hd gpuj; j pNaf cupikia kWg; g jw; F my; y J fztdpd; rk;kjkpd;wp xg;ge;jf; nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fspy; <LgLtjw;F cau; ePjp kd;wj;jpy; ,e;j epajpr;rl;l Vw;ghl;Lf;Fg; nghUs; tpsf;fk; mspf;fg;gl;lJ. ,w;iwtiu ,e; j gpuj; j pNafr; rl; l q; f isj; jpUj; J tjw; f hd vt; t pj Kaw; r pAk; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g ltpy; i y. kuGtopr; rl; l q; f spy; fhydpj; J t rl; l j; j py; nry;thf;Ffs; gw;wpa njspthd jfty; jsk; ,Ug;gpDk; $l> ,e;jr; rl;lq;fs; kuGtopahdit vdTk; kWrPuikg;G fyhrhu my;yJ rka $Uzu;Tfis kPWk; vdTk; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. ICCPR rl;lk; (2007) gw;wpa xU Fwpg;gpy; murpd; goikthjj;ij cau; ePjp kd;wk; Fwpg;gpl;lJ. gpuj;jpNafr; rl;lq;fspd; jpUj;jk; $Uzu;Ts;s tplak; vd;Wk; ,e;jg; gpuj;jpNafr; rl;lq;fspdhy; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLk; rKjhaq;fspd; cs;sf kPsha;tpd; mbg;gilapy; kl;LNk jpUj;jq;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;glyhk; vd;Wk; gpujk ePjpauru; cau; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; $wpdhu;.

cWg;Giu 15(4)
gpuj;jpNaf rl;lq;fspy; VNjDk; tiuaiwfs; fhzg;gbDk;> K];ypk; ngz;fs; cl;gl 16 tajpw;F Nkw;gl;l vy;yh ,yq;ifg; ngz;fSf;Fk; elkhLtjw;fhd jdpg;gl;l Rje;jpuk; cz;L vd ePjpkd;w rl;ltpay; njspTgLj;jpAs;sJ.42 vy;yh ,yq;ifg; ngz;fSk; jkJ tjptplj;ijAk; thoplj;ijAk; njupT nra;tjw;fhd rl;l cupikiaf; nfhz;Ls;sdu;. Fiwe;j tUkhdk; cs;s ngz;fspd; fy;tp mwpT kl;lk; Vida gy njw;fhrpa ehLfis tpl rpwg;ghf ,Ug; g jhYk; > ngz; f s; cz; i kapy; tP l ; L f; F ntspapy; njhopy; kw; W k; nghUshjhur; nraw; g hLfspYk; <Lgl; b Ug; g jhYk; mtu; f s; tisFlh ehLfspy; Fwpg;ghf tPl;L NtiyfSf;fhfg; Gyk; ngau;e;Js;sdu;. Njrpa ntspehl;L xJf;fq;fSf;Fk; FLk;g MjuTf;Fk; ,e;jg; Gyk; ngau; ngz; njhopyhsu;fspd; gq;fspg;ig kjpj;J njhopYf;fhfg; ngz;fspd; ntspehl;Lg; gpuahzj;jpw;F trjpaspg;gjw;fhf rl;lq;fisAk; nfhs;iffisAk; epfo;r;jpj; jpl;lq;fisAk; muR mwpKfk; nra;Js;sJ. vdpDk; 2006,y; ngz;fSf;F rpW gps;isfs; ,Ug;gpd; njhopYf;fhf ntspehl;Lf;Fg; gpuahzk; Nkw;nfhs;Sk; mtu;;fspd; cupik kPJ rpWtu; mgptpUj;jp ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; mikr;R tiuaiwfis ,Ltijg; gpNuupj;jJ. ngz;fs; FOf;fs; kw;Wk; gpwpnjhU mur Kftuhd ntspehl;L Ntiytha;g;Gg; gzpafk; Mfpatw;wpd; kpff;fLikahd gpujpgypg;Gf; fhuzkhf ,e;jg; gpNuuizfs; gpd;du; jpUk;gg; ngwg;gl;ld.

42| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

murpdhy; gpNuupf;fg;gLk; ,e;j vjpuhd nfhs;if Kd;ndLg;Gfs; Fwpg;gpLtJ ahnjdpy;> ,yq;ifg; gpu[hTupikr; rl;lj; jpUj;jj;jpy; my;yJ Ms; milahs ml;ilfis toq;Ftij xOq;FgLj;Jk; Ml;gjpTr; rl;lthf;fj;jpy; tjptplk; my;yJ thoplj;jpw;fhd cupik gw;wp njspthd Vw;ghLfis cs;slf;f Ntz;ba Njit cs;sJ vd;gjhFk;. Fwpj;Jiuf;fg;gl;l fhyg;gFjpapDs; jdpahs; kw;Wk; FLk;g rl;lq;fspy; rl;l kWrP u ikg; g pw; f hd Kd; n khopTfspy; ngz; f s; FOf; f Sk; ghy; e piy Mjuthsu;fSk; gq;Fgw;Wjiy trjpaspg;gjw;fhf> murpdhy; epWtd uPjpahd cghak; xd;W ];jhgpf;fg;glhjtplj;Jg; ngz;fs; ,e;j tplag;gug;Gfspy; njhlu;e;Jk; ghugl;rk; fhl;Lk; rl;lq;fspdhy; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLtu;.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 43

cA 16

jpUkzKk; FLk;g cwTfSk;


gpuj;jpNaf rl;l (personal law) kWrPuikg;Gfs;
NkNy cWg;Giu 15(2) kw;Wk; 15(3),y; fye;Jiuahlg;gl;lthW fhydpj;Jt fhyg;gFjpapy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l jpUj;jq;fs; fhuzkhf tpthfuj;J kw;Wk; kuGupik gw; w pa fz; b a rl; l j; j py; ghugl; r f; Nfhl; g hLfs; cs; s d. tlf;fpYs;s rpWghd;ik jkpo; ngz;fSf;Fg; gpuNahfpf;fj;jf;f Njr toikr; rl;lj;jpy; Mjdq;fs; gw;wpa tiuaiwfs; $l> fhydpj;Jtf; fhyg;gFjpapy; Njrtoikr; rl;lj;jpy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l rl;lthf;fj; jpUj;jq;fs; kw;Wk; Nuhkd; lr;R rl;lj;jpd; nry;thf;Ffs; Mfpatw;wpdhy; Vw;gl;litahFk;. muR ,];yhkpa ehLfspYk; njw;fhrpahtpYk; xg;glL rl;ltpaiyg; gad;gLj;jhJ> P ; CEDAW FOtpdhy; mjd; KbTWj; J k; fUj; J iufspy; kP z ; L k; kP z ; L k; gpNuupf; f g; g l; l thW ,e; j r; rl; l q; f spd; kP s ha; i t Nkw; n fhz; L s; s J. gpuj;jpNaf rl;lj;jpd; kWrPuikg;G njhlu;e;Jk; murpay; uPjpahf $Uzu;T kpf;f tplakhff; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ.

jpUkz taJ - cWg;Giu 16 (2)


K];ypk; rKjhaj;jpdu; my;yhNjhupd; jpUkz taJ 1995Mk; Mz;L 18 Mf cau;;j;jg;gl;lNghJk; 18 21 taJf;Fl;gl;l K];ypk; my;yhj Mz; kw;Wk; ngz; f spd; jpUkzj; j pw; F ngw; N whu; rk; k jk; NjitahFk; . ,J jpUkzj;jpw;fhd Mw;wy;> Mz; kw;Wk; ngz; Mfpa ,U ghyhUf;Fkhd guha taJ (1989,y; jpUj;jg;gl;lthwhf guha taJf; fl;lisr; rl;lk; 1865) Mfpatw;Wf;F KuzhdjhFk;. kWrPuikg;gpw;fhd Njit ngz;fs; FOf;fshy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l mjpfhupfsplk; gy jlitfs; vOg;gg;gl;Ls;sJ. Mdhy; ,w;iw tiu (jpUkz taJ 18Mf cau;j;jg;gl;L 15 tUlq;fspd; gpd;du;) 18 21 tajpw;Fl;gl;l taJ te;jtu;fspd; jpUkzj;jpw;Fg; ngw;Nwhu; rk;kjk; gw;wpa ,e;j Vw;ghl;il ePf;Ftjw;fhd Kaw;rpfs; Nkw;nfs;sg;gltpy;iy. nghJj; jpUkzf; fl; l isr; rl; l j; j pd; ,e; j Kuz; g hlhd Vw; g hl; b y; ngw; N whupd; rk; k jj; j pw; f hd Fwpg; G ngw; N whupilNaAk; rl;lj;juzpfspilNaAk; Fog;gj;ij Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ. rl;luPjpahd jpUkz tajpw;Ff; fPo; cs;s gps;is $l ngw;Nwhu; rk;kjj;Jld; nry;YgbahFk; tpjj;jpy; jpUkzk; Kbf;fyhk; vd;Dk; czu;it Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ. ,staJj;

44| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

jpUkzk; ngw; N whupd; rk; k jj; J ld; $l rl; l uP j pahd tpisitf; nfhz;bUf;fhJ vd njspTgLj;j Ntz;ba rl;ltpay; cs;sJ.43 K];ypk; gpuj;jpNaf rl;lj;jpd; fPo; jpUkz taJ 12 tUlq;fshFk;. vdpDk; fy;tp mwpT fpilg;gjd; fhuzkhf K];ypk; rpWkpfspd; jpUkz taJ khwhJ mjpfupj;J tUtJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;.

kzk;rhu; ghypay; ty;YwT kw;Wk; jpUkz epthuzk; gw;wpa rl;l kWrPuikg;G Mfpatw;iw cs;spl;l tPl;L td;Kiw
ePjpkd;wf; fl;lisapd; fPo; jk;gjpfs; gpupe;jpUj;jy; ePq;fyhf (ePjpKiwg; gpupT epiy) (1995,y; ) jpUj; j g; g l; l thwhf jz; l idr; rl; l f; N fhitapd; fP o ; kzk;rhu; ghypay; ty;YwT nghJthf xU Fw;wtpay; jtW my;y. ePjpkd;wf; fl;lisapdhy; toq;fg;gLk; ,e;j tif kzk;rhu; epthuzk; jpUkz FiyTr; ; #o; e piyfspy; nghJthf ngz; f shy; gad; g Lj; j g; g Ltjpy; i y. cz;ikg;gbahd gpupTr; #o;epiyfspy; Mff;Fiwe;jJ kzk;rhu; ghypay; ty;YwitNaDk; cs;slf;Ftjw;F ,e;jr; rl;lq;fis kPsha;T nra;AkhW ngz;fs; FOf;fs; kPzLk; kPzLk; vLj;Jiuj;jd. kzk;rhu; ghypay; ty;YwT ; ; gw;wpa rl;lj;ij khw;Wtjw;fhd Njit kPJ CEDAW FOtpd; KbTWj;Jk; fUj;Jiufs; (2002) ftdj;ij <u;j;jd. ,J xU gpujpgypg;igg; ngwtpy;iy. mj; J ld; kzk; r hu; ghypay; ty; Y wT gw; w pa ,yq; i fapd; jz; l idr; rl;lf;Nfhitapy; cs;s Fiwghl;ilj; jpUj;Jtjw;F ,w;iwtiu vt;tpj eltbf;ifAk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy. tPl;L td;Kiwia xopj;jy; rl;lj;jpd; rl;lthf;fj;Jld; (PDVA), 2005 ,e;j tplaj; j pw; F xU tiuaWf; f g; g l; l gpujpgypg; G f; fhzg; g l; l J. ,e; j rl;lthf;fj;jpd; mwpKfk; ,Wjp CEDAW mwpf;if (2002) kw;Wk; mj;jifa rl; l thf; f j; j pd; Njitiaf; Nfhbl; L f; fhl; b a FOtpd; KbTWj; J k; fUj;Jiufs; Mfpatw;wpd; gpd;du; murpdhy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l Kf;fpakhd eltbf; i fahFk; . ,e; j r; rl; l k; ngz; f s; FOf; f s; kw; W k; ghy; e piy Mjuthsu;fspd; fye;jhuha;Tld; tiuag;gl;lJ. ,yq;ifapd; jz;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitapy; kzk;rhu; ghypay; ty;YwT nghJthf Fw;wtpay; jtwhf ,y; y hjNghjpYk; kzk; r hu; ghypay; ty; Y wit cs; s pl; l ghypay; td; K iwia cs; s lf; F k; tpjj; j py; tiutpyf; f zg; g Lj; j g; g l; l tP l ; L td;Kiwapd; gpujpgypg;ghf ghJfhg;igg; ngWtjw;fhd eltbf;if Kiwia mJ toq;FfpwJ. vdpDk; tPl;L td;Kiwia xopj;jy; rl;lk; ,e;j elj;ijia jz;lidf;Fupajhf;ftpy;iy. Mdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l xUtUf;F ePjpkd;wj;jpd; ghJfhg;Gf; fl;;lis kw;Wk; Gfyplk;> nghUshjhu MjuT Nghd;w tsq;fs;> csts Nrit Nghd; w Nritfs; Mfpa tbtpy; Jupjkhd gupfhuj; i j toq;Ffpd;wJ. tPlL td;Kiwia xopj;jy; rl;lk; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLtijAk; Ma;TfSk; ; mDgtr; rhd;WfSk; Fwpj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wd. Fwpg;ghf ngz;fs; FOf;fspd; MjuTlDk; ngz;fs; gw;wpa Njrpa FOtpy; murpd; Kiwg;ghl;L> csts Nrit kw;Wk; nghyp]; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWtu; fUk gPlk; Nghd;wtw;wpd; cjtpAlDk; ngz; f s; tof; F fisj; jhf; f y; nra; f pd; w du; . tP l ; L td;Kiwapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ngUk;ghd;ikahd ngz;fs; eltbf;if

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 45

Kiwia mwpahJs; s ij my; y J gad; g Lj; j tpUk; g hjij Ma; T fSk; mDgtr; rhd;WfSk; Fwpj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wd. tPl;L td;Kiwia xopj;jy; rl;lk; gw;wpa ePjpr;Nrit gapw;rp epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fs; rpy elj;jg;gl;Ls;sd. Mdhy; mjd; cs;slf;fg; gug;G tiuaWf;fg;gl;bUg;gJld; ePjpgjpfs; kw;Wk; rl;lj;juzpfspilNa ,e;jr; rl;lk; gw;wpa Gupe;Jzu;T Nghjpajhf ,y;iy. CEDAW FOtpd; Kd;dpiyapy; kPsha;Tfspy; ngz;fs; FOf;fshy; ,e;j tplak; kPzLk; kPzLk; vOg;gg;gl;lNghjpYk;> tpthfuj;Jr; rl;lk; mlq;fyhf ; ; FLk; g r; rl; l q; f isj; jpUj; J tjw; F njhlu; r ; r pahfj; jtwpaik tP l ; L td;Kiwia xopj;jy; rl;lj;jpd; eilKiwg;gLj;jiy rPu;Fiyf;fpd;wJ. ngUk;ghyhd ngz;fSf;Fg; nghUe;jf;$ba nghJr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; nfhLik my;yJ jPa Nehf;Fld; iftplypd; mbg;gilapy; tpthfuj;J my;yJ jPu;T ngwg;glyhk;. vdpDk; tpthfuj;J eltbf;iff;Fg; gu];gu cld;ghl;bd; %yk; thjpf;fg;gl;lhyd;wp> vjpuhd ePjpkd;w eltbf;if Kiwapy; ,e;jj; jtw;wpw;fhd Mjhuq;fs; ep&gpf;fg;gl Ntz;bapUg;gjhy; eltbf;if Kiwfs; ePskhditAk; ePz;l fhyk; vLf;ff; $baitAkhFk;. murpayikg;G kw;Wk; CEDAW cWg;Giu.16(,) Mfpatw;wpw;F ,irthf tpthfuj;J nghJr;rl;lj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L jpUkzj; jtwpd; gue;j mbg;gilapyhd kPsha;T kw;Wk; kWrPuikg;gpy; murpd; Mjuitg; ngWk; jkJ Kaw;rpapy; ngz;fs; FOf;fSk; ghy;epiythjpfSk; ntw;wpailatpy;iy. gy tUlq;fSf;F Kd;du; rl;l kWrPuikg;igg; gpNuupg;gjw;F Miz toq;fg;gl;l Njrpa Kftuhd rl;l Mizf;FOtpdhy; jpUkz tof;F rl;l %yk; xd;W jahupf;fg;gl;lJ. ngz;fs; FOf;fSld; rpy fye;Jiuahly;fs; ,lk;ngw;wd. ,e;jr; rl;l%yk; jw;Nghija rl;l Mizf;FOtpdhy; jpUj;jg;gl;lJ. ,e;jg; Gjpa tiutpd; jahu; g ; g Lj; j y; njhlu; g hf ngz; f s; FOf; f Sld; fye;Jiuahlg;gltpy;iy. Mdhy; tiuTr; rl;l%yk; jtW mbg;gilapyhd tpthfuj;Jr; rl;lj;jpypUe;J jpUkz rPu;Fiyit mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l xd;iw Nehf;fp efu;tjhfj; Njhw;Wfpd;wJ. 2009,y; Gjpa ePjpaikr;ru; xUtu; FLk;gr; rl;lj;ijAk; gpuj;jpNaf rl;lj;ijAk; kPsha;tjw;fhd FOf;fis epakpj;jhu;. Kd;dhs; CEDAW FO cWg;gpdu; xUtupd; jiyikapyhd FLk;g rl; l j; j py; kWrP u ikg; i gg; gpNuupg; g jw; f hd FO jpUkz epthuz tplag; g ug; g py; tpupthd kWrP u ikg; G fisf; Nfhup mjd; mwpf; i fiar; rku;g;gpj;jJ. rpy Vw;ghLfisj; jpUj;Jtjw;fhd Gjpa gpNuuizf;F cl;gl;L rl;l Mizf;FOtpd; jpUkz fhuzq;fs; rl;l%y tiutpd; Vw;ghLfis FOthdJ Vw;Wf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. tpthfuj; J r; rl; l k; mlq; f yhf jpUkz epthuz rl; l kWrP u ikg; G g; gpur;rpidia eptu;j;jpg;gjw;fhd mtruj; Njit cs;sJ. vjpu;g;gw;w eltbf;if Kiwapy; kPl;f Kbahj jpUkz rPu;Fiytpw;F tpthfuj;ij fz;ba rl;lk;44 mDkjpf;fpwJ. Mdhy;> K];ypk; rKjhaj;ijr; rhuhj NtnwhU ngz; jpUkz epthuzj;ij ehbdhy;> jtiw mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l vjpu;g;G ePjpkd;w eltbf; i fKiw mtrpakhFk; . 2002,y; KbTWj; J k; fUj; J iufspy; FOtpdhy; gpNuupf;fg;gl;lthW xg;gPl;L rl;ltpaiyg; gad;gLj;jp K];ypk; tpthfuj;Jr; rl;lj;jpy; kWrPuikg;G mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy. K];ypk; gpuj;jpNaf rl;lj;jpy; kWrPuikg;Gfisg; gpNuupg;gjw;F 2009,y; mikr;rupdhy;

46| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

epakpf;fg;gl;l FO ,d;Dk; mjd; mwpf;ifiar; rku;g;gpf;ftpy;iy. K];ypk; ngz;fs; Muha;r;rp eltbf;if kd;wj;jpdhy; (MWRAF) Kd;ndLf;fg;gl;l gpugykhd Fth]p ePjpgjpfs;> rl;lj;juzpfs; kw;Wk; K];ypk; ngz;fs; Muha;r;rp eltbf;if kd;w cWg;gpdu;fs; MfpNahiu cs;spl;l K];ypk; gpuj;jpNaf rl;l kWrPuikg;G gw;wpa RahjPdf; FOTk; K];ypk; gpuj;jpNaf rl;l kWrPuikg;gpw;fhd tpjg;Giufspd; xU njhFjpia Kd;itj;jJ. ,yq; i fapd; Muk; g kw; W k; gUt fhy mwpf; i ffspy; FO KbTWj; J k; fUj;Jiufis toq;fpAs;s NghjpYk;> FLk;g rl;lj;ijj; jpUj;jp rkj;Jt murpayikg;G epakq;fs; kw;Wk; CEDAW fUj;Jiufis xUq;fpizg;gjw;F njhlu;rrpahfj; jtwpaik vd;gjd; nghUs; ahnjdpy;> rl;lj;jpYs;s Kiwrhu; ; ghugl;rkhdJ ,yq;ifg; ngz;fspd; rl;l cupikfspy; njhlu;eJk; jhf;fj;ij ; Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wJ vd;gjhFk;.

cWg;Giu 16,d; Vida mk;rq;fs;


(i) ,e;j cupikfs; njhlu;ghf rl;lKk; nghJeyf; nfhs;ifAk; vt;tpj tiuaiwiaAk; ngz;fs; kPJ tpjpf;fhjjhy;> cWg;Giufs; 16(m)> (M) kw;Wk; (v) Mfpatw;wpd; flg;ghLfs; epiwNtw;wg;gLfpd;wd. Rfhjhuf; nfhs;ifj; jftiyg; ngWtjw;F toptif nra;Js;sJld; ,dg;ngUf;f Rfhjhuj;jpd; Kf; f pa mk; r khff; fUj; j il cWg; G iu 16(c)I miltjw; f hd Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;Fg; gq;fspg;Gr; nra;Js;sJ. (ii) 16 (,) (<) (C) kw;Wk; (V) Mfpait epiwNtw;wg;gltpy;iy. Vnddpy;> jpUkzf; flg;ghLfs; kw;Wk; jdpg;gl;l me;j];J gw;wpa ghugl;rk; fhl;Lk; Nuhkd; lr; R rl; l f; Nfhl; g hLfs; njhlu; e ; J k; gpuNahfpf; f g; g Lfpd; w d. jpUkzk; r hu; gps; i sapd; tpUg; G f; F upa ghJfhty; me; j ]; i j je; i j nfhz;Ls;shu;. ePjpkd;wq;fspdhy; tpUj;jp nra;ag;gl;l rl;ltpaypy; rpWtupd; rpwe;j mf;fiwf; Nfhl;ghLfspd; gpuNahfk; je;ijapd; tpUg;Gf;Fupa me;j];ij eyptiltjw; F g; gq; f spg; G r; nra; J s; s J. Mdhy; > ,e; j tplag; g ug; G njhlu;ghd kw;Wk; murpayikg;G epakq;fs; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLtij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Fg; NghjhJ. rpWtupd; mjprpwe;j mf;fiwf;F Kd;Dupik mspf; f g; g l Ntz; L k; vdTk; > ,e; j tplag; g ug; g py; ,ize; J KOikahf; F fpd; w Jk; ghy; e piy mbg; g ilapyhd ghugl; r j; i j xopf;fpd;wJkhd CEDAW kw;Wk; CRC epakq;fSf;F ,irthfg; ngw;Nwhupd; me;j];Jg; gw;wpa ghugl;r rl;lq;fis kPsha;T nra;tjw;F cjtp GuptjpYk; ,J jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk;.

tPl;by; ngz;

jiyikj;Jtj;jpw;nfjpuhd ghugl;rk;

,e;j tplak; KbTWj;Jk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( (COs) ge;jpfs; 296 kw;Wk; 297,y; ) Fwpg; g plg; g l; b Ue; j J. Mdhy; > kpfr; r pwpa mstpyhd Kd; N dw; w Nk fhzg;gl;lJ. nghJeyf; nfhs;if kw;Wk; epu;thfk; njhlu;e;Jk; FLk;gj; jiytu;fs; vd;Dk; vz;zf;fU kPJ njhlu;e;Jk; ftdj;ijr; nrYj;Jfpd;wd. ,J xU nghJg; g hy; gjkhf ,Ug; g pDk; > ,J FLk; g j; j pd; Mz; jiytu;fshfNt cz;ikapy; nghUs; nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ. ngz; FLk;gj; jiytu;fs; gw;wpa jfty;fisg; ngWtjpy; rdj;njhiff; fzf;nfLg;G ftdk; nrYj;jpa NghjpYk; (2006/2007,y; 24%) fkj;njhopy; kw;Wk; tPlikg;gpw;fhff;

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 47

fhzpfis xJf;Fjy;> Rdhkp mdu;j;jj;jpd; gpd;du; epthuz epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; kw;Wk; mur tPLfis xJf;Fjy; Nghd;wtw;wpy; Mz; Xur;rhu;G gpujpgypf;fpd;wJ. MAj Kuz; g hl; b y; tho; f ; i fj; Jiztiu ,oe; j ngz; f s; mur khdpaq;fisg; ngw jifikailtjw;Fk; mtw;iwg; ngWtjw;Fk; kWkzk; nra;ahJ ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd Ntz;lg;gLtjhy; Mz; tPl;Lj; jiyik vd;Dk; vz;zf;fU kPs typAWj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j vz;zf;fUtpd; vjpu;j;jhf;fk; gw;wpa Muha;r;rpia mbg;gilahff; nfhz; l gy fye; J iuahly; f Sk; rhd; W fSk; cs; s d. Mz; czT Mjuthsu; (male breadwinner) vd;Dk; vz;zf;fUit jhgupg;Gr; rl;lk; (1999) xopj; j NghjpYk; > nghJ epu; t hfj; j py; ,J gpujpgypf; f tpy; i y. Vw; f dNt nrhy;yg;gl;lthW jpUkzk; rhuhj FLk;gj;jpy; ngz;fspdJk; rpWtu;fspdJk; rl;l Kiwapd;ik kw;Wk; jho;thd rl;l me;j];J fhzg;gLfpd;w mNjNtis> mtu;fspd; cupikfs; gw;wpa rpy ghugl;rk; fhl;Lk; Vw;ghLfis gpu[hTupikr; rl;lk; (2003) kw;Wk; jhgupg;Gr; rl;lk; 1999 Mfpait xopj;Js;sd. murhq; f Copau; f Sf; f hd Xa; T +jpak; kw; W k; r%fg; ghJfhg; G g; gw; w pa rl; l q; f spYk; ghugl; r q; f s; cs; s d. nghJg; g hy; Vw; g hLfs; mjhtJ tpjitfs; kw;Wk; jGjhuu;fs; Mfpa ,U rhuhu; kPJk; kWkzj;jpd; kPjhf ,e;jg; gad; f is epuhfupf; f pd; w d. vdpDk; > mit tP l ; L j; jiytu; f shf cs; s tpjitfs; kPJ fzprkhd jhf;fj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;sd. mtu;fs; Gjpa cwTfis Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;fpd;w NghjpYk; jpUkzkhfJ ,Ug;gjw;F ,e;jg; gad;fs; mtu;fis mOj;Jfpd;wd. murhq;f Nritapy; Xa;T+jpak; gw;wpa rl;lk; Mz; czT Mjuthsupy; jq; f papUf; F k; fhydpj; J t rl; l vz; z f; f Uit mbg; g ilahff; nfhz; b Ug; g Jld; Xa; T +jpaq; f s; gw; w pa fhydpj; J t epajpr;rl;lk; tpjitfis kl;LNk Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. mNj rl;lthf;fk; gpd;du; Rje;jpuj;jpw;Fg; gpe;jpa fhyg;gFjpapy;; ,uhZt Nritapy; tpjitfs; kw;Wk; jGjhuu;fs; Mfpa ,U rhuhUf;Fk; tpupthf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. murhq;fj; JiwapYk; ,uhZt NritapYk; jhf; f j; i jf; nfhz; b Ue; j ghugl; r k; eptu; j ; j pf; f g; g ltpy; i y. vt; t pj tiuaiwfSk; ,d; w p kWkzj; i j mDkjpf;fpd;wJk; tho;f;ifj; Jiztupd; kuzj;jpd; gpd;du; tpjit my;yJ jGjhuu; Mjdj;ij kuGupikahfg; ngWtij mDkjpf;fpd;wJkhd jpUkzk; gw;wpa nghJr; rl;lj;jpw;F mikthf kPsha;T nra;ag;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. kuGupik gw; w pa fz; b a gpuj; j pNafr; rl; l k; tpjitfSf; F ghugl; r k; fhl;LfpwJ. ,e;j Vw;ghLfs; jdpg;gl;l rl;lq;fis kPsha;T nra;tjw;fhd Njit njhlu;ghf murhq;fk; eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;shjjhy;> ,it kPsha;T nra;ag;gltpy;iy. kWkzj;jpd; fhuzkhf Xa;T+jpaKk; xU capypd; fPo; fztd; Mjdj;ij tpUk;gh tz;zk; vOjpapUe;jhyd;wp mtupd; ,wg;gpd gpd;du; Mjd cupikAk; kWf;fg;gl;ljhy; ,d;W gy tifapy; ghugl;rk; ,lk; n gWtjhy; ghjpg; G w; w fz; b a gpuj; j pNaf rl; l j; j pdhy; Msg; g Lk; tpjitfs; gyu; cs;sdu;. jdJ nrhe;jf; FLk;gj;jpypUe;J kuGupikahfj; jdJ fztd; ngw; w vy; y h Mjdj; i jAk; $l; L f; FLk; g cWg; g pdu; f s; kuGupikahfg; ngWfpd; w #o; e piyapy; gps; i sfs; ,y; y hj tpjit ,Uf; f pd; w hs; . jdJ fztd; jpUkzj; j pd; gpd; d u; Mjdnkhd; i wg; ngw;wpUe;jhy; kl;LNk MAs; ey cupj;ij (xU tuiaWf;fg;gl;l Mjd cupik) mts; ngWfpd;whs;. fz;ba rl;lj;jpdhy; Msg;gLk; Kuz;ghL kw;Wk;

48| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

,aw; i f mdu; j ; j q; f spdhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l ngz; f s; Fwpg; g hf ,e; j ghugl;rg;gLj;Jjyhy; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wdu;. ngz;fspd; jdpg;gl;l me;j];ijAk; kuGupikfisAk; ghjpf;Fk; K];ypk; gpuj;jpNaf rl;lj;jpd; Vw;ghLfs; kPsha;T nra;ag;glhjjhy;> K];ypk; ngz; tPl;Lj; jiytpfs; gy;tif ghugl;rj;jpw;F cs;shfpd;wdu;.

Mjd cupikfs;
,yq;ifr; rl;lj;jpy; rPjdk; tpyf;fg;gl;ljy;y. rl;lj;jpd; vy;yh Kiwikapd; fPOk; (nghJ kw;Wk; gpuj;jpNaf) rPjdk; ngz;zpd; jdpahd Mjhdkhff; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. jpUkzj;jpd;NghJ kidtpapd; jug;gpypUe;J Mjdj;ijg; ngWfpd;w Mz; $l me;j Mjdj;ij mtSf;fhf ek;gpf;ifg; nghWg;gpy; itj;jpUf;fpd;whu; vdTk; mtNs mjd; rl;lg;gbahd cupikahsu; vdTk; Fwpg;gpLk; rl;ltpay; cs;sJ. mur fhzpapd; mDkjpg;gj;jpuk; Mz; cupikahsu; xUtu; ,wf;fpd;wNghJ Kjw;gpwg;G epiyf; Nfhl;ghl;bw;F (my;yJ jFjpahd thupRfspYk; Mz;fSf;F Kd;Dupik mspj;jy;) Nfhl;ghl;bd; gpuNahfj;jpw;F fhzp mgptpUj;jpf; fl;lisr; rl;lk; 1935 (LDO),y; cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;s ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd ghugl;rk; njhlu;ghf 1980fs; Kjy; gyKiw ngz;fs; epWtdq;fspdhYk; 2002,y; CEDAW FOtpd; KbTWj; J k; fUj; J iufspYk; (KbTWj;J k; KbTWj; (COs) ge;jp 274) Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;lg;gl;lNghjpYk;> rl;lj; ) mtjhdpg;Gfspd; ( jpUj;jk; xd;wpd; %yk; ,d;Dk; xopf;fg;gltpy;iy. ,e;jf; fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; $lf; fhzpf;Fg; gpd;Dupj;jhspahf cs;s mDkjpg; gj;jpuj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;s fztdhy; ngau; Fwpj;J epakpf;fg;gl;bUe;jhyd;wp capu; thOk; tho;f;ifj; JiztUf;F ey cupj;Jf; (life interest) fpilf;Fk;. mts; kWkzj;jpd;NghJ ,e;j ey cupj;ij ,of;fpwhs;. ,e;j Vw;ghL jGjhuu;fSf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;. vdpDk;> ,J ngz;fs; kPJ ghjfkhd jhf;fj;ijf; nfhz;bUg;gij Ma;Tfs; Fwpj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wd. jpUkzj;jpd; gpd;du; mts; me;jf; fhzpia tpl;L ntspNaw Ntz;Lk;. 2005 - 2010 fhyg;gFjpapy; ngz;fs; FOf;fs; ,e;j tplaj;jpd; rl;l kWrPuikg;igg; gw;wp murhq;fj;jplk; vOg;gpAs;sJ. Mdhy;> ,d;Dk; LDOtpy; khw;wq;fs; Vw;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy. ml;ltiz III ,d; fhuzkhf LDO,d; fPo; fhzp mDkjpg; gj;jpuq;fs; ngz;fSf;F xJf;fg;gltpy;iy vd FbNaw;w tplag;gug;Gfs; gw;wpa Ma;Tf; fw;iffs; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd.45 fz; b a rl; l k; kw; W k; Njrtoikr; rl; l q; f spy; mtru tplakhf kWrPuikg;Gfs; Njit. Fw;wtpay; rl;lk; kw;Wk; gpu[hTupikr; rl;lq;fisg; nghWj;jtiu 1995 kw;Wk; 2003,y; fhydpj;Jt rl;lk; kWrPuikf;fg;gl;lJ. ,it fhydpj; J t murhq; f j; j pd; nfhs; i ffs; fhuzkhf khw; w g; g l; l rl;lq;fshFk;. mit ,d;Dk; kPsha;T nra;ag;gltpy;iy. ,e;j vy;yh tplag; gug;Gfs; njhlu;ghfTk; K];ypk; gpuj;jpNaf rl;lj;jpy; ghugl;r Vw;ghLfs; cs;sd. mit ,d;Dk; khw;wg;gltpy;iy. rka $Uzu;T kpf;f tplaq;fis K];ypk; gpuj;jpNaf rl;lk; vOg;GfpwJ. Mdhy; K];ypk; ngz;fs; epWtdq;fs; kWrPuikg;Gf;fhd gpNuuizfis Kd;itj;Js;sd. mit murhq;fj;jpdhy; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 49

guha taJ G+u;j;jpaile;jJk; 18 taJf;Fg; gpd;du; ngw;Nwhupd; rk;kjk; Njitapy;iy vd;gijj; njspTgLj;Jtjw;Fk; ,t;tplak; gw;wpa Kd; jPu;g;Gr; rl;lj;jpw;F mikthf guha tajpw;Ff; Fiwe;j taJilNahupd; jpUkzkhdJ ntw; w hdJk; rl; l uP j pahd tpisT mw; w JkhFk; vd; g ijj; njspTgLj; J tjw; F k; nghJ jpUkzf; fl; l isr; rl; l j; i jj; jpUj; J jy; mtrpakhFk; . ehl; b d; rpy gpuNjrq; f spYk; ntspg; g ilahf MAj Kuz;ghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l gpuNjrq;fspYk; rpWtu; jpUkzk; vd;Dk; tplak; fhzg;gLfpd;w #o;epiyfspy; ,jidj; njspTgLj;Jjy; Fwpg;ghf Kf;fpakhdjhFk;. Nuhkd; lr;R rl;lj;jpdhy; nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;jg;gl;l fhydpj;Jt rl;lj;ijAk; Mq;fpy rl;lj;ijAk; mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l jpUkzk; rhuhj FLk;gj;jpy; cs; s Ml; f spd; rl; l me; j ]; J fSf; f pilapy; njspthd NtWghL fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;jf; Nfhl;ghLfs; rftho;Tg; gq;fhspfs; kw;Wk; jpUkzk; rhuhj gps; i sfSf; F vjpuhd ghugl; r j; i j cs; s lf; f pAs; s J. ,e; j g; ghugl;rj;jpd; rpy mk;rq;fis xopg;gjw;F gpu[hTupik kw;Wk; jhgupg;G (FLk;g MjuTr;) rl;lq;fs; kWrPuikf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. Mdhy; mt;thW nra;tjw;fhd jplkhd Kaw;rpfs; ,y;iy. FLk;gk; gw;wpa tiutpyf;fzk; jpUkzj; njhlu;GfspypUe;J jpUkzk; rhuhj kw;Wk; xU ngw;Nwhu; FLk;gq;fs; Nghd;w Vidatw;wpw;F tpupthf;fg;gl Ntz;ba Njit cs;sJ. murpayikg;gpd; cWg;Giu 12,y; cs;s ghugl;rj;ij Nfhl;ghLfSf;fikthf Xupd ghypay; njhlu;GfSf;fhd tpupthf;fk;> jz;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitapd; Vw;ghLfs; kw;Wk; Xupdr; Nru;fiffs; Mfpatw;wpd; kPsha;itj; Njitg;gLj;Jk;. ;

50| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

VmkV s>A^ 19

ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd td;Kiw
tPl;L td;Kiwj; jLg;Gr; rl;lk; (PDVA) 2005 mjd; tiuaiwfisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ.
jz;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitapd; mj;jpahak; XVI ml;ltiz 1,y; fLq;fhak;> Fiwg; g purtk; Mfpatw; i w Vw; g Lj; j y; Nghd; w it kw; W k; csk; rhu; e ; j J\;gpuNahfk; Nghd;w jtWfs; vd tPl;L td;Kiwia PDVA tiutpyf;fzk; nra;fpd;wJ.46 tPl;L td;Kiwr; nraiy mJthfNt xU jtwhf czu;tjw;Fg; gjpyhf tiutpyf;fzj;jpy; cUthf;fj;jpw;F jz;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitiar; rhu;e;Js;sJ. tPl;L td;Kiwr; rhd;Wfs; gw;wp kUj;Jt Nrit toq;Fdu;fs; nghyprpy; Kiwg; g hL nra; t ij PDVA fl; l hakhf; f tpy; i y. tP l ; L td; K iw Kiwg; g hLfSf; f hd gpujpgypg; g hf vd; d eltbf; i f Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ gw;wp nghyprpw;fhd mwptpj;jy;fis rl;lk; toq;ftpy;iy. ,ilf;fhy ghJfhg;Gf; fl;lis (IPO) toq;fg;gl;lJk; cs ts Nritia toq; F tjw; F eP j pkd; w k; fl; l isapLtjw; f hd Vw; g hL fhzg; g Lfpd; w J. ghjpf; f g; g l; l tu; f is J\; g puNahfr; Rw; w hlYf; F j; jpUk; g pr; nrd; W gpur;rpidiaj; jPu;j;Jf; nfhs;SkhWk; mjdhy; IPO toq;fg;gl;likf;fhd fhuzj;ij Njitaw;wjhf Mf;Fk; MNyhridfis cs ts Nritahsu;fs; toq;fpAs;sjhy; rpy tplaq;fisg; nghWj;jtiu cs ts Nritahsu;fs; tfpf;Fk; ghj;jpuk; jpUg;jpaw;wjhFk;. Gfyplq; f isAk; Vida trjpfisAk; mikj; J eP j pkd; w eltbf; i ffs; fpilg;gij my;yJ mtw;iwj; jhq;fpf; nfhs;tij rl;lk; fl;lhakhf;ftpy;iy. 2005 - 2009 ,w;fpilapy; nkhj;jkhf 219>825 thbf;ifahsu;fs; tpkd; ,d; ePl;,d; cjtpia ehbdu;.47 vdpDk;> Rkhu; 101 thbf;ifahsu;fs; kl;LNk ghJfhg;Gf; fl;lisfSf;F (PO) jhf;fy; nra;jdu;. ghJfhg; G f; fl; l is xd; w pw; f hd tpz; z g; g j; i jj; njhlu; e ; J FbNaw; w eltbf; i f Kiwfis PDVA Vw; g hL nra; f pd; w J. ,J ftdkhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLtJld; gpujpthjp rPujpUe;Jtjw;fhd tha;gG cs;snjdTk; tPlL ; ; ;

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 51

td; K iwahf mikaf; $ ba elj; i japypUe; J jhd; tpyfpf; nfhs; t jhf gpujpthjpaplkpUe; J cj; j uthjnkhd; W gpujpgypf; F k; vdTk; eP j pkd; w k; jpUg;jpaile;jhy; kl;LNk ,J gad;gLj;jg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jj; jPu;T fz;fhzpf;fg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. NCW,dhy; Vw; W f; n fhs; s g; g l; l tP l ; L td; K iwj; jLg; G r; rl; l j; j pd; eltbf;ifj; jpl;lk; 2005 PVDAapd; eilKiwg;gLj;jiy cWjpg;gLj;Jk; cghaq;fs; kw;Wk; nraw;ghLfspd; G+uzkhd xU njhFjpiaf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,yq;if murhq;fk; gpd;tUkhW $Wfpd;wJ. fpilf;ff;$ba rl;lj;jpd; Vw;ghLfs; kw;Wk; gupfhuq;fs; gw;wpa tpopg;Gzu;it cUthf;Ftjw;Fk; mt;thNw epajpr;rl;lg; gupfhuq;fis mu;j;jG\;bahf;Ftjpy; vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLk; ghj;jpuk; njhlu;ghd rl;l tYT+l;ly; eltbf;if Kiwapy; gq;fhsu;fSf;F czu;T+l;Ltjw;Fk; ,e;jj; jpl;lj;jpd; gpufhuk; eltbf;if jw;NghJ Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ. ntWkNd tpopg;Gzu;it cUthf;Fjy; kw;Wk; czu;T+l;ly; Mfpatw;wpw;F Nkyhf eltbf;ifj; jpl;lk; vjpu;ghu;ffg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gijAk; mjid Vw;Wf; ; nfhz; L 5 tUlq; f s; fle; J s; s NghjpYk; me; j j; jpl; l k; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy vd;gijAk; $w tpUk;Gfpd;Nwhk;.

ghypay; ty;YwT
rl;l tYT+l;ly; mYtyu;fs;> ePjpj;Jiw kUj;Jt mYtyu;fs;> kUj;Jt cau;njhopyhsu;fs; kw;Wk; rl;lj;juzpfs; Nghd;w ePjpr;Nrit Kiwikapd; Jizr; nraw;ghl;lhsu;fs; gpujpgypf;Fk; tprhupj;jy;> rhd;Wfisr; Nrfupj;jy;> ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu; rhd;W kw;Wk; jz;bj;jy; Mfpatw;wpy; ghy;epiy czu;T ,y;iy. gupfhuq;fs; kw;Wk; mD\;bf;f Ntz;ba ghy;epiy czu;T eltbf;if Kiwfis ,e;j mYtyu;fs; mwpe;Js;s kpfTk; mupjhd re;ju;g;gq;fspy; $l> ghugl;r tpisTfspypUe;J ngz;fisg; ghJfhf;Fk; tpjj;jpy; ,tw;iwg; gpuNahfpg; g jpy; mtu; f s; jaf; f k; fhl; L fpd; w du; . ngz; f s; $l jkf; F f; fpilf;ff;$ba gupfhuq;fs; gw;wp njhlu;eJk; mwpahJs;sdu;. Fwpg;ghf ghypay; ; td; K iw> ghypay; ty; Y wT kw; W k; jfhg; G zu; r ; r papdhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l ngz;fSf;nfjpuhf gq;fk; Vw;gLj;Jk; r%fj;ijNa ,J rhUk;. cjhuzkhf fky; mj;ju Mur;rp tof;fpy;> Nghuhbaikf;fhd rhd;Wfs; gw;wpa tplak; Muhag;gl;lNghJ> tof;Fj; njhLdu; kPJ fhaq;fs; ,y;yhjpUj;jy; ghypay; Gzu;r;rpf;F me;jg; ngz; rk;kjpj;jhs; vd;gjw;fhd mwpFwpahFk; vd; D k; Nkd; K iwaP l ; L eP j pkd; w j; j pd; fUj; i j cau; e P j pkd; w k; Vw; W f; nfhz; l J> Nkd; K iwaP l ; L eP j pkd; w k; r%fj; j py; ngz; f spd; Vw; W f; nfhs; s g; g l; l kw; W k; vjpu; g hu; f ; f g; g l; l elj; i japd; msTNfhy; f isg; gpuNahfpj;jJld; rhjhuz kdpj elj;ijapd; Nrhjidg; gpuNahfk; ,JthFk; vdf;$wp ,e;jf; $w;iw NkYk; tpsf;fpaJ. ,e;jr; nray; fUj;njhUkpj;j ghypay; Gzu;r;rpahFk; vd epu;zapj;J> ,yq;ifg; ngz;fspd; rhjhuz elj;ijf; Nfhyq;fis tiutpyf;fzk; nra;tjpy; ePjpkd;wk; Gwf;fzpg;ghf ,Ue;jJ.48

52| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

,il epWj;jg;gl;l jz;lidfs;


ngz; f s; FOf; f spd; mOj; j j; i jj; njhlu; e ; J 1995,y; jz; l idr; rl; l f; Nfhitapd; jpUj;jk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l gpd;du; ,U Ml;fSf;fpilapy; epfOk; ghypay; ty;YwT> kpFjpahd ghypay; J\;gpuNahfk;> kpFe;j ,opthd nray; Nghd; w re; j u; g ; g q; f spy; fl; l hakhf Mff; F iwe; j fl; l ha jz; l id (2 tUlq; f Sf; F g; gjpyhf 10 tUlq; f s; ) tpjpf; f g; g l; l ikahdJ FOtpw; F epidtpUf;fyhk;. vdpDk; mDuhjGuj;jpy; epajpr; rl;l ghypay; ty;YwT tof;fpy; jz;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitapd; gpupT 364(2)(c)tpd; fPo; tpjpf;fg;gLk; fl;lha jz;lid murpayikg;gpd; cWg;Giu 4(,) kw;Wk; 12(1) cld; Kuz;gLtjhfTk; jdJ epahahjpf;fj; jw;Wzpitg; gpuNahfpg;gjpy; mJ nghUj;jkhdJ vdf; fUJfpd;w jz;lidia tpjpg;gjpypUe;J Nky; ePjpkd;wk; jil nra;ag;gltpy;iy vdTk; mz; i kf; f hy cau; eP j p kd; w j; jP u ; g ; n ghd; w py; (SC ref 30/2008) Fwpg;gplg;gl;lJ. ePjpauru; uj;ehaf;f jdJ ePz;l jPu;g;gpy;> 1995Mk; Mz;bd; 22Mk; ,yf;f jz;lid (jpUj;jk;) rl;lf; Nfhit rl;lj;jpdhy; jpUj;jg;gl;lthwhf jz;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitapd; gpupT 363(c)tpd; gpufhuk; xU ngz;zpd; taJ 16,w;Ff; Fiwthf ,Uf;Fk; NghJ ghypay; ty;YwTj; jtw;wpw;F ngz;zpd; rk;kjk; Kf;fpakw;wJ vdf; $Wfpd;whu;. mtu; njhlu;e;J $wpajhtJ> vdpDk; mj;jifa jtWf;fhd jPu;g;igj; jPu;khdpf;ifapy; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; jw;Wzpigg; gpuNahfpg;gjw;F ngz;zpd; rk;kjk; ePjpkd;wj;Jf;F Vw;GilajhFk;. ,e;jj; jPu;khdj;jpd; tpisthf> jw;NghJ ehL KOtjpYk; cs;s Nky; ePjp kd; w q; f s; ghypay; ty; Y wT kw; W k; ; epajpr; r l; l ty; Y wT tof; F fspy; ,ilepWj;jg;gl;l jz;lidfis toq;Ffpd;wd. ,J ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd td;Kiw tof;Ffspy; tpLghl;il ,ilawhjjhf;FtJld; td;Kiwapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ngz;fSf;fhd kpFe;j mePjpAkhFk;.49 ,e;jj; jPu;khdk; fy;tprhu; vOj;Jfspy; gFg;gha;T nra;ag;gl;L tpku;rpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJld; Gjpa cau; ePjpkd;w ePjpgjpfspd; FOtpdhy; ,e;jj; jPu;khdj;ij kPsha;T nra;tjw;F rl;lj;Jiwj; jiyik mjpgjpiaf; NfhUtjw;Fk; gpNuupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

njUr;Rw;wy; fl;lisr; rl;lk; (The Vagrancy Ordinance)


njUr;Rw;wy; fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; ghypay; njhopy; njhlu;e;Jk; xU jtwhff; fhzg;gLtjhy;> ghypay; njhopyhsu;fis mr;RWj;Jtjw;Fk; rpyNtisfspy; ghypay; njhopyhsu;fsplkpUe;J ghypay; Mjuitf; NfhUtjw;Fk; nghyp]; jd; tpUg; g g; g b ,e; j r; rl; l j; i jg; gad; g Lj; J fpd; w J. ghypay; njhopy; rl;ltpNuhjkhdJ vd;gjhy; ,e;jj; njhy;iyiag; gw;wp mtu;fs; mwpf;if nra;a KbahJs;sdu;. njUr;Rw;wy; fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; MZiwfis itj;jpUe;j ngz;fs; ifJ nra;ag;gl;likf;fhd tptuzr; rhd;Wfs; cs;sd.

,aw;iff;F khwhd jtW


1995Mk; Mz;bd; 22Mk; ,yf;f jz;lid (jpUj;jk;) rl;lf; Nfhitapd; gpupT 365m jdpg; g l; l ,lq; f spy; ,iof; f g; g Lk; xj; j pirthd Xupd ghypay; njhlu; G fis Fw; w khf; F tjhf thrpf; f g; g lyhk; . nraw; g hl; i lf; $l;biztpj;jy; kw;Wk; mt;thNw mj;jifa nraw;ghl;bd; xU jug;ghf ,Uj;jy; Mfpatw;iw mJ Fw;wkhf;Ffpd;wJ. ,e;j Vw;ghL ePf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; my;yJ Mff; Fiwe;jJ jdpg;gl;l ,lq;fspy; taJ te;Njhupd; xj;jpirthd Xupd ghypay; njhlu; G fis cs; s lf; f hjthW jpUj; j g; g l Ntz; L k; vd tpje;Jiuf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
| 53

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

tpgr;rhu tpLjpfs; fl;lisr; rl;lk;


tpgr; r hu tpLjpfis NgZjy; > Kfhikj; J tk; nra; j y; > mtw; w pd; Kfhikj; J tj; j py; nraw; g Ljy; kw; W k; JizNghjy; Mfpatw; i w Fw; w khf; F fpd; w J. ,e; j Vw; g hL eP f ; f g; g l Ntz; L k; vd tpje;Jiuf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

ghypay; njhy;iy
jz;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitapd; 1995 jpUj;jj;jpy; ghypay; njhy;iy jz;bf;fj;jf;f Fw;wkhf;fg;gl;lJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> ghypay; njhy;iy njhlu;ghd Kiwg;ghLfs; kpfTk; FiwthFk; . ghypay; njhy; i y kw; W k; ghypay; njhlu; g hd Kiwg;ghLfs; gw;wp eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhd cs;sf cghaq;fisAk; topfhl;ly;fisAk; njhopy; toq;Fdu;fs; gad;gLj;Jtij fl;lhakhf;Fk; nfhs;if Kd;ndLg;Gfspd; FiwghLfs; ,jw;Ff; fhuzkhf mikayhk;. jdpahu; Jiw epWtdq;fSf;F tpje;Jiuf;fg;gl;l topfhl;ly;fs; gaDWjpahf eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy.

ghJfhg;gpy; ghypay; ty;YwT


MAj Kuz;ghL gw;wpa mj;jpahaj;ijg; ghu;f;f.

eltbf;ifKiw
RUf;f Kiwaw;w tprhuiz kw;Wk; cau; ePjpkd;w ,Uftu; Kiwik fhuzkhf gy tof;Ffs; epiwtiltjw;F xd;gJ tUlq;fs; Kjy; gd;dpuz;L tUlq;fs; tiu Njitg; g Lfpd; w J. epahakhd re; N jfj; J f; f plkpd; w p ep&gpj; j y; Njitg;ghL> xg;GWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd rhl;rpfisf; fz;Lgpbg;gjpy; rpukk;> ghypay; td;Kiw tof;Fspy; ePz;l RUf;fKiwaw;w tprhuizfs;> fsq;fk; kw;Wk; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;ltUf;fhf rl;lj;juzpfs; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltiu fl;lw;w xOf; f elj; i j cs; s tuhff; fhl; L k; Nghf; F g; Nghd; w Fw; w tpay; eP j p Kiwikapy; gy eltbf; i f Kiwfs; rl; l cghaq; f isg; gad; g Lj; J tjpypUe; J ghjpf; f g; g l; l tu; i s mijupag; g Lj; J fpd; w d. rpy tof; F fspy; > rl; l thf; f j; j py; mjw; f hd Vw; g hL ,y; y hj NghjpYk; > Nghuhl; l j; j pw; f hd rhd; W fs; ,y; y hikia eP j pgjpfs; mtjhdpj; J g; ghjpf; f g; g l; l tu; rhl; r pak; mspf; F k; NghJ me; j uq; f khd eltbf; i f Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;Jtjw;Fj; jtwpAs;sdu;.

kUj;Jtg; gupNrhjid
ghypay; J\; g puNahf tof; F fspy; kUj; J tg; gupNrhjid rhd; W fspd; Nrfupg; g pw; F cjTtJld; > Fw; w kpioj; j tiug; nghWg; G ilatuhff; nfhs; S jYk; Ntz; L k; . vdpDk; ghjpf; f g; g l; l tupd; csg; ghjpg; i gf; Fiwf;fpd;wJk;> MWjiy Nkk;gLj;Jfpd;wJk;> ghjpf;fg;gl;ltupd; Njitfis eptu;j;jpf;fpd;wJkhd eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. ghypay; J\;gpuNahfj;jpdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu;fSf;F mtru tplakhf Kd;Dupik mspj;J cupa fhyj;jpy; gjpy; eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. mtu;fSf;F Mjutspf;fg;gLtij cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;w mNjNtis mjpfsT me;juq;fkhf eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu; J\; g puNahfj; i jg; gw; w pf; $wpaTld; ghjpf; f g; g l; l tUf; f hd Nrit toq; F du; f s; ghjpf; f g; g l; l tupd; mDkjpAld; gupNrhjid eltbf; i f

54| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

Kiwapy; rk;ge;jg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. Fwpj;j ghy;epiy cjTdiu (responders) ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu; Nfhupdhy; mJ Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. kUj;jtg; gupNrhjid njhlu;ghfTk; csts Nritahsu;fs;> rl;l cjtpahsu;fs; Nghd;w Vida Nritfs; toq;Fdu;fs; njhlu;ghfTk; ,yFthf tpsq;ff;$ba jfty;fs; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu;fSf;F toq;fg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. ,yq;ifapy; ghypay; J\;gpuNahfk; njhlu;ghf gupNrhjpg;gjw;F gjtpg; ngau; Fwpf;fg;gl;l kUj;Jt mjpfhupfs; rpy itj;jparhiyfspy; jhd; cs;sdu;. khtl;l kUj;Jt mjpfhupfs; (DMOs) ghypay; td;Kiwapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu;fspd; kUj;Jtg; gupNrhjidfis elj;Jtjw;F jifik ngw;wtu;fs; my;y. DMOfshy; vt;tpj rhd;Wk; fz;Lgpbf;f Kbahky; Nghd rpy re;ju;g;gq;fspy; ePjpKiw kUj;Jt mYtyu; rhd;Wfisf; fz;Lgpj;Js;shu;.

ghy; uPjpahfg; gFf;fg;gl;l jfty;fs; ,y;yhik (Lack of sex disaggregated data)


td;Kiwahd Fw;wr;nray; rk;gtq;fspd; G+uzkhd gFf;fg;gl;l jfty;fs; ,y;yhjjhy;> ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd Fw;wr;nray;fspd; cz;ikahd msit kjpg;gpl KbahJ. vdpDk; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWtu;fspd; ghJfhg;gpw;fhd nghyp]; gzpafk; 2006 kw;Wk; 2007Mk; Mz;Lfspy; ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd td;Kiw gw;wpa gpd;tUk; Gs;sptpguq;fisg; gjpT nra;Js;sdu;. NkNy nrhy; y g; g l; l vy; y h rk; g tq; f Sk; tof; F j; n jhLg; i gj; Njitg;gLj;jpdhYk; $l> ,e;j tof;Fj; njhLg;Gfspd; Kd;Ndw;wk; njhlu;ghf nghyp]hupdhy; my;yJ rl;lj;Jiwj; jiyik mjpgjpapd; jpizf;fsj;jpdhy; vt; t pj jftYk; toq; f Kbatpy; i y vd; g J Fwpg; g plj; j f; f jhFk; . cau;ejpkd;wj;jpd; eltbf;iffisf; fz;fhzpg;gjw;fhd cghak; rl;lj;Jiwj; P jiyik mjpgjpapd; jpizf;fsj;jpy; ,y;iy. vdNt> ghypay; ty;YwT Fw;wj; jPu;g;Gfs; gw;wpa gjpTfis mtu;fshy; Ngz Kbatpy;iy.

%yk;: ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWtu;fspd; ghJfhg;Gf;fhd nghyp]; gzpafk; 2006> 2008.

%yk;: ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWtu;fspd; ghJfhg;Gf;fhd nghyp]; gzpafk; 2006> 2008.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 55

ngz;fSk; MAj Kuz;ghLk;

,yq;if murhq;fk; mjd; 3Mk; kw;Wk; 4Mk; gUtfhy mwpf;iffis CEDAW FOTf;F rku;g;gpj;J 7 tUlq;fs; fle;J tpl;lNghjpYk;> ehl;bd; ePz;l fhy MAjg; Nghuhl;lk;> Nghu; epWj;jk; kw;Wk; rkhjhdg; Ngr;Rthu;j;ijfs; (2002/ 03)> Nghu; epWj;j xg;ge;jj;jpd; Kiwrhu; tof;fWj;jy; (formal abrogation) ([dtup 2008)> MAj Kuz;ghL jPtpukiljy; (2006/09) kw;Wk; 2009Mk; Mz;L Nk khjk; jkpo; <o tpLjiyg; Gypfspd; (vy;.up.up.<) ,uhZt uPjpahd Njhw;fbg;G Mfpa fhyg; g Fjpfisf; fle; J s; s J. 2006Mk; Mz; b ypUe; J Kuz; g hL jPtpukile;jjd; tpisthfg; ngUe;njhifahd kf;fspd; ,lk;ngau;T> kw;Wk; Nrhjidr; rhtbfspd; mjpfupg;G> Rw;wptisg;G kw;Wk; NjLjy; eltbf;iffs; Nghd;w ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffs; kw;Wk; nghJthd mur ghJfhg;gpd;ik Mfpatw; w pdhy; ngz; f spd; ghJfhg; G ,lUf; F s; s hf; f g; g l; L jkJ cupikfis KOikahfg; gad;gLj;Jk; mtu;fspd; Mw;wYk; Fiwtile;jJ. Kuz;ghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ngUk;ghd;ikahd ngz;fs; rpWghd;ikr; r%fj;ijr; Nru;e;jtu;fshtu;. K];ypk;fSk; Fwpg;ghf jkpou;fSkhtu;. MAj Kuz;ghl;Lr; #o;epiyapy; murhq;fk; vjpu;Nehf;fpa ghJfhg;G rthy;fis Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpd;w mNjNtis> Kuz;ghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ngz;fSf;fhd ghJfhg; i g my; y J epthuzj; i j toq; f p ngz; f spd; cupikfis cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F rpy eltbf;iffs; kl;LNk Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ld. MAj Kuz;ghL Kbtile;J xU tUlk; njhlu;fpd;w NghjpYk;> mtrufhy epiyik njhlu; e ; J k; epyTtJld; mtrufhy xOq; F tpjpfspd; rpy Vw; g hLfs; ePq;fg;gl;bUg;gpDk; jtpu;g;G/epu;thf jLj;J itj;jy; Nghd;w ru;tNjr kdpj cupikfs; epakq;fSf;F mikthf ,y;yhj gy gpur;rpidf;Fupa xOq;Ftpjpfs; ,d;Dk; cs;sd.

,lg;ngau;T
2009 ,w;Fg; gpe;jpa ,lg;ngau;T
vy;.up.up.< apdUld; eilngw;w ,Wjp Aj;jj;ijj; njhlu;e;J Mdp 2010,y; cs; s thW> 60>900 Ngu; nkdpf; ghk; vd; D kplj; j py; cs; e hl; b y; ,lk;ngau;e;NjhUf;fhd Kfhk;fspy; (IDP Camps) tho;fpd;w mNjNtisapy; 142>772 Ngu; jkJ nrhe;j khtl;lq;fSf;Fj; jpUk;gpAs;sJld; 92>791 Ngu; MjuTf; FLk;gq;fSld; (host families) tho;fpd;wdu;. mj;Jld; 1>192 Ngu; r%f epWtdq; f spy; guhkupg; g py; cs; s du; . 50 murhq; f j; j pdhy; cs; e hl; b y;

56| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

,lk; n gau; e ; j kf; f s; gw; w pa vt; t pj Gs; s ptpguKk; gfpuq; f khf ntspaplg; g lhik kw; W k; ,lk; n gau; e ; j Ml; f s; gw; w pa ghy; uP j pahfg; gFf;fg;gl;l jfty;fs; cldbahff; fpilf;fhik Mfpatit ,lk;ngau;e;j kw;Wk; Kuz;ghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ngz;fspd; Fwpj;j Njitfis <L nra; t jw; f hd nfhs; i ffisAk; epfo; r ; r pj; jpl; l q; f isAk; tFg; g ijj; jtpu;f;fpd;wd. jw;Nghija nkdpf; ghk; IDP Kfhk; rdj;njhif 51% ngz;fs;> 35% rpWtu;fs; kw;Wk; 4% tNahjpgu;fis cs;slf;fpAs;sJ.51 ,e;j kf;fs; czT> ePu;> J}a;ik kw;Wk; Rfhjhuk; cs;spl;l jq;fspd; Njitfs; njhlu;ghf fzprkhd mstpy; ghjpf;ff;$ba kf;fshf I.eh. rigapdhy; milahsk; fhzg;gl;Ls;sdu;.52 2010Mk; Mz;by; epiwAzT ,ilepWj;jg;gl;lik ,e;j kf;fspd; El;gkhd rkhspf;fpd;w cghaq;fis kpff; fLikahfg; ghjpj;jJ vd I.eh. ];jhgdk; mwpf;if nra;Js;sJ.53 mNj Neuk; ngz;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;Gr; nraw;ghLfSk; Fiwf;fg;gl;L my;yJ Jz;bf;fg;gl;L mtu;fs; ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shFk; epiyia mjpfupf;fr; nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. jpUk;gpr; nrd;w gFjpfspy; Nghjpa cl;fl;likg;G trjpfspd;ik kw;Wk; tiuaWf;fg;gl;l mbg;gil Nritfs; fpilj;jy; Mfpait ngz;fis> Fwpg;ghf ngz;fs; FLk;gj; jiytpfshf cs;s FLk;gq;fisAk; jdpj;J thOk; ngz;fisAk; ghjpf;fg;glf; $ba epiyikf;F Mshf;fpaJ. Gfyplk;> Rfhjhu trjpfs;> ePu; kw;Wk; Jg;GuNtw;ghLfs; ,lk;ngau;e;j kf;fshy; Kd;Dupikj; Njitfshf milahsk; fhzg; g l; l mNj Ntis> jkJ ghJfhg; i g mjpfupg;gjw;Fk; njhy;iyfisAk; J\;gpuNahfj;ijAk; jtpu;g;gjw;fhfTk; ,ilj;jq;fy; Gfyplq;fs; kw;Wk; jFe;j Jg;GuNtw;ghl;L trjpfs; Mfpatw;wpd; Kf; f paj; J tj; i j jpUk; g p te; j ngz; f s; typAWj; j pdu; . 54 jpUk; g pr; n rd; w cs; e hl; b y; ,lk; n gau; e ; j kf; f Sf; F ,ilj; j q; f y; Gfyplq; f is mikg;gjw;fhf $iuj;jfLfs;> jhu;r; rPiyfs;> kw;Wk; rPnke;J55 Mfpait toq;fg;gl;ld. vdpDk; epu;khzj;jpy; mDgtk; ,y;yhj ngz;fSf;F cjtpfs; ,d;wp Gfyplq;fis mikf;f Kbahky; Ngha;tpl;ljhy; rpy Ntisfspy; J\;gpuNahfq;fSf;F toptFf;Fk;. jq;fpthOk; flg;ghl;L epiyik cUthdJ. jpUk; g p te; J trpj; j gpuNjrq; f s; kpd; r huk; > eP u ; Nghd; w mbg; g il cl;fl;likg;G trjpfs; mw;w gpd;jq;fpa gpuNjrq;fshf ,Ue;jjhy;> td;Kiw kw;Wk; njhy;iy Nghd;w re;ju;g;gq;fisAk; ngz;fs; vjpu;Nehf;fpdu;. ,uhZtk; njhlu; e ; J k; Kuz; g hl; b dhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l gpuNjrq; f spy; rl;lj;ijAk; xOq;ifAk; NgZtjpy; <Lgl;bUe;jJld;> Kd;du; vy;.up.up.<.apd; fl;Lg;ghl;by; ,Ue;j gpuNjrq;fspy; epu;khzq;fSk;/Nrhjidr; rhtbfSk; mikj;jJ. ,uhZtkag;gLj;jg;gl;bUe;j gpuNjrq;fSf;F IDPfs; jpUk;gpr; nrd;wdu;. Nk 2009 ,y; Nghu; Kbtile;J xU tUlj;Jf;Fk; Nky; fope;J tpl;l epiyapy; > tlf; f py; cs; s cau; ghJfhg; G tyaq; f Sk (HSZs) ,uhZt mikg; G fSk; mt; t hNw ,Uf; F k; vd murhq; f k; mwptpj; j J. NkYk; ,e;Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf mur fhzp fpilf;fhtpbd; jdpahu; fhzpfis murhq;fk; RtPfupf;Fk; vdTk; mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ. jw;NghJs;s cau; ghJfhg;G tyaq;fisg; NgZtJ kl;Lkd;wp Gjpait Njhw;Wtpg;gijAk; ,J Fwpf;fpd;wJ. ,t;tpjkhf Kd; d u; Kuz; g hL fhzg; g l; l gpuNjrq; f isj; njhlu; e ; J k; ,uhZtkag; g Lj; j y; td; K iwfs; kw; W k; njhy; i yfshy; ngz; f s;

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 57

ghjpf;fg;glf;$ba epiyia mjpfupj;jJ.56 2010 Mdp 6Mk; jpfjp fpspnehr;rpapy; cs;s tp];tkLtpy; ,uz;L ngz;fs; ghypay; ty;YwTf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;lik Nghd; w kf; f s; jpUk; g pr; nrd; w ,lq; f spy; ,uhZtg; gilapduhy; ,iof; f g; g l; l jhfr; nrhy; y g; g Lk; ghypay; td; K iwr; rk; g tq; f spy; tpgupf; f g; g l; l thW td; K iwapdhYk; njhy; i yfshYk; ngz; f s; ghjpf;fg;gLtij mjpfupj;jikia ,uhZtj;jpd; gpurd;dk; $l;Lfpd;wJ.57 ,J mtu;fspd; tho;thjhu tha;gGfis cs;spl;l mtu;fspd; tho;fifapd; Vida ; ; mk;rq;fis kpff; fLikahfj; jhf;Fk; mtu;fspd; elkhLtjw;fhd Rje;jpuj;ij tiuaiw nra;fpd;wJ.58

2009 ,lg;ngau;tpw;F Kd;du;


Muk; g j; j py; Nghupd; NghJ ,lk; n gw; w MAj Kuz; g hl; b d; fhuzkhd ,lk;ngau;e;j Rkhu; 200>000 kf;fs; ,;d;Dk; jq;fs; tPLfSf;Fj; jpUk;gtpy;iy. cjhuzkhf cau; ghJfhg;G tyak; fhuzkhf 6>000 Ngu; fpof;F khfhzj;jpy; cs;s jq;fs; tPLfSf;Fj; jpUk;gpr; nry;y KbahJs;s mNjNtis> 1990,y; vy;.up.up.<.apdhy; gyte;jkhf ntspNaw;wg;gl;l 60>000 K];ypk;fs; Gj;jsj;jpy; cs; s Kfhk; f spy; njhlu; e ; J k; tho; f pd; w hu; f s; . 59 jpUk; g pr; nry; Y jy; > kPs;FbNaw;wk;> Gdu;tho;T kw;Wk; kPl;lspg;G gw;wpa Njrpaf; nfhs;if60 ,y; y hjjhy; gy; N tW FOf; f Sf; F NtWgl; l nfhs; i ffis muR gpuNahfpg;gjd; fhuzkhf gad;fs; rkj;Jtkpd;wpg; gfpe;jspf;fg;gLfpd;wd. Mjutspf;Fk; FLk;gq;fspy; ePzlfhykhfj; jq;fpapUf;Fk; ngz; IDPfs; kw;Wk; ; mtu;fspd; gps;isfs; MfpNahupy; rpyu; jkJ FLk;gq;fspd; nrhe;j ,lq;fs; gw;wp vJTk; njupahJs;sJld; jhk; jpUk;gpr; nry;tjh my;yJ jw;NghjpUf;Fk; ,lj; j pNyNa njhlu; e ; J k; ,Ug; g jh vd jP u ; k hdpg; g jw; f hd cupikiaf; NfhUfpd;wdu;.

vy;.up.up.<.apd; nraw;ghLfspy; <Lgl;bUe;jjhf re;Njfj;jpd; Ngupy; gpupj;Jj; jLj;J itf;fg;gl;Ls;s IDPfs;


mwpf; i ffspd; gpufhuk; vy; . up.up.apd; nraw; g hLfspy; <Lgl; L s; s jhf re;Njfpf;fg;gl;L jLj;J itf;fg;gl;Ls;sjhy;> nghJthd IDPfsplkpUe;J gpupe;J tho;Nthu; Rkhu; 10>000 Ngu; cs;sdu;. ,e;j kf;fs; njhif gw;wpa ghy; mbg;gilapy; gFf;fg;gl;l juTfis murhq;fk; toq;fhjjhy;> mtu;fspilNa cs;s ngz;fspd; vz;zpf;if njupahJ. mt;thNw> mtu;fspd; Fwpj;j Njitfs; epiwNtw; w g; g l; L s; s dth vd; g Jk; njupahJ. ,e; j Ml; f spy; ngUk;ghyhdtu;fs; Gdu;tho;T epiyaq;fSf;F mDg;gg;gl;Ls;sdu;. ,e;j epiyaq;fSf;Fr; nry;tjw;F Kd;du; mDkjpf;fg;gl;bUe;j xNunahU Kftuhd ICRCAk; Mdp 2009 ,y; ,Ue;J tp[ak; nra;tjw;Fj; jil tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j epiyaq; f spy; itf; f g; g l; b Uf; F k; mNjNtis> rl; l uP j pahd gpujpepjpj;Jtj;jpw;fhd cupik Nghd;w ghJfhg;G eltbf;if Kiwfis mtu;fs; mDgtpg;gjpy;iy. ,e;j epiyaq;fspy; cs;s Ml;fSf;F tho;f;ifj; njhopw; gapw;rp mspf;fg;gLtjhf mwpf;if nra;ag;gl;l NghjpYk;> ghypay; uPjpahf khwhj nraw;ghLfshfpa ijay; kw;Wk; rpifayq;fhuk; Nghd;wtw;wpd; kPNj ,q;F ftdk; nrYj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,t;tifahd gpupj;jy;/jLj;J itj;jy; fhuzkhfTk; kf;fs; jpUk;gpr; nrd;Ws;s gpuNjrq;fspy; ngz;fSk; ngz; jiyikapyhd FLk; g q; f Sk; ghjpf; f g; g Lk; epiy mjpfupj; J s; s J. ,e;epiyaq;fspypUe;J tpLtpf;fg;gl;Ls;s ngz;fs; jkJ rKjhaq;fspDs;

58| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

mjpfupj; j fsq; f j; j pw; F cl; g Ltjhy; > rKjhaj; j pDs; kP z ; L k; kP s ; x Uq; f pizg; i g Nkw; n fhs; t jpy; mtu; f s; fzprkhd rthy; f is vjpu; n fhs; f pd; w du; . jw; N ghJ ,e; j Ml; f spd; kP s ; xUq; f pizg; g pw; F Mjutspf;Fk; my;yJ mtu;fspd; ghy;epiy uPjpapyhd Fwpj;j Njitfis <Lnra;Ak; Njrpa epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs;/nfhs;iffs; ,y;iy. cWg;Giu 2 cWg;Giu 3 cWg;Giu 4 cWg;Giu 5(m) muRfspd; flg;ghLfs; jFe;j eltbf;iffs; ghugl;rj;ij xopg;gjw;fhd jw;fhypf tpNrl eltbf;iffs; r%f> fyhrhug; ghq; F fis Nkk; g Lj; j y; nghJthd tpjg;Giufs; 19 ghugl;rj;ij xopg;gjw;F jFe;j eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;ba murpd; flg; g hL njhlu; g hf> jw; N ghJs; s cghaq; f s; gaDWjpAld; njhopw; g ltpy; i y. mj; J ld; gy re; j u; g ; g q; f spy; ngz; f s; rl; l j; j pd; rkj;Jtkhd ghJfhg;gpypUe;J gadilaNth my;yJ rl;lg; gupfhuq;fisg; ngwNth Kbatpy;iy. ,uhZtg;gil Mszpapdu;> nghyp];> ,uhZtj;jpypUe;J tpyfpatu;fs; kw;Wk; ,uhZtf; FOf;fshy; Fw;wk; ,iof;fg;gl;ljhf $wg;gLk; ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd ghypay; td;Kiw mwpf;iffs; gy cs;sd.61 mr;rk; fhuzkhf cj;jpNahfG+u;t Kiwg; g hLfis Nkw; n fhs; t jw; F rpy ngz; f Ns tpUk; G tjhy; vy; y h rk;gtq;fSk; mwp;f;if nra;ag;gltpy;iy. MfNt ,e;j tplaq;fs; gw;wpa Kiwikahd Mtzg;gLj;jy; vJTk; ,y;iy. fpUrhe;jp FkhuRthkp jPu;g;G (1998) kw;Wk; tp[pjh Nahfypq;fk; jPu;khdk; (2000) tpjptpyf;Ffshf ,Uf;f> ghJfhg;Gg;gil Mszpapdu; rk;ge;jg;gl;l my;yJ Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l ghJfhg;gpy; ghypay; ty;YwT Fw;wj;jPg;Gfs; rpy cs;sd. jw;NghJ ghypay; jtWfis ,iof;fpd;w Mz;fs; ngUk;ghYk; ghuhSkd;w/MAjf; FOf;fspy; Nru; e ; J nfhs; f pd; w du; my; y J mtw; W ld; jq; f is rk; g e; j g; g Lj; j pf; nfhs;fpd;wdu;. ,jdhy; gopthq;fYf;F mQ;rp ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu; Fw;wj;ijg; gw;wp mwpf; i f nra; a j; jtwp tpLfpd; w hu; . Kuz; g hl; b dhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l gpuNjrq; f spy; td; K iwfshy; ghjpf; f g; g l; b Uf; f f; $ ba ngz; f spd; Kiwg;ghLfisg; gjpT nra;tjw;F xU rpy ngz; nghyp]; mYtyu;fNs cs;sdu;. my;yJ vtUNk ,y;iy. mt;thW ngz; nghyp]; mYtyu;fs; ,Ug;gpd; me;jg; gpuNjj;jpy; thOk; ngUk;ghd;ikahd kf;fspd; nkhopahfpa jkpo; ,e;j mYtyu;fSf;Fj; njupahJ. gd; d puz; L tajpw; F f; Fiwe; j xu; gps; i s my; y J ngz; ifJ nra;ag;gLk;NghJ my;yJ jLj;J itf;fg;gLk;NghJ> mtu; tpUk;Gfpd;w xUtu; tprhuiz nra;ag;gLk; ,lj;jpw;F cld; tUtjw;F mDkjpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJld; KbAkhdtiu jLj;J itf;fg;gLk; xu; ngz; rk;ge;jg;gl;l ghJfhg; G g; gilapdupd; ngz; f s; gpuptpd; ghJfhg; g py; itf; f g; g Ljy; Ntz;Lk;. my;yJ ngz; ,uhZt my;yJ nghyp]; mYtyupd; ghJfhg;gpy; itf;fg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW Njitg;gLj;Jk; Mb 1996 ,y; toq;fg;gl;L Mb 2007 ,y; kPz;Lk; toq;fg;gl;l ifJfs; kw;Wk; jLj;J itj;jy; gw;wpa [dhjpgjp gzpg; G fs; Nghd; w jw; N ghJs; s ghJfhg; G fs; vg; N ghjhtJ eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gbd; mJ kpf mupjhd rk;gtkhFk;.
,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 59

cjhuzkhf> 2008 ij 31 ,w; F k; gq; F dp 23 ,w; F k; ,ilapy; fpof; F khfhzj;jpy; nghj;Jtpy; tPjp mf;fiug;gw;wpy; epiynfhz;bUe;j nghyp]; tpNrl mjpubg;gilapdu; (STF) MiyabNtk;G gpuNjrj;jpy; (mf;fiug;gw;wpd; jkpo; gpuNjrk;) cs;s 17 gpuNjr nrayhsu; gpupTfspy; gfy; Neuj;jpYk; mt;thNw ,uT NtisfspYk; jPtpukhd Rw;wptisg;G kw;Wk; NjLjy; eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhz;ldu;. ,e;j eltbf;ifapd;NghJ> tpNrl mjpubg;gilapdu; (STF) tPbNah glg;gpbg;ghsUld; te;J xt;nthU FLk;g cWg;gpdiuAk; mtu;fspd; ngau;> taJ> jpUkz me;j];J> njhopy;> clypay; mk;rq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iwf; $Wk; g b Nfl; L mtu; f is FLk; g j; J ld; xd; w hfTk; jdpj; j dpahfTk; mtu;fspd; tPl;bd; Kd; xspg;gjpT nra;jdu;. ,e;j eltbf;if gjpT nra;jy; vd Fwpg;gplg;gl;lJ. ,e;j Rw;wptisj;jy; kw;Wk; NjLjy; eltbf;if STF mYtyu;fshy; elj;jg;gl;lJ. ,uT Ntisfspy; NjLjy; elj;jg;gl;lNghJ $l rl;lj;jpdhy; Njitg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wthW mtu;fSld; ngz; mYtyu;fs; tutpy; i y. ,e; j j; njhopw; g hLfspd; NghJ ghypay; njhy; i y kw; W k; ngz;fspd; J\;gpuNahfk; gw;wpa gy Fw;wr;rhl;Lfs; fhzg;gl;ld. Mdhy;> gpd; t pistpw; F mQ; r p xU cj; j pNahG+u; t Kiwg; g hNlDk; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g ltpy; i y. ,e; j ,uT Neuj; j py; gjpT nra; j y; kw; W k; milahsk; fhzy; eltbf;ifiaj; njhlu;e;J rptpy; cilapy; tPLfspw;F tp[ak; nra;j Mz;fs; ghypay; ty;YwT cs;spl;l ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd ghypay; td;Kiw kw;Wk; jhf;Fjy; nray;fspy; <Lgl;ldu;;. kPz;Lk; gpd;tpisTf;F mQ; r p xu; Kiwrhu; Kiwg; g hNlDk; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g ltpy; i y. rKjha vjpu; g ; g pd; tpisthf ,Wjpapy; STF Kfhk; MiyabNtk; g pypUe; J mfw;wg;gl;lJ. ,e;j gjpT nra;jy; eilKiw kw;Wk; NjLjy; eltbf;iffspy; ghy;epiy uP j pahd jd; i kiag; gw; w p mf; f iw nfhz; l ngz; f s; FOf; f s; ,e; j r; rk; g tq; f s; njhlu; g hf Gydha; T nra; J cly; uP j pahd Nkd; i kf; F k; ghJfhg; g hf tho; t jw; F khd jkJ cupikfspd; ghypay; uP j pahd kPWjYf;nfjpuhf cghaq;fis Nkw;nfhs;SkhW nghyp];kh mjpgiuAk; kdpj cupikfs; Mizf;FOitAk; typAWj;JkhW ngz;fSf;fhd Njrpaf; FOTf;F (NCW)62 vOjpf; Nfhupf;if tpLj;jd. ,e;jf; fbjj;jpw;Fk; mjidj; njhlu;e;J mDg;gg;gl;l fbjq;fSf;Fk; vt;tpj gjpYk; fpilf;fhjjhy;> jFe;j eltbf;if Kiwfis cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; kdpj cupikfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;Fkhd mur epWtdq; f spd; murpay; tpUg; g pd; i kiag; gw; w p kpFe; j mf; f iwia Vw; g Lj; j paJ. jw; N ghJ Rw; w ptisg; G kw; W k; NjLjy; eltbf; i ffs; elj; j g; g Ltjpy; i y. vdpDk; > eP z ; l fhy Nghupd; tpisthf> NkNy nrhy; y g; g l; l cjhuzj; j py; tpsf; f pathW mbg; g ilahd ghJfhg; G eltbf;iffs; rpijtile;Js;sd. mtru fhy epiyikia jsu;j;Jjy;> tpLghl; L upikia KbTWj; j y; kw; W k; fl; L g; g hLk; tiuaiwfSkpd; w p ,uhZtg; gilfSf;Fk; nghypRf;Fk; mgupkpjkhd mjpfhuq;fis toq;Fk; rl; l q; f is eP f ; F jy; Nghd; w eltbf; i fKiw uP j pahd ghJfhg; g pw; f hd Gwf;fzpg;ig Cf;Ftpj;J ,ayr; nra;Ak; Kiwikahd fhuzpfis muR ifahshj tplj;J Nghu; Kbtile;j> mjw;F mLj;Js;s fl;lj;jpYk; ,J njhluf;$Lk;. mwpf; i ffspd; gpufhuk; > jpUk; g p te; J s; s Ml; f s; rpy Ntisfspy; cs; @ upypUe; J ntspNa gpuahzk; nra; t jw; F mDkjpg; gj; j puq; f is

60| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

toq;Ftjd; Clhf nghJkf;fspd; elkhl;l Rje;jpuj;Jf;Fj; jil tpjpj;J me; j g; gpuNjrq; f spy; xU rP u w; w Kiwapy; ,uhZtg; gilapduhYk; nghyprhupdhYk; gjpT nra; a g; g Lfpd; w du; . ,J $l ngz; f spdJk; rpWkpfspdJk; ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; ,af;fj;jpw;;F ntFthd ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jp mjd; %yk; tho;thjhuk;> fy;tp kw;Wk; Rfhjhug; guhkupg;G Nghd;wit fpilg;gjpYk; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. gad; f isAk; kuGupikfisAk; ngWtjw; F ,d; w paikahj FLk; g cWg;gpdu;fspd; kuz mj;jhl;rpg; gj;jpuq;fs;> Mjd cWjpfs; kw;Wk; milahs ml;ilfs; Nghd;w jdpg;gl;l Mtzq;fs; gy IDPfsplk; ,y;iy. Fwpg;ghf> Kuz; g hl; b d; filrpf; fl; l q; f spd; N ghJ nfhy; y g; g l; l tu; f spd; kuz mj; j hl; r pg; gj; j puq; f is toq; F jy; njhlu; g hf FLk; g cWg; g pdu; f s; tpz;zg;gpf;f KbahJs;sdu;. ,we;jtu;fspd; cly;fs; fpilf;fhik> rhjhuz eilKiwapd; Clhf rhd; w pjo; f isg; ngWtijj; jil nra; f pd; w J. ,w;iwtiu ,tu;fs; FLk;g cWg;gpdu;fspd; kuz mj;jhl;rpg; gj;jpuq;fisg; ngWtij ,ayr; nra; t jw; F murhq; f k; vt; t pj Vw; g hLfisAk; Nkw;nfhs;stpy;iy. Mjyhy; jw;NghJ jkJ fztid ,oe;Js;s ngz;fs; jpUk;gpr; nrd;w gpuNjrq;fspy; jkJ tho;f;ifia kPz;Lk; Muk;gpg;gjpy; fzprkhd jilfis vjpu;Nehf;Ffpd;wdu;. Kuz;ghl;bd;NghJ nfhy;yg;gl;l my;yJ fhzhky; Nghdtu;fSf;fhd el;l <L njhlu; g hf ,w; i wtiu vt; t pj nfhs; i fAk; ,y; i y. Nghupdhy; tpjitfshd ngz;fs; gw;wpa nrk;ikahd juTfSk; ,y;iy. Kuz;ghl;by; nfhy; y g; g l; l ,uhZtg; gilapdupd; kidtpkhu; jkJ tho; f ; i fj; Jiztupd; rk;gsj;ij ,we;jtu; Xa;T ngWk; taJ tiu ngWtJld; mjd; gpd;du; mtu;fspd; Xa;T+jpaf; nfhLg;gdTk; toq;fg;gLfpd;wJ. Nkhrkhd epu;thf eltbf;if Kiwfs; fhuzkhf gy ngz;fs; ,e;jg; gad;fisg; ngWtjpy; rpukg; g Ltjhf mwpf; i f nra; a g; g l; L s; s J. ,e; j g; ngz; f s; kWkzk; nra;J nfhz;lhy; rk;gsj;ijAk Xa;T+jpaj;ijAk; ,og;gu;. Mjyhy; ,e;jg; gad;fisg; ngWtjd; %yk; <l;lg;gLk; nghUshjhu Rje;jpuj;ij mtu;fs; ,of;f tpUk;ghjjhy; kWkzk; nra;a KbahJs;sdu;. nghJthf tpjitfs; rKjha cWg; g pdu; f splkpUe; J ghypay; njhy; i yf; F k; fl;Lg;ghl;bw;Fk; MshtjhfTk; mwpf;if nra;fpd;wdu;;.63 cWg;Giu 7 Njrpa kl;lj;jpy; murpay; kw;Wk; nghJ tho;tpy; rkj;Jtk; cWg;Giu 8 ru;tNjr kl;lj;jpy; murpay; tho;tpy; rkj;Jtk; ,yq; i f murhq; f j; j pdhy; ij 2006 ,y; $l; l g; g l; l midj; J f; fl; r p gpujpepjpfs; khehL (APRC) GJg; g pf; f g; g l; l Ngr; R thu; j ; i jfSf; f hd mbg; g ilahfp ,Uf; f f; $ ba murpay; gfpu; T g; nghjp gw; w p njw; f pd; ,zf;fg;ghl;il tpUj;jp nra;tjw;F rhl;lg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; ,d;Dk; Mb 2010 tiu ,zf; f g; g hL milag; g ltpy; i y. brk; g u; 2006 ,y; APRCapdhy; epakpf; f g; g l; l gjpNdO rl; l j; j uzpfs; > murhq; f mYtyu; f s; kw; W k; fy;tpkhd;fis cs;slf;fpa epGzu;fs; FO ,uz;L mwpf;iffisj; jahupj;jJ. ,e; j epGzu; f s; FOtpYk; APRCapYk; ngz; f spd; gpujpepjpj; J tk; kpff; FiwthfNt fhzg;gl;lJ> epGzu;fs; FO ,uz;L ngz;fisf; nfhz;bUe;j mNjNtis> APRC xu; ngz; cWg;gpdiu kl;LNk nfhz;bUe;jJ.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

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jw; N ghJ [dhjpgjp nrayzp (PTF) vy; y h Kd; n dLg; G fSf; F khd (Gduikg; G > jpUk; g pr; nry; y y; > kP s ; FbNaw; w k; kw; W k; mgptpUj; j p) gzpg;GfisAk; tpLg;gJld; Kuz;ghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l gpuNjrq;fspy; fUj;jpl;lq;fis Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fk; cjtp toq;Ftjw;Fk; cs;ehl;L kw;Wk; ru;tNjr mur rhu;gw;w epWtdq;fSf;Fk; cs;ehl;L mur epWtdq;fSf;Fk; mDkjp mspf;fpd;wJ. rkhjhd cld;ghl;bdhy; my;yhJ ,uhZt uPjpahf MAj Kuz;ghL Kbtile;jpUf;Fk; #o;epiyapYk; mj;jifa nfhs;iia tFg;gjpy; rKjha my;yJ rpty; r%f gq;Nfw;G ,y;yhj epiyapYk; ngz;fs; FOf;fs; Nghd;w mjpfhuNkh %yjdNkh mw;w FOf;fs; jkJ mf;fiwfisAk; NjitfisAk; vLj;Jiug;gjw;fhd FuNyh ,lNkh ,d;wp cs;sdu;. PTF,y; ngz; cWg; g pdu; vtUk; ,y; i y. kf; f s; jpUk; g p te; j /kP s ; F bNaw; w gpuNjrq;fspy; tpopg;G+l;ly; my;yJ ghJfhg;Gg; gzpfspy; <Lgl Ntz;lhk; vd PTF,dhy; jhk; mwpTWj;jg;gl;Ls;sjhf ngz;fspd; FOf;fs; mwpf;if nra;fpd;wd. muR Kg;gJ tUl fhy Kuz;ghl;by; gy;NtW re;ju;g;gq;fspy; Kuz;ghl;bd; fhuzkhf Vw; g l; l ,og; G f; F el; l <L NfhUtjw; F Ml; f is ,ayr; nra; t jw; f hd eltbf; i fia Nkw; n fhz; l J> ngz; f Sf; F ,e; j f; Nfhupf; i ffis tpLg; g jw; f hd tpo; g ; G zu; N th kw; W k; tsq; f Nsh ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mdu;jj Kfhikj;Jt kdpj cupikfs; mikr;R ];jhgpf;fg;gl;L ; Kuz; g hL kw; W k; mdu; j ; j r; #o; e piyfspy; gjpy; eltbf; i f Nkw; n fhs; t jw; f hd rl; l thf; f k; mwpKfg; g Lj; j g; g l; l J. vdpDk; 2010 ghuhSkd;wj; Nju;jiyj; njhlu;e;J mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jt kdpj cupikfs; mikr;R fiyf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,w;iwtiu el;l <L kw;Wk; kPl;lspg;G gw;wpa Njrpaf; nfhs;if vJTk; ,y;iy. cWg;Giu 10 fy;tpapy; rkj;Jtk; %lg;gl;L cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngau;e;j kf;fspd; eyd;Gup epiyaq;fshfg; gad;gLj;jg;gl;l Kuz;ghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l gpuNjrq;fspy; ,Ue;j ghlrhiyfs; 2009Mk; Mz;L Nghu; epWj;jg;gl;ljpypUe;J gbg;gbahfj; jpwf;fg;gl;ld. NkYk;> Kd;dhs; rpWtu; Nghuhspfs; cs;spl;l rpWtu;fs; ghlrhiyfSf;Fr; nrd;W f.ngh.j. rh/j guPl;irf;Fj; jahu; nra;tjw;fhd Vw;ghL Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ. Mdhy; vy;yh rpWtu;fSf;Fk; ,d;Dk; NghjpasT trjpfisf; nfhz; l ghlrhiy trjpfs; fpilf; f r; nra;ag;gltpy;iy. Kuz;ghlhdJ rpWkpfs; kPJk; ,sk; ngz;fs; kPJk; kpff; fLikahd jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. cjhuzkhf tlf;F kw;Wk; fpof;fpd; rpy gFjpfspy; mjpfupj; j vz; z pf; i fahd Nrhjidr; rhtbfs; > nghJthd ghJfhg; g pd; i k kw; W k; ,uhZt kakhf; f k; fhuzkhf rpWkpfs; ghlrhiyfSf;F mDg;gg;gLtjpy;iy. Kuz;ghL fhuzkhf rpWtu;fs; ghlrhiyia tpl; L ,iltpyfpAs; s du; my; y J mtu; f spd; ghlrhiy tho; f ; i fapYk; fy; t papYk; jlq; f y; Vw; g l; L s; s J. gupfhuf; fw; g pj; j y; toq;Ftij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F ftdkhf nfhs;if tFj;jYk; jpl;lkplYk; mtrpakhFk;. jpUkzk; ngz;fSf;fhd xU fhg;gPlhff; fUjg;gLtjhy;> Nghupd; gpd;dzpapy; $Ljyhfg; ghjpf;fg;gLtJ mtu;fspd; fy;tpahFk;. ,lk; n gau; e ; j kf; f spilNaAk; Kuz; g hl; b dhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l tu; f spilNaAk; ,staJj; jpUkzk; kw;Wk; Fiwe;j tajpy; fu;g;gk; jupj;jpUj;jy;

62| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

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Kd; n dLg; G fs; murpdhy; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l Ntz; b a Njit cs; s J. ngUk;ghyhd re;ju;g;gq;fspy; fhzhky; Nghd fztd;khu; mbg;gil/ xNunahU FLk; g tUkhdk; <l; L gtuhff; fhzg; g Ltjhy; > fhzhky; Nghdtu;fspd; kidtpkhu; nghUj;jkhd njhopy; tha;g;G my;yJ tUkhd cUthf;fr; nraw;ghLfs; %yk; cjtp mspf;fg;gl Ntz;ba Kuz;ghl;bdhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l kw; W nkhU ngz; f s; FOf; f shFk; . ,e; j r; #o; e piyfspy; mbg;gil tUkhdk; <l;Lgtu;fshf ngz;fspd; ghj;jpuj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhz;L mtrpakhd eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;Sjy; ,d;wpaikahjjhFk;. cWg;Giu 12 Rfhjhu trjpfisg; ngWtjpy; rkj;Jtk; gyte;jkhd ,lg;ngau;Tr; #o;epiyfspy; ngz;fspd; ,dg;ngUf;f Rfhjhuj; Njitfs; njhlu;ghf Kiwikahd mtru gjpy; eltbf;if vJTk; ,y;iy. ,lk;ngau;e;J nrd;w ,lq;fspy; Kfhk;fspy; cs;s Nkhrkhd epiyikfspy; gps;isg;NgWr; rk;gtq;fs; gy ,lk;ngw;Ws;sd. gpurtj;jpd; gpd;du; jhapdJk; Nra; f spdJk; Njitfs; G+u; j ; j p nra; a g; g Ljy; Ntz; L k; . jq; F tjw; F trjpaspj;Js;s rKjhaq;fspy; Rfhjhu Nritfs; kpf Nkhrkhf kpifahf tpupTgLj; j g; g l; L s; s Jld; khjtplha; > FLk; g f; fl; L g; g hL kw; W k; nghUj;jkhd cs;shil> ghthil Nghd;w mj;jpahtrpakhd Milfs; Nghd; w ngz; f spd; cldbj; Njitfs; ngUk; g hYk; ftdpf; f g; g lhJ tplg; g Lfpd; w d my; y J Gwf; f zpf; f g; L fpd; w d. ,e; j r; #o; e piyfspy; ngz; f spd; mf; f iwfis eptu; j ; j pg; g jw; F murpdhy; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g Lk; eltbf;iffs; kpff;FiwthFk;. jw; N ghJ kf; f s; jpUk; g p te; J s; s gpuNjrq; f spy; ngz; f spd; tpNrl Njitfisf; Fwpf;Nfhshff; nfhz;l Rfhjhug; guhkupg;G Nkk;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. gy Rfhjhu trjpfspy; kpd;rhuk;> ePu; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; Nghd;w mbg;gil cl;fl;likg;G trjpfs; ,y;iy.68 cjhuzkhf> Ky;iyj;jPT khtl; l j; j py; > itfhrp 2010,y; cs; s thW 16 itj; j parhiyfspy; 6 itj;jparhiyfs; kl;LNk njhopw;gLfpd;wd.69 kdNtjid njhlu;ghd Neha;fshy; Jd;Gw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; ngz;fspd; cstpay; Njitfis eptu;j;jpg;gjw;F kpfr;rpy eltbf;iffNs Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sd. ,e;jg; gpuNjrq;fSf;F NghjpasT fUj;jil Nritfis Vw;ghL nra;jy; cldbj; Njitahff; nfhs;sg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. cWg;Giu 14 fpuhkpag; ngz;fs;: mgptpUj;jp> Rfhjhug; guhkupg;G> gapw; r p kw; W k; fy; t p Mfpatw; w pYk; rKjhar; nraw; g hLfs; Nghd;wtw;wpYk; gq;Nfw;G> Nghjpa tho;f;if epiyikfs; Kuz; g hl; b dhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l gpuNjrq; f spy; cs; s kf; f s; fpuhkpa/ fkj;njhopy; rKjhaq;fisr; Nru;e;jtu;fshjyhy;> gy ngz;fs; FLk;gj;jpw;Fr; nrhe;jkhd fhzpfspYk; ,lj;Jf;fplk; Ntiy nra;Ak; njhopyhspfshfTk; rpwpa mstpyhd kuf;fwp kw;Wk; kPd; tpahghupfshfTk; njhopy; Gupfpd;wdu;. ghJfhg;G tiuaiwfSk; nghJthd Kuz;ghl;L rPu;FiyTk; mtu;fspd; tho;thjhuj;jpy; kpFe;j jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpd. Kuz;ghl;bd; fhuzkhf Rw;whly; ghjpg;G fduf MAjq;fspd; ghtid> Fz;L tPr;R kw;Wk; nry; tPr;Rfs;> epyf;fz;zpntbfs;> nraw;gLj;jg;glhj ntbnghUl;fs; (unexploded

64| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

ordinance)> fhLfs; kw;Wk; ePu; epiyfspd; mopT Nghd;witAk;> fhLfs;> epyk; kw; W k; eP u ; Mfpatw; w pd; jhf; F g; g pbj; j Yld; ngUk; g hYk; njhlu; G ila ngz;fspd; tho;thjhu nraw;ghLfs; kPJ kpFe;j jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd. mjpfupj; j ghJfhg; G f; ftdq; f s; > ghypay; njhy; i y kw; W k; td; K iw njhlu;ghd mf;fiwfs;> Kf;fhL> elkhLtjw;fhd tiuaiwfs; Nghd;w fyhrhu eltbf;iffs; Nghd;witAk; ed;F Cjpak; nrYj;jg;gLk; njhopy; tha;g;Gfisg; ngz;fs; ngWtij tiuaiw nra;tJld; mtu;fspd; tUkhd <l; L jiy Fiwthd jhf; F g; gpbf; f f; $ baJk; tP l ; i l mbg; g ilahd tUkhdk; <l; L k; nraw; g hLfspYk; mtu; f is fl; l hag; g Lj; J fpd; w J. ngz;fspd; tho;tpy; Kuz;ghl;bd; ghy;epiy uPjpahd jhf;fj;ijg; Gupe;J nfhs; t jw; f hd nfhs; i f Kd; n dLg; G fs; ,y; y hik Kuz; g hl; b dhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l FLk;gq;fs; kw;Wk; rKjhaq;fs; Mfpa ,uz;Lk; tho;tjw;F ngz;fSk; mtu;fspd; tUkhdKk; ikakhdjhf ,Uf;Fk; #o;epiyfspy; ,uz;lhk; epiyahd tUkhdk; <l;Ldu;fs; vd;Dk; czug;gl;l ghj;jpuj;jpw;F mtu;fis Mshf;Ffpd;wJ. cWg; G iu 15 rl; l kw; W k; rptpy; tplaq; f spy; rkj; J tk; : xg;ge;jq;fis KbTWj;Jtjw;Fk; Mjdq;fis epu;tfpg;gjw;Fk; Ml;fspd; elkhl;lj;jpw;Fk; tjptplj;ijAk; FbapUg;G epiyiaAk; njupT nra;tjw;Fkhd cupik.

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ngz;zpd; jhahu; $wpdhu;. mg;gpuNjr rl;l tYT+l;ly; Kftu;fisj; njhlu;G nfhz;L ,t;tplaj;ij MuhAkhW gj;jpupifahsUld; njhlu;Gs;s ngz;fs; FOf;fs; kfspu; mikr;R> NCW kw;Wk; Njrpa rpWtu; ghJfhg;G mjpfhu rig Mfpatw;iwf; Nfhupd. ghy;epiy Kftu;fs; rl;l tYT+l;ly; mjpfhupfSld; gy fye; j huha; T fis elj; j paNghjpYk; > vt; t pj Kd; N dw; w Kk; ,y; i y. nghyprpy; Kiwg;ghL nra;j ngz; gopthq;fYf;F mQ;rp jiykiwthfp cs;sjhf gj;jpupifahsu; njuptpj;jhu;. fhzhky; Nghjy; gw;wpa re;ju;g;gj;jpy; epthuzk; kw;Wk; gupfhuj;ijg; ngw Kbahky; ngz;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;w epiyik njhlu;ghf ngz;fs; FOf;fs; vjpu;Nehf;Ffpd;w gpur;rpidfSf;F ,J Xu; vLj;Jf;fhl;lhFk;. 1980fspy; njw;fpy; murpay; Kuz;ghL fhzg;gl;l fhyg;gFjpapy;> fhzhky; Nghd Ml; f s; njhlu; g hd nghyprpd; / ,uhZtg; gilfspd; nghWg; G ilikia typAWj; j p Ml; n fhzu; kDTf; f hd ngz; f spd; tpz;zg;gq;fis ePjpkd;wq;fs; tprhupj;jd. ,e;j tof;FfSf;Fg; gjpyspg;gjw;F rl;l tYT+l;ly; mjpfhupfs; ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Fg; nghWg;ghspfshtu; vDk; rl; l tpaiy eP j pkd; w q; f s; tFj; j d. fhzhky; Nghd Ml; f isf; fz; L gpbg; g jpy; mtu; f s; nrayw; W ,Ue; j ikf; F g; nghWg; g hspfshf ,Ue;jdu;.1 vdpDk;> NghjpasT rl;l cjtp fpilf;fhik> fhzhky; Nghjy; re; j u; g ; g q; f spy; rl; l tYT+l; l y; mjpfhupfspdJk; eP j pkd; w q; f spdJk; gaDWjpaw; w gjpy; eltbf; i f Mfpait fhuzkhf ,e; j tif epthuzq;fisg; ngWtjpy; ePjpkd;wq;fSf;fhd mZFKiwfs; Fiwthf cs;s ngz;fshy; ,e;j tpz;zg;gq;fs; mupjhf nfhz;Ltug;gLfpd;wd. Kuz;ghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l aho; jPgfw;gj;jpy; gy ngz;fs; fhzhky; Nghdik gw; w p gjpag; g l; l ikAk; mtw; w py; gy eP j pkd; w j; J f; F f; nfhz; L tug; g lNth my; y J jP u ; f ; f g; g lNth ,y; i y vd; g Jk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;. Kg;gJ tUl fhy Kuz;ghl;bd; gy;NtW fhyfl;lq;fspy; Kuz;ghl;bd; Clhf Vw;gl;l ,og;GfSf;F el;l<l;Lf; Nfhuy;fSf;F Ml;fis ,ayr; nra; t jw; F muR eltbf; i ffis Nkw; n fhz; l J. ,e; j f; Nfhuy; f is Nkw; n fhs; t jw; F ngz; f Sf; F tpopg; G zu; T k; tsq; f Sk; ,Uf; f tpy; i y. mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jt mikr;R cUthf;fg;gl;L Kuz;ghL kw;Wk; mdu;j;jr; #o; e piyfspy; gjpy; eltbf; i f Nkw; n fhs; t jw; f hd rl; l thf; f Kk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. vdpDk;> kfspu; mikr;R ,e;j mikr;rpdJk; mdu;j;j Kfhikj;Jtg; NguitapdJk; nfhs;if tFf;Fk; xU gpujhd cWg;gpdu; my;y. kfspu; mikr;R> NCW kw;Wk; ngz;fs; gzpafk; Mfpatw;iw cs;spl;l mur ghy; e piy Kftu; f s; Kuz; g hl; b dhYk; ghJfhty; #o; e piyfspYk; ghjpf; f g; g l; l ngz; f Sf; n fjpuhd td; K iwfSf; F gjpy; eltbf; i f Nkw;nfhs;tjpy; gaDWjpahf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. rpj;jputij> jLj;J itj;jy; kw;Wk; ifJ nra; j y; Mfpa mbg; g il cupik kP w y; f Sf; f hf rl; l tYT+l; l y; Kftu;fSf;F vjpuhf ePjpkd;wq;fspy; kDf;fisf; nfhz;L tUtjw;F my;yJ kdpj cupikfs; Mizf; F Otpy; eltbf; i ffis Kd; n dLg; g jw; F ngz;fSf;F rl;l cjtpfis toq;fpa murrhu;gw;w epWtdq;fs; ClhfNt nghJthf gjpy; eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.

66| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

(2) ,yq;ifapy; Mjdq;fis cilikahff; nfhz;bUj;jYk; epu;tfpj;jYk;: ,yq;ifapy; Mjdk; njhlu;ghd ngz;fspd; mwpT tiuaWf;fg;gl;ljhFk;.2 gy re;ju;g;gq;fspy;> jkJ ngau;fspy; Mjdq;fisg; gjpT nra;tjpy; ngz;fs; rpukj;ij vjpu;Nehf;Ffpd;wdu;. Vnddpy;> FLk;gj;jpy; Mz; jiytupd; ngaupy; Mjdq; f s; gjpag; g l Ntz; L k; vd fUjg; g Lfpd; w J. ,J ngz; f s; jiyikapyhd FLk; g q; f is ghjfkhd epiyf; F ,l; L r; nry; f pd; w J. tlf;fpYs;s Kuz;ghl;Lg; gpuNjrq;fspy; gy ngz;fSf;F jpUkzj;jpd; NghJ rPjdkhf mspf;fg;gl;l tPLfs; nrhe;jkhf ,Ue;jd. Mdhy; cWjpfs; Nghd;w Mtzq;fs; njhiye;j fhuzj;jpdhy; gy re;ju;g;gq;fspy; mopT my;yJ Nrjj;jpw;fhd el;l<l;il mtu;fshy; Nfhu Kbatpy;iy. Kuz;ghl;Lf; fhyj;jpy; murhq;fk; gy fhzpg; gpuNjrq;fis cau; ghJfhg;G tyaq;fshfg; (HSZ) gpufldk; nra;jjd; tpisthf Mapuf;fzf;fhd FLk;gq;fs; gyte;jkhf ,lk;ngau Ntz;b Vw;gl;lJ. cau; ghJfhg;G tyaj;jpDs; rPjdf; fhzpfisf; nfhz;bUe;j ngz;fs; jpUk;gptu Kbatpy;iy. Kuz;ghl;Lr; #o;epiyapy; ,oe; j > Nrjkhd my; y J murpdhy; nghWg; N gw; f g; g l; l Mjdj; J f; f hd kPsspg;G gw;wpa Njrpaf; nfhs;if xd;W ,y;yhjjhy; el;l<l;ilg; ngWtjw;Fk; topfpilf;ftpy;iy. fhzhky; Nghd Mtzq; f is gjpyP L nra; t jw; f hd Nfhupf; i ff; F <L nra;tjw;F my;yJ Mjdq;fSf;fhd gy;tiff; Nfhuy;fisj; jPu;g;gjw;fhd eltbf; i fia Nkw; n fhs; t jw; F jw; N ghJs; s fhzpg; g jpT Nritfis tpupthf; f k; nra; t jw; F ve; j Vw; g hl; i lAk; murhq; f k; ,w; i wtiu Nkw;nfhs;stpy;iy. cWg;Giu 16 FLk;gr; rl;lj;jpy; rkj;Jtk;: tho;f;ifj; Jiztiu Rje; j pukhfj; njupT nra; t jw; F k; fl; L g; g hlw; w Jk; KOikahdJkhd rk;kjj;Jld; jpUkz ge;jj;jpDs; Eiotjw;Fk; cupik> jpUkzk; fiyf; f g; g Lk; NghJ mNj cupikfSk; nghWg;GfSk;. Mjdq;fspy; cilik> nfhs;sy;> Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;jy;> epu;tfpj;jy;> mDgtpj;jy; kw;Wk; ifAjpu;j;jy; Mfpait njhlu;ghf mNj cupikfSk; nghWg;GfSk;.

,staJj; jpUkzk;
,stajpy; jpUkzk; nra;AkhW my;yJ Gyk; ngau; tPl;Lj; njhopyhspahf ntspehl; L f; F r; nry; Y khW rpWkpfs; kP j hd mOj; j k; fhuzkhf Kuz; g hl; b dhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l gpuNjrq; f spy; gpwg; G g; gjpTfis ngha; a hf; F tjd; %yk; ,staJj; jpUkzg; gjpTfSf; f hd rhd; W fs; fhzg;gLtjhf mz;ikf;fhy Muha;r;rpfs; $Wfpd;wd. tlf; F kw; W k; fpof; f py; ,staJj; jpUkz rk; g tq; f s; mjpfupj; J f; fhzg; g Lfpd; w d. ,q; F ngw; N whu; 16 tajpw; F Nkw; g l; l rpWkpfspd; jpUkzj; j pw; f hd rk; k j; i j mspf; f pd; w du; my; y J mtu; f spd; taij ngha;ahfg; Gidfpd;wdu;. rKjha xOf;f epakq;fspy; tPo;r;rpia czu;e;j kw;Wk; ghuk;gupa jkpo; r%fj;jpdhy; Ntz;lg;gLk; ghJfhg;gpid jk;khy;

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 67

toq;f KbahJ vd mjpfupj;j uPjpapy; mQ;Rfpd;w ngw;Nwhu; gUt tajile;jij cldLj;J rpWkpfSf;F jpUkzk; Kbj;Jf; nfhLf;fpd;wdu;. Kd;du;; vy;.up.up.< apd; fl;Lg;ghl;by; ,Ue;j gpuNjrq;fisg; nghWj;jtiu me;jf; FOtpduhy; gyte;jkhf Ml;Nru;f;fg;gLtijj; jtpu;g;gjw;fhf ,J Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. vdpDk; ,e; j tplak; rpWkpfis ,stajpy; fu; g ; g pzpfshf; F tJld; ngUk;ghYk; rpWtu;fs; my;yJ fztd;khu; mtu;fisf; iftpLtjhy; mtu;fs; epu;ffjpahd epiyf;Fk; Mshfpd;wdu;. fpof;F khfhzj;jpy; IDP epiyaq;fspYk; ; kPs; FbNaw;wq;fspYk; fpuhkq;fspYk; iftpl;Lr; nry;Yjy; Rkhuhf nghJthff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.

kuGtopr; rl;lk;
1947Mk; Mz;bd; 58Mk; ,yf;f fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpdhy; jpUj;jg;gl;lthwhf 1911Mk; Mz;bd; 1Mk; ,yf;f Njrtoik kw;Wk; jpUkzk;rhu; cupikfSk; kuGupikfSk; fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpy; Nfhitg;gLj;jg;gl;lthW Njrtoik tlf;F khfhz tho;tplq;fspy; gpuNahfpf;fj;jf;f kuGtopr; rl;lkhFk;;. Njrtoikr; rl;lj;jpd; gpufhuk;> jdJ mirtw;w Mjdj;ij cupik khw;wk; nra; t jw; f hd G+uzkhd jj; J tk; ngz; f Sf; F ,y; i y. Mdhy; jdJ fztdpd; vOj; j pyhd rk; k jk; Njit. fztdpd; vOj; j pyhd rk; k jk; toq;fg;glhtpbd;> ngz; trpf;fpd;w my;yJ ghuhjPdg;gLj;j Ntz;ba Mjdk; mike; J s; s khtl; l eP j pkd; w k; fztdpd; rk; k jkpd; w p eltbf; i f Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F my;yJ ifahs;tjw;F gpupT 8 mDkjpf;fpd;wJ. mjhtJ rl;lj;jpdhy; Njitg;gLj;jg;gLk; rk;kjj;ij ePjpkd;wk; toq;Ffpd;wJ. fztd; epahakpd; w p rk; k jk; mspf; f hky; ,Ug; g pd; my; y J rk; k jk; mspf; f KbahjpUf;Fk; re;ju;g;gj;jpy;> kidtpapd; mf;fiwf;F my;yJ gps;isfspd; jpUkzj; j pw; F mj; j ifa rk; k jk; Njit vdf; fUjg; g Lkplj; J ,J Nkw;nfhs;sg;glyhk;. fztd; vjpu;fhy cupik khw;wj;jpw;fhf nry;YgbahFk; tpjj; j py; nghJthf rk; k jj; i j mspf; f KbahJ. Vnddpy; Vw; g hl; b d; Nehf;fkhfpa mtupd; ghJfhg;Gupik tpLtpf;fg;gl;ljhf mikAk;. fztd;khu; fhzhky; NghapUj; j y; > ifJnra; a g; g l; b Uj; j y; Nghd; w re; j u; g ; g q; f spy; mDkjpiag; ngWtjw; F eP j pkd; w j; i j mZFkhW ngz; f s; gyte;jg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wdu;. Mdhy;> mJ rpukkhdJk; nryT kpf;fJk; MFk;.

mf;fiwf;Fupa Kf;fpakhd tplag; gug;Gfs;


1. ePz;l fhy ,lg;ngau;it eptu;j;jpg;gjw;fhf mtu;fspd; gpujhd Njitfspd; gjpy; eltbf;ifahf nfhs;iffisAk; cjtpiaAk; cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F G+uzkhd eltbf;ifj; jpl;lj;Jld; jpUk;gpr; nry;Yjy;> kPs;FbNaw;wk;> kPs; xUq;fpizg;G kw;Wk; kPsspg;G gw;wpa nfhs;iffs; IDPfSld; fye;jhuha;e;J cUthf;fg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. 2. Kd;dhs; ngz; Nghuhspfs; my;yJ vy;.up.up.<. cld; rk;ge;jg;gl;Ls;sjhf re;Njfj;jpd; Ngupy; jLj;J itf;fg;gl;Ls;s ngz;fs; tpLtpf;fg;gLk; NghJ NkYk; ghugl; r k; fhl; l hJ kP s ; xUq; f pizg; G epfo; r ; r pj; jpl; l q; f is Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhf mtu;fspd; mf;fiwfisAk; NjitfisAk; eptu;jjpg;gjw;F ; tpNrl eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;.

68| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

3. mz;ikapy; Kuz;ghLfspdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l gpuNjrq;fspd; ghJfhg;ig Nkk; g Lj; J tjw; F rl; l tYT+l; l ypy; nghJkf; f s; ,Ug; g jw; F k; ,uhZtj;jpdiuf; Fiwg;gjw;Fkhd eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba Njit cs;sJ. cjhuzkhf> jkpo; NgRk; nghyp]; mYtyu;fis Ml;Nru;j;jy; kw;Wk; nghyp]; epiyaq;fspy; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWtu; fUk gPlq;fisj; ];jhgpj;jy;; 4. ghypay; td; K iwfisj; jtpu; g ; g jw; F k; mtw; w pd; tpisTfis Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;tjw;Fk;> jtpu;ggjw;Fk; mjpypUe;J ghJfhg;gspg;gjw;Fkhd ; nraw; g hLfs; Kuz; g hl; b dhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l gpuNjrq; f spYk; ,uhZtkag;gLj;jg;gl;l tyaq;fspYk; kdpj Nea mtru Njitfspd;NghJk; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. 5. Kuz;ghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l rpWkpfs;> ,sk; ngz;fs; MfpNahUf;fhd gupfhuf; fw;gpj;jy; mlq;fyhf fy;tpj; Njitfs; czug;gl;L eptu;j;jpf;fg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. mj;jifa Kd;ndLg;Gfspd; ntw;wpAld; xUq;fpize;J fy;tpiag; ngWtjpy; rpWkpfspdJk; ,sk; ngz;fspdJk; Mw;wiy ntFthf ghjpf;Fk; Vida fhuzpfshd cly; uPjpahd ghJfhg;gpd;ik> Jiz ,uhZtq;fspd; nraw;ghLfs;> ,staJj; jpUkzk; kw;Wk; fu;g;gk; Nghd;w Vida fhuzpfis Vw;Wf;nfhs;tjhFk;. 6. cz; i kg; g bahd kw; W k; rl; l g; g bahd tP l ; L j; jiytu; f shf Kuz; g hl; b dhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l jdpahf thOk; ngz; f s; mlq; f yhf ngz; f spd; ghj; j puk; czug; g l; L mtu; f Sf; F Muk; g tUkhd ciog; g hsu; f shf jpwd; f Sk; njhopy; kw; W k; tUkhdk; <l; L tjw; f hf gapw;rpfSk; toq;fg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. 7. ngz;fs; vt;tpj jilAkpd;wp rl;lk; kw;Wk; nfhs;ifg; gad;fisAk; Vida NritfisAk; ngWtjw;Fk;> Mtz ,og;Gfs; njhlu;ghf eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F rk;ge;jg;gl;l murhq;f Kftu;fspd; Mw;wy; Nkk;gLj;jg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;. 8. Mjdj;ij cilikahff; nfhz;Ls;sJk; ifahs;fpd;wJkhd ngz;fSf;F rl;l uPjpahd> nfhs;if kw;Wk; r%fj; jilfs; ePffg;gl;L Nrjkile;j my;yJ ; cau; ghJfhg;G tyak; gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;ljdhy; ,oe;j my;yJ ghjfkhd cilik Mjdj;Jf;; F el;l<l;L cupikia cs;spl;l rl;l kWrPuikg;G mlq;fyhf jFe;j eltbf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;.

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Endnotes
1

,yq;ifapd; murpayikg;gpd; fPo; muR my;yhj nraw;ghl;lhsu;fs; rkj;Jtk; gw;wpa nghJthd murpayikg;G epakq;fSf;F ,zq;fpnahOFtjw;fhd nghWg;Gilatu;fsh vd;gJ gw;wp re;Njfk; epyTfpd; w J. vdpDk; muR my; y hj nraw; g hl; l hsu; f shy; mbg; g il cupik kP w y; f spy; nraw;ghbd;wpapUj;jYf;F murpid nghWg;Gilajhf;Ftjw;fhd epahahjpf;fk; cau; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. tPlL td;Kiwr; rl;lj;jpd; eilKiwg;gLj;jy; gw;wpa fUj;Jfis ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd td;Kiwfs; ; gw;wpa mj;jpahaj;jpy; ghu;f;f. ngz;fSk; MAj Kuz;ghLfSk; gw;wpa mj;jpahaj;ijg; ghu;f;f. ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd td;Kiw gw;wpa mj;jpahaj;ijg; ghu;f;f. murpay; gq;Nfw;Gk; gpujpepjpj;JtKk; gw;wpa mj;jpahaj;ijg; ghu;f;f. Rfhjhuk; gw;wpa mj;jpahaj;ijg; ghu;f;f. rkthaj;jpd; 18MtJ cWg;Giuapd; fPo; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;l ,yq;ifapd; 5Mk;> 6Mk; kw;Wk; 7Mk; ,ize;j gUtfhy mwpf;ifapd; ml;ltiz 2I ehk; gad;gLj;jpAs;sJld; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; Mz;fshy; ngwg;gl;l ngau; epakdq;fSf;fhd Gs;sptpguq;fis cs;slf;fpAs;Nshk;. 2004Mk; Mz;by; ,yq;ifapy; INuhg;gpa A+dpad; (EU) Nju;jy; mtjhdpg;Gg; gzpapd; ,Wjp mwpf;if nfhbfhu #yhdp> (2008) ,yq;ifapy; ngz;fspd; rkj;Jtkhd murpay; gpujpepjpj;Jtg; Nghuhl;lk;: rpWtu; mgptpUj; j p ngz; f s; tYT+l; l y; mikr; R kw; W k; If; f pa ehLfs; mgptpUj; j p epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpw;;fhd (UNDP) fzf;nfLg;G mwpf;if. etk;gu; 2008. ,yq;ifapy; jpatjd epyNk fz;bapYs;s je;j jhJ tpfhiuapd; gpujhd ghJfhtyu; gjtpahFk;. ,e;j mYtyu;fs; ngsj;j Mz;fshf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. Fztu;j;jd re;jpuh kw;Wk; VidNahu; (2005) Nru;f;fg;glhik: vz;zpf;iff;F mg;ghy; ghu;j;jy; cau; fy;tpapy; ghy;epiy rkj;Jtk;> nfhOk;G: jpwe;j gy;fiyf; fofg; gjpg;G [atPu> Rtu;zh kw;Wk; tzRe;ju yPyq;fp (2005) ,yq;ifapy; tho;f;ifj; njhopy; fy;tpapd; ghypay; gupkhzk;> Muha;r;rp eilKiw kuG> jpwd; mgptpUj;jp tho;f;ifj; njhopw;gapw;rp> njhopy;El;gf; fy;tp> nfhOk;G gf;fq;fs; 60-78 [atPu> Rtu;zh kw;Wk; tzRe;ju yPyq;fp (2006) ,yq;ifapy; ghy;epiy kw;Wk; jfty; njhopy;El;gtpay;: cs;slf;fk; my;yJ ntspNaw;wk;> ngz;fs; Muha;r;rp epWtdk;> nfhOk;G Abeyasekera, Asha (2008) Gender Ideologies in the School Curriculum: A Textual Analysis of Secondary School Textbooks, Centre for Womens Research, Colombo Abhayadeva, Chitrangani (2008) Gender and Pre-school education, Centre for Womens Research, Colombo Study Series No. 37 CENWOR, 2009, 2010. Refer Chapter on Armed Conflict. The Highest male participation rate (97.2) was reported from age group (35 39). Department of Census and Statistics. Ministry of Finance and Planning. (2009). Quarterly Report of the Sri Lanka Labour Force Statistics. Excluding Northern Province. Department of Census and Statistics. Ministry of Finance and Planning. (2009). Quarterly Report of the Sri Lanka Labour Force Statistics. Excluding Northern Province. Department of Census and Statistics. Ministry of Finance and Planning. (2009). Quarterly Report of the Sri Lanka Labour Force Statistics. Excluding Northern Province. Ministry of Public Administration (1985). Establishments Code of the Government of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. Volume I. Colombo. Association of Women with Disabilities. 2010. Girls and Women with Disabilities. Colombo. ,yq;if ntspehl;L Ntiytha;g;G Nkk;ghl;L eyNdhk;Gif mikr;R. (2008) ,yq;ifapd; Njrpa njhopyhsu; Gyk;ngau; nfhs;if. nfhOk;G. 2002,y; cj;jpNahfG+u;t tWikf;NfhL (Mnshd;Wf;F khjnkhd;Wf;fhd cz;ikahd nkhj;jr; nrytpdkhff; fzpf;fg;gl;lJ) &gh 1>423 MFk;.

3 4 5 6 7

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70| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

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,yq;if ntspehl;L Ntiytha;g;Gg; gzpafk; (2009). ntspehl;L Ntiytha;g;G tUlhe;j Gs;sptpgu mwpf;if 2008. nfhOk;G DHS 2006-07 ,yq;if Fbrd kjpg;gPl;L Gs;sptpgutpay; jpizf;fsj;jpd; Fbkjpg;gpay; mstPL> Rfhjhu guhkupg;G Nghriz mikr;Rld; ,ize;J 2009@ ,yq;ifapy; FLk;g Rfhjhuk; gw;wpa tUlhe;j mwpf;if 2004-2005@ FHB, WHO, UNFPA ntspaPL. cyf Rfhjhu jhgd jfty; http://www.who.int/whosis/en/index.html. ,J kpfTk; ek;gj;jFe;jjhff; fUjg;glyhk;. FLk;g Rfhjhuk; gw;wpa tUlhe;j mwpf;if> 2004 2005: FHB, WHO, UNFPA ntspaPL FLk;g Rfhjhuk; gw;wpa tUlhe;j mwpf;if> 2004 2005: FHB, WHO, UNFPA ntspaPL FLk;g Rfhjhuk; gw;wpa tUlhe;j mwpf;if> 2004 2005: FHB, WHO, UNFPA ntspaPL FLk;g Rfhjhuk; gw;wpa tUlhe;j mwpf;if> 2004 2005: FHB, WHO, UNFPA ntspaPL DHS 2006/2007, ,yq;if Fbkjpg;gpay; mstPL> G+u;thq;f mwpf;if> Fbrd kjpg;gPl;L Gs;sptpgutpay; jpizf;fsk; - Rfhjhu guhkupg;G Nghriz mikr;rpd; mDruizAld; khw;W Mw;wYs;s ngz;fspd; rq;fj;jpdhy; elj;jg;gl;l khw;whw;wYs;s ngz;fspd; #o;epiyf; fw;if (AKASA), 2007. j rpy;th> ,e;jpuyhy; lgps;A+ (1997) ,yq;ifapy; J}z;lg;gl;l fUr;rpijTfs; eilKiw> Muha;r;rpf; fl;Liu ,yf;fk; 137> ru;tNjr Rfhjhuj;j;jpy; Takemi epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk;. ngUk; vz;zpf;ifahd fUr;rpijTfs; eilngw;whYk; fUr;rpijT fhuzkhf Vw;gLk; kuzq;fs; FiwthFk; (Mz;nlhd;Wf;F Rkhu; 20). ,jw;fhd fhuzq;fs; fUr;rpijT toq;FdUf;F antibiotics ,yFthff; fpilj;jy; kw;Wk; Rkhu; 100% eug;gprpT (tetanus) Neha;j;jLg;G Mfpaitahf ,Uf;fyhk;. tpUg;gj; njupTfs;> njhFjp 34> 2004> gf;fk; 20> ngz;fs; njhlu;G Clfq;fSf;fhd $l;likg;G> nfhOk;G DHS 2006/2007, ,yq;if Fbkjpg;gpay; mstPL> G+u;thq;f mwpf;if> Fbrd kjpg;gPl;L Gs;sp tpgutpay; jpizf;fsk; - Rfhjhu guhkupg;G Nghriz mikr;rpd; mDruizAld; Fbrd kjpg;gPl;L Gs;sp tpgutpay; jpizf;fsk; (2009). Fbkjpg;gpay; Rfhjhu mstPL 2006/07. ,yq;ifapy; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWtu;fspilNa ,uj;jr;Nrhif guty;. Fbrd kjpg;gPl;L Gs;sptpgutpay; jpizf;fsk; Rfhjhuj;Jiw mgptpUj;jpf; fUj;jpl;lk;. Rfhjhu Nghriz mikr;R> nfhOk;G> A+dpnrg; cyf rpWtu;fspd; epiy 2005 http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ag114e/AG114E10.htm ngz;fs; Njapiyf; nfhOe;J gwpf;fpd;wdu;. mtu;fs; gp.g. 5 kzptiu Ntiy nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLfpd;w mNjNtis Mz;fs; gp.g. 1 kzptiu kl;LNk Ntiy nra;fpd;wdu;. ngz;fSk; MAj Kuz;ghLfSk; gw;wpa mj;jpahaj;ijg; ghu;f;f. 1897,d; Kd;ida fhydpj;Jt tof;if Gwj;njhJf;fp RahjPdkhd thoplj;ijj; njupT nra;tjw;fhd rl;l cupik jpUkzkhd ngz;Zf;F cz;L vdj; jPu;khdpj;j mNrhfd; vjpu; mNrhfd; (1994)Ig; ghu;f;f. Fzuj;d vjpu; gjpthsu; ehafk;. Mff; Fiwe;j jpUkz tajpw;Ff; Fiwe;j taij cila rpWkpapd; jpUkzj;ijg; gjpT nra;tjw;F jpUkzg; gjpthsu; kWj;jNghJ> jpUkzj;jpw;fhd rl;lj;jd;ikia mspg;gjw;Fj; jkJ rk;kjk; NghJkhdJ vd ngw;Nwhu; thjpl;l tof;fpy; ,e;jj; jPu;g;G toq;fg;gl;lJ. rpq;fs; rKjhaj;ijr; Nru;e;j ,yq;ifg; ngz;fspd; rpWghd;ikf; FOtpw;Fg; gpuNahfpf;fj;jf;fJ> Fzuj;d> 2006> [atPu kw;Wk; rz;Kfk;> 1983@ uh[gf;\> 1989 2005Mk; Mz;bd; 34Mk; ,yf;f tPl;L td;Kiwj; jLg;Gr; rl;lk; gpupT 23 tPl;L td;Kiwapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gLk; ngz;fSf;F rl;l cjtp> cs ts Nrit kw;Wk; tiuaWf;fg;gl;l Gfyplk; toq;Fk; xU murrhu;gw;w epWtdk; fky; mj;ju Mur;rp vdg;gLk; mj;ju Mur;rpNf FNze;jpuh fky;; vjpu; FbauR Nky;ePjpkd;wk; tof;F 7710/96> Nkd;KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wk; 90/97> cau; ePjpkd;w Nkd;KiwaPl;L mDkjp 30/2001 nla;yp epA+];> 2008 xf;Nlhgu; 21 Sri Lanka Humanitarian Snapshot: Focus Return Areas, June 2010 at http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/srilanka_hpsl/ Files/Situation%20Reports/Humanitarian%20Snapshot/LKHS011_2010 %20June%20Humanitarian% 20Snapshot%20Return%20Areas.pdf

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51 Humanitarian Snapshot: Focus Menik Farm, June 2010 at http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/srilanka_hpsl/Files/ Situation%20Reports/Humanitarian%20Snapshot/LKHS010_2010 %20June%20Humanitarian%20Snapshot% 20Manik%20Farm.pdf 52 Humanitarian Snapshot: Focus Menik Farm, June 2010 athttp://www.humanitarianinfo.org/srilanka_hpsl/Files/ S i t u a t i o n % 2 0 Re p o r t s / H u m a n i t a r i a n % 2 0 S n ap s h o t / L K H S 0 1 0 _ 2 0 1 0 % 2 0 Ju n e % 2 0 H u m a n i t a r i a n % 20Snapshot%20Manik%2 0Farm.pdf
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m/Nj Sri Lanka Humanitarian Snapshot: Focus Return Areas, June 2010 at http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/srilanka_hpsl/ Files/Situation%20Reports/Humanitarian%20Snapshot/LKHS011_201 0%20June%20Humanitarian%20Snapshot% 20Return%20Areas.pdf murhq;fk; MnshUtUf;F 12 $iuj;jfLfis toq;fpa NghjpYk;> Vg;uy; 2010,y; ,Ug;Gfs; ntWikahd fhuzj;jpdhy; jhu;r;rPiyfs; kl;LNk Gfyplj;jpd; gpufhuk; jpUk;gpte;j kf;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;ld. m/Nj. cau; ghJfhg;G tyaq;fs; njhlu;e;jpUj;jy;> BBCSinhala.com, 2010 [{iy 15

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tPuNfrup nra;jpg; gj;jpupif> 2010 Mdp 9


Sri Lanka Humanitarian Snapshot: Focus Return Areas, June 2010 at http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/srilanka_hpsl/ Files/Situation%20Reports/Humanitarian%20Snapshot/LKHS011_201 0%20June%20Humanitarian% 20Snapshot%20Return%20Areas.pdf ,yq;ifapy; ,d;Wk; 360>000 IDPfs; cs;sdu;. Nk 2010. ru;tNjr ,lk;ngau;Tf; fz;fhzpg;G epiyak;. http://www.internaldispla cement.org/idmc/website/countries.nsf/(httpEnvelopes)/ 7E8CFF727BBFB54DC12576B3002DEBD9?OpenDocument 2009,y; jpUk;gpr; nry;Yjy;> kPs;FbNaw;wk;> Gdu;tho;T kw;Wk; kPl;lspg;G gw;wpa Njrpaf; nfhs;if xd;iw tiutjw;F gq;Nfw;G eltbf;ifKiwnahd;iw muR Kd;ndLj;jNghjpYk; mJ jpBnud epWj;jg;gl;lJ. B.gP . v]; . n[auh[; > fle; j fhyq; f spy; jkpo; ngz; f Sf; n fjpuhf nghyp]; kw; W k; ghJfhg; G g; gilapduhy; ,iof;fg;gl;l ghypay; td;Kiw 2009 xf;Nlhgu; 5> www.dbsjeyaraj.com me;juq;fj;jd;ik kPwy; kw;Wk; Miyab Ntk;gpy; ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd td;Kiw gw;wp NCW ,w;F vOjg;gl;l rpj;jpiu 21Mk; jpfjpf; fbjk;. Stigma, harassment add to war widows burden, Inter Press Service, 4 November 2003 at http://ipsnews.net/srilanka/ note_041103.shtml yPyhq;fp tzRe;ju> ,yq;ifapy; NghUf;Fg; gpe;jpa fpuhkpag; nghUshjhuj;jpy; fpuhkpag; ngz;fs;> ngz;fs; Muha;r;rp epiyak;. 2006> http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ag114e/AG114E08.htm yPyhq;fp tzRe;ju> ,yq;ifapy; NghUf;Fg; gpe;jpa fpuhkpag; nghUshjhuj;jpy; fpuhkpag; ngz;fs;> ngz;fs; Muha;r;rp epiyak;. 2006> http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/ag114e/AG114E08.htm m/Nj Nk 2010,y; cs;sthW Ky;iyj;jPT khtl;lj;jpy; cs;s 3 fpuhk Nrtfu; gpupTfspy; 1080 tpjitfs; cs; S uhl; r p mjpfhupfspdhy; milahsk; fhzg; g l; l du; . 2010 Nk 16Mk; jpfjp cs; s thW Ky;iyj;jPtpy; kPs;FbNaw;wk; njhlu;ghd mwpf;if> fr;Nrup> Ky;iyj;jPT. Sri Lanka Humanitarian Snapshot: Focus Return Areas, June 2010 http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/srilanka_hpsl/ Files/Situation%20Reports/Humanitarian%20Snapshot/LKHS011_2010%20June%20 Humanitarian%20Snapshot% 20Return%20Areas.pdf 2010 itfhrp 16Mk; jpfjp md;W cs;sthW Ky;iyj;jPtpy; kPs;FbNaw;wk; njhlu;ghd mwpf;if> fr;Nrup> Ky;iyj;jPT. nfhLg;gpypNf rPjh vupu; V.<.rutdhjd; kw;Wk; VidNahu; tof;F (1986) 2 rpwp vy;Mu;. 228 kl;lf;fsg;G> aho;g;ghzk; kw;Wk; td;dpapy; fhzpiaAk; Mjdj;ijAk; cilikahff; nfhz;bUg;gjw;fhd ngz;fspd; mZFtop. khw;Wf; nfhs;iff;fhd epiyak;> nrg;lk;gu; 2005.

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72| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

Kd; mku;T nraw;gLk; FOthdJ ,yq;ifapd; xd;wpize;j 5> 6 kw;Wk; 7 gUtfhy mwpf;iffis gupNrhjpg;gij njhlu;e;J

ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd ghugl;rq;fis ,y;yhnjhopg;gjd; kPjhd FOtpdhy; gbKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;l jfty;fSk; Nfs;tpfSk;

ij 2011

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

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If;fpa ehLfs; ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd vy;yh tifahd ghugl;rq;fisAk; ,y;yhnjhopg;gjd; kPjhd rkthak; khtl;lk; nghJ 2010 Ig;grp 6 %yk; Mq;fpyk; jpUj;jg;glhj gjpg;G ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd ghugl;rq;fis ,y;yhnjhopg;gjd; kPjhd FO 48tJ mku;T 17 ij khrp 4 2011

gUtfhy mwpf;ifapd; guprPypidf;FupaJ njhlu;ghd gpur;rpidfs; kw;Wk; Nfs;tpfspd; epuy;


,yq;if
Kd; mku;T nraw;gLk; FOthdJ ,yq;ifapd; xd;wpize;j 5> 6 kw;Wk; 7 gUtfhy mwpf;iffis gupNrhjpj;jJ. (CEDAW/C/LKA/5-7)

nghJ
1. ,yq;ifapd; xd;wpize;j 5> 6> 7 gUtfhy mwpf;ifapd; jahupg;G kw;Wk; nrad;Kiw kPjhd Nkyjpf jfty;fis jaT nra;J toq;fTk;. ,e;j jfty; mwpf;if jahupg;gjpy; rk;;ge;jg;gl;l mur jpizf;fsq;fs; kw;Wk; epWtdq;fs;> rptpy; ; r%f epWtdq; f s; kw; W k; murrhu; g w; w epWtdq; f s; vt; t hwhd nrad; K iwapy; gq; F gw; w pd vd; g J njhlu; g hf ,jpNy cs; s lf; f g; g l Ntz; L k; . ,t; t wpf; i fahdJ ghuhSkd; w j; j pw; N fh my; y J VjhtJ jifikAila cau;kl;l mjpfhu rigf;Nfh rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;ljh vd;gijAk; jaT nra;J Fwpg;gplTk;.

rl;lthf;fk; kw;Wk; epWtd uPjpahd fl;likg;G Ntiy


2. Ke;jpa Kbthd jPu;khdq;fs; (A/57/38 (SUPP), ge;jp 274 ,y; FOthdJ mbg;gil cupikfspd; murpayikg;G cj;juthjk; kw;Wk; ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd ghugl;rq;fisf; nfhz;Ls;s rl;;lq;fs; fhzg;gLjy; vd;gjpy; cs;s xu; Kuz;ghL kPjhd mf;fiwia FO vLj;jpak;gpapUe;jJ. mjw;F Nkyjpfkhf mbg;gil cupikfs; murpayikg;gpd; Vw;ghLfs;> mur> mur rhu;gw;w nraw;ghl;lhsu;fs; kw;Wk; jdpahu; Jiwapdu; ghugl;r rk;gtq;fs; njhlu;ghfg; nghWg; n gLg; g jw; F mDkjpf; f tpy; i y. murpayikg; g pw; F gpw; g l; l fhyg;gFjpapy; rl;lthf;fj;jpyhd xu; ePjpj;Jiw kPs;Nehf;fpw;fhd re;ju;g;gKk; toq; f g; g lTkpy; i y. mwpf; i fapd; 8 Mk; ge; j papy; eP j pj; J iw kP s ha; T ,y;yhjpUg;gjhdJ ghugl;rj;ijf; fhl;Lk;/Vw;ghLfis mfw;Wtijj; jil nra; a tpy; i y vdTk; Kf; f pakhd kWrP u ikg; G Kiwfs; nfhz;Ltug;gl;ljhfTk; mitfs; mg;nghOJ mj;jug;gpd; mwpf;ifapd;

74| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

8 Mk; ge;jpapy; tpgupf;fg;gl;ljhfTk; mwpf;ifapd; 8 Mk; ge;jpapy; gjpy; mspf;fg;gl;lJ. nghJthf vt;thW fhzp mgptpUj;jpf; fl;lisr; rl;lkhdJ ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd ghugl;rk; njhlu;ghd Vw;ghLfis mfw;Wjy; njhlu;ghfj; jpUj;jg;gl;lJ. NkYk; mJ 2003 Mk; Mz;L 16 Mk; ,yf;f gpui[fs; jpUj;jr; rl;lk; mwpf;ifapd; 78 Mk; ge;jpapy; nrhy;yg;gLtjhdJ> ntspehl;L Njrpa ,dj;ijr; Nru;e;j fztiu cila ngz;fs; gpu[h cupikia vLj;Jf; nfhLg;gjw;Fk; trjp toq;Ffpd;wjh vd;gij jaT nra;J FOtpw;F mwptpf;fTk;

ngz;fspd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhd Njrpa ,ae;jpuk;


3. FOtpd; Kd;ida Kbthd mtjhdpg;G (A/57/38 (SUPP) 277 MtJ ge;jpf;F Nkyjpfkhf mwpf; i fapd; 13 MtJ ge; j pahdJ ngz; f spd; xU Njrpa Mizf; F Otpid epWTtjw; f hd xU rl; l %ykhdJ jw; N ghJ ,Wjpg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. ,r;rl;l%yj;jpd; fPohd FOtpd; Miz kw; W k; njhopw; g hLfs; vd; d vd; g ijAk; mjDila ,Wjpg;gLj;Jif iff;nfhs;iff;;fhd fhyf; nfLtpidAk; Fwpg;gpl;L jaT nra;J mwpaj;juTk;.

khwh epiyg;ghLfs;
4. FOtpd; Kd;ida Kbthd mtjhdpg;Gfs; (A/57/38 (Supp) 288 ,d; gpufhuk; r%ff; F O ghy; e piy tfpgq; f pd; tpopg; G zu; i t Vw; g Lj; J tjw; F nghWg;ngLf;fg;gl;l nraw;ghLfs; kw;Wk; iff;nfhs;sg;gl;l Vw;ghLfis jaT nra;J tpsf;fk; nra;J elj;ijapy; khw;wj;ijf; nfhz;L tUtijAk;> vjpu;kiwahd khwh epiyg;ghLfisAk;> ghugl;r fyhrhug; gof;fq;fisAk; ,y;yhnjhopg;gijAk; Nehf;fkhf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. mj;Jld; ngz;fSf;Fk; rpW gps;isfSf;Fk; mtu;fsJ kdpj cupikfs; njhlu;ghf tpopg;Gzu;T Vw; g Lj; J tjw; F vLf; f Ntz; b a Vw; g hLfs; njhlu; g hd jfy; f isAk; toq;Ffpd;wJ 5. mwpf;ifapd; 97 Mk; ge;jpahdJ ngz;fs; ,d;Dk; nrayhsu; kw;Wk; ijay; njhlu;ghd JiwfspNyNa ftdk; nrYj;Jfpwhu;fs; vd;gijAk;> Mz;fs; khw;wq;fs; Vw;gl;lhYk; njhopy;El;gf; gapw;rp newpfspy; <LgLfpd;whu;fs; vd;gijAk; gpujpgypf;fpwJ. ,J rk;ge;jkhf Vw;gLk; khw;wq;fis jaT nra;J toq;fTk;. khwh epiyg;ghLfis mOj;Jtjw;Fk;> ngz;fs; cau; tpQ;Qhdk; nghwpapay; njhopy;El;g fw;if newpfspy; cau;fy;tpiag; ngWtjw;Fk; $ba re; j u; g ; g q; f is toq; F tjw; F mur jug; g hdJ vd; d gb epiyfis vLj;Js;sJ.

ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd td;Kiw
6. 2005,y; tPl;L td;Kiwj; jLg;G td;Kiwr; rl;lk; iff;nfhs;sg;gl;ljhf mwpf;ifapd; 19Mk; ge;jp Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. NkYk; 50 67 tiuapyhd ge;jpfs; Nkyjpf jfty;fis toq;Ffpd;wJ. FOtpd; Kd;dhy; cs;s mwpf;ifapd; gpufhuk; ghypay; td;Kiw njhlu;ghd tof;Ffs; Kbtjw;F 5 - 12 Mz;Lfs; jhkjpf; f g; g Lfpd; w J. mNefkhd re; j u; g ; g q; f spy; ,itfs; nghyprhupd; ,zf; F tpg; G ld; my; y J xu; Clf rigf; F Mw; W g; g Lj; J tjhy; nraw; g Lj; j g; g LtJld; tP l ; L td; K iw jLg; G r; rl; l k; mUikahfNt gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,t;tof;Ffis nrad;Kiwg;gLj;Jtjpy; ,t;thwhd ePz;l jhkjq;fs; Vw;gLtjtw;fhd fhuzj;ij jaT nra;J tpgupf;fTk;. ,e;j

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

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,ilf; fhyg;gFjpapy; ngz;fs; vt;thW ghJfhf;fg;gLfpd;whu;fs; mtu;fSf;F vt;thW ghJfhg;G cj;juthjg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ vd;gijAk; njuptpf;fTk;. ,r; nrad;Kiwiaj; Jupjg;gLj;Jtjw;F vLj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;l Vw;ghLfs; vd;d vd;gJ Fwpj;Jk; tpsf;fk; nra;Tk;. mj;Jld; tPl;L td;Kiwfs; nghyprhH ,zf;Ftpg;Gld; / ifahsg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gijAk; 2005 Mk; Mz;L rl;lk; Vd; tpgupf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gijAk; jaT nra;J tpsf;fTk;. 7. mwpf;ifapd; 49 Mk; ge;jp (b) tPl;L td;Kiwj; jLg;Gr; rl;lk; ghJfhg;G fl; l isfis toq; F tjw; f hd ghJfhg; G fl; l isfs; cWjpg; g hLfis toq;Ftjhf Fwpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. mt;tz;zkhd tpz;zg;gq;fSf;F ghJfhg;G fl;lisfs; njhlu;ghf fpilf;fg;gl;l tpz;zg;gq;fs; vz;zpf;if kw;Wk; gjpw; nraw;ghLfspd; vz;zpf;if gw;wpa VjhtJ Gs;sptpguq;fs; fpilf;ff; $bajhf ,Uf;fpwjh vd;gijAk; gbf;fhj ngz;fs; vt;thW ghJfhg;G fl; l isf; f hf tpz; z g; g pf; f KbAk; vd; g ijAk; jaTnra; J tpsf; f k; mspg;gJld;> ngz;fSf;fhd rl;l gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;tjw;fhd VjhtJ Nritfs; cs; s jh vdTk; Rl; b f; f hl; l Tk; . mj; J ld; ghy; e piy mbg;gilapyhd td;Kiwahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu;fSf;fhd Gfyplq;fs; VjhtJ fpilf;ff; $bajhf ,Uf;fpwjh vd;gJ Fwpj;J jfty;fisAk; tpguq;fisAk; toq;fTk;. ghy;epiy $Uzu;Tg; gapw;rpfs; nghyp];> ePjthd;fs;> ePjpgjpfSf;F fpilf;ff; $bajhf ,Uf;fpwjh? 8. Kd;ida Kbthd mtjhdpg;Gfs; (A/58) ,d; 284> 285 Mk; ge;jpfspy; FOthdJ ftiyAld; jpUkz epiyapyhd td;Gzu;r;rpahdJ ePjpj;Jiwapd; gpupg;gpy; khj;jpuNk mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;bUf;fpwJ vd;gijf; Fwpg;gJld;> vy;yh #o;epiyfspYk; mjid xU Fw;wkhf guprPypf;FkhW murjug;ig FOtpd; Kd;dhd jfty;fs; J}z;LfpwJ. 9. tpNrlkhf cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngau;ej ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd td;Kiwfs; cau; ; tP j j; j pNyNa ,Ug; g Jld; > mj; J ld; ,sk; ngz; f Sf; n fjpuhd ghypay; td;nray;fs; mf;FLk;gq;fs; jkJ gjpd;k taJ kfs;khUf;F jpUkzq;fis xOq;F nra;a tpistpg;gjhfTk; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngau;e;j ngz; cWg;gpdu;fSf;F vjpuhd td;Kiwfis jLf;f mur jug;G vd;d eltbf;if vLj;Js;sJ vd;gijAk; mj;Jld; Fwpg;ghf gjpd;k tajpdu; kPJ Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; ghypay; Jd;GWj;jy;fs; fl;lha jpUkzj;ij tpistpg;gjd; Fwpg;ghd gpur;rpidf;F vd;d eltbf;if vLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

tpgr;rhuKk; flj;jYk;
10. jz; l idf; Nfhit rl; l j; j py; Ml; f isf; flj; J jy; vd; w Fw; w k; tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;jg;gl;ljd; Gjpa tiutpyf;fzj;jpw;F Nkyjpfkhf vt;thW tof; F fs; njhlug; g Lfpd; w d vd; g ijAk; Ml; f lj; j yhy; ghjpf; f g; g Lk; ngz; f Sf; F VjhtJ Vw; g hLfs; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l; L s; s jh vd; g ijAk; njupag;gLj;j Ntz;bAs;sJ. ghjpf;fg;gl;l ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd kdtLitj; jPuggjw;F VjhtJ eltbf;if vLf;fg;gl;Ls;sjh vd jaTnra;J jfty; juTk;. ; ; 11. FOTf; F Kd; N d nfhLf; f g; g l; l jfty; f spd; gpufhuk; tpgr; r huk; Fw; w khf; f g; g l; b Ug; g Jld; mjdhy; mJ kiwthd tpgr; r huj; i j mjpfupj;Js;sJld;> vr;.I.tp vapl;irAk; Vida ghypay; uPjpahfg; guTk; Neha;fisAk; mjpfupj;Js;sJ. tpgr;rhuj;ij Fw;wkhf;Ftjw;fhd> gpd;dhYs;s

76| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

fhuzq; f s; vd; d ntd; W jaTnra; J tpsf; f k; nra; t Jld; mjd; thbf; i fahsu; f Sk; ghypaypy; nfhs; t dT nra; t jw; f hf Fw; w g; g Lj; j g; g Lfpwhu; f sh vdTk; Fwpg; g plTk; . ghypay; uP j pahf guTk; Neha;fisj; jLg;gjw;F vLf;fg;gl;l Kaw;rpfs; vd;d? ,e;j Ntiyia tpl;L tpyFtjw;fhd> VjhtJ ntspNa nry;tjw;fhd epfo;rrpj;jpl;lq;fs; cs;sdth? ; 12. murpaypy; gq;Fgw;Wif mwpf; i fapd; 16 MtJ ge; j papd; gpufhuk; ngz; f spd; njhopy; t hz; i k Jiwfshdit NgWfis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;ldNt md;wp ghy;epiyf; Nfhl;lhit mbg;gilahf; nfhz;lit my;y. tpNrlkhf mwpf;ifapy; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ murpay; vd;gJ ngUk;ghd;ikahd ngz;fspd; tpUg;gj; njupthf ,y;iy. murpay; Jiwapy; ngz;fspd; tpUg;Gf; Fwpj;J tprhupj;J mur jug; g hy; VjhtJ fUj; J f; f zpg; G elj; j g; g l; b Ue; j hy; jaTnra; J Rl;bf;fhl;lTk;. rkthaj;jpd; cWg;Giu (1 kw;Wk; nghJ rpghu;R 25 ,d; fPo;) jw; f hypf tpNrl Vw; g hLfis gad; g Lj; j p murpay; tho; t py; ngz; f s; gq;Fgw;Wtjw;F kw;Wk; J}z;Ltjw;F VjhtJ Vw;ghLfs; vLf;fg;gl;ljh vdj; jaT nra;J tpsf;fk; nra;f. 13. mwpf;ifapd; ge;jpapd; 77 ,d; gpufhuk; Gjpa mwpf;if guprPypf;fg;gl;ljpypUe;J ,uh[je; j puNritapy; ngz; f spd; gq; F gw; W if kP j hd xU khw; w k; Vw;gl;bUf;fpd;wJ. ,uh[je;jpuNritapy; ngz;fSf;F mjpf re;ju;g;gq;fis toq;Ftijj; J}z;Ltjw;F Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l Kaw;rpfs; Fwpj;J jaT nra;J FOTf;F mwptpf;Ff. 14. fy;tp mwpf;ifapd; 17MtJ ge;jpapy; ngz;fspd; nghwpapay; kw;Wk; njhopy;El;gj; JiwahdJ njuptpid mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lJ vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. mNefkhd ngz;fs; nghwpapay; kw;Wk; njhopy;El;gj; Jiwia jkJ fw;wy; Jiwahf vLj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F> J}z;Ltjw;F nra;ag;gl;l Vw;ghLfs; vd;d? vj;jid E}w;W tPjkhdtu;fs; Mrpupau;fshf ,Uf;fpwhu;fs;. VjhtJ fy;tpg; ghltpjhdkhdJ ngz; f is Nehf; f p ghugl; r khf ,Ue; j hNyh khwhf mbg; g ilf; Nfhl; g hl; i l nfhz; L nry; t jhf ,Ue; j hYk; jaTnra; J Rl;bf;fhl;lTk;. 15. mwpf;ifapd; 96 MtJ ge;jpapd; gpufhuk; nfhs;iffs; kw;Wk; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;l Mtzq; f s; njhopy; E l; g kw; W k; tho; f ; i f njhopw; gapw; r p fy; t p rk; g e; j khditfs; Kjy; jlitahf ghypay; $Uzu; T ilajhf xOq;fikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,f;$w;Wf; Fwpj;J tpsf;fkspj;J njhopy;El;g kw;Wk; ; njhopy; gapw; r p fy; t pfspy; vd; d jhf; f j; i j ,J Vw; g Lj; J k; vd Rl;bf;fhl;LfpwJ. 16. Ntiy tha;g;G mwpf;ifapd; 104 MtJ ge;jpahdJ mjpf tPjkhd Ntiy tha;g;gw;Nwhu; ngz; f s; vd Rl; b f; f hl; L tJld; > mtu; f s; Mz; f is tpl cau; f y; t pj; jifikAilatu; vd;Wk; nrhy;fpwJ. ngz;fspd; Ntiy tha;g;gpd;ik tPjk; njhlu;ghfg; ge;jp 106 MdJ ftdpf;fg;gLtij ,jd; Nghf;Ff; fhl;LfpwJ

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vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. Mz;fspd; Ntiy tha;g;gpid tpl ngz;fspd; Ntiy tha;g;G tPjj;jpidj; jPu;g;gjw;F vLf;fg;gl;l Vw;ghLfspd; tpguj;ij ,e;jf; $w;wpNy jaTnra;J Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;sTk;. mj;Jld; ngz;fisg; nghWj;jtiu Mz;fis tpl cau;fy;tpj; jifik tha;e;jtu;fshfTk; ,Uf;fpwhu;fs;. 17. FOtpw;Ff; fpilf;Fk; khw;Wj; jfty;fspypUe;J njhopw;gilapy; mNefkhd ngz;fs; jpwd; my;yJ jpwdw;w gpuptpNyNa Ntiy tha;g;igg; ngw;Wf; nfhs; f pwhu; f s; vdTk; kw; W k; jdpahu; Kiwrhu; gpupTfspy; ngw; W f; nfhs;fpwhu;fs; vdTk;> f.ngh.j caujug;; guPl;irapy; Njwpatu;fs; ruhrupahf mjp jpwikAila Mz; f spy; 65 tP j j; i jNa ngWfpwhu; f s; vdTk; Fwpg; g plg; g LfpwJ. ,e; j g; gpur; r pidiaAk; rk; g s ,ilntspg; gpur;rpidiaAk; jPuggjw;F vd;d Vw;ghLfs; vLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vd jaTnra;J ; ; tpsf;fk; nra;aTk;. 18. mz; i ka Kbthd mtjhdpg; G fspy; FOthdJ Gyk; n gau; njhopyhsu;fs; kw;Wk; mtu;fspd; FLk;g cWg;gpdu;fspd; cupikfisg; ghJfhg;gJ kPjhd FOthdJ mjdJ mz;ika mtjhdpg;Gfspy; (CMW/C/ LKA/CO/1) 27 Mk; ge; j papy; ) tP l ; L g; gzpg; n gz; f s; mbikfshf elj;jg;gLtjhfTk; kw;Wk; cly; uPjpapy; kw;Wk; ghypay; J\;gpuNahfj;jpy; cs;shf;fg;gLtjhfTk; mjDila ftiyia ntspg;gLj;jpAs;sJ. ,e;jg; ghuJ}ukhd eltbf;ifiaj; jPu;g;gjw;F vLf;fg;gl;Ls;s gbepiyfs; Fwpj;J FOTf;F jaTnra;J mwpaj;juTk;. 19. Ntiy tha;gGj; JiwapNy ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd ghugl;rq;fspd; FOtpw;Ff; ; fpilj;Js;s khw;Wj; jfty;fs; kPJ jaTnra;J fUj;Jj; njuptpg;gJld; mur jug;ghdJ 2007 ,y; Kd;nkhope;j rl;lthf;fj;jpNy 5 tajpw;Ff; Fiwe;j gps; i sfspd; jha; k hu; f s; ntspehl; b w; F Ntiytha; g ; G ehLtij jilnra;tjw;F Kd;nkhope;jJ. ,e;jr; rl;lkhdJ epiwNtw;wg;gl;bUg;gpd; mt; t hwhd xU rl; l %yj; i j Kd; i tg; g jd; fhuzq; f s; vd; d vdTk; tpsf;fkspf;fTk;. Fwpg;ghf FOtpw;F mwpaj;juTk;. 20. Rfhjhuk; mwpf;ifapd; 18 Mk; ge;jpahdJ fu;ggpzpj; jd;ikia ,y;yhJ nra;tJ jhapd; capiuf; fhg;ghw;Wk; Nehf;fpdhy; md;wp kw;Wk; Vida tifapy; fz;bf;fg;gl Ntz;ba Fw;wk; vdf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. fUr;rpijT njhlu;ghf eilKiwapy; cs; s rl; l j; i j jaT nra; J tpgupf; f Tk; . kWrP u ikg; G Kiwikfis fPo;epiyg;gLj;jhj tifapy; kWjiyahd gpujptpisTfis cz;lhf;fhj tifapYk; ,e;jr; rl;lj;ij vt;thW ehk; kWrPuikg;Gr; nra;tjw;F vd;d topapy; mZfyhk;? mwpf;ifapd; 18 MtJ ge;jpapy; vr;rupf;fg;gl;lthW ,jid vt;thW mZfyhk;. fUj;jil Kiwfs; kw;Wk; FLk;gj; jpl;l Kiwfs; fpilf;ff; $bajhf ,Uj;jy; kw;Wk; mtw;iw milaf; $bajhf ,Uj;jy; kPjhd jfty;fis jaTnra;J toq;fTk;. 21. FOtpw;F Kd;Nd fpilj;j jfty;fshdit Njhl;lj;Jiwapy; Ntiy nra;Ak; ngz;fs; fl;lhaf; FLk;gj; jpl;lk; kw;Wk; ts mspg;G vd;gd %yk; mtHfspd; ,d tpUj;jp cupikfs; kPwg;gLfpd;wJ vdr; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wJ. ,t;thwhd jfty;fs; Fwpj;J jaTnra;J tpku;rdk; nra;tJld; ,t;thW

78| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

Vw; g Lfpd; w gpur; r pidfis vjpu; n fhs; t jw; F vLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vdTk; FOtpw;F mwpaj;juTk;.

vd; d

Vw; g hLfs;

fpuhkpag; ngz;fs;> tNahjpgg; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; FiwghLila ngz;fs;


22. mwpf;ifapd; 140 - 147 MtJ ge;jpfSld; njhlu;Ggl;L tWikf; Fiwg;G epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fspw;fhd fpuhkpag; ngz;fSf;fhd Ez; njhopy;Kaw;rp epfo;rrpj;jpl;lk; tptrhaj; JiwapYs;s njhopy;Kaw;rp epfo;rrpj;jpl;lk; Vida ; ; fpuhkpag; ngz;fSf;F toq;fg;gLk; fy;tp> Rfhjhuk;> nghUshjhuk; kw;Wk; Ntiytha; g ; G g; Nghd; W toq; f g; g Lk; Nritfs; Fwpj; J jaTnra; J tpsf;fkspf;Ff. mur eyNdhk;gy; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lkhfpa rKu;j;jpapy; vj;jid rjtPjk; ngz;fSf;F toq;fg;gLfpwJ. mwpf;ifapd; 33 MtJ ge;jpahdJ cjtpfs; ghy;epiy rhu;gpd;wp toq;fg;gLtjhf Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. Mdhy; ngz; FLk;gj; jiytpfs; ngUksT Jd;gg;gLfpwhu;fs;. ngz;fSf;F tpNrbj;j tpjkhf cjtp nra;a vd;d Kaw;rpfs; vLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. 23. ge;jpapd; 33 39 tiuapyhditfs; njhlu;ghf taJ Kjpu;e;j ngz;fs; kw;Wk; FiwghLila ngz;fspd; fy;tp> Ntiytha;g;G> Rfhjhu Nritfisg; ngw; W f; nfhs; S jy; > fhzp cupikfisg; ngw; W f; nfhs; S jy; > td;KiwapypUe;J ghJfhg;igg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sjy; vd;gd njhlu;ghd epiyikfspy; kdpj cupikfs; kPjhd mjpfkhd jfty;fis jaTnra;J toq;fTk;. 24. fhyepiy khw;wj;jpd; ghjfkhd jhf;ffq;fspdhy; mjpf Jd;gg;gLgtu;fs; ngz;fSk; ngz; gps;isfSk; vd mtjhdpf;Fk; mNjNtisapy;> mdu;j;j mghaf; Fiwg;G kw;Wk; jzpg;G kw;Wk; mJ $l;bizf;fg;gl;lhy; eilKiwr; nrad; K iwapy; ngz; f spd; $l; b izg; G njhlu; g hf VjhtJ nfhs; i f cs;sjh vdj; jaT nra;J Rl;bf; fhl;lTk;. 2005 ij 28 md;whd FOtpd; njd;fpof;fhrpa Rdhkp mdu;j;jk; njhlu;ghd FOtpd; $w;iw epidT $u;e;J 2004 khu; f op Rdhkpahy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l tu; f s; tpNrlkhf ngz; f s; rpWgps;isfs; kw;Wk; taJ Kjpu;e;j fpuhkpag; ngz;fSf;fhd GdUj;jhuz epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs; Fwpj;j jfty;fis jaT nra;J toq;Ff.

rl;lk; kw;Wk; rptpy; Kd;dhy; tplaq;fSf;fhd rku;g;gzk;


Kf;fpa Mtzq;fshfpa (HRI/CORE/LKA/2008) ge;jp 80 ,d; gpufhuk; ngz;fs; jk; g jpau; f spd; RahjP d j; J ld; KOikahd nrhj; J upikfs; vd; W nrhy;yg;gl;bUf;fpd;wJ. Mdhy; top top ngWif vd;w tplaj;jpy; me;jg; ghugl;rk; ,d;Dk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. top top ngWif vd;w tplaj;jpy; ngz;fs; vt; t hW elj; j g; g Lfpwhu; f s; vd; g ij jaTnra; J tpgupf; f Tk; . mj; N jhL mtu;fspd; nrhj;Jupikiag; ghJfhg;gjw;F cs;s rl;lq;fs; vd;d vd;Wk; tpgupf;fTk;. 26. ngz;fs; rl;l Nritfis rkkhfg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;sf; $batu;fshf ,Uf;fpd;wduh? ngz;fs; rl;lj; NjitfSf;fhf fl;lzk; nrYj;j Kbahj epiyfspy; mtw; i w ,ytrkhf ngw; W f; n fhs; s f; $batu; f shf ,Uf;fpwhu;fsh? rl;l cjtp fpilf;ff; $bajhf ,Ue;jhy; mJ Mz;fSf;Fk; ngz;fSf;Fk; rkdhf toq;fg;gLfpd;wjh? mt;thwhapd; ngz;fs; mjid

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mwpe;J itj;J mjdhy; ed;ik ngwf;$batu;fshf ,Uf;fpd;wduh? mt;thW ,y;yhJ Nghapd; ,jw;Fg; gpd;dhYs;s fhuzq;fis tpsf;fk; nra;f. 27 FOtpd; Kd;ida mtjhdpg;Gfs; (A/57/38(SUPP)) ge;jp 299 ,y; cs;s rpghu;Rfspd; gpufhuk; cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngau;e;j ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWtu;fs; jkJ Rfhjhu nghUshjhu Njitfisg; G+u;j;jp nra;J nfhs;tjw;fhf Nritfs; kw;Wk; trjpfis ngw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$bajhf ,Uf;fpd;wik Fwpj;J tpgukhd jfty; f is jaTnra; J toq; F f. NkYk; Kuz; g hl; L j; jP u ; T kw; W k; rkhjhdj;ijf; fl;bnaOg;Gk; nrad;Kiwfspy; cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngau;e;j ngz; f Sf; F KO mstpyhd rkkhd gq; F gw; W if fpilg; g ij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;F vLf;fg;gl;l Vw;ghLfs;; vd;d vd;W FOtpw;F jaTnra;J njuptpf;fTk;. 28. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngau;e;j Ml;fspy; jpUk;gptUNthupd; gpur;rpidfisj; jPuggjw;F mtu;fspd; kPsf; FbNaw;wk;> r%fj; njhlu;ig epu;zapj;jy; mj;Jld; ; ; mtu;fspd; gpur;rpidfisj; jPu;g;gjw;fhd tpNrl Vw;ghLfs; kw;Wk; Kd;dhs; ngz; Nghuhspfs; my; y J jLj; J itf; f g; g LNthu; mtu; f s; NkYk; ghugl;rj;jpw;Fk; cl;gLj;jg;gl khl;lhu;fs; vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk;> ,e;j kPs ,izj;jy; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fis mKy;gLj;Jk;nghOJ mtu;fs; kPs ghugl;rj;jpw;F cl;gLj;jkhl;lhu;fs; vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Fkhd Njrpaf; nfhs;if my;yJ nraw;jpl;lk; cz;lh? vdTk; jaT nra;J jfty; toq;fTk;. NkYk; FOthdJ ghJfhg;Gr;rig jPu;khdq;fs; 1325 kw;Wk; 1820 Mdit nraw;ghl;by; cs;sdth? vdTk; mjd; eilKiwg;gLj;jy; nrad;Kiwapy; mur jug; G ngz; f isAk; cs; t hq; F fpd; w jh vdTk; FO NkYk; mwpa tpUk;Gfpd;wJ.

jpUkzk; kw;Wk; FLk;g cwTfs;


29. rpWtaJ jpUkzq;fspy; tPo;r;rp Vw;gl;Ls;sjhf mwpf;if Fwpg;gpl;lhYk; ge;jp 10 rpW taJ jpUkzq;fs; Fwpj;J K];ypk; jdpahs; rl;lq;fspd; fPo; rl;lj; jLg;Gfs; ,y;yhjpUg;gjhy; ,e;j cz;ikia khw;whky; ,d;Dk; rpW ngz; gps; i sfs; mtu; f sJ tpUg; g j; j pw; F khwhf jpUkzk; nra; a epu;g;ge;jpf;fg;gLfpwhu;fs;. ,e;j tplaj;jpy kWrPuikg;Gf; FOTld; Nru;e;J ciog; g jw; F VjhtJ gbepiyfs; vLf; f g; g l; L s; s jh? vdTk; kw; W k; nghJkf;fs; toq;ff;$ba tpopg;Gzu;r;rpfs; kw;Wk; Vd; vt;thW ,e;j fyhrhu nraw; g hL r%fj; j pw; F ghugl; r khf cs; s J vd fw; g pf; f f; $ ba VjhtJ gbepiyfs; vLf;fg;gl;Ls;sjh vdTk; jaT nra;J tpgupf;Ff. mwpf;ifapd; 11 Mk; ge;jpapd; gpufhuk; K];ypk; ngz; gps;isfspd; cau;fy;tpia vt;thW rpWtaJj; jpUkzk; jLf;fpd;wJ vdTk;> Vd; rpWgps;is jpUkzj;ij KOjhf jilnra;Ak;gb khw;wf;$lhJ vdTk;> jpUkzk; kw;Wk; kzKwpT rl;lkhdJ kzthsd; kzthl;bapd; rk;kjj;ij vOj;jpy; ngWtJ Njitaw;wJ vd nrhy; f pwJ. ,t; t plak; Fwpj; J murhq; f khdJ kWrP u ikg; G fis mKy;gLj;Jfpd;wjh.

cWg;Giu 20 ge;jp 1
30. rkthaj;jpd; cWg;Giu 20 ge;jp 1 - FOtpd; $l;l Neuj;Jld; njhlu;Gila tplaj;jpy; VjhtJ jpUj;jj;ij Nehf;fpa Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sif nra;ag;gLtjpy; VjhtJ Kd;Ndw;wk; fhzg;gl;Ls;sjh vdj; jaT nra;J njuptpf;Ff.

80| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

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2011 ij

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 81

,yq;ifapd; 5> 6> 7 Mfpa xd;wpize;j gUtfhy mwpf;if kPJ murjug;gplj;jpy; rPNlh FOthy; vOg;gg;gl;l gpur;rpidfs; kw;Wk; Nfs;tpfspd; epuy;.
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rl;lthf;f kw;Wk; epWtd rl;lf Ntiy


ngz;fs; rq;fq;fs;; fhzp mgptpUj;jp fl;lisr; rl;lk; Fwpj;j tplaj;jpid murhq; f j; j plk; kP z ; L k; kP z ; L k; vOg; g pa nghOjpYk; mJ ,d; d Kk; jpUj;jg;gl ,Uf;fpd;wJ. MfNt ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd ghugl;r Vw;ghLfs; ,d;Dk; njhlu;eJ ,Uf;fpd;wd. mDkjpg;gj;jpuk; cs;stu;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;l ; fhzpapd; gpd;Dupj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Stjw;F capNuhL vQ;rp cs;s jk; g jpia ,ayr; nra; A k; fhzp mgptpUj; j pf; fl; l isr; rl; l k; ,Ue; j nghOJk; > kP s j; j pUkzk; Kbf; F k; NghJ ,J ,of; f g; g Lfpd; w J. vt; t hwhapDk; nghJg; ghypy; ,J Kd; i da Kuz; g hl; L g; gFjpfspy; mjpfstpyhd tpjitg; ngz; f s; cs; s ikapdhy; nghJg; ghypy; ,J ngz; f isNa fLikahfj; jhf; F fpd; w J. kP s j; jpUkzk; nra; A k; NghJ ngz; f s; fhzpiaf; iftpl; L tpl Ntz; b cs; s jhy; ; ,J ngz; f spd; nghUshjhu RahjPdj;jpy; fLikahd jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. cs;ehl;by; ,lk; ngau;e;j ngz;fs; Kd;G Kuz;ghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ,lq; f Sf; F j; jpUk; g pr; nry; f pd; w NghJk; > gjpTfs; mope; j ik kw; W k; nraw; j pwdw; w mur fl; L g; g hL tpjpr; nrad; K iwfshy; nrhj; J fisr; nrd; w iltjpy; > ngw; W f; nfhs; t jpy; fzprkhd rthy; f is vjpu; n fhs; f pd; w hu; f s; . ,yq; i fapy; ghy; e piy khwpa Mz; f Sf; F k; ngz;fSf;Fk; murpdplk; xU fl;likg;G Kiwik ,y;yhj cz;ikapdhy;>

82| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

mjhtJ ghy;epiy khwpa MNzh ngz;Nzh mtu;fsJ ghy;epiy tifiag; gpwg;G mj;jhl;rpg; gj;jpuk; kw;Wk; Njrpa milahs ml;ilapy; khw;wpf; nfhs;tjw;F mDkjpf;Fk; fl;likg;G Kiwik ,y;yhj cz;ikapdhy; mtu; f s; mq; f P f upf; f g; g Lfpd; w jw; f hd cupik kWf; f g; g LfpwJ. gpwg; G mj;jhl;rpg;gj;jpuj;jpNy jdJ gpwg;Gg; ghy;epiyiaf; Fwpg;gpLk; xU jug;gpdu; kPJ> ghypay; khw;W rj;jpurpfpr;ir nra;Ak; kUj;Jtu; xUtu; mtUilaNjh my;yJ mtSilaNjh cupkj;jpy; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk; ,lupid mtupd; tpUg; g j; j pw; N f tplg; g LfpwJ. xUtUila ghy; e piyia khw; W tjw; F Vw;ghLfs; ,y;iynad;whYk; Kjypy; jkJ gpwg;G mj;jhl;rpg;gj;jpuj;ij khw;Wk;gbAk; mjd; gpd;Ng ghypay; khw;wy; rj;jpurpfpr;ir Nkw;nfhs;Sk;gbAk; kf; f Sf; F mwpTiu toq; f g; g Lfpd; w J. ngz; f s; njhlu; G Clff; $l;likg;gpduhy; rku;ggpf;fg;gl;l epoy; mwpf;ifiaAk; jaTnra;J ghu;ffTk; ; ; 2010 Mb.

ngz;fspd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhd Njrpa ,ae;jpuk;


epoy; mwpf;ifapd; 7Mk;> 8Mk; gf;fq;fisj; jaT nra;J ghu;f;fTk;. jw;Nghija murhq;fj;jpd; tiuG Kd;nkhopTfs; ,yq;if murpay; mikg;gpdNjh> rP N lhtpdNjh epakq; f isg; G+u; j ; j p nra; a tpy; i y vd; g ij ehk; mOj; j p ciuf;fpd;Nwhk;. rq;fj;jhy; tpepNahfpf;fg;gl;l fl;lkhdJ gpd;thq;fg;gl Ntz; L nkdTk; > 2006 Mk; Mz; L mry; tiuG rl; l thf; f j; j pw; f hf mikr; r uitapd; mq; f P f huj; i jg; ngw; w tiughdJ kP s itf; f g; g l Ntz;LnkdTk; gy ngz;fs; epWtdq;fs; MNyhrid toq;Ffpd;wd. 2006 tiughdJ muR> muR my; y hj nraw; g hl; l hsu; f s; > jdpahu; Jiwapdu; vd; N ghu; ghugl; r k; kw; W k; 2002 ,y; rP N lhthy; vOg; g g; g l; l tplak; vd;gdtw;wpy; murw;w nraw;ghl;lhsu;fspd; nghWg;Gf;$Wk; jd;ikf;F jPu;Tfhz Kaw;rpj;jJ vd;gjidf; ftdpf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; jw;Nghija tiugpNy me;j Vw;ghL iftplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

khwh epiyg;ghLfs;
,yq; i fg; ngz; f shy; mDgtpf; f g; g l; l tuyhw; W uP j pahd cau; r%f Rl;bf;fhl;bfshdit ngz;fs; njhlu;ghd jhuhs r%f gz;GfSf;fhd Mff; Fiwe;jJ xU gFjpfSf;fhtJ mj;Jld; Rje;jpuj;jpw;Fg; gpe;jpa murhq;fq;fspd; eyNdhk;gy; mZKiwfSf;Fk; Rkj;jpf; $wg;glyhk;. ,e;jf; <l;lq;fs; vy;yhk; ngz;fis Nehf;fpa kNdhntz;zj;jpd; gpioahd ghu;itf;fhd mjpfhupfspd; Mjuthy; mjpfsT fPo;epiyg; gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. ngz;fspd; elj; i j kw; W k; mikg; G fspy; ngUksT ftdk; nrYj; J k; jdpg; g l; l kNdhghtk; > elj; i j kP j hd mjpfhuG+u; t khd ntspg; g Lj; J if xd; W mjpfupj;Js;sJ. gpd;tUk; cjhuzq;fisg; guprPypAq;fs;. (m) ,yq;if mur gy;fiyf;fofkhd = [atu;jdGu gy;fiyf;fofj;jpd; JizNte;ju; MW khztpfisg; gy;fiyf;fof Neuj;jpw;Fg; gpw;ghL rpy Mz; khztu;fNshL xd;whf ,Ue;jijf; fz;lijj; njhlu;e;J> mtu;fis fd;dpg; guPl;rpg;gpw;F cl;gLj;j mDg;gpaik rk;ge;;jkhf> mtUf;F vjpuhfr; nra;ag;gl;l Fw;wr;rhl;Lfs; njhlu;ghfTk; ,e;j rk;gtk; njhlu;ghfTk; vt;tptpjkhd cj;jpNahfG+u;t tprhuizfSk;

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 83

vLf;ftpy;iy. Vnddpy; ,J rk;ge;jkhf khztpfs; cj;jpNahfG+u;t uPjpahd Kiwg;ghl;il nra;tjw;F Kd;tu tpUk;ghjjhFk;. mt;thwhd Kiwg; g hL ,y; y hj re; j u; g ; g j; j py; xU tprhuiz elj; J tjw; f hd nghwpKiw vJTk; fpilahJ. (M) mur gy; f iyf; f ofj; j pd; JizNte; j u; xUtu; > ngz; z pa nraw;ghl;lhsnuhUtiu kdpj cupikfs; jpdk; kw;Wk; rPNlhtpidf; nfhz;lhLtjw;F IehTld; NrHe;J xOq;F nra;ag;gl;l xu; epfo;tpy; Ngr mDkjpf;f kWg;G njuptpj;jpUf;fpwhu;. (,) nghyp]; jpizf;fsj;jpd; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; Foe;ijfs; cjtp Nkirahy; mwptpf;fg;gl;l jPukhdj;jpy; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l epHthz tPbNahg; glk; ; xd;wpy; Njhd;wpa Mz;fs;> ngz;fs; Fwpj;J gj;jphpiffspy; ntspaplj; jP u ; k hdpf; f g; g l; L s; s J. Vw; f dNt mJ rk; g e; j g; g l; l Mz; f Sld; xg;gpl;Lg; ghu;f;Fk;nghOJ ngz;fSf;F mjpfkhd gpd;tpisTfis Vw;gLj;jf;$bajhf tha;g;Gs;sJ. (<) mur ghlrhiyfSf; F tUk; ngz; ngw; N whu; f s; kw; W k; tUif jUNthUf;fhf mur ghlrhiyfspd; mjpgu;fspdhy; Kd;itf;fg;gl;l Mil mzpAk; tpjpfs;. ,yq; i fg; ngz; f shy; tho; t pYk; Ntiytha; g ; g pYk; mjpfk; > <l;lg;gl;litfisg; NgZtJ kpfTk; fbdkhfpAs;sJ vd;gij ,q;F ehk; Fwpg;gpl tpUk;Gfpd;Nwhk;. Vnddpy; r%fj;jpy; ngz;fspd; ,lk; njhlHghd mlf; F Kiwahd vz; z q; f s; gpuj; j pNafkhfj; jhahfTk; > Ntiyj; Njitf;fhf/ tPlL tho;tpy;; muR ngz;fisAk; Mz;fisAk; rkepiyg;gLj;jp ; mq;fPfupf;fj; jaq;FtJ Nghd;witahFk;. vjpu; k iwahd khwh epiyg; g hLfs; kw; W k; ghugl; r nraw; g hLfSk; Kuz; g hl; l hy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l ngz; f NshL njhlu; G ilait. ,it mjpfupj;Jj; njhlUfpd;wd. cjhuzj;jpw;F Kd;dhs; ngz; NguhspfSf;Fj; njhopy;g; gapw;rpfs;> kzg;ngz; myq;fhuk;> ijay;> moFf;fiy vd;gdtw;wpy; gapw;rp nfhLf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. Mdhy; FOtpNy ngz;fSf;F cau; fy;tpf;fhf tpQ; Q hdk; nghwpapay; kw; W k; Vida njhopy; E l; g f; fw; i f newpfspy; mjpfkhd re;ju;g;gq;fs; toq;fg;gLtjhff; $wg;gLfpd;wJ.

ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd td;Kiwfs;


2005 Mk; Mz;L tPl;L td;Kiwj; jLg;Gr; rl;lk; ngUk; vjpu;ghu;g;GfNshL epiwNtw;wg;gl;lhYk;> mjid eilKiwg;gLj;Jtnjd;gJ rthy; kpf;fjhfNt cs;sJ. jpl;lj;ij epiwNtw;Wk; mjpfhupfs; tPl;L td;Kiwiaj; jdpg;gl;l tplakhfg; ghu; g ; g jw; F Cf; f g; g Lj; j g; g Lfpwhu; f s; . rpiwf; ifjpfs; eyNdhk; G if 2010 jpdj; j pd; nghOJ [dhjpgjp mtu; f s; Xuplj; j py; Fwpg;gpLifapy; gioa gonkhop Nghd;W Gjpa rl;lkhdJ fztd; kidtpf;F ,ilapyhd ,zf;fj;ijj; jilnra;Js;sJ vd;w fUj;ijf; Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jhu;. fztDf;Fk; kidtpf;Fk; ,ilapyhd NfhgkhdJ Nrhw;Wg; ghid mtpAk; tiuf; F k; jhd; . .. vLj; j hSk; nghOJ rpyNtisfspy; ghJfhg; G f; fl;lisfisj;jhd; [dhjpgjp mt;thW Fwpg;gpl;lhNuh...? ePjpkd;wk; rpy

84| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

rkaq;fspy; fztd; kidtpf;F mz;ikapy; nry;tijj; jil nra;fpwJ. NkYk; jug;gpdiu ,zf;fj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L tUjtw;F ,J cjtp MfhJ. tPlL td;Kiwahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu;fSld;; ed;F nrayhw;Wk; xu; mur rhu;gw;w ; epWtdkhfpa Women in Need My; Ngzg;gLk; Gs;sp tpguq;fspd; gpufhuk;> 2005 kw;Wk; 2009 fhyg;gFjpfSf;F ,ilapy; 21>9825 ngz;fs; mtu;fsJ cjtpia ehb ,Uf;fpwhu;fs;. ,tu;fspilNa Women in Need MdJ> tPl;L td;Kiw jLg;G rl;lj;jpd; fPo; ghJfhg;G fl;lisfisg; ngWtjw;fhf 101 tof;Ffis gjpT nra;jJ. ghJfhg;Gf; fl;lisfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjpy; 85 tof;Ffs; ntw;wpAiladthf ,Ue;jd. ,tw;Ws; 5 ghJfhg;Gf; fl;lisfs; kPwg;gl;Ls;sd. Women in Need My; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l ,e;j Ma;Tfs;> gy re;ju;g;gq;fspNy> ghJfhg; G f; fl; l isiaf; fz; f hzpg; g jw; f hd Vw; g hLfis eP j pkd; w k; nra;atpy;iy vd;gijr; Rl;lbf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ. ePjpkd;wj;jpw;Ff; FLk;g MNyhrfu;> jFjpfhz; mjpfhup> FLk;g Rfhjhug; gzpahsu; my;yJ r%f Nritahsu; vd;Nghiu epakpg;gjw;fhd mjpfhuk; ,Ue;j nghOJk; mij mt;thW nra;atpy;iy. gy re;ju;g;gq;fspy; ,e;j ghJfhg;Gf; fl;lisahdJ Fw;wthspahy; kPwg;gl;Ls;sJld;> J\;gpuNahfKk; njhlu;e;jpUf;fpd;wJ. ,t;tifahd re;ju;g;gq;fspNy> ePjpkd;wf; fl;lisia kPwpajw;fhd> Fw;wtpay; nraw;ghl;il Jupjg;gLj;Jtjw;F mtrpakhditfis gupNrhjpg;gjw;fhd> Njitahd gbepiyfis ePjpkd;wk; guprPypg;gJ rpwe;jjhFk;. ghy;epiy $Uzu;T kpf;f gapw;rp njhlu;ghd tplaq;fspy; rl;;lj;juzpfs; kw;Wk; ePjpj; JiwapdUf;F rl;lf;fy;tp kw;Wk; ghy;epiyf; $Uzu;T gapw;rpfs; kPjhd ghlj;jpl;lk; njhlu;ghd ve;jtpjkhd jfty;fSk; ,y;iy vd;Nw $wyhk;. nghyprhu; kdpj cupikfs; gapw;rpia jk; nghyp]; mjpfhupfSf;F toq;Ffpd;wdu;. Mdhy;> mJ Nghjpajhf ,Ug;gJk; mupjhfNt cs;sJld; mJ epue;jukhdjhfTk; ,y;iy. nghyp]; gapw;rp toq;Fgtu;fs;> ,g;gapw;rpfis gapw;rpahsu;fSf;F toq;FtJld;> kdpj cupikfshd gapw;rpfs; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;Jtjw;F mtu;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;l NeukhdJ Nghjpajhf ,y;iynad Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sfpd;wdu;. tPlL td;Kiw rk;gtq;fspy; ghypay; td;Kiwapid guprPypf;Fk; rhd;Wfisf; ; fzf; f py; vLf; F k; NghJ> eP j pkd; w eP j pj; Jiwapd; gpupg; G my; y hky; cz; i kahfNt gpupe; j pUf; F k; re; j u; g ; g q; f spy; jpUkz epiyapyhd td;Gzu;rpahdJ xU Fw;wkhff; fUjg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;w xU ePz;l fhyf; Nfhupf;if cz;L. rl;lkdhJ ,e;jj; Njitia gpupjpgypf;fhJ ,Ug;gJld;> vy;yhj; JiwfspYk; jpUkz epiyapyhd td;Gzu;r;rpia xU Fw;wkhf guprpypg; g jw; f hd rl; l kWrP u ikg; G kP j hd ve; j tpjkhd efu; T k; ,y;yhjpUf;fpd;wJ. ,jw; F Nkyjpfkhf nghJ rpghupRfs; 28 ,d; gpufhuk; ehk; gpd; t Uk; mtjhdpg;Gfis nra;jpUe;Njhk;. jz;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitapd; 365 gpupT A apd; gpufhuk; xj; j ghy; > tajile; N jhupd; nraw; g hLfs; Fw;wkakhf;fg;gl;Ls;sjhy;; ngz;> cwTf; ftu;r;rpg;; ngz;fs;;> ,U ghy; epiyAilNahu; kw;Wk; ghy;epiy khw;wkile;j ngz;fs; vd;NghUf;F vjpuhd td; K iwf; F vjpuhd juTfs; ,y; y hjpUf; f pd; w d. ,J Nkw; $ wg; g l; l

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 85

ngz;fisg; ghjpf;Fk; td;Kiwapd; ,ay;GfisAk;> tbtq;fisAk; fhz Kbahj epiyf;F ,l;Lr; nry;fpd;wJ. 2005 Mk; Mz;L tPl;L td;Kiwj; jLg;Gr; rl;lkhdJ> xd;whf ,Uf;Fk; rfghbfs; ghJfhg;Gf; fl;lisf;F tpz;zg;gpf;Fk; cupikia mq;fPfupj;J ,Ue;jhYk; LBT rfghbfSf;fhd neUf;fj;ij rl;luPjpahf mq;fPfupf;ftpy;iy. xj; j ghy; e piyr; Nrhbfs; tP l ; L td; K iw vd; w epiyikfspy; tP l ; L td; K iwiaj; jLg; g jw; f hd rl; l j; j pid mZFtJ jaf; f khfTs; s J. cWg;Giu 2 ,y; tpNrlkhfTk; kw;Wk; rPNlhtpd; 28,y; nghJ tpku;rdj;jpYk; nrhy; y g; g l; L s; s ghugl; r k; ,d; i kf; nfhs; i f kw; W k; fzprkhd rkj;Jtj;Jld; ghu;f;Fk; NghJ ehk; ,yq;if murhq;fj;ij gpd;tUtdtw;iw Cf;Ftpf;ff; Nfl;fpd;Nwhk;. m. M gpupe;jpUg;gJ Nghd;w epiyikfspy; jpUkz epiy td;Gzu;r;rpiaf; Fw;wkhf;fy; mur kw;Wk; jdpahu; ,lq;fspy; rk;ge;jg;gl;ltu;fspd; ,zf;fj;Jld; $ba xj; j ghy; epiy nraw; g hLfis Fw; w khf; F k; Fw; w tpay; rl;lf;Nfhitapd; gpupT 365I ,y;yh njhopj;jy; ghypay; jpirKfk; kw; W k; ghy; e piy milahsj; i j cs; s lf; f pa ghugl;rkw;w jd;ikAld; <LgLk; murpayikg;gpd; cWg;Giu 12 (2) ,idj; jpUj;;Jf

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86| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

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,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 87

gpujpepjpj; J tg; g Lj; j iy Nghjpajhdjhftpy;iy 1.

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88| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

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ngz;fs; fy;tp Ma;T epiyaj;jhy; jahupf;fg;gl;l ghy;epiy mbg;gilapyhd nkhbA+y;fis 2010,y; cs;spizj;J nfhs;s Njrpa ghltpjhd mgptpUj;jp ,yq;if KftH; ,zq;fpAs;sJ. KjyhtJ - Muk;g ,uz;lhk; ghlrhiy Mrpupau; fy;tp ghltpjhdj;jpd; Kf;fpa ghlq;fs;> ,uz;lhtJ - ,uz;lhk; epiyg; ghlrhiyfspd; tho;f;ifj;jpwd; ghltpjhdk;> %d;whtJ - Kd;gs;sp Mrpupau; f Sf; f hd ghltpjhdk; . vt; t hwhapDk; ,J ,d; D k; mKy;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngau;ejtu;fs; jpUk;gpr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;Fk; gy ,lq;fspy; ; ghlrhiyfs; ,y;yhjpUg;gJld;> mjdhy; ,sk; gps;isfs; ghlrhiyf;Fj; J}u ,lq;fSf;Fr;; nry;y Ntz;b cs;sJ. mz;ikapy; kPsf; Fbaku;e;j tlf;Ff; fpof;Fg; gFjpfspy; ghJfhg;gw;w epiyik epyTtJld;> Nghf;Ftuj;J trjpaPdq;fSk; cs;sd. ,Njthwhd xU epiyikahdJ ngUe;Njhl;lj; JiwapYk; epyTfpd;wJ. ghlrhiyfspd; cly; jz;lid jilnra;ahj epiyapy; $l fy;tpapy; xU jilahf nraw;gLfpd;wJ.

Ntiy tha;g;G
,yq;ifg; ngz;fshy; rl;lk;> kUj;Jtk;> nghwpapay; Nghd;w Ntiy tha;g;Gj; Jiwfspy; ePbj;J epiyf;ff;$ba <l;lq;fis ep&gpg;gnjd;gJ rpukkhf ,Ug; g Jld; > ,t; t hwhd Jiwfspyhd Kd; N dw; w khdJ mNefkhf jLf;fg;gLfpwJ. ngupastpy; r%fj;jpy; khw;wKbahj ghy;epiy kw;Wk; ghy; mbg;gilapyhd cs;@H tl;lj;jpNyNa fhzg;gLk; njhopyhsH gpupthdJ> ngz; f s; kj; j papy; kP J ftdnkLg; g jw; f hd ghupa nghWg; G zHitj; njhlHe; J k; itj; J tUfpd; w J. mijtpl FLk; g j; j pYk; ngupastpNy r%fj;jpYk; Mzpd; ngw;NwhuJ epiyahdJ> nghWg;G kPjhd KOikahd mikjpapdhy; ngz;zpd; epWtg;gl;l jha;ikg; nghWg;G MdJ kPs mOj;jp itf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ngz; f Sf; F Ntiytha; g ; i g toq; F k; GJ tplaq; f s; mtHfSf; F ngz; f s; t iuapyhd Ntiytha; g ; g pd; i k tP j j; i jf; Fiwf; f f; $bajhfTs;sd. njhopy; uPjpahf tPl;bYk; tPl;bw;F ntspNaAk; cs;s ghy;epiy mbg;gilapyhd NtWghlhdJ> ngz;fs; jpUkzk;> FLk;gk; tpNrlkhf ,sk; gps; i sfisAk; > taJ KjpHe; N jhiuAk; ftdpj; j y; vd;gtw;wpd; epkpj;jk;> Cjpak; ngWk; Ntiyapy; ,Ue;J ngz;fs; gpd;thq;fr; nra;tjw;fhd ghupa mOj;jkhfj; njhlHe;J tUfpd;wJ. mz;ika INuhg;gpa xd; w paj; j pd; GSP Plus rYif kP s g; ngwg; g l; l ik njhlHghf> Mjutspf; f g; g l; l Mil Vw; W kjp ifj; n jhopypy; Ntiy ngw; w pUe; j Mapuf;fzf;fhd ngz;fs; njhlHghf ngz;fspd; Ntiytha;gG ,d;ik tPjk; ; fLikailtjw;fhd rhj;jpaq;fs; cs;sd. Ntiy NjLk; mNefkhd ngz;fs; Kiwrhuhj; JiwapypUg;gjhdJ> fpuhkpa Jiwapy; kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdjhf ,Ug;gJld; efuj; JiwapYk; ,J Jupjkhf tpuptile;J tUfpwJ.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 89

Mz;fSf;Fk; ngz;fSf;Fk; ,ilNaahd Cjpaf; nfhLg;gdT NtWghL Kiwrhuhj; Jiwapy; kpfTk; njspthfj; njuptJld;> tpNrlkhf tptrhar; nraw;ghLfs; kw;Wk; ifj;njhopy; Jiwfspy; njupfpd;wJ. ,t;NtWghl;il jP H j; J f; nfhs; t jw; f hd ve; j tpNrbj; j Vw; g hLfSk; murhq; f j; j hy; nra; a g; g ltpy; i y. ,e; j ,ilntspahdJ ghy; e piy mbg; g ilapyhd NtWghLfspy; ,Ue;J Nehf;fg;gLtJld;> Mdhy; nra;ag;gl;l Ntiyf;F caH ngWkhdk; nfhLf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. 1985 Mk; Mz;L 21 Mk; ,yf;f ,yq;if ntspehl;L Ntiy tha;gGg; gzpafr; ; rl;lj;jhy; epWtg;gl;l ,yq;if ntspehl;L Ntiy tha;g;Gg; gzpafkhdJ> Kaw;rpfis vLj;jpUe;jhYk;> ,d;Dk; Gyk;ngaH njhopyhsg; ngz;fs;> Vkhw;Wk; KftHfsplKk; tpNrlkhf cs;@H kl;lj;jpYk; kw;Wk; Ntiy toq; F eHfsplKk; cg KftHfshYk; jhf; f g; g Lk; epiyikapNyNa cs;shHfs;. gy ngz;fs; njhlHe;Jk; Ruz;lg;glf;$ba epiyapy; Ntiy nra;a Ntz;bapUg;gJld;> td;KiwiaAk; J\;gpuNahfj;ijAk; Ntiy toq;FeHfsplk; mDgtpg;gJld; rpy Ntisfspy; jhd; Mjutpw;fhf ehLk; Ntiy toq;FeHfshNyNa ,e;epiyf;F Mshf Ntz;bAk; cs;sJ. 2008 Mk; Mz; b y; Njrpa Gyk; n gaHTj; njhopy; nfhs; i fia iff;nfhs;sg;gl;ljhdJ> Gyk;ngaHjy; tplaj;jpy; xU ngupa rhjidahf ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> mjid eilKiwg;gLj;JtJ rthy; kpf;fjhfNt cs;sJld;> Gyk; n gaH njhopyhsHfs; mtHfspy; ngUk; g hyhdtHfshd ngz; njhopyhsHfs; > ,d; D k; ghJfhg; g w; w tHfshfTk; > jhf;fg;glf;$batu;fshfTNk cs;shHfs;. vy;yhg; Gyk;ngaH njhopyhsHfs; kw;Wk; mtHfspd; FLk;g cWg;gpdHfspd; cupikiag; ghJfhg; g jd; kP j hd I.eh rkthaj; i j ,yq; i f Vw; W mq;ffupj;Js;s NghjpYk;> ngz; Gyk;ngaH njhopyhsHfspd; gpur;rpidfisj; P jP H g; g jw; f hd rpy rl; l q; f isAk; nfhs; i ffisAk; mwpKfk; nra; J itj;Js;sJ. rpy Gupe;JzHT xg;ge;jq;fs; ifr;rhj;jplg;gl;bUe;j NghjpYk; ,t;thwhd ehLfspy; gzpahw;Wk; ngz; njhopyhsHfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;F Ntiy toq; F k; ehLfSldhd ,Ujiyg; g l; r xg; g e; j q; f s; mj;jpahtrpakhdJ. Nkw;F Mrpa ehLfspy; cs;s ,yq;ifapd; ntspehl;Lg; gzpafq; f s; > mtHfspd; eyd; f isg; ghJfhg; g jw; f hd Vw; g hLfis mKy;gLj;Jtjpy;iy.

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jz;lidr; rl;lf;Nfhitapd; 303 MtJ gpuptpd; fPo; ,yq;ifapNy xU ngz;zpd; capiuf; fhg;ghw;WtJ jtpHe;j Vida Neuq;fspy; fUr;rpijT vd;gJ xU Fw;wkhf cs;sJ. td;GzHr;rpf;F cs;shdtHfs; my;yJ rl;l uP j pahfj; jpUkzk; Kbf; f hj epiyapy; td; G zHr; r pf; F MshdtHfs; > fUj; j upf; F k; NghJ ,k; k P W if fhuzkhd fu; g pzpj; J tj; i j Kbj; J f; nfhs; t jw; F mDkjpf; f g; g Ltjpy; i y. ,jd; epkpj; j khf 10> 11 taJ ,sk;gps;isfs; $l KOf;fhy mstpyhd fHg;gpzpj;Jtj;ij G+Hj;jp nra;J gpw; g pg; g jhf eyd; fhf; F k; mjpfhupfSk; fz; l dk; njuptpj; J s; s hHfs; . ngz;fspd; clypay; kw;Wk; kdr; RfhjhuKk; fzf;fpy; vLf;fg;gLfpwJ. 1995

90| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

jz; l idr; rl; l f; Nfhitapd; kWrP u ikg; g pw; F vLj; J f; nfhs; s g; g l; l nghOJ> td; G zHr; r p kw; W k; neUf; f cwTj; jpUkzj; j ilapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gLNthHfSf;fhd xU guprPypg;ig cs;slf;Ftjw;F> fUr;rpijT njhlHghd gpuptpy; jpUj;jj;jpw;F Kd;nkhoptjhdJ tiugpNy> ePjpaikr;rpdhy; Kd;itf;fg;gl;lJ. ePjpaikr;rH gpd;G me;jj; jpUj;jj;jpypUe;J gpd;thq;fpf; nfhz;lhH. gue;Jgl;l mstpyhd kf;fs; kw;Wk; epWtdq;fsplk; ,Ue;Jte;j mOj; j q; f s; fhuzkhf me; j j; jpUj; j j; j py; ,Ue; J eP j paikr; r H mtHfs; gpd;thq;fpf; nfhz;lhH. xl;Lnkhj;jj;jpy; fUj;jil tpopg;GzHT kw;Wk; ghtid vd;gJ ,yq;ifapy; kpfTk; caHthf cs;sJ. MdhYk; fUj;jil trjpfisr; nrd;wiltJ> ,sk; ngz; f s; my; y J jpUkzk; Kbahj Ml; f s; > tpjitfs; jkJ kw; i wa NrhbapypUe;J gpupe;J tho;gtHfSf;F xU gpur;rpidahfNtAs;sJ. FLk;g Rfhjhu gzpahsHfs;> mur Rfhjhuj; Jiwapd; rdr%f mbg;gilapyhd Ml;fshf ,Ug;gtHfs;> jpUkzkhfhj Ml;fSf;F fUj;jil tplaq;fisf; nfhLg;gjw;F kWj;J tUtjhf mwpf;ifaplg;gl;L tUfpd;wJ. Kuz; g hl; l hy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l ,lq; f spy; jpUk; g p te; J s; s cs; e hl; b y; ,lk;ngaHe;jtu;fs;> kUj;Jt trjpfspd;ikapdhy; kUj;Jt ftdj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;fhf ePz;lJ}uk; gazpf;f Ntz;bAs;sJ. Nghf;Ftuj;J trjpfSk; Nghjpastpw;F ,y;yhikapd; fhuzkhf mtruj;jpw;fhf ,uT Neuq;fspy; $l mtHfs; Rfhjhuf; ftdq;fisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;fhd topfs; ,y;yhky; cs;sJ.

fpuhkpa> tNahjpg kw;Wk; clw;FiwghLila ngz;fs;


tlf;fpNy Kuz;ghL fhuzkhf ,lk;ngaHe;J jw;NghJ jq;fsJ tPLfSf;Fj; jpUk;gpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; tNahjpgg; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; clw;FiwghLila ngz;fspd; Fwpg;gpl;l jhf;fg;gL jd;ikfis ,dq;fhz;gjw;fhd ve;jtpj epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lKk; jw;NghJ ,y;iy. mtHfs; Gfyplk;> ePH> Rfhjhuk;> Rfhjhuf; ftdk; Nghd;w mbg;gilr; Nritfs; Nghjpajhf ,y;yhj ,lq;fSf;Fj; jpUk;gpf; nfhz;L ,Ug;gjhy;> mtHfs; Fwpg;ghf Jujp\;ltrkhd epiyapy; cs; s dH. taJ KjpHe; j ngz; f s; mtHfsJ FLk; g q; f shy; ftdpg; G ,y;yq;fspYk;> Myaq;fspYk; iftplg;gLtjhfTk; mwpf;iffs; cs;sd. FiwghLila Ml;fs; kPjhd ghy;epiy hPjpahf NtWgLj;jg;gl;l juTk; ,y;yhJs;sJ.

rl;lj;jpw;F Kd;ghfTk; rptpy; tplaq;fspYk; rkj;Jtk;


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,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 91

ngWgtHfs; mj;jpthuj;ij jhNk fl;l Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nfl;Lf;nfhs;fpd;wdH) mtHfs; rdr%fj;jpy; cs;s Mz;fis jkf;F cjTk;gb Nfl;Fk;gbahd fl;lha epiyikapy; cs;sdH. ,J Mz;fs; ghypay; tpUg;Gfis mtu;fsplk; Nfl;gjw;F ,l;Lr;nry;fpd;wJ. Kiwik uPjpahd nghJthff; fpilf;ff;$ba nfhs;if vJTk; cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;jtHfspd; Njitfis rPH nra;tjw;Ff; fpilf;ff; $bajhf ,y;iy. jpUk; g p tUjy; > kP s f; F bNaWjy; > kP s ; e piyg; g Lj; j y; vd; w xU Njrpaf; nfhs; i fahdJ tiutjw; F Kidg; n gLf; f g; g l; l NghjpYk; > me;epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lkhdJ murhq;fj;jpdhy; ,ileLtpy; epWj;jg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. Kd;dhs; Nghuhspfs; njhlHghd tplaj;jpYk; murhq;fkhdJ 2009 ,y; tiuag; g l; l Kd; d hs; Nghuhspfis kP s ,izj; j y; vd; w Njrpa nraw;wpl;lj;ij eilKiwg;gLj;jtpy;iy. epoy; mwpf;ifapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;lthwhf cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;jtHfs; kw;Wk; Kd;dhs; Nghuhspfspd; Njitfisf; ftdpg;gjw;fhd xu; nfhs;if NjitahfTs;sJ. Kd;dhs; Nghuhspfis kPs; ,izg;gjw;fhd Njrpa nraw; w pl; l j; i j murhq; f k; njhlHe; J ftdnkLf; f hJ mrl; i l nra; J tUfpd;wJ. jpUk;gp tUjy; kPsf;FbakHjy; kPjhd xu; Njrpa nfhs;ifapd; tiuGr; nrad;KiwiaAk; mJ epWj;jp itj;Js;sJ.

92| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd ghugl;rq;fis ,y;yhJ xopg;gjw;fhd FOtpd; Kbthd mtjhdpg;Gfs;


,yq;if khrp 2011

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 93

If;fpa ehLfs; ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd midj;J tbtpYkhd ghugl;rj;ij ,y;yhnjhopg;gjw;fhd rkthak; khtl;lk;: nghJ 4 khrp 2011 %yk;: Mq;fpyk;

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17 ij - 4 khrp 2001

ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd ghugl;rq;fis ,y;yhJ xopg;gjw;fhd FOtpd; Kbthd mtjhdpg;Gfs; ,yq;if


1. FOthdJ mjdJ 2011 ij 26 ,y; eilngw;w mjdJ 971 MtJ kw;Wk; 972MtJ $l;lq;fspy; (CEDAW/C/SR 971 kw;Wk; 972I ghHf;f) ,yq;ifapd; xd; W Nru; f ; f g; g l; l Ie; j htJ MwhtJ VohtJ gUtfhy mwpf; i ffis guprPypj;jJ. (CEDAW/C/LKA/5-7) FOtpDila gpur;rpidfSk; Nfs;tpfSk; CEDAW/C/LKA/Q/7 ,y; cs;slf;fg;gl;bUg;gJld;> ,yq;if murhq;fj;jpd; gjpy;fshdit CEDAW/C/LKA/Q/7/Add.1 ,y; cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

m. mwpKfk;
2. njhopy; El;gtpay; kw;Wk; Ma;T mikr;rpd; nrayhsuhy; jiyik jhq;fg;gl;l If;fpa ehLfSf;fhd ,yq;ifapd; epue;jug; gpujpepjp> rpWtH mgptpUj; j p kw; W k; kfspu; tptfhu mikr; r pd; nrayhsu; kw; W k; murpd; gy;NtWgl;l fpisfspy; ,Uf;fpd;w cau;kl;l mjpfhupfisf; nfhz;bUe;j mur jug;Gf; FOit J}Jf;FOthdJ ghuhl;Lfpd;wJ. 3. MdhYk; ciuahlypd; nghOJ FOthy; vOg; g g; g l; l gy Nfs; t pfSf; F mj; J }Jf; F O gjpyspf; f hJ tpl; l ik Fwpj; J FOthdJ Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ.

94| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

4. murjug; g pd; gUtfhy mwpf; i fia rku; g ; g pg; g jpy; Vw; g l; l Fwpg;gplj;jf;f jhkjj;ijf; FO Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. ngz;fs; epWtdq;fs; cl;gl gue;Jgl;l Njrpa> rpW r%f epWtdq;fis cs;slf;fpa xU gq;Fgw;wy; nrad; K iwahf ,t; t wpf; i f jahupf; f g; g lhjijapl; L f; FO ftiyailfpd; w J. mLj; j mwpf; i fapd; nghOJ Njrpa> rptpy; > r%f epWtdq;fis cs;slf;fpf; nfhs;tjw;F murjug;G mu;g;gzpj;Js;sij mJ Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

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5. 2002 Ig;grp 15 Mk; jpfjpad;W ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd rfy tbtpYkhd ghugl;rq;fis xopg;gJ kPjhd rkthaj;jpw;fhd njupT uPjpahd kunghOq;if mur jug;ghdJ Vw;Wf; nfhz;L mq;fPfupj;jpUg;gijAk; 2006 Gul;lhjp 22 Mk; jpfjpad; w hd Foe; i jfis tpw; w y; > rpWtu; tpgr; r huk; > Foe; i jfs; epu;thzg;glk; Nghd;w Foe;ijfs; cupikfs; kPjhd rkthaj;jpw;fhd njupT nra;af;$ba kunghOq;if Vw;W mq;fPfupj;jpUg;gijAk; FO tuNtw;fpwJ. 6. kpNydpak; mgptpUj; j p ,yf; F fspy; 4Mk; (rpR kuz tP j j; i jf; Fiwj;jy;) kw;Wk; 5Mk; (jha;ikr; Rfhjhuj;ij Kd;Ndw;Wjy;) ,yf;Ffisr; rhjpj;Jf; nfhs;tij Nehf;fp> ,yq;ifahdJ mjd; jlj;jpy; ,Ug;gijf; FO jpUg;jpAld; Nehf;Ffpd;wJ. 7. m. FOthdJ gpd;tUtdtw;iw tuNtw;fpd;wJ. (2005 Mk; Mz;L) tPl;L td;Kiwj; jLg;G rl;lj;ij cUthf;fpaik

M. ,yq; i fg; ngz; f s; jkJ gpu[hTupikiaj; jkJ gps; i sfSf; F khw;wpf; nfhLf;fr; nra;fpd;w> 2003 Mk; Mz;bd; 16 Mk; ,yf;f gpui[fs; jpUj;j rl;l%yj;ij cUthf;fpaik ,. ehLfle;j jpl;lkplg;gl;l Fw;wq;fSf;F vjpuhd I.eh rkthaj;jpw;F Vw;gTk;> mjdJ kunghOq;Ffs; kw;Wk; Foe;ijfs; J\;gpuNahfr; rk;gtq;fs; kPjhd fl;lha mwpf;ifaply;fisr; nraw;gLj;Jtjw;fhd Vw;ghLfSld; njhlu;Gilajhf> Ml;fisf; flj;Jk; Fw;wj;jpd; xU Gjpa tiutpyf;fzj;ij cs;slf;fpa 2006 Mk; Mz;bd; 16 Mk; ,yf;f Fw;wtpay; rl;lf;Nfhit jpUj;jj;ijAk; FO tuNtw;fpd;wJ. <. Gyk;ngau; ngz; njhopyhsu;fs; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;Jk;> njhopyhsu; Gyk;ngau;T kPjhd ,yq;ifapd; Njrpa nfhs;ifiaf; iff;nfhz;lJ kw;Wk; ntspehl;L Ntiy tha;g;G Cf;Ftpg;G> eyNdhk;Gif mikr;ir epWtpaik vd;gtw;iwAk; mf;FO tuNtw;fpwJ. 8. kdpj cupikfs; ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; Cf;Ftpg;gpw;fhd ngz;fs; kPjhd Ma;Tg; nghUs; nraw;wpl;lq;fis cs;slf;fpa xU Njrpa nraw;wpl;lj;ij nraw;gLj;Jtjw;fhd mur jug;gpd; mu;g;gzpg;igf; FO ghuhl;Lfpd;wJ. rkthaj;ij nraw;wpwd; cs;s Kiwapy; mKy;gLj;Jtijj; jLf;Fk; fhuzpfs;

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 95

9. jrhg;j fhykhf ePbj;j MAj Kud;ghL> 2004 Mk; Mz;by; Vw;gl;l Rdhkp mdu;j;jk;> mz;ikapy; epfo;e;j nts;sg; ngUf;Fg; Nghd;wtw;why; rkthaj;ij mKy;gLj;Jtjpy; mur jug;G re;jpj;j rthy;fisf; FO czu;e;J nfhs;fpd;wJ.

,.

ftiyfs; kw;Wk; rpghupRfSf;fhd Kf;fpa tplaq;fs;

10. mur jug;ghdJ Kiwik uPjpahfTk; njhlu;r;rpahfTk; rkthaj;jpd; vy; y h Vw; g hLfisAk; mKy; g ; g Lj; J tjd; flg; g hl; i lf; FOthdJ epidT+l; L tJld; > ,g; N ghjpUe; J mLj; j gUtfhyj; j pw; f hd mwpf; i f rku;g;gpg;gjw;fhd ,ilf;fhyg; gFjpapy;> mur jug;gpd; Kd;Dupikf; ftdk; Ntz; b epw; g J Nghy; jw; N ghija Kbthd mtjhdpg; G fspy; ,dq;fhzg;gl;l rpghupRfisAk; ftiyfisAk; Nehf;Ffpd;wJ. njhlu;e;Jk; eilKiwg; g Lj; j y; nraw; g hLfspy; ,t; t plaq; f s; njhu; g hff; ftdk; nrYj; J khW mur jug; i g FO J}z; L tJld; > mjd; mLj; j gUtfhy mwpf;ifapd; nghOJ rhjpf;fg;gl;litfs; kw;Wk; vLf;fg;gl;l eltbf;iffs; njhlHghd mwpf;ifia rku;g;gpf;FkhWk; J}z;LfpwJ. mj;Jld; jw;Nghija Kbthd mtjhdpg; G fisg; Gjpa midj; J mikr; R fSf; F k; > ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;Fk;> ePjpj;Jiwf;Fk; rku;g;gpj;J mitfspd; KOikahd mKy; g Lj; J jiy cWjpg; g Lj; J khW murjug; i g ghuhSkd; w k; miof;fpd;wJ.

ghuhSkd;wk;
rkthaj;jpd; fPNo Fwpg;ghf mur jug;gpd; flg;ghlhfpa KOikahf 11. eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd nghWg;Gf; $Wk; jd;ik Mfpatw;iw typAWj;Jk; mNjNtis rkthakhdJ murhq; f j; j pd; midj; J f; fpisfisAk; fl;Lg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ vd;gjidf; FO mOj;jpAiuf;fpd;wJ. nghUj;jkhd ,lq; f spy; mjDila nrad; K iwfspd; gpufhuk; jw; N ghija rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;l Kbthd mtjhdpg;Gfs; kw;Wk; murhq;fj;jpDila mLj;j rkthaj; j pd; fP o hd mwpf; i faply; nrad; K iw vd; g tw; w pd; eilKiwg;gLj;jy;fs; rk;ge;jkhd mtrpakhd eltbf;iffis vLf;Fk;gb ghuhSkd;wj;ij Cf;fg;gLj;Jk; gb murhq;fj;jijf; FO miof;fpd;wJ.

rkthaj;jpd; rl;l uPjpahd epiy


12. rkthakhdJ 1981 ,y; mur jug; g hy; Vw; W ,aq; f papUe; j hYk; > ghuhSkd;w rl;lk; xd;whNyh my;yJ murpayikg;gpd; rl;lj;jpd; fPohd cs; e hl; L r; rl; l j; j pdhNyh mjw; F cs; e hl; L rl; l uP j pahd epiy nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;W FOthdJ ftiyailfpd;wJ. rkthaj;jpw;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;Fk; Kfkhf ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd 13. midj; J tbtpYkhd ghugl; r q; f is xopg; g jw; f hd mbg; g ilapy; rkthaj; j pid cs; e hl; L rl; l Kiwikf; F s; KO mstpy; xUq;fpizg;gJld; mjid jhkjpf;fhky; nraw;gLj;j Ntz;Lnkd mur jug;igf; FO J}z;Lfpd;wJ.

96| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd ghugl;rq;fisj; jLj;jy;


14. cWg;Giu 1 cld; njhlu;Gila ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd ghugl;rq;fs; Neub kw;Wk; kiwKf ghugl;rq;fs; cl;gl my;yJ cWg;Giu 2 ,d; gbahd nghJ mur kw;Wk; jdpahH nraw;ghl;L tp];jupg;Gfs; vd;gtw;iw mur jug;gpd; rl; l thf; f khdJ jil nra; a tpy; i y vd FO ftiyailfpd; w J. ,J njhlu;ghf mur jug;ghy; nrhy;yg;gl;l ngz;fs; cupik rl;l%ykhdJ rkthaj;Jld; xl;b ,Uf;ftpy;iy vdf; FO mtjhdpf;fpd;wJ. 15. murjug;igf; FO miof;fpd;wJ

m. cWg;Giu 2(m) cld; cld;gLkhW Mz;fSf;Fk; ngz;fSf;Fk; ,ilapyhd rkj; J tf; FOf; f s; cWg; G iu 1 kw; W k; 2 ,d; ghy; e piy mbg; g ilapy; ghugl; r q; f isj; jLj; j y; vd; w nfhs; i ffspy; ngz; f s; cupikfs; rl;l%yk; Nghd;w nghUj;jkhd cs;ehl;Lr; rl;lthf;fq;fis KOikahff; $l;bizj;jy;. M. ngz; f Sf; F k; Mz; f Sf; F k; ,ilapy; mbg; g ilahd rkj; J tj; i jAk; KiwikapidAk; rhjpf; F k; Nehf; F ld; rkthaj; j pd; cWg;Giu 2(c) ,d; gpufhuk; mur kw;Wk; jdpahH nraw;ghl;lhsu;fspd; ghugl; r eltbf; i ffSf; F murpd; nghWg; n gLf; F k; jd; i kia cWjpg;gLj;Jjy;.

ghugl;r rl;lq;fs;
16. K];ypk; jdpahs; rl;lj;jpy; jw;NghJ eilngw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; kWrPuikg;igf; ftdpf;Fk; mNjNtis> rl;lj;jpd; Vw;ghLfspYk; Fw;wtpay; rl;lf;Nfhit cl;gl ngz; cupj;jhsu;fis tpl Mz; cupj;jhsu;fSf;F mjpf Kd;tpUg;gspf;Fk; fhzp mgptpUj;jpf; fl;lisr; rl;lk;> nghJthd jdpahs; rl;lq;fs;> K];ypk; jdpahs; rl;lk;> fz;ba rl;lk;> Njrtoikr; rl;lk; vd; g tw; w pd; ghugl; r Vw; g hLfspd; njhlu; e ; j pUg; G f; Fwpj; J FO ftiyailfpd;wJ. nghJ Njrtoik> rkar;rl;lk; vd rl;l Kiwikfs; gythf ,Ug; g J Fwpj; J k; gy; N tWgl; l rl; l Kiwikfspy; ngz; f s; njupTnra; a Kbahky; ,Ug; g J Fwpj; J k; FO ftiyailfpd; w J. murpayikg;gpw;F fhyj;jhy; Ke;jpa rl;lthf;fj;jpd; ePjpj;Jiw kPsNehf;fpw;fhd ; ve;j re;ju;g;gKk; ,y;iy vd;w cz;ik Fwpj;Jj; jdJ ftiyiaf; FO NkYk; mOj;jpAiuf;fpd;wJ.

17.

FOthdJ mur jug;ig miof;fpwJ

rkthaj;jpd; Vw;ghLfSldhd mjd; cs;@u; rl;lthf;fj;ijf; Fwpj;j m. fhyNtisf; F s; xUikg; g Lj; J tjw; f hd kP s ; N ehf; F r; nrad; K iwiaj; Jupjg;gLj;Jf. M. jpUj;jj;jpw;fhfg; ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; jw;NghJ Njq;fpf;fplf;Fk; fhzp mgptpUj; j pf; fl; l isr; rl; l k; Nghd; w ghugl; r rl; l q; f is nrt; i tg; g Lj; J tij Nehf; f hff; nfhz; L rl; l %yq; f is vLj; J f; nfhs;tijj; Jupjg;gLj;Jjy;.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 97

,. rkaf;FOf;fs; kw;Wk; rdr%f cWg;gpdu;fs;> rptpy; r%f epWtdq;fs;> ngz;fs; mur rhHgw;w epWtdq;fs; vd;gdtw;Wld; ciuahly;fs; kw;Wk; xj;Jiog;gpd; czu;Tf;Fiwg;G+lhf Njrtoik rl;l kWrPuikg;GfSf;fhd Mjuitf; Fwpg;ghf toq;Fjy;. <. rl; l kWrP u ikg; G nrad; K iwfspy; ngz; f s; KOikahfTk; rkj; J tkhfTk; rk; g e; j g; g l; b Ug; g ij cWjpg; g Lj; J jy; . ngz; f spd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhd Njrpa ,ae;jpuk; 18. ngz;fs; kPjhd tpupthd fUj;jha;T uPjpahd nraw;wpl;lj;jpw;fhd mur jug; g pd; mu; g ; g zpg; i g tuNtw; F k; mNjNtisapy; > kj; j pa Njrpa nraw;wpl;lkhdJ iff;nfhs;sg;glhjijapl;L FOthdJ ftiyailfpwJ. ngz; f s; kP j hd Njrpa Mizf; F Oit mikf; F k; rl; l %yj; i j iff;nfhs;tjpy; cs;s jhkjq;fs; Fwpj;J FO NkYk; ftiyailfpwJ.

19.

FO NkYk; mOj;jpAiuf;Fk; rpghupRfshtd

m. ngz; f s; kP j hd Njrpa Mizf; F Oit mikg; g J kP j hd rl;l%yj;ij vLj;Jf; nfhs;tijj; Jupjg;gLj;jy;. M. Mizf;FOtpd; cWg;gpdu;fspd; Rje;jpuj;ij cWjpg;gLj;JtJld; Mizf;FOtpd; Ntiyf;fhf mur tuTnryTj; jpl;lj;jpy; ,Ue;J Nghjpa tsq;fis vLj;Jf; nfhs;sy;. jw;fhypf tpNrl Vw;ghLfs; 20. rkthaj; j py; nrhy; y g; g l; l vy; y h tplaq; f spYk; Mz; f Sf; F k; ngz; f Sf; F k; ,ilapyhd fzprkhd juj; i j rhjpj; J f; nfhs; t ij Jupjg; g Lj; j pf; nfhs; t jw; F j; Njitahd cghaq; f shf> jw; f hypf tpNrl Vw; g hLfis iff; n fhs; t jw; f hd ve; j j; jpl; l q; f Sk; mur jug; g plk; ,y;yhjijf; FO ftiyAld; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. xg;Gjy; nraw;ghl;L tplak; njhlu;ghd cr;r ePjpkd;wj;jpd; tiuaWj;j nghUs;Nfhly; njhlu;ghd FOtpd; Kd;ghd jfty; Fwpj;Jk; FOthdJ ftiyailfpd;wJ (cr;r ePjpkd;w tpNrl jPHkhd ,y. 2-11>2010)

21.

FO mur jug;ig miof;fpwJ.

ngz;fs; Fiwthfg; gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLk; my;yJ ed;ik milahj m. tplaq;fspy; tpNrbj;j Neu ml;ltizfs; kw;Wk; vz;zpf;if ,yf;Ffis cl;gLj;JjYld; jw;fhypf tpNrl Vw;ghLfis vLg;gJld; ngz;fspd; Kd; N dw; w k; kw; W k; tsu; r ; r pj; Jupjg; g Lj; j Yf; F Njitahd ,lq; f spy; Nkyjpf tsq;fis xJf;Fjy;. M. FOtpd; nghJ rpghupR ,y. 25,y; nghUs; Nfhlg; g l; l thW rkthaj;jpd; 4 Mk; cWg;Giuapd; 1Mk; ge;jpapy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;l jw;fhypf tpNrl Vw;ghLfs; vz;zf;fUtpy; cupa mjpfhupfisg; gof;fg;gLj;Jjy;.

98| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

,. rkthaj;jpd; gy;NtWgl;l Vw;ghLfs; kw;Wk; mjDila mLj;j gUtfhy mwpf; i fapd; jhf; f q; f s; vd; g tw; W ld; njhlu; G gl; l thW mj;jw;fhypf tpNrl Vw;ghLfis gad;gLj;JtJ kPjhd midj;Jk; mlq;fpa jfty;fis cs;slf;Fjy;.

epiyg;ghLfSk; ghugl;rg; gof;fq;fSk;


22. ngz;fs; kw;Wk; Mz;fSf;F ,ilapyhd tfpgq;Ffs; nghWg;Gfs; kw; W k; milahsj; J tq; f s; Fwpj; J nghJ kf; f s; kw; W k; Clfq; f splk; njhlu;e;Js;s epiyg;ghLfs; njhlu;ghff; FOthdJ ftiy nfhs;fpwJ. ghy;epiy tfpgq;F epiyg;ghL ngz;fSf;Fk; rpW gps;isfSf;Fk; vjpuhd ghugl;rj;ij epiyg;gLj;JtJld;> mJ Ntiy tha;gG> jPukhdnkLj;jy;> fhzp ; ; cupkk; ngWjy;> fy;tp kw;Wk; ghypay; kw;Wk; ,dg;ngUf;ff; fy;tp ghypay; Jd;GWj;jy;> FLk;g cwTfspd; td;Kiw cl;gl ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd Vida tbtpyhd td; K iwfs; Nghd; w tplaq; f spYk; rkj; J tkw; w epiyia Vw;gLj;JtJld; mtu;fSf;Fj; jPikaha; ,Uf;Fk; epiyia gpujpgypg;gijapl;L FO ftiyailfpd;wJ.

23.

FO mur jug;ig gpd;tUtdtw;wpw;Fj; J}z;Lfpd;wJ.

m. rkthaj;jpd; cWg;Giu 2> 2(C) kw;Wk; 5 (m)cld; cld;gLk; gbahf ngz; f Sf; F vjpuhd ghugl; r q; f shf ,Uf; F k; nraw; g hLfs; kw; W k; epiyg; g hLfis ,y; y hJ xopg; g jw; F my; y J nrt; i tg; g Lj; J tjw; f hf midj; J k; mlq; f pa cghaj; i j nraw; g Lj; J jy; . ,t; cghakhdJ nghJkf;fs; kw;Wk; Clfq;fis ,yf;F itj;J tpopg;Gzu;it Vw;gLj;Jk; Kaw;rpia cs;slf;fp ,Ug;gJld; rka> rdr%fj; jiytu;fs; kw;Wk; rptpy; r%f kw; W k; ngz; f s; epWtdq; f spd; xj; J iog; G ld; Kd; n dLf; f g; g l Ntz;Lk;. ngz;fs; kw;Wk; Mz;fspd; rkj;Jtj;jpid gyg;gLj;Jtijg; Gupe;J M. nfhs; t jw; F ,sk; Ml; f s; kw; W k; taJ te; N jhiu ,yf; F itf; F k; Vw;ghLfis gad;gLj;Jjy;. ,J Kiwrhu; Kiwrhuhf; fy;tp Kiwik Clhf nraw; g Lj; j g; g LtJld; ngz; f s; Fwpj; j rhjf kw; W k; epiyg; g hlw; w ntspg; g hLfis cau; j ; J tjw; f hfg; nghJrd Clfq; f SlDk; nraw;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mitfspd; jhf;fj;ij kjpg;gpLtjw;fhd Vw;ghLfis kPs;Nehf;fpf; ,. fz;fhzpg;gJld; ,t;tplak; njhlu;ghf mLj;j mwpf;ifapy; njspthd jfty;fis cs;slf;Ftjw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd eltbf;if vLj;jy;.

ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd td;Kiw


24. tPl;L td;Kiwiaj; jLg;gjw;fhd rl;lk; iff;nfhs;sg;gl;lhYk; ,r;rl;lj;jpd; fPohd tof;Ffisr; nrad;Kiwg;gLj;Jtjpy; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f jhkjq; f s; cs; s ijapl; L f; FO ftiyailfpd; w J. cUg; g bahd ciuahly;fspy; ,Ue;J njupatUtJ vd;dntdpy;> mNefkhd tof;Ffspy; ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd td;Kiwfis mlf;Fif kw;Wk; ngz;fspd; ghJfhg;G kP j hd FLk; g cwTfs; vd; g d nghyprhupd; tprhuizf; F tpg; G lNdNa

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 99

nraw; g Lj; j g; g Lfpd; w J vd; g jhFk; . Nrhbfspd; gpupj; J itg; G f; Fwpj; J Kd;djhfNt ePjpgjp Vw;Wf; nfhz;bUe;jhy; khj;jpuNk> jpUkz uPjpahd td;Gzu;r;rpahf mq;fPfupf;fg;gLtijapl;Lf; FO NkYk; ftiyailfpd;wJ. tPl;L td;Kiw kPjhd tpNrbj;j juTfs; kw;Wk; jfty;fs; ,y;yhjJ Fwpj;J mJ NkYk; ftiyailfpd;wJ. rl;l ghJfhg;gpy; ,Ue;J xNu ghy;epiy cwit Fw;wg;gLj;Jjy; Kw;W KOjhf cl;gLj;jg;glhjJ Fwpj;J FO NkYk; ftiy nfhs; f pwJ. mj; J ld; rl; l j; i j mKy; g Lj; J k; mjpfhupfs; jd;dpr;irahf mtw;wpidj; jLj;J itf;ff; $bajhf ,Uf;fpd;wik gw;wpa jfty;fs; Fwpj;Jk; FO NkYk; ftiyailfpd;wJ. 25. nghJ rpghupR ,y. 19 cld; njhlu;GgLj;jpf; FOthdJ mur jug;ig gpd;tUtdtw;wpy; J}z;Lfpd;wJ. m. ngz; f Sf; F vjpuhd rfy tbtpYkhd td; K iwfisAk; Fw;wkhf;Ftjw;fhd midj;Jk; mlq;fpa rl;lthf;fj;ij iff;nfhs;tjw;Fk; kw; W k; ngz; f s; > ,sk; gps; i sfSf; F vjpuhd td; K iwf; F vjpuhfg; NghuhLtjw;Fk; ftdk; vLg;gjw;F Kd;Dupik mspj;jy;. M. ePjpj;Jiwiar; rhu;e;jtu;fs;> nghJ mur mjpfhupfs;> Fwpg;ghf rl;l mKy;gLj;jy; mjpfhupfs;> Rfjhjhu Nrit toq;Feu;fs;> r%fg; gzpahsu;fs;> rdr%fj; jiytu;fs; kw;Wk; nghJ kf;fSf;F tpopg;Gzu;itAk; czu;Tf; Fiwg;igAk; Vw;gLj;Jtjw;Fk;> ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd midj;J tbtpYkhd td;Kiwfs; Fw;wkhfpd;wJ vd;w tpopg;Gzu;it Vw;gLj;Jk; gapw;rpfisAk; Nkyjpf fy;tp epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lq;fisAk; elhj;Jjy;. td;Kiwahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ngz;fs; ePjpiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;fhd ,. topia Kd;Ndw;Wjy; cl;gl kw;Wk; td;Kiwahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu;fSf;fhf murhy; mDruiz nra;ag;gl;l gy ,lq;fis epWTtjw;fhd mjDila jP u ; k hdq; f is epiwNtw; W jy; Nghd; w tw; w pw; F j; Njitahd Mjuit toq;Ftjw;fhd mj;jpahtrpa Vw;ghLfis Vw;gLj;jy;. gpupe; j pUj; j ypd; eP j pj; J iwapd; Vw; W f; n fhs; i fapy; ,Ue; J k; <. jpUkzepiy td;Gzu;r;rpia Fw;wkhf;Ftjw;fhd epiyia tp];jupj;jy;. ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd td;Kiwfisj; jLf;f> epfo;Tfis tprhupf;f c. Fw;wkpiog;gtu;fisj; jz;bf;f Ntz;ba Vw;ghLfis Nkw;nfhs;sy;. ghjpf; f g; g l; l tu; f Sf; F k; mtu; f Sila FLk; g q; f Sf; F k; C. ghJfhg;gspj;jy; my;yJ epthuzkspj;jy;> gupfhuk; mspj;jy; cl;gl cupa e\;l<l;ilAk; toq;Fjy;. v. xj;j ghy;epiyapdupy; ghypay; Fwpj;Jj; jPu;khdpf;fj;jf;f taJilNahu; ,ilapyhd ghypay; cwit ghugl;rkag;gLj;Jjy; kw;Wk; rkthaj;jpd; fPohd ghugl;rkpd;ikapd; flg;ghLfSf;Fg; gzpe;J Nghjy;.

100| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

Nkhrb tQ;rf;flj;jy; nra;jy; kw;Wk; tpgr;rhuj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLj;Jjy;.


26. flj;jpr; nry;yy; kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; rl;lf;Nfhitapy; Ml;fis flj;jpr; nry; y y; vd; D k; xu; Gjpa tiutpyf; f zj; i j mwpKfk; nra; j ik> tpopg;Gzu;it Vw;gLj;Jk; nraw;ghLfis xOq;F nra;jik kw;Wk; kdpj flj;jYf;F vjpuhd nrayzp xd;iw epWtpaik Nghd;w flj;jYf;F vjpuhfg; NghuhLtjw;fhf mur jug;Gg; nghWg;ngLj;j Kaw;rpfisf; FO ghuhl;Lfpd;wJ. rhl; r pfs; ghJfhg; G rl; l %yk; xd; w pizf; f g; g l; l ijf; FO NkYk; ghuhl;Lfpd;wJ. MdhYk; FOthdJ mf;flj;jypy; <Lgl;NlhUf;fhd jPugGfs; ; ; kw;Wk; jz;lidfspd; vz;zpf;if Fiwthf ,Ug;gJ Fwpj;Jk;> flj;jyhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltu;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G> tPLfs; kw;Wk; ghJfhg;G Vw;ghLfs; ,y; y hjJ Fwpj; J k; FO ftiyailfpd; w J. tpNrlkhfg; ngz; f is> rpWtu; f isf; flj; J tijj; jz; b g; g jw; F > jLg; g jw; F > epWj; J tjw; f hd kunghOq;if mur jug;ghdJ Vw;Wf; nfhs;shik> If;fpa ehLfs; ehL fle;j jpl;lkpl;l Fw;wq;fs; kPjhd rkthaj;ijg; G+u;j;jp nra;ahikapl;Lk; FO ftiyailfpd;wJ.

27. FOthdJ mur jug;ig gpd;tUtdtw;wpy; J}z;b epw;fpd;wJ.


m. ngz;fs; rpWtu;fisf; flj;Jk; vy;yh tbtq;fSk;> mjpfupj;j ru;tNjr gpuhe;jpa kw;Wk; ,Ujiyg;gl;r xj;Jiog;G> G+u;tPf ehL> ,ilj;jq;Fkplk;> vd;gd cl;gl rkthaj;jpd; Mwhk; cWg;Giuapd; gpufhuk; vy;yh tifahd flj;jy;fisAk; vjpu;j;Jg; NghuhLtjw;fhd Vw;ghLfisAk; gyg;gLj;Jjy;. flj;jypy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l jdpegu;fSf;F Fw;wQ;rhl;bj; jz;lid M. toq; F tij cWjpg; g Lj; J tJ kw; W k; flj; j yhy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l tu; f isg; ghJfhj;jYk; kPl;nlLj;jYk;. ehl; b d; vy; y hg; gFjpfspYKs; s eP j pj; J iw> eP j p nraw; g Lj; J k; ,. mjpfhupfs; > vy; i yf; fhtw; g ilapdu; > r%fNrit mjpfhupfs; > Nrit toq;Feu; midtUf;Fk; flj;jy; vjpu;g;G rl;lthf;fk; kPjhd jfty;fSk; gapw;rpfSk; toq;fg;gLtij cWjpg;gLj;jy;. ,tu; f isAk; tpNrlkhf ngz; f isAk; ngz; gps; i sfisAk; <. (E/2002/68/ flj;Jtjw;F vjpuhfg; NghuhLtjw;F nfhs;iffis tFj;Js;s ( add.1) kdpj cupikfs; kw;Wk; kdpjf; flj;jy; kPjhd I.eh cau;];jhdpfu; ) mYtyfj;jpd; rpghupR nra;ag;gl;l nfhs;iffisf; fUj;jpy; vLf;fTk;. Ml;fis tpNrlkhfg; ngz;fisAk; rpWtu;fisAk; flj;Jtijj; c. jilnra;Ak; mOj;jk; flj;jYf;fhfj; jz;lid nfhLf;Fk; kunghOq;if cj;jpNahfG+u;tkhf Vw;Wf; nfhs;sYk; ehLfle;j jpl;lkplg;gl;l Fw;wj;jpw;F vjpuhd I.eh rkthaj;ijg; G+u;j;jp nra;jYk; (Palermo kunghOq;F) 28. ghypay; njhopyhsu;fis vNjr;Nrjpfhukhff; ifJ nra;tjw;F 1842 Mk; Mz;L ehNlhbfs; njUtpy; jpupNthu; fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpid nghyprhu; gad;gLj;JtJ Fwpj;Jf; fpilj;j jfty;fs; gw;wpf; FO ftiyailfpd;wJ.

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29. 9. tPjpapy; cs;s ghypay; njhopyhsu;fis ifJ nra;tjw;F ehNlhbfs;> njUtpy; jpupNthu; rl;lj;jpd; Vw;ghLfis gpuNahfpg;gjpy; ,Ue;J nghyprhu; tpyfpapUg; g ij cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; F mur jug; g pdiuf; FOthdJ Cf;Ftpf;fpd;wJ.

murpay; kw;Wk; nghJtho;tpy; gq;Fgw;Wjy;.


30. ngz;fs; murpaypYk; nghJ tho;tpYk; - ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; khfhz rigapy; ngz;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; Fiwthf ,Ug;gJ kw;Wk; jPukhdnkLf;Fk; ; kl;lk; kw;Wk; uh[je;jpu kl;lq;fspYk; mtu;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; Fiwthf ,Ug; g J gw; w pf; FOthdJ ftiyailfpd; w J. murpaypy; ngz; f s; gq;Fgw;WtJ gw;wp ve;jtpjkhd Vw;ghLfSk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy vd;gJ gw;wpAk;> Fiwe;jstpyhd ngz;fs; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; mtu;fspd; njuptpdpNyNa Nkw; n fhs; s g; g Lfpd; w J vd; g Jld; > mtu; f spd; gy tfpgq; F fSldhd Kd;duhd gq;Fgw;Wifapy;> Nju;jy; gpur;rhuj;jpw;fhd cau; nrytpdq;fs;> ngz;fspd; thf;Fr;Nrfupg;G ,aYikapy; murpay; fl;rpfs; ek;gpf;if ,y;yhky; ,Uj;jy; vd;gd Fwpj;Jk; FO ftiyailfpd;wJ. 31. vdpDk; nghJ tho; t py; cs; @ u; khfhz Njrpa kl; l q; f spy; ngz; f spd; gpujpepjpj; J tj; i j mjpfupf; f r; nra; t jw; F j; Njitahd Vw;ghLfis vLg;gjw;F mur jug;ig FOthdJ kPs rpghupR nra;fpwJ. mur jug;ig FOthdJ gpd;tUk; tplaq;fspy; Cf;Ftpf;fpd;wJ. murpay; kw; W k; njhopy; thz; i k tho; T Nghd; w vy; y h m. tplaq; f spYk; jP u ; k hdnkLj; j ypy; ngz; f spd; KOikahdJk; rkj;JtkhdJkhd gq;Fgw;wiy Cf;Ftpg;gij ,yf;fhff; nfhz;L ePbj;J epw;ff;$ba nfhs;iffspy; nry;yy;. nghJ tho;tpy; ngz;fs; rk;ge;jg;gl;l nghJ rpghupR ,yf;fk; 23I M. KOikahfg; gad;gLj;Jjy; kw;Wk; njspthd fhyg;gFjpf;Fs;Ns jw;fhypf Vw;ghLfisf; iff;nfhs;Sjy; mj;NjhL vz;zpf;if uPjpahd ,yf;Ffs; rkthaj; j pd; cWg; G iu 4 ge; j p 1,d; gpufhukhd vz; z pf; i f uP j pahd ,yf;Ffs; kw;Wk; nghJr; rpghupR ,yf;fk; 25 vd;gtw;iw KOikahfg; gad;gLj;Jjy;. vy;yhj; JiwfspYk; vy;yh kl;lq;fspYk; ngz;fs; rkj;JtkhfTk; ,. jiyikj; J tj; j py; gq; F gw; W tjhf> r%fj; j pw; F Kf; f pakhdjhf vLj; J f; fhl;Ltjw;Fk;> ngz; Ntl;ghsu;fSf;fhd epjp Mjutpw;fhd jw;fhypf tpNrl Vw; g hLfis mwpKfg; g Lj; J k; Nehf; f k; kP j hditfspy; tpopg; G zu; T Vw;gLj;Jk; gpur;rhuq;fis eilKiwg;gLj;jy;.

fy;tp
32. ngz; f s; fy; t papy; mur jug; g pd; rhjidfisf; Fwpg; g pLk; mNjNtisapy; Kiwrhu; fy; t papy; ghy; e piy mbg; g ilapyhd epiyg;ghLfis ,y;yhnjhopf;Fk; Kaw;rpfisAk; FOthdJ Fwpg;gpLk; mNjNtisapy;> fy;tp Kiwikapd; xt;nthU kl;lj;jpYk; ghy;epiy kw;Wk; ,df;FO mbg;gilapyhd juTfs; ,y;yhjJ Fwpj;Jf; ftiyailfpd;wJ.

102| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

fy;tp Kiwikapy; cs;s ghy;epiy tfpgq;F epiyg;ghl;bd; njhlUk; jd;ik Fwpj; J FOthdJ ftiyg; g LtJld; > ngz; f s; njhopy; r hu; kw; W k; njhopy;El;gf; fy;tpapd; Fiwe;j Mw;wy; njhlu;ghfj; Njitahd tplaq;fspy; ftdk; nrYj;jTk;> caH fy;tp njhopy;El;gk; kw;Wk; nghwpapay; Jiwfspy; ngz;fspd; njhlu;r;rpahd gpujpepjpj;Jtk; Fiwtjw;F vjpuhfg; Nghuhl mur jug;G nraw;ghlw;wpapUg;gJ Fwpj;Jk; FOthdJ ftiy njuptpf;fpd;wJ.

33. FOthdJ mur jug;ig gpd;tUtdtw;wpy; Cf;Ftpf;fpd;wJ.


m. xt;nthU ,df; FOtpypUe;Jk; xt;nthU fy;tp kl;lq;fspypUe;Jkhd ngz; gps;isfSf;Fj; jukhd fy;tpapd; cyfshtpa tsq;fisr; rhjpg;gjw;F mjd; Kaw;rpfis tYg;gLj;Jjy;. M. Kiwrhu; fy; t papy; ghy; e piy tfpgq; F epiyg; g hl; b y; ,Ue; J kPStjw;fhd Kaw;rpfisj; njhlu;jy;. ,. tpQ; Q hdk; nghwpapay; kw; W k; Vida njhopy; E l; g ghlq; f spy; cau;fy;tpapy; njhopw;fy;tp kw;Wk; njhopy;El;gf; fy;tpapy; ngz;fSf;fhd cau;fy;tpapidg; ngz; nrd;wiltjw;F Cf;Ftpg;gij ,yf;F itf;Fk; xu; nfhs;ifiar; Nru;j;Jf; nfhs;sy;.

Ntiy tha;g;G
34. mur jug;gpdhy; fy;tp tplaq;fspyhd rhjidfs; ,Ue;j nghOjpYk; Fiwe;j jpwd; nfhz;l ngz;fs; kw;Wk; Fiwe;j Cjpak; fpilf;Fk; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; ngz;fisg; ghjpf;Fk; caH mstpyhd Ntiyapd;ik vd;gdtw;wpy; Fwpg;ghff; ftdk; nrYj;Jifapy; njhopw;re;ijapy; cs;s ngz;fSf;fhd njhlu; r ; r pahd ghugl; r k; Fwpj; J f; FO ftiyailfpd; w J. Kiwrhuhj; Jiwapy; gzpahw;Wk; ngz;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G ,d;ik kw;Wk; ghypay; njhe;juTfs; kPjhd tpNrbj;j rl;lk; ,d;ik vd;gd Fwpj;J jdJ ftiyiaj; njuptpf;fpd;wJ. rkkhd Cjpak; kPjhd ILO rkthak; 100,id murhq;fk; Vw; W f; nfhz; L s; s NghjpYk; xNu ngWkhdkhd Ntiyapy; Mz; f Sk; ngz; f Sk; xNu rkkhd Cjpaj; i jg; ngWtJ Njrpa nfhs; i fapy; gpujpgypf;ftpy;iy vd;gJ Fwpj;Jf; FO ftiyailfpd;wJ.

35. NkYk;> FOthdJ mur jug;ig gpd;tUtdtw;wpw;fhfj; J}z;Lfpd;wJ.


rkthaj; j pd; cWg; G iu 4 ,d; ge; j p 1 kw; W k; nghJ rpghupR 25 m. vd;gdtw;wpd; gpufhuk; nrq;Fj;jhd fpilahd njhopy; uPjpahd gpuptpid xopf;Fk; Nehf;fpidf; nfhz;l gytifahd jw;fhypf tpNrl Vw;ghLfspd; Clhf Kiwrhu; njhopw;re;ijapy; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; Mz;fSf;fhd rkkhd re;ju;g;gq;fis cWjpg;gLj;Jjy;. M. Kiwrhu; Jiwapy; Ntiy nra;Ak; ngz;fSf;fhd r%fg; ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; ed;ikfs; fpilf;ff; $bajhf cs;s ngz;fs; cl;gl mtu;fspd; ghJfhg;gpw;fhd xU nraw;wpl;lj;ijr; Nru;j;Jf; nfhs;sy;.

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,. Ntiy ,lj;jpy; ngz;fis ghypay; njhe;jutpypUe;J ghJfhg;gjw;F vLf;fg;gl;l Vida Vw;ghLfisAk; rl;lthf;fj;ijAk; mLj;j gUtfhy mwpf;ifapy; Nru;j;Jf; nfhs;sTk;.

Rfhjhuk;
36. ngz;fspd; Rfhjhu tplaj;jpy; mur jug;gpd; rhjidfisf; FOthdJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; mNjNtisapy; ,dg;ngUf;f Rfhjhuk; Fwpj;j tiuaWj;j mwpT kw;Wk; fUj;jil Kiwfspd; tpfpjk; Fiwthf ,Uj;jy; tpNrlkhf FiwtpUj; j paile; j kw; W k; Kuz; g hl; l hy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l ,lq; f spy; gjpd;ktajpdupy; fu;gpzpfspd; cau;kl;lk;> mj;Jld; FLk;gj; jpl;lj;ijr; nrd; w iljy; FiwthftpUj; j y; mj; J ld; ngz; f spilNa HIV jhf; f k; mjpfupj;Jr; nry;tJ vd;gd Fwpj;Jf; FO ftiyailfpd;wJ. rl;lj;jpd; fPNo fUr; r pijthdJ jz; l idf; F upa Fw; w khf ,Ug; g J Fwpj; J f; FO ftiyailfpd; w J. jhapd; capiuf; fhg; g hw; W tjw; f hd xU Nehf; f khf ,Ue;jhNy jtpu;e;j Vida ,ufrpakhd fUr;rpijTfNs jha;fspd; kuzj;jpd; 10% fhuzkhf ,Ug;gJ Fwpj;J mJ NkYk; ftiyailfpd;wJ. 37. FOtpd; nghJ rpghupR ,y. 24 ,d; rl; l f; Ntiyf; F s; s hff; FOthdJ mur jug;ig gpd;tUtdtw;wpy; Cf;Ftpf;fpd;wJ. m. mgptpUj;jp Fiwe;j kw;Wk; Kuz;ghl;lhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ,lq;fspy; Ntiy nra;Ak; ngz;fSf;Fk;> rpWtu;fSf;Fk; kw;Wk; Fwpg;ghf cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngau;e;j ngz;fSf;Fk;> mtu;fs; tpiuthf fu;g;g KWtijj; jLg;gjpy; tpNrl ftdk; nrYj;jpAk;> ghypay; uPjpahfg; gug;gg;gl;L tUk; HIV Aids Neha; f isf; fl; L g; g Lj; J k; Kfkhff; FLk; g j; jpl; l kply; kw; W k; nghUshjhuf; fy;tpiag; gue;jstpy; Cf;Ftpg;gij cWjpg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. jha; k hupd; ,wg; g pw; f hd fhuzj; i jf; fz; l wpe; J mjw; F j; jP u ; T M. fhZtjd; %ykhfj; jha; ,wg;G tpfpjj;ijf; Fiwj;jy;. cupa tstP u paf; fl; L g; g hL njhlu; g hd Nritfs; ,y; y hjjd; ,. epkpj; j Nk rl; l uP j paw; w fUr; r pijT Nghd; w ghJfhg; g w; w kUj; J t nrad; K iwfisg; ngz; f s; ehlhJ ,Ug; g ij cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; F k; Vw;ghLfis Nkw;nfhs;sy;. fUr; r pijit Nkw; n fhs; S k; ngz; f s; kP J tpjpf; f g; g l; L s; s <. jz; l idfis eP f ; F k; Nehf; F ld; fUr; r pijT njhlHghd rl; l q; f is kP s ; g hHit nra; J ghJfhg; g w; w fUr; r pijTfspy; ,Ue; J vOk; rpf; f y; epiyfis Kfhikj; J tk; nra; t jw; f hd> jukhd Nritfisr; nrd;wilaf;$ba trjpfis toq;Fjy;.

fpuhkg; ngz;fs;
38. mur jug;gpdupd; xu; Njrpa mgptpUj;jp epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;ijf; FOthdJ ghuhl; L ld; Nehf; F fpwJ. MdhYk; mjpYs; s efu kw; W k; fpuhkpag; ngz;fSf;fpilapyhd NtWghLfs; kPjhd juTfs; ,d;ik Fwpj;J mJ jdJ ftiyia ntspg; g Lj; J tJld; Kuz; g hL> 2004 Rdhkp vd; g tw; w pd;

104| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

fhuzkhf tpjitfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfupj;jpUg;gJ Fwpj;Jk;> mtu;fspy; gyu; taJ Kjpu;e;jtu;fshfTk; fy;tp fw;fhjtu;fshfTk; Fiwe;j [PtNdhgha topfspy;> kpff;Fiwe;j rk;ghj;jpaq;fisf; nfhz;ltu;fshf ,Ug;gJ Fwpj;Jk; FO kpfTk; ftiyailfpd; w J. mtw; w pd; nraw; g hLfshdJ ngz; f s; fhzpfisr; nrhe;jkhfg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;Fj; jil NghLtijAk;> fhzp cupik rhl;rpg; gj;jpuq;fspYk;> murhq;fj;jplkpUe;J fhzpj; Jz;Lfspy; ifr;rhj;jpLtjw;F> tPl;Lj;jiytu; mjpfhukspf;fg;gl;ltuhff; fUjg;gLtijf; FO ftiyAld; Nehf;Ffpd;wJ. 39. FO mur jug;ig gpd;tUk; tplaq;fspy; J}z;Lfpd;wJ.

m. Njrpa mgptpUj;jp epfo;r;rp epuypy; ghy;epiyapd; Nehf;if Nru;g;gij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; M. fpuhkpag; ngz; f s; kw; W k; mtu; f spd; epiy Fwpj; j juTfisr; Nrfupg;gjw;Fk;> fpuhkpag; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; efug; ngz;fSf;fpilapyhd NtWghLfspd; juTfis cl;gLj;jp> mLj;j gUtfhy mwpf;ifapy; gFg;gha;T nra;AkhWk; Nfl;fpwJ. ,. tP l ; L j; j iytp kw; W k; taJ Kjpu; e ; j ngz; f spd; epiyia Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;Fk;> tUkhd kPl;Lk; jpl;lq;fs; cl;gl epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lq;fs; kw;Wk; nfhs;iffis tpUj;jp nra;jy;. tPl;Lj;jiytu; vd;w vz;zf;fUit ep;u;thf nraw;ghLfspy; ,Ue;J <. ,y; y hJ xopg; g Jld; > $l; L my; y J ,iz fhzpr; nrhj; J upik vd;gtw;wpid mq;fPfupj;jy;. muR jpUkzk; nra;j NrhbapdUf;Ff; fhzpfis xJf;Fk; NghJ c. NrhbapdUf;Ff; $l;L my;yJ ,izr; nrhj;Jupikia toq;ff; $baij cWjpg;gLj;Jk; Kfkhf> fhzp mgptpUj;jpf; fl;lisr; rl;lj;jpid tpiuthfj; jpUj;Jjy;.

ngz;fs; kPjhd Kuz;ghl;bd; jhf;fk;


40. Kuz; g hl; b d; ,Wjpf; fl; l q; f spYk; Kuz; g hl; b w; F g; gpe; j pa fl;lj;jpYk; ngz;fs; td;Kiwf;Fk; ghugl;rj;jpw;Fk; cl;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy vd;gjpy; muR tpsf;fkspg;gijf; ftdpf;Fk; FOthdJ ,U jug;gpYk; jkpo; rpWghd; i kf; FOtpy; ,lk; n gau; e ; j ngz; f spdJk; Kd; d hs; ngz; NghuhspfspdJk; kdpj cupikfs; Kw;WKOjhf kPwg;gl;l mwpf;iffs; Fwpj;J FOthdJ Mo;e;j ftiyailfpd;wJ. MAjg; gilfs;> nghyp]hH kw;Wk; MAjf;FOf;fshy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; ghypay; td;Kiwfs; Fwpj;j mwpf;iffs; Fwpj;J FOthdJ ftiyailfpwJ. NghjpasT cl;fl;likg;G trjpfs; ,y;yhik kw;Wk; Gfyplk;> Rfhjhu trjpfs;> ePH> Rfhjhuf; ftdpg;Gfs; Nghd;w mbg;gilj; Njitfs; tiuaWj;j mstpy; fpilf;ff; $bajhf ,Ug;gJ Fwpj; j hd mwpf; i ffs; Fwpj; J k; FOthdJ ftiyailfpd; w J. rpWtH mgptpUj;jp kw;Wk; ngz;fs; tYT+l;ly; mikr;rhdJ kdpjNea cjtpfs; kPjhd MNyhridr; rigapd; xu; cWg;gpduhf ,y;yhjJ Fwpj;Jk; FOthdJ NkYk; ftiyailfpd; w J. Vnddpy; > ,k; kdpjNea cjtpfs; kP j hd MNyhridr; rigahdJ cupa mikr; R fsplkpUe; J nfhil toq; F k;

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ehLfSlDk; Kftu;fSlDk; MNyhrid Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhfg; gpujpfisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. mj;Jld; [dhjpgjpahy; epakpf;fg;gl;l 8 cWg;gpdu;fisf; nfhz;L fw;Wf; nfhz;l ghlq;fs; kw;Wk; ey;ypzf;f Mizf;FOthdJ xNunahU ngz;iz khj;jpuNk cs;slf;fpAs;sJ. 41. FOthdJ mur jug;igg; gpd;tUk; tplaq;fspy; J}z;Lfpd;wJ.

m. eP b j; j Kuz; g hl; l hy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l ngz; f s; Fwpg; g hf jkpo; rpWghd;ikf; FO> cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngau;e;j ngz;fs; kw;Wk; Kd;dhs; ngz; Nghuhspfs; midtiuAk; ve;jtpjkhd kdpj cupikfs; kPwy;fspy; ,Ue;Jk; ghJfhj;jy;. M. jdpg;gl;l egu;fshYk; mj;Jld; MAjg;gilapdu;> nghyprhu;> MAjf; FOf;fs; vd;gtw;wpdhYk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; ghypay; td;Kiwfs; cl;gl;l midj;Jj; jdpg;gl;l Kiwr; nraw;ghLfisAk; tprhupj;Jf; Fw;wk; rhl;bj; jz;lid toq;Ftij Cf;Ftpj;jy;. ,. ghypay; td;Kiwfspd; epkpj;jkhf tpNrlkhf kdtL mDgtq;fis cilatu;fSf;Fj; jPu;T toq;Ftjw;fhfg; ngz;fSf;fhd cstsr; Nrit epiyaq;fis epWTjy;. <. cs; e hl; b y; ,lk; n gau; e ; j ngz; f s; kw; W k; tpNrlkhfj; jpUk; g p te;NjhUf;F tPl;L trjp> Rfhjhu trjpfs;> Rfhjhu trjpfSf;fhd Nghjpa cl;fl;likg;G trjpfis toq;Fjy;. cs; e hl; b y; ,lk; n gau; e ; j ngz; f Sf; f hd elkhl; l r; Rje; j puk; > c. ehl; b d; tlghfj; j py; cs; s Kuz; g hl; l hy; ghjpf; f g; g l; l kf; f Sf; f hd ru;tNjr epWtdq;fisg; gue;jstpy; nrd;wilaf; $ba trjp kw;Wk; kdpjNea cjtpfisr; nrd;wiltjw;fhd trjp vd;gdtw;iw cWjpg;gLj;Jjy;. Kuz; g hl; b w; F g; gpe; j pa kP s ; fl; l ikg; G fspy; jw; f hypf tpNrl C. Vw;ghLfisf; iff;nfhs;Sjy; ClhfTk; nghUshjhu> r%f cupikfSf;fhd Vw;ghLfis cl;gLj;Jjy;. xu; RahjPdkhd ru;tNjr nghWg;Gf;$wf; $ba nghwpKiwia kdpj v. cupikfSf; f hd I.eh cau; ] ; j hdpfupd; mz; i ka Kd; n khopTfSld; xj;Jg;NghFk; gbahfTk;> kdpj cupikfs;> ngz;fs; cupikfs;> Aj;jj;jpd; ,Wjpf; f l; l j; j py; mur jug; g pduhy; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l; l jhf vOg;gg;gLgitfs; Fwpj;Jk;> fLikahd kdpj cupik kPwy;fs; njhlu;ghd tplaq;fis tprhupg;gjw;Fk; Miz nfhz;l xU nghwpKiwiag; guprPyid nra;jy;. Kuz; g hl; b w; F g; gpe; j pa kP s ; f l; l ikg; G rkhjhdj; i jf; V. fl;bnaOg;Gk; nrad;Kiw vd;gtw;wpy; ngz;fisAk; cs;slf;Fjy;. Gyk;ngau;e;j ngz;fs; 42. ,yq;ifapy; ,Ue;J Gyk; ngau;e;J nrd;w ngz;fSf;fhf mur jug;G vLj;JtUk; ghJfhg;G Vw;ghLfis tuNtw;Fk; mNjNtisapy;> FOthdJ

106| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

rl;luPjpaw;w Kftu;fsplk; jhf;fg;glf;$ba epiyapy; cs;s ngz;fs;> kw;Wk; J\;gpuNahfk; nra;ag;glf;$ba epiyfspy; gzpahw;Wk; gy ngz;fs;> kw;Wk; mtu;fs; mDgtpf;Fk; td;Kiwfs;> Ntiy toq;Feu;fsplk; mDgtpf;Fk; td;Kiwfs; kw;Wk; J\;gpuNahfq;fs; Fwpj;Jk; FO ftiyailfpd;wJ. 43. Gyk; n gaH ngz; njhopyhsu; f is tYT+l; L k; Kfkhf> rupahd mbg;gilapyhd mZFKiwia vLg;gjw;Fk;> Fwpg;ghfj; njhopyhsu;fisg; ngw; W f; nfhs; S k; ehLfSld; ,Ujiyg; g l; r xg; g e; j q; f is mKy; g Lj; J tjd; ClhfTk; > Gyk; ngaH njhopyhsu; ngz; f s; jkf; F Vw;gl;ltw;wpw;fhd e\;l<Lfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;Fk; mur jug;igf; FOthdJ J}z;Lfpd;wJ. jpUkzKk; FLk;g cwTfSk; 44. nghJthd> Njrtoikahd kw; W k; rka uP j pahd jpUkzr; rl; l q; f shdit ngz; f Sf; F vjpuhd> ghugl; r khd tplaq; f isf; nfhz; L s; s tw; i w xUq; f pizj; J g; ghJfhj; j y; Fwpj; J > FOthdJ ftiyailfpd;wJ. cjhuzk;. rl;lj;jhy; gyjhu kzk; jil nra;ag;glhik Fwpj; J k; > K]; y pk; jdpahs; rl; l j; j pd; fP o ; Fiwe; j taJ mq; f P f upj; j pUf; f g; g lhjJ Fwpj; J k; > ve; j f; nfhLf; f y; thq; f y; f isAk; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; Njhd;wp nghWg;ngLj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F fztUila ,zf;fk; jkpo; g ; ngz; f Sf; F Njitahf ,Ug; g J Fwpj; J k; > FOthdJ ftiyailfpd;wJ. jtww;w kzKwpit mq;ffupj;jypy; Kd;Ndw;wk; ,y;yhik P kw;Wk; jpUkz Kwptpd; Nghjhd ngz;fspd; nghUshjhu cupikfs; Fwpj;Jk; FOthdJ NkYk; ftiyailfpd;wJ. 45. FOthdJ mur jug;ig gpd;tUtdtw;wpw;F miof;fpd;wJ.

Foe;ij cupik kPjhd rkthak; kw;Wk; FOtpd; nghJ rpghupR ,y. m. 21 vd;gtw;Wld; xj;Jg;Nghff; $ba gpufhuk; K];ypk; jdpg;gl;l rl;lj;jpy; cs;s gyjhukzk; kw;Wk; ,staJj; jpUkzk; vd;gd Fwpj;Jk;> Njrtoikr; rl; l j; j pyhd ngz; eP j pkd; w j; j py; Njhd; W tjw; F k; VjhtJ nfhLf; f y; thq; f y; f isr; nra; t jw; F k; fztDila ,zf; f j; i j Ntz; b bepw; g J njhlu;ghdJkhd jpUj;jq;;fisj; Jupjg;gLj;Jjy;. xUKfg; g Lj; j g; g l; l FLk; g f; Nfhitia rkthaj; J ld; M. xj;Jg;NghFk;gbahf> nrhj;Jfis ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; rkcupik kw;Wk; fhzp cupikfs; vd;gdtw;iw jPu;g;gdthfTk; mj;Jld; gyjhuk; kw;Wk; ,staJj; jpUkzq; f is ,y; y hnjhopf; F k; Nehf; f k; nfhz; l itahfTk; > vy; y hg; ngz;fSf;Fkhd rptpy; Vw;ghLfs; fpilf;ff; $baJkhdtw;iw cs;slf;fpa xU FLk;gr; rl;lnkhd;iw jahupg;gijg; guprPypj;jy;. ,. rl; l kWrP u ikg; G r; nrad; K iwapy; ngz; f spd; gq; F gw; w iy cWjpg;gLj;jy;. <. mt; t hwhd kdKwpT kw; W k; kzKwptpd; NghJ ngz; f spd; nghUshjhu cupikfis cau; j ; J jy; vd; g tw; i w mq; f P f upg; g jw; F nghUl;gLj;Jjy;> ,tw;wpw;F vLj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;l Kaw;rpfs; vd;gtw;iw mLj;j gUtfhy mwpf;ifapy; jfty;fshf toq;Fjy;.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 107

juT Nrfupg;G kw;Wk; gFg;gha;T


46. Foe; i jfs; Rfhjhuk; Fwpj; j hd KOJklq; f pa Gs; s ptpguq; f s; nfhLf;fg;gl;bUg;gij mtjhdpf;Fk; mNjNtisapy;> ghy;epiy ,df;FO kw;Wk; Vida Jiwfspy; ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd td;Kiw> gyjhuk;> cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngaHe;j ngz;fspd; epiy> efu kw;Wk; fpuhkg; ngz;fSf;F ,ilapyhd tpj;jpahrk; Nghd;w ngz;fspd; epiyia kjpg;gpLtjw;Fk; jfty; mwpe;j kw;Wk; ,yf;F itj;Jf; nfhs;if tFj;jy;> Kiwik uPjpahd fz;fhzpg;G kw;Wk; rkthaj;jpy; cs;slf;fg;gl;l tplaq;fs; njhlu;ghd fzprkhd ngz;fspd; rkj; J tk; epiyehl; l g; g l; l ij Nehf; f pa rhjpg; G > Kd; N dw; w j; i j kjpg; g pLtjw; F k; > gpupT uP j pahd juthdJ tiuaWj; j mstpNy fpilf;ff;$bajhf ,Ug;gJ Fwpj;J FOthdJ ftiyailfpd;wJ. 47. . ngz; f spd; epiy Fwpj; j Nghf; i f kjpg; g pLtjw; F k; > ngz; f spd; fzprkhd rkj; J tk; milag; g Ltij Nehf; f pa Kd; N dw; w j; i jf; fzpg; g pLtjw; F khf> midj; J k; mlq; f pa juTfisg; ghy; e piy kw; W k; mstplf; $ ba Rl; b f; f hl; b fspdhy; NtWgLj; j g; g l; l gpupTfspy; Nrfupg;gij mjpfupf;f Ntz;Lnkd> mur jug;igf; FO Ntz;b epw;fpd;wJ. mj; J ld; FOtpd; rpghupR ,yf; f k; 09 ,y; ,J njhlu; g hff; ftdk; nrYj;Jk;gb FO Nfl;L epw;fpd;wJ.

rkthaj;jpd; cWg;Giu 20 Mk; ge;jp xd;wpd; jpUj;jk;


FOtpd; $l;l Neuj;jpd; gpufhuk; rkthaj;jpd; cWg;Giu 20 ge;jp 1 48. ,d; jpUj;jj;ij $batpiutpy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;gb murjug;igf; FOthdJ J}z;Lfpd;wJ. gP[pq; gpufldKk; nraw;ghl;bw;fhd NkilAk; rkthaj;jpd; Vw;ghLfisg; gyg;gLj;Jk; gP[pq; gpufldk; kw;Wk; 49. nraw;ghl;bw;fhd Nkilia KOikahfg; gad;gLj;jp> rkthaj;jpd; fPohd mjd; flg;ghLfis eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;F mur jug;igf; FOthdJ J}z; L tJld; > mur jug; g hdJ mLj; j gUtfhy mwpf; i fapy; FO rk;ge;jkhd jfty;fisAk; cs;slf;Fk;gbAk; Ntz;b epw;fpd;wJ.

gug;Gjy;
jw; N ghija Kbthd mtjhdpg; G fis murhq; f mjpfhupfs; > 50. ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdu;fs;> ngz;fs; kw;Wk; kdpj cupik epWtdq;fs;> mwpe;J nfhs; S k; g b> ngz; f s; rkj; J tj; i j cWjpg; g Lj; J tjw; f hf> Kiwik uP j pahfTk; fzprkhd msTk; vLf; f g; g l; l gbepiyfis mwpe; J nfhs;tjw;fhfTk;> ,J rk;ge;jkhf Nkyjpfkhf vLf;fg;gl;l gbepiyfis mwpe; J nfhs; t jw; f hfTk; > ,yq; i fahdJ gue; j stpy; mtw; i wg; gug; g Ntz;Lnkd;W FO Ntz;b epw;fpd;wJ. ,g;gug;gg;gLk; tplaj;jpNy cs;@u; rdr%fk; cs; s lf; f g; g l Ntz; L nkd FO rpghupR nra; f pd; w J. mur jug;ghdJ mtjhdpg;Gfis mKy;gLj;Jtjpy; rhjpf;fg;gl;l Kd;Ndw;wj;ij fye;JiuahLtjw;Ff; $l;lq;fis xOq;F nra;a cw;rhfg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. FOtpd; nghJ rpghupRfs;> gP[pq; gpufldk; kw;Wk; eltbf;if Nkil kw;Wk;

108| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010

ngz;fs; 2000 ,y; ghy;epiy rkj;Jtk;> mgptpUj;jp 21 Mk; E}w;whz;bw;fhd mikjp vd;w Ma;Tg;nghUs; kPJ ele;j nghJg; Nguitapd; 23 MtJ tpNrl mku;Tfspy; ,Ue;J ntsp te;jitfs; vd;gtw;iw> ngz;fs; kw;Wk; kdpj cupik epWtdq;fs; vd;gtw;wpw;Fg; gue;jstpy; gug;Gtijj; njhlUk;gb mur jug;G Ntz;LfpwJ.

xg;ge;jq;fis Vw;Wf;nfhs;sy;.
51. xd; g J ngUk; ru; t Njr kdpj cupikf; fUtpfSld; murjug; g hdJ xl; b apUg; g jhdJ ngz; f s; jkJ kdpj cupikfisAk; tho; t pd; vy;yhtifahd mbg;gil cupikfisAk; mDgtpg;gij mjpfupf;Fk; vdf; FO mtjhdpf; f pd; w J. MfNt FOthdJ ,yq; i f murhq; f j; i j mJ vd; n dd; d xg; g e; j q; f Sf; F xU jug; g hfj; jd; i d Vw; W f; nfhs; s hJ ,Uf;fpd;wNjh ngau; Fwpj;Jr; nrhy;tjhapd; fl;lhag;gLj;jpf; fhzhky; Nghjypy; ,Ue;J vy;yh Ml;fisAk; ghJfhg;gJ kPjhd ru;tNjr rkthak; kw; W k; tyJFiwe; j Ml; f spd; cupikfSf; f hd rkthak; vd; g tw; i w Vw;Wf;nfhs;tij guprPypf;Fk;gb FO J}z;Lfpd;wJ. ,yq;if murhq;fkhdJ ru; t Njr Fw; w tpay; eP j pkd; w Nwhk; epiyr; r l; l j; i jAk; 1951 ,y; iff;nfhs;sg;gl;l mfjpfspd; epiy njhlu;Gila rkthaj;jpidAk; Vw;W mq;fPfupf;Fk;gb ,yq;if murhq;fj;ijf; FO J}z;Lfpd;wJ.

Kbthd mtjhdpg;Gfisg; gpd;njhlu;jy;


NkNy nrhy;yg;gl;l 31 41 tiuahd ge;jpfspy; cs;s rpghupRfis 52. mKy; g Lj; J tjw; F vLf; f g; g l; l gbepiyfs; kP j hd vOj; J tbtkhd jftiy 2 tUlq; f Ss; mur jug; G f; FOTf; F toq; f Ntz; L nkd Ntz;Lfpd;wJ.

epjp kw;Wk; njhopy;El;g cjtp


Nkw; g b rpghupRfisAk; mj; J ld; rkthaj; i j KOmstpYk; 53. mKy; g Lj; J tij ,yf; f hff; nfhz; l midj; J k; mlq; f pa xu; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lk; xd;iwAk; tpUj;jp nra;J mKy;gLj;Jtjw;F cupa I.eh Kftu;fsplk; ,Ue;J njhopy;El;g cjtpia mur jug;gpw;Ff; fpilf;fr; nra;af; FOthdJ rpghupR nra;fpd;wJ. Nkw;gb rpghupRfis mKy;gLj;JtJ kPjhd kw;Wk; mur jug;gpDila rkthaj;jpd; fPohd flg;ghLfs; njhlu;ghd Nkyjpf topfhl;Ljy;fis toq;Ftjw;F mur jug;Gld; fye;Jiuahliyj; njhlu;tjw;fhd mjDila tpUg;gj;ijf; FO njuptpj;jpUe;jJ.

mLj;J tUk; mwpf;ifapd; jpfjpAk; jahupg;Gk;


mLj;J tUfpd;w gUtfhy mwpf;ifiaj; jahupg;gjpy; vy;yh mur 54. mikg; G fSk; vy; y h mikr; R fSk; gq; F gw; W tJld; mNjNtisapy; gytifg; g l; l ngz; f s; kw; W k; kdpj cupik epWtdq; f isAk; fye;jhNyhrpg;gij cWjpg;gLj;Jk; gbAk; FOthdJ mur jug;ig Ntz;b epw;fpd;wJ.

,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb 2010

| 109

55. rkthaj;jpd; 18 Mk; cWg;Giuapd; fPo; mLj;J tUfpd;w gUtfhy mwpf; i fapy; jw; N ghija Kbthd mtjhdpg; G fspy; vLj; j pak; g g; g l; l ftiyfSf;F murjug;G gjpyspf;Fk;gb Ntz;b epw;fpd;wJ. 56. ru;tNjr kdpj cupikfs; xg;ge;jk; kw;Wk; nghJ Kf;fpaj;Jt Mtzk;> xg; g e; j tpNrbg; G Mtzq; f s; kw; W k; 2006 Mdp kdpj cupik xg; g e; j mikg; G fspd; $l; l j; j pd; > Ie; j htJ FOf; f Sf; f pilapyhd $l; l j; j py; mq; f P f upf; f g; g l; l itfs; vd; g dtw; w pd; fP o hd mwpf; i ffs; kP j hd xUikg;gLj;jg;gl;l topfhl;Ljy;fis gpd;gw;Wk;gb mur jug;igf; FO (HRI/MC/2006/3 kw;Wk; njhlu;Gfs; 1) ,e;j xg;ge;j tpNrbg;G miof;fpd;wJ. ( mwpf;if topfhl;bahdJ FOtpdhNy mjdJ 40 MtJ mku;tpy; 2008 ij (A/63/38 ,izg;G i) Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;ljhdJ> xU nghJ Kf;fpa ,y; ( Mtzj;jpd; kPJ xUikg;gLj;jg;gl;l mwpf;ifaply; topfhl;Ljy;fSld; ,izj;J gpuNahfpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mitfs; xd;whfr; Nru;e;J ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd vy;yh tbtpYkhd ghugl;rq;fis xopj;jy; kPjhd rkthaj;jpd; fP o hd mwpf; i faply; kP j hd xUikg; g Lj; j g; g l; l topfhl; l y; f is cUthf; F k; . xg; g e; j tpNrbg; G MtzkhdJ 40 gf; f q; f Sf; F s; cs;slf;fg;gl;ljhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJld; ,w;iwg;gLj;jg;gl;l nghJ Kf;fpaj;Jt Mtzq;fshdit 80 gf;fq;fisj; jhz;lf; $lhJ.

110| ,yq;if CEDAW epoy; mwpf;if> Mb - 2010