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November 2007

Volume 19, No. 16(C)

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu.


ijq wrdh, l=f, f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHh ;=< Y% ,xldlsl
.!y fiajlhskag isjk w;jr
I. idrdxYh.............................................................................................................................. 1
II. miqu................................................................................................................................ 8
III. foaY /lshdjg hdug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk ldka;djkag YS% ,xldj ;=< uqyqK fok w;jr ............ 16
IV. fi! wrdh" l=f" f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t rdcH ;=, isjk w;jr .......................... 36
V. wdrCIKh |jeu yd mQK iykhla iemhSu we;s ndOd( ......................................................... 75
VI. nQgmNy sh nQr\@q\X....................................................................................................... 101
VII. s\wOwQy ........................................................................................................................ 110

I. idrdxYh
uu mdkaor 3.30 g muK kskaog .sh;a, h,s;a WoEik 5.30 g
muK wjug ish. mdkaor 1.00 muK jk;=re iy iuyr
g mdkaor 3.00 g muK jk;=re o fkdkj;ajd jev lsug
ish. jrla uu uf.a iajdjg fufia mejiqfj. uu o
Tn fuka ukqIHfhls. ug fl .ekug mehlaj;a wjYHh.
tg weh mejiqf kqU meKsfha jev lsughs, kqU uf.
im;a;=jla jeksh tu ksid uykais fkdn,d jev l< hq;=h.
;;ajh tkak tkaku krla h. uu wdmiq hd hq;= nj Tjqkag
ljo kej; ud tckaishg /f.k hdug Tjqka wlue;s h.
wef.a iajdmqreIhd udfj; meK WUg hkak fko?
wdmyq hkak fko? wika uf.a flia jefhka we| w;ska
myr ks. miqj l=iaishg f.dia msyshla /f.k ;a udj urd
ouk njg;a, urd l=vd lE,sj,g lmd tu fldgia ln tlla
;=<g ouk njg;a ;ckh lf,ah. f jk g udi y;rl
(04) ys jegqma tl;= ;snqKs.
fkka k ;j ;j;a ldka;djka foaY.;fjhs. ;j fndfyda
fofkla hdug ie,iq lrhs. Tjqka .ek n,d .eku Tjqkagu
Ndrh. Y% ,xld rch wm u.ska Yd, wdodhula ,nhs. Tjqka
wm .ek fidhd ne,sh hq;=h. tfiau wmf.a wdrdj
inkaOfhka je hula l< hq;=hs.
- l=ud bks,a, jhi 23, l=fys fiajh l< .!y
fialdjla.
;ukag yd ;u mjq,a j,g Wo l< yels wkau.la ke;sjQo wdodhula ,eh yels
fjk l%uhla rg ;=< fidhd .ekug fkdyelsjQo 125,000 lg jvd je Y% ,xlsl
ldka;djka msila ueo fmr. .!y fiajhg wjqre m;d msgj h;s. Tjqkaf.a
bmh Y% ,xld wdlhg Yd, msjy,la f. fl;r mvd yd fm!oa.,sl m%Yak
we;s jqjo f ldka;djka ;h /l .eku msKsi foaY /lshdjg fhduqfjhs.
jxpdld Y% ,dxlsl /lshd ksfhda;jre yd Tjqkaf.a Wm ksfhda;jre fndfydag
k;sfhka kshul, .Kkg jvd je .dia;= /lshd ,ndofo whlrk w;rgu
Tjqkag ,efnk /lshdj inJOj ldka;djka uq,d lrhs. ijq wrdh, l=f,
f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHh hk rgj, llre k;s idudkHfhka

Human Rights Watch November 2007

ksjdij,gu iud iska . meh .Kkla fiajfha fhfoka b;d iq


f;khla ,nk fujka .!y fiajlhska i|yd wod, fkdf.
iuyr isoaka j, iajdhka fyda llre ksfhda;hska iska nf,ka jev .eku.
ldhsl yd ,sx.sl w;jr wdh islr we;. f ixLHd f,aLk u.ska we;af;kau
issjk ysxidj, m%udKh wj;lafiare h yels jqjo, Y% ,xldf rchg wkqj yeu
klu tjeks mvdjkag m;ajq ixl%uKsl .!y fiajlhska 50 fofkla muK kej;
ishrg mefKk nj;a, Y% ,xldf foaYsh ;dkdm;s ldhd, O mvdjkag
,lajq whf.ka ( ,sx.sl w;jr, m fkdf.u , jefhka jev .eku jeks ) ks;r
ms we;snj;a i|yka lrhs.
ixl%uKsl .!y fiajlhska uqyqKfok fujeks iqrdlE ryila fkdf. fujeks
w;jr inJOj mqj;a ks;r f rgj, udOHj, m,f. fujeks mqj;a lmhl uq,a
mdGhka fufia oelaf. jo ysxid ksid wes,sj, yd wf;ys wia ohhs, kri
wdydr ms,sfh, l, ksid ,xldf .!y fialdjf.a w; mqphs, w,i jq ;u
.!y fialdj iajdj iska jOo urdouhs, iqr;,a i;=kag fok wdydr
,xldfjka wd .!y fialdjg lEug ksfhda..1
fjd oek oek;a ,xldf , ijq wrdfha , l=f, f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t
rdcHfhys rchka uq,sl llre whs;kaj;a ,ndoug wfmdfydi;a we;. ,xldf
Is; yd ;r.ld llre ksfhda; ludka;h ;ju;a l%uj;a f,i md,khlg
hg;afldg ke;s w;ru mvdjg m;ajk fiajlhska i|yd ksis wdOdr fiajd
moaO;shla fyda meye,s meKs,s l%ufohla o we;sfldg ke;.
fl k ,ndou, jevlrk meh .Kk iud lsu iy iuyr rgj,aj,o wju
f;khla iy;sl lsu jeks idudkHfhka wfkla fiajlhskag ,efnk whs;sjdisl
fuu .!y fiajlhskag ,ndou /lshd imhk rgj,a kElkau u.yer we;.

llre ixl%uKh ,xldjg b;d by, wdodhula ,ndfohs. 2006 o ixl%uKsl Y%u
n,ldh u.ska weuldkq fvd, ,shk 2.33 la rgg fm%aIKh lrk ,o. fuh
,xldf o, foaaYsh ksIamdokfhka 9% lg jvd by, w.hla .;a w;ru rgg tu
jifo ,enqKq uq foaY wdfhdack yd wdOdr j, tl;=jg;a jvd weuldkq
fvd, ,shk 526 lska by, w.hls. f fm%aIKj, w.h Y% ,xldf 2 jk m%Odk
foaY ksuh Wmhk NdKavh jk f;a
1

Meraj Rizvi, Broken Finger and Wrist Bone Tell Tale of Torture, Khaleej Times (Dubai, UAE), October 11, 2004,
http://www.khaleejtimes.com/Displayarticle.asp?section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2004/october/theuae_october218.xml (accessed
September 6, 2007); Debasree S., Lankan Maids Hand Burnt for Cooking Tasteless Food, Khaleej Times (Dubai, UAE), August
18, 2004,
http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2004/august/theuae_august408.xml
(accessed September 6, 2007); Ali Huwash, Woman Tortured, Killed Maid for Being Lazy, Arab News (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia),
June 8, 2007,
http://www.arabnews.com/?page=1&section=0&article=97227&d=8&m=6&y=2007&pix=kingdom.jpg&category=Kingdom
(accessed September 6, 2007); Lankan Housemaid Forced to Eat Pet Cats Food, Daily News (Colombo, Sri Lanka), June 19,
2007, http://www.dailynews.lk/2007/06/19/main_News.asp (accessed June 19, 2007)

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

ludka;fhka ( ks we ludka;hg fojeks f. ) ,enq wmkhk wdodhug;a


jvd by,h. llre .ukg ksid rf /lshdj wvqjk w;rgu w;sYh jeo.;a
foaY ksuh ,ndfohs. f fm%aIKj,ska 60% lg jvd imhkq ,nkafka
ixl%uKsl ldka;djka isks.
f foaYsh ksuh, rcfha mam;alu r,f l%shdj,shg yd fj<| fYaIh
mshjd.ekug b;d jeo.;a fyhska rch Wkkafjka foaY /lshd m%jOkh lrk
m%;sm;a;shla wkq.ukh lrhs. uE;lo ixfYdaOk isl,o, f m%;sm;a;s ;=,
udkqkIsh uqyqKqjrla fkdfmkajk w;r ixl%uKsl ld;a;djka Okj;a LKscf;,a
ksmojk kuq;a udkqIsl whs;sjdisl wdrKh j, rgj,g l=Kd ouk
NdKavhla fia i,lhs. Y% ,xldf ixl%uKsl whs;sjdisl iq/lf ixOdk j,g
wkqj rcfha f l%shd ms,sfj; NdKav fj<odfo fuka f;dard.eku, mqyqKq lsu ,
weiu , rKh yd wmkhkh hk ,K fmkajk w;r ixl%uKsl
fiajlhskaf.a wdrdj .ek Wkkajla fkdfmkajhs.
ixl%uKh wjodkula fukau fyd| wjia:do Wod lrhs. ixl%uKsl ldka;djka
mvdjg fukau id:l;ajhgo m;a we;. idudkHhla f,i mjq,l 5 fofklaf.a
muK nr lrg .kska foaY .;jk fuu ldka;djka ,xldfo fuka oi.=Khl
muK wdodhula ,eh yelshehs lshk jxpdld fmdfrdkaj,g wiqfjhs. foaY
/lshdj, wdohka ksjdi ;eku, jHdmdr wdrN lsu, mjqf,a jhil whg
Wolsu, orejkag wjYH foa imqrdou jeks O wjYH;d Tjqka imqrdf.k we;.
fndfyduhla ixl%uKsl .Dy fialdjka Tjqkaf.a mjq,aj, m%Odk wdodh
Wmhkakka njg m;afjka mjq, ;=, yd Bg wdY%; iudch ;=, by, ;Fjhla
,nd.ekuo, mjq, ;=, ;rK .ekf n,h Wiiaula o, mjqf,a im;a md,kfhys
je n,hla ,nd.ekugo iu;a we;.
miq.sh wjqre lsysmh ;=, Y%S ,xld rcfha m%;sm;a;s j, hqkqjla fmkajhs.
ixl%uKsl fiajlhskaf.a msg;aj hdu l,uKdlrKhg yd wdrdj iemhSug .;a
jeo.;a mshjr iNkaOj rchg m%Yxidj ys h hq;=h. ixl%uKsl fiajlhska ksis
wdldrfhka msg;aj hdu;a /lshd ksfhda;hkaf.a IK yd iQrdlEu wvq lsu;a
Tjqkaf.a uqo,a tug myiq lsu;a Wfoid rch iska Y%S ,xld foaY /lshd
kshqla;s ldhxYh kka wdh;khla 1985 msysgqjk ,. tkuq;a ie,lsh hq;=
wdrK Ialr;d ;jrg;a mj;S.
Y%S ,xldf ldka;djka foaY /lshdj,g heu ioyd jOkh jQ foaY /lshd
(ksfhda; wdh;k) ludka;h w;s Is; jk w;r tu.ska foaY .;ug isk
whf.a wjodku by< kxjhs. jxpdldr foaY /lshd ksfhda;hka yd Tjqkaf.a
n,m;% rys; iy l%uj;a md,khlg hg;a fkdjQ Wm ksfhda;jre foaY
/lshdj,g hdug isk whf.ka /lshd ,ndug iy Bg wod, fiajdj,g
kS;sfhka kshujQ wkqu; uqo,g jvd ;=ka y;r .=khlska jejk ;r w;s Yd,
uqo,la whlrhs. fuu uqo,a fidhd.ekSug .Dyfiajhg hk wh fndfydag b;d

Human Rights Watch November 2007

by, fmd,shg Kh ,nd.ekSu ksid Tjqkg /lshdf isjk w;jrj, b;d


wirK njg m;af. /lshd ksfhda;jre yd Tjqkaf.a Wm ksfhda;jre fndfydag
fiajhg hk ldka;djkag Tjqka fiajhg hk rg ms,snoj, /lshd fldkafoaiS
ms,snoj, ,efnk jegqm ms,snoj jxpd lrhs. fuu jxpdld nojd.eksf l%shduh
ksid foaY .;jk .Dy fiajlhska ksfjia;=, iQrdlEug we;s wjOdku by,
kxjhs.
ixl%uKsl .Dy fiajlhska llre n,ldh ;=, wvqu wdrdjla we;s fldgils.
Tjqka whs;sjkafka ksis md,khla fkdue;s yd wj;lafiare l, /lshd
fldGdIhlg jk w;r w;jr yd iQrdlEug ,laug we;s wjOdkuo b;d by,h.
ijq wrdh, l=f, f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHh hk rgj,o Y% ,xlsl
ldka;d .!y fiajlhska O w;jrj,g yd iqrdlEf O l%uj,g uqyqKfohs.
fujeks ;Fj fndfyduhla ldka;djkag fYaIs;h. wmf.a mfhaIKj,g wkqj
Tjqka O wdldrfha w;jrj,g ,lafjhs. tk w;sYh .= meh .Kkla fiajfhys
fhou, fl k fkd,eu, wiudk f;k f., fYaIhskau ms fiajlhskag
jvd wvq f;khla f.u wdhhs.
;jo fuu llrejka ixl%uKh jq rgj,o Y% ,dxlsl ldka;d .!y fialdjka
ldhsl, udkisl fukau ,sx.sl w;jr j,go ,laf. tk f;k fkdf.jd
meyer yeu, ksis f,i wdydr mdk fkd,eu, ykd.ekf ,smsf,aLk fiajHhka
Ndrhg .eku, fiajl ia:dkhg u iud lsu, kej; ;u rgg hdug wjYHjq g
th iud lsu / je,elau hkdo ;;ajhkah. iuyr isoaka j,o fujeks fndfyda
w;jrj,g ,la jq .!y fialdjka jy,a fiajfha isr is.
ueo fmr. /lshd ,ndfok rgj,a ixl%uKsl .!y fialdjka fl ld,k
fldka;rd;a moku u; fiajh lrk wh f,i i,lk w;r Tjqkag fndfyda
whs;sjdisl wysh. ijq wrdh, l=f, f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHh
hk rgj, rchka iudk wdrdjla fuu ixl%uKsl fiajlhkag ,nd fkdfok
w;ru h mvd we;sjq wjia:dj,o mjd Tjqkag ;u iajdhka fjkia lsug we;s
yelshdj iud lrhs.
ffk;sl wdrdjla fkdue;slu, k;sh bhg f.dia jrola Tmamqlr iykhla
,eug we;s whs;sfha wiudk nj ksid Tjqka uqyqK fok m%YaK ;j;a ixlK
fjhs. ffk;sl whs;sjdisl fkdue;sj, uq,sl llre k;s moaO;sfhka u.ye
isk fuu .!y fiajlhskag Tjqk uqyqKfok w;jr fyda iqrdlEug tfrysj
l,yelsfoa b;d wvqh. ;u iajdhkaf.a w;jr j,g tfrysj fyda fkdf.jq jegqma
,nd.ekug n,Odkaf.ka Wo fidhdhk fiajlhskag fndfyda g lsis
iykhla fkd,efnk w;r O ffk;sl yd m%dfhda.sl ndOd ksid iykhla
,eu wire lrhs. ;u ydmq;=ka udrelsu iud lrk k;s u; isr Wo
,nd.ekug lsisu wdh;khla fkdue;sj fndfyda ixl%uKsl fiajlhskag fujeks

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

ia:dkj,ska fhdug fkdyelsj ish lror ysxid | ordf.k jev lsug is


fjhs.
;uka jevlrk rgj, mj;sk ;on, k;s moaO;sfhka fkdi,ld yk ,o f
.uksk fiajlhska iuyrg fjk l, yels fohla fkdue;s l, ;ukaf.a rgg
wod, ;dkdm;s fyda lkaishq, ldhd, fj; m,dhhs. fujeks m,dhdug yelsjk
Y% ,dxlsl .!y fiajlhskag wjidkfha yrsye myiql fkdue;sj Yd, msila
iu tlg /| isug is fjhs.
wmg yuqjq ldka;djkag wkqj Y% ,dxlsl ; uKav,j, isk ks,Odkag tjeks
oreKq ldhsl w;jr, ,sx.sl w;jr, jegqma fkdf.u, Y%uh iqrdlEu jeks isoaka
jd;d l,o bka m,la ke;. ke;fyd;a iq iykhla muKla ,eKs. ,xldjg
wdmiq tk .!y fiajlhka mejiqf Tjqkag meKs,s f.dkq lsug;a, iyk fiajd
,nd .ekug;a Ialr;d we;sjq njhs.
Y% ,xldj, ijq wrdh, l=f, f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHh hk rgj,a
Tjqka w;aika l, udkj ysl m%{dma;s j, fldkafois iqrelug wfmdfydi;a
fjka we;. ixl%uKsl fiajlhskag isjk lror wju lsug Y% ,xld rch
l,hq;= foa ;j fndfyda we;. tk ixl%uKsl fiajlhskaf.a whs;sjdisl .ek
Tjqka msg;aj hdug fmr oekqj;a lsu, /lshd ksfhda;jre yd Wm ksfhda;jre
md,kh lsu yd ks;r fidhdne,u , lror wjia:dj,o ixl%uKsl fiajlhskag
wjYH imqK iydh foaY ; ldhd, u.ska ,ndou iy kej; ,xldjg meKs
g ,ndfok iykfiajd by, kexu hkdhhs. ixl%uKsl .!y fiajlhska
wdrd lsu;a Tjqkag lrorj,o iydh u;a Y% ,xldjg yelsjkafka uq,slju
Tjqka fiajfha fhfok rgj, iyfhda.s;dj u;h. Y% ,xldf ; uKav, yd tu
rgj,a w;r je hqKq l, iyfhda.h u.ska mvdjg m;ajq .!y fiajlhska
frd.eku, l%shld
meKs,s hdka;%Khla f.dvke.u, fomdYajhu ms,s.kakd yd fiajlhkag ksis
wdrdjla imhk .siq iliafldg l%shdjg kexu wdh isl, yelsh.
yshquka rhs fjd ixOdkh f jd;dj i|yd 2006 Tlaf;dan yd fkdjen
udij,o ,xldj ;=,o, tu fkdjen yd foien udi j,o ijq wrdh ;=,o
mfhaIK isl, w;r t;eka isg tu O uq,dY% iu inJOj is. f jd;dj
mok jkafka ldka;d ixl%uKsl .!y fialdjka 100 fofkla iu isl,
iuqL idlPd u;h. miq.sh udi 14 ;=, ishrg meKs ixl%uKsl .!y
fialdjka 80 fofklao thg we;=,;a h. Tjqka ijq wrdh, l=f , f,nkka
yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha fiajh lr kej; meKs whf. Tjqka w;ka ( 80
ka ) 39 fofkla ueo fmr. tl rglg jvd rgj, fiajh lr ;sks. ( nyfka ,
lgd, udka yd fcdakho we;=j )

Human Rights Watch November 2007

wm ,xldfo isl, iuqL idlPd ixl%uKsl .!y fialdjka Yd, .Kkla


kej; meK we;s ia;%slal jk fld<U, l;r, lE.,a,, l=reKE.,, .my,
kqjr, .d,a, yd kqjrt,sh hk ia;%slaj,ska 7 la ;=,o islrk ,o. ;jo ijq
wrdfhao tjeks Y% ,xlsl ixl%uKsl .!y fiajlhska 20 fofkla wm yd
idlPdjg yuqh. fuys mdl ia;rj, ( Footnotes ) fYaIfhka olajd we;s k
lsysmhla wefrkakg fuu jd;df olajd we;s wfkla whf.a k Tjqkaf.a
ryiHNdjh iq/lu i|yd fjkialr olajd we;.
,xldfo rdcH fkdjk ixOdkj, l%shdldka yd fiajd imhkafkdao ( jD;a;sh
ix. kdhlhska n,m;%,dN foaY /lshd ksfhda;hskaf.a ix.ufha kdhlhskao
iu. /lshd ksfhda; yd Wm ksfhda;jre ) yuq wm ( yshquka rhs fjd )
idlPd lrk ,o. tfukau rcfha O wdh;kj, tk Y% ,xld foaY /lshd
kshqla;s ldHxYh, llre wud;HxYh , foaY wud;HxYfha lkaishq, wxYh,
wd.uk .uk fomd;=fka;=j , Y% ,xld udkj ysl fldiu, k;s wdOdr
fldiu hk wdh;kj, ks,Odkao yuqh. ijq wrdfha o tys Y% ,xlsl
;dkdm;s ldhd,fha ks,Odka 3 fofkla o ijq rcfha O wxYj, ( llre,
iudc iQN idOk, foaY lghq;=, nkaOkd.dr yd fmd,sia wxY we;=j ) ks,Odka
yd lKavdh iu o iuqL idlPd 12 la meje;ah.

m%Odk ksfoaY
Y% ,xldj, ijq wrdh, l=f, f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha rchka
ixl%uKsl fiajlhskag ;u wd;au .re;ajh /lf.k udkj ysl j,g .relrk
;;ajhka hgf;a fiajh lsu iy;sl lsug blaukska lghq;= imdokh l,
hq;=h. yshquka rhs fjd ixOdkfha uq,sl fhdackd my; olajd we;.
iia;rd;aul fhdackd fuu jd;dj w.o olajd we;.
ixl%uKsl .!y fiajlhskag isjk w;jr je,elaug k, Y% ,xldf foaY
/lshdj,g n|jd.ekf l%shduh m%;sixOdkh lsu b;d jeo.;ah. Y% ,xld
foaY fiajd kshqla;s ldhdxYh /lshd ksfhdac;hska yd Wm ksfhda;hska f.a
lghq;= l%shdldj yd iajdkj fidhd ne,ug hdka;%khla we;sl, hq;=h.
tu.ska /lshd ksfhda;hska iska Tjqkaf.a Wm ksfhda;jre ,shdmx lsu
w;HjYH l,hq;= w;r Wm ksfhda;jrekaf.a lghq;=j,g m%Odk ksfhda;jre
j.lu Ndr.; hq;=h.
ixl%uKsl fiajlhskag isjk w;jr , Tjqka .ksl l%shdj,sfha O
wjia:dj, ;ukag ys whs;ka .ek oekqj;a ishd k wvqh yelsh. oekg
Y% ,xld foaY /lshd kshqla;s ldhdxYh u.ska .kslhkag msg;aj hdug fmr
mj;ajk mqyqKq jevigyka fiajl whs;sjdisl, foaY NdId mqyqKqj yd iyk
hdka;%kh inJO oekqfukao jvd by, kexh hq;=h. tfiau wdoY /lshd

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

.siq fmkajd fokao , k;sfhka ksh; .dia;= inJOjo , wvqfmd, Kh


,nd.ekf yelshdj .eko, k;sh lvlrk /lshd ksfhda;jre yd
Wmksfhda;jrekag tfrysj k;sh u.ska lghq;= l, yels wdldrh .eko fmd
ckhd oekqj;a ls jevigyka mq,a l, hq;=h.
ixl%uKsl ldka;d fiajlhskaf.a whs;sjdisl ms,s.; hq;= w;r tu whs;ka
Tjqka fiajh lrk rgj,o l%shd;aul l, hq;=h. Y% ,xldj, ijq wrdh, l=f,
f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHh hk rgj, rchka oamdYlj ms,s.;a
yd ls%hd;aul l,yels /lshd .siq ilia lsug yd meKs,s /f.ktk
fiajlhskag iykhla ,ndfok hdka;%khla ilia lsug iyfhda.fhka lghq;=
l, hq;=h.
wfkla fiajlhskag ,efnk whs;ka ixl%uKsl .!y fiajlhskag wys l, hq;=
ke;. ijq wrdh, l=f, f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHh hk rgj,a
j, rchka Tjqkaf.a k;s moaO;s .!y fiajlhskag iudk whs;sjdisl ,efnk
f,i ilialr l%shd;aul l, hq;=h. tu rchka ixl%uKsl .!y fiajlhskag
w, j.l wNHka;r lghq;= wud;HxYfhka bj;alr llre lghq;=
wud;HxYhg ,ndh hq;=h.
.!y fiajlhskag myiqfjka ;u iajdhka fjkia lsug bvou u.ska Tjqka
.gu w;jr j,g ,lau je,elah yel. ijq wrdh, l=f, f,nkka yd
tlai;a wrd t rdcH hk rgj, rchka ixl%uKslhkaf.a iajd;ajhg
w, k;sr;s, ;u iajdFjh fjkia lsug wjYHjk fiajlhskag th myiqjk
wdldrhg m%;sixOdkh l,hq;=h.
w;jr is jq g tajdg iykhla ,ndoug /lshd imhk rgj, k;sr;s
ixfYdaOkh lsu yis wjYH;djhla we;. ijq wrdh, l=f, f,nkka yd
tlai;a wrd t rdcH hk rgj, rchka tjeks ,sx.sl w;jr , ldhsl ysxid,
llre k;s lvls jeks k;s;s fkdi,ld yk ydmq;=kag tfrysj k;sh
u.ska l%shdlsu iy;sl l,hq;=h.
Y% ,xld rch mvdjg m;ajq ixl%uKsl .Dy fiajlhskaf.a wdrKh by,
kexug myiqfjka isl, yels meKs,s l%ufo , wdmiq meKsg ,ndfok
udkisl WmfoaY fiajd , /lshd lrk rgj, foaY ; uKav,j,o Tjqkg
,efnk fiajd ;Fjh hkdh je hqKql, hq;=h. tjeks fiajdjka w;r
meKs,s inJO lghq;= lsug isk mqyqKqj ,enq ks,Odkaf.a .Kk
jelsu , jdiia:dk imhd ou, foaYsh wdh;k iu iyfhda.fhka lghq;= lr
ksfjiaj, isrl, fiajlhska ksoyia lr .eku, llre yd wmrdO inJO
meKs,sj,g wjYH k;s wdOdr iemhu yd frday,a yd udkisl WmfoaYk fiajd
,nd.eku myiq lsu wdh we;=,;ah.

Human Rights Watch November 2007

II. miqu
uu is;kafka .Dy fialdjla rgg foaY ksuh Wmhk m%Odk
ud.hla ksid rch g jvd wm .ek wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;=hs2
-db|ly
Q E iqika;sld" jhi wjqre 37 hs" .Dy fiajhg uq,skau hkg jhi 24 hs'
.Dy fialdjl f,i f,nkka" l=fj yd fcdaodka j, fiajh lr we;
,xldj ;=< ldka;djkaf.a yd .eyeKq orejkaf.a ;;ajh
qkONE a`sQy`@v| ihlm @s_K& @s\vyk @s\vy lbmQn\ s`k\;rw`vy awQn\q ihl wlyk sQtQn
nmEw\ XWY lAk`@v| k`n\w`@v`\ a`r\}Qk kQYy`k`rkm|vlqW @n`slk` h#rWm a#wOlE lQAgQkw\vy mw
pqnm|vW @k@rn vQvQ{ @n`slk` h#rWm|vlt lk\@vwQ. XWY lAk`@v|qW k`n\w`vn\ mEhEN@qn sm`nyn\
@lsQn\ pQlQg#nWmk\ @n`l#bW@m| v`w`vrNy ovEn\ vQ@q\XgwvWmt wWrNy kQrW@mhQl` blp`n pY{`n
s`{kykQ.
f nj llre n,ldh ;=< ldka;d iyNd.s;ajh ;=<o ldka;djf.a bmehSf yelshdj wkqjo
meye<s f' 2006 ,xldf ldka;d Y%u iyNd.s;ajh 36] muK h' th mqreIhkaf.a Y%u
iyNd.s;ajh jk 68]3 fuka wvlg wdikakh' miq.sh oYl 3 mqrdu ldka;d /lshdj mqreIhkaf.a
/lshdj fuka fo.=Khlg;a jvd jeh'4 ,xldf f;k ug j, ldka;djka iskafka my<skah'
2003 ldka;djkaf.a bmehS ^.Kkh l<& mqreIhkaf.a bmehS fuka wvla muK h" cd;Hka;r
llre ixOdkh 2007 m%ldY lf<a YS% ,xldf ldka;djka yd mqreIhka w;r bmehq mr;rh
w;sYd, f.fhka by< k.sk njhs5 ,xldf jD;a;Sh ix." ks we ksIamdok wxYfh6a tlu
/lshdjg ldka;djkag f.jk f;k fjkia nj ^wvqnj& jd;d lr we;' tfiau ,xldf m
md,l uKav,ho fld< yd l=re ludka;j,7 tlu /lshdf kshef,k fiajlhskag wod,j
ldka;d yd mqreI f,i fjkia f;k m%udK kshulr we;' 2007 ud;= j, fmardfoKsh Yaj
oHd,h u.ska isl, wOHhkhlg wkqj my,u ugf tl yd iudk /lshdj, fhfok
ldka;djka yd mqreIhka w;r f;k j, fjki mqoa.,sl wxYfha 33] la muKo rdcH wxYfha8
27] muKo jk nj fidhdf.k we;'

Human Rights Watch interview with Susanthika W., Panadura, Sri Lanka, November 15, 2006
Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual Report 2006 (Colombo: Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 2007),
http://www.cbsl.gov.lk/pics_n_docs/10_publication/_docs/efr/annual_report/Ar2006/Content.htm (accessed September 6, 2007), p.
64.
4
In 2006, womens unemployment rate in 2006 was 9.7 percent, while mens was 4.7 percent. Ibid., p. 66; Asian Development Bank,
Country Gender Assessment: Sri Lanka (Manila: ADB, 2004), http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Country-GenderAssessments/CGA-Women-SriLanka.pdf (accessed June 1, 2007), p. viii.
5
United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2005 (New York: UNDP, 2005),
http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005/pdf/HDR05_complete.pdf (accessed September 6, 2007), p. 300, table 25; International
Labour Conference, Equality at Work: Tackling the Challenges (Geneva: ILO, 2007), http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/--dgreports/---dcomm/---webdev/documents/publication/wcms_082607.pdf (accessed September 6, 2007), p. 20.
6
For example, the American Center for International Labor Solidarity reported in 2003 that in the Koggala EPZ factories male
packers monthly salary was 1,800 rupees, while female packers received 1,525 rupees. Solidarity Center, Justice for All: The
Struggle for Worker Rights in Sri Lanka, 2003, http://solidarity.timberlakepublishing.com/files/SriLankaFinal.pdf (accessed August
1, 2007), p. 27.
7
Ibid.
8
Dileni Gunewardena, et al., Gender Wage Gaps in Sri Lanka: Glass Ceilings or Sticky Floors? (Colombo: University of Peradeniya
Department of Economics and Statistics, 2007).
3

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

YS% ,xldf ldka;djkag fndfyda g ,efnkqfha wvq mqyqKq yd wvqfjka f.jk ;;ajfhka my;a
/lshdjkah' ldka;djka fhduq we;af;a mjqf,a lDIsldl lghq;= j," je,s iud. j,
llrejka f,i yd wixj; yd jD;a;Sh i;sj,ska f;drjQ ks ludka; ;=<" wmkhk l,dmj,
yd bka msg; wfkla Y%u uQ,sl ksjfia isg jev lrka lE,s .Kkg f. ,nk fldka;%d;a
fiajlhska yd l=vd mudKfha iajhx /lshd9 wdhghs' Bg idfmaCIj tjeksu wixj;10 mqreI
uQ,sl ludka; wxY ;=< tk fmd,a ludka;h" jvq jev yd fmofre jev wdfhka mqreIhska
ldka;djkag jvd by< f;k ,n;s'
,xldj ol=Kq wdishdf by,u idCIr;dj ,nd ;snqKo ldka;d wiudJ;ajh Wiia wOHdmkh
;=<o" iudcfha mam;au fldgia w;ro b;d meye,sh' m%d:l wOHdmkhg yd oa;shsl
wOHdmkhg nef|k msi w;r ldka;djka iu ;;ajhl isho wjqre 12l mdie,a wOHdmkh11
imQK lrkqfha Tjqkaf.ka 7] la muKh' ;s%;shsl wOHdmkh ,nk ldka;djka msi mqreIhka
fuka 69]12 ls' ldka;djkaf.a yd .eyeKq orejkaf.a idCIr;djh mqreIhka yd ms orejkag
idfmaCIj wvqh' ^ldka;d 91]" ms 95]& th f;a je,s wxYfha ;j;a my< jef' ^ldka;d 67]"
ms 87]&13
,xldf ldka;djkag mjq, ;=< iu ;;ajh ,eug yd m%pKav;ajfhka wdrCIdugo wmyiq f'
miq.sh jir lsysmfha isl, ffk;sl ixfYdaOkj,g 1995 we;sl, ldka;d IKhg wod,
wmrdO kS;sfha fjkial we;=,;a f' ta wkqj tjka isoahla Tmamq lsu ;j;a wmyiq jk
w;ru o~qjo jvd;a m%n, f' .Dyia: m%pkav;ajh je,elaug 2005 we;sl, fYaI
Odko14 jeo.;ah' flfia jQjo ldka;djkag reoaO m%pKav;ajh ;ju;a oreKq m%Yakhls'
ldka;d wNsjDoa yd <ud ixjOk wud;HxYh u.ska 2006 l, wOHkhlg wkqj rg;=, 60]
la muK ldka;djka .Dyia: m%pKav;ajhg uqyqK fohs15'
jHjia:djg wkqj ldka;djkag wiudk f,i ie,lSu je,elajQjo" kS;sfha yd mdfha th
tf,iu isfjhs' iajdmqreIhd islrk IKhla $ w;jrhl wmrdOhla f,i i,lkqfha Tjqka
kS;sfhka fjkajQ g muKls' ,xldf lalido kS;sh jer u; mok jk w;r lDDr nj fyda

Asian Development Bank, Country Gender Assessment: Sri Lanka, p. viii.


Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual Report 2006, p. 63, table 4.6.
11
Center for Reproductive Rights, Women of the World: Laws and Policies Affecting their Reproductive Lives, South Asia (New York:
CRR, 2004), p. 228.
12
Dileni Gunewardena, Exploring Gender Wage Differentials in Sri Lanka: A Quantile Regression Approach, PMMA Network
Session Paper, 2006, http://132.203.59.36:81/HTML/Meetings/Addis/Papers/Dileni%20Gunawardena.pdf (accessed September 6,
2007), p. 1.
13
Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual Report 2006, Special Statistical Appendix, table 9; Center for Reproductive Rights, Women of
the World, p. 228; Centre for Womens Research (CENWOR), Sri Lanka Shadow Report on the UN Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women (Colombo: CENWOR, 2001), http://www.iwraw-ap.org/using_cedaw/srilanka.doc
(accessed September 6, 2007), p. 21.
14
Sri Lankan Penal Code, No. 2 , 1883, sections 363-364, amended by Penal Code (Amendment) Act, No.29, 2005, sections 12-13;
Prevention of Domestic Violence Act, No. 34, 2005.
15
Sri Lankan Ministry: Survey Reveals Statistics on Violence against Women, One World South Asia, June 26, 2006,
http://southasia.oneworld.net/article/view/135416/1/ (accessed September 6, 2007). See also Indrani Iriyagolle, The Problem of
Violence against Women, Daily News (Colombo), July 19, 2003, http://www.dailynews.lk/2003/07/19/fea01.html (accessed
September 6, 2007).
10

Human Rights Watch November 2007

fkdi,ld yeu u; lalidoh ,nd.; fkdyels fyhska" lrorld mqreIfhlaf.ka lalido


ug wjYH ldka;djlg l, yelsfoa w,amh16'
fhduqldrl yd ixl%ukh i|yd YS% ,dxlsl ldka;djka ;SrKh lsu'
ud bmhQ uqo,ska ksjila ;kd" jg yd mq;dg uqo,a ,nd Tjqka fjkqfjka nexl=
.sKq wdrN lf,' uf.a iajd mqreIhdg iar /lshdjla ke;' uu Tjqka
ish,a, .ek n,d .ks'''' m%Odk;u foa uqo,ah' uu udf.a rgg wdihs''''' uu
yoj;ska y~d jefghs' f j;df uf.a uQ,Huh m%Yak i|d.;fyd;a" uu
kej;;a rg riaidjg fkdh'
- pkasld u,aldka;s" jhi 45" 9 jk j;djg;a ueofmr. .Dy fiald
/lshdjg hdug ierfihs' l,ska ijq wrdfha" vqndhs" udka" l=f yd lgdj,
.Dy fialdjla f,i jevlr we;'
ish oyia .kkla jQ YS% ,dxlsl ixl%uksl .Dy fialdjkaf.ka fndfyduhlg ixl%ukh u
wkal, yels fohla ke;s ksid islrk jk ud.hls' wm yuq l;dl, tjeks .Dy fialdjka
ish,a,u mdfya lshd isfha uQ,Huh wjYH;dj f ixl%ukhg fya;=j nj;a" fjk l, yels fohla
fkdue;s nj;ah' f wh w;ka fndfyda fofkla 10 fyda 12 fY%aKsh olajd wOHdmdkh ,nd
;snqKo" Tjqkag ixl%ukhg fmr yd miqj o /lshdjla fyda .e,fmk /lshdjla fkd,e we;'
Tjqka wmg ^yshquka rhs fjd& lSf f.hla idod .ekSug" bvula , .ekSug" mjqf,a Kh
f.ug" lrorld iajd mqreIhdf.ka f isug" orejkaf.a wOHdmkh inkaO ho fidhd
.ekSug" .s,ka jQ /lshdjla fkdue;s jhil kEoEhkaf.a ho oeug" Tjqkaf.a fyda Tjqkaf.a
orejkag wjYH oEje fidhd .ekSug" ksjfia ffoksl ho fidhd.ekSug" u;alug weneys jQ
iajd mqreIhd iska kdY l< mjqf,a j;al ilia lr .ekSug" kj l=vd jHdmdrhla wdrN
lsug wjYH WmlrK imhd .ekSug" foaY .;jk njhs' lalido jQ fyda jekaoUq jQ
ldka;djka mejiqf" Tjqkag mjqf,a uQ,sl Wmhkakd jYfhka foaY.; ug isjk njh'
ldka;djkag ixl%uKh ug n,mE iuyr idOl mskag jvd fjkiajk fYaIs; idOlhkah'
wm yuqjQ ixl%uKsl fiajlhskaf.ka fndfyda fofkla ksjila ;ekSug wjYH f.dvke.s,s WmlrK
imhd .ekSu fjkfjka iuyrg h,s h,s;a foaY.; we;' ijq wrdfha g l,ska .Dy
fialdjla f,i lghq;= lr we;s orejka 4 fofkl=f.a ujla jk v' wika;sld fojrlau wmg
lshd isfha "ug f.hla ke;s ksid" uu rg hkjd' fmd f.hla i|yd ,CI 3la muK ho
f' ^remsh,a 300"000& tk weuldkq fvd, 2"66417" tfyu ke;sj wmg tal orkak neye"
,xldf t;r uqo,la fydhkak neye' kuq;a msgrg f.dvla i,a,s Wmhkak;a" /f.k tkak;a

16

Marriage Registration Ordinance, No. 19, 1907, art. 19(2); Center for Reproductive Rights, Women of the World, p. 222.
At the time of writing, US$1 was worth 112.60 Sri Lankan rupees, 0.28 Kuwaiti dinars, 3.75 Saudi Arabian riyals, and 3.67 UAE
dirhams.
17

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

10

mqjka18"' YS% ,xldf wOHdmkh fkdf,a ,enqKo" fndfyda ldka;djka lshd isfha Bg wod,
wfkla ho oeug ,xldf /lshd ud.j,ska wmyiq njhs' tu ho w;r fmd;am;a" mdi,a
nE.a" m%jdyk ho we;=,;ah' mdi,a jdrh uq, f.h hq;= fujeks ho re' 4"000 - 10"000
la muK ^weuldkq fvd, 36-89& h yel19'

fi! wrdfha .Dy fialdjla f,i fiajh lrka ;u mjq, /ln,d.;a .Dy fialdjla ;u mjqf,a wh iu' wehf.a
foaY bmhS u.ska ;u mjq,g ksjila ;kdf.k orejkag" iajd mqreIhdg yd kEoEhkag Wmldr l,dh'
2007 IHka;skS lk.iNdm;sms,af,a$ hQyEmn\ rhsia fjd

ldka;djkaf.a ixl%ukhg fya;=jk jeo.;a idOlhla jkafka ,xldj ;=< wjYH ;rug wdodh
bmhSug we;s fkdyelshdjhs' Tjqka foaY.;j weuldkq fvd, 100-140 muK uqo,la bmhQjo"
th YS% ,xldf Tjqkag /lshdjla ,enqfkd;a Tjqkag bmhsh yels uqo, fuka fo.=Khla isg
oi.=Khla ;r h yel' wm yuqjQ ixl%uksl .Dy fialdjka lS m Tjqkag ,xldf bmhsh
yels uqo, b;d wvqh' tk ks we ksIamdok wxYfha w;sld,o iu re' 4"000 isg re' 8"000
^weuldkq fvd, 36 isg 71& olajd uqo,lao" f;a je,s wxYfha re' 1"500 isg 3"000 ^weuldkq
fvd, 13 isg 27& olajd" mqoa.,sl ksjil wrlalehl= f,i re' 5"000 isg 6"000 ^weuldkq
fvd, 44 isg 53& olajd" lDIsludka;fha llrejl= f,i re' 5"000 muK ^weuldkq fvd,
44& o" is.r ksIamdok wxYfha re' 2"500 muKo ^weuldkq fvd, 22& f" w; orejl= isk
18

Human Rights Watch interview with Asanthika W., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Erandathi P., Rambe, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006; Human Rights Watch interview with
Soida W., Kegalle, Sri Lanka, November 19, 2006; email communication from Manori Witharana to Human Rights Watch, March 16,
2007.
19

11

Human Rights Watch November 2007

jhi 29 l ujla jk B' mdr;d oekg lDIsldl llrejl= f,i ojilg re' 200 la
^weuldkq fvd, 1'78&20 Wmhk w;r l=fj, .Dy fialdjl jYfhka uilg kd 40 la
^weuldkq fvd, 142& Wmhkq ,eh' jhi 26 la jQ orejka ;sfofkl=f.a ujl jk v'
fi,ajl=ud klg weuldkq fvd, 90 l muK mhlg T;k ludka;hl fiajfha
kshq;=j miqj ijq wrdhg fydia uilg hd,a 400 la muK ^weuldkq fvd, 107& Wmhk
,' weh lSf" Tjqka b;d mam;a ksid wehf.a wjqre 2l jhie;s hKsh mjd ish wehg
foaY.; ug isjqkq njh'21
wm yuqjQ fndfyduhla ldka;djka" Tjkaf.a mjq,aj, yd ,u kEoEhka w;r tlu wdodh
Wmhkakd h' rg;=, ldka;djka ;ksj uQ,sl;ajh orK mjq,a $ ksjdi .kk 23] ls'22
wOHkhlska fmkajd fok wdldrhg idudkHfhka ixl%uksl tla .Dy fialdjla u.ska mjqf,a 5
fofkl=f.a muK ho imqrd,hs'23
tjeks tla ldka;djla jk jhi 36 l orejka fofofkla iys; lalido jQ ujla jk t'
jlris lshQ m "uf.a mjqf,a foudmshka iy uf.a orejka fofokd iy nd, fidhqh
/l.ekSug wjYH wdodhu Wmhk mjqf,a tlu mqoa.,hd uuhs' uf.a bmhS uf.a mshdg hejQ g
Tyq mjqf,a miafokdf.a ho i|yd th fhdod.kS' uu is;k yg remsh,a 500"000 l ^we(fvd'
4"440& muK uqo,la ud tjd we;"'24 weh 6 jk fY%Ksh olajd wOHdmkh ,nd we;' l=f ys
foj;djla .Dy fialdjla f,i jevlsug fmr weh ,xldfos;a f;a o fk,kakshla f,i
uilg re' 1"500 - 2"000 muK ^we( fvd' 13-18& Wmhk ,'
;j;a iuyr ixl%uksl .Dy fialdjka lshd isfha Wiia wOHdmkhg we;s iSud ksid Tjqkag
iqiq /lshdjla rg;=, fidhd.ekSug ndOdjla jQ njhs' tuksid foaY .;ug isjQ njhs'
wOHkhkag wkqj ixl%uksl ldka;djka my<u wOHdmKsl ugulska hqla;h25' fi! wrdfha
iy lgdys .Dy fialdjka f,i lghq;= l<" orejka mia fofkl=f.a ujla jk 42 ye
*d;sud ridkd lshQ m wehg ,xldf /lshdjla fidhd.ekSug fkdyels jQfha weh m<uqjk
fY%aKshg muKla wOHdmkh ,euh' "uu ,xldf jev lf<a keye' uu wOHdmkh imQK lf<a

20

Human Rights Watch interview with Paramitha E., Rambe, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Selvakumari W., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
22
The number of female-headed households is estimated to be as high as two-thirds among displaced households in the conflictaffected north and east of the country. United States Agency for International Development, Gender Assessment for USAID/Sri
Lanka, February 17, 2004, http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/cross-cutting_programs/wid/pubs/ga_srilanka.pdf (accessed July 1,
2007), pp.10-11; Nadira Gunatilleke, Plans Afoot to Raise Womens Participation in Politics, Daily News (Colombo), January 31,
2003, http://www.dailynews.lk/2003/01/31/pol03.html (accessed September 6, 2007).
23
Michele Ruth Gamburd, Lentils There, Lentils Here! Sri Lankan Domestic Labour in the Middle East, in Shirlena Huang,
Brenda S.A. Yeoh and Noor Abdul Rahman, eds., Asian Women as Transnational Domestic Workers (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish,
2005), p. 94. See also S. Jayaweera, M. Dias and L. Wanasundera, Returnee Migrant Women in Two Locations in Sri Lanka
(Colombo: CENWOR, 2002), p. 1; N. Weerakoon, Sri Lanka: A Case Study for International Female Labour Migration, in S. Sta.
M. Amparita et al., eds., Legal
24
Human Rights Watch interview with Vadivukarasi H., Talawakelle, Sri Lanka, November 12, 2006.
25
Gamburd, Lentils There, Lentils Here!, in Huang, Yeoh and Rahman, eds., Asian Women as Transnational Domestic Workers,
p. 96; Jayaweera, Dias and Wanasundera, Returnee Migrant Women in Two Locations in Sri Lanka, pp. 24, 55.
21

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

12

ke;s ksid riaidjla fidhd.ekSug ne jqKd' wOHdmkhla ke;sj riaidjla fidhd.ekSu myiq
keye'"26
YS% ,dxlsl ldka;djka ueo fmr.g ixl%uKh $ .uKh

miq.sh wjqre 20 ;=< ixl%uKh jk ldka;djkaf.a m%;sY;h iS>%fhka by< hka we;' 1986
33] jQ fuh 1994 by<u m%;sY;h fmkajka 79] olajdo" oekg .Kka ne,S j,g wkqj 59]
f,io oelaf'27 YS% ,dxlsl fiajlhka Yd, f,i ueofmr.g ixl%uKh 1976 wdrN jQfha
tl, Yd, f,i isjQ Lkscf;,a j, w;sYh , je u;a iu.h'28
80 oYlfha mqreI f.dvke.s,s llrejkaf.a wjYH;djh wvqu;a iuu .Dy fiajlhka f,i
ldka;djkaf.a .ukh by< .sfhah' 90 oYlfha ueofmr. ixl%ukslhkaf.ka 84] la u
ldka;djka jQ w;r thskq;a je ixLHdjla .Dyfiajlhskah' ueofmr. fiajh lrk YS%
,dxlslhka fm%aIkh lrk uqo,a m%udk miq.sh oYl 3 ;=< YD, f,i jOkh we;'
Woaoukh i,ld .Kka ne g th 2005 " 1980 ,enqK ixLHdjg jvd mia .=Khlska je
h'29
fuu YS% ,dxlsl ldka;djkaf.a ixl%uKh f,dal jHdma; ;;ajfhau me;slvls' tf,i ,shk 20 l
muK wdishdkqjka msila ;u rka msg fiajfhys fhfok nj .Kka n,d we;' wdishdf
ishu ixl%ukshlhkaf.ka wvla muK ldka;djka jk w;r kefkysr yd .sKsfldk wdishdf
ldka;djka mska wNsnjd ixl%ukh jk nj .Kka n,d ;sf'30 rgj,a w;r llre
.ukfha ldka;djka uq,a ;ek .ekSu YS% ,xldf" bkakSishdf iy ms,smSkfha meye,s f'31
ueofmr. fudjqkaf.a uQ,slu .ukdkka;hhs'32

26

Human Rights Watch interview with Fathima Razana (real name used upon request), Attanagalla, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
While female migration has increased since it peaked at 79 percent in 1994, male migration has increased more rapidly. Human
Rights Watch, Bad Dreams: Exploitation and Abuse of Migrant Workers in Saudi Arabia, vol. 16, no. 5(E), July 2004,
http://hrw.org/reports/2004/saudi0704/, p. 14; Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment, Annual Statistical Report of Foreign
Employment 2005 (Battaramulla: SLBFE, 2005), p. 1;
28
Michele Ruth Gamburd, The Kitchen Spoons Handle: Transnationalism and Sri Lankas Migrant Housemaids (Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, 2000), pp. 27, 30.
29
Calculated using the Colombo Consumer Price Index to adjust for inflation, based on figures in F. Eelens, T. Schampers and J.D.
Speckmann, eds., Labour Migration to the Middle East: From Sri Lanka to the Gulf (London: Kegan Paul International, 1992); Sri
Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment, Annual Statistical Report of Foreign Employment 2005, p. 88.
30
Graeme Hugo, Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region, paper prepared for the Global Commission on International Migration,
September 2005, http://www.gcim.org/mm/File/Regional%20Study%202.pdf (accessed September 6, 2007), p. 8; International
Organization for Migration, World Migration 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration (Geneva: IOM, 2005), p. 109;
International Labour Organization, Preventing Discrimination, Exploitation and Abuse of Women Migrant Workers: An Information
Guide, Booklet 1, Introduction: Why the Focus on International Migrant Workers (Geneva: ILO, 2003), pp. 9-10.
31
Women comprised 42 percent of Indonesian migrants in 1983, and 73 percent of legal migrant workers by 2003. Women began
outnumbering male migrants from the Philippines in 1992, and by 2005, over 65 per cent of the nearly 3,000 migrants leaving the
Philippines every day to work abroad were women. Gamburd, The Kitchen Spoons Handle, p.35; Asian Migrant Centre and Migrant
Forum in Asia, Asian Migrant Yearbook 2004: Migration Facts, Analysis and Issues in 2003 (Hong Kong: Asian Migrant Centre,
2004), p. 175; Asian Development Bank, Workers Remittance Flows in Southeast Asia (Manila: ADB, 2006),
http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/workers-remittance/workers-remittance.pdf (accessed June 2, 2007), pp.12, 120-121; United
Nations Population Fund, State of the World Population 2006, A Passage to Hope: Women and International Migration (New York:
UNFPA, 2006), p. 23.
32
United Nations Population Fund, State of the World Population 2006, p. 25.
27

13

Human Rights Watch November 2007

,xldfjka ixl%uKh jQ 660"000 jvd je ldka;djkaf.ka 90] lg jvd je m%;sY;hla


.Dyfialdjka f,i flld,Sk /lshd .siq u; /lshdjkays kshef,a'33 ta w;ka 97] la u
ueofmr. rgj,g fiajh i|yd msgj .sfhah' thskao 87] la fi! wrdh" l=f" f,nkka iy
tlai;a wdrd t rdcH fj; hhs'34 wfkla rgj,g ^ihsm%ih" isx.mamQrej" u,hdishdj"
fydxfldx we;=j& .sh ixLHdj 3] lg wvqh'35
2005 fi! wrdhg ixl%uKh jQ fiajlhka w;r mska fuka fo.=Khla ldka;djkaf.ka
hqla; h' tfiau l=f j,g .sh msi w;r ldka;djka mska fuka 4 .=Khlska Yd,h'36
wnqvdj, YS% ,xldf ;dkdm;s ldhd,hg wkqj ,shdmx we;s YS% ,dxlsl fiajlhka
165"000 f.ka 70] la muKu .Dy fiajlhkah' 37
ixl%uKsl ldka;d fiajlhka rgg tjk foaY uqo,a YS% ,dxflah wdlhg jeo.;a foaY ksuh
Wmhk ud.hls' 2006 ixl%uKsl fiajlhka fm%aIKh l< uqo,a we(fvd' ,shk 2'33 ls' th
rf o< cd;sl ksIamdokfhka 9] blaujd hka fojk m%Odk foaY ksuh Wmhk ud.h njg
m;a h'38 f fma%Ik ,xldf fojk jeo.;a wmkhk NdKavh jk f;a j,ska ^ks wej,g
fojeks jk& ,nk wdodhug;a jvd by< h' YS% ,xldf mam;alu r,Sf wdl Wmdh
ud.j,go f fm%aYK b;d jeo.;a f'39 we( fvd' ,shk 3'37 la muK jk fj<| fYaIfhka
70] muKu mshjd .ekSug fuu fm%aIK fhdod .kakd w;r th ,xldjg ,efnk uq foaY
wdodhu fuka fo.=Khla o" foaY wdfhdack f,i ,efnk uqo,a fuka 2 1$2 .=Khla o ;r f'40
YS% ,xldf uy nexl=f 2006 jdIsl jd;djg wkqj "fyd| idOkSh wl jOk f.hla
,nd.ekSf" rg ;=< b;slsj, jOkh iSud iys; ;;ajhla ;=< ixl%uksl fiajlhka
fm%aIKh lrk uqo,a j, jeo.;a nj" fmkajd fohs' tfiau foaY.; YS% ,dxlslhkaf.ka ,efnk
fm%aIK" fj<| fYaI ysh wvq lr.ekSug jeo.;a f'41
YS% ,dxlsl ldka;d fiajlhkag fkka k je jk mSvd yd w;jr inkaOfhka rch fukau
wfkla YS% ,dxlslhkao wjOdkh fhduq lr we;' ixl%uksl fiajlhkaf.a whs;sjdisl /l
33

Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment, Annual Statistical Report of Foreign Employment 2005, pp. 5, 58.
Ibid., p. 11. The UAE is a federation of seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Dubai, Ras al Khaymah, Sharjah, and
Umm al Qaywayn.
35
Ibid., p. 26.
36
Calculations based on statistics provided in Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment, Annual Statistical Report of Foreign
Employment 2005, p. 13.
37
IRIN, United Arab Emirates: Domestic Workers Face Abusive Employers, July 2, 2006,
http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=27089 (accessed September 6, 2007).
38
Over 57 percent of remittances in 2006 were remitted from migrants working in the Middle East, and migrant women workers
contributed over 62 percent of remittances in 1999. Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual Report 2006, pp. 14, 85, table 87; International
Organization for Migration, World Migration 2003: Managing Migration Challenges and Responses for People on the Move (Geneva:
IOM, 2003), p. 17; International Labour Organization, Preventing Discrimination, Exploitation and Abuse of Women Migrant
Workers, Booklet 1, p. 11.
39
Second only to earnings generated by the garment industry (US$3.08 billion), workers private remittances brought US$2.33 billion
in foreign earnings to Sri Lanka in 2006, while tea exports brought only US$881 million in foreign earnings. Central Bank of Sri
Lanka, Annual Report 2006, p. 81; Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual Report 2005 (Colombo: Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 2006),
40
Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual Report 2006, pp. 75, 86, 87.
34

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

14

.ekSug jD;a;sh i;s ixOdkh we;s w;r f jd;df i|yka jk wdldrhg rcho f
m%Yakhg i fiaug iuyr mshjr wdrN lr we;'

41

Ibid., p. 7.

15

Human Rights Watch November 2007

III. foaY /lshdjg hdug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk ldka;djkag YS% ,xldj ;=< uqyqK fok w;jr
foaY /lshdjg hdug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk ldka;djkag YS% ,xldj ;=< uqyqK fok w;jr iy
iQrdlEu uQ,sl jYfhka ;=ka wdldrhlska isjk nj wm ^yshquka rhs fjd& ykdf.k we;'
m<uqj /lshd ksfhda;jre iy Wm ksfhda;jre .ukh inkaO fiajd iy ,sms f,aLK
fjkqfjka je uqo,la wh lsu ksid ldka;djkag wkjYH f,i Kh ug is fuka Tjqkaf.a
imQK fiajd ld,h ;=<u tu Kh wdmiq f.ug isuh' fojkqj" /lshd ksfhda;jre yd Wm
ksfhda;jre ,efnk /lshdj inkaOj yd tys fldkafoais inkaOj" f;k inkaOj" /lshdj
lsug isjk rg inkaOj jxpd lsu ksid Tjqkaj iQrdlEf wjOdkug ,lafjhs' ;=kajkqj" YS%
,dxlsl n,h,;a wdh;k u.ska Tjqkag widOdrK f,i leue;a; fkduid mqoa.,sl ryiHNdjh
lvlrka mj;ajkq ,nk ffjoH mCIK wdhhs'
,xldf n|jd .ekSf hdka;%Kh yd md,k jHqyh'
ixl%uksl YS% ,dxflah fiajlhkag isjk w;jr inkaOj Okd;aul ms<s;=rla f,i rch 1985
YS% ,xld foaY /lshd kshqla;s ldHxY mK; u.ska /lshd i|yd foaY .;jk YS%
,dxlslhkaf.a iqNisoah iy m%jOkh fjkqfjka YS% ,xld foaY kshqla;s ldhxYh wdh;ksl
hdka;%Khla f,i msysgqjk ,'42 f wdh;kh ;uka iska u ixl%uksl fiajlhkaf.ka whlrk
.dia;= j,ska yd /lshd ksfhda;hskaf.ka whlrk .dia;=j,ska wruqo,a imhd.kakd rdcH
wdh;khls'43 foaY /lshd m%jOk wud;HxYhg whs;s jk fuu wxYh /lshd ksfhda;hkag
n,m;% ,nd" foaY .;jk whg wjYH mqyqKq mdGud,d meje;au" foaY .;jkakka ,shdmx
lsu" foaY .;jkakkag rCIK l%uhla we;s lsu iy foaY .;jk whf.a mjq,a iqNidOkh
^Tjqkaf.a orejka i|yd YsIH;aj l%uhla o iys; jQ& fjkqfjka lghq;= lrhs'
.Dy fiajlhka jYfhka foaY .;ug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk YS% ,dxlsl ldka;djkag ta i|yd
/lshd ksfhda;hl= u.ska fyda fm!oa.,sl inkaO;djhla Tiafia ;u wjYH;dj bgq lr.;
yel'44 fndfyda fofkla uq,skau ;ukaf.a m%foaYfha u isk Wm ksfhda;jrfhl= yryd m%Odk
k.rj, msys ksfhda; ldhd,hg fl<skau inkaO f'45 fm!oa.,sl inkaO;d u;
foaY.;jk ldka;djka oekgu;a ueofmr. /lshdf fhfok ;u {d;sfhla fyda ;=frla
u.ska mj;sk /lshd mqrmamdvqjla inkaOj wdrx fuka fiajHhkag iDcqju inkaO /lshd
wjia:dj ,nd.kS' ueofmr. fiajHhka yd llre tacka;jre ,xldf .Dyfiajlfhla wjYH jQ
g tys ;sfnk YS% ,dxldf ; uKav, ldhd,fha ,shdmx fldg wjirh ,nd.; hq;=h'46
/lshd ksfhda;hka u.ska fyda mqoa.,sl inkaO;d u; fyda l=uk wdldrhlska /lshd wjia:d
42

Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment Act, No. 21, 1985.


Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhunage, deputy general manager, Foreign Relations and Conciliation, SLBFE,
Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2007.
44
Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhunage, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 30, 2006.
45
Sri Lanka is divided into 9 provinces with 25 districts.
46
L.K. Ruhunage, Institutional Monitoring of Migrant Recruitment in Sri Lanka, in Christiane Kuptsch, ed., Merchants of Labour
(Geneva: International Institute for Labour Studies, 2006), http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/inst/download/merchants.pdf
(accessed September 6, 2007), p. 59.
43

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

16

Wod jQjo /lshd .siqula w;aika lsug fmr tys foaYSh ; uKav, ldhd,fhka wjirh
,nd.; hq;=h'47
,xldf isk /lshd ksfhda;hkag ueofmr. isk /lshd tacka; flfkl=f.ka /lshd
weKjqula ,enqK g tu weKjqf msgm;la iu foaY /lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYhg ,s;j tys
fldkafoais i|yd wjir b,a,d ish hq;=h'48 YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYfhys ls%hd msmdhg wkqj
tjeks /lshd .siqul fldkafoais iEySulg m;ah fkdyels k fyda fiajlhkaf.a ;hg
;on, ;ckhla" is,a .egq fyda fjk;a foaYmd,ksl ndOdjka we;sf wjOdkula ;sf k
wjir ,ndh hq;= ke;'49 fuf,i YS% ,xldf /lshd ksfhda; wdh;k /lshd weKjqj,g
lsisfjl= n|jd .ekSug fmr wjirh .;hq;= fyhska n|jd .kakd ish fiajlhskag /lshdjla
iy;sl l< fkdyels jQjo" tu wjirh iduQysl lKavdhj,g tlg ,nd.kS' YS%' ,' ' /' ks'
ldhHxYfha wjirh ,ndka miqj /lshd ksfhda;hskag .Dy fiajlhka f;dard.ekSu yd n|jd
.ekSu mgka .ekSug yelsh' 1995 YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhxYfha m%;sm;a;s ;SrKhlg wkqj ish
ixl%uKsl fiajlhska msg;aj hdug fmr Tjqka yd ,shdmx h hq;=h'50 /lshd ksfhda;hka yd
Wm ksfhda;hka fndfydag .Dy fiajlhkag ,shdmxh i|yd" .uka n,m;%h ,nd.ekSu jeks
lghq;=j,g mjd iydh fohs'51
.Dy fiajhg hdug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk fiajlhska ffjoH mCIKhg fmkS ish hq;= w;r l,ska
ueofmr. fiajh lr ke;s wh k 12 l YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYh u.ska fkdf,a mj;ajk
mqyqKq mdGud,dj imQK l< hq;=h' fuu mqyqKqj imQK l< njg fok iy;slhla fyda
ueofmr. udi 6 la .;fldg ;suo" wjqre 2 la l,a we;s .uka n,m;%hlao YS%' ,' ' /' ks'
ldhHxYfha .dia;= f.jQ njg is m;%hlao j,x.= id iy;slho ;dkdm;s ldhd,fhka
wjir,;a /lshd .siquo hk ish,a, ixl%uKsl fiajlhka ,shdmxh i|yd wjYH f'52
/lshdjg hkakkag fuu ,shdmxf ls%hdj,sh Wfoid /lshd ksfhda;jreka iska
idudkHfhka iydh ,ndfohs'
foaY.;jk ixl%uKsl .Dy fiajlhd mqyqKq mdGud,dj yeoErE miq YS% ,xldf /lshd
ksfhda;hka wjidk msg;af wjirh YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYh fj;ska ,nd.; hq;=h'53
/lshd ksfhdacs;hd fyda Wm ksfhda;hd iska k lrk ,o mqoa.,hls' YS%' ,' ' /' ks'
ldhHxYh fj; mqoa.,slj f.dia /lshdjg hk fiajlhdf.a .uka n,m;%h foaY ; uKav,
ldhd,fhka iy;sl l< fiajd .siqu iy mqyqKq fyda m<mqre iy;sl bm;a l< hq;=h'54 YS%'
,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYh fuu f;dr;=re foaY ; uKav, ldhd,fhka mCId lr /lshd
47

Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhunage, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 30, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Hazzam A. Lathiff, labor agent, All Akeem Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka,
November 3, 2006.
49
International Organization for Migration, Labour Migration in Asia: Protection of Migrant Workers, Support Services and
Enhancing Development Benefits (Geneva: IOM, 2005), p. 32.
50
Ruhunage, Institutional Monitoring of Migrant Recruitment in Sri Lanka, in Kuptsch, ed., Merchants of Labour, p. 56.
51
Gamburd, The Kitchen Spoons Handle, p.61.
52
Human Rights Watch Interview with SLBFE staff member, name withheld, Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
53
Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhunage, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 30, 2006.
54
Ibid.
48

17

Human Rights Watch November 2007

weKjqu i|yd fjk;a msgm;la ke;snjg iy;sl lrhs'55 wjidk msg;af wjir ,nd YS%' ,'
' /' ks' ldhHxYh u.ska m.Kl o;a; nexl=jl we;=<;a lrk w;r tu.ska foaY ;
uKav, ldhd,hg YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYfhys wjirh ,nd we;soehs mCId l< yelsh'56
YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYh u.ska cd;Hka;r .=jka f;dgqmf,a msg;af wxYfhys ljqjla
mj;ajdf.k hka msg hk ixl%uKsl .Dyfiajlhkaf.a ,shdmxh mCId lrk w;r
,shdmx fkdjqk wh tff,au ,shdmx lrkq ,nhs'57

foaY /lshdjg hdug n,dfmdfrd;a;=jk .Dy fialdjka lKavdhula rch iska


mj;ajk wksjdh mqyqKq ieishl id yd mdiafmda .ek hq`rwQ. YS% ,xld foaY
/lshd kshqla;s k`r\y`AXy mgQn\ ueofmr. foaY /lshdjg hk fiajlhskag ehQ y`mt
fmr fufia mqyqKqjla ,ndfohs'
2007 IHka;skS lk.iNdm;sms,af,a$ hQyEmn\ rhsia fjd

55

Ibid.
Ibid.
Human Rights Watch interview with SLBFE official, Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006; Human Rights Watch interview
with Feizal Samath, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 30, 2006; Human Rights Watch interview with Al-Haj U.T.M. Anver, ALFEA,
Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 31, 2006; Ruhunage, Institutional Monitoring of Migrant Recruitment in Sri Lanka, in Kuptsch, ed.,
Merchants of Labour, p. 58.

56
57

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

18

.Dy fiajlhska ,shdmx jQ g YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYh Tjqka inkaO idj, ia;r"
jegqma ia;r" <u {d;sfhl=f.a ia;r iy fiajHhd yd inkaOf f;dr;=re o;a;
.nvdjlg we;= lr"58 .Dy fiajlhd iska ;u fiajHhd yd inkaOf f;dr;=re ,shdmx
lrhs k YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYh u.ska f f;dr;=re wod, rf foaY ; uKav,
ldhd,hg ,ndfohs'59 YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYh yd tu rgj, foaY ; wxYh hk fofokdu
fiajlhdf.a fiajHhd hk fofokdf.au ku yd ,smskh ,nd.; hq;=h'60 /lshd ksfhda;hd fyda
fiajHhd iska /lshd weKjqula YS% ,xldf ;dkdm;s ldhd,fha ,shdmx l< yels uq;a" tys
w;HjYHu fiajHhd imQK inkaOf ia;r wvx.= h hq;= ke;'61
.Dy fialdj kS;Hdkql+,j wehf.a h`m|pEw` udre l< g w;a h`m|pEw` iska fuu fjkialu
foaY ; uKav, ldhd, ;=< ,shdmx lsf j.lSu mejf' tfia kuq;a YS%' ,' ' /' ks'
ldhHxYhg @s\v`q`ykyn\ iska tjeks fjkialula ,shdmx fkdl, g fiajlhka ms<sn|
fidhd ne,Sug l%u fohla YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYhg fkdue;'62
/lshd ksfhda;hka ks;ru fiajhg hkakkaf.a .uka n,m;% fjkia lrk w;r fndfyda g
uqia,s k iy wd.l inkaOl oelafjk m fjkia lrkqfha fndfyda @s\v`q`ykyn\ uqia,s
.Dy fiajlhkag we;s leue;a; ksidh' .uksl kS;s ;s .ek wjfndaOhla ke;s .Dy fiajlhska
/lshd ksfhda;hka iska lrk ,o fujeks fjkial .ek fkdoekqj;a lka iskq we;' .uka
n,m;%j, jer k iy jhi fmkajk g wjYH;djl tu fiajlhskaf.a i;H f;dr;=re fyda
Tjqkaf.a mjq,aj, f;dr;=re fidhd.ekSu wiSre h yel'
Kh myiql yd n|jd.ekSf .dia;= l%uh'
Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre .uka n,m;% ,shdmxh wdh lshka
hdug isk fiajlhskaf.ka uqo,a b,a,hs' f i|yd /lshd
ksfhda;jreka iska f.jd imQK fldg we;s nj fudjqka fkdokS'63
- XWY lAk` vQ@q\X @s\v` nQyEk\wQ k`r\y`AX@y\ nQl{`rQ@yk\
/lshdj fidhd.ekSug ,nd.;a Kh" foia .;jQ ld,h ;=,u .Dy fiajlhskag jo fohs' /lshd
ksfhda;jre yd Wm ksfhda;jre idudkHfhka /lshd iemhSug iy n|jd .ekSug wod, uqo,a
foia .; ug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk mqoa.,hskaf.ka wh lrhs' iuyr wjia:dj, w;s Yd,
uqo,la jemqr wh lrhs' fujeks uqo,a wh ls ksid .Dyia: fiajlhka fiajHhka iska
iQrdlEf wjOdkug ,laf' tk mSvdld fiajd ;;aj hgf;a jQjo Tjqka /lshd ksfhda;hkag
58

Human Rights Watch interview with Shiranthi Ekanayake, country coordinator, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Sumedha Ekanayake, deputy director, United Nations and Multilateral Affairs, Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
60
Human Rights Watch interview with Shiranthi Ekanayake, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
61
Human Rights Watch interview with Sumedha Ekanayake, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
62
Ibid.
63
Human Rights Watch Interview with SLBFE staff member, name withheld, Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
59

19

Human Rights Watch November 2007

Wm /lshd ksfhda;hkag nexl= yd fmd,shg uqo,a imhkakkag f.h hq;= uqo,a fya;=fjka tjeks
mSvd ordf.k isug isjk ksidh'64
tia' moaudf.a ia;rh tjeks ;;ajhlg fyd| WodyKhls' fi! wrdfha .Dy fiajl
/lshdjla i|yd Wm /lshd ksfhda; iska whl, re' 22"000 ^wefuldkq fvd, 195& f.ug
weh tu m%foaYfha fmd,shg uqo,a fofofkl=f.ka re' 15"000 ,nd.;af;ah' tfiau .f
ldka;djlf.ka nexl=jg wemhla jYfhka ;eug rka ud,hlao Khg .;af;ah' wehf.a .Dy
NdKav rEmjdysksh iy 'iS'wd hka;%h .uka ho i|yd l=Kd oefh' .=jka f;dgqmf,a Wm
/lshd ksfhda; iska b;s uqo,a f.jk ;=re weh i;=j ;snQ cx.u rl:kh ;u Ndrfha ;nd
.;af;ah'65 miqj weh wehf.a iajdhdf.a ifydaorhd wehg ,sx.sl w;jr lsug iQodk jQ g"
kej; ishrg wdf lsisu f;khla ,eug fmrh' re' 15"000 ^wefuldkq fvd, 133& lg;a
jvd je Kh nrla orka kej; meKs weh lshd isfhah' ud is;d isfha ud yg uqo,a bmhSug
yels njh' kuq;a isjQfha wfklls'66
fuu jd;df i|yka 100 la muK jQ isoaka j,ska 75] lg inkaOju is we;af;a tia'
moaud jeks ldka;djkag Yd, Kh nr oeug isuh' ta /lshd ksfhda; yd Wm ksfhda;
jemqr whlsu ksidh' kS;shg wkqj .Dy fialdjkaf.ka whl< yelafla YS%' ,' ' /' ks'
ldhHxYfhys wkqu; ,shdmx .dia;=j ^we( fvd' 50-100& muKs' kuq;a Tjqka fndfyda fofkla
we(fvd 315 la muK .dia;=jla f.jQ nj wmg oek.; yels h' uilg we( fvd 20-50 olajd
wdodhula iys; fudjqkag fujeks .Kkla f.ug isu Yd, uqo,a m%YaKhls' fujeks fndfyda
isoakaj, /lshd ksfhda; yd Wm ksfhda; iska .Dy fiajlhskaf.ka wl uqo,la wh lrk
,oafoa wod, .dia;= wl f,i fmkajdfuka fyda Tjqkaf.a .dia;= jYfhks' fuh wod, YS% ,xld
foaY fiajd kshqla;s mk; W,a,x>kh lsuls'67
j.=j - 1' foia /lshdjg hk .Dy fiajlhka f.jQ .dia;= yd wkqu; .dia;=
wx.h

ksh; .dia;=j

/lshd ksfhda; yd Wm ksfhda;

YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYh ,shd


mx .dia;=j

we(fvd' 90 g wvq f;k i|yd re'


5"980 ^we(fvd'53&
we(fvd 90 isg 180 olajd re 8"855
^we(fvd' 79&
we(fvd 90 isg 180 je re 11"730

64

Wmg oek.kakg ,enqKq we;a; jYfhka


wh lrk .dia;=
tlai;a wrd t rdcHh(
Wm ksfhda; - re' 10"000 16"000
w;r ^we(fvd' 89-142&
ksfhdacs; - re' 35"000 ^we(fvd' 311&
by; .dia;= ;=,u wvx.= f

See Section V of this report, Response of the Sri Lankan Government, for information about government efforts to license and
regulate labor agents and subagents.
65
Human Rights Watch interview with Padma S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
66
Ibid.
67
The Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment Act prohibits agents from directly charging prospective migrant workers for these
commissions. Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment Act, No. 21, 1985, repealing the Foreign Employment Agency Act, No. 32,
1980, section 42.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

20

^we(fvd' 104&
YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYfhys rCIK
.dia;=j
.uka n,m;% .dia;=
id .dia;=
ffjoH mCIK
ffjoH mCIK yd /lshd ksfhda;
yuqug fld<U tau i|yd .uka
.dia;=
.=jka l m;
uq .Kk

re' 2500 ls ^we(fvd' 79& by;


.dia;=jgu tl;= lr we;'68
re' 2"500 ls ^we(fvd' 22& fyda
ke;sjQ g re' 10"000 ^we(fvd 89&
wod, ke;
re' 500 ^we(fvd 4&
wod, ke;'

0 ^fndfyda wjia:dj,&72
re' 8"980 - 14"730 ^we(fvd 80131&

re' 5"000 - 8"000 ^we(fvd' 44-71&


re' 2"500 - 10"000 w;r ^we(fvd 2289&
l=f( re 4"000 ^we(fvd 3669-4070&
fi! wrdh( re' 1"500 ^we(fvd 13&71
re' 1"500 - 7"500 ^we(fvd 13-67&
re' 5"000 - 10"000 ^we(fvd 44-89&

0-3 udihl f;k


tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha
re' 16"000 - 35"000 ^we(fvd 142-311&
l=f( re' 12"000 - 20"500 ^we(fvd
107-182&
f,nkka( re' 10"000 - 33"255 ^we(fvd
89-295&
fi! wrdh( re' 5"000 - 22"000
^we(fvd 44-195&

wmf.a mfhaIKj,g wkqj /lshd tacka; yd Wm tacka; hk fofldgiu b;d Yd, .dia;= wh
lrhs' f w;=ka Wm ksfhda;hska iska w;sYh jemqr uqo,a wh lsuo ksfhda;hkag jvd
mqreoaola f,i th is lsuo ks;r isf' n,m;%,dNS /lshd ksfhda; wdh;k msysgd we;af;a
.Dy fiajlhka jemqr fjfik . m<d;aj,ska tmsg m%Odk k.rj,hs' Wm ksfhda;jre n,m;%
rys; md,khlg hg;a fkdjQ /lshd fidhdfokakka jk w;r ixl%uKsl fiajlhka yd n,m;%
,dNS ksfhda;hka w;r w;ruehd f,i fiajh lrhs' YS% ,xldf tjeks n,m;% ,dNS /lshd
ksfhdahka 580 ;;=o;a wdrx ud.j, .Kkh lsug wkqj 10"000 - 20"000
Wmksfhda;hka msilao f lghq;= j, fh is'73 tla n,m;%,dNS /lshd ksfhda;fhla .Kka
m .Dy fialdjkaf.ka" 75] - 80] ;r Tjqka fj; inkaO jkafka Wm ksfhda;hka u.sks'74
Wm ksfhda;jre ;ukaf.a m%foaYj, j;ajk ksid fndfyduhla .Dy fialdjka Tjqka fj;
mefKk w;r ta ksidu Tjqkagj Yajdi lrhs' Wm ksfhda;hkaf.a ldhNdrh .ek tla .Dy
fialdjla ia;r l, wdldrhg" "Wm ksfhda;jre .f ud lvh jeksh" ud lvh we;af;a

68

International Organization for Migration, Labour Migration in Asia, p. 182.


Human Rights Watch Interview with SLBFE staff member, name withheld, Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
70
Human Rights Watch interview with N.M. Sisira Bandara, labor agent, Samasi Manpower Services, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka,
November 3, 2006.
71
Human Rights Watch Interview with SLBFE staff member, name withheld, Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
72
See Section IV of this report, Unpaid and Underpaid Wages.
73
Human Rights Watch interview with Viola Perera, ACTFORM, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 2, 2006; Human Rights Watch
interview with Feizal Samath, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 30, 2006.
74
Human Rights Watch interview with Hazzam A. Lathiff, labor agent, All Akeem Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka,
November 3, 2006.
69

21

Human Rights Watch November 2007

fldfyaoehs iefjdu oks;s' tf,i iefjdu Wm ksfhda;jre we;af;a fldysoehs oks;s' Tjqka ksjiska
ksjig hka foaY /lshdjg hdug wjYH wh fidhd h;s'"75
YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYfhys ks<Odfhl= lshq m "fndfyduhla ixl%uKslhka Wm
ksfhda;jre fj; hhs' ksiqkag foaY /lshdj,g hdug WkJ lrkafka Tjqkah' Wm
ksfhda;jre Tjqka ,gu h;s' tg tu mqoa.,hd is;kafka" "fuyq .fu flfkls" uu Tyqj
fydka okS" ug Tyq Yajdi l< yelsh' /lshd ksfhda;hd ;jrg;a mejiqf" ldka;djka ;u
.fu isk Wm ksfhda;jre ksfhda;jrekag jvd Yajdi lr;s'76 Tjqka h ksfhda;jrfhla
.ek oekf.k isho wjidkfha Wm ksfhda; yrydu /lshdjla fidhd .ekSug WkJ jkafka
je Yajdihla h lrorhl Tjqkag Wm ksfhda;hd yd inkaO ug we;s myiqjla ksidh'77
iuyr ldka;djka ;ksj fld<U hdug yd tys isl< hq;= ffjoH mCIK wdh inkaO ;ksj
lghq;= lr.ekSug we;s fkdyelshdj yd h ksido Wm tacka;jre fidhd h;s' re' 23"000 uqo,la
^we(fvd 204& Wm ksfhda;fhl=g f.jd l=f ys /lshdjlg .sh .Dy fialdjla lshQ m "uu
Wm ksfhda;fhl= fidhd .sfha ud yd l=reKE., ^ia;S%lalfha m%Odk k.rh& msys ksfhda;
wdh;khg hEug iy ffjoH mCIK i|yd hdug ms flfkla fkdis ksidh' tl, ud hdhq;=
;ekla fyda l< hq;= fohla oek isfha ke;'"78
wkqlmdjla fkdue;s Wm ksfhda;jre ks;ru ixl%uksl fiajlhkaf.ka ksh; uqo,g jvd wh
lr;s' fndfyduhla .Dy fiajlhskag fl,skau ksfhda;jre yd inkaOug fkdyels ksid fyda ta
.ek fkdokakd ksid fyda rch kshul, .dia;= .ek f;dr;=re ,nd.ekSug fkdyels ksid Tjqka
Wm ksfhda;jre b,a,d isk Yd, uqo,la f.jd ou;s'
n,m;%,dNS /lshd ksfhda; wdh;k u.skao whl, hq;= ksh; m%udKhg je wh ls wmg
yuqh' .Dy fialdjla fidhd.ekSug ueo fmr. ydmq;=kao Yd, uqo,la jeh lr;s' th
weuldkq fvd, 450-1600 muK f' ta fiajlhl= n|jd .ekSug wjYH .dia;= mshjd .ekSug"
.=jka .uka .dia;= mshjd .ekSug yd ksfhda;jrekaf.a .dia;= fjkqfjks'79 kuq;a iuyrg
,xldf /lshd ksfhda;jreka" fuu uqo,ska fndfyduhla ;uka fj; ;ndf.k wod, ho
fiajlhskaf.ka wh lr.kS' lf;da,sl wOHhk wdh;khlska YS% ,dxlsl .Dy fiajlhska
ueofmr.g ixl%uKh u .ek meje;ajQ wOHhkhlg wkqj Opdh uhsl,a .en i|yka
lf,a" wfkla iuyr isoakaj," "wrdfha isk /lshd imhkakkag je .dia;=jla f.ug"
,xldf ksfhda;hska ixl%uKsl fiajlhskaf.ka je uqo,la whlrk njh'80 1976 isg 1985
olajd ld,fha fiajd fhdaclhska fiajlhskag wjYH .=jka .ukam;aj," .uka n,m;%j, yd
75

Human Rights Watch interview with Chemmani R., Habaraduwa, Sri Lanka, November 14, 2006.
Human Rights Watch Interview with SLBFE staff member, name withheld, Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with retired labor agent, name withheld, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 18, 2006.
78
Human Rights Watch interview with Nirmali C., Giribawa, Sri Lanka, November 7, 2006.
79
The fees employers pay labor agents range between US$750-1,600 in Saudi Arabia, US$1,000-1,100 in Kuwait and Lebanon, and
US$450-1,100 in UAE. Human Rights Watch interview with retired labor agent, name withheld, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 18,
2006; Human Rights Watch interview with Hazzam A. Lathiff, labor agent, All Akeem Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka,
November 3, 2006.
80
Gamburd, The Kitchen Spoons Handle, p.64.
76
77

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

22

ffjoH mCIKj, ho oerejo" by; i|yka mqre fya;=fjka" 1994 jk g tajd fndfyduhla
yd ksfhda;hskaf.a .dia;= fiajlhskagu orkakg is ;sf" .dia;= jeuo WoaOuk f.hg
jvd jefhka ish'81
ixl%uKsl whs;sjdisl fjkqfjka fmkS isk rdcH fkdjk ixOdkhla jk Action Network
for Migrant Workers ys ls%hdldfhl= .dia;= l%uh ls%hd;aul jk wdldrh meye,s l,
wdldrhg WodyKhla f,i fi! wrdfha k fiajlhl=f.a tla udihl f;kh .=jka .uka
lm; , .ekSug yd fialdj mefKk nj iy;sl lsu fjkqfjka tu ldka;djg f.u
msKsi" /lshd ksfhda;hdg f.jkq ,ef' tfy;a tu ksfhda;hska ta nj ldka;djg fkdlshd uqo,a
b,a,d is" tg ldka;djg tu .dia;= f.ug isjk w;r weh Kh nrgo m;af'82 ;j;a .Dy
fialdjla oel we;s wdldrhg "wm ,ndu fjkqfjka ksfhda;hskag ydmq;=ka uqo,a f.jhs'
ksfhda;hska fome;af;kau uqo,a bmhSug W;aidy .kS"'83 YS% ,xld rcfha ks,Odka lshd isfha
/lshd ksfhda;hska fiajlhskaf.ka uqo,a whlrkqfha tlai;a wrd t rdcHh yd f,nkka
fj; hk whf.ka muKla njh'
tfia lrkafka tu rgj,a ;=, yduqmq;=ka ksfhda;jrekag f.jk uqo," fi! wrdfha fyda
l=fj, f.jk uqo,g jvd fndfyda fihska wvq ksid njh' tfy;a Tjqka "iuyr g l=f yd
fi!wrdhg hk ldka;djkaf.kao wod, ho whlr.kakd nj" ms,s.;ay'84
wm iu yuqf" n,m;%,dNS /lshd ksfhda;jre Wm ksfhda;jre iska jemqr .dia;=
whlrk nj Tjqka okakd nj ms<s.;ay' tfy;a tjeks yeu isoahlau ;ukag inkaO jQ Wm
ksfhda;hska uq,a jQ nj lsj fkdyelsnj mejiQy' Wm ksfhda;hskaf.a lghq;= inkaOfhka
;ukag j.lSula fkdue;s nj f,aisfhkau ;l flf' /lshd ksfhda;hska" Wm ksfhda;hskag
Tjqka imhk O fiajd fjkqfjka ishhg .Kkla f.jhs' f fiajd fjkqfjka ixl%uKslhskaf.ka
wl .dia;= whlsu fydka okakd lreKls' tla YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxY ks<Odfhl= lshQ
m "/lshd ksfhda;jre ;uka Wm ksfhda;hskag wlue;s nj mjihs' kuq;a .gu Tjqkaf.a
fiajh ,nd.kshs"'85 cd;Hka;r llre ixOdkfha (ILO) ks,Odfhl= lshd isfha" Tjqka .gu
. ugf n|jd.ekS fiajd iemhSug" Wm ksfhda;jrekaf.a fiajh ,nd.kq we;' Wm
ksfhda;jre u.ska isjkafka mj;sk ysveila imQK uh' ia;S%lal ;=< n,m;%,dNS
ksfhda;hskaf.a ldhd, mgka.ekSu ;=<ska fuu m%Yakh if|k nj lsj fkdyel' tk tu
ldhd, Tjqkaf.a Wm ksfhda;jre u.ska ls%hd;aul ug fndfydarg bv we;"'86

81

Ibid.
Human Rights Watch interview with Viola Perera, ACTFORM, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 2, 2006.
83
Human Rights Watch interview with Manaranjani S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
84
Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhugane, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006; Human Rights Watch
interview with Sumedha Ekanayake, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
85
Human Rights Watch Interview with SLBFE staff member, name withheld, Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
86
Human Rights Watch interview with Shafinaz Hassendeen, ILO, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 2, 2006.
82

23

Human Rights Watch November 2007

wm i|yka lrk fndfyda isoakaj," /lshd ksfhda;hska yd Wm /lshd ksfhda;hska


ldka;djkaf.ka jemqr uqo,a whlr ;snqfka Tjqka /lshdjg msg;aug fmrh' kuq;a fjk;a
iuyr isoakaj, tu uqo,a fiajlhskaf.a udisl f;kfhka wvqlr .ekSug lghq;= fhdod ;sKs'
tla .Dy fialdjla lsjQ m( "uu ksfhda;hskag re' 5"000 la ^we(fvd' 44& f.jk ,'
uu rg riaidjg .sfha tackaish u.skah' Tjqka wfma f;kj,ska wvq fkdlrk nj lSjo wm
fiajhg .shg udi ;=kl f;k lmd.kakd ,"'87 f,nkkfha ydmq;=ka fiajlhl= fidhd
.ekSug f.jk uqo," fi! wrdh" l=f yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHhkays ydmq;=ka f.jk
uqo,g jvd b;d wvq fyhska" /lshd ksfhda;jre f,nkkaj, jevlrk fiajlhskaf.a f;kj,ska
;u .dia;= wvqlr .ekSug lss%hdlr;s' uE;l f,nkkaj, jevl, .Dy fiajlhska /lshd
ksfhda;jre udihl isg udi 3 olajd f;k ho f,i wvqlr.kakd nj wmg lSfh' tjka
tla .Dy fialdjl lshQ m "uu foaY /lshdjg .sfha wkqrdOmqrfha msys YS%' ,' ' /' ks'
ldhHxY ,shdmx /lshd ksfhda; wdh;khla u.skah' uu Tjqka fj; .sfha ;kshuh' Tjqkaf.a
iydfhka uu fld<Ug f.dia .uka n,m;%h ,nd .;s' Tjqka uf.ka udi 3l mh ^we(fvd' 300
la" uilg we(fvd' 100 ne.ska& wh lr .;af;ah' kuq;a th ud uqo,ska fkdf.jQ w;r udf.a uq,a
udi 3 ;=< mh ydmq;= iska fl,skau Tjqkag f.jk ,'88
/lshd ksfhda;jre yd Wm ksfhda;jrekaf.a jemqr whls ksid .Dy fiajlhskag fndfydag
Yd, fmd,S u; ,nd.;a Kh nr oeug isf' fuu uqo,a mshug wjYH uqo,a imQKfhka
ord .ekSug Tjqkag idudkHfhka wmyiq jk w;r ta ksid fmd,shg uqo,a fok whf.ka fyda rka
NdKav Wlia lsfuka uqo,a ,nd.kS' wm yuqjQ fndfyduhla ldka;djka Kh ,ndf.k ;snqfKa
uilg fmd,sh 20] l muK whlrk Kh fokakkaf.kah' f Kh ksid Tjqkag w;jrld
ydmq;=kaf.ka ksoyia u iSud lrhs' tf,iu fuu Kh fya;=fjka" ksh; kg ;u m
fkdf.jk ydmq;=kag fiajh lrk .Dy fialdjkaf.ao Kh nr by< kefhs' ixl%uKsl
whs;sjdisl ls%hdldhl= lsjQ m "uQ,sl m%YaKh jkafka .Dy fialdjka msg;ajhdug fmru
Kh u ksid tu Kh f.jd .ekSug nefuka" kej; kej;;a ixl%uKh u yd Tjqkaf.a foam<
fyda Wlig ;enQ foaj,a wysuhs' ke;fyd;a ksfhda;jre ta fjkqjg "lror fjkak tmd" wms
tu uqo,a Tnf.a f;k j,ska wvqlr.kak"" kuq;a tu wvql, yels uqo, inkaOj ,s;
.siqula ilia lrkafka ke;s w;r" wef.a udi 3" 4 l f;k wehg fkd,e hhs' tfiau th
fldmuK ld,hla" fl;r uqo,la oehs weh fkdokS"'89
tia' ohdks" re' 40"000 la uqo,la Khg ,nd.;af;a Wm ksfhda;jrhl= fi! wrdfha /lshdjla
i|yd b,a,d is uqo, mshugh' weh wmg lS wdldrhg"

87

Human Rights Watch interview with Sakthipriyah M., Giribawa, Sri Lanka, November 7, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Sujeejwewami Matharachchi (real name used upon request), Colombo, Sri Lanka, November
3, 2006.
89
Human Rights Watch interview with Viola Perera, ACTFORM, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 2, 2006.
88

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

24

"uu tu uqo, ,nd.;af;a wfma .fu uqo,a Khg fok wh fokafklaf.ka''' uf.a
ydmq;=ka ug m f.jQjo" th ksisl,g fkd,enqfKah' uq,a udi 2l mh ,enqfKa
udi 5la fiajh yudr l, gh' ud ,nd.;a Kh uqo,g wod, fmd,sh ,xldj
;=, by< hka ;sKs' wjidkfha ,nd.;a uqo, muKla f.jkakg ug yelsh'
kuq;a tu fi! .ukska ud yg lsisjla b;s lr .; yels fkdh' fmd,sh
uilg 20] ls' Kh uqo, re' 40"000 ls ^we(fvd' 355& uu ;ju;a th f.jka
is' kuq;a ;ju fmd,sh mshug fkdyels h'90
wnqvdj, .Dy fialdjla f,i lghq;= l< tia' ukrxcks wehf.a .um<df;a Wm ksfhda;hl=g
f.u i|yd re' 17"500 ^we(fvd' 155& Khg ,nd .;af;ah' tys fldkafoais o wmg yuqjQ wfkla
.Dy fialdjka m%ldY l< wdldrhgu tl iudk h' tk weh lshQ f,i "re' 1"000 g wms re'
200 l fmd,shla f.juq" th ksis kg fkdf.fjd;a re' 500 ls"'91 ld,h;a iu fujeks fmd,S
wkqmd; ksid Kh uqo, fo.=K" f;.=K f' ;j;a .Dy fialdjla lSf "uu hfulaf.ka re'
5"000 .;af;" udi mylg fmr Tyq ta fjkqfjka re' 11"000 la kej; f.jk f,i oekah'92
l,ska oelajQ m fujeks Yd, Kh uqo,a yd fmd<S wkqmd; fya;=fjka .Dy fialdjkag mSvdld
fiajdia:dkj,ska bj;aj kej; ,xldjg meKSu Ialr we;' ;j;a .Dy fialdjla wef.a uq
fiajd ld,hu vqndhsj, fiajh lr ;snqfKa n,y;aldrfhka jev .kakd ;;ajhla ;=<h' wef.a
ydmq;df.a yd vqndhsys is /lshd ksfhda;hdf.a oreKq ldhsl w;jr bjid ordf.k wehg
.gu jev lsug is jQfha wehf.a uq Kh uqo, jk re' 30"000 l ^we(fvd' 266& uqo,la ^bka
fmd<sh re' 10"000 la we(fvd' 89& f.ug ;su fya;=fjks' weh fufia lSfh' "wmf.a ujf.a
ksji wemhla jYfhka ;nd ;sKs' tu uqo, fmd<sho iu h<s fkdf.jQfha k ksji Tyqg whs;s
jk njg wm tl ;snqKs''' uu wjqre 2 1$2 la fiajh l< ia:dkh .ek uu i;=gq fkdjqko
Kh yd fmd<sh f.ug ;snqK ksid iy kej; ,xldjg meKSh o tu uqo, f.ug wdodh
bmhsh yels ud.hla fkdjQfhka ug bjid.; isug ish'93
wmg fi! wrdfha ;u ydmq;d iska IKh lrk ,j ta fya;=fjka orejl=o ,nd YS%' ,' '
/' ks' ldhHxYh u.ska mj;ajdf.k hkq ,nk jdiia:dkhl l,a f.jka is 32 ye .Dy
fialdjla o yuq idlPd lsug yels h' wehg kej; ;u iajdhd yd orejka y;rfokd
fj; kej; meKSug fkdyels jQfha m%Odk jYfhka weh ,ndf.k ;snQ Kh f.ug we;s
fkdyelshdj ksidh' "uu h,s;a uf.a mjq, iu tlaug fkdyels u .ek lK.dgqh''' foaY
.;ug uu re' 17"000 la ^we(fvd' 151& Khg .;af;' wjqre 1 1$2 l fmd<sho iu oeka th
re' 50"000 ^we(fvd' 444& jkq we;' uu ta uqo, ,nd.;af;a . m<df;a flfkl=f.ks' th
fkdf.jd ug wdmiq f.dia tys isu m%Yakhls'94
90

Human Rights Watch interview with Dayani S., Kandy, Sri Lanka, November 10, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Manaranjani S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
92
Human Rights Watch interview with Kumari S., Vallalgude, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
93
Human Rights Watch interview with Chandrika H., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
94
Human Rights Watch interview with Amanthi K., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
91

25

Human Rights Watch November 2007

cd;Hka;r llre kS;sho /lshd ksfhda;hskag yd Tjqkaf.a Wm ksfhda;hskag whl< yels


/lshd fidhdf iy n|jd .ekSf .dia;= inkaO oe iSud mkjhs' cd;Hka;r llre
ixOdkfha .dia;= whlrk /lshd ksfhda; wdh;k inkaO jQ 96 jk m%{ma;sfha 1958
w;aika l< m%{ma;shg wkqj rch n,h ,ndka wdh;kh u.ska tjeks .dia;= whlrk ksfhda;
wdh;k ksYa; ld, jljdkqjla ;=< bj;a lsuo ,dNh Wmhk /lshd ksfhda; wdh;k iy
wfkla w;ruehka n,Odka fj; bm;a fldg wkque;sh ,enQ .dia;= mudKhkag iSud h
hq;=h'95 "n|jd .ekSf ho mshu i|yd f;kj,ska wvq lsu cd;Hka;r kS;sh hgf;ao
;ykh'
cd;Hka;r llre ixOdkfhka wxl( 95 orK f;k wdrCId lsf m%{ma;shg wkqj ^,xldj
yd f,nkkh hk forgu w;aika lrk ,o& "/lshdjla ,nd.ekSug fyda .gu mj;ajd .ekSu
i|yd fiajlfhl= iska fiajHdg fyda Tyqf.a ksfhda;fhl=g fyda fjk;a w;ruefhl=g
^llrejka imhkakka fyda n|jd .kafkla& fl,skau fyda jl%j f.u i|yd fiajlhdf.a
f;kj,ska lrk lsisu wvq lsula ;yk f'96 tu m%{ma;shg wkqj .dia;= whlrk
ksfhda;hkag f.u i|yd /lshdjla ,nd.ekSu fyda mj;ajd .ekSu Wfoid f;kj,ska lrk
wvqls ;yk lrhs'97
jxpd iy.; iy meye,s f;dr;=re ,nd fkdu
/lshd ksfhda;hd ug lSf uy ldka;djla n,d.ekSug we;s njhs' kuq;a ud
tys .sh g ^fi! wrdhg& ksfjia y;rl jev l< hq;= nj ug f;areKs' uu
ksfjia y;rl jevg tk nj oek isfha ke;' tfia u udyg ,enqfKa tl
ksjilska tl f;khla muKs' tk uilg hd,a 400 ^we(fvd' 107& l
uqo,ls'''' /lshd ksfhda;hd ud /jgqjd h hq;=h'98
)t*a' kQ" jhi 36 .Dy fialdjla f,i fi! wrdfha fiajh lrk ,'
fiajlhka wmg lSf /lshd ksfhda;hska yd Wm ksfhda;hska YS% ,dxlsl ldka;djka .Dy
fiajhg n|jd .ekSf ks;ru /lshdjg hk rg ms<sn|j" fiajd fldkafoais ms<sn|j" ,efnk
f;k ms<sn|j hkd O jxpd iy.; fmdfrdka ,ndfok njh' tfiau Tjqkaf.a /lshdj,
j.lSu ms<sn|j" f;k ms<sn|j iy Tjqkaf.a whs;sjdisl ms<sn|j imQK f;dr;=re iemhSug
95

ILO Convention No. 96 concerning Fee-Charging Employment Agencies (revised 1949), adopted July 1, 1949, entered into force
July 18, 1951, arts. 3(1), 4(1)(b). The Convention defines for-profit fee-charging employment agencies as, any person, company,
institution, agency or other organization which acts as an intermediary for the purpose of procuring employment for a worker or
supplying a worker for an employer with a view to deriving either directly or indirectly any pecuniary or other material advantage
from either employer or worker. Art. 1(1)(a).
96
ILO Convention No. 95 concerning the Protection of Wages, adopted July 1, 1949, entered into force September 24, 1952, art. 9.
The Convention includes a provision allowing governments to exclude domestic workers from provisions of the Convention only if
the state indicates in their first report submitted to the ILO under article 22 of the ILO Constitution the categories of workers to be
excluded. After the date of the first annual report no further exceptions are permissible. Art. 2(2)-(3).
97
International Labour Conference, General Survey of the Reports Concerning the Protection of Wages Convention (No. 95) and the
Protection of Wages Recommendation (No. 85), 1949: Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and
Recommendations (Articles 19, 22 and 35 of the Constitution), Report III, Part I(B), 91st Session (Geneva: ILO, 2003),
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc91/pdf/rep-iii-1b.pdf (accessed June 1, 2007), p. 145, para. 267.
98
Human Rights Watch interview with Noor F., Attanagalla, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

26

Tjqka wfmdfydi;a nj tjeks .Dy fialdjka wmg lSfh' 2004 YS%' ,' ' fia' /' ks'
ldhHxYhg reoaOj fmr .uKsl meKs,s 1112 la ,enqKs'99 n|jd .ekSf ls%hdj,sh ;=<
jxpd lsu iy f;dr;=re fkd,eu ksid .Dy fialdjka iQrd lEf iy n,y;aldrfhka jev
.ekSf wjOdkug ,la f'
/lshd ksfhda;hska yd Wm ksfhda;hska iska /lshdj l< hq;= ia:dkh inkaO f;dr;=re
ijk ,o isoaka lSmhlau wmg jd;d h' f isoaka j, /lshd ksfhda;hska yd Wm
ksfhda;hska .Dy fiajlhkag Tjqka l=f" tlai;a wrd t rdcH fyda f,nkkfha /lshdjg
hjk njg fmdfrdka jQjo Tjqkag ,enqfKa fi! wrdh ;=< /lshd lsugh' uE;l ysxidld
ydmq;df.ka m<d .sh tla .Dy fialdjla lshQ m "uu vqndhsj,g fkdhk nj oek
fkdisfh' uu th oek.;af;a msg;ajk ojfiah' Tjqka ug .=jka lm;a ,ndka g uu hdoa
j,g hk nj oek .;s'100 ;j;a 18 ye .Dy fialdjla wmg lSf wehg vqndhsys /lshdjla
fok njg mjid fi! wrdhg hejQ njh' uu Tjqkag re' 22"000 la ^we(fvd' 195& f.f
vqndhs hEug jk w;r Tyq udj rjgka fi! wrdhg msg;a lf<ah'101 fujeks jxpdj,g uQ,sl
fya;=j ,dN ,euh' /lshd ksfhda;jrekag fi! wrdhg ldka;djka /lshdjg hefuka je
,dNhla ,ef' tys ydmq;=ka je uqo,la fiajlhka iemhSu fjkqfjka f.jkq ,ef'102
,xldf /lshd ksfhda;hskag fi! wrdhg .Dy fialdjla fidhd u u.ska we( fvd' 800 1"000 ;r uqo,la ,efnk w;r fuh wfkla rgj,g Tjqka hefuka ,efnk wdodhug jvd
ie,lsh hq;= ,dNhls'103 Wm /lshd ksfhda;hskag fi! wrdfha /lshdjla i|yd ldka;djla
fidhdfuka ,efnk uqo, tlai;a wrd t rdcHhg fiajlfhla imhd f ,efnk uqo, fuka
y;a .=Khla" ku .=Khla olajdo" f,nkkhg hefuka ,efnk uqo, fuka ;=ka .=Khl isg mia
.=Khla olajdo" l=fghg hefuka ,efnk uqo, fuka fo.=Khl isg y;r .=Khla olajd o
Yd, f'104 fiajh i|yd hk rg inkaOj jxpdjka is jkafka ,dNh wruqKq fldgf.k nj
tla /lshd ksfhda;fhla ms<s.;af;ah' "wehj X keu;s rgg Wjukd jQjo /lshd ksfhda;hd
jvd m%;s,dN ,nd.ekSf wruqKska wehj Y rgg heug wjYH fyhska Tyq wehj l=uK l%uhlska
fyda rjgd Y rgg u hjhs'105

99

Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka, Report of the Committee on the Rights of Women Migrant Workers (Colombo: Human
Rights Commission of Sri Lanka, 2005), p. 36.
100
Human Rights Watch interview with Indrani P., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 15, 2006.
101
Human Rights Watch interview with Padma S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
102
Human Rights Watch interview with Hazzam A. Lathiff, labor agent, All Akeem Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka,
November 3, 2006; Human Rights Watch interview with retired labor agent, name withheld, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 18,
2006; Human Rights Watch Interview with SLBFE staff member, name withheld, Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
103
Human Rights Watch interview with Al-Haj U.T.M. Anver, ALFEA, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 31, 2006; Human Rights Watch
Interview with SLBFE staff member, name withheld, Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
104
Human Rights Watch interview with N.A. Piyaratne, subagent, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006; Sri Lanka Bureau of
Foreign Employment, Annual Statistical Report of Foreign Employment 2005, p. 65; Human Rights Watch interview with SLBFE
staff member, name withheld, Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
105
Human Rights Watch interview with Hazzam A. Lathiff, labor agent, All Akeem Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka,
November 3, 2006.

27

Human Rights Watch November 2007

/lshd ksfhda;jre iy Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre ks;ru ixl%uKsl fiajlhkag fiajd fldkafoais


inkaOfhka jer f;dr;=re ,ndfoa' wm yuqjQ iuyr .Dy fialdjka lSf /lshd ksfhda;jre
fyda Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre klg meh wgla muKla jev l< hq;= nj fyda i;shg fl
khla ,efnk njhs" m%dfhda.slj wm yuqjQ lsisu fiajlfhl=g ,e fkd;snQ tjka fldkafoais
inkaOfhka fmdfrdka ka njh' tia' id;s lSf "/lshd ksfhda;jreka iy Wm /lshd
ksfhda;jreka fofokdu idudkHfhka ud jev l< hq;af;a meh wgla nj lg jpkfhka lSjo ug
iuyr g Bg jvd jev lsug ish"'106 m%dfhda.slj wd' id;s ojig meh 14" 18 jev l<dh'
;j;a .Dy fialdjla wmg lSf wehf.a /lshd ksfhda;hd f,nkkfha /lshdf fldkafoais
inkaOj jxpd l< njhs' "Tjqka ug bod kh ksjdvq .; yels nj lSjo ug th fkd,enqKs'
uf.a ydmq;=ka iu rkavq lrka ug fl kla wjYH nj lSfj' kuq;a Tjqka lSf kqUg
lsisu ksjdvq khla ke;' /lshd ksfhda;hka kqUg fndre lshd we;"'107 ;j;a iuyr isoaka
j, /lshd ksfhda;jre iy Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre fiajlhkaf.a fiajd j.lS inkaOfhka
fndre fmdfrdka ,nd we;' tk ksjfia m%udKh fyda Tjqkaf.a /lshdjg <uhska n,d.ekSu
wh;au fyda fkdu .ek fndre lSuhs' f' ,laKs l=fys Nhdkl ldhsl w;jrj,g uqyqK
mE .Dy fialdjla lS m "ug f.orfodf jev muKla l< hq;= njg Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre
fmdfrdka jQjo lEu msiSu iy w; orejka n,d.ekSuo lrkakg ish' ug ishu jev lsug
ish'"108
;j;a isoahl 26 ye v' fi,ajl=ud lSf "ydmq;df.a ksjfia ;sfofkla muKla isk
nj th fyd| nj;a Wm /lshd ksfhda;jrhd lSjo tys we;a;gu mqoa.,hka y;a fofkla isgs
w;r orejka o lrorld h"'109 ;j;a wu;r isoahl /lshd ksfhda;fhla iska ' ;%dg
fi! wrdfha weh /lshdjg hk ksjfia m%udKh inkaOfhka rjgk ,' weh lS m "ud
fuys wdf tl mjq,lg fiajh lsugh' kuq;a ta fjkqjg ksjfia mjq,a ;=kla is;s"'110 wehf.a
/lshd ksfhda;hd l< hq;= jev iy mh inkaOj fndre fmdfrdka we;' fuf,i fmdfrdka
jQ m wehg fl khla fkd,enqK w;r iy;sl l< mh fuka 2$3 la muK ,enqKs' Wm
/lshd ksfhda;jre fujeks jxpdld lghq;= lrk nj tla /lshd ksfhda;fhla ms<s.;af;ah'
Tyq lSf ".egj Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre fndre lSuhs' Tyq ldka;djkag f ydmq;dg we;af;a
orejka fofofkls" ldur o folla muKs' ^m;% lsug Bg jvd ;snqKo&"111
isoaka .Kkdjl /lshd ksfhda;jre iy Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre .Dy fialdjkag i;H
jYfhkau ,efnk .Kkg jvd by< jegqma fmdfrdka we;' l=f yd fi! wrdfha mia
j;djla fiajh lr we;s .Dy fialdjla wmg lSf 2005 weh wjika jrg fi! wrdhg
106

Human Rights Watch interview with Sathi R., Panadura, Sri Lanka, November 15, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Upeksha R., Vallalgude, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
108
Human Rights Watch interview with Lakmini J., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
109
Human Rights Watch interview with Selvakumari W., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
110
Human Rights Watch interview with Chitra G., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 6, 2006.
111
Human Rights Watch interview with Hazzam A. Lathiff, labor agent, All Akeem Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka,
November 3, 2006.
107

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

28

hk g wehf.a jegqm hd,a 500 la ^we(fvd' 133& nj lSfh' kuq;a ud tys .shg ug ,enqfKa
hd,a 400 ls ^we(fvd' 107& ud Tjqkaf.ka ta .ek weiQ g uf.a iajdhd tla;rd fmd;la
fmkajka wm f.h hq;af;a f .Kk muKls' kqUf.a ksfhda;hd kqUj rjgd we;'112
/lshd .siqj, i|yka jegqmg jvd kshu jYfhka f.jk jegqm fndfyda g wvq nj Tjqka
okakd nj YS% ,xldf /lshd ksfhda;hska lshd isfhah'113 YS% ,xld jD;a;sh llre
ksfhda;hskaf.a ix.ufha iNdm;sjrhd fujeks f;kh inkaOfhka isjk jxpdjka nyq, nj
ms<s.;af;ah' ".Dy fialdjla .ek is;kak" mh we(fvd' 125 la h yels kuq;a Wm /lshd
ksfhda;jreka th we(fvd' 150 la 200 la nj lshhs"'114
;j;a iuyr isoakaj, Wm /lshd ksfhda;jreka ,efnk f;k inkaOj fndre fmdfrdka
,nd Tjqka msg;aug ish,a, iQodk jQ g i;H f;k m%udKh oekq we;' WodyKhla
jYfhka vqndhsys fiajh l< 28 ye .Dy fialdjla lSf "ug uilg rd 750l mhla
^we(fvd' 204& ,efnk njg Wm /lshd ksfhda;hd fmdfrdka h' msg;a jk k Tyq fiajd
.siqu iy .=jka l m;a iu yuqjQ g ud yg ,efnkafka rd 450 la ^we(fvd' 123&
muKla nj uu oek .;s' uu Tyqf.ka f .ek weiqfj" wm jdohl megKs' .=jka lm;
i|yd uqo,a f.jd ;snQ neka ug hdug ish' fjk l< yels fohla fkdh"'115 wehg ,enqfKa
rd 450 la muKs' iuyr gl /lshd ksfhda; yd Wm /lshd ksfhda;jreka ldka;djkag
f;are .; fkdyels NdIdjlska ilia lrk ,o /lshd .siq fhdod .kskao fiajlhskag jxpd
lrhs'
iuyr isoaka j, /lshd ksfhda;jre iy Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre fiajlhd okakd NdIdjlg
/lshd .siqfuys fldgila muKla tk f;kh i|yka lrk fldgi jeks fldgia mj;kh
lrhs' ;j;a iuyr wjia:dj, ueofmr.g ,d jQ g fuu .Dy fialdjkag ,xldf fiajd
.siqulg w;aika ;nd ;snqKo" kj fiajd .siqula w;aika lsug isf' f iEu wjia:djlu
.siqu ilid ;snqfKa wrd NdIdfjka fyhskao tys msgm;la fiajlhskag fkd,efnk fyhskao tys
fldkafoais uq,ska w;aika l< .siqug jvd fyda lgjpkfhka fmdfrdka jQ ldrKdj,g jvd
fjkia foehs ksKh lsu wmyiqh'
t' pkasld lSf "vqndhs ys /lshd ksfhda;hd uf.a fiajd .siqu hehs lshd wrd NdIdfjka
ilia l< f,aLKhla u; ug w;aika lrk f,i lSfh' ug tys lsisjla fkdf;areKs' kuq;a Tyq
lshQ ksid udf.a w;aik ;eh' ud vqndhs meKs g Tjqka .=jka f;dgqfmd,g meK udj /f.k
ksfhda;hd fj; f.k f.dia fuf,i .siqugo w;aika ,nd.;af;ah' f ish foa tla kl
ish' .siqf fldkafoais .ek ug lsis;a fkdlS w;r tys msgm;lao ug fkd,enqKs' ud

112

Human Rights Watch interview with Sithy S., Tihari, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Hazzam A. Lathiff, labor agent, All Akeem Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka,
November 3, 2006. He said, Officially, the salary [for Saudi Arabia] is 500-450 Saudi riyals. Actually, they get 400 riyals, but
experienced [workers] get 450.
114
Human Rights Watch interview with Al-Haj U.T.M. Anver, ALFEA, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 31, 2006.
115
Human Rights Watch interview with Savindi P., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
113

29

Human Rights Watch November 2007

,xldfjka msg;aug fmr Wm /lshd ksfhda; lSf ug rd 500 la ^we(fvd' 136& f.jk nj
kuq;a ug ,enqfKa rd 400 la ^we(fvd' 109& muKs'116
n|jd .ekSf isjk /j yd kshu f;dr;=re fkd,eu iQrdlEug odhljkqfha" .Dy
fiajlhska fiajh lrk rgg ,djQ g Tjqkag fjkila lr.ekSug we;s yelshdj u| neks'
l=f ys fmr fiajh l< .Dy fialdjla kej; fi! wrdhg foia.;jQ wjia:df wmg
lSf" "uu ,xldfjka hkakg l,ska fi! wrdh f jf.a hehs oek isfha ke;' uf.a
ksfhda;hd ug lsisjla lSf ke;"'117 fi! wrdfha weh wl jev m%udKhla flhlska
f;drj lsugo" n,y;aldrfhka r|jd .ekSugo" nek jej,go uqyqK kafkah' ;j;a
isoahl t' uys,f.a /lshd ksfhda;jrhd fyda Wm /lshd ksfhda;jrhd wehg fi!
wrdfha /lshdjg hdug fmr wehf.a f;kh .ek okajd fkd;snqK w;ru /lshd .siqulao
,nd fkd;sKs' weh jev lrka is f;a j;a;g meKs Wm /lshd ksfhda;hd wehg lSf" "uu
jevg hk ;ek b;du fyd|h" hkak muKls'
uu uf.a mh .ek oek.;af;a tys ^fi! wrdh& .sh gh' uf.a ydmq;d uf.a
mh hd,a 400 la ^we(fvd' 107& hehs lsjQ gh' uf.a orejkaf.a wOHdmkhg yd
wdydr mdkj,g th m%udKj;a ke;s ksid uu jemqr m b,afj' uf.a
ydmq;d th m%;sfCIam l, w;r ,xldjg f.dia kej; mefKk f,io" tg
Tjqka mh jel, yels njo lSfh' ,xldfjka hkakg fmr ug ta .ek lsisu
woyila fkd;sKs'118
wm yuqjQ fndfyduhla ldka;djka mejiqf Tjqka /lshd .siqulg w;aika lf<a fyda tjeks
.siqul msgm;la Tjqkag ,enqfKa fyda fkdue;s njhs' idudkHfhka Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre
/lshd .siq ,nd fkdfohs' tjeks .siq w;aika lrkqfha m%Odk ksfhda;hdf.a ldhd,fhah'
tfyhska ;u m%Odk ksfhda;hska yuqug fkd,efnk .Dy fiajlhskag fndfydag /lshd .siqu
w;aika lsug fkd,ef'119 f,nkka .Dy fiajhg .sh v' iqika;sld lSf" "uu /lshd .siqula
w;aika l, hq;= oehs /lshd ksfhda;hdf.ka weiQg Tyq mejiqf lror fjkak tmd uu ta .ek
n,d.kak nh fjkak fohla keye'
Tng we(fvd' 125 l jegqmla ,efnkq we;s" Tng h m%Yakhla jqjfyd;a wmg l:dl,g wms ta
.ek n,d.kak' Tyq lSf tu ydmq;d fj; hk ishu .Dy fialdjka fjkqfjka Tyq iu
fiajd .siqula we;s njh' /jug we;s bvlv .ek Tyqf.ka weiQg tfia ke;snjo Tyq
lSfh"'120 kuq;a we;a;gu iqika;sldg ,enqfKa we( fvd' 100 la muKs'

116

Human Rights Watch interview with Chandrika H., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Nayanadini B., Rambe, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
118
Human Rights Watch interview with Mahilam G., Maskeliya, Sri Lanka, November 13, 2006.
119
Human Rights Watch interview with Feizal Samath, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 30, 2006.
120
Human Rights Watch interview with Susanthika W., Panadura, Sri Lanka, November 15, 2006.
117

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

30

wfkla iuyr isoakaj, /lshd ksfhda;jre iy Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre .Dy fialdjkag


fiajh lrk rgj, ;ukag ys whs;sjdisl .ek y f;dr;=re ,nd fkdfohs' f,nkkfha
/lshdjg .sh .Dy fialdjla lSf" /lshd ksfhda;jre iy Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre fofokdu
ydmq;=ka fjkia lsug yd /lshdfjka bj;aj hdug ug we;s whs;sh .ek fkdoekah' Tjqka
lSf .siq ld,h jk jir 2 la yd k 90 l ld,h imQK jk ;=re ug wdmiq tau fkdyels
njh' fjk lsisjla meye,s lf,a ke;"'121 /lshd ksfhda;jre iy Wm /lshd ksfhda;jre
iuyr g fiajlhska ,jd jev ld,h imQK fkdlr wdmiq ishrg taug Tjqkag we;s whs;sh
wyslrk .siqj,g tl jk f,i lshd ishs' fujeks ,sh,s /lshd .siqug wu;rj ilia
f' l=fj, ixl%uKsl .Dy fialdjla jk t' ,sksld lshQ m" "/lshd ksfhda;
wdh;kfha uu fld,hlg w;aika l, w;r" tys uu /lshd ld,h wjika jk ;=re h m%Yak
we;sjQjo kej; fkdtk njgo" /lshd ksfhda;hd lsisu fya;=jla ksid kej; ud ndr fkd.kakd
njgo i|yka h' tfy;a ug ,efnk f;kh fyda /lshdf j.lS inkaOj lsisu ,sh,a,la
ug w;aika lsug ,enqfKa ke;"'122
iuyr fujeks jxpdld n|jd.ekSf isoaka n,y;aldrfhka jev ,nd.ekSu olajd oreKq h
yel'123 n,y;aldrfhka /f.k f.dia jev.ekSu (Trafficking) inkaO ,CIK jkafka" n,h
fhou" n,mE lsu iy ixl%uKsl ls%hdj,sh ;=, h wjia:djl jxpdjka islsuhs'
fujeks jxpdjka kshudldrfhka isjQ n|jd.ekS inkaOj mjd isjQjo" wmg jd;d jQ iuyr
tjeks isoaka n,y;aldrfhka /f.k f.dia jev .ekSf .Khg we;=,;ah' n|jd .ekSf
ls%hdj,sh ;=, isjk n,mE yd /j ksido" wl .dia;= whlsu yd ta u.ska we;sjk Khnr
ksido" ixl%uKsfhl= yd fiajlfhl= f,i ,efnk whs;sjdisl ixLHdj jer f;dr;=re ksido"
fiajd imhk rgj, ffk;sl wdrCIdjla fkdue;suo" ldka;djka f jd;df miqj fmkajd
we;s r|jdf.k n,y;aldrfhka jev .ekS yd fiajd ia:dkfha w;jr hkd wjOdkj,g uqyqK
fohs' llrejka r|jdf.k jev .ekSu inkaOfhka kshudldrfhka isjQ n|jd.ekS j,
/lshd ksfhda;hka ldka;djkag jer f;dr;=re iemhSu" /ju" n,mE wdh is we;' miqj
Tjqkag jevm,j, w;sYh oreKq w;jrj,g uqyqKq ug isf'
WodyKhla jYfhka hqoaOh mj;sk W;=re m%foaYfha 24 he;s ujla jk ta' m%kd .ek
ie,l+g" wehg Yd, ld,hla ;u mjq, yd orejkaf.ka wE;a is' fi! wrdfha /lshdjg
f.dia kej; meKs wehg bkahdf is ;u mjq, iu kej; tlaug wjYH h' tfy;a wehj
121

Human Rights Watch interview with Sathi R., Panadura, Sri Lanka, November 15, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Dilinekaa M., Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
123
The UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children defines trafficking as
the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion,
of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of abuse of power or of position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or
benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Protocol to Prevent,
Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention on
Transnational Organized Crime (Trafficking Protocol), adopted November 15, 2000, G.A. Res. 55/25, annex II, 55 U.N. GAOR Supp.
(No. 49) at 60, U.N. Doc. A/45/49 (Vol.I) (2001), entered into force December 25, 2003, art. 3(a). Sri Lankan law prohibits trafficking
in persons, pursuant to a 1995 amendment to the penal code. Penal Code, No. 2, 1883, section 360(C), amended by Penal Code
(Amendment) Act, No. 22, 1995.
122

31

Human Rights Watch November 2007

rjgd kej; fi! wrdfhau .Dy fiajhg hjd we;' tys wehj r|jdf.k n,y;aldrfhka jev
.ekSf ;;ajhka hgf;a wjqre 1 1$2 muK jev lsug ish' weh lshQ m(
2004 uehs udifha ud kej; ,xldjg wdg" tys uf.a lsisfjla fkdh' .=jka
f;dgqmf,a ug ldka;djla yuqh' weh ud yg wjYH ^bkahdjg hEug& id i,id fok
njg fmdfrdka .uka n,m;%h" uqo,a yd ish,a, b,a,df.k ;nd .;a;dh' ug kej;
fi! wrdhg heug ie,iq flfrk nj ud fkdo;a w;r uu thg wlue;s h' tu
ldka;dj ishfoa ilia lf<ah' wm .=jka f;dgqm,g .sh go" weh uf.a .=jka .uka
n,m;%h ,nd fkdkakdh' msgf ljqkagrfha is mqoa.,hd lSf" Tn msg;aj hkafka
bkahdjg fkdj fi! wrdhghs' .=jkaf;dgmf,a msgf ljqkagrhg .sh miq wdmiq
hEug fkdyelsh' ta fj,df ug iydh ,nd.; yels ks<Odfhla .ek uu oek
fkdisfh' fi! wrdfha uf.a iajdjo udj kej; heug wlue;s h' flfiaj;a
msgj hdug fkdyelsjQ w;r ug hdug wjYH nj lSg weh th m%;sfCIam lr udj
ysrlr ;nd ;sKs'124
;j;a tjeks isoahl t*a' kQ k fialdjg l=fys wehf.a yd mq;d iska wdmk Yd,djla
;=< mskag f;a yd fldams iemhSug ish' fuh Tjqkaf.a miauy,a .Dyh msis lsug yd 20
fofkl=g wdydr msiSug wu;rh'125 YS% ,xldf wef.a /lshd ksfhda;hd wehg lshd ;snqfKa weh
.Dy fialdjla f,i fiajhg hjk nj i fgjhla f,i jevl, hq;= njla fkdf' "ug
fl,skau tys isk ksfhda;hd" tk ud meKs k l=f .=jka f;dgqmf,a ug yuqjQ
ksfhda;hd fj; .sfh' tfy;a Tyq ud uq,dlr Tjqka PdhdrEm u.ska fmkajd fmdfrdka jQ ksji
fj; /f.k hdu meyer yefhah' k 5 g miq kej; ud Tyqg l;dfldg ug tu ksjfia jevl,
fkdyels nj;a" uu meKsfha .Dy fialdjla f,i fiajhg mj;a lshd isfh' Tyq ug ;j l
l,la bjik f,i lSfh' miqj uu tu ksfjiska m,d .sfh"'126
rchka iska isl, hq;= /lshd ksfhda;jreka iy Wm /lshd ksfhda;jrekaf.a n|jd.ekS
lghq;= md,kh lsu | jegqKq g" ixl%uKsl fiajlhskaj r|jdf.k n,y;aldrfhka jev
.ekSu ;r NhxlrjQ fiajd ;;ajhkag uqyqK ug isf wjOdku by< hhs' ksjer ixLHd
f,aLk ,nd.ekSu wmyiq jQjo" cd;Hka;r llre ixOdkfha (ILO) .Kkh ls j,g wkqj
f,djmqrd tjeks mSvdjkag ,lajQ wh ,shk 2'45 la muK oekg iQrdlEug ,lajk w;r th
n,y;aldrfhka jev ,nd.kakd uq ixLHdfjka 20] muK m%;sY;hls'127

124

Human Rights Watch interview with Praveena A., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Noor F., Attanagalla, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
Ibid.
127
International Labour Organization, ILO Minimum Estimate of Forced Labour in the World (Geneva: ILO, 2005),
http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=5073 (accessed June 8, 2007), pp.
4, 33.
125
126

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

32

msg;aj hdug fmr islrk ffjoH mCIK yd wlue;af;ka Wm;amd,k l%u Nd;h
ixl%uKhg n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk .Dy fiajlhskag ;ukag ta inkaO meye,s fldg leue;a;
,nd.ekSulska f;drj yd tys m%m, oek.; fkdyels ffjoH mCIKj,g fmkS isug isfjhs'
tfiau iuyr ldka;djka wmg lshQ m Tjqkag .=ld,Sk Wm;amd,k l%uj,g tlug
n,mEo ish' tajd fiajd ld,h ;=, .e.ekSu je,elaug islrk ,'
ishu ixl%uKsl ldka;djkag wksjdh ffjoH mCIK lsysmhla tk .NkSNdjh" t'whs''
fldf,iagfrda,a jeu i|yd fld<U k.rfha msys mqoa.,sl mCIKd.drj,128 uqyqK ug
isf'
tfiau CIh frda.h i|yd mmqf X-Ray mCIKho"129 weia fmkSu" l:kh iy lka weiSu
inkaO mCIKo is flf'130 foaY lghq;= wud;HxYfha ks<Odfhl= lSf tu mCIK
mj;ajkafka ldka;djka ldhslj fiajh ,ndug iqiqoehs131 iy;sl lsug njh' .NKS fyda
t'whs'' wid; ldka;djka iqiq ke;s f,i i,lk w;r ixl%uKhg wjir fkd,efnhs'132
wm yuqjQ fndfyda ldka;djka mejiqf islrk mCIK inkaOj Tjqkag oekq ula fkd,enqKq
w;r mCIKj,g fmr fyda miqj lsisjl=gj;a WmfoaYk fiajdj, iydho fkd,enqK njh'
oekf.k leu;s u iy ryiHNdjh ffjoH jD;a;sfha uQ,sl isoaOdka;h jk kuq YS% ,xldf
ixl%uKsl fiajlhska inkaOj tajd fkdi,ld yef'
wm yuqjQ fndfyda ldka;djkag oekq ;snqfKa Tjqkaj kEu frda. ;;ajhla i|yd mCId lrk
nj kuq;a f frda. fudkjdoehs i|yka lr fkd;snqKs' fujeks tla isoahl" , f,nkkfha
.Dy fiajh i|yd ffjoH mCIKhg fmkS is fialdjla wmg lS m ffjoH mCIKh is
lrkafka wehs oehs ug mejiqf ke;'133 YS% ,dxlsl ixl%uKslhskag myiql imhk kS;S{hl=
lSf Tjqka fndfyda fj,djg f,a ,nd.kafka wehs oehs fkdokaj;s'134
f jd;dj i|yd wm yuq idlPd l< fndfyduhla ixl%uKsl .Dy fiajlhkag Tjqkaf.a
ffjoH jd;dj, m%;sM, ,e ;snqfka ke;' tu jd;d mCIKd.drh u.ska fl<skau Tjqkaf.a
/lshd ksfhda;hskag fyda $ iy fiajd odhlhskag ,ndka nj is;+y' tla ldka;djla wmg lSf"
ffjoH mCIKj, jd;d fiajdodhlhskag hjk ,' tys m%;sM, inkaOj ud yg Tjqka lsisjla
fkdlSfh'135 ;j;a wfhla lSf Tjqka udf.a rerh yd uq;%d mCId l< w;r X-Ray
128
There are 13 medical clinics approved by the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, collectively called the GCC Approved
Medical Centres Association, Inc. (GAMCA), and GCC embassies honor only medical certificates issued by GAMCA clinics.
CARAM Asia, State of Health of Migrants 2007 (Kuala Lumpur: CARAM Asia, 2007),
http://www.caramasia.org/reports/SoH2007/SoH_Report_2007-online_version.pdf (accessed September 6, 2007), p. 90.
129
Human Rights Watch interview with Sumedha Ekanayake, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
130
Ibid.
131
Ibid.
132
Ibid.
133
Human Rights Watch interview with Susanthika W., Panadura, Sri Lanka, November 15, 2006.
134
Human Rights Watch interview with Viola Perera, ACTFORM, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 2, 2006.
135
Human Rights Watch interview with Soma W., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.

33

Human Rights Watch November 2007

mCIKhlao lf,ah' Tjqka wmg m%;sM, ,nd fkdfohs' Tjqka tajd /lshd ksfhda;hdg fohs'136
,xldf rdcH fkdjk ixOdkhla jk Action Network for Migrant Workers
(ACTFORM) ys wOHCIjrfhl= lSf frda.shdf.a ryiHNdjh ks;ru lvjk njh'137 foaY
lghq;= wud;HxYfha ks<Odfhlao ixl%uKsl .Dy fiajlhkaf.a ffjoH mCIKj, ryiHNdjh
iqrlSu i|yd l%ufohla fkdue;s nj ms,s.;af;ah' weh t'whs'' wdid; k ta nj
ffjoHjrhd /lshd ksfhda;hdg mjihs' mCIK m%;sM, /lshd ksfhda;hskag hjhs'
ldka;djkag msgm;la wjYH k th fokq ,ef' idudkHfhka Tjqka mCIKj,ska iu;a nj
muKla okajhs'138 f ia;r j,g wkqj mCIK m%;sM, jd;d lsf l%ufoha cd;Hka;r
kS;sh hgf;a iy Ys% ,xldf ffjoH jD;a;slhkaf.a jD;a;sh fr.=,dis wkqjo W,a,x>kh lrhs'139
meye,s lr leue;a; ,nd.ekSfuka f;drj iy iuyr wjia:dj, Tjqkaf.a leue;a;g
reoaOj Wm;a md,k tkak;a ,ndka wjia:d wmg oek.; yels h' ;u Yrh inkaOfhka
;udu ;SrK .ekSf whs;sh u; kEu whl=g ffjoH m%;sldrhla m%;sfCIam lsf whs;sh
iy;sl lrhs'140
iuyr isoaka j, mCIKd.drfha mqoa.,hska /lshdjg hk fiajlhskag lSf tu k ,o
fnfy; .NkS nj je,elaug ,ndka njh' fjk;a iuyr wjia:dj, ffjoH ldH uKav,h
tkak; ,ndfok ;=re lsisjla fkdlSfh' ffjoH mCIKhg uqyqK ka tla ldka;djla lshQ m"
Tyq ug tkak;la h hq;= nj lSjd uu th m%;sfCIam lf,' ffjoH
uOHia:dkfh ffjoHjrhdo h lsis je/oaola isjqjfyd;a orefjla ,eug
we;s bvlv j,lajk tkak;la ,nd.; hq;= nj lS g Tyq uf.a /lshd
ksfhda;hdg l;d fldg ta nj mejiqfh' /lshd ksfhda;hd tg ug lSf
uf.a leue;af;ka f;drj h je/oaola ^,sx.sl& is jqjfyd;a ud tkak;
,ndfkd.;a nj fkdlshk nj mejiqfh'141
136

Human Rights Watch interview with Manaranjani S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Viola Perera, ACTFORM, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 2, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Sumedha Ekanayake, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
139
Such breaches of confidentiality are contrary to the right to privacy. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR),
adopted December 16, 1966, G.A. Res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S.
171, entered into force March 23, 1976, art. 17. Interpreting this provision of the ICCPR, the UN Human Rights Committee further
specifies that states must take effective measures to ensure that information concerning a persons private life does not reach the
hands of persons who are not authorized by law to receive, process and use it. UN Human Rights Committee, General Comment 16,
The Right to Respect of Privacy, Family, Home and Correspondence, and Protection of Honour and Reputation (Art. 17), (Twentythird session, 1988), Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies,
U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.6 (2003), p. 142, para. 10; Ethics Committee, Sri Lanka Medical Council, Guidelines on Ethical Conduct
for Medical and Dental Practitioners Registered with the Sri Lanka Medical Council (Colombo: Sri Lanka Medical Council, 2003), p.
43 (providing that confidentiality is implied in the contract between doctor and patient and any unauthorized disclosurewould
constitute a breach of contract, with grounds for civil proceedings against the doctor).
140
ICCPR, art. 9(1); Rebecca Cook, Bernard M. Dickens and Mahmoud F. Fathalla, Reproductive Health and Human Rights:
Integrating Medicine, Ethics, and Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2003), pp. 109, 164-170; UN Committee on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights, Substantive Issues Arising in the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights, General Comment 14, The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (Art. 12), (Twenty-second session, 2000),
Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc.
HRI/GEN/1/Rev.6 (2003), p. 85, para. 37 (referring to a State obligation to support people in making informed choices about their
health).
141
Human Rights Watch interview with Sathi R., Panadura, Sri Lanka, November 15, 2006.
137
138

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

34

CARAM Asia hk ixl%uKslhkaf.a fi!LH m%YaK inkaOfhka lghq;= lrk m%dfoaYSh cd,hg
wkqjo Ys% ,xldf /lshdj,g hk ixl%uKsl fialdjka fndfyda fofkl=g
fufrdfm%dfciagfrdaka keu;s Wm;a md,k T!Ioh ffjoH mCIK wjia:dj, ,nd we;s nj
iy;sl lrhs'142
ldka;djka fndfyda fofkla wmg lSf /lshd ksfhda;jreka iy Wm /lshd ksfhda;jreka
iska Tjqkag f Wm;a md,k tkak; ,nd.ekSug n,mE l, njhs' iuyr isoaka j, /lshd
ksfhda;jreka f fialdjkag tu tkak; ,nd fkd.;fyd;a ;u ydmq;d iska isl,
w;jrhl mjd ;uka Wo fkdlrk nj lshhs' WodyKhla jYfhka B' mdr;d lshQ m" ug
fjk l, yels fohla fkd;sKs' Tjqka lSf tkak; ke;sj ud foia.; h fyhlska
.eKshla jqjfyd;a ud iska u uf.a lm; ,nd f.k kej; wd hq;= w;r /lshd
ksfhda;jrhd j.lSu ndr fkd.kS'143 kuq;a ud tkak; ,ndf.k f.dia hula isjqjfyd;a
ksfhda;hd j.lSu ndr.kS'
m%Odk ksfhda; ud yg lSf mqoa.,sl ffjoHjrhl= fj; f.dia tkak; ,nd
.kakd f,ih' ug tkak; ,nd fkdf.k isug yels nj Tjqka oekajQfha ke;'
Tjqka ug n, lf<a ke;' kuq;a wfkla w;ska ugo l, yels fohla fkd;snqKs'
Tjqka lshQ m /lshdj lrk ksjfia ug h lrorhla ish yelsh' ta ksid
f tkak; ,nd.;fyd;a Tnj .NKS fkdjkq we;' fuys lror jYfhka Tyq
i|yka Tyq i|yka lf,a /lshd lrk ksjfia mska u.ska isjk ,sx.sl
w;jrhkah'144
YS%' ,' ' fia' /' ks' ldhHxY ks<Odfhla lsf .Dy fiajhg hk ldka;djkag wksjdh
ffjoH mCIK w;r;=r Wm;a md,l tkak;a ,ndug Wkkajla we;snj Tjqka okakd nj
ms,s.;a w;r"145 kuq;a th rcfha m%;sm;a;sh fkdjk njo lshd isfhaah'146
Tjqkaj ixl%uKsl fiajlhskaf.ka ta inkaO meKs,s ,e ke;s nj YS%' ,' ' fia' /' ks'
ldhHxYh jd;d lrhs' meKs,s fkdlsug fya;=j f,i iuyr .Dy fiajlska mejiqf" Tjqkag
tu Wm;a md,k tkak;a147 m%;sfCIam lsug whs;shla we;s nj fkdo;a ksid;a" iuyr ;j;a
iuyr ldka;djkag Tjqkag tkak;a l, fnfy; .ek wjfndaOhla f;d;snQ ksid;a fya;=fjka njh'

142

CARAM Asia, State of Health of Migrants 2005 (Kuala Lumpur: CARAM Asia, 2006),
http://www.caramasia.org/reports/SoH2005/SoH_2005_Chapter3.pdf (accessed June 7, 2007), p. 106; CARAM Asia, State of Health
of Migrants 2007 (Kuala Lumpur: 2007), http://www.caramasia.org/reports/SoH2007/SoH_Report_2007-online_version.pdf (accessed
September 6, 2007), pp. 90-91. Injectable medroxyprogesterone , commonly distributed under the brand name Depo-Provera, is used
as a contraceptive to prevent pregnancy.
143
Human Rights Watch interview with Paramitha E., Rambe, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
144
Human Rights Watch interview with Erandathi P., Rambe, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
145
Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhunage, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2007.
146
Human Rights Watch interview with Sumedha Ekanayake, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
147
Ibid.

35

Human Rights Watch November 2007

IV. fi! wrdh" l=f" f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t rdcH ;=, isjk w;jr
wms yefudagu kej; YS% ,xldjg hEug wjYHhs"
wms yefudau meKsfha Yd, n,dfmdfrd;a;= iys;jh'
wms lsisfgl fujeks foa isf hehs is;=f ke;'148
-mS' bkadKs" jhi 32" fi! wrdfha YS% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd,fha ;djld,sl
ksjiakhl is .Dy fialdjla'
fi! wrdh" l=f" f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHh ;=, YS% ,dxlsl ldka;d .Dy
fiajlhska O wdldrfha w;jr yd iQrdlEf l%uj,g nka fj;s' jevm, ;=, O w;jr
isf' tk f;k fkdf.jd isu fyda wvqfjka f.u" f;k iQrdlEu" jevm, ;=, r|jd
;nd.ekSu" w;sYh .= meh .Kka jev lsu yd fl khla fkd,eu hkdhhs'
tf,iu YS% ,dxlsl ldka;d .Dy fiajlhska ldhsl" udkisl iy ,sx.sl w;jr j,go ,laf' tk"
wdydr fkd,eu fkd,eu iy fkdiqiq jk myiql ykd .ekSf ,sms f,aLK r|jd ;nd
.ekSu" ikaksfokh iSud lsu" ;u rgg kej; hdug wjYH jQ g th iSud lsu iy tu
rgj, isk /lshd tacka;jreka iska islrk iQrdlE wdhhs' f fndfyda wjia:dj, tu
w;jr cd;Hka;r kS;sfhkao ;yk jQ jev.ekSu olajd ys hhs'
tfiau h h fYaIs; lKavdh b,lal jQ w;jr j,go YS% ,xldf ixl%uKsl .Dy fialdjka
uqyqK foa' foaYlhskag" fYaIfhkau wdishdkq yd wms%ldkq cd;slhskag my;a f,i ie,lSu kS;s
moaO;sh ;=< ldka;djka fjkalr ykd.ekSu yd wiudk f,i ie,lSu" wfkla wd. woyk whg
wd.u weoySug we;s ksoyi iSud lsu" wdh tu .Khg we;=,;a f' WodyKhla jYfhka"
,xldfjka .sh fn!oaO" yska" yd ls%ia;shdks .Dy fiajlhska ;ukaf.a wd.u weoySug iSud we;sjqk
nj wmg lSfh' tia' ls%Iakka k tjeks yska Nla;sl .Dy fialdjla wmg ta nj ikd: lf<ah'
"ud jev l, lsisu rgl tk fi! wrdh" l=f yd f,nkka ys uf.a ydmq;=ka ud uf.a
wd.u woykjdg wlue;s h' uf.a ku ls%IaKka fyhska f,nkkfha uf.a ydmq;d uf.a wd.u
oekf.k" ksji ;=, ug wd.u weoysh fkdyels nj;a miqj ud wdmiq uf.a ksjig .shg tfia
l< yels nj;a oekajQfhah"'149
tfiau wmg yuqjQ iuyr ldka;djka hym;a ;;ajhkag uqyqK ;snqKq njo wu;l l, hq;=
ke;' iuyr ydmq;=ka fuu fiajlhska g ;u /lshd ld,h wjidkfha m%ido ukdjla fyda rka
NdKav fyda .Dy WmlrK ;E.s jYfhka ,ndoS ;snsKs'

148
149

Human Rights Watch interview with Indrani P., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 15, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Krishnan S., Maskeliya, Sri Lanka, November 13, 2006.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

36

iuyr uqia,s .Dy fialdjkag ;u ydmq;=ka iuu ulalu hdug wjia:dj ,e ;sKs'
l=fj, fiajh l< ldka;djla lSf" "ud fiajh l, ydmq;=kag fohka wdYsjdo l, hq;=h'
Tjqka ug fialdjlg f,i fkdie,l=fh' ;=frla f,i ie,l=fh' uu Tjqka b;d leu;s jQ
w;r Tjqkag ug yd uf.a jev .ek i;=gq h'150 kuq;a f idudkH ;;ajh fkdf' f jd;dj
i|yd wmg yuqjQ whf.ka nyq;rh O lror mSvdj,g uqyqK ;sK'
f;k fkdf.u yd wvqfjka f.u'
ud m b,ag Tjqka ug myr fohs' flfia fyda uu uq,a udi 3l mh ,nd .;s' uf.a mshd
frda.d;=r we;s njg ug rl:k mKsvhla ,eKs' tg uu uf.a m b,a w;r Tjqka ug
myr kafkah' "wms WUj .;af;a uqo,a f.fuka' ta uqo,aj,g WU jevl, hq;=hs'" Tjqka lSfh'151
-mS' ,;d" jhi 32 l orejka 4 fofkl=f.a ujla" wehg ;u ydmq;d iska udi
5 l m fkdf.jd ;sKs' fi! wrdfha wm yuqjk g wehg kej; ,xldjg
taug wjYH .=jka l m; , .ekSug fkdue;sj isfhah'
fuu jd;dj i|yd wm yuqjQ fiajlhskaf.ka 20] muKu ;ukaf.a imQK m ,e fkd;sKs'
udi lsysmhl isg wjqre 3-4 la olajd ys jegqma ta w;r h' ;j;a fndfyda whg Tjqkag lg
jpkfhka fmdfrdka jQjdg jvd fyda ;u /lshd .siqj, i|yka jQjdg jvd wvqfjka f.djd
we;' ;u f;k fkdf.u" YS% ,dxlsl .Dy fialdjka meKs,s lrk m%Odk;u m%Yakhls' YS%' ,'
' fia' /' ks' ldhHxYhg ,efnk meKs,sj,ska 20] la muKu tljQ f;k fkdf.h'152
rcfha uqo,a uska md,khjk jirlg tjeks .Dy fialdjka 100 lg muK kS;s wdOdr imhk
rchg inkaO wdh;khla jk kS;s wdOdr fldiu lshd isfha Tjqkag ,efnk m%Odk;u
meKs,a, f;k fkdf. njhs'153
wm yuqjQ fndfyda ldka;djkag f.jd ;snqfKa we(fvd' 17 yd 107 w;r ;r uqo,la tljQ
f;khg jvd wvqfjkah' tu uqo, tl jQ uqo, fuka 50] la muKu wvqfjka f.uls'
f,nkkfha Tjqkag ksh; .dia;=j jk we(fvd' 125-150 fjkqjg we(fvd' 100 la muKla f.jQ
njo" fi! wrdfha hd,a 450-800 ^we(fvd' 120-213& w;r fmdfrdka jQ hd,a 300-400
^we(fvd' 80-107& muKla f.jQ njo" l=fgfha kd 40-45 ^we(fvd' 142-160& fmdfrdka
kd 35 ^we(fvd' 124& muKla f.jQ njo" tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha rdia 500-750
^we(fvd' 136-204& fmdfrdka rdia 400-450 ^we(fvd' 109-123& muKla f.jQ njo" .Dy
fiajlshska lshd isfhah'
tla ore ujla jk 25 ye fiamd,sld fi! wrdfha uqyqK ka w;aoelS fufia ia;r l,dh'
150

Human Rights Watch interview with Kadhiroli S., Habaraduwa, Sri Lanka, November 14, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Latha P., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 15, 2006.
152
Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment, Annual Statistical Report of Foreign Employment 2005, p. 61.
153
Human Rights Watch interview with Lelanthi Kumari, Legal Aid Commission, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 17, 2006.
151

37

Human Rights Watch November 2007

tys wl f,i jev lsug ish' uu f;k b,ag Tjqka lSf miqj uqo,a
heh yels njh' f;k b,a,k g ndnd154 ^ydmq;d& lshkqfha fyg f.jkak"
blauKska f.jkak hkqfjks' ud Tyqg ug mh wjYHhs' kqU,d uf.a m
fkdf.jhs' tfiau jevm,o wlhs" lS g Tyq ug myr kafkah' Tyq w;ska uf.a
luq,g myr kafkah' uu tod oji mqrdu lsisjla wdydrhg .;af;a ke;' B,
kfha kej;;a Tjqka ug nekjeug mgka .;af;ah' ug ;j;a ojila wdydr
fkdf.k uf.a f;k f.jk f,i Tjqkag frdaO;djhla meje;ah' tfy;a Tjqka
ug i;hlaj;a fkdf.h' udi 10gu Tjqka f;k lsisjla fkdks'155
fufia udi 10 la lsisu f;khla fkd,nd jevl, tia' fiamd,sld miqj ;u iajd ksjiska m,d
.shdh' wmg weh yuqjQ wjia:df wehg whh hq;= we(fvd' 1600 muK jQ udi 10 l f;kh
whlr .ekSug fkdyels ;sKs' ;j;a tjeks f,nkkfha fiajh l< .Dy fialdjla lS m"
"uu f.or ldka;djg l:dfldg ud we(fvd' 150 l f;khla ys .siqula w;aika l,o nn ug
f.jkafka we(fvd' 100 la muKls@ weh lSf" "kqU tjka .siqula w;aika l,o" kqUg lsisu
m,mqreoaola ke;s w;r oekg tjeks m,mqreoaola ke;s fialdjkag f.jk .Kk we(fvd' 100 ls'
tfukau m,mqre whgo f.jkqfha we(fvd' 125 la muKhs'"156
j.=j 2( ksh; udisl f;k" iy wmg ^yshquka rhs fjd& jd;djQ ^i;H& f.jQ udisl yd
mehlg f.jk f;k'
fiajh lrk rg

.Dy fiajlhskag ks,


jYfhka ms,s.;a
f;k

.Dy fiajlhskag f.jk


kshu f;k

f,nkkh
Tlai;a wrd t rdcHh

we(fvd' 130158
rdia 550159
^we(fvd' 150&
hd,a 500160
^we(fvd' 133&
kd 40161
^we(fvd' 142&

we(fvd' 100
rdia 400-450
^we(fvd' 109-123&
hd,a 300-400
^we(fvd' 80-107&
kd 35-40
^we(fvd' 124-142&

Fi! wrdh
l=f

154

klg meh 16-18 fiajh


lsf mehlg ,efnk
f;kh157
we(fvd' 0'19 - 0'21
we(fvd' 0'20 - 0'26
we(fvd' 0'15 - 0'22
we(fvd' 0'23 - 0'30

Sri Lankan domestic workers often refer to their male employers as Baba, and their female employers as Mama or Madam.
Human Rights Watch interview with Sepalika S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
156
Human Rights Watch interview with Sathi R., Panadura, Sri Lanka, November 15, 2006.
157
Domestic workers reported to Human Rights Watch that they typically worked 16-18 hours per day, some as many as 21 hours
each day, seven days a week. See Section IV of this report, "Heavy Workload and Excessively Long Work Hours without Rest.
158
Human Rights Watch interview with Al-Haj U.T.M. Anver, ALFEA, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 31, 2006.
159
The minimum wage for Sri Lankan domestic workers was 550 dirhams [US$150] at the time Human Rights Watch conducted this
research; it was raised to 600 dirhams [US$163] on September 1, 2007. Meeraj Rizvi, Minimum Wage for Sri Lankan Domestic Help
is Now in Force, Khaleej Times (Dubai, UAE), July 11, 2005,
http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?section=theuae&xfile=data/theuae/2005/july/theuae_july266.xml (accessed
September 6, 2007); Binsal Abdul Kader, Sri Lanka Hikes Wages of Maids, Gulf News (Dubai, UAE), August 30, 2007,
http://archive.gulfnews.com/articles/07/08/31/10150408.html (accessed September 6, 2007); Higher Wages for UAEs Lankan
Maids, Daily News (Colombo), September 1, 2007, http://www.dailynews.lk/2007/09/01/news22.asp (accessed September 6, 2007)..
160
Human Rights Watch interview with Al-Haj U.T.M. Anver, ALFEA, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 31, 2006.
161
Contract for Recruiting Private Servants (Kuwait), put into effect October 1, 2006, para. 3.
155

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

38

ydmq;=ka .Dy fiajlhskag udia m;d f;k f.ug idudkHfhka u. yk w;ru udi
.Kklu fyda fiajd l,h imQK jk ;=reu fyda tu ys f;k r|jd .ks;s' Tjqka iuyr
g fuh islrkafka fiajlhska m,dhdu je,elaf Wml%uhla f,ih' tla .Dy fialdjla
lSf"
uu fi! wrdfha iskd ld,h mqrdu Tjqka ug uqo,a fkdf.h' tfiau ud wdmiq
tkgo fi! wrd uqo,a fkdf.jd msgug wdikak jQ g fplam;lska uqo,a
f.h' uu ys;k hg Tjqka uf.a f;k uqo,ska f.ug fkdleu;s jQfha l,ska
is fialdj tu ksjiska m,d .sh ksidh' l,ska ud b,a,d isho" Tjqka uf.a
f;k tl, fkdf.jQfha f nj ksid ug ysf;a'162
f;k fkd,enqKq fiajlhska Tjqkaf.a fiajd ia:dk j,ska m,d.sh g tu r|jd.;a f;k Tjqkag
fkd,ef' fuu jd;df miqj fmkajd fok wdldrhg llre m%YaK kS;sh u.ska if mj;sk
ysveia yd tla mdYjhlg fYaI f,i ie,lSu ksid Tjqkag ys jegqma ,nd.ekSu Ialr we;s
w;r fndfyduhla fokd lshkaf.a Tjqkag ,eh hq;= ish uqo,a flfia fj;;a lsisu uqo,la h<s
whlr.; fkdyels jQ njh' fuu ;;ajh yis wjia:dj,o is we;' WodyrKhla jYfhka 2006
f,nkkfha we;sjQ hqO .egq fya;=fjka m,d.sh fndfyda .Dy fiajlhska ys jegqma ,e ke;'
cd;Hka;r llre ixOdkfha 95 jk f;k iq/lSf m%{ma;shg wkqj fiajlhskaf.a f;k
Tjqkag fl<skau yd ks;sm;d f.h hq;= w;ru fiajh ,nd.ekSug fmr f. inkaO fldkafoais
ms<sn|j oekq h hq;=h'163 tu m%{ma;sfha j.ka;s meye,s lrk f;k iq/lSf ksfoaYhg
wkqj f;kh udislj fyda jdIslj f,i olajd ;snQ fiajlhskag wvqu jYfhka uilg jrlaj;a
f;k f.u l< hq;=h'164
nyq, f,i isjk f;k r|jd.ekSf mqreoao ksid ydmq;=kag kE kE hg wksh f,i
f;k j,ska wvqls o myiq f,i isl, yel' wmg yuqjQ fndfyda .Dyfialdjka lSf Tjqkaf.a
ydmq;=ka udi 1 isg 6 olajd ^idudkHfhka udi 3 l& f;k .=jka l m; fjkqfjka wvqlr.;a
njhs' m<mqre /lshd ksfhda;hl= lSf /lshd .siq j,g wkqj fiajlhd fiajd ld,h ksul,
g ydmq;d iska .=jka lm; ,ndh hq;=h' .siqug wkqj ymq;dg tys oelajQ f;kh fjkia
l, fkdyelsh' fiajd ld,h ksul, g fiajlhdg ishrg hEug .=jka l m; oeh hq;=h'165
tfiau fiajhg meK m<uq udi 3 we;=<; kej; hkafka k tgo .=jka lm; ,ndh hq;=
njo .siq j, idudkHfhka i|yka f'166
l=fjys wNHka;r lghq;= wud;HdxYh ilia l< 2006 ckjd 01 k isg n,meje;afjk uQ,sl
/lshd .siqf fldkafoais j,g wkqj l=uk ld,hla fiajh lsfuka miqj jqjo167 .Dy fiajlfhla
;u fiajh yerhkafka k Tjqkag ;u rgg hEug wod, ho ydmq;=ka iska oeh hq;=h' tfiau
tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha fiajlhd fiajd ld,h imQK l<g fyda Bg l,ska ydmq;d iska
162

Human Rights Watch interview with Amirthini L., Maskeliya, Sri Lanka, November 13, 2006.
ILO Convention No. 95 concerning the Protection of Wages, art. 2(2)-(3).
ILO Recommendation No. 85 concerning the Protection of Wages, adopted July 1, 1949, art. 4(b).
165
Human Rights Watch interview with retired labor agent, name withheld, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 18, 2006.
166
Human Rights Watch interview with Sasindi O., Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
167
Ahmad Zakaria, Domestics Transfer Ban Effective October 1, Daily Star Kuwait Edition, August 26-27, 2006. The standardized
contracts provisions regarding repatriation costs replaces a November 2006 policy approved by Kuwaits National Assembly's
Interior and Defence Committee that exempted employers of runaway domestic workers from paying the airfare for their repatriation
back home. B. Izzak, Employers of Runaways May be Let Off the Hook, Kuwait Times, November 20, 2006.
163
164

39

Human Rights Watch November 2007

fiajh yudr lrk wjia:df168 .=jka l m; ,ndu ydmq;d iska l< hq;=h' YS% ,xldf '
/' ks' ldhdxYfha ksfoaYs; /lshd .siqug wkqj fndfyda ;;ajhka j, ydmq;d iska .=jka
lm; ,ndh hq;=nj i|yka lrhs' tk fiajd ld,h imQK lsu" fiajlhd frda.;=r u"
ydmq;d iska .siqf fldkafoais lv lsu169 hkdhhs'
ILO ys /lshd i|yd ixl%uKh f ksfoaY wxl( 86 g wkqj" h ixl%uKsl fiajlhl=g Tyq
fyda wehg j.lsj fkdyels ldrKhla ksid kej; taug isf k" kej; taug jehjk ho
lsisu fya;=jla ksid fiajlhdg oeh hq;= ke;'170
tfiau ydmq;=ka iska fjk;a O ho fjkqjkao tk wksjdh ffjoH mCIK .dia;="
ykd.ekSf m;% .dia;=" id la lsf .dia;=" fnfy;a ho" ffjoH m%;sldr .dia;=" ks< we
yd wfkla we j, ho yd w;HdjYH jHj, ho ^wdydr" inka" o;a fnfy;a wd& hkdh
yd Tjqka kElka isl,d hehs lshk w;ajer fmkajka o" ys;= ys;= yehg f;k j,ska
wvqls islrhs' fndfyda ydmq;=ka f wvqls .ek fiajlhskag oekq fkdka w;r ta nj
fiajlhd oek.kafka fiajd ld,h wjidkfha r|jd.;a uqo,a ;ukag ,enqKq miqjh'
/lshd .siqj,g wkqj" idudkHfhka wdydr yd kjd;eka" id w;a lsu iy wfkl=;a wod,
ho /lshd ksfhda; iska oeh hq;=h' Ys%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYha wksjdh mqyqKqj mj;ajk
mqyqKqlrejka yd /lshd ksfhda;jreka mqreoaola f,i ydmq;=ka iska wfkla wjYH ho orK
nj lshhs' tla .Dy fialdjlf.a fi! wrdfha ydmq;d iska wehf.a udi 4 l f;k wndhd
we ^uqia,s ldka;djka wk l meye;s f,da.=j& yd ikSmdrCIl jH fjkqfjka wvqlr
;sKs'171 l=fys jev l, ;j;a .Dy fialdjlf.ka re' 40"000 la ^we(fvd' 355& tk udi 3l
mhg iudk uqo,la wvq lr ;snqfKa wehg ,ndka ffjoH m%;sldr fjkqfjks'172 ILO ys 95 jk
m%{ma;sh ^f;k iqrlSf m%{ma;sh& cd;sl kS;shg wkqj fomdYajfha leue;af;ka f;drj fujeks
lsisu wvq lsula is lsu ;yk lr we;'173
wm yuqjQ lsisu ldka;djla Tjqkag fkd,enQ f;k fjkqfjka jkahla ,e fkd;snqKq w;r ish
fokdu mdfya iykhla ,nd .; yels l%uhla .ek oekf.k isfha ke;' l=fys fiajh l, .Dy
fialdjla lS m "uu wjqreoaol=;a udi 4 la mhla ke;=j jev lr ;snqKd' kuq;a wo jk;=re
ug lsisjla ,e keye'174 ;dkdm;s ks,Odhd ys uqo,a ,ndf.k ud fj; tjk nj lSj;a Tyq
lsisjla tjd ke;"' YS% ,xldjg kej; meKs g tu ys uqo,a ,nd .ekSu Ialr nj Tjqka
fmdf Yajdi lrhs' ;j;a f,nkkfha isg meKs ldka;djlg udi 4l jegqm jYfhka ,e
;snqfKa we(fvd' 10 ls' wehj rjgd we;s nj f;are .;af;a YS% ,xldjg meKs .=jka f;dgqmf,a

168

Employment Agreement for Domestic Workers and Sponsors (UAE), put into effect April 1, 2007, arts. 3, 9.
Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment, Model Contract of Employment for Domestic Helpers from Sri Lanka in the Middle
East Countries (1990), paras. 5, 10(a)-(c).
170
ILO Recommendation No. 86 concerning Migration for Employment (Revised 1949), adopted July 1, 1949, art. 26(1)(a). See also
ILO Recommendation No. 100 concerning the Protection of Migrant Workers in Underdeveloped Countries and Territories, adopted
June 22, 1955., art. 10(b). Although ILO recommendations are not subject to national ratification and therefore do not have the
binding force of Conventions, they provide guidelines for ILO member states.
171
Human Rights Watch interview with Chitra G., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 6, 2006.
172
Human Rights Watch interview with Hinni M., Tihari, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
173
ILO Convention No. 95 concerning the Protection of Wages, art. 8(1).
174
Human Rights Watch interview with Kumari Indunil (real name used upon request), Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
169

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

40

ksuh wkqmd; gq gh' "uu uf.a ydmq;dg rl:kfhka weu;Sug is;+y' kuq;a m%YaKh isjQfha
f,nkkfha ksid uu th w;yer oefu"'175
f;k iQrdlEu
fi! wrdh" l=f" f,nkkh yd tlai;a wrd t rdcHh hk rgj, llre kS;shg .Dy
fiajlhska we;=,;a fldg ke;' ta ksid fuu rgj, Tjqkag w;sld, ,eug we;s whs;sh
fkd,efnk w;r l=fgfha yd f,nkkfha mj;sk wju f;k fldkafoaisj,skao m%fhdackhla
,eug fkdyelsh' tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha yd l=fj, .Dy fialdjkag wju jegqmla
mqreoaola f,i kshu ;snqKo th tu rgj, wfkla fiajlhka Wmhk uqo,g jvd Yd, f,i
wvqh'176
YS% ,xldf .Dy fiajlhskag ,efnkafka tu fiajhu lrk tu rgj, mqrjeishkag iy wfkla
rgj, fiajlhkag jvd b;d my, jegqmah' fuu rgj, ksfjia;=, ;u ydmq;=ka iu imQK
ld,h jf.a .; lrk .Dy fiajlhskag yeugu jdf.a f.jkafka w;sld, fkdue;sj iar udisl
f;khkah' fndfyda g osklg meh 16 isg 21 ;r jk . ld,hla jev lsu ksid iuyr g
meh 24 mqrdu wjYH jQ g fiajh iemhsh hq;= ksid;a" Tjkaf.a mehl f;kh we(fvd' Y; 15 isg
30 ;r iq w.hla .kS'177
ixl%uKsl fiajlhkaf.ka ,efnk wdl jdis oel" ;j ;j rgj,aj, wvq wdodh,dNS ldka;djka
.Dy fiaajhg hEu i|yd Wkka f' ta iu we;sjQ ;rh ksid YS% ,xldf /lshd
ksfhda;jrekag fiajlhkaf.a f;k ug my< oeug is we;' we;a; jYfhkau tu jegqma
m%udK miq.sh ld,fha my< f.dia we;' WoaOukh i|yd .e,mQ miqj 1994 ,enQ f;kh fuka
5 .=Khl muK f;khla Tjqka 1980 Wmhd ;sK'178 t;eka isg o f;k my< hk nj
idCIsj,ska fmfka' wjqre 15g fmr fi! wrdfha YS% ,dxlsl .Dy fiajlhska uilg hd,a 400
la bmhQ kuq;a wm yuq l:dl, fiajlhka lSf Tjqka oekg hd,a 300 - 400 ^we(fvd' 80-109&
Wmhk njhs'179
fuu uqo, WoaOukh i|yd .e,mQ g th 1992 fuka wvl muK jkdluls'180 YS% ,xldf
jk hou wl WoaOukh ksid by, f.dia we;' tuksid tl ugf mj;sk fuu f;k

175

Human Rights Watch interview with Krishnan S., Maskeliya, Sri Lanka, November 13, 2006.
Contract for Recruiting Private Servants (Kuwait), put into effect October 1, 2006, para. 3; Kader, Sri Lanka Hikes Wages of
Maids, Gulf News; Higher Wages for UAEs Lankan Maids, Daily News .
177
This calculation is based on monthly salaries domestic workers reported to Human Rights Watch (US$80-142), at 30 days per
month, for 16-18 hours per day.
178
Gamburd, The Kitchen Spoons Handle, p.64.
179
Human Rights Watch interview with retired labor agent, name withheld, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 18, 2006. Saudi Arabia
has a fixed exchange rate regime, and the Saudi Arabia riyal has been pegged at 3.75 riyals to the US dollar since 1986.
180
Using the Colombo Consumer Price Index to adjust for inflation, domestic workers 1992 salary of 400 riyals, which equaled 4,660
rupees in 1992, now would be worth 20,162 rupees in 2007. Domestic workers current 2007 salary of 400 riyals equals only 12,053
rupees.
176

41

Human Rights Watch November 2007

m%udKj, i;H jkdlu ksuh wkqmd; flfia jqj;a ^, .ekSf yelshdj& ld,h;a iu my,
f.dia we;'181
fi! wrdh ;=," YS% ,xldf ixl%uKsl .Dy fiajlhska Wmhkafka" tys mqoa.,sl wxYfha wju
jegqm fuka 1$5 muK f;khls' tys ks, jYfhka wju f;khla i|yka lr ke;sjqjo" wksjdh
Y%du jegqma l%uh Wfoid odhl h hq;= w.hla u; hd,a 1500 ^we(fvd' 400& wju jegqm f,i
ie,lsh yel'182 tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha lsisu fiajlhl=g wod,j wju jegqmla kshu lr
fkd;snqKo" YS% ,dxlsl .Dy fiajlhskag ksfoaY lrk jegqm rdia 600183 ^we(fvd' 163& la jk
w;r th tjeks fiajd wxYfha fYaIfhka ms fiajlhska iska bgq lrk hre yd Whka md,l
(Gardner) jeks /lshdj,g jvd wvqh'
f,nkkfha .Dy fiajlhska wju jegqma wdrCIKhg we;=,;a fkdjk w;r" YS% ,dxlsl .Dy
fiajlhska tys wod, wfkla fiajhskag kS;sfhka kshu l, wju jegqm fuka wvla muK Wmhhs'184
l=fys llre kS;sh mqoa.,sl wxYfha fiajlhskag wju jegqmla kshu fkdl,o tys rdcH wxYfha
wju jegqm tys mqrjeishkag kd 200 la o ^we(fvd' 710& wfkla whg kd 90 la ^we(fvd' 320&
o fjhs'185
tfia kuq;a l=fys wNHka;r lghq;= wud;HxYfha wdoY .Dy fiajl .siqf i|yka lrk m
wju .Dy fiajl jegqm kd 40 la muKls' ^we(fvd' 142& th wfkla mqrjeis fkdjk fiajlhskag
kshu l, wju jegqm fuka wvlg;a jvd wvqh'186 tlai;a cd;Skaf.a wdl" iudh yd ixialD;sl
whs;sjdisl lgqj iska mqoa.,sl wxYfha mqrjeis fkdjk fiajlhskago" tk .Dy fiajlhska
jeks whgo" idudkHfhka fyd| jk ;;ajhla .; lsug yelsjk f,i wju jegqma inkaO
fldkafoais we;s lrk f,i l=fghg oekq ;sf'187
ldka;djkaf.a wd.u yd mqrjeisNdjh wkqjo .Dy fiajlhskaf.a f;k fjkia fjhs' YS% ,dxlsl
fiajlhska bkakSishdkq yd ms,smSk .Dy fiajlhskag jvd wvqfjka m ,n;s' tfiau uqia,s
fiajlhska wfkla wd. woyk whg jvd Wmhhs' ' khkks lSf" fi! wrdfha wmg
181

Gamburd, The Kitchen Spoons Handle, p.248.


US State Department, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2006:
Saudi Arabia, March 6, 2007, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78862.htm (accessed June 1, 2007).
183
The UAE has not put in place a minimum wage, although its Labor Law No. 8 of 1980 requires the government to set a minimum
wage. Federal Law No. 8 for 1980, On Regulation of Labor Relations, art. 63. The minimum wage for Sri Lankan domestic workers
was 550 dirhams [US$150] until September 1, 2007, when it was raised to 600 dirhams. Rizvi, Minimum Wage for Sri Lankan
Domestic Help is Now in Force, Khaleej Times ; Kader, Sri Lanka Hikes Wages of Maids, Gulf News; Higher Wages for UAEs
Lankan Maids, Daily News.
184
The minimum wage in Lebanon is 300,000 pounds monthly, about US$200, while Human Rights Watch research indicates that Sri
Lankan domestic workers typically earn about US$100 per month. Dcret no 8733 du 8 juillet 1996 fixant le salaire minimal officiel
des employs et des ouvriers ainsi que le taux de chert de vie, Argus de la Lgislation libanaise, 1996, Vol. 42, no 4 (July 8, 2006),
pp. 5-6.
185
US State Department, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2006:
Kuwait, March 6, 2007, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78856.htm (accessed June 1, 2007).
186
Contract for Recruiting Private Servants (Kuwait), put into effect October 1, 2006, para. 3.
187
UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Concluding Observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights: Kuwait, E/C.12/1/Add.98, June 7, 2004,
http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/E.C.12.1.Add.98.En?Opendocument (accessed May 30, 2007), para. 34.
182

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

42

f.jkafka hd,a 400 ls' th b;d wvqhs" tfy;a ms,smSk wh hd,a 800 la o" bkakSishdf wh
hd,a 600 la o ,nhs' wmo Tjqka fuka iudk jev fldgila is lrhs'188
;j;a fialdjla lSf" f,nkkfha f.jk m u" ug uilg ,enqfKa we(fvd' 100 muKhs'
ms,smSkfha ldka;djkag 200 la f.jhs' wmsg 100 hs' tal y widOdrKhs" ms,smSkh mam;a rgla"
,xldjo mam;a rgla" tfyk f fjki fudlo@189
YS% ,xldf rch ixl%uKsl .Dy fiajlhskag by, f;khla ,nd .ekSug W;aiy .;a;o" /lshd
ksfhda;hskaf.aka ndOd we;s we;' thg fya;=j k tg ydmq;=ka" fjk;a Y%uh ,dN rgj,a fj;
fhduqfuka" Tjqkaf.a wdodhu my< hEug yels ksidh'
2007 wh jeh l:df" YS% ,xldf ckdm;s uyskao rdcmCI lSf" rch .Dy fiajlhskaf.a wju
jegqma ug kshu lsug n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk njh' 2007 uilg re' 25"000 ^we(fvd' 222& isg
mgka f.k wjqre 3 l re' 50"000 ^we(fvd' 444& olajd l%ufhka by< kexu fhdackd flKs'190
Tjqkaf.a jD;a;sh ix.uh jk foaY /lshd ksfhda;hskaf.a ix.uh (ALFEA) yryd /lshd
ksfhda;jre reoaO;ajh oelajQ w;r wjidkfha tu fhdackdj w;yer oeKs'191 2007 uehs
udifha foaY /lshd m%jOk yd iqNidOk weu;s flfy,sh rUqlaje,a, uy;d lSf" rch /lshd
imhk rgj,a iu .Dy fialdjkaf.a wju jegqm we(fvd' 400 olajd by< kexug idlPd
lsug ie,iq lrk njh'192 YS%' ,' ' re' ks' ldhHxYfha ks<Odfhl= wmg lSf" "oeka wms
jegqma ug ilia lsug W;aidy lruq' wms ueofmr. rgj,g oekq fokafka h jegqma ugul
wvqfjka" flfiaj;a we(fvd' 125 g wvqfjka" iuyr rgj, we(fvd' 150 g wvqfjka" YS% ,dxlsl
ldka;djka jev fkdlrkq we;' f,nkkfha wmg fndfyda krl isoakaj,g uqyqKug ish'
tys.sh ldka;djkag f.jd ;snqfKa we(fvd' 100 la muKhs' tuksid wms ;rula oe ug l,amkd
lruq' iuyr rgj, f.jkafka b;d wvqfjks' ta ksid wm f,nkkfha /lshd ksfhda;hska YS%
,dxlsl .Dy fiajlhskaf.a fiajh we(fvd' 130 g wvqfjka ,nd fkd.; hq;= njg m%;sm;a;shla
wkqu.ukh lrhs'193
XWY lAk`v, svEqQ ar`bQy, kO@v|ty, @lbnny sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&y aw\sn\ wb` wQ@bn
k`n\w`vn\t e@rhQ sQylE @n`slk`h#rWm| wOrn\kQrW@m| pYZp\wQyt anEv, "vrpYs`q a#wOlE sm`n
@v|wn l#bWmtq, sm`n rFkQy`vk\ kQrW@m|qW ek h` sm`n @ls s#lkOm| l#bWmtq" k`n\w`vt ayQwQy

188

Human Rights Watch interview with Nayanadini B., Rambe, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Upeksha R., Vallalgude, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
190
Budget Speech 2007, Stipulated Minimum Salaries for Overseas Employment, para. 30, reproduced in Daily Mirror (Colombo),
November 17, 2006, p. A17.
191
Human Rights Watch Interview with Jagath Wellawatta, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006; Hasty Decision on
Migrant Workers, Sunday Times (Colombo), March 11, 2007, http://sundaytimes.lk/070311/FinancialTimes/ft308.html (accessed
September 6, 2007).
192
Sandun A. Jayasekera, Govt. Negotiates Higher Wage for Housemaids, Daily Mirror (Colombo), May 3, 2007,
http://www.dailymirror.lk/2007/05/03/news/3.asp (accessed September 6, 2007).
193
Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhunage, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 30, 2006.
189

43

Human Rights Watch November 2007

hQm@Q v|.194 XWY lAk`v, svEqQ ar`bQy, kO@v|ty, @lbnny sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&y aw\sn\ wb`
wQ@bn sm`jyWy, a`r\}Qk sh sAs\k^wQk ayQwWn\ pQlQb[ pYZp\wQyt anEv kQsQqE @vns\kmkQn\
@w`rv sm`n rFkQy` s[h` sm`n v#tEp\ l#bWmt sh ovEn\t sh ovEn\@g\ pvEl\vl s`m`jQkyn\t
s`m`n& jWvQwyk\ gwkQrWm s[h` srQln v#tEpk\ l#bW@m| ayQwQv`sQkmq k`n\w`vn\t hQmQ@v|.195
fi! wrdh" l=f" f,nkka yd YS% ,xldj hk ish mdYaj tljQ" ldka;djkag isjk O
wdldrfha widOdrK $ wiudk f,i ie,lSu (CEDAW) je,elaf m%{ma;sh ldka;djkag tl
iudk f,i f. ,eug" myiql o iu fiau tl iudk fiajd i|yd tl iudk f,i ie,lS
,eug lghq;= i,ihs'196
j`w&n\wr km|kr# sAvQ{`n@y\ aq`l pYZ\p\wWn\t aw\sn\ wb` wQ@bn@n\q, n#w\q yn kr#n
@n`slk`, v#d@p`@l\qW k`n\w`vn\t @n`slk`h#rWm| sQqE@n`kQrWmt em sAvQ{`n@y\ s`m`jQkyn\ vn
svEqQ ar`bQ@y\, kO@v|t@y\, @lbnn@y\ sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\ a`N\dE b#[W sQtQwQ.197 ILO
wxl( 100 orK iudk f,i jegqma f.f m%{ma;shg wkqj" ^fi! wrdh" tlai;a wrd t
rdcHh" f,nkkh yd YS% ,xldj wkqu; l,& rchka iudk /lshdj, fhfok ldka;djkag yd
mskag iudk jegqma f.jk njg j.n,d .; hq;=h'198
m`nv hQmQkm| pQlQb[ vQX\v pYk`XNyt anEv, kQsQqE @vns\kmkQn\ @w`rv sm`n rFkQy` s[h` sm`n
v#tEp\ l#bWmt sh mnE;& gr#w\vy a`rk\;`vn prQqQ lb`@qn @s\vyt srQln g`s\wOvk\ lb`g#nWmt
s$m pEq\gl@ykOtm ayQwQyk\ wQ@b|.199
n|jd .ekSf yd /lshd lsf wiudk f,i ie,lSu .ek i,ld n,k ILO ys 111 orK
m%{ma;shg wkqjo ^fuho fi! wrdh" l=f" tlai;a wrd t rdcHh iy YS% ,xldj ms,sf.k
we;'& rchka ldka;djkag iy mskag iudk /lshd wjia:d fukau /lshdf iudk f,i
ie,lSu WkJ l< hq;=h'200
194

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted December 18, 1979, G.A. res.
34/180, 34 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 46) at 193, U.N. Doc. A/34/46, entered into force September 3, 1981, art. 11(1)(d).
195
The ILO Declaration states that all Members, even if they have not ratified the Conventions in question, have an obligation arising
from the very fact of membership in the Organization to respect, to promote and to realize, in good faith and in accordance with the
Constitution, the principles concerning the fundamental rights which are the subject of those Conventions. Non-discrimination is
among the fundamental rights set out by the ILO. International Labour Conference, ILO Declaration, para. 2.
196
ILO Convention No. 100 concerning Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal Value, adopted June
29, 1951, 165 U.N.T.S. 303, entered into force May 23, 1953, art. 2.
197
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), adopted December 10, 1948, G.A. Res. 217A(III), U.N. Doc. A/810 at 71 (1948),
art. 23(2)-(3).
198
ILO Convention No. 111 concerning Discrimination in Respect to Employment and Occupation, adopted June 25, 1958, 362
U.N.T.S. 31, entered into force June 15, 1960, art. 2.
199
The ILO Declaration states that all Members, even if they have not ratified the Conventions in question, have an obligation arising
from the very fact of membership in the Organization to respect, to promote and to realize, in good faith and in accordance with the
Constitution, the principles concerning the fundamental rights which are the subject of those Conventions. Non-discrimination is
among the fundamental rights set out by the ILO. International Labour Conference, ILO Declaration, para. 2.
200
ILO Convention No. 100 concerning Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal Value, adopted June
29, 1951, 165 U.N.T.S. 303, entered into force May 23, 1953, art. 2.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

44

ldhsl yd udkisl w;jr


msiSug wjYH foa ,g fkdf.k l=l tl mK.ekajQ ksid ldka;djg ^iajdj&
;ryd .sfhah' ta ksid weh uf.a miq mig mhska .eiqfh' miqj weh ug WoEiku
wj fkdjq ksido myr kafkah' ;jo jevla bjr fkdjQ go myr ks' weh
wehf.a w;g wiqjQ kEu fohlska myr kafkah' iuyrg fldiqfgka" ;j
iuyrg msysfhka''' wehf.a ^nnd& mq;d lSf" "Ys% ,xldjg kej; hdu .ek
is;kak tmd" lshk foa wykafka ke;s wh f.khdug ia:dkhla ;sf' ojil uu
WUj tys f.f.dia oud tkak' tys kqUg myr o~qj fok ksiqka ishs" tfia
nekje ug lSf" "lg jyf.k uf.a wud lshk foa n,af,la jf.a lrmka' WU
tfia fkdl,fyd;a" wefa weglgqj;a b;s lrkafka kE".201
- t*a' kQ" jhi 36" l=fys fiajh l< .Dy fialdjla
.Dy fialdjka wmrdO fia i,lk ldhsl jOysxido ,laf' wm yuqjQ .Dy fialdjka 100
fokdf.ka 20 fofkla Tjqkag tjeks ldhsl ysxid" ;u ydmq;df.ka fyda Tjqkaf.a ,uhskaf.ka is
;sKs' fndfyda fofkla udkisl mSvdj,g" jdl ysxido we;=j uqyqK ks' .Dy fiajhg f.dia
,md; msys .=jkaf;dgqm,ska wdmiq tk ldka;djkag iydh jk YS%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYhg
wh;ajk iyk mshi uOHia:dkh Ndr ks,Odfhla mejiqf tjeks oreKq ldhsl mSvdjkag ,lajQ
ldka;djka 3 isg 10 olajd .Kkla idudkHfhka uilg Tjqka fj; ths'202
ldka;djka jd;dl, ldhsl mSvd k myr" r;al, bia;slal u.ska ms,siaiSu" mhska .eiSu"
luq,g w;ska myru" fldKavfhka weu" hkdhhs'
.Dy fialdjka lS m Tjqkag myrug w;a" fifrmamq" rn c,k," jel= la,Skrhla" fiula"
jh" mqgq" ,E,s len,s" fldyq" msys" hlv fmd" iy tla isoahloA fje,la fhdodf.k ;sKs' wm
Tjqka yuqjk g" fndfyduhla ldka;djka ta w;jr j, ;=jd, le,e,a iys; h' tk ms,siaiS"
le,e,a" nQ.E fldKavh" wdhhs' iuyr ldka;djka lSf Tjqkag f ysxid ksid .gu mj;sk
fi!LH m%Yak we;sjQ njhs' tk ysi lelal=u" fldkafoa wudrej" fyda Wrysi yye p,kh Ialr
u wdhhs'
iuyr ldka;djka lSf Tjqkaf.a jevj, "jer" ksid ydmq;=ka ysxid l, njhs' ;uka fi!
wrdfha isjQ foa .ek ldka;djla lSf" "f.hs w;aje/oaolg mjd" Tjqka ug myr kakd' u u;
l=vd l=Kq lene,a,la fyda ;sf k" iajdj uf.a w; tys W,hs"'203 ;j;a ldka;djla l=fj,
isjQ foa mejiSh' "jeu,a .Ekq orejd nd, .eyeKq orejdg myr ks" tg nd, orejd w~kakg;a"
201
ILO Convention No. 111 concerning Discrimination in Respect to Employment and Occupation, adopted June 25, 1958, 362
U.N.T.S. 31, entered into force June 15, 1960, art. 2.
202
Human Rights Watch interview with Noor F., Attanagalla, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
203
Human Rights Watch interview with SLBFE official, Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 17, 2006.

45

Human Rights Watch November 2007

lE.ikakg;a h' uf.ka fkduid nnd ^ydmq;d& ud wehg myr we;ehs iel lr CIKhlska ud
;a;sh fj; ;,a lr ug myr kafkah' w;ska" nQ iys; jQ mhska" Tyq myr kafkah' Tyq uf.a
Wl=,g myr kag ud u weo jeKs' ug bk fmfofia fokdj oeksKs' tu fokdj i;shla
muK ;sKs"'204

l=f ydmq;=ka ;udg ;on, f,i w;jr l, njg mjik ldka;djla'


weh lshkafka wehg isjQ w;jr ksid isjQ ;=jd, iqjlsrSug Xl&kr\m lSmhlgu
Ndckh jQ njh'
2007 IHka;skS lk.iNdm;sms,af,a$ hQyEmn\ rhsia fjd

ldka;d .Dy fiajlhska lSf" ;ukaf.a whs;sjdisl .ek idlPd l, g" udkisl yd ldhsl mSvd
jejQ njh' 18 ye ldka;djla lSf wehg w;jr islf<a wehf.a f;k b,a,Su" ffjoH wdOdr
b,a,Su" iy ;u mjq, yd inkaOug b,a,Su fya;=fjka njhs weh lSf'

204

Human Rights Watch interview with Selvakumari W., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

46

"ug ,xldjg weu;=ula .ekSug b,ag" Tjqka ug myrug mgka.;a;d" iajdj


bia;slalh fhdod ud ms,siaiqjdh''' weh uq,ska m f.h' miqj udi 5 l muK m
fkdf.jQ g ud tajd b,a,Sug mgka.;a g" weh myrug mgka .;a;d' weh ug
myru ksid kla ug fyd|gu wikSm nj f;areKd'205
ysi lelal=ula oekS frday,g hdug b,a,d isg weh udj uf.a ldurhg oud oji 4 la w.=,a oud
;snqKd ug wdydr fyda j;=r ke;sj ojia 4 la tys .;l,d' uu la,dka; jqKd'
tia' fmdkakdudo wmg lSf iudk l;djls' "wjqreoaol=;a udi 5 la jk;=re ug lsisu mhla
,enqfKa keye' uu m.ek weiQg Tjqka ug myrfohs" msyshlska lmhs" ke;fyd;a mqiaihs' Tjqka
tla w;la mqpd th msyshlska lemqjd' uf.a msgme;af;a ta i,l=Kq ;sf' udf.a we yeu;eku
kd' yeu w;skau myr lEjd' Tfjka w,a,d ;a;sfha .eyqjd' uu m b,afjd;a" igkla mgka
.kshs"'206
wms" w;sYh oreKq w;jr isoaka f,aLK .; lf,uq' WodyKhla jYfhka fca' ,laKs k 47
ye fli yd ''''''''''''''''''' jQ wef.a jhig jvd fmkqfuka je" ldka;dj wmg wef.a l,jQ w;a
yd Wrfhys yd wf;ys jQ Yd, le,e,ao" l=fj, isg wE wdmiq wd kfha wmg fmkah' weh
lSf f w;jr isjQ ;=jd, iqjlsug wehg Y,Hlu 7 lg uqyqK mE njhs' wE lS m"
uf.a ydmq;d ug oreKq f,i myr kakd' uf.a fldkavh oKysi f;la ;snqKd'
iajdj th lmd oeud'' msfhla jf.a" yeuodu Tjqkag uf.a f,a olskak
kjqkd' tys l meye;s mhla yd l jh tlla ;snqKd' Tjqka ug tajdhska myr
kakd' tfiau uf.a f,a olskakg msyshlska udj lemqjd' Tjqka uf.a l,jd" w;a
yErejd''' Tjqka uf.a isrer mqiaid kdY l<d' Tjqka msyshla .Eia oe,a,g w,a,d
r;alr udj ms,siaiqjd'' udi 9 la ;siafia yeuodu" tl.g Tjqka ug myr kakd''
we;a;gu lsfjd;a udi 9lg uu wmdhg .shd"'207
udi 9 la ;siafiu" weh fhk ;=re" fca' ,laKs" ydmq;d wehj ''''''''' .egqj,g ,lalf,ah' tk
urdodk njg ;ckh lsu" bKsu.lska ;,a lsu" laf,daka l=vq oud ms,siaiSu" flan,aj,ska
myru" r;al, msysj,ska lmd oeu" tu.ska wef.a w;a md j, wia hdu yd w;a j,ska jevla
.ekSug fkdyels jQjdh'208
fiajlhska jd;dl, udkisl w;jr j,g kskaod ls" ldhsl ysyer fyda urKh .ek ;ckh
lsu" bv wvq;ekaj, ysrlsu" wdydr fkd isu" o~qjula f,i fldkavh lemSu we;=,;a f' tla
ldka;djla lSf" wef.a l=f ydmq;d "l=iaishg f.dia msysh /f.k ud fj; meK" ud urdouk
205

Human Rights Watch interview with Vadivukarasi H., Talawakelle, Sri Lanka, November 12, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Sevandhi R., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
207
Human Rights Watch interview with Ponnamma S., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 14, 2006.
208
Human Rights Watch interview with Lakmini J., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
206

47

Human Rights Watch November 2007

njg;a" l=vd len,sj,g lmd ln tllg ouk njg;a ;ckh lf<ah'209 fca' hqjdks lSf" fi!
wrdfha wef.a ydmq;d yd Tyqf.a mq;d ks;ru wehj urK njg ;ckh l, njh' ;d;a;hs
mq;hs' lSf''' wms WU urd l=Kq nlalshg oukjd' Tjqka ug myrug jh tlla md lf<ah'
Tjqka ug luq,g myrkafka''' ks;ru udj urK nj lSy' ojila" ;d;a;d yd mq;d udj urk nj
lshd msyshla /f.k wdy' uu jf' tfy;a mshd ^ydmq;d& udj ;a;sh foig ;,a lf<ah"'210
m%;sM,hla f,i fca' hqjdksf.a ll=,la lemsKs'
,sx.sl w;jr
uu ksodf.k isk g iajdjf.a ifydaorhd fyfjka uf.a ldurhg wdfh'''
tg ud lE .eiQ w;r fmd,a,la f.k Tyqf.a Tjg myr ks'211
- tia' moaud" jhi 39" fi! wrdfha wE ,;a w;aoelSula tfia i|yka lf<ah'
wm yuqjQ ldka;djka 100 fokd w;ka" 13 fofkla Tjqkaf.a ydmq;d fyda Tyqf.a orejka iska
isl, ,sx.sl w;jr fyda myr" jd;d lf,ah' ta w;ka 5 la ia;S% IK jk w;r bka 3
fofkla ta fya;=fjka .NKS h'
wfkla who tjeks w;jr | we;s kuq ta .ek t,slsug ue,sh' ixLHdj yye fkdokakd
jQjo" ,sx.sl w;jr wvqfjka jd;d jk nj meye,sh' fndfyda wvqfjka h yel' thg fya;=j
tjeks w;jr fya;=fjka iy wfkla w;jr fya;=fjkao we;sjk ,cacdj yd fokdj ksid muKla
fkdf' ydmq;=ka iska fjk;a fpdaokd u;=lsf h" idfmaCIj .Dy fiajlhskag n,hla
fkdue;slu yd ;ksu" yd myiqfjka isl< yels meKs,s hdka;%Khla fkd;suo thg fya;=jhs'
fndfyduhla .Dy fiajlhska tjeks .ska .gu isjk ;u ydmq;=ka fyda mq;=ka iska islrk"
uqo,a ,nd fokak lshd fmdfrdka fjka ,sx.sl lghq;= i|yd n,lsu" wkjYH weEl" iy
IKhg W;aidy ls .ek meKs,s lr ;sf' wm yuqjQ .Dy fiajlhska fndfyda fofkla yd rdcH
fkdjk ixOdk ls%hdldka Ys% ,dxlsl .Dy fiajlhska uqyqK fok ,sx.sl wmfhdackh yd w;jr
uQ,sl m%Yakhla f,i ykd.kS'
.Dy fialdjka O .Kfha ,sx.sl w;jr j,g uqyqK fo;s' ,sx.sl w;jr ixi.h i|yd yd
fjk;a ,sx.sl lghq;= i|yd lrk n,mE wh;ah' "ndndg ud iu ksosyhkg hEug wjYH h"'
fi! wrdfha ;u ydmq;d .ek fialdjla lSfh"' ojia 3 la ;siafia udf.a ydmq;d ud fj;
meK udj WoamKh lrkakg W;aidy lf,ah' Tyqg "uu Tf |g lshkak lS g Tyq lSf
"kqU tfia lf,d;a" uu kqUj urd ou' Tyq ug Tyqf.a ldurhg tk f,i lSjo uu th m%;sfCIam
lf,"'212
209

Ibid.
Human Rights Watch interview with Kumari Indunil (real name used upon request), Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
211
Human Rights Watch interview with Yuvani J., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
210

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

48

iuyr .Dy fialdjka ,sx.sl w;jr fya;=fjka wiykld fiajd;djhla yd /lshdj lsug ndOd
we;sjQ nj lSfjdah' v' pdu,S" 27 ye .Dy fialdj lSf" "mq;=ka fofokdu we .,jd ud
bfha fmkS ishs'' Tjqka ;u l,sio bj;a lf,ah' ksrej;a ldka;djkaf.a mska;+r Tjqkaf.a cx.u
rl:kj, ;ndf.k we;' tajd Tjqka ug fmkajhs''' Tjqka ud ,g meK ud iamY lrhs' ug
tjeks ;;ajhla hgf;a jevl, fkdyel'213
fndfyda fofkla lSf tjeks ,sx.sl w;jr kej; kej; isjQ njh' Tjqkaf.a yeS m%ldY lf,a
ixldj" yd Nh hk wdldrfhks' fi! wrdfha fiajh l, ldka;djla lSf" "nnd ^ydmq;d& f.a
mq;=ka fofokd fndfyda jdr .Kkla''' uf.a we Wkd" Tjqkaf.a ;=rka iu ug ysyer lf,dah'''
ug ksoyfia isug bv fkd,enqKs' fndfyda jdr .Kkla Tjqka fuh lf,dah''' rd;s%fha ksod isk
go" tla mqf;la wfkla whg fydfrka uf.a ldurhg ths"'214 v' fi,ajl=ud" 26 he;s .Dy
fialdjls' weh lSf fi! wrdfha udi 9 l tjeks ,sx.sl w;jr ord isug wehg isjQ njh'
we;=,;ska w.= oeh yels ldurhla ug fkd,enqfKah' uf.a ydmq;d Yd,
ksfils' Tyq udj iamY lsug W;aidy lf,ah' Tyqf.a mq;do tfiauh' "uu
fmd,sishg lshkjd hehs Tyqg lSfj' ug uf.a ldurhla fkd;sKs' mqx bvl
wu;r fughla oudf.k uu kskaog .sfhah' fodr w.= oeug fkdyels h''' Tyq
;u w;oud uf.a mmqj iamY lsug W;aidy lf,ah' fndfyda jdrhla Tyq udj
iamY lsug W;aidy .;af;ah' uu ksod isk g Tyq meK ;u l,siu Wkd
oefh' Tyq ks;ru ''''' f foa lsug W;aidy .;af;ah' uu nh wef|a fldkl
jd isfh' "kqUg ud .ek hug wjYH ke;"' Tyq lSfh' Tyq kej;
kej;;a" udi 9 mqrdu f foa lrkaku ;e;a lf,ah'215
;j;a ldka;djla lSf" wef.a ydmq;d wf w;m; .dka weh fj; meKs njh' "ndnd
^ydmq;d& uf.a ldurhg wdjd' Tyqf.a mq;d yefrkakg fjk lsisfjla f.or isfha keye' udj
w,a,df.k mshhqre iamY lsug Tyq W;aidy .;a;d' uu Tyqg" ud tys meKsfha jev lsug i
Tn iu ;%l meje;aug fkdjk nj lSfj'216 wfkla .Dy fiajlhska lSf" ,sx.sl
ysyerj, ta fjkqfjka uqo,a ,ndug o W;aidy .;a njh'217
ldka;djka 5 fofkla wmg lSf Tjqka ;u ydmq;=ka fyda ydmq;=kaf.a ksfjiaj, is h whf.ka
IKhg ,lajQ njh'

212

Human Rights Watch interview with Padma S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Kumari G., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 6, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Chamali W., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 14, 2006.
215
Human Rights Watch interview with Meena P., Talawakelle, Sri Lanka, November 12, 2006.
216
Human Rights Watch interview with Selvakumari W., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
217
Human Rights Watch interview with Sathi R., Panadura, Sri Lanka, November 15, 2006.
213
214

49

Human Rights Watch November 2007

fla' wuka;s" wef.a l:dj wmg lSug leu;s h' "fndia lsysm j;djla ud j; wd kuq;a ud
m%;sfCIam l,d' Tyqf.a | ks;r f.oka msg hk w;r tla rd;s%hl Tyq l=iaishg meK
,sx.sl f,i tlaug W;aidy l,g ud m%;sfCIam l,o" Tyq n,y;aldrfhka ta foa is lf<ah' f
nj wfkla wh oek.;af;a ud .eKshla udi 8 1$2 lg miqjh'218 v' pud,s lSf wehf.a
ydmq;df.a mq;d wehj IKh l< njh'
tlmdrgu Tyq udj ism .;af;ah' uu Tyqg hlv fmd,a,lska myr kakd' th islr oud
uf.a w;ska w,a,df.k fjk;a ldurhlg weof.k f.dia ug weooud" uf.a ish we
bj;alr IKhg ,lal,d" uu uereKd fia ug oekqKd' ug ke.sg .kakg fkdyels jqkd'
ug b;d j, njla oekqKd'219
jdy fkdjqkq wh w;r ,sx.sl inkaO;d fi! wrdh" l=f" f,nkka yd tlai;a wrd t
rdcH hk rgj, wmrdO fia ie,flk fyhska f ysyerj,g ,lajQ ldka;djkao tu kS;sh hgf;a
IKh jk nj Tmamq fkdl,fyd;a r|jd ;nd.ekSug" kvq oeu iy o~qj ,ndug hg;a f' fla'
wuka;s lSf fi! wrdfha n,Odka wehf.a ydmq;d isl, IKhla ksid orejl= Wmka g"
frdayf,a wehg w;a wvx.=jg .;a njh' "isoah Widhg fhduq lr ;sf" kqU fuys wdf
jevlsugh' ta ksid kqU wmrdohla islr ;sf" hehs Tjqka lS g ud lSf" uu fkdf uf.a
ydmq;d wmrdOhla islr ;sf lshdh'220 wjYH ;rug idCIs fkd,enqKq ksid wehj udi 9 lg
ysrlr ;nk ,' fujeks ,sx.sl wmpdr fndfydag isjkqfha ksjdi ;=, ksid" Widh bfha
u;=jk tlu idCIsh wod, mdYaj iuska olajd tlsfklg mriamr isoakah' tg idudkHfhka
ielfha jdish ;u rf mqrjeishd jk Is;hdg ysf'
wl f,i jev .ekSu yd flhla fkdue;sj > meh .Kkla jefvys fhou(
uu mdkaor 3'30 g muK kskaog .sh;a" h,s;a WoEik 3'30 g muK wjug
ish' mdkaor 1'00 muK jk;=re iy iuyr g mdkaor 3'00 muK jk;=re o
fkdkj;ajd jev lsug ish' jrla uu uf.a iajdjg fufia mejiqfj uu o
Tn fuka ukqIHfhls' ug fl .ekug mehlaj;a wjYHh' tg weh mejiqf
kqU meKsfha jev lsughs" kqU uf. im;a;=jla jeksh tu ksid uykais fkdn,d
jev l< hq;=h'221
fndfyda .Dy fialdjkaf.a ffoksl jevm, k fkdlvjd fyda iSudjlska fyda flhlska f;drj"
ksji $ ksfjia we;=,; yd msg msiq lsu" w;=.Eu" jel= lsu (Vacuuming)" fud lsu"
218

According to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, sexual harassment includes: unwelcome
sexually determined behaviour as physical contact and advances, sexually coloured remarks, showing pornography and sexual
demand, whether by words or actions. Such conduct can be humiliating and may constitute a health and safety problem; it is
discriminatory when the woman has reasonable grounds to believe that her objection would disadvantage her in connection with her
employment, including recruitment and promotion, or when it creates a hostile working environment. UN Committee on the
Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW Committee), General Recommendation 19, Violence against Women
(Eleventh session, 1992), Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty
Bodies, UN Doc. HRI\GEN\1\Rev.1 (1994), p. 84, paras. 17-18.
219
Human Rights Watch interview with Amanthi K., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
220
Human Rights Watch interview with Chamali W., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 14, 2006.
221
Human Rights Watch interview with Amanthi K., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

50

,s msioeu" kdk ldur msis lsu" ksjfia msg; fiau" , msis lsu" cfka, fiau"
klg 3 jrla lEu msiSu" wjYH g fl lEu jH ilia lsu" uq ksjfiau frms,s fidaod whka
lsu" orejka n,d.ekSu ^,orejka o we;=,;aj& ,uhskaj mdie,g f.k hdu $ /f.k tau" Tjqkag
wdydr leu" Tjqkaj fiaou" Tjqkaj kskaog heu' jeys fyda frda.S jQ fyda wx.l, jQ mjqf,a
wh n,d.ekSu" mjqf,a jdyk fiau" wdhhs' wmg yuqjQ fndfyda .Dy fiajlhska wl jevm,
lsug isu .ek meKs,s lf,dah' tfiau Tjqkag tlu f.dvke.s,a,la ;=, j;ajQ tlu
ydmq;dg inkaO mjq,a lsysmhlu tlu .Dy fialdj f,i fiajh lrkakg ish' tia' *d;sud
fi! wrdfha wehg ,enqKq jev m%udKh fufia i|yka lrhs'
ug Whkakg ish' ksji Wv hg msis lsug" fr fidaod ukakg" u ghs,a
msis lrkakg" wd fkdfhla jev ;sKs' f.or ido ;snqKq g fndfyda wuq;a;ka
meKs w;r ud tys is tlu fialdj jQ ksid ta i|ydo Whkakg ish' tu
ksjfia 8 fofkl= isfhah' Tjqka w;r l=vd .eyeKq orejkao" weh fkdyels
jhil ldka;djlao is w;r uu wehj kEug f.kf.dia j;=r kdjd" wdydr
leugo ish' jevm, wl h''' Whkak" kdk ldur 8 fidaokak wdhhs' tkuq
weh ks;ru lSf wrfoa f foa lr ke;s njhs'
uu km;d uy,a 3 lska hq;a ksji msis lsu" ;a;s msis lsu iy ksji
miqmi , msis lsu wdh l, hq;= h' Wfoa 5 g wj ? 11 jk;=re muK
jev lf<ah' f.or ido ;snqfkd;a ? 12 fyda Bg miqjo jev lsug ish' weh
ug flhla kafka ke;' ks;ru jev mejrefh'222
f ldka;dj wmg lSf Tjqka idudkHfhka klg meh 16 isg 18 f;la ld,hlao" iuyr whg meh
21 la muKo" i;sfha k 7 ;=<u fl fyda ksjdvq khla fkdue;sj jev lsug isjQ njh' .Dy
fialdjka fndfyduhla kskao wvqlka mSvd ;s' b;d iq fofkla yefrkakg wfkla ish,a,kagu
lsisu ksjdvqjla ke;sj iuyrg wjqre .Kkla tl .g jev lrkakg ish' tjeks
fndfyduhla ;ukaf.a fiajd .siqj, ksjdvq khla ,nd ke;snj;a" ;j;a iuyreka tjeks
fldkafoaishla ;sfnk njla fkdokakd j.;a lSy' jir 1 1$2 f,nkkfha lsisu fl khla
ke;sj fiajh l< ldka;djla wmg lSf" "ug uq ld,hgu tlu ksjdvqjlaj;a kafka keye'
hkqfjks'223
wm yuqjQ .Dy fialdjka fndfyda whg ojfia jev ld,h ;=,o ie,lsh hq;= fl ld,hla ,e
fkd;sKs' WodyKhla jYfhka tia' ukrxckS wnqvdfha 24 fofkla isk ksjil tlu .Dy
fiajlhd f,i fiajh l,dh' weh lS m ,uhs 13 fofkla n,d .ekSuo" ^w; orejka iu& km;d
Wfoa 5 isg ? 11 jk ;=re ksjdvq khla fyda oj,a ld,h ;=, lsisu flhla ,eug wjir
fkd,nd wehg fiajh lrkakg ish' weh lSf" "uf.a Yrh flhla b,a,d ish;a" thg bv
222
223

Human Rights Watch interview with Kumari Indunil (real name used upon request), Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Fathima S., Habaraduwa, Sri Lanka, November 14, 2006.

51

Human Rights Watch November 2007

fkd,eKs""224 ;j;a ldka;djla lSf" fi! wrdfha "ug jd fl .ekSug ld,hla


fkd,eKs' ksod.kakg ld,hla fkd;sKs' tfiau jeisls,shg hdugo f,djla fkd;sKs'225 ;j;a
f,nkkfha fiajh l< ldka;djla lSf"
"Tjqka ug jdug j;a bv kafka ke;' ug ks;ru ke.sgf.k isug ish"'226 36 he;s t*a'
kQ lSf l=fgfha wef.a ydmq;=ka 20 fofkl=f.a bjq msyq msis ls wd wl jev fldgila
isl,o" flhla ,nd fkdka njh' wef.a tlu flh jQfha kdk ldurh ;=, kd
lsysmhlg weia mshd .ekSuh'227
rduidka ld,h ;=, jev meh .Kk je jQ nj iuyfrla lSy' f ld,h ;=, .Dy fiajlhskag
l,ska wj ug;a" ? jk ;=re jev lsug;a isjQfha ;u ydmq;=kag br wjrg .sh g lEu
.ekSu wjYH ksidh' tfia ? jk ;=re jev l,o ta fjkqjg oj,a ld,h ;=< fl .eksug
fkd,eKs' rduidka ld,h ;=, kskao ,eu wvqu ld;akdjka iq,nj jd;d lf,ah' tla ldka;djla
lSf" "fkd ld,h ;=< ^rduidka& ug jev nyq, h' iuyr g oj,a ? .gu wj isug
ish"'228 ;j;a ldka;djla lSf" udihlau mqrd mj;ajk rduidka udifha uu Wfoa 2'30 g
kskaog f.dia h,a 3'30 g wj h' ug ,enqfka mehl kskaola muKs' ug WoEik 3'30 g wj jQfha
tu ld,fha Tjqkag Wfoa 5'15 jk g wdydr .ekSug wjYH fyhsks'229 tka' Wuq lSf vqndhs j,
rduidka ld,fha jevm, wl jQ njh' "vqndhsj, jev wudrehs" Wfoa 4 g wj ? 10 fjkl
jev ;snqKd' ksod.;a; fl .;a; ld,hla kE' rduidka ld,fha vqndhsj, jev lrkak ;j;a
wudrehs' mskag yd ldka;djkag fjk fjku Wmjdih meje;aug wdydr ms,sfh, l, hq;=hs' tal
ug jev f.dvla"'230
fYaIfhka ,uhska n,d.ekSugo Ndr ;snqKs' .Dy fiajlhskag oji mqrdu wjYH jQ g fiajh l<
hq;= jQ w;r" ydmq;=ka n,dfmdfrd;a;= jQfha rd;s%fha jqjo Tjqkaf.a fiajh ,nd.ekSugh' l=fys
fiajh l< ldka;djla lSf" "uu ,orejd iu ksod.;af;' ug tu ,orejd .ek ish,a,
n,d.ekSug ish' iuyrg uy ? ke.sg,d '''''' wjqre kuhlska ug fl ojila ,e
keye"'231 ;j;a ldka;djla lSf"
"uu Wfoa 5'45 g wj kskaog .sfha rd;S% 3'30 g' tfia jQj;a Tjqkag hula wjYH jqjfyd;a
fodrg .ihs"'232 rd;S% 1 jk ;=re fiajh l<" lsisu flhla fkd,enqKq ldka;djla lSf" "uu
kskaog .sh miqjo iajd j uf.a fodrg .id nndg ^ydmq;d& wjYH h wdydrhla ms,sfh, lrk
224

Human Rights Watch interview with Nimalka V., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Manaranjani S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Hemanthi J., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 14, 2006.
227
Human Rights Watch interview with Meniki N., Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
228
Human Rights Watch interview with Noor F., Attanagalla, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
229
Human Rights Watch interview with Chandra Malkanthi, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
230
Human Rights Watch interview with Sepalika S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
231
Human Rights Watch interview with Ummu N., Habaraduwa, Sri Lanka, November 14, 2006.
232
Human Rights Watch interview with Sanuthi P., Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
225
226

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

52

f,i lshha''' Tyq ksod fkdf.k ;u wOHdmk lghq;=j, fh ishy' ljodj;a Wfoa jk;=re
ksod.kakg fkdyels jQfha" weh yhgu Wfoa 6 g Tjqkag is udi 3l ,orejd uf.a ldurhg ouk
ksidh'233
iuyr wjia:dj," ydmq;=ka ;u fiajlhka frda.SjQ fyda /lshdj ksid ;=jd,hla we;s jQ gl mjd
fl .ekSug bv kafka ke;' tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha wnqvdj, fiajh l< ldka;djla
lSf" "uu wikSm jQ yeugu ydmq;d ug lE .ika lSf" kqU wdf jev lrkakhs' fl .kak
fkdf' tu ksid jev lrmka" ud ffjoHjrfhl= fj;g f.k hdugo m%;sfCIam lf,ah'234 ;j;a
isoahla .ek fla' ouhka;s wmg lSf ;ud /lshdj ;=, ;=jd, jQ g ffjoHjrfhl= fj; hdug
ksjdvq u ;u ydmq;d m%;sfCIam l, njh' "uu Whk .uka orejd n,.kak;a ish' ta fj,df
uu hula f;,aj, nka yd ta iuu orejdo n,d.kska isfh" tg le lEfrk r;ajQ f;,a
uf.a weg ish''' ojia 6 la hk;=re uf.a weia r;= ;sKs' uu wehg ud ffjoHjrfhl= fj;
f.k hk f,i lSfj' kuq;a weh lSf ug wjika l< hq;= jev ;sfnk njh' tk 21 fofkl=f.a
we ueu lr ug ;sKs' ta ksid ffjoHjrfhla fj; hdug ug f,djla ke;s nj weh lSfh'
tf,i uu ffjoHjrfhla fj; hdug fldfy;au bv fkd,eKs'235
tla fialdjla iska ksjdi lsysmhlu fiajh lsu ^iuyr g ksjdi 2 isg 8 olajd& wu;r
f.ula fkdue;sj" is we;s nj jd;d h'236 f,nkkfha tjka tla iajdjla iska ;u .Dy
fialdj ;ukaf.a orejka 7 fofkl=f.a ksjdij, fiajhgo fhdodf.k we;'237 ;j;a tjka
ldka;djla lSf "uf.a iajd j ug uf.a jev blauKska bjr lrk f,i lshd" tu jevm, bjr
jQ g ;u ifydaohf.a ksjig /f.k f.dia tys jevo lr .;a;dh' tf,i uu ksjdi 4 l wu;r
f.ula ke;sju jev lf,ah' ug b;d blauKa ug ish'238
ksisf,i wdydr fkd,eu yd kqiqiq jk myiql
ug iqiq f,i wdydr fkdka w;r ish foaj,a w,audhl h;=re oud ;sK'
iajd j ug tla jrla muKla n;a kakdh' WoEik iy rd;S% wdydr ,ndkafka
ke;' weh iska ish w,aud iy wdydr ;nd ;snqKq wehf.a ldurho h;=re oud
;snqKs'239
-tia' ukrxckS jhi 35 wnqvd ys fiajh l< .Dy fialdjla

233

Human Rights Watch interview with Sobani D., Kandy, Sri Lanka, November 10, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Ummu A., Attanagalla, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
235
Human Rights Watch interview with Manaranjani S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
236
Human Rights Watch interview with Dammayanthi K., Kandy, Sri Lanka, November 10, 2006.
237
Human Rights Watch interview with Meniki N., Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
238
Human Rights Watch interview with Sathi R., Panadura, Sri Lanka, November 15, 2006.
239
Human Rights Watch interview with Manaranjani S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
234

53

Human Rights Watch November 2007

uf.a fojeks iajdhd ud yg mfm< hg ksod.ekSug muKla bvlvla ,ndks'


kuq;a uu n,af,l= fkdj ukqIHfhls'240
-v' jika;sld jhi 42 fi! wrdfhys is .Dy fialdjla
fndfyda .Dy fialdjka meKs,s lrk wkaoug Tjqkaf.a iajdka iska m%udKj;a wdydr iy
jk ;;ajhka ,ndu m%;sfCIam lr ;sf' tfia jQj;a .Dy fiald kS;s;s j,g wkqj ydmq;=ka
iska .Dy fialdjka i|yd iqiq wdydr iy m%udKj;a kjd;eka myiql fkdf,a iemhSug
fldka;rd;a;= u.ska tl is'
wm iska iuqL mCIKhg Ndckh l< wh i|yka lf<a Tjqkaf.a ydmq;=ka ;ukag iqiq
wdydr fkdka nj;a iuyr wjia:dj, krla jQ wdydr imhd we;s njh'
tfia ,ndka wdyr b;du iq n;a m%udKhla fyda mdka lene,a,lg iSud jQ w;r tho klg tla
jd;jla muKs' iuyr ydmq;=ka fialdjkaf.a nv.skak yuqf wu;r wdydr u m%;sfCIam lr
we;s w;r fndfyda ldka;djka mejiqf Tjqkaf.a ydmq;=ka iska wdydr jH iys; w,aud iy
YS;lrK h;=re oud we;s njhs'
fndfyda ldka;djka jd;d lf<a ;ukaf.a fiajd ;;ajhka ms<sn|j ;u ydmq;=kag meKs,s
lsfuka ;ukg ksrdydrj o~qj ug isjQ njhs' iuyr g klg tla j;df isg k
.Kka olajd fufia o~qj ,nd ;sf' iuyr ldka;djka ksrdydr nj ksid Yr nr f.fhka
wvqug ,lajQ w;r tla ldka;djla mejiqf udi ;=kl ld,hl wehf.a nr lsf,da 8 lska
^rd;a;,a 17'6 la& wvqjQ njhs'241
tu ldka;djka mejiqf ;ukg mej we;s wl jev lghq;= ixLHdj ord.ekSu i|yd;a >
ld,hla km;d jev lsug;a wdydr W!k;djh oef,i n,mdk njhs' fi! wrdfha fiajh l<
ldka;djla fufia lSjdh' "weh ug kafka klg tlu wdydr f,la muKs' ud l=i .skafka
ye~qj;a Tjqka ug m%udKj;a wdyr kafka ke;' ish foaj,a h;=re oud jid ;sK' ud klg
tla wdydr f,la iji ld,fha muKla ,nka wl fjfyilska jev lf<' Tjqka n;a yd
wdydr jH l=Kq nlalshg is l<;a ud yg ug lghq;= lf,a ke;' weh fukau ugo nv.skak
oefka' ud wehf.a udia Y=oahg ,la jQ hg we mjd w;a foflka fiajdh' tfy;a ug wdydr
ug lreKdjla wE ;=< ke;'242
;j;a ldka;djla meKs,s lf<a wehf.a fi! wrdhdkq ydmq;d ksis f,i wdydr ,nd fkdka
w;r weh mejiqf "WoEik wdydrhla ke;' lyg f;a tlla muKs' ug kafka is lsug ;nd
;sfnk n;a fyda Ndckfha wfha ms ;snqKq n;a muKs' rd;s%hg muKla iuyr g frd
240

Human Rights Watch interview with Asanthika W., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Thushari M., Panadura, Sri Lanka, November 15, 2006.
242
Human Rights Watch interview with Padma S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
241

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

54

lene,a,la muKs'243 ;j;a ldka;djla lshd isfha wehf.a ydmq;d l=fgfha m%udKj;a wdydr
fkdka njhs' "ug ,enqfKa WoEik wdydrh muKs iuyr g iji ld,hg frdhla muKla
,enqKs' oj,a lEu( Tjqka wdydr .ekSfuka miq b;sjQ fohla ;sf k th ud yg lEug isjQ
w;r tfia fkdue;s jQ g l=i.skak muKs' iEu fohla u ;snqKo tajd .ekSug fkdyels f,i
h;=re oud ;snqKs' rd;s%ho tfiauh' b;s we;s hula ;snqK;a th udyg lEug is h'244 t'
is;a;sr,shd keu;s weh mejiqf ;u ydmq;d c,h ug u m%;sfCIam l< fyhska wehg Kq
j;=r msis lr ug isjQ njhs' ;j rg;a weh mejiqf tu ksjfia fiajh l< YS% ,dxlsl
hrdg;a wehg;a krla jQ wdydr ka w;r oyj,g ,enqfKa frdhlska 1$4 muKs' f ksid
wehg l=Kq nlals wjqiaid lEug is jQjdh'245
fndfyda ldka;djka wmg mejiqf ;ukag wdydr j. fidrl lr lEug fyda wi,a jeishka
iska wkqlmd iy.;j;a wka whg fkdoefkk yd iQCIu f,i ,ndka wdydr j. ryis.;
f,i ;u jeisls,s ldurj, isg wdydrhg f.k /l .ekSug isjQ njhs' ;j;a ldka;djla
l=f ys ;u w;aoelS mejiqf fufiah' "uf.a ydmq;d ud wdydr f.k we;so ke;so hk j.la
fidhd nef ke;' fndfyda g ud wdydr fidrl fldg lEfj'246 ksrdydrj jev lsug neh'
weh ug lsis wyrla ,nd fkdka w;r ud yg is jQfha b;s we;s wdydr lEug iQCIu f,i
lghq;= lsu muKs' fujeks ;j;a ldka;djla jQ tia' fiamd,sld wmg mejiqf fuf,ihs'
"f,nkkfha uf.a ydmq;d wdydrhg fyda ug lsisjla ,nd fkdka w;r ud yg lEu iy u
fidrl lsug ish' Yd, f,i wdydr j. ;snqK;a bka lsisjla ,ndkafka ke;' jrla f
inkaOfhka my< ksjfia fjfik udf.a ydmq;df.a ujf.a .Dy fialdjg udf.a Ialr;djhka
mejiqfj' fuh wdrx jQ udf.a ydmq;df.a uj my< ksjfia isg ryis.; f,i ud yg hh
wdydr jH ,nd kak;a ud yg tajd wdydrhg .ekSug is jqfka jeisls,sh ;=< isghs' udi y;rl
muKl ld,hla ug tfia lsug is h"'247
25] lg;a jvd .Dy fialdjka wmg mejiqf ;ukg iqiq jdiia:dk fkd,enqK nj;a mfmf,a
hg fldfvdaj, ksok ldurj, u fyda is;a; ldurj, u ksod .ekSug ish' iuyrekag
;ukaf.a mqoa.,sl nvq ndysrdh f.hs ms<slkafka ;eug ish'248 fndfyda fokdg ksod .ekSug
fughla fkd;snqK w;r isfuka;s fmdf<df fyda ;=kS fr lene,a,la u; u ksod .ekSug is
h'249
fndfyda fialdjka mejiqf ;ukg fjku kjd;eka myiql fkd;snQ w;r ydmq;d fyda
Tjqkaf.a ,uhska iu tlu bv m%udKhl ksod .ekSug isjQ njhs' vqndhsys is ldka;djl
mejiqf ;ukag mjqf,a wh iu ldka;djka iy mska fjka fjkaj Yd, is;a; ldurhl
243

Human Rights Watch interview with Ponnamma S., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 14, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Sobani D., Kandy, Sri Lanka, November 10, 2006.
245
Human Rights Watch interview with Sithiraliya M., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 17, 2006.
246
Human Rights Watch interview with Nirmali C., Giribawa, Sri Lanka, November 7, 2006.
247
Human Rights Watch interview with Sepalika S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
248
Human Rights Watch interview with Chandrika H., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
249
Human Rights Watch interview with Amirthini L., Maskeliya, Sri Lanka, November 13, 2006.
244

55

Human Rights Watch November 2007

ksod .ekSug isjQ njhs' ud yg jreka i;r fofkl= iu bvlv fnod.ekSug ish' Tjqka
w;r ud fjkqfjka bvlvla fkd;snQ w;r udf.a nvqndysrdh f.hska msg; ;eug ish' ;j;a
ldka;djla mejiqf fi! wrdhdf ug fjku ldurhla fkd;snqKs' <uhska iu ksod.ekSug
ug ish' udf.a nvq ndysrdh i|yd w,audhla fyda fkd;snqKq w;r udf.a we iQflaihl
;ndf.k wjYH jk g .ekSug ish' tu ksjfia <uhska we|ka j, ksod.;a w;r tu ldurfha
u fmd<j u; fughla oudf.k ksod .ekSug ish'
fndfyda ldka;djka yg cfk,a fyda jd;dY%h fkdue;s .nvd ldurj, fyda mfm,a hg ksod.ekSug
isjQ nj lshhs' tia' ud,kS mejiqf" "ug ldurhla ;snqK;a th .nvdjls' ug froaola
oudf.k tys u ksod.ekSug ish' tu ldurh jold.drhla fuks .S%Iau ld,fha ug tys isu
b;du wmyiqh"'250 ' iiska wmg mejiqf "wehg fldfvdaj, ksod.ekSug isjQ njhs"' fi!
wrdfha ia:dk lSmhl fiajh l< weh wmg mejiqf" "udyg isjQfha b;du l=vd bvl ug
,exlgqjla oud l=vd fldghl ysi ;nd .ekSuhs' th ldurhla fkdj" fomiska fodrj,a folla
;sKs' fodrj,a fol w.= oud ug ksod .ekSug ish' th fldfy;au iqjmyiq ;ekla fkdh'
tu bvlv ksjdi folla hd lrk fldfvdajls'251 <uhska ta yryd .uka lrhs' ;j;a fi!
wrdhdkq ydmq;l= hgf;a ' iiska jev lrk w;r wehf.a kjd;eka myiqj fjkila is
fkdjqKs'
ug .gu fldfvdaf ksod.ekSug ish' Tjqka ug l=vd fughla kak;a th ksod .ekSug
m%udKj;a ke;' Yd, fughla ;snqK;a Tjqka th ug fkd bj;g is lf<ah' udyg ldurhla
fkd;snqKs' uf.a .uka u ;nd ;snqfKa f.hs msgqmih' udf.a fl ld,h .;lsug isjQfha;a
jeisls,sfhah' ta udyg fldfvdaf b|f.k isu ;yk ksidh"'252
.uka n,m;% Ndrhg .ekSu" n,y;aldrfhka r|jd .ekSu yd ndysr inkaO;d iSud lsu
iS' ksud,s jhi 28" l=f ys jir folla fiajh l< weh fufia lshhs' "ud yg
neyerg hdug bv kafka ke;' mqj;am;la lshug fyda mjqf,a whg ;=rkag
l;d lsug fyda bv kafka ke;' .=jka ,shg ijka fok g weh meK th
kj;d ouk f,i n, lrhs' l=Kq islrk wjia:df yer f.hska msg;g hdu
imQKfhkau ;ykh' fr f,Sug je,aj,g ouk wjia:df muKla uu
iQhdf,dalh ols' i;r jg ;snQ ;a;s fld;r Wio lsjfyd;a ud tys .;
lf<a isrldhl fuks"'253
wm iska l;d ny l< fndfyda ldka;djka mejiqf Tjqkaf.a ksoyi wl f,i iSud l< njhs'
ydmq;=ka .Dy fialdjka yg ;ksju msg;g hdug fkdfok w;r ksjfia flfkl= iu muKla
hdug ,ef' ;ukaf.a mjqf,a wh iu fyda wi,ajeishka iu fyda wod, ;dkdm;s ldhd, iu
250

Human Rights Watch interview with Malini S., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 15, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Sasindi O., Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
252
Ibid.
253
Human Rights Watch interview with Nirmali C., Giribawa, Sri Lanka, November 7, 2006.
251

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

56

fyda llre ksfhda;hka iu l:d lsug fyda woyia yqjudre lr.ekSug ;yk lsu yd
wl f,i iSud meku w;akakg ish'
ishu ldka;djka wm iu mejiqf ;u ydmq;=ka iska Tjqka meKs fudfydf;au ;u .uka
n,m;% Tjqka Ndrhg .;a w;r tu wh kej; tu rka msgj hk ;=re .uka n,m;a Tjqka
Ndrfha r|jd ;nd.kakd njhs' f,nkkfha O ydmq;=ka ;sfofkl= hgf;a fiajh l< tla
ldka;djla fufia mejiSh' "tu ishu ydmq;=ka udf.a .uka n,m;%h Tjqka Ndrhg .kakd ,'
tu ;;ajh ug muKla fkdj wm .=jkaf;dgqm,g meKs .iu ydmq;d iska .uka n,m;%h
r|jd .kakd w;r kej; th olskakg ,efnkafka wdmiq hk kfhah"'254
;j;a ldka;djla l=fys ;u w;aoelSu fufia lshhs' "ud meKs .iu Tjqka uf.a .uka
n,m;%h Wrd.kakd ,o w;r th kej; olskakg ,enqfKa kej; rka msgj hdug .=jka
f;dgqm,g meKs wjia:dfh' tu whHdj uf.a .uka n,m;%h ;ud Ndrfha tf;la l,a ;nd
.;af;ah'255 YS%' ,' ' fia' /' ks' ix.ufha iNdm;s ms,s.kakd wkaoug fialdjkaf.a .uka n,m;%
Ndrhg .ekSu;a" r|jd .ekSu;a mq,aj flfrk ls%hd mmdhls"'256
lhsfrdays weuldkq Yaj oHd,h iy lgdia ixOdkfha f,nkka wd.uksl uOHia:dkh u.ska
uE;l lrk ,o iCIKhlg wkqj .Dy fialdjkaf.a .uka n,m;% ;uka Ndrhg .ekSu
Tjqkaf.a whs;shla nj tys isk we;s Yd, nyq;rh Yajdi lrhs' 2005 lgdiays f,nkka
wd.uk uOHia:dkh iska rl:k u.ska l< iCIKhla u.ska f,nkka cd;sl ydmq;=ka 601
la u.ska fidh .;a wkaoug 91] mejiqf fialdjkaf.a .uka n,m;%h ;uka Ndrhg .ekSu
Tjqkaf.a whs;shla njhs'257 2005 fflhsfrdays weulka Yaj oHd,h u.ska f,nkkfha .Dy
fialdjka 458 la iCIKh lsfuka fidhd .ekqfka 1] la muKla whg ;u .uka n,m;%h ;ud
, ;nd .ekSug yels jQ njhs'258
wd.ukslhkaf.a whs;sjdisl wdrCId lsf ix.uh iy Tjqkaf.a mjq,aj, idudlhkaf.a
ix.uh i|yka lrk wkaoug "rdclduh fkdjk" kS;sfhka wkque;shla fkdue;sj ljfrl=f.a
fyda .uka n,m;%hla ykd.ekSf ,shlsh,s fyda rgg we;=f fyda kej;Sf n,m;a fyda
/lshd n,m;a fjk;a wfhl= iska r|jd ;nd .ekSu ;yk njhs"'259
254
Human Rights Watch interview with Sujeejwewani Matharachchi (real name used upon request), Colombo, Sri Lanka, November
3, 2006.
255
Human Rights Watch interview with Sanuthi P., Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
256
Human Rights Watch interview with Al-Haj U.T.M. Anver, ALFEA, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 31, 2006.
257
Eighty-seven percent reported their employers held their passports; the balance reported the employment agency held their
passports, or they did not specify who held their passport. Caritas Lebanon Migrants Center, Female Migrant Domestic Workers in
Lebanon: A Summary of the Caritas Survey, in International Labour Organization, Workshop Report: Awareness-Raising Workshop
on the Situation of Women Migrant Domestic Workers in Lebanon (Beirut: ILO, 2005),
http://www.ilo.org/dyn/gender/docs/RES/451/F799002463/Workshop%20Report%20on%20Women%20Domestic%20Migrant%20W
orkers.pdf (accessed May 14, 2007), annex 4, pp. 32-35.
258
Dr. Ray Jureidini, American University in Cairo, Profile of Female Migrant Domestic Workers in Lebanon, in International
Labour Organization, Workshop Report, annex 4, pp. 30-31.
259
Migrant Workers Convention, art. 21.

57

Human Rights Watch November 2007

fi! wrdh" l=f" f,nkka iy tlai;a wrd t rdcH hk rgj,a fuu .siqf
mdYajlrejka fkdjk w;r tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha iy f,nkkfha tfia fiajlhkaf.a
ykd.ekSf ,shlsh,s Ndrhg .ekSu kS;s frda njhs260' tfia jQj;a fuu wdrCIK kS;s;s
u.ska ydmq;=ka iy /lshd tacka;jre iska fiajhlkaf.a .uka n,m;% iy /lshd n,m;a
n,y;aldrfhka r|jd .ekSug tfrysj lsis ls%hdud.hla f.k fkdue;'
ydmq;=ka iska .Dy fialdjkaf.a ksoyi O l%u j,ska iSud lsug lghq;= lrhs' .Dy
fialdjka mjik wkaoug l=Kq islrk wjia:df yer Tjqkag tu ksjiska msgug ;yk
f' iuyr wjia:dj, ydmq;d fyda hrd iu muKla msg;g hd yelsh' iuyr ldka;djka
mejiqf Tjqka neyerg hk g .Dy fialdjo f.hs ;=< ish fodr.= oud .sh njhs' iuyr
ydmq;=ka .Dy fialdjlg oreKq iSudjka mkjkq ,ef' f wkaoug ta whg cfka,hla fodrla
weu mjd imQKfhkau ;ykh' wjqre 54 l ldka;djla ;ukaf.a jir 10 l ueofmr.
w;aoelS wmg fufia lSjdh' "udf.a uq fiajd ld,h ;=,u tu ksjiska msg;g hdug lsis
ksoyila ;snqfKa ke;' ud yg ta i|yd wjia:dj h hq;=j ;sKs"'261 > ld,Sk ueofmr.
fiajfha fhk ;j;a .Dyfialdjla f,nkka fi! wrdh yd l=f ys w;aoelS fufia lSjdh'
"rd;s%h fyda ojd, ud yg ksjiska msgj hdug ksoyila fkdh' ksjiska msg;g hk g ydmq;=ka
iska ud f.a ;=< oud w.= oud h;=re /f.k .sfhdah' fi! wrdfha o fuf,iu ish'
l=fys iEu wjia:djlu f.h ;=< ljqreka fyda kej;S isk ksid fodr we.= oud hEula is
fkdh"'262
fndfyda ldka;djka fiajdia:dk ;=< ;uka isrldhka lsug b;du wlue;sh tla ldka;djla
fi! wrdh ;u w;aoelS fufia lshhs' "ug neyerg hdf ksoyila fkdh' Tjqka neyerg hk
g fodr.= oud hk ksid ud yg f.hs we;=<g isrldhl ug ish"'263 ;j;a ldka;djla
mejiqf "wmg idmamqjlg hEug fyda weug hdug bv fkdka njhs' wm Tjqkaf.a
fufylrejka jQ ksid Tjqka ta wdldrfhkau wmg i,lk ,' fi! wrdfha ug isrldhl
f,i ksji ;=<u isug ish' ug bka ug wjYHhs'264 iuyr .Dy fialdjka yg by<
;gqj, cfka,fhka mek ydmq;=kaf.a isr.; lsfuka fug is h"' tia' fmdkakud lshd
isfha ";u ydmq;df.a Ydl jo ysxid j,ska fu i|yd jy,hg ke. ug mek .e,ug
isjQ njhs' Tjqka ud ksrka;rfhka u f.a ;=< w.= oud ;nkjd ud yg fokdj bjish fkdyels
260
The Dubai Court of Cassation ruled in 2001 that employers are prohibited from confiscating the passport of employees because it
violates the workers right to travel, and Lebanese civil regulations prohibit employers and employment agencies from withholding
migrant workers passports. According to Me Joseph Aoun, a lawyer with Caritas Lebanon Migrants Center, When sponsors pick up
their employees at the Lebanese airport, General Security hands the sponsor his or her employees passport. Though there is no law
against such practice in Lebanon, it is illegal, because generally a passport is the property of the issuing government (Sri Lanka, the
Philippines, for example) and so it is not up to a Lebanese to confiscate it. Ruling by Dubai Court of Cassation, Case # 268 (2001),
October 27, 2001; Human Rights Watch interview with Me Joseph Aoun, Caritas Lebanon Migrants Center, Beirut, Lebanon, August
22, 2007.
261
Human Rights Watch interview with Chaturi M., Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
262
Human Rights Watch interview with Krishnan S., Maskeliya, Sri Lanka, November 13, 2006.
263
Human Rights Watch interview with Padma S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
264
Human Rights Watch interview with Nayanadini B., Rambe, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

58

;ek tu fouy,a ksjfia jy,hg ke.Sug ;snq l=vd bvlska x.d ta ;=<ska jy,hg ke. t;kska
ug mekSug is jqKd"'265
wm l;d l, .Dy fialdjkaf.ka b;du iq;rhla muKla wmg mejiqf Tjqkag fiajd
ia:dkfhka msgj hdug bv ka njhs' fjk;a ljqreka fyda iu muKla bv ,o wjia:dj,
fndfyda g Tjqkaf.a ydmq;d fyda hrd iu muKla hdug isjQ nj;a Tjqkaf.a ksoyig oud
;snqKq iSudjka ;ukaj Yd, wmyiq;djhlg m;a lrk ,' l=fgfha tla ldka;djla fokdj
uqiq wlue;af;ka fufia mejiSh'
"Tjqka iska udj idmamq ixlSKh fj; /f.k hk ,' hrd iu hk w;r ud yg
fudag r:h ;=< b|f.k ug wjYH fohla f.k tk f,i hrdg lSug is h' ud yg
hg weul w;HjYH;djhla h' tfy;a hrd msfhl= jk ksid Tyqf.ka tfia b,a,Su
ug ,ecd iy.; ;;ajhls' tla kla udf.a ydmq;d is lsu i|yd fr ms<s j.hla
ug fok , ud tu fr len,s ijd ;ndf.k lmd fldg hg we f,i Nd;d
lf<' tla kla ydmq;d fuh oel wehs oehs weiSh' ud yg hg we ke;s nj wehg
lSfj tfia lSjo weh uf.a wjYH;djh .Kka .;af;a ke;' tfy;a wE fndfyda g udf.a
ldurh mCId lr n,kqfha ud wehf.a hKshf.a hg we fidrl lr ;sfo
lshdh"'266
ydmq;=ka iska .Dy fialdjkaf.a mjqf,a wh iu fyda fjk;a wd.uksl ldka;djka iu fyda
/lshd ksfhda; iu iy ;u rf ;dkdm;s ldhd, iu woyia yqjudre lr.ekSf yelshdj
j,lajd ;sf' wm iu l;d l, fndfyda ldka;djka lSf ;ukg rl:k mKsvhla .ekSug
fyda ,eug iy ,smshla ,eug yd ,sug ;yk njh' iuyr ldka;djka mejiqf ;ukag
mjqf,a wh iuj;a inkaOhla meje;au ;yk njh'
Tjqkg ,shq heug fyda ,eug fkdyelsh' rl:k mKsv ,eug fyda l;d lsug bvla ke;'
iuyr ldka;djkag 2004 foienrfha bkahdkq id.rfha iqkd wjia:dfjka miqj ;u mjqf,a
whg l;d lsugj;a f;dr;=re fidhd ne,Sugj;a wjia:djla ,nd fkdfok ,' ;j;a wh
mejiqf ;ukag mqj;am;a lshug fyda .=jka ,shg ijkaug fyda rEmjdysksh kerug bv
fkdfok njhs' iuyr ydmq;=ka iska .Dy fialdjkag ,efnk iy Tjqka hjk ,sms lshjd n,hs'
wmg f;dr;=re mejiQ foore ujla fufia lSh' "ud jir folla b;du is;a ;ejqf,ka .; lf<'
ud.fa ydmq;d jk ksjfia ldka;djg ud iska udf.a hKshg ,shQ ,smsh ;eme,a lsug ka kuq;a
weh iska th ;eme,a lr ke;' weh iska rl:kfhka fyda uf.a hKshkag l:d lsug fyda
Tjqkaf.a lgy~ ug weiSug bv kafka ke;"'267 wm iska fuu iCIKh lrk kfha ,xldjg
meKs jhi 26 l .Dy fialdjla wmg fufia mejiSh' "miq.sh wjqreoaog ug uf.a mjqf,a
265

Human Rights Watch interview with Ponnamma S., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 14, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Kumari Indunil (real name used upon request), Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
267
Human Rights Watch interview with Kumari S., Vallalgude, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
266

59

Human Rights Watch November 2007

whf.ka ,enqfKa ,sms folla muKs' ug rl:k mKsvhla .ekSug wjYHhhs lSg tu ksjfia
ldka;dj ug kafka hd,a y;rla ^we(fvd' 01& muKs' th YS% ,xldjg l:d lsug m%udKj;a
ke;' ud yg ksjfi;a msg;g hdug wjirhla ke;s w;r fjk;a .Dy fialdjka yd l:d lsuo
;ykh' ug l=vd <uqka ;sfofkla is tfy;a miq.sh jir mqrdu Tjqkag l:d lsug fyda fjk;a
lsisfjl= iu l:d lsug fyda bv kafka ke;"'
f .ek ydmq;d lSf wm iska kqUg wfkl=;a .Dy fialdjka iu l:d lsug bv
fkdfokafka Tjqka Tnf.a uki lD;s lrk ksidh'268 ;j;a ldka;djla wmg mejiqf ud yg
mjqf,a whg l;d lsug ;snqK w;r ,smso ,sug Wjukd h' ydmq;=ka ug mejiqf b jir
fol ;=< kqUg mjqf,a wh iu lsis inkaOhla meje;aug wjir ke;sjd fukau fi!
wrdfha fiajh i|yd meKs g ;ukaf.a mjqf,a wh wu;l l< hq;= njhs'269
.Dy fialdjkaf.a ndysr in|;djhka iSud lsug fyda lmd oeug fya;=j jYfhka ydmq;=ka
olajkafka .Dy fialdjkaf.a n|jd .;a fldka;%d;a ld,h jk jir fol fyda ;=k ksu ug fmr
f wh wia hEu je,elaug njhs' l=f ys fiajh l< ldka;djla lSf "tu ksjfia ldka;dj
iska .Dy fialdjl f,i ud jir follg tys f.kajd .ekSu i|yd uqo,a f.jd we;s ksid ud
yg ,sms ,eug fyda rl:k inkaO;d i|yd bvh fkdyels njh"'270
ydmq;=kaf.a f ls%hdud. ksid tu .Dy fialdjkag ;ukag Tjqkaf.a O ysyerodhl
;;ajhka WodjQ wjia:djl jQj;a /lshd ksfhda; fyda ;u rf wod, ;dkdm;s ldhd,hg fyda
oekaug we;s bvlv wiqrd ;sf'
kej; ish rg tau je<elau
ta' Wuq l=fys fiajh l< jhi 24 l ldka;djls' "uu ydmq;df.ka uf.a
jegqm f.jk f,ig;a tfia ke;fyd;a ug wdmiq f.or hdu i|yd .uka n,m;%h
fok f,ig;a mejiqfj Tyq iska uf.a .uka n,m;%h u m%;sfCIam l< w;r
Tyq iska uf.a nvg;a miqmig;a mhska .eiSfuka ud isys ke;s h' ug isysh
,enqK g ud y~ka kej;;a mejiqf ud kej; u rgg hjk f,hs' tg Tyq
ug nek lSf ud kqUj YS% ,xldjg hjkafkaj;a kqf .uka n,m;%h
fokafka;a ke;' kqU fuysu ish hq;=hs lshdh'271
;u n,h whq;= f,i fhdod .kska fndfyda ydmq;=ka fyda /lshd ksfhda;hska .Dy fialdjka
/lshdj yer Ys% ,xldjg hdu j,lajhs' iuyr wjia:dj, fldka;%;a;=j wjidk fuka miqjo
Tjqkaj k kshuhla fkdue;sj fiajfha fhdojd ;sf' fuu ;;ajh ;=< fndfyda .Dy fialdjkag
ord.ekSug ne ;;ajhka hgf;a YS% ,xldjg meKSug wjYH jQj;a fmrlS wdldrhg n,h whq;=
268

Human Rights Watch interview with Selvakumari W., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Chitra G., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 6, 2006.
270
Human Rights Watch interview with Sobani D., Kandy, Sri Lanka, November 10, 2006.
271
Human Rights Watch interview with Ummu A., Attanagalla, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
269

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

60

f,i fhdod n,y;aldr f,i r|jd .ekSu;a ndysr in|;d iSud lsu;a" .uka n,m;%h r|jd
.ekSu;a hk ;;ajhka iska Tjqkaj b;du wirK ;;ajhlg m;a lr ;sf' fndfyduhla Ys%
,dxlsl ldka;djka wm iu mejiqf 2004 iqkd wjia:df fyda 2006 f,nkkfha hqO ;;ajh
;=< fyda f whg kej; YS% ,xldjg taug fyda ;u mjqf,a wh .ek fidhd ne,Sug wjia:dj
fkdka njh'
fuu .Dy fialdjka ;u fiajd ia:dkh ;=<g muKla iSud lr ;eu ksid;a wod, wdh;k iu
in|;djhka meje;aug fkdyelshdj ksid;a ;u fiajd fldka;%d;a;=j wjidkfha mjd wdmiq ;u
rg fj; hdug lghq;= lr.ekSug fkdyels ;sf' 2005 YS%' ,' ' fia' /' ks' ldhHxYh
jd;d lrk wkaoug .Dy fialdjka 677 fofkl= ;u fiajd ld,h wjika jQj;a ydmq;=ka
iska Tjqkaj kej; YS% ,xldjg hdug bv fkdka njg meKs,s ,e ;sf'
f w;r ta iudk meKs,s 44 la ms wd.uksl fiajlhkaf.ka ,e ;sf' Tjqkag wju jYfhka
by; lS ldka;djkag wys" meKs,s lsf ls%hdoduhg yelshdj ,e ;sf'272
wm iska ilia l< jd;dj, i|yka lrk wkaoug .Dy fiald ldka;djka yg ;u orefjl=f.a
fyda foumshka fyda mjqf,a fjk;a wfhl=f.a fyda urKhl wju=,a lghq;= i|yd YS% ,xldjg
meKSug ydmq;=ka iy /lshd ksfhda;hska iska ;yk lr ;sf' tjka tla wjia:djl tla
.Dy fiald ldka;djlf.a iajdmqreIhdg ms<sldjla we;s njg wdrx jQj;a wehg YS% ,xldjg
hdug ydmq;d iy /lshd ksfhda;hd wjir kafka ke;'273 wjdikdjg tu ldka;djg Ys%
,xldjg taug wjir ,efnk g Bg uilg fmr wehf.a iajdmqreIhd Ys% ,xldf urKhg
m;a ;snqKs' fndfyduhla .Dy fialdjka mejiqf 2004 foien bkahdkq id.r iqkd
wjia:df ;u mjq,aj, wh hf.dia ish;a Tjqkaf.a ydmq;=ka ;ukag Ys% ,xldjg taug bv
fkdka njhs' tka' l+ud keu;s .Dy fialdj mejiqf ";uka jir 16 la wnqvd ys tlu
ksjfia fiajh lrka ish;a tu iqkd jHhikfha ;u hKsh" ifydaoh iy kEkd wd ish
fokdu hf.dia isho ;ukag YS% ,xldjg taug tu iajdhd bv fkdka njhs"' weh fufia
lshhs'
"udf.a hKsh iqkdfhka h .shd ug fjk orejka fkdue;' ta wjia:df ud
isfha wnqvdfhah' iqkd jHhikfhka miq udf.a ydmq;df.ka Ys% ,xldjg
hEug weiqj' tg weh th m%;sfCIam lrka fufia lSjdh' Tnf.a <uhd h
f.dia k th fmd<j hg j, oeh hq;=hs' Tn tys hdhq;af;a wehs@ ud tg weh
iu jo lf<" tg weh lSf Tnf.a <uhd oeka ue,d Tn fudlgo ,xldjg
hkafka Tn fodia;r flfklao@274

272

Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment, Annual Statistical Report of Foreign Employment 2005, p. 61.
Human Rights Watch interview with Sita S., Giribawa, Sri Lanka, November 7, 2006.
274
Human Rights Watch interview with Koormadhi N., Habaraduwa, Sri Lanka, November 14, 2006.
273

61

Human Rights Watch November 2007

tka' l+ud wjidkfha lf<a tu ksjfia hrdf.ka uqo,a b,a,df.k .=jka lm;la f.k YS%
,xldjg meKSuhs' ;u Ndrhg f.k ;snqKq l+udf.a .uka n,m;%h ydmq;d iska kej;
kafka ke;'
mS' kd keu;s ldka;dj wmg lshd isfha wehg YS% ,xldjg taug fkdyels jQfha wehf.a fi!
wrdhdkq ydmq;d iska wehg ish mjqf,a wh iu inkaOl meje;aug fyda f.hska msg;g
hdug yelshdj wiqrd ;snQ ksidh' YS% ,xldjg meKSug fkdyelsjQ w;r ;u iajdhdf.a mq;d iy
Tyqf.a ;=frl= fj;ska jIhl=;a udi ;=kl ld,hla O Ydl yd ,sx.sl w;jrj,g uqyqK
ug ish' tfukau jirl fiajh i|yd jegqma o wys h' weh fufia lSjdh'
"ud iEu gu f.or hdug kE lshd lSfj' udi mylg muK fmr isg ksjeis
ldka;djg ud lshd isfha f.or hdug wjYH njhs' ud tfia jka jr lshk g
ksjeis ldka;dj yd wef.a iajd mqreIhd lSf tfia hdug wjir h fkdyels
njh' bkamiq ud mejiqf ug we;s m%Yak ksid ud miq.sh udi 5la tys ish;a ud
mekhdug W;aidy fkdlf,a ud yg l=Kq islsugj;a t<shg hdug bv fkdka
ksidh' tfukau ud yg rl:kfhka l;d lsug fyda weu;=ula ,eug wjir
kafka ke;' YS% ,xldfjka rl:k mKsvhla meKs g weh th ika lrhs'
tfukau weh udf.a ,sms o ;eme,a fkdlrhs"'275
.Dy fialdjkaf.a kej; hdf b,a,S m%;sfCIam lsu u.ska we;sjQ b;du fokSh ;;ajhla we;s
jQfha 2006 f,nkka hqoaOfhah' ydmq;=ka iska ;u fiajl fialdjkaf.a .uka n,m;% wdmiq
u m%;sfCIam lsu ksid fndfyda fofkla yg isjQfha hqO h ksid ,eug ;snQ jegqmao w;yer
.uka n,m;% fkdue;sj ;u nvq ndysrdh o wu;l lroud mek hdughs' wd.ukh i|yd jk
wka;cd;sl ixOdkh iska 5381 la YS% ,dxlsl wd.ukslhska f,nkkfhka uqod.ekSug lghq;=
l< w;r" fuhska 93] lg jvd ldka;d Y%lhkah'276 tu wdh;khg wkqj tfia uqod.;a whf.ka
wvlau ;u ydmq;=kaf.ka msgug wjir fkd,nd ;u jegqmao wysj .uka n,m;% mjd
fkdue;sj mek wd whhs' ;ju;a fndfyda wh wdmiq taug fkdyelsj tys is'277
YS% ,xld foaY wud;HxYh lshk m f,nkkfha isk YS% ,dxlsl Y%lhka m%udKh hqoaOh
werfUk g 85"000 ls' tfy;a YS% ,xldjg f.kajd .; yelsjQfha 6272 muKs'278 fndfyda fokdg
msgh fkdyels jQfha hqO ;;ajhka" m%jdyk Ialr;d;a u.ska f,nkkh ;=<;a bka msgg hdu;a
Ialr ho wl iy Nhdkl ;;ajhla jQ ksidh' fuu wjia:df ydmq;=ka iska fldmuK YS%
,dxlslhska ixLHdjlg msgug bv fkdkafka oehs fuf;la oek .ekSug ke;' YS%' ,' ' fia' /'
ks' ldhHxYh jd;d lrk wkaoug YS% ,dxlsl ldka;djka miafofkl= hqO ;;ajh ;=<
275

Human Rights Watch interview with Meena P., Talawakelle, Sri Lanka, November 12, 2006.
International Organization for Migration, IOM in Lebanon, 4th quarter 2006 newsletter, November 18, 2006 ,
http://www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2006/iom-lbn-18nov.pdf (accessed September 6, 2007).
277
Lebanon: More Funds Needed to Evacuate Stranded Migrants, IOM press briefing, August 8, 2006,
http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/pbnAF/cache/offonce?entryId=9831 (accessed September 6, 2007).
278
Human Rights Watch interview with Sumedha Ekanayake, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
276

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

62

f,nkkfha h .shdh'279 iuyr ldka;djka mejiqf ;uka igka mej;s wdikakfha n,d is
w;r tla wfhl= tfia n,d ish ;ukag hdno f.dvke.s,a, lvdjefgkq gqjo wehg YS%
,xldjg taug yelshdj fkd,enqfKa by; lS ndOl ksidh' wd' WfmaCId jhi 22 ls' weh
mejiqf Tjqka ug hqoaOh wjia:df YS% ,xldjg hdug bv fkdka njhs' uf.a iajdmqreIh
l:dlr kej; kej; lSf ug tkaku lshdh' tg ydmq;d mejiqf wm uef k kqU;a wm
iu ish hq;=h' kqUg muKla YS% ,xldjg hdug fkdyelsh' wm isfha frEys hqO mj;sk
m%foaYfhauhs' ud b;du nh jqkd ug kej; YS% ,xldj oelSug fkd,efnhs lshd'280
wd' WfmaCId wjidkfha YS% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd,h fj; j .sfha wehf.a fm!oa.,sl
nvqndysrdosh o fkdue;sjh' wd ms%hkald mejiqf" "ydmq;=ka ;udg YS% ,xldjg hEug bv
fkdfok neka ;u ;drCIdj .ek fhka is njhs' ug YS% ,xldjg meKSug wjYH jQ ksid
uu tu f.oka mekakd" tg ydmq;d lSf fldka;%d;a;=j bjr jk ;=re kqU fuys ish hq;=hs'
wm uefk kqU;a wm iu h hq;=h' iji 5 g ud t;ekska mek f.dia ie;mq .Kka weug
isjqKd"'281
ydmq;=ka iska .Dy fialdjkag wia hdug wjir fkdfok wjia:dj, Tjqkg isjkafka jev
.kakd ;;ajhkag uqyqK ughs'
n,y;aldrfhka jev .ekSu
wm iska f,aLkh lrk ,o isoaka 23 la i|yka jk wkaoug n,y;aldrfhka r|jd .ekSu"
ikaksfokh iSud lsu .uka n,m;%h r|jd .ekSu" jegqma f.u meyer yeu" wmfhdackh"
wl ys uqo,a" rka msgqjy,a lsu fyda kS;sh o~qjug ,la lsu hk wkaoug h jeoafuka
jev .ekSu hk ish oE n,y;aldrfhka jev .ekSu hkafkka woyia flf' wka;cd;sl kS;shg
wkqj n,y;aldrfhka jev .ekSu ykajd we;af;a leue;a; rys;j iy o~qj f udkisl;ajh
u; h mqoa.,hl=f.a ldhhka fyda fiajdjka lrjd .ekSuhs'282 by; i|yka f,aLk 23 u i|yka
ldka;d Y%lhkaf.ka wmf.a iuqL mCIKhg ka jd;d wkqj Tjqkaf.a ydmq;=ka iy /lshd
ksfhda;hka Tjqka;=< o~qj udkisl;ajhla we;slr iSud blaujd .sh h jeoao iy ovj,g
,lalsu iy ;ckh ls ;=,ska ta whg ka /lshd fldka;%d;a;=j mjd W,a,x>Kh lr ;sf'
;j rg;a tu ldka;djkag Ydlj jofok njg;a ys jegqma fkdf.jk njg;a nh lrka
fldka;%d;a;=j,g w;aika .ekSu;a taldld f,i jev .ekSu;a is lrhs' fuu ;ckj,g;a h
fkdjkafka k fudjqkaj wmrdO fpdaokd hgf;a wd.uk wxYj,g Ndr fok njg h joaohs'
by; i|yka l, isoaka 23g fpdaokdf iajNdjh wkqj fuu ldka;djkaf.a ;;ajh wh;a jkafka
wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkfha j.SlrKhg wkqj wlue;af;ka jev .ekSuhs' ydmq;=ka iska
fuu ldka;djkaf.a jegqma r|jdf.k iy Tjqkaf.a /lshd n,m;%;a .uka n,m;%;a ydmq;=kaf.a
279

Memorandum from Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Details of Sri Lankan Females Died in the Middle Eastern Countries, 2006,
November 16, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Upeksha R., Vallalgude, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
281
Human Rights Watch interview with Priyanthika R., Giribawa, Sri Lanka, November 7, 2006.
282
ILO Convention No. 29 concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour (Forced Labour Convention), adopted June 28, 1930, 39
U.N.T.S. 55, entered into force May 1, 1932, art. 2(1).
280

63

Human Rights Watch November 2007

Ndrfha ;ndf.k Tjqkag /lshd ia:Dkhg iSudlr ;sf' /lshd tacka;hka iy Wm tcka;jreka
iska fuu ldka;djkag /lshdj ms<sn| fndre jKdj,a bm;a lr;s' /lshd fldka;%d;a;=j,g
leu;s lrjd .ks;s' f w;r llre ksfhda;hka fudjqkg h joaoka lshd iskafka ujd
fmkajk ,o Yd, .dia;=jla f.fuka muKla fldka;%d;a;=jg fmr bj;a ug fyda /lshd
ia:dkh fjkia lsug bvh yels njhs'
wd.uksl Y%lhka n,y;aldrfhka jev .ekSu i|yd f.dre njg Tjqka m;aug fYaIfhkau
fya;= we;af;a /lshdj,g n|jd .ekSf mj;sk ysyerld n|jd .ekSf ls%hd mmhkah'
wm iska f,aLK.; l, ydmq;=ka jegqma r|jdf.k nf,ka jev .ekSf l%uh ksid we;s we;s
lK.dgqodhl ;;ajh k tu fiajlhd /lshdfjka whskaug wjYH g ydmq;d iska ys
jegqma fkdf.ug ;ckh lrkq ,ef' WodyKhla yehg wjqre 26 jhi we;s t' wjqohs
f,nkkfha y;r fofkl=f.a iuka ; ksjil fiajh lrka ishdh' 2006 cQ,sfha f,nkka
hqoaOh wdrN jkg weh tu ksjig meK wjqre 2 la blau f.diah' tfy;a wehg f.jd
;snqfKa tla udihl jegqm muKs'
iajd j wehg lSf f.or hk g uq mhu fok njh' hqoaOh mgka .;a g
wE ug hdug bv kafka ke;' weh iska ud yg fvd, 100 la fok ,' tu
uQ,sl f.ula muKh' weh lsf wks;a uqo,a ish,a, tl;= lr ud f.or hk
g fok njhs' kuq;a bka miqj ug lsis uqo,la ,enqfKa ke;' 2004 cQks udifha
ud uq,skau tys /lshdjg .sfh' kuq;a ug ,enqKq tlu f.u cqks udifha
,enqKq fvd, 100 muKs' bka miqj lsis jegqmla ,enqfKa ke;' ud frEys
isk g ud yg fndan iy msmqre y~j,a weisks' h ksid ug kskao fkd.sh
w;r f.or hkakg yelsoehs iajd jf.ka weiQ g weh m%;sfCIam l,dh' ud
hkafka k udf.a jegqma fkdf.jk njo lSjdh' tu ksjdih wdrCId iys; nj;a
Tn nhjkafka l=ulgoehs uf.ka weiqjdh' kuq;a ud yg fndan Yo ksid ksod
.ekSug neh'283
t' wjqohs wjidkfha tu ksjfika mek .shdh' iajd j iska wehf.a .uka n,m;%h tu uq
ld,h mqrdu r|jdf.k ;sK' wehg lsisodl wehf.a .uka n,m;%h fyda jir 2 l jegqma ,enqfKa
ke;'
wm iska mCIKhg Ndckh lrk ,o ' frdaIsksf.a ;;ajh" f ;eke;a;sh hdoa ys YS% ,xld
;dkdm;s ldhd,fha mjid is wdlrhg wehj n,y;aldrfhka jev .kakd ;;ajhg m;alr
;sf' fi! wrdfha ish isjQ ore m%iQ;sfhka miqj wE /lshdfjka wia hdf wjYH;djfhka
ishdh' kuq;a wef. ydmq;=ka wehg ;ckh fldg lshd isfha wehg f.ug we;s we(fvd' 5120
la jk ys jegqma fkdf.jk njhs' Bg wu;rj weh /lshdj ,nd.ekSu i|yd tackais .dia;=j

283

Human Rights Watch interview with Arivudai H., Habaraduwa, Sri Lanka, November 14, 2006.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

64

jYfhka f.jQ we(fvd' 400 la o g tl;= l< g th weh ;=< o~qj udkisl;ajhla we;s
lsug iu;a h' weh fufia lshd is'
"ud /lshdjg meKsfha 2002 fmnrjd udifhah' oeka Bg jir 5 la ;sf' tfy;a ud
,nd we;af;a tla jirl jegqm muKs' ud fuys mefKk g .NkSj isfh udi myl
fiajfhka miq orejd ,eK' bka miqj kej; ug /lshdj lsug ish' ud Tjqkaf.ka
wdhdpkh lr isfha kej; YS% ,xldjg hjk f,ih' tfy;a Tjqka ta i|yd ud ksoyia
fkdlr;s' ud wf;a tla hd,la j;a ke;' ud jegqm iy .=jka l m;
n,dfmdfrd;a;=fjka isfh' f w;r <uhdo n,d .kska ug jev lsug ish' ud yg
l,ska ,e ;snQ uqo,a j,ska <uhdg wjYH lsms we wdh .;af; ud WoEik 5'00
g ke.sg tu ksjfia ,uhska mdi,a heh hq;=h' tys <uhska 11 fofkls' ;gq ;=klska
iuka; tu ksjfiys udyg ksoyila lshd ld,hla ;snqfKau ke;' iq flhla ,o
.i udf.a <uhdg ls kafk' ud yg YS% ,xldjg hdug wjYHhs' tfy;a wf;a uqo,a
ke;' <ufhl=o iu ud YS% ,xldjg hkafka flfiao udyg wjYH flfia fyda YS% ,xldjg
hdughs' ug YS% ,xldf f.ug re' 45"000 lg jvd Kh ;sf' uf.a orejkag lssis
uqo,la fkdue;'284
jir 5l tlu ia:dkfha fiajh lsfuka miq ' frdaIsks tu ksjiska f ;u nvq ndysrdh;a
/f.k YS% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd,hg meKsfhah' wm weh iu l:d lrk g weh fiajh l<
ia:dkfhka wehg jir 4 l jegqma yshla we;s nj lSjdh'
fndfyda wd.ukslhkag mkjk uqo,auh o~qj tk .=jka l m; , .kak f,i ydmq;=ka
iska n, lsu jev .ekSf Wml%uhla njg m;aj ;sfnk w;r tu wd.uksl fiajlhd
wlue;af;ka jev lrkafkl= njg m;a lrkq ,nhs' /lshd fldkafoais j, mj;sk tla fmd
fldkafoaishla jkafka fiajlhd jir foll ld,hla fyda fldka;%d;a;=f i|yka ld,h imQK
lsfuka miq ydmq;=ka iska wdmiq hEf .=jka l m;a ,ndfok njh' fuu ;;ajh okakd
ydm;=ka fuu fiajl fialdjka fldka;%d;a ld,h ;=, wl f,i wmfhdackhg ,la lrkq
,nhs' tfia ke;fyd;a Tjqkag wdmiq hdu i|yd ;uka w;ska .=jka lm; .ekSug fyda udi 5la
muK jegqma rys;j jev lsug isf' v' fidhsod l=f ys fialdjls' wehf.a ydmq;d
fldka;%d;a;=j ksu fuka miqjo wehj uqod yeu m%;sfCIam l< w;r wehf.a .=jka lmf;a
uqo, ksl=;a fkdlrk njg ;ckh lr" fkdkj;ajd fiajh lrk f,ig n, lr we;'
wE m%ldY l< wkaoug
"ud frday,a .;lsug isjQfka mmqf fokdjla ksidh' ffjoHjrhd mjid
isfha ud yg m%udKj;a flhla fkdue;s nj;a tu ksid yels blauKska kej;
n rg n,d hk f,ih' udf.a iajdjf.ka ud b,a,d isfha blaukska ud
284

Human Rights Watch interview with Rohini T., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 14, 2006.

65

Human Rights Watch November 2007

msg;alr hjk f,ihs' th m%;sfCIam l< weh lshd isfha ud jir ;=kla ksujk
;=re ish hq;= njhs' f jk g udf.a .siqf wvx.= fldka;%d;a;=j ksufjka
;sK' ud fld<U w;aika lf<a jir foll fldka;%d;a;=jls' tfy;a weh
mjikafka ud yg .=jka l m; ,ndug k jir ;=kla fiajh l< hq;= njhs'
ud fuhska CIsma;j isfha weh iska ud msg;alr yo@ tfia ke;fyd;a weh
iska ud .gu fuys r|jd .kSfodhs ielfhks"'285
udi follg miqj weh iska YS% ,xldjg hjk f,i b,a,d udrdka;s Wmjdihl fhks' wehf.a
Wmjdifha 7 jk kfha tu iajd j iska wdmiq hEug .=jka l m;la ,nd ;sf' fjk;a
isoaka j, llre tacka;hska iska fialdjkag n, lr we;af;a uqo,auh o~qjh'
WodyKhla f,i tia' ukrxckS yg wnqvdfha wl jo fokd j,g ,la ug is jQjdh'
wdydr .ekSug bv fkdu iy widudkH jev m%udKhla meju g we;=<;a h'
/lshd ksfhda; wdh;kh wehg ;ckh lr isfha udi ;=klg fmr /lshdj yer hkafka k
fyda udre lrkafka k ta i|yd wehg o~qj lrk njh' udf.a fldka;%d;a;=j jQfha jir 2
1$2ls' ud udi ;=kla ;=< /lshdj yer hkafka k re' 80"000 la ^we(fvd' 710& wnqvdys /lshd
tacka;g .dia;= jYfhka f.h hq;=h' f fya;=j ksid ud yg udi ;=klg jvd isug ish'286
fndfyda wjia:dj, .Dy fialdjka n,y;aldrfhka jev .kakd ;;ajhg yiq jkafka Tjqkaf.a
ydmq;=kaf.a fldkafoaishla u; /lshdjg f.kaf .dia;=j f.jk ;=re Tjqka ksoyia fkdlrk
;;ajh ;=<h' fuu uqo, fi! wrdhdf we(fvd' 750 - 1600 la w;ro" l=fys yd
f,nkkays we(fvd' 1000-1100 iy tlai;a wrd t rdcHfhys we(fvd' 450-1100 f'287
by; i|yka fialdjf.a l=f cd;sl iajd j iska ' fidankS keu;s ldka;djf.ka weh
fldka;%d;a;=j imQK fkdlrkafka k we(fvd 1020 la f.jk f,i n, lr we;' ' fidanks
fufia lshhs"
"ud .Dy fialdjl f,i jir 2 la i|yd f.kajd .ekSug weh iska l=f
kd 250 la ^we(fvd' 888 la& f.jd ;snqKq nj lSjdh' ;jo udf.a id i|yd
kd 30 la o ^we(fvd' 107& ykd.ekSf ldm; i|yd kd 15 ^we(fvd' 53&
la o ho lr we;' f wkqj weh ug lshd isfha f.or hdug wjYH k
ish ho jYfhka we(fvd' 1047 la wehg f.jk f,ih' tg ud lSf
ksfhda; .dia;= jYfhka udo uqo,a f.jd ;sfnk njh' tfy;a weh .ska .gu
lshd isfha wehf.a uqo,a ish,a, f.jd ug Wjukd k f.or hk f,ih' tfia

285

Human Rights Watch interview with Soida W., Kegalle, Sri Lanka, November 19, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Manaranjani S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
287
Human Rights Watch interview with retired labor agent, name withheld, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 18, 2006; Human Rights
Watch interview with Hazzam A. Lathiff, labor agent, All Akeem Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 3, 2006.
286

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

66

fkdf.jkafka k ud yg flfiaj;a f.or hdug fkdfok njg wjOdrkh


l<dh"'288
' fidanks f.a iajdj iska wehf.a .uka n,m;%h ;jrg;a r|jd ;nd.;a w;r wehg
ksjiska msgug fyda rl:k u.skaj;a llre ksfhda;hdg l:dlsug fyda bvkafka ke;' t*a'
kQ keue;s wh wmg lshd isfha wehf.a ydmq;=ka iska ;,d fm,d ysyer lsfuka miq weh
b,a,d isfha ;ukaj /lshd ksfhda;hdg ndrfok f,ih' tfy;a ydmq;d lSf "kqUj f.kajd
.ekSu i|yd wm uqo,a f.jd ;sfnk w;r tu uqo,a wmg fokafka k kqUg wdmiq hEug bvh
yels njhs"'289
;j;a wjia:dj, ydmq;=ka wkq.ukh lrk l%uhla k n,Odkag bm;a lrk njg
hjoaoka Tjqkg udkisl yd ldhsl jOysxid meKu u.ska .gu jevlsug n,flf' tla
ldka;djla lSf' ud tys isug ;SrKh lf<a Tjqka ud h jeoa ksidh' Tjqka lSf l=fgh wfma
rghs' wmsg kqUj fmd,sishg fyda n,Odkag ndrh yelshs'290 ;j;a ldka;djla meiqf "wehg
f,nkkfhka msgug wjYH nj lSg Ydl yd udkisl wmfhdackhg ,la ug isjQ njh'
wehg fm!oa.,sl ksoyi yd wehf.a wd.l whs;Ska mjd h jeoau ;=<ska W,a,x>kh lrk ,"'
tg ud iajdjg lSf ud yg f.or hdug wjYH njhs' tg weh lSf g
l,ska is fialdj ;ukaf.a wf;a wes,s fodrg isrlr lvd .;a nj;a tu
fohu kqUg o h yels nj;ah' fuhska ud b;du h jQ w;r ud fmd,sishg Ndr
fok njgo weh iska ;ckhl l<dh'291
tg ud lSf lula ke; ud lsis jrola lr ke;s njhs' tg weh lSf udf.ka wehg wh
lr.ekSug uqo,la ;sfnk jhs" ;uka /lshd ksfhda;hdg f.jQ uqo, kej; wjYH njhs; tfy;a
ud lshd isfha ud iska wehg f.ug lsis ys uqo,la fkdue;s njhs'"
tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha llre wud;HxYfha wOHCIl wfr*d id mjik wkaoug
wd.ukslhkaf.a .uka n,m;a r|jd ;nd .ekSu u.ska Tjqkaf.ka n,y;aldrfhka jev .ekSug
lghq;= ie,fik w;r wka;cd;sl llre m%{ma;sfha tk n,y;aldrfhka jev .ekSu wfydais
lsu keu;s fldkafoaishg tlai;a wrd t rdcH w;aika ;nd we;s rgla njhs'292 wm iska
l;d ny l, fndfyda wd.ukslhka mejiqf ;uka wlue;s lror ysyer | ordf.k /lshdf
fh isug is jQfha .uka n,m;%h fkdue;sj mekhdug ;snQ h;a thska we;sjk wys;lr
m%;sM,;a fya;=fjks' fndfyda wh lSf tfia l,fyd;a ;uka .uka n,m;% fkdue;s fya;=fjka w;a
288

Human Rights Watch interview with Sobani D., Kandy, Sri Lanka, November 10, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Noor F., Attanagalla, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
290
Human Rights Watch interview with Hinni M., Tihari, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
291
Human Rights Watch interview with Sujeejwewani Matharachchi (real name used upon request), Colombo, Sri Lanka, November
3, 2006.
292
Samir Salama, Retaining Passports is Forcible Labour, Gulf News (Dubai, UAE), June 13, 2006,
http://archive.gulfnews.com/articles/06/06/13/10046487.html (accessed September 6, 2007).
289

67

Human Rights Watch November 2007

wvx.=jg .kq we;s njh' jhi 24 l tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha vqndhs ys fiajlhl= fufia
lSfh'
"ydmq;d iska ug myrfuka miq ud b,a,d isfha ug f.or hdu i|yd uf.a
.uka n,m;%h fok f,ihs' tg ud udi myla fiajh lr ;snqKs' tg Tyq lshd
isfha jir fol ksujk ;=re ug wdmiq hdug h fkdyels nj;a .uka n,m;%h
fkdfok nj;ah' tneka jir fol ksujk ;=re ug isug ish' ta yer
fjk;a l,amhla fkdh' ud mekhdug W;aidy fkdlf,a fmd,sishg wiq ug;a
tuska ;j;a m%YaK rdYshlg meg,Sug isfj;ehs is;=K neks' YS% ,xldf ud
k fod,yl mqyqKqjlg iyNd.s jQ w;r tys mqyqKqlre lshd isfha mek hdfuka
fmd,sishg yiqug;a ;j;a m%Yak rdYshlg uqyqK ug ish yels nj;ah"'293
wka;cd;sl llre m%{ma;sfha wxl( 29 orK j.ka;shg wkqj YS% ,xldj" fi! wrdh"
l=f" f,nkkh iy tlai;a wrd t rdcHh iska fiajlhka jefvys fhu kS;s frda nj
ms<sf.k ;sf'294 wka; cd;sl llre ixOdkh j.SlrKh lr we;s wkaoug fiajfhys
fhou my; i|yka f'
1'

o~qj fokjd hk udkisl;ajh we;s lr jev .ekSu'

2'

flfkl=f.a wlue;af;ka jevlsug fm<Uu'

wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkh j.SlrKh lr we;s wkaoug o~qj udkisl;ajhg wh;ajk


tuska jefvys fhdojk wdldrfhka my; i|yka f,i ia;r l< yel' wm l;d nyg ,lal,
wd.ukslhka rdYshlf.a w;aoelS wkqj my; i|yka wdldrfha n, ls tllg fyda ta folgu
fyda uqyqKug is we;'
1'

Ydl fyda ,sx.sl w;jr


wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkh i|yka lrk wkaoug ydmq;=ka fyda /lshd tcka;jre
iska fiajlhkaf.ka jev .ekSu is lrkq ,nkafka Tjqkag fyda Tjqka iu tlg isk
wka wfhl=g Ydl fyda ,sx.sl w;jr u.ska h jeoafuks'295

2'

fiajlhdf.a ls%hdld nj iSud lsu'

293

Human Rights Watch interview with Ummu N., Habaraduwa, Sri Lanka, November 14, 2006.
Forced Labour Convention, art. 2(1).
295
International Labour Organization, Human Trafficking and Forced Labour Exploitation, p. 20; International Labour Organization,
A Global Alliance against Forced Labour: Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles
and Rights at Work (Geneva: ILO, 2005),
http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=5059 (accessed May 2, 2007), pp.
5-6, Box 1.1.
294

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

68

wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkh fmkajd fok wkaoug jev .ekSf fmdf fhdod.kakd
l%uhla k fiajlhka fiajd ia:dkhg muKla iSud lsu msgh fkdyels f,i w.=,a oud
fiajdia:dkj, fldgq lr.ekSu fyda Tjqkaf.a .uka uka b;du iq m%foaYhlg muKla
iSud lsu'296
f u.ska wd.ka;=l rf wfkl=;a lKavdh iu inkaO meje;au j,lajkq ,ef'
3'

uqo,auh ys u; ne| ;nd .ekSu $ ne| ;ndf.k jev .ekSu ydmq;=ka iska fuu
;;ajh hgf;a n,y;aldrfhka jev .ekSu islrkq ,nkafka Tjqkaj /lshdjg n|jd
.ekSug ho jQ uqo,a f.ug tl jk njg m%ldY lrks' tjka wh ydmq;=ka iska
;j;a l%u j,go Tjqka u; n,y;aldrfhka mgjkq ,nhs' tk Tjqkaf.a fiajh uqo,auh
wj;lafiarejlg ,la lsu;a tfukau ydmq;d iska imhk wdydr iy kjd;eka i|yd
w;sYfhdala;sfhka wl , .Kka bm;a lsu;ah' f ksid fiajlhdg Kh nka h
fkdyel'297

4'

jegqma r|jd ;nd.ekSu f.u imQKfhka u m%;sfCIam lsu iy fjk;a uQ,Huh


o~qj'298
f ;;ajh u.ska fiajldhg jegqma n,dfmdfrd;a;=fjka jev lsug i,iajd bka miqj
ydmq;=ka iska jegqma fldgia fyda uq jegqma r|jd ;nd .ekSuhs'

5'

.uka n,m;% iy ykd .ekSf ,shlsh,s r|jd ;nd.ekSu wka; cd;sl llre
ixOdkhg wkqj ydmq;=ka iska fiajlhkaf.a .uka n,m;% fyda ykd.ekSf
,shlsh,s r|jd ;nd.ekSu ;=<ska tu fiajlhkaj ;u ydmq;=kag wlue;af;ka jQjo
hg;a ug wjYH udkisl h Wmu f,i we;s lrhs'299

6'

n,Odkag Ndru i|yd h jeoaou300


f hgf;a n,Odkag Ndr fok njg fyda fmd,Sishg fyda wd.uk ks<Odkag fyda rka
fkrmd yeug h jeoaou is flf' f ;;ajhg uqyqK ka fiajlhd ;u b,a,S
i|yd ls%hd lsug we;s whs;sho Tyqf.a udkisl;ajho imQKfhka W,a,x>Kh flf'

7'

oekg lrk /lshdfjka bj;a lsu fyda kej; /lshdjlg tafuka je,elaug lghq;=
lsu'301

296

International Labour Organization, Human Trafficking and Forced Labour Exploitation, p. 20.
Ibid.
298
Ibid.; International Labour Organization, A Global Alliance against Forced Labour, pp. 5-6, Box 1.1.
299
International Labour Organization, Human Trafficking and Forced Labour Exploitation, p. 21.
300
Ibid.
297

69

Human Rights Watch November 2007

8'

whs;sjdisl yd jrm%ido bj;a lsu'


f u.ska h jeoaou iy o~qj u hk o~qj udkisl;ajh we;s lsug wu;rj
fiajlhkag ,nd we;s whs;sjdisl iy jrm%ido bj;a flf'302

wlue;af;ka fiajfhys fhou wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkhg wkqj ia;r flfrkafka


fufiah' wlue;af;ka jev .ekSu hkq Tjqkaf.a tl;djh ,nd.ekSu i|yd /j fyda jxpksl
f,i lghq;= lsu muKla fkdj ndysr jYfhka Tjqka ne| ouk iDcq fyda jl%dldr ls%hdo
we;=,;a f'303 wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkfha mCIljrekag wkqj h lsis ydmqf;la
fiajhg .;a mqoa.,fhl= fiajhg .;a wjia:df leu;s udkisl;ajhlska isho miqj fiajlhd
iska ;uka fndre fmdfrdka j,g yd /jug ,lajQ nj f;are .ekSfuka miq" wlue;af;ka
jev .ekSu hk ;;ajhg m;af'304 wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkh fmkajdfok wkaoug uq,ska
;uka iska fok ,o leue;a; miqj ;uka f.drla njg m;a jQ nj f;are .;a g" ;u
leue;a; bj;alr.; fkdyelsh'305
wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkh mjik wkaoug fiajlhkaf.a /lshd yerhdug we;s ndOdj ksid"
;uka /lshdjla lsf whs;sh fjka l< fkdyel'306 fiajlhd leue;af;ka tl jQ /lshdjl
mjd fuu ;;ajh ;=< n,y;aldrfhka jev.ekSu njg m;af'307
wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkh olajk WodyKj,g wkqj oekqu wvq lu fyda wlue;af;ka
fiajh lsf ;;ajhg my; i|yka oE wh;a f' Ydl jYfhka tla ia:dkhlg fldgqlr jev
.ekSu" udkisl jYfhka h joaod jev .ekSu" fndre .sKq ujd fmkajd fiajlhd ydmq;dg
Khlrefjl= nj ujd fmkauo /lshdf iajNdjh iy fiajd fldkafoais ms<sn| fndre fmdfrdka
u" fldgila jYfhka jegqma r|jd .ekSu fyda jegqma lsisfia;a u fkdf.uo ykd.ekSf
,shlsh,s iy .uka n,m;%h fyda fm!oa.,sl jkdlula we;s foaj,a r|jd ;nd.ekSuo f'308
n,y;aldrfhka jev.ekSu" YS% ,xldj ;=< kS;s frda fukau tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha okav
kS;s hgf;a o jrols'309 l=f iy f,nkkfhao n,y;aldrfhka jev .ekSu kS;sfhka ;ykh'310
301

International Labour Organization, A Global Alliance against Forced Labour, pp. 5-6, Box 1.1.
Ibid.; International Labour Conference, General Survey of the Reports Relating to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)
and the Abolition of Slavery Convention, 1975 (no. 105): Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and
Recommendations, Report III, 65th Session (Geneva: ILO, 1979), para. 21.
303
International Labour Organization, A Global Alliance against Forced Labour, p. 6.
304
International Labour Organization, Human Trafficking and Forced Labour Exploitation, p. 23.
305
International Labour Organization, A Global Alliance against Forced Labour, p. 6.
306
International Labour Organization, Fundamental Rights at Work and International Labour Standards, (Geneva: 2003), pp. 36-38.
307
International Labour Organization, Human Trafficking and Forced Labour Exploitation, p. 23.
308
International Labour Organization, A Global Alliance against Forced Labour, p. 6, Box 1.1.
309
Sri Lankan Penal Code, No. 2 , 1883, section 358(A), amended by Penal Code (Amendment) Act, No. 16, 2006, section 7 (making
it a criminal offense to subject or cause any person to be subjected to forced or compulsory labor, defined as all work or service
which is exacted from a person under the threat of any penalty and for which such person has not offered himself voluntarily).
310
Lebanese Penal Code, art. 569 (prohibiting deprivation of personal freedom and prohibiting using a person deprived of personal
freedom to perform a task); Kuwait Penal Code, art. 173 (imposing penalties on anyone who threatens another person physically or
302

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

70

fi! wrdfhao llre kS;s ;s j,g wkqj n,y;aldrfhka jev .ekSu o~qj ,eh yels
jrols'311
/lshd imhk rgj, llre ksfhda;jrekaf.a iQrd lEf l%u
"iajd j iska ud /f.k f.dia uqia,s cd;sl /lshd ksfhda;hdg Ndrks'
Tjqka ug bk mhlska myr kafkah' tu ia:dkfha uqia,s ldka;djlao is w;r
weh iska w;a foflkau udf.a luq,a j,g myr kafkah' bka ud fndfydafia
.sfh' tg Tjqka lSf iajd jf.ka mekhdug fmr udi ;=kla wE , ish
hq;= njhs' tfy;a mek hk wdldrh ud okafka ke;' ud Tjqkaf.ka b,a,d isfha
ug fyd| iajdjla ,ndfok f,ih' tfy;a Tjqka tfia lf,a ke;' bka miqj
kej; j;djla ud tu tacka;jrhd fj; .sfh' Tjqka kej;;a bkmfhka ud
yg oreKq f,i myr ks" uf.a uq;%d iu f,a msgh' Tjqka kej; myr ks' bka
miqj Tjqka ud ldurhl oud k 5 la isrlr ;enqfjdah'312
-t' pkasld jhi 27 tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha vqndhs ys .Dy fialdjla"
;u w;aoelS fufia lshhs'
.Dy fialdjka ;u .egj,g /lshd ksfhda;hkaf.a uey;au iy i fyda fjk;a
ydmqf;l= fj; udreug b,a,Sug hdfuka uqyqK ug isjkafka ;sfnkjdg;a jvd wl
wmfhdackhlg ,lauhs' b;du iq;rhla /lshd ksfhda;hska .Dy fialdjka yg msysg we;s
kuq;a" nyq;rh iska Tjqkaj myr lEug yd h jeoaug ,lau fya;=fjka Tjqka ;u
ydmq;=kaf.ka mekf.dia Wo b,a,k ;;ajhg m;af' wm iska fidhd.;a wkaoug fuu /lshd
ksfhda;hka iska Tjqka f mek wd ydmq;=ka fj; kej;;a n,y;aldrfhka hjkq ,nhs' Tjqka
o tys islrkqfha ydmq;=ka udre lsug k fialdjg f.h fkdyels ;rf .dia;=jla kshu
lsuhs' wm iska l< fidhd .ekSj,g wkqj tfia ldka;djkag Odldr ysyer yd jO fokd
meKjQ /lshd ksfhda;hka fi! wrdh" l=f" f,nkka fyda tlai;a wrd t rdcHhka ys
/lshd ksfhda; ldhd, mj;ajdf.k hk YS% ,dxlslhkauh'
/lshdjg n|jd .ekSf .dia;= l%uh b;du oreKq f,i .Dy fialdjkayg Ydl wmfhdackhg
,la ug;a" n,y;aldrfhka jefvys fhoug;a" m%n, f,i fya;= we;' fiajhg nekq m<uq
udi ;=k mCIK ld,hls' ydmq;d u.ska fyda fialdjf.a Wjukdj u; .NKS fyda fi!LH
fya;= u; .siqu iSud l<fyd;a .siqug wkqj /lshd tacka; iska lsis .dia;=jlska f;drj
with damage to his reputation or property with a view to forcing the victim to do something) and art. 121; Kuwait Law No. 31 of 1970
on the amendment of the Penal Code, arts. 49 and 57 (prohibiting public officials or employees to force a worker to perform a job for
the State or for any public body); UAE Federal Penal Code No. 3, art. 347. See also Constitution of Kuwait, art. 42 (prohibiting forced
labor except in cases specified by law for national emergency and with just remuneration).
311
Saudi Arabia has no legislation specifically criminalizing forced labor. The labor law calls on employers to refrain from using the
worker without pay, but it imposes only relatively light penalties on employers who violate these provisions. Because the labor law
excludes domestic workers, they are not protected by this provision. Saudi Arabia Labor Law, Royal Decree No. M/51, 23 Shaban
1426 (September 27, 2005), arts. 61, 239.
312
Human Rights Watch interview with Chandrika H., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.

71

Human Rights Watch November 2007

fjk;a fialdjl iemhshs hq;=h' tfia ke;fyd;a ;uka whl< .dia;=j wod, ydmq;dg kej;
uqodyeh hq;=h'313 /lshd ksfhda;hska ks;ru fuu udi ;=fka iy;slh .ek udOH u.ska ;u
fiajd odhlhkag m%pdrh lrkq ,nhs' /lshd ksfhda;fhl= wmg lSf k 91 lg miqj /lshd
ksfhda;hka yg fiajd odhlhka fjkqfjka lsis j.lSula ke;s w;r tu fiajd odhlhdg kej;
w;ska f.jd fjk;a fialdjla ,nd.ekSug isf'314
/lshd ksfhda;hska mjik wkaoug .Dy fialdjka i|yd w;ska fjk;a ydmqf;l= fidhd ug
neula fyda j.lSula fkdue;' .Dy fialdjg fudkh m%Yakhla ;snqko fjk;a ydmqf;l= fidhd
u wms wjYHfhkau l<hq;= ldhhla fkdf' fiajl ldka;djka wmg mejiqf /lshd tacka;jre
iska ;ukag bjid ord .ekSug fkdyelsu wjia:djkays mjd fjk;a ydmqf;l= fj; heu
m%;sfCIam l< njhs' v' fidaud fufia mjihs'315
- "l=fgfha udf.a m<jk ydmq;df.ka m%Yak we;s h' ud /lshd tacka;g l:d l< g Tjqka
ug ksYaYo jk f,i lSh' tfiau udi ;=klg miq Tjqka udf.a m%Yakhg ls%hd lrk nj lSfh'
udi ;=klg miq ud kej; l:dl, g udi yhla isk f,i lSfh' bkamiq wgjk udifha
l:dl, g lSf jirla imsfrk f;la isk f,ihs' ud Tjqkag l:d lr ud ksoyia lrk f,i
b,a,d isg ydmq;d Bg reoaO mejiqf ud Tyqg whs;s foam,la njhs"'316 /lshd tacka;hka
,cacd rys;j ms<s.kakd fohla k fujka ;;aajhka jdKsc wjYH;djhka u; isfjkakdjQ foaj,a
f,i idOdrKShlrKh lsuhs' fuh jHdmdrhls wm iska fiajd odhlhdg wjYH oE iemhshs hq;=h'
Tjqkaf.a rf Tjqkag leue;a;la l< yel'317
/lshd tacka;jrekag ydmq;=kaf.ka whjk we(fvd' 450 - 1600318 jk uQ,Huh jdish ;ld ;uka
imhk fialdj l=uK ysyerld ;;ajhla ;=< jqjo mCIK ld, iSudj ;=, tu ydmq;d ,
;eug n.n,d .ks;s'
fuu uQ,Huh ukdj wdl jYfhka b;d l=vd ksfhda; wdh;kj,g wdl jYfhka flfrk
n,mEuls' YS% ,dxlsl wd.uksl llre /lshd ludka;h ms<sn|j wOHhkhla lr we;s fI,a
.en keu;s udkj Ydia;%{a{hd mjik wkaoug .Dy fialdjka lSm fofkl=u tl g YS%
,xldjg heug fl ld,hl isjqjfyd;a ydmq;=kag f.h hq;= we;s w;s Yd, uqo,a m%udKh
ksid /lshd wdh;k jid oeug isf'319
f ksid /lshd tacka;hskaf.a uQ,sl wruqK ,dN ,euh' ueofmr. rgj,g jir 30 la ld,hla
;siafia YS% ,dxlsl .Dyfialdjka iemhQ tacka;fhl= wmg mejiqf oekg mj;sk ;;ajh ;=< udi
313
Human Rights Watch interview with N.M. Sisira Bandara, labor agent, Samasi Manpower Services, Kurunegala, Sri Lanka,
November 3, 2006.
314
Human Rights Watch interview with retired labor agent, name withheld, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 18, 2006.
315
Ibid.
316
Human Rights Watch interview with Soma W., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
317
Human Rights Watch interview with B. Pradeep Niyadandupola, labor agent, Deshakthee Lanka Enterprises, Kurunegala, Sri
Lanka, November 3, 2006.
318
The fees employers pay labor agents range between US$750-1,600 in Saudi Arabia, US$1,000-1,100 in Kuwait and Lebanon, and
US$450-1,100 in UAE. Human Rights Watch interview with retired labor agent, name withheld, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 18,
2006; Human Rights Watch interview with Hazzam A. Lathiff, labor agent, All Akeem Enterprises (Pvt) Ltd., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka,
November 3, 2006.
319
Gamburd, The Kitchen Spoons Handle, p.69.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

72

;=kl ld,hlg fmr fialdjkag mek hdug ne ;;ajhla ;=< ;ukaf.a wdodh wl f,i by<
f.dia we;s njhs'320
.Dy fiald ldka;djka wmg mejiqfo ;ukag l=uk wdldrfha ysyer mej;sho /lshd
tacka;jre iska udi ;=k imQK jk;=re ydmq;d , isk f,i n,lrk njhs' fld<U
.=jkaf;dgqmf,ys l=fj n,d hdug is ldka;djla .=jka f;dgqmf,a mqoa.,hka iska u;ajH
IKhg ,lalr we;' weh wm iu lS m weh tys .sh g l=fgfha tacka; fj; wdhdpkh
fldg YS% ,xldjg blauKskau hdug Wo b,a,d we;' ^hk .ufkaoS IKhg ,lau ksid& udyg
ksrka;r f,a .e,Sula iy jukh mej;=ks' /lshd tacka; udyg myr Ks' ud fndre lshkjd hehs
lshka Tyqf.a w;aj,ska udf.a luq,aj,g fo;=ka j;djlau myr ks' tu wldreKsl /lshd
ksfhda;hd ug n,lr isfha l=fgfha kj;sk f,ih'321 ;j;a ldka;djla mejiqf wnqvdys
/lshd tacka;hka iska ;ukaf.a lDDr ydmq;d w;yer YS% ,xldjg heu i|yd re' 80"000 ^we
fvd' 710& f.jk f,ih' ta udi ;=k imqrd fkd;snqk ksidh'322
udi ;=k imQK fuka miqjo /lshd tacka;hska iska fialdjka n,y;aldrfhka r|jd .ekSu
i|yd iQCIu Wml%u fhdokq ,nhs' WodyrKhla f,i fialdjlg kej; YS% ,xldjg hEug
wjYHhehs lS g n,Odkag Ndrfok njg ;ckh lrkq ,nhs' tia' moaudf.a jhi 18 ls' wE wmg
fufia mejiSh' fi! wrdfha ydmq;d iska wehj Ydl iy ,sx.sl wmpdrhg ,lal< nj;a
weh je| je YS% ,xldjg hjk f,i b,a,d is g ydmq;d iska wehj /lshd tacka; fj;
/f.k f.dia ;sf'
tu wdh;kfha YS% ,dxlslfhl= isfhah' Tyq lshd isfha udyg msgug fkdyels nj;a tys fiajh
lsu m%;slafIam l<fyd;a jir foll isr ovqjula ug isjk nj;ah'323 tia' ykS*d ;ukaf.a
vqndhsys w;aoelSu fufia lshhs' "ud yg jir folu isug ish' /lshd ksfhda;hd ud h
joaoka lSf kqU fuys kej;Sug wlue;s k wms kqUg myr fokjd lshdh' flfia YS% ,xldjg
hkafkaoehs ud is;=fj' lsysmglau /lshd ksfhda;hdg f;are lrug W;aidy l< w;r ud
b;du fhka tys isfh'324 fujka ;ck nf,ka jev.ekSu i|yd we;s lrk ovqj
udkisl;ajhkah' llre ksfhda;hska iska fialdjka tu ydmq;=ka fj; r|jd ;eu i|yd
Ydl j| ysxid muqKqjkq ,nhs' tfia ke;fyd;a Wml,amkh lrk ,o jev yshla fmkajd thg
ovqj bm;a lrhs' fi! wrdfha fiajh l< tla ldka;djla Y,Hluhlg Ndckh u ksid
/lshd tacka;jrhdg lshd isfha ;uka wlue;s ydmq;d fj; fkdhjk f,ihs' ydmq;d wlue;s
k Tyq wmj /lshd tacka; fj; hjkq ,ef' t;ek k .Kkdjla Tjqka ug msg msg myr
kafkdah' udf.a f weig my<ska we;s ;=jd, we;af;a Tjqkaf.a myru ksidh' Tjqka ug w;skq;a
,Shlskq;a myr Ks'325 ta' Wuqq" l=fgfha fiajh l< ldka;djla fufia lSh' ydmq;d iska wehg
rn nghlska myr ;sf' weh /lshd tacka;g l;dfldg fjk;a ydmqf;l= fidhdfok f,i
b,a,d we;' /lshd tacka; lshd we;af;a kej;;a tu ksjigu hk f,his'326 ud yvd jegqK;a
/lshd ksfhda;f.a h jeoau;a n,lsu;a ksid tu ydmq;d iuu kej; hdu yer fjk
l,amhla fkdh' bkamiqj weh kej; /lshd ksfhda;hd fj; meKs g Tjqka wehj ldurhlg
oud myr foka lshd we;af;a kQU wdmiq tkafka wehs hkqfjks' fndfyda wjia:dj, /lshd
320

Human Rights Watch interview with retired labor agent, name withheld, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 18, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Dilinekaa M., Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
322
Human Rights Watch interview with Manaranjani S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
323
Human Rights Watch interview with Padma S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
324
Human Rights Watch interview with Hanifa S., Tihari, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
325
Human Rights Watch interview with Hasna M., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 6, 2006.
326
Human Rights Watch interview with Ummu A., Attanagalla, Sri Lanka, November 8, 2006.
321

73

Human Rights Watch November 2007

ksfhdac;hd iska fuu ldka;djkaf.a w;sYd, .dia;=jla whlsfuka fjk;a ydmqf;l= fj; hjd
we;'327
wnqvdys tla ldka;djla fufia mjihs' uf.a /lshd ksfhda;hd ydmq;df.a ku fjkia lsu i|yd
rd 500 la ^we' fvd' 136& wh lrk ,' tfy;a Bg wod, ,shlsh,s lsisjla Tjqka ug
fkdfmkah' kuq;a tu .dia;=j fkdf.jd uf.a ydmq;df.a ku fjkia lsug ne nj;a tfia
fkdlr fjk;a ydmqf;l= iska Ndrfkd.kakd nj;a fmd,sia w;a wvx.=jg m;ah yels nj;a
lSy'328
fndfyduhla wjia:dj, /lshd tacka; iska .Dy fialdjkag wdmiq hEf .=jka l m;a
.dia;=j i|yd jegqma rys;j udi .Kkla jevlsug n,lrkq ,ef' tla ldka;djla mejiqf ;uka
f,nkkfha jirl fldka;%d;a;=jlg tl is nj;a jir wjidkfha YS% ,xldjg hEug
wjYHhehs lS g tacka; iska wehg neK je lshd we;af;a udi 6 la jegqma fkdue;sj ta i|yd
jev l< hq;= njhs' tu ksid ug tu ksjfiau udi 6 la jev lsug isjQ w;r /lshd ksfhda;
iska udyg YS% ,xldjg hdug wjir kak;a tu udi 6 g jegqma ,enqfKa ke;'329 ;j;a ldka;djla
mejiqf fi! wrdfha ;u ydmq;df.a mq;df.ka ;ud IKh jQ nj;a .NkS isk nj;a
tfia ;sh;a /lshd tacka; iska wehg n,lr we;af;a .=jka l m;fys uqo,g iudk jkf;la
tys jev l<hq;= njhs' tg weh tacka;jrhdg mjid we;af;a Tyq meK ;uka frd fkd.;fyd;a
kid .kakd njh' tg tacka;jrhd mejiqf .=jka lm; fok;=re tu ksjfia isk f,ihs'
ug l,ska taug wjYH jqjo udi 4 l jev lrf.k Tyq ug .=jka lm;la udi ;=kl jegqm
muKla hd,a 1200 la ^we' fvd' 320& ug ,enqKs'330

327

Ibid.
Human Rights Watch interview with Manaranjani S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
329
Human Rights Watch interview with Nimalka V., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
330
Human Rights Watch interview with Jayanadani A., Kandy, Sri Lanka, November 10, 2006.
328

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

74

V. wdrCIKh |jeu yd mQK iykhla iemhSu we;s ndOd(


wm ieu foaY.; jkafka mam;alu ksid uqo,a bmhSugh' ud rcfhka b,a,d
iskafka foaY.; jkakka i|yd g jvd fyd| wdrCIl ;;ajhla we;slrk
f,i;a ta whf.a wdydr" kjd;eka wd wjYH;djhka .ek fidhd n,k f,i;a
ysyer mSvd iy ,sx.sl w;jrhkaf.ka wdrCIdj i,id fok f,i;a tjeks fya;=
ksid ish kid .ekSug isjk is j<lajd fok f,i;ah' rch iska tjka
;;ajhkag uqyqK ka wh fidhd n,d wod, whf.ka jka whlr ug lghq;= l<
hq;=h'331
- B' mdr;d jhi 29' l=fjys fiajh l< fialdjla
cd;Hka;r udkj ysl kS;shg wkqj rcfha j.lSu'
/lshd ksfhdah;ska yd ydmq;=ka iska lrkq ,nk wmfhdack keje;aug rchg j.lSu;a we;'
wka;cd;sl udkj ysl u.ska ishu fokdg isjk ysyer my;a f,i yd kqiqiq f,i ie,lS
wd ls%hd mqoa.,hska iska fyda wdh;ksl jHqyh u.ska isu je<elau i|yd mj;akd kS;s;s
ls%hd;aul lsu rdcHhkag mjrd we;' tjka wjia:dj, o~qj u mCIK meje;au fyda iyk
ie,iSu u.ska wod, mqoa.,hd frd .ekSu iy jvd;a m%;sM,odhS l,am ls%hd ud. .ekSu rch i;=
j.lSuls'332
@mm v`r\w`@v| s[hn\vn rtvl\ sQyl\l @h`\ smhr rtvl\ pmNk\ aw\sn\ wb` wQ@bn m`nv
hQmQkm| nWwQvlt phw q#k\@vn sm|mEwWn\q a#wOlw\@v| : foaYmd,k yd is,a whs;sjdisl i|yd jk
wka;cd;sl pYZp\wy
Q , ixialD;sl iudc iy wdluh whs;sjdisl i|yd jk wka;cd;sl
pYZp\wy
Q , ldka;djkag tfrys ish my;a ls%hd keje;au i|yd jk pYZp\wy
Q , iEu wdldrhlu
jd.sl fkdi,ldye wfydaislsu i|yd jk wka;cd;sl pYZp\wQy iy wd.uksl fiajl
fialdjkaf.a iy Tjqkaf.a mjq,aj, whf.a wdrCIdj i|yd jk pYZp\wy
Q .
wka;cd;sl udkj whs;sjdisl kS;sh hgf;a iEu j.hlu my;a fmf,a ie,lS lDDr
wudkqIsl;ajh wdfhka f;drj j;aug iEu mqoa.,fhl=gu we;s whs;sh iy wdrCIdj iy;sl
flf'333
ldka;djkag tfrys jo ysxid je,elaf mk; hgf;a tlai;a cd;Ska iska ta ta rdcHhkaj, we;s
kS;shg wkqj ls%hd lsu i|yd mjrd we;' tys ;ks mqoa.,hka iska fyda ixOdk fyda rdcHhka
331

Human Rights Watch interview with Paramitha E., Rambe, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
See, e.g., Human Rights Committee, General Comment 31, Nature of the General Legal Obligation on States Parties to the
Covenant, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.13 (2004), para. 8; UN General Assembly, Declaration on the Elimination of Violence
against Women, U.N. General Assembly Resolution 48/104 (A/RES/48/104), article 4(c) (States should pursue by all appropriate
means and without delay a policy of eliminating violence against women and, to this end, should: (c) Exercise due diligence to
prevent, investigate and, in accordance with national legislation, punish acts of violence against women, whether those acts are
perpetrated by the State or by private persons).
333
ICCPR, art. 7 (freedom from torture, cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment).
332

75

Human Rights Watch November 2007

u.ska ldka;djkag tfrysj lrk ,o jer i|yd o~qj u l< hq;=h' rdcHhkaf.a ksrka;r ls%hd
lsf fkdyelshdj u; by; lS ldka;djkag tfrys ysxid mSvd lghq;= w;sYd, jYfhka isfjka
mj;S kS;s ;sj,g wod,j ldka;djkag iudk f,i wdrCIdj iemhSug YS% ,xldj iy fi!
wrdh" l=fg" f,nkkh" iy tlai;a wrd t rdcHho w;aika ;nd we;s mdYajlrefjdah'334
wd.uksl fiajlhkaf.a le|jqlre ixOdkhg (CEDAW)335 YS% ,xldjo mdYajlrefjl= jk
w;r wd.uksl fiajlhka yg ish yels ishu Ydl fyda udkisl jo ysxid h jeoao
;=jd, islsu wdfhka Tjqkaj wdrCId lsug ne we;'336
ixialD;sl iudc iy wdl whs;sjdisl i|yd jk wka;cd;sl le|jqlre ixOdkhg
(ICESCR) YS% ,xldj fukau l=f yd f,nkkao mdYajlrefjdah' ta wkqj ishu fiajlhkaf.a
wdrCIdj i;=gqodhl /lshd ;;ajhka Tjqkg ms%hodhl fldkafoais ,eh hq;= njg ms<sf.k we;'337
tu fldkafoais u.ska fufia iy;sl l< hq;=h'
^w&

ishu fiajlhkag f.h hq;= wju m%;s,dNh


1'
ia;S% mqreI fyda /lshdf iajNdjh fyda tla fYaIs; ldka;d j.hlg fyda iSud
fkdjk wdldrfhka ishu fokdg tlu wdldrhl jegqma iy m%;s,dN f.h hq;=h'
2'
le|jqlre wdh;kh u.ska olajd we;s wdldrhg fiajlhkaf.a iy Tjqkaf.a
mjq,aj, whg iqiq jk ;;ajhla ,ndh hq;=h'
^wd&

wdrCIs; iy fi!LH imkak fiajd ;;ajhka

^we&

ish fokdg Wiia f tliudk ie,lS

^wE&
flh fkdaodiajdoh iy idOdrK fiajd ld,hla iy jka jr ,ndfok jegqma iys;
ksjdvq ld, iSudjlao ishu m%isoaO ksjdvq kj,g ys jegqmo ,eh hq;=h'338
mqrjeishka fkdjk whf.a /lshd whs;sjdisl" jd.sl fkdi,ldye keje;au i|yd jk
fldif m%Odk m%ldYkfha wxl( 30 g wkqj lsish ydmqf;l= iy fiajlfhl= w;r inkaOhla
f.dvke.=Kq jydu Bg wod, /lshd n,m;a we;s fyda ke;s ishu fokdg tu inkaO;djh
kj;ajk ;=re ishu llre iy jD;a;suh whs;Ska ,eug yslu we;'339 wka;cd;sl llre
334

UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, December 20, 1993, G.A. res. 48/104, 48 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No.
49) at 217, U.N. Doc. A/48/49 (1993), art. 4.
335
CEDAW, art. 15; ICCPR, art. 26. See also CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation 19, Violence against Women, para 6.
336
Migrant Workers Convention, art. 16(1)-(2).
337
ICESCR, art. 7.
338
ICESCR, art. 7. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which is widely recognized as reflective of customary law, provides
that everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working and periodic holidays with pay, as well as the
right to just and favorable remuneration, and the freedom to form and join trade unions. UDHR, arts. 23 and 24.
339
UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, General Recommendation 30, Discrimination against Non-citizens
(Sixty-fourth session, 2004), U.N. Doc. CERD/C/64/Misc.11/rev.3 (2004),

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

76

ixOdkh u.ska ls%hd;aul lrkakdjQ fiajl whs;Ska fjkqfjka jk le|jqf wxl( 95 g wkqj
jegqma ,nd.ekSf wdrCIdj i,id we;s w;r YS% ,xldj iy f,nkkh Bg tl we;'340
wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkfha n,y;aldrfhka jev .ekSug tfrysj le|jqlre wxl( 29 iy
wxl 111 u.ska mejfik /lshdf iy /lshd ugf my;a f,i ie,lS inkaOfhka jk
.siqug YS% ,xldj iu. fi! wrdh" l=fgh" f,nkkh" iy tlai;a wrd t rdcH tl
we;'341
wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkfha idudlhska f,i YS% ,xldj fi! wrdh" l=f" f,nkka yd
tlai;a wrd t rdcHhka g tu uQ,sl whs;sjdisl iy;sl lsrSu i|yd j.lSula we;'
wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkfha /lshdf fh iskakkaf.a uQ,sl whs;sjdisl iy uQ,Ou
i|yd jk m%{ma;sh u.ska ms<sf.k ;sfnk wkaoug tla uQ,sl whs;sjdisl jkqfha /lshdf fh
ish isjk fkdi,ld ye j,lajd,Suhs' wka;cd;sl llre ixOdkfha idudl;ajh
orkakka yg fuu kS;s;s j,g .re lsug;a tajd ms<sf.k fmdaIKh lsug;a h idudlhl= tu
fldkafoaisj,g tl ke;s wjia:djl jqjo n,lsug whs;sh ;sf'342
llrejka inkaO jQ oamdYal llre iuQ;Ska
wka;cd;sl wd.uk llre ixOdkhg wka;cd;sl iyfhda.S;djh wjYHh' YS% ,xldj iy
/lshd imhk rgj,a w;r iyfhda.S;djh wjYH jkafka wd.ukslhkag isjk Odldr
w;jrhka" ysyerhka" widOdrKhka wdfhka Tjqkag m%udKj;a wdrCIdjla ie,iSug;a tjka
meKs,s inkaOfhka kS;sh ls%hd;aul lsug;a iqiq hdka;%Khla oamdYalj ls%hd;aul lsug
ilia lr .ekSu i|ydh'
Ys%' ,' ' /' ks' ldhHxYfha ks,Odfhl= lshk wdldrhg Tjqka iska YS% ,xld wdKavqjg n,lr
we;af;a /lshd imhk rgj,a iu idlPd lr oamdYal wjfndaO;d .siq w;aika lrk
f,igh' foaY /lshd ldHxYh iska ilia lrk fiajd .siq /lshd imhk rgj,a iska
m%;sfCIam lr;s tu ksid foaY fiajd kshqla;s ldHxYh mjikafka tu fiajd fldka;%d;a;= by; lS
wdldrhg rdcHhka w;r w;aika flfrk wjfndaO;d .siq ;=<gu we;=<;a h hq;= njhs'343
wd.ukslhkaf.a whs;Ska inkaOj ls%hd;aul cd,hla jk rdcH fkdjk ixOdkhl
(ACTFORM) wOHCIljrfhl= wmg mejiqf rdcHhka w;r oamdYal .siq wjYH njh'
oekg mj;sk fiajd fldka;%d;a;= n,mj;ajkafka /lshd imhk rgj, isk /lshd tacka;jre
iu muKs' tu .siqo bx.S%is NdIdfjka fyda fndfydag wrd niska we;s ksid wd.uksl
fiajlhkag f;are .ekSug neh' fuys l=uK .siq bm;a l<;a wod, rgg .sh miq tu kS;s
http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/e3980a673769e229c1256f8d0057cd3d?Opendocument (accessed May 31, 2007), para.
35.
340
ILO Convention No. 111 concerning Discrimination in Respect to Employment and Occupation.
341
The ILO Declaration states that all Members, even if they have not ratified the Conventions in question, have an obligation arising
from the very fact of membership in the Organization to respect, to promote and to realize, in good faith and in accordance with the
Constitution, the principles concerning the fundamental rights which are the subject of those Conventions. International Labour
Conference, ILO Declaration, para. 2.
342
International Labour Conference, ILO Declaration, para. 2.
343
Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhunage, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 30, 2006.

77

Human Rights Watch November 2007

ls%hd rys;f' rdcHhka w;r .si .kakd fiajd fldkafoais j,ska yer fjk;a my< ug j,
we;slr.;a fldka;%d;a lsisfia;a j,x.= fkdf'344
tlai;a wrd t rdcH y YS% ,xldj w;r fiajlhska iy /lshd wdh;k u.ska w;aika lr we;s
.siq wod, rgj,a j, rchka w;r we;s lr .kakd .siq u.ska ms,s.ekSug ,laflfrk ;=re
lsis jkdlula fyda n,hla fkdue;'345 2007 uehs 27 jk k tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha
llre wud;HxYh iu YS% ,xld rch oamdYal .siqulg t<Ks' tu.ska wju jYfhka
wod, rgj,a fol w;r oamdYal .siqula w;aika lrk ;=re YS% ,xldfjka trgg .Dy
fialdjka i|yd hka;kaj;a kS;suh ;;ajhla ,ndfokq we;' YS% ,xldf /lshd ksfhda;hka
iska ,ndfok fldka;%d;a;= tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha kS;sfhka j,x.= ke;'
fuu jd;dj ,shk wjia:dj jk g YS% ,xldj yd f,nkkh w;r oamdYal .siqula w;aika
lr ;snqKo th m%isoaO lr fkdue;s ksid tu .siqu u.ska fldf;larg idOdrKhla bgqfo hkak
fyda oekg mj;sk wvqmdvql j,g uqyqK ug m%udKj;a whqka kS;suh ;;ajhla ,nd we;soehs
meye,s ke;'346
by; lS wdldrfha oamdYal .siq ilia lsf ksrka;rfhka u tajd ;=<u tajd ls%hd;aul
l< fkdyels j, wx. we;=,;a f' llrejka /lshdjk i|yd foaY.; lrk rgj,a ixLHdj
je u;a tu .Dy fialdjkaf.a fiajh ,nd.kakd rgj, wka whg fkdie,ls,su;a f,i lghq;=
lsu Yajdihla lr.;a rgj,g hk .Dy fialdjka iska fjk;a /lshd j.j,g hk whf.a
whs;sjdisl j,g iudk whs;sjdisl b,a,Sug ue,s fjhs' mj;sk jd;djrKh ;=< YS% ,xldj ;u
rka hk .uksl fiajlhskag jdis iy.; fldkafoais j,g wod, rgj,a iu .siq.; ug
fkdyels j,;;ajhl is' f w;ru tu fiajd fldkafoais i|yd tu rgj,a tl lr.; yels
jQjo ta i|yd tu rgj, kS;s moaO;Skaj, m%;sixialrKh lsug isf' f w;r jd.sl jYfhka
my<g jeu j,lajd.ekSu i|yd llrejka imhk rgj,a wvq jegqma iy wju wdrCIdjka" fiajd
;;ajhkq;a hgf;a heug wfkl=;a rgj,a iu ;r j;s'
YS% ,xld rcfha m%;spdrh

llrejka hjk rgla jYfhka YS% ,xld rch iska jeo.;a mshjr /ila .kska wka;cd;sl
kS;shg wkqj .ukshlhkaf.a whs;sjdisl /lSug lghq;= lrkq ,ef' tfia jqjo .uksl
fiajl le|jq ixOdkhg wod,j iy wfkl=;a wka;cd;sl m%{ma;Skag mdYajlrefjl=
isho rf mj;sk kS;suh ndOdjka u Bg yria ;sf'347
344

Human Rights Watch interview with Viola Perera, ACTFORM, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 2, 2006.
International Labour Organization, Preventing Discrimination, Exploitation and Abuse of Women Migrant Workers: An
Information Guide, Booklet 3: Recruitment and the Journey for Employment Abroad (Geneva: ILO, 2003), p. 34.
346
Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhunage, SLBFE, Brussels, Belgium, July 11, 2007.
347
The Migrant Workers Convention contains prescriptions for sending states in articles 33 and 65. Under these provisions, migrant
workers have a right to be informed by sending states of their rights under the Convention and of the migration procedures of
receiving states, and states are responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies regarding migration; an exchange of
information, consultation and cooperation with competent authorities of other States; and the provision of appropriate information,
particularly to employers, workers and their organizations on policies, laws and regulations relating to migration and employment. The
Convention also specifies that sending countries can protect the rights of migrant workers by equipping migrants with information
345

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

78

kS;s moaO;Ska m%Odk fjkial lSmhla is lsfuka .ukslhkaf.a fmd wdrCIdj iy f.!rjh
/lSug lghq;= l< yel'

foia .;ug fmr wdrCIKfha j,;d


/lshd tacka;jre yd Wm tacka;jrekag n,m;% u yd mmd,kh
YS% ,xldf llrejka iemhSf ludka;h i|yd jvd Yla;su;a md,khla iy lreKq fidhd
ne,Sula w;HjYHf' YS% ,xld rch f inkaOfhka jeo.;a mshjr /ila f.k ;snqKo" /lshd
ksfhda; wdh;k iy tajdfha ls%hdms<sfj;a md,khg;a" wCIKhg;a" g jvd m%udKj;a n,hla
fhdod lghq;= lsu wjYHh'
mj;sk kS;s;s wkqj /lshd tacka;jre YS% ,xld foaY /lshd wdh;kfha ,shd mx h hq;=h'
tfukau .ukslhkaf.ka uqo,a whlsu ;ykh' Tjqkg ;u lghq;= hym;a udkisl ;;ajhla iy
.egqld fkdjk jd;djrKhlska mj;ajdf.k hdug kS;sfhka n, flf'348 fidhd ne,Sf iy
md,kh lsf n,;, iys;j YS% ,xld foaY /lshd ldhHxYh YS% ,xldj ;=< ls%hd;aul jk
n,m;% iys; /lshd wdh;k 580 lg;a jvd wCIKh lrhs'349 .ukslhka inkaO ish
lghq;= o /lshdj,g ,shlsh,s mCIdjo islrkq ,eu u.ska .ukslhdg isjQ widOdrKhg
tfrysj wod, /lshd wdh;kh iu wjYH mshjr .ekSug tu.ska bvlv ie,fia'350 ;jo foaY
/lshd ldhHxYhg h tackaishl jer ls%hdld;ajhla u; Tjqkaf.a n,m;%h ;yk lsug;a
wod, rf YS% ,xldf msys ;dkdm;s ldhd, j,g oekafuka tfia jid oeuqKq tackaishg ;u
rka ,efnk /lshd wenE;= Ndr fkdug;a lghq;= l< yel'351
tu ls%hd ud. h wdldrhl uQ,sl ls%hdud. jQjo /lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYh ks;sm;d u fyda
nrm;, f,i /lshd ksfhda; wdh;k mCId lsula fyda Tjqkaf.a kS;s ;s W,a,x>Kh lsf
i|yd ls%hd;aul ula olakg fkdue;' jir 2005 foaY /lshd ldhHxYh u.ska 580 la jQ
n,m;% iys; /lshd ksfhda; wdh;kj,ska n,m;% ;yk lrk ,oafoa wdh;kh y;rl muKs'
n,m;% kej; w;a fkdl< wdh;ko tu y;rg we;=<;a h' tfia jQjo fuu wdh;kj,
ls%hdld;ajh Tjqka lghq;= lrk wdldrho .ukslhska i|yd i,iajk fiajdjkays ;;ajho
.ukslhkaf.ka Tjqka msgj hdug fmr h uqo,la whlr .kafka o hk lreKq ksis wdldrj
fidhd ne,Su i|yd ;j rg;a .;hq;= mshjr jkafka jkajr l,ska fkdokajd tu wh;k
mCIdjg ,la lSu;a" tu .ukslhkaf.a meKs,s bm;a lsu i|yd jvd;a myiq l%ufohla
ilia lsu;a tfukau Wiia ugfuka yd wod, kS;s;sj,g tlj lghq;= lrk /lshd ksfhda;
wdh;k ms<sn| we.hSulg ,lalr ta i|yd h m%pdrhla ,ndfuka muKs' foaY /lshd wdh;kh
/lshd ksfhdac;s wdh;k j, lghq;= mmd,khlg ,la lrk tlu wdh;kh jQjo tys ;j;a
about opportunities for and legal methods of migration, providing consular services for migrants abroad, and policing dangerous
smuggling and trafficking practices. Migrant Workers Convention, arts. 1(2), 33, 65.
348
Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment Act, No. 21, 1985, sections 28(1), 31, 34.
349
Ruhunage, Institutional Monitoring of Migrant Recruitment in Sri Lanka, in Kuptsch, ed., Merchants of Labour, pp. 57-58; Sri
Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment Act, No. 21, 1985, section 44.
350
Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhugane, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.

79

Human Rights Watch November 2007

j.lSula jkafka foaY /lshd wjia:djka jOkh lr .ekSu;a tu ;;ajh h ugulska by<
oud .ekSu;a /lshd ksfhda; wdh;kj,g iydh uhs'352 tfy;a /lshd tackais wdh;k iska
foaY /lshd ldhHxYh olskafka ;ukaf.a lghq;=j,g ndOd lrk yd lrorldrfhl= f,ihs'
;j;a m%Odk jYfhka m%;sixialrKhg ,la h hq;= wxYhla k Wm tacka;jre inkaOfhka
fidhd ne,Sug iy md,khlg ,la lsug lghq;= lsuhs' rch iska fuu Wm tacka;hskag tfrysj
mmd,kuh yd lghq;= lrk wdldrh inkaOfhka oe kS;s ;s mekh hq;= w;r tajd ls%hd;aul
lsu i|yd Yla;su;aj lghq;= lr kS;s lv lrkakkag o~qj ,ndh hq;=h' /lshd ksfhda;
wdh;k iska oekg lrkq ,nkafka ;u lghq;= Wm tacka;fhl=g mejuhs' tuska Wm
tacka;jrekag kS;suh j.lSfuka fug yelshdj ,e we;' n,m;% iys; /lshd ksfhda; wdh;k
ksrka;rfhkau lrkafka f;dard.;a Wm tacka;jre lsysm fofkl=g ,nd.kakd fiajh i|yd fldia
uqo,la f.uhs' n,m;% iys; /lshd ksfhda;hdg mj;sk kS;s ;s hgf;a kEu Wm
tacka;jrfhl=g ;u lghq;= mejf bv lv ,e we;' .ukslhkaf.a whs;Ska fjkqfjka fmks
isk rdcH fkdjk ixOdk rdYshlau wmg lshd isfha fuu Wm tacka;jre inkaO ls%hd
ms<sfj, wCIKh lsug;a tajd md,kh i|yd;a ,shdmx lsu i|yd;a lghq;= lrk f,ig Ys%
,xld rchg okajd we;s njh' .uksl whs;Ska inkaO kdhlfhl= wmg fufia lSfh' "wm
rchg lshd iskafka mj;sk kS;s ;s fjkia lr fuu Wm tacka;jrekaf.a lghq;= j, j.lSu
n,m;% iys; /lshd ksfhda; wdh;kj,g mjrk f,ihs'
wm ;jrg;a lshd iskafka foaY /lshd ldhHxYfha wK mK;a fjkia lr Wm tacka;jrekaf.a
lghq;=j, j.lSu n,m;% iys; /lshd ksfhda; wdh;k j,g mjrk f,ihs'353
Wm tacka;jrekaf.a kS;s frda lghq;= fidhd ne,Sug fyda md,kh lsug fyda Tjqkag o~qj ug
YS% ,xld rch wiu;a ;sf' tla ks<Odfhl= wmg mejiqf Wm tacka;rejkaf.a jer
inkaOfhka wjYH mshjr .eksug fyda Wm tacka;jre ,shdmx lsug fyda Wm tacka;jrekaf.a
jer inkaOfhka n,m;% iys; /lshd wdh;kj,g tfrysj lghq;= lsug fyda lsis ie,eiaula
yd wjYH;djhla YS% ,xld rchg fkdue;s njhs' /lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYfha ;j;a ks<Odfhl=
wmg fufia mejiSh' Wm tacka;jre ,shdmx lsu i|yd oekg wmg ie,eiaula ke;' tfy;a wm
ms,s.; hq;= lreKla k ta wh f ludka;fha jeo.;a fldgilrefjl= njhs' Tjqkaf.a lghq;=
tla ia:dkhlg iSud fkd jka jr w;k fu;k hka ls%hdlrk iajNdjhla mj;S' tfy;a wm
Tjqkag ms,s.ekSula ,ndkfyd;a th g jvd m%YaK /il wdrNh h yel'354
mqyqKqj
.uksl fialdjka i|yd rch iska ykajd we;s msg;aug fmr w;HjYHu mqyqKqj ,eu f
wxYfhka ksjer ud.hg wj;SK ula f,i lsj yel' tfia jQj;a tu ls%hdodufha lemS fmfkk
351

Human Rights Watch interview with Sumedha Ekanayake, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment Act, No. 21, 1985, sections 15(a)-15(d); Ruhunage, Institutional Monitoring of Migrant
Recruitment in Sri Lanka, in Kuptsch, ed., Merchants of Labour, pp. 55-56.
353
Human Rights Watch interview with migrants rights leader, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 30, 2006.
352

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

80

j,;d rdYshla we;' mj;sk mqyqKqu u.ska .Dy fialdjkag ;u /lshd whs;Ska ms<sn|j
,efnk oekqu m%udKj;a ke;s w;r wrd NdIdj inkaOfhka ,ndfok mqyqKqj fldfy;au
m%udKj;a ke;' .Dy fialdjka mjik wkaoug Tjqkaf.a fiajd whs;Ska .ek ;ukag lshd we;s
tlu foh k Ys% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd,h fj; j hk f,i muKs' mqyqKqlrejka ;ukag ,nd
we;af;a Ys% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd, rl:k wxlh muKs' fndfyda ldka;djkag ;snqfKa jer
Wmfoia jk w;r" ;ukag ysyerhla is g tu ydmq;df.ka mek hdug we;s whs;sho oek
fkdisfhah' Tjqka ;j rg;a lSf ;ukag wh;a wdrCIdj iy whs;sjdisl .ek;a fldka;%d;a;=j,
i|yka jegqm ,nd.ekSu i|yd;a wd lghq;= idlPd lsug g jvd fyd| wrd NdId mqyqKqjla
wjYH njhs'

k 12 l mqyqKq mdGud,djl uQ,sl wrd ni" ksjfia WmlrK mdh" Tjqka fiajh l< hq;= ueofmr. rgj,
is;a ;a wdh .Dy fialdjkag lshd fohs' fuys mqyqKqlre YS% ,xld ; uKav,j, rl;k wxl ,ndfok w;r
.=jka l m; inkaOfhka ia;r lrhs'
2007 IHka;skS lk.iNdm;sms,af,a$ hQyEmn\ rhsia fjd

/lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYfha mqyqKqj kshu lr we;af;a .Dy fialdjkag muKs' mqyqKq uOHia:dk
34 la we;s w;r 11 la mj;ajdf.k hkafka /lshd tacka;jre u.sks' tfy;a Nd;d flfrkafka
/lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYh u.ska ilia l< mdGud,djls' fuu k fod<fya mqyqKqj kshulr
we;af;a m<uq j;djg ueofmr. l,dmhg hk .Dy fialdjka yg muKs' Bg we;=<;a wx. 8 la
;sf' wrd NdId yelshdj" .Dy WmlrK Nd;h" /lshdjg hk rf ixialD;sh iy wej;=
mej;= ms<sn|" udkisl jYfhka ixf iudcuh foaj,a bjid ord .eksug mqre u yd t' whs'
354

Human Rights Watch Interview with L.K. Ruhunage, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006

81

Human Rights Watch November 2007

' wdidokfhka ;uka wdrCIdjk wkaou wdh Bg we;=<;a f'355 mqyqKqj wjidk kfha wod,
.Dy fialdjf.a iajdmqreIhd yg lshdfokq ,nkafka ;u | trg uqyqKq mE yels m%Yak yd
lror inkaOfhka ilia jkafka flf,io356 hkak lshdughs' fuu k 12 l mqyqKqf .Dy
fialdjkaf.a whs;sjdisl ms<sn| lshdug fjkalr we;af;a meh ;=k y;rl fl ld,hls'357
/lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYfha ks<Odfhl= wmg lSf tu mqyqKqf .Dy fialdjkaf.a whs;Ska
inkaO fldgfia Tjqkg ,sx.sl wmpdrhlg fyda h n,y;aldrlulg uqyqK ug isjqjfyd;a
.;hq;= ls%hdud. .ek ia;r flfrk w;r wod, rf Ys% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd,fha rl:k
wxlh ,nd we;s njhs'358
kS;s wdOdr fldif kS;S{hka jirlg .Dy fialdjka 100 la muK kS;s wdOdr imhk w;r
.uksl fiajl fialdjka oekqj;a lsf jevms<sfj,lao mj;ajdf.k hhs' Tjqka 2006 foaY
/lshd ldhHxYfha mqyqKqjlg iyNd.s fuka miq th fpkhg ,la flreKs' tla kS;s{fhl=
lSf Ys% ,dxlsl .Dy fialdjka i|yd wka;cd;sl llre ixOkfha iy .uksl fiajlhkaf.a
le|jqlre ixOdkh u.ska ;yjqre lr we;s .ukslhkaf.a whs;sjdisl ms<sn| Tjqka g
m%pdrhla ,ndu i|yd m%udKj;a f,i lghq;= lr fkdue;s njhs'359 jir 30 l m<mqreoao we;s
/lshd ksfhda;fhl= wmg mejiqf fuu mqyqKq jevigyk jevlg ke;s nj;a rch l< hq;af;a
lror wjia:dj, tu ldka;djkag Bg uqyqK fok wkaou .ek oekqu ,ndu njhs'
fufia hk .Dy fialdjka ,sug iy lshug oek ish hq;= w;r rl:kh Nd;d lrk wkaou
.eko ;ukag wjYH h yels Ys% ,xldf iy /lshdj lrk rf w;HjYH rl: wxl oek ish
hq;= nj;ah'360
tla ldka;djla mejiqf ;uka l=fhg hdug fmr ,enQ mqyqKqf whs;sjdisl ms<sn| wehg
lshd ;snqfKa lror wjia:djl Ys% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd,h ;sfnk nj;a Wmldr i|yd trg
/lshd tacka;jrhd isk nj;ah' ug lshd kafka tmuKhs' trg ksfhda;hdf.a ,smskh iy
rl:k wxlh ug ;snqK;a tys .sh miq Tjqka ug Ys% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd,fha wxlh
kafkah'361 ;j;a ldka;djla mejiqf ;uka vqndhs iy f,nkka ys fiajh lr we;s nj;a fuu
mqyqKqjg iyNd.sjQ nj;a whs;sjdisl ms<sn|j ug lshd kafka wjYH;djhl Ys% ,xld ;dkdm;s
ldhd,hg fyda trg tacka;jrhdg l;d lrk f,ihs' kuq;a ug ,enqfKa trg tacka;jrhdf.a
wxlh muKs' ud vqndhs ish tacka;jrhdg l;dl, uq;a Tjqka ug Wo lf<a ke;' tfia lshd
;snqK;a wm fiajh lrk ia:dkj, rl:k Nd;hg wmg wjirhla fkdue;'362 jir 2002
fld<U Yaj oHd,h yd .uksl fiajd uOHia:dkh tl;=j l< smWk\;Nykt anEv kej;
355

Human Rights Watch interview with SLBFE official, training division, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Shiranthi Ekanayake, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
357
Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhunage, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
358
Human Rights Watch interview with Shiranthi Ekanayake, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
359
Human Rights Watch interview with S.S. Wijeratne, Legal Aid Commission, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 17, 2006.
360
Human Rights Watch interview with retired labor agent, name withheld, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 18, 2006.
361
Human Rights Watch interview with Soma W., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
362
Human Rights Watch interview with Chandrika H., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
356

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

82

meKs .Dy fialdjka 400 fofkl= w;=ka /lshdjg msg;aj hk g ;u whs;sjdisl .ek
oekf.k isfha sQyyt 12k\ pmNQ.363
fndfyda ldka;djka wmg mejiqf NdId mqyqKqj g jvd mq,a l< hq;= njhs' l,ska vqndhsys fiajh
l< ldka;djka w;ska ihsm%ihg hEu i|yd foaY /lshd ldhHxYfha mqyqKqjg iyNd.s fjka
ish wmg fufia mejiSh' ud ys;k wkaoug fuu mqyqKqj g jvd mq,a h hq;= w;r NdId
mqyqKqj je hqKq l< hq;=h' tk ish m%Yakj, uq, NdId m%YaKh jk ksidh'364
oekg foay /lshd ldhHxYh mqyqKq lghq;= i|yd ks, jYfhka m,mqre we;s .Dy fialdjka
fhdojd .kafka ke;' ta fjkqjg nexl=" fi!LH iy NdId wxYj, whf.a fiajh muKla ,nd.kS'
oekg mjdiuh kshuq jev ms<sfj,la u.ska foaY /lshd ldhHxYh n|jd.;a jir mylg jvd
fiajd m,mqreoaola we;s .Dy fialdjka lsysmfofkl=f.a mqyqKqlrejka ug we;s yelshdj w.hka
is'365
.uksl fiajl pYZp\wQyt anEv .ukslhska iy Tjqkaf.a mjqf,a whj oekqj;a ug we;s whs;sh
;u u rf rcfha j.lSu nj i|yka f'366 oekg mj;sk .ukslhska inkaO wka;cd;sl
.siq iy kS;s ;s u.ska mejfik wkaoug wod, rchka iska ydmq;=ka jD;a;sh i;s fyda ta yd
iudk mqoa.,hkaf.a wod, f;dr;=re ksjer f,i ,ndug neis'367 tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ixOdkfha
kS;s ;s u.ska o .ukslhkaf.a u rf o Tyq fiajh lrk rfo rchka f.ka b,a,d iskafka
rdcH fkdjk ixOdkj, iyNd.S;ajho we;sj .ukslhka inkaOj ish lghq;= inkaOfhka
ck;dj oekqj;a lsug;a Bg iDcqju inkaO lKavdh j,g oekqu ,ndu;a wdh f'368 tlai;a
cd;Skaf.a uyd ixOdkh b,a,d iskafka ish idudl rgj,a j, .uksl ldka;djkag
w;HjYHfhkau ys whs;sjdisl iy m%;s,dN ms<sn| oekqj;a lrk f,ihs'369
fhdackd we;s .uksl ;yku
fuu ;;ajh ;=< .uksl fialdjkaf.a iy Tjqkaf.a mjq,a j, iqNidOkh ms<sn| f;are fkd.;a
ls%hd ud.hla .kska 2007 ud;= 7jk k ldka;d yd <ud wNsjDoah ms<sn| weu;sjrhd iska
wud;HxYj, ,sh,a,la yryd jir myg wvq <uhska isk ldka;djkag .Dy fiajhg hdu ;yk
lrk ,'

363
Dr. A.J. Weeramunda, University of Colombo Dept. of Sociology; Migrant Services Centre; Migrant Workers Associations of
Seeduwa/Gampaha, Kalutara, and Kegalle, Survey Results, Participatory Action Research in Gampaha, Kalutara, and Kegalle
Districts (Colombo: Migrant Services Centre, 2002), p. 2.
364
Human Rights Watch interview with Savindi P., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
365
Human Rights Watch interview with SLBFE official, training division, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
366
Migrant Workers Convention, art. 33(1)(a).
367
Migrant Workers Convention, art. 33(2).
368
UN General Assembly, Violence against Women Migrant Workers, Resolution 60/139, A/RES/60/139 (2006), para. 8.
369
UN General Assembly, Violence against Women Migrant Workers, Resolution 60/139, para. 9.

83

Human Rights Watch November 2007

tu mkf;au i|yka jk wkaoug jir 5 g je jQjo <uhska isk ujreka foaY fiajhg hdu
i|yd ta i|yd m;alr we;s rcfha fldiulg ,sh,a,la u.ska ;uka fkdue;sj tu orejkag
m%udKj;a n,dlshd .ekSula ie,fik njg Tmamq l< hq;=h'
fuys Ys% ,xld rch bm;a lrk ;lh wkqj wod, ;yku mekug fya;= jQfha tu orejkag
uj fkdue;sfuka we;sjk iudcuh mydksh i,ld n,dh' 2007 ud;= ui 8 jeks k m%jD;a;s
ksfokhla nQkOw\kL a`N\dEv, sAkYmNQk k`n\w`vn\@g\ qr#vn\ asrN vW a#wQ bvw\, ovEnt
@p`\XNy sh @s_K& rFkvrNy ahQmQvW a#wQ bvw\ pvsmQn\ a`N\dEv wm pYwQpw\wQy s`{`rNWkrNy
k@l\y.370
Ys% ,xldf .uksl wh;Ska ms<sn| lKavdh fuu ;ykug frdaOh m,l, w;r" Ys% ,xld foaY
wud;HxYfha m%jOk yd Y=NidOl wxYh u.ska m%ldY lr isfha by; i|yka frdaOh u. YS%
,xld rch kej; ta ms<sn|j slk` blmQn\ sQtQn bvyQ. 371 fuu jd;dj ,shk;=re;a tu ;yku
inkaOfhka YS% ,xld rch ls%hd ud.hla f.k fkd;sKs' f w;r wod, ;yku u.ska .uksl
ldka;djkaf.a foaY.;f whs;Ska ;jrg;a iSudlrka mj;S' ta fjkqjg rch l< hq;af;a
ldka;djkag wdluh iy wOHdmkuh jYfhka g jvd by< ;;ajhla ,ndug lghq;= lsuhs'
ta u.ska tu ldka;djka lsisjla lrlshd .eksug ne ;;ajfhka uqojd Bg jvd Wiia jQ ;uka
leu;s wdldrfha foaY /lshd i|yd hEug wjia:dj,a i,id h yelsh' fuu ;yku u.ska
isjkafka mj;sk jd;djrKh ;=< ;ukag ,nd.; yels tlu /lshdj jk .Dy fiajh j;a
fkd,eu ksid ;u orejka fmdaIKh lsug we;s yelshdj ke;s hduhs' l=vd orejka isk fndfyda
ldka;djka lSf ;u orejkaf.a /ljrKh ;ukaf.a foaY bmhq u; mj;akd njhs'
foaY.; u f whf.a tlu iu ;sf' orejka mia fofkl=f.a ujla wmg fufia lSjdh'
ug ,xldf lsis /lshdjla fkdh' wdodhula fkdue;s ksid Khg b,a,d.;a uqo,a j,ska
orejkaf.a wjYH;d ,ndkafk' udf.a orejka b;d l=vd w;r ud foaY.;jk g ksjfia lsis
fohla b;s ;snqfKa ke;372'
Ys% ,xldf jHjia:dj wkqj iy wka;cd;sl kS;sj,g wkqj ldka;djka yg wvq ie,ls,s
oelafuka fyda /lshdfjka wdrCId lsug ne is' tu mkf;a 12 jk j.ka;shg wkqj
,sx.sl;ajh u; mqrjeisfhl=g @n`slk`h#rWm ;ykh'373 YS% ,xldj w;aika ;nd we;s
wka;cd;sl udkj ysl fldkafoaisj,g wkqjo ldka;djkag tfrys fkdi,ldye kS;sfhka
;ykh' tfukau 1981 Tlaf;danrfha YS% ,xld rch tl we;s ldka;djg tfrys ish
fkdi,ldye wfydais lsf .siqu hgf;a rch iska ldka;djkag mj;sk ish fkdi,ldye
370
Summary of the Cabinet Decisions, 3 March 2007: Restriction on Migration of Mothers, government of Sri Lanka press release,
March 8, 2007, http://www.news.lk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1916&Itemid=51 (accessed September 6, 2007).
371
Govt. Re-Considers Ban on Young Mothers Working Overseas, Sunday Times (Colombo), May 13, 2007,
http://sundaytimes.lk/070513/FinancialTimes/ft344.html (accessed September 6, 2007).
372
Human Rights Watch interview with Kadhiroli S., Habaraduwa, Sri Lanka, November 14, 2006.
373
Constitution of Sri Lanka, art. 12.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

84

wfydais lsu i|yd;a Tjqkag ksoyfia f;dard .ekSug leu;s jD;a;shla fyda /lshdjla lsug we;s
whs;sh ,ndug ne is'
/lshd imhk rgj, YS% ,dxlsl ; uKav,j, lghq;=
"wm fiajh lrk rgj, ;sfnk YS% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd, wjxlju iy lemfuka tu
rgj, fiajh lrk .Dy fialdjka inkaOj ksr;=reju fidhd n,d lghq;= lrhs k
wmsg fujka .egj,g uqyqKmEug is fkdjkq we;' ;dkdm;s ldhd, n,dfmdfrd;a;=
jkafka wm Tjqkag l:d lrk m%Yak oekq fokq we;ehs lshdh' tfy;a f ;dkdm;s ldhd,
u.ska tu ldka;djka .ek fidhd ne,Sug fyda mj;sk meKs,s inkaOfhka ls%hd;aul
fkdf "'374
-v' iqika;sld fcdaodka" l=f iy f,nkkays fiajh l< ldka;djla
fiajh lrk rf mj;skakdjQ l%uh ;=< idOdrKhla fkd,nk .Dy fialdjka fndfydag j
hkafka tys we;s ;u u rf ;dkdm;s ldhd,hg fyda fldkaid,ajrhd fj;h' YS% ,xld ;dkdm;s
ldhd, klg tjka meKs,s rdYshla ,nk w;r tfia mek wd wiykld;ajfhka hq;= ldka;djka
ishhlg jvd m%udKhlg km;du kjd;eka wdh iemhSug isf'
wmf.a mfhaIKfha i|yka lrk wkaoug YS% ,dxlsl ;dkdm;s ldhd, u.ska fi! wrdh" l=f"
f,nkka iy tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha YS% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd, iy fldkaid,ajrejka u.ska
isjk wvqmdvq rdYshla ;sf' YS% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd, iska O fya;= u; ;u ydmq;=ka
fj;ska mek tk ldka;djkag kjd;eka imhhs' ;dkdm;s ldhd,fha Wo b,a,d l;d lrk
ldka;djka tu ia:dk j,ska uqojd .ekSug fyda ysyerld ydmq;df.ka fjk;a ia:dkhlg
udrejla b,a,k whg fyda msysg ug l%ufohla ;dkdm;s ldhd, ;=< ke;' meKs,sj,g wkqj
lghq;= bhg lrf.k hdu o b;du j,h' tu ldka;djkag wjYH Wmfoia ugj;a Tjqkaf.a
Ialr wjia:df Tjqkaf.a msysgg taug;a wjYH l%ufohla o fkdue;' ;dkdm;s ldhd,j, tla
frdla jk whg Tjqka iskd udkisl laIsma;Ndjhg iqiq jgmsgdjla fyda tys / isug wjYH
myiql o fkdue;' YS% ,xldj iu ii|k g ms,smSkh ;u rf .uksl ldka;djka i|yd b;d
Yla;su;a wdrCIK ;;ajhla tu rf foaY /lshd wdh;h iy ;dkdm;s wxY yryd imhd we;'
fi! wrdh" l=f" f,nkka iy tlai;a wrd t rdcHfha YS% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd, u.ska
Tjqkaf.a Wo b,a,d isk ydmq;df.a ysyerj,g ,lajQ .Dy fialdjka tu ia:dkj,ska frd
.ekSu i|yd lghq;= fkdlr;s' tjka ldka;djkag ;dkdm;s ldhd, fyda fldkaid,ajreka iska ;u
meKs,a, lsis .Kklg fkdf.k lshd w;af;a mek hk f,ihs' tla ia:dkhlg fldgq lr isk
ldka;djlg fuh lsisfia;a l< fkdyel' f wdldrfha WmfoaY lsisgl i f.k fkdfoa'
fndfyda ldka;djkag ;uka kakd jQ wmfhdackhkag .ska .gu uqyqK ug is we;af;a Tjqkag
Wmldr lsu i|yd bm;a fkdjQ ksidh'
374

Human Rights Watch interview with Susanthika W., Panadura, Sri Lanka, November 15, 2006.

85

Human Rights Watch November 2007

mek hdfuka isjk oreKq w;aoelS j,g we;s h ksid mek f.dia fokd ordf.k tu ksjdij,
isug fndfyda fofkl=g is h' ta' chkdokS fufia mejiSh' ud Wo b,a,d fi! wrdfha YS% ,xld
;dkdm;s ldhd,hg l:d lf<" Bg m%;spdrhla fkd,enqKq w;r ydmq;df.ka mekhdugo
yelshdjla ;snqfKa ke;' miqj ydmq;df.a mq;d u.ska IKh ug;a .enrug;a ish' weh
fufia lshh'
"uu ;dkdm;s ldhd,fhka wmg isxyf,ka l:dlr lSjd" Tjqka ug lSf flfia fyda tu
ksjiska mek ;dkdm;s ldhd,hg tk f,i;a Tjqkag ud fidhd meKsh fkdyels nj;ah' ud
mek hdug h jQfh' Tjqka ug ;dkdm;s ldhd,hg tk f,i i fjk lsisjla lSf
ke;' ud ;ksju ;dkdm;s ldhd,hg hdug hjQ w;r ;sfnk lrorg jvd uyu
;j;a lror fh hk h ksid mek fkdhdug ;SrKh lf<"'375
jir 10 la ;=< mia j;djla ueofmr. fiajh fldg meKs ldka;djla fufia lshhs' "wmg yis
wjia:djl Wo b,a,Sug yelshdjla ;dkdm;s ldhd, u.ska ie,ish hq;=h' wmg ta inkaOfhka
lghq;= lrk ksYa; ks<Odfhl=f.a wxlhla yishl tu mqoa.,hd yg wm isk ia:dkh
fidhd.ekSug;a l%uhla ;sh hq;=hs"'376
;dkdm;s ldhd, u.ska meKs,s inkaOfhka lsis miq fidhd ne,Sula lrkq fkd,ef' Ys% ,xld
foaY /lshd ldhHxYfha jir 8 la lghq;= l< ks<Odfhla wmg fufia lSh
YS% ,xldfjka msg;ajk iEu .ukslfhl= .eku wod, rf ;dkdm;s ldhd, oek ish
hq;=h' iEu .ukslfhl=u msg;aj hdug fmr Tjqkag wod, ish f;dr;=re ,ndfokq ,ef'
;dkdm;s ldhd, l< hq;af;a fiajd ia:dk j,g l:d lr Tjqkaf.a ;;ajh .ek fidhd
ne,Suhs' tg Wo ,nd ug yelshdj ,ef' .ukslhd iu imj lghq;= lsug
;dkdm;s wxY lghq;= l< hq;=h' h .ukslfhl= l:dlr ud yg lrorhla ;sf lshd
oekajQ g ;dkdm;s ldhd,h u.ska jydu tu wxlhg l:d lr f;dr;=re fidhd ne,sh
hq;=hs"'377
YS% ,dxlsl ;dkdm;s ks<Odka Wo b,a,d isk .ukslhkag wjYH Wmldr fyda f;dr;=re
,ndug wiu;a f' w;jrj,g ,lajQ fndfyda ldka;djka lshd isfha ;ukaf.a meKs,a, bm;a
lrkafka flfiao lshdj;a ;dkdm;s wxY ks<Odka fkdoek is njhs' vqndhsys ydmq;df.a iy
/lshd ksfhda;f.a wmpdrhg ,lajQ ldka;djla fufia lshhs'

375

Human Rights Watch interview with Jayanadani A., Kandy, Sri Lanka, November 10, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Chaturi M., Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
377
Human Rights Watch Interview with SLBFE staff member, name withheld, Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka, November 5, 2006.
376

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

86

"ud ;dkdm;a ldhd,hg meKs,s lf<' ud YS% ,xldf ;dkdm;s ldhd,hg .sh g tys
is uy;aufhl= uf.ka wiqf wdmiq hkafka wehs lshdh' ud yg ydmq;d iy /lshd
ksfhda;hd hk fofokdf.kau .=lEug isjQ ksid ug wdmiq hdug wjYHhs' tfy;a tu
ks<Odhd lsisjla igyka lr.;af;a ke;' ud lshd isfha tu ydmq;d , jev lsug
wlue;s ksid ud hk nj;a meKs,a, Ndr.;a wkaou .ek uf.a wlue;a; m%ldY lrk
nj;ah' tfy;a Tyq lsis igykla fyda jd;djla lf,a ke;"'378
;dkdm;s ldhd,j, isk iqNidOk ks<Odkag .ukslhkaf.a fkdf.jQ jegqma Tjqkaf.ka whlr
ug;a ydmq;d iska r|jd .;a fm!oa.,sl nvq ndysrdh kej; Ndrug;a tajd inkaOfhka
ydmq;=kag tfrysj kS;sfhka ls%hd lsug;a n,h mjrd ;sf' tfy;a wm fidhd n,d oek.;a
wdldrhg lsis ;dkdm;s ks<Odfhl= iska by; i|yka l< .ukslhkaf.a whs;Ska ,ndka
wjia:djla jd;d jkafka j;a ke;'379 f,nkkfha is ldka;djla ;ukag ys udi 12 l ys jegqm
,nd .ekSu i|yd f,nkkfha fldkaid,ajrhdg meKs,s lsfuka miq isjQ foh fufiah'
;dkdm;s ldhd,fha ks<Odhdg ud lSjd ydmq;d uf.a jegqma fkdf.jQ nj tg ks<Odhd lshd
isfha ud f.oka mek wd ksid Tjqka lsis uqo,la fkdfok njhs' Tyq ug lsisjla fkdlS w;r"
lsisjla igyka lr.;af;a o ke;' Tyq ijka kakd muKs' ug f jk;=re lsisjla ,e ke;'380
foaY /lshd ldhHxYfha ks<Odfhl= wmg fufia lSfh' ;dkdm;s ldhd,j, foaY
inkaO;d wxYh u.ska ydmq;=kag tfrysj kS;sfhka ls%hdl, yelsh' kuq;a tu wxYh b;d
j,h'381 foaY /lshd ldhHxYfha ;j;a ks<Odfhl= lSf kS;suh ls%hdud. .ekSu
inkaOj ls%hd lrk iqNidOl ks<Odkayg fuu ldka;djkaf.a meKs,s inkaOfhka fyda tajdg
ls%hd lrk wkaou ms<sn| oekqula fkdue;s njhs'382
tu wjdikdjka; ;;ajhkag uqyqK mE .ukslhkag iykhla ie,iSug k ta njg ;dkdm;s wxY
ks<Odka iska wod, .ukslhd oekqj;a lr Tyq tu rka msgjhdug fmr ta i|yd ish
ls%hdud. .; hq;=h' .ukslhkag kS;s wdOdr imhk fldif wOHCI mjik wkaoug
jIhlg .Dy fialdjka 100 g jvd m%udKhlg Tjqka kS;suh wdOdr imhk w;r ys jegqma
,nd.ekSu inkaOfhka Tjqka tu rka msgjQ miq ls%hd l< fkdyel' fkdf.jQ jegqma iy Ydl
wmfhdack wdhg iqNidOl wruqof,ka f.jkafka ke;' wm fldiug fkdf.jQ jegqma whlr ug
fyda jegqma f.u meyer yeu inkaOfhka ls%hd lsug n,hla ke;'383 foaY /lshd
ldhHxYfha ks<Odfhl= lshk wkaoug ls%hdud. .; hq;af;a wod, ;dkdm;s ldhd,fhks' kej;

378

Human Rights Watch interview with Chandrika H., Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, November 4, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with SLBFE official, Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
380
Human Rights Watch interview with Arivudai H., Habaraduwa, Sri Lanka, November 14, 2006.
379

381

Human Rights Watch interview with SLBFE official, Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with L.K. Ruhunage, SLBFE, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 30, 2006.
383
Human Rights Watch interview with Lelanthi Kumari, Legal Aid Commission, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 17, 2006.
382

87

Human Rights Watch November 2007

Ys% ,xldjg meKs miqj foaYSh ydmq;df.ka ys jegqma fyda fkdf.jk ,o jegqma fyda Ydl
mSvd i|yd jka wdh i|yd ls%hd lsug fkdyelsh'384 foaY wud;HxYfha ks<Odfhl= lshkafka"
meKs,s lre wod, rf is k muKla fkdf.jQ jegqma i|yd wm iska ydmq;=kaj Widhg
f.khdug lghq;= lrkafkuq" tfy;a Tjqka Ys% ,xldjg .sh miq lsisjla l< fkdyel'385
wmf.a iCIKfha fidhd .;a ;j;a jeo.;a lreKla k ;dkdm;s ldhd,j, /ljrK m;d
/ isk .Dy fialdjka yg ffjoHdOdr fyda udkisl iyk ie,iSf ls%hd ms<sfj,la fkdue;s
njhs' l=fgfha oreKq f,i Ydl yd udkisl jo fokdjkag yd wmfhdackhkag ,lajQ
ldka;djla fufia mejiSh' ud ;dkdm;s ldhd,fha udi folla .; lf<' tys lsis WmfoaYk
fiajdjla fkdh' udf.a frday,a jd;do ish,a, ke;s h' B,g ffjoHjrhdg l=ula lshkafka oehs
uu fkdoks'386 .Dy fialdjka mjikafka ;dkdm;s wxYj, imhk ;djld,sl kjd;ekaj,
;;ajh b;du lK.dgqodhl njhs' tla ldka;djla lSf" wdydr yshla ;snqK nj;a f;a fldamamhla
j;a fkd,o w;r" iEu ;eku ms is lerfmd;a;kaf.ka mjd mSvd ug isjQ njhs' Tjqka ug
hlv we|la kakd tys ksod.ekSug wmyiq h' l=i msfrkakg wdydr ,enqfKa ke;' tys ;j;a
ldka;djka 200 la ishd' Tjqka weula fok nj lSj;a thj;a ,enqfKa keye'387 ;j;a ldka;djka
lSf l=f ys Ys% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd,fha ;ukag ksod.ekSugj;a ;ekla fkd;snqKq njhs'388
fi! wrdfha uE;l urK o~qjug kshu jQ YS% ,dxlsl .Dy fialdjl jk 19 ye idkd
k*sla isoah wka;cd;sl uey;au j,g tf,iu fhduq l< w;r w;a wvx.=jg .;a .Dy
fialdjka yg ;dkdm;s ldhd, u.ska jvd;a fyd| Wmldr ,ndf wjYH;dj fmkakq lrk
WodyKhls' 2005 wehj uq<skau w;a wvx.=jg .;a g wehg kS;s wdOdr ,nd .ekSug
yelshdjla fkd;snqKs' miqj 2007 cqks udifha fi!os wrdfha Yhd Widh u.ska ;ud Ndrfha is
<orefjla urd ouk ,oehs fpdaokdj msg urK o~qju kshu flreKs'389 fuu jd;dj ,shk g
weh iska kS;s wdOdr ,nd.;a neka tu o~qjug tfrysj wNshdpkhla bm;a lr we;'390 w;a
wvx.=jg .;a tjeks .ukslhkag NdId mj;lfhl= ,nd.ekSu fyda kS;s wdOdr fyda wju
jYfhka ;ukag we;s fpdaokdj ms<sn|j j;a f;dr;=re oek.ekSug yelshdjla ke;'

384

Human Rights Watch interview with SLBFE official, Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Sumedha Ekanayake, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 16, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Lakmini J., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
387
Ibid.
388
Human Rights Watch interview with Chaturi M., Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
389
Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Katib al-Shammari, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, July 15, 2007; Raid Austi, No
Clemency from Family in Rizana Case, Arab News (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia), July 29, 2007,
http://www.arabnews.com/?page=1&section=0&article=99059&d=29&m=7&y=2007 (accessed September 6, 2007); R.G.
Dharmadasa, Family Weeps for Youngster in Saudi, BBC Sinhala.com, July 4, 2007,
http://www.bbc.co.uk/sinhala/news/story/2007/07/070704_saudifeature.shtml (accessed September 6, 2007); Tim Butcher, Saudis
Prepare to Behead Teenage Maid, Telegraph (London, UK), July 17, 2007,
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/07/16/wsaudi116.xml (accessed September 6, 2007).
390
Mohammed Rasooldeen, Rizana's Lawyers Meet Tribal Leaders in Dawadmi, Daily News (Colombo), September 25, 2007,
http://www.dailynews.lk/2007/09/25/news27.asp (accessed October 8, 2007); Mohammed Rasooldeen, Lanka Minister to Broach
Rizana Case With Officials, Arab News (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia), October 7, 2007,
http://www.arabnews.com/?page=1&section=0&article=102142&d=7&m=10&y=2007 (accessed October 8, 2007).
385
386

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

88

/lshd lrk rf rchka iska mj;lhka fyda kS;s{hka imhkafka ke;s g wod, ;dkdm;s
ldhd,fha ueoy;au b;du w;HjYHh' idkd k*Sla f.a isoafha fukau wka iEu wjia:djlu
w;a wvx.=jg .;a wh ms<sn|j ;dkdm;s ldhd,hg oekq ula fkdflf' tfia jQ g ;dkdm;s
ldhd, u.ska Wmldr iemhSug h m%udohla fyda fldfy;au fkdyels ;;ajhla we;s h yel'
"wmn\ mvEbQm nQ@y`\jny krn r`j&w`n\wQYkyn\@g\ @h`\ mvEbQm @vnE@vn\ @pnWsQtQn
r`j&w`n\wQYkyn\@g\ a`rk\;`v sh a`{`rr lb`g#nWmt s$m sAkYmNQk km|kr#@vkOt sh ovEn\@g\
pvEl\vl s`m`jQkyn\t ayQwQyk\ a#w#yQ" sAkYmNQk ayQwWn\ pQlQb[ pYZp\wQ@y\ s[hn\@v|.391
sAkYmNQk ayQwWn\ pQlQb[ pYZp\wQ@y\ fldkafoais j,g wkqj Ys% ,xld wdKavqjg ls%hd lsf yelshdj
wod, rg iu mj;ajkakdjQ iyfhda.S;djh u; r|d mj;S' .ukslhkaf.a kS;suh
wjYH;dj,;a" Tjqkag isjQ wmfhdackhka ms<sn|+ mCIK meje;aug;a Tjqkaj wksis f,i O
wmfhdackj,g ,la lsug tfrysj;a l%udkql+,j lghq;= lsu i|yd YS% ,xld ;dkdm;s ldhd,
w;r iy /lshd lrk rgj,a iu ukd iyfhda.hla w;HjYH f'
,xldjg kej; meKs g uqyqK fok wimQK meKs,s l%ufo iy iyk fiajd
O fya;= u; iyk n,dfmdfrd;a;=fjka kej; mefKk .ukslhska i|yd ;u meKs,s bm;a
lsu i|yd l%ufohla wdh;k .; lr we;' tfia mefKk wh fjkqfjka fiajl iqNidOl
wruqof,a rCIKh u.ska Wo Wmldr mskukq ,ef'
Tlaf;danrfha ls%hd;aul l< fuu rCIKh u.ska /lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYh ,shdmx jQ whg
fYaI fi!LH myiqlo we;=j kej; Ys% ,xldjg meKSf ho o h wx.l, Ndjhka fyda
urKhl wd jYfhka jka mskef'392 tfy;a m%dfhda.slj ne g tu tl mshjrlaj;a
m%udKj;a ke;'
tu iyk ,nd.ekSug uQ,sl moku f,i fld<U .=jka f;dgqmf,a meKSf mhka;fha msysgqjd we;s
foaY /lshd ldhHxY ljqjg fyda .=jka f;dgm,ska msg msysgd we;s iyk mshi hk ia:dkhg
jd;d l< hq;=h' fuu fiajdjka tfia mj;ajdf.k .sho fufia mefKk lrorhg m;ajQ
.ukslhka yg ,ndh hq;= w;HdjYHu Wo yd Wmldr tu ks<Odka w;ska u.ye h;s' ta
u.ska .ukslhkag ,nd h hq;= iykh i|yd wjYH lghq;= lsugo TjQyQ wiu;a fj;s' fuu
wdh;kj,g iyk m;d meKs lsis .ukslfhl=g tu wdh;k u.ska .;hq;= kS;s mshjr .ek
fyda kS;s wdOdr inkaOj ffjoH fiajdjka iy WmfoaYk fiajdjka ,nd fkdue;' fndfyda
ldka;djka lshd isfha foaY /lshd ldhHxY ks<Odka imhk ,oafoa b;du w,am f;dr;=re
m%udKhla nj;a meKs,s bm;a lsf ls%hd ms<sfj, inkaOfhka lsis ia;r lsula fkdl<
w;ru tu ks<Odka ;ukaf.a lanr meKs,s jd;d lsugj;a lghq;= fkdl, njhs' WodyKhla
f,i fi! wrdfha isg meKs ydmq;df.a mq;d iska IKhg;a .e.ekSgu;a ,lajQ ldka;djla
391

Migrant Workers Convention, art. 12(2).


Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka, Report of the Committee on the Rights of Women Migrant Workers, pp. 18, 38, 78-79;
International Organization for Migration, Labour Migration in Asia, p. 182.

392

89

Human Rights Watch November 2007

wm iu lshd isfha .=jka f;dgqmf,a foaY /lshd ldhHxYfhka lsis Wmldrhla fkd,enqK
njhs'
- "ud lgqkdhlg meKs miq tys we;s foaY /lshd ldhHxY ljqf is
ldka;djkag ug isjQ ysyer;a ud .NKS nj;a lshd isfh tfy;a tu ks<Odka
udf.a meKs,a, ,shd.;af;a j;a ke;' Tjqka ug lsis f;dr;=rla fkdka w;r Tng
ie j;aug leu;s k l;d lrk fuka ug rl:k wxlhla muKla kfkah'
fuu wxlhg l:dlr n,kak" kuq;a Tng ta i|yd uqo,a f.ug isf'
ud tu wxlhg l:d l, uq;a tu ia:dkh fyda .dia;= ms<sn|j fkdoks' foaY
/lshd ldhHxYh g jvd fjk;a lsis iula ug bm;a fkdl< w;r ug
i; mylaj;a" ,enqfKa ke;' udf.a fpdaokdjg lghq;= lsug Tjqkag lsis
Wjukdjla fkdh' lsis iykhla n,dfmdfrd;a;= h fkdyels ksid ud kej;;a
Tjqka yuqug .sfha ke;"'393
;j;a ldka;djla mejiqf ;uka fi! wrdfha Ydl ysxidjg ,la udi 10 l jegqmo wysj
meK fld<U .=jkaf;dgqfmdf,a /lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYfha ljqjg l:d lr meKs,a,la lsu
inkaOj f;dr;=re ;ukag fkd,enqK njhs' ud .=jka f;dgqfmdf,a we;s foaY /lshd ldhHxY
ljqjg meKs,s l,;a Tjqka igyka lr.;af;a uf.a ,smskh;a .=jka hdkd wxlh;a muKs' udf.a
jegqma m%YaKh ms<sn|j j;a ydmq;d f.a /lshd ksfhda; .ekj;a lsis igykla ,shd.;af;a ke;'
Tjqka ud yg fjk;a lsisjla fkdlS w;r tu ia:dkfhka neyerg f.kf.dia nia r:hlg kxjd
lSf f wh Tnf.a f.org hdug nia .dia;=j fokjd hehs muKs'394
iyk mshi ia:dkfha /lshd ldhHxY ks<Odka iska ysyer j,g ,la meKs .ukslhka
yg f;a fldammhla iy lEu f,la m%jdyk myiql imhkq ,ef' tfy;a tu ia:dkfhka
ysxikhg ,lajQjkag ;ukag ys fiajdjka .ek fyda meKs,s ls%hdud.h bhg f.khk wkaou
.ek Wmfoia ula fkdflf' iuyr g tu ia:dkhg meKs whf.a foaYfha w;a foa ms<sn|
fl igykla muKla ,nd.kS' nrm;, ffjoH myiql wjYH whg tu ks<Odka u.ska frday,g
f.khdug" .s,ka r:hla imhkq ,ef' iyk mshi ksjiafka ks<Odfhl= wmg lshd isfha Tjqkag
,ndh yels fiajdjka b;d w,am njhs' ;ukaf.a ksji fj; hdu i|yd uqo,a wjYH whg remhs,a
200 isg 625 olajd ^we(fvd' 1'78 - 5'55& ,ndfokafkuq wka whg m%jdyk myiqlj,g wu;rj
ug hula lEu f;a iy kjd;eka myiql imhkq ,ef' fl .ekSug wjYH whg ta i|yd fuys
40 fofkl=g myiql imhd ;sf' ksfjia lrd hdug wjYH whg wms uqo,a ,ndfokafkuq'
fu;ek isg fld<U fyda .uqj nia kej;= fj; wm wdh;kfha jdyfhka m%jdykh lrkafkuq'
tfukau mjqf,a whg fuys meK ta whj ndr .ekSug;a ie,eiah yelsh'395 2006 iema;en
393

Human Rights Watch interview with Jayanadani A., Kandy, Sri Lanka, November 10, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Sepalika S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
395
Human Rights Watch interview with SLBFE official, Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
394

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

90

udifha muKla fuu ia:dkfha fiajh ,nd.;a ldka;djka ixLHdj 454 ls' tu udifhau kej;
meKs uq ixLHdj 759 ls' nia .dia;= ,ndka ldka;djka 323 ls'396
fi! wrdfha isg ,sx.sl w;jr iy Ydl wmfhdackhg Ndckh jQ 18 ye ldka;djla
/lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYfha iyk mshiska msgug fmr fufia lSjhd' "fuu ia:dkhg meKSf miq
ug oj,a wdydrh yer fjk lsisjla ,enqfKa ke;' ta yer ud yg uqo,a fyda fjk h WmlrKhla
fok njlaj;a i|yka lf,a ke;' ud yg meKs,a,la lsug wjYHhs"'397 ;j;a tjeks ldka;djka
,sx.sl w;jrhkag ,la" jegqma fkd,nd" nf,ka jefvys fhfoka ish meK fufia lSjdh' fi!
wrdfha weh ydmq;df.ka mekhdfuka miq IKhg ,la we;s nj /lshd ldhHxYfha ks<Odka
yg lshd ish;a Tjqka ta inkaOfhka lsish ls%hd ud.hla .kakd wkaou .ek ;ukag lsis
Wmfoila fkdka njhs'
weh fufia lshhs'
".=jka hdkfhka f.dvneiaid" iyk mshfia wh ug fi! wrdfha isjQ lror .ek
weiqjd ta wh th igyka lrk w;r lSf Tn f inkaOj ta rf ;dkdm;s ldhd,hg
oekq h hq;=j ;snqKq njhs' ldhd,h iji 5'00 g jik ksid;a ;j;a whg l;d lsug
we;s ksid;a ug ,ndkafka ks;a;= 10 ls' ug isjQ IKh inkaO ish f;dr;=re lSug
wjYH jQj;a ug ka fl ld,h thg yria h' tfy;a ug tys kej;S miqjod Wfoa kej;
l:d lsug yels nj;a i|yka lf,a ke;'398
ta wh meKs,s bm;a lsu inkaOfhka ud yg lsis Wmfoila kafka ke;' ud yg isjQ
w;jrh inkaOfhka meKs,s lsug ug wjYHhs" ug isjQ foa ieug fya;=jla fkdue;s ksid;a"
th wfkl=;a ldka;djkag oek.ekSug ie,eiau i|yd;ah'
fndfyda wjia:dj, wm l:d l< ldka;djka lshd isfha ;ukag meKs,s bm;a lsug fkdyels
jQfha foaY /lshd ldhHxYfha ta inkaOfhka ;ukag lshd fkdka ksid njhs' tfy;a tjka
meKs,s bm;a lsug foaY /lshd ldhHxYfha iyk fiajd wxYhg .sh ldka;djkag isjQfha
fjk;a ndOlj,g uqyqK ughs' lsis iyfhda.S;djhla ke;s /lshd ldhHxY ks<Odka o tu
ia:dkhg hdug .;jk wl ld,ho" hou o" ta w;r f' l=ud bks,a bka tla wfhls' wehg
wys jQ udi 8 l jegqm wh lrug foaY /lshd ldhHxYhg fkdyels h' tfy;a weh l=fgfha
;dkdm;s ldhd,hgo foaY /lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYhg o meKs,s lr ;sKs' foaY /lshd
kshqla;s ldhHxYfhka udf.a rCIK wxlh b,a,d ishy' miqj ug Tjqka yuqug tk f,i;a"
udf.a w;aoelS ia;r lrk f,i;a oekajQy' Tjqka ug ,sh,a,la f.dk tk f,i fkdlS w;r ud
yg uQ,Huh jYfhka msysgjk njlao i|yka lf,a ke;' tu /iaf ;j;a fndfyda wh meK
396

Ibid.
Human Rights Watch interview with Padma S., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
398
Human Rights Watch interview with Chemmani R., Habaraduwa, Sri Lanka, November 14, 2006.
397

91

Human Rights Watch November 2007

is w;r ;ukag l:d lsug wjia:djla b,a,d ish;a weu;sjrhd iska fjk;a f;dard.;a whg
muKla l:d lsug bvfok ,'399
t' kd,sisld lshd isfha meKs,s bm;a lsf ls%hdmmdh w;sYhska u ysyerld yd >
f,i wl .uka houla oeug isjk l%uhla njhs'
- "ud yg foaY /lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYfha /ia j,g yh j;djla u hdug
ish' tys ish hq;= f,dj oyj,a 12 h' ud yg .,a.uqf isg hdug fndfyda
rla we;s ksid Bg l,ska ojfia iji 6'00 g f.oka msg;a 7'30 fyda 8'00
muK h fmd,g meK uOHu rd;s%h olajd tys .;lr rd;S% fhka
fld<Ug mefKK g miqod WoEik 5'30 g muK f' tjka tla .uklg
ug wju jYfhka re' 1000 la ^we(fvd' 9& ho f' ud yg ;ksju fld<Ug
hdug ne ksidh' ud foaY /lshd ldhHxYfha ks<Odkag udf.a Ialr;djh
lSj;a Tjqka ug i;hlaj;a f.f ke;'
iuyr g /lshd ksfhda; fkdmeKs ksid kslrefka n,disg" bkamiq ks<Odka lSf wdmiq f.or
hk f,i /lshd tacka;jrhd meKsfha /ia ;=klg muKs' wfkla wjia:dj, ug kslu f.or
hdug ish' /lshd tacka; meKs wjia:dj,o Tyq fndfyda m%udo iji 2'30 g 3'00 g muK
mefKa' bkamiq lghq;= bjr ? fnda jQ ksid tk rd;s%fha wu;r houla lr fld<U kej;Sug
is h"'400
wE ;jrg;a lSf ug fmkqk wdldrhg /lshd ldhHxYfha ks<Odkag wjxlj ug msysgug
Wjukdjla ke;' ud b;d r neyer f.jd fld<Ug meKsho /lshd tacka;g fj,djg tk t,i
ks,Odka n, fkdlrhs' /lshd ksfhda; lshk iEu fohgu fuu ks<Odka T lshd wkqu; lr;s'
/lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYhg /lshd wdh;khg iy tys whs;slreg n,lr isug n,h yd yelshdj
;snqKo tu ks<Odka Wjukdfjka u th meyer yk nj fmfka'401
2005 foaY /lshd ldhHxYfha iyk fiajH wxYh fj; meKs,s 6994 la wdmiq meKs
.ukslhska iska lr ;snqKs' tfy;a iuia:hla jYfhka 8823 la jk ldka;d iy ms .uksla
meKs,slrejka yg f.jd we;s uq uqo, remsh,a ,shk 5"027"285 ^we(fvd' 44"647&' fuh
idudkHfhka tla .uksfhl=g jka jYfhka we(fvd' 5 la muK f'402 .ukslhkag kS;s Wmldr
lrk kS;s wdOdr fldiu iska mjrkq ,nk kvq j, mjd wjYH lghq;= lsug /lshd kshqla;s
ldhHxYh ks;ru wiu;a f' tu fldif ks<Odfhla lSf wmyg meKs,s ,enqK g wm
iska th foaY wud;HxYhg okajkq ,nhs' tfya; Tjqkaf.a m%;spdrh b,lal iy rchg ,efnk
wdodhu u; ;SrKh lr;s' udkj whs;sh mfil,hs' ms<s;=re jYfhka Tjqkaf.ka fldiug
399

Human Rights Watch interview with Kumari Indunil (real name used upon request), Rambukkana, Sri Lanka, November 6, 2006.
Human Rights Watch interview with Nalinika M., Giribawa, Sri Lanka, November 7, 2006.
401
Ibid.
402
Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment, Annual Statistical Report of Foreign Employment 2005, pp. 63-64.
400

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

92

,efnkafka wod, ldrKh inkaOfhka wm fidhd ne w;r th t;r jeo.;a fkdjk njh' Tyq
;jrg;a lshkafka fuh m%;sM, rys;h'403 tu ksid wm iska tu .ukslhdg WmfoaYk ,nd
i;=gq lrkjd' 50] lau tjka isoaka" /lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYhg hjk ,smsfhka u fl,jr f'404
foaY /lshd ldhHxYh .=jkaf;dgqfmd, wi, we;s iyk mshfia lsis WmfoaYk fiajdjla
,ndfkdfohs' tys lghq;= .ukslhdf.a {d;Ska uqK.eiaiu iy kej; f.or msg;a lr yeu
muKs' wm ksCIKh l< wkaoug /lshd kshqla;s ldhHxYfha iyk mshi fiajlhska iska mSvdjg
m;a tys tk ldka;djkag WmfoaYk fiajdjla fyda tu fiajd ,nd.; yels l%uhla fkdokajd"
blauKska ;u ksjdij,g heug W;aiy orhs'
tys ks<Odfhla wmg lSf" "uilg oreKq isoaka 10 lg wvqfjka wm fj; ,efnhs' iuyrg 3
la 4 la ;r"'fjd wksjdhfhkau WmfoaYk wjYH ;;ajhkah'405 ;j;a isoahl Ys%' ,' ' fia'
ks' ldhHxY ks<Odka frda.S jQ w;jrj,g ,lajQ ldka;djlg wjYH ffjoH m%;sldr ,nd.ekSu
inkaO lsisu f;dr;=rla ,nd fkd;sKs' weh lSf" "uu wo Wfoa 3'00 g muK .=jka
f;dgqfmd,g wdjd' tys is whg uf.a frda.S nj oekqk ksido nE.h ksido ;ksfhka hd fkdyels nj
lS g Tjqka ud fuys /f.k wdjd' ^iyk mshi& ug nhhs' ffjoHjrfhla fj; hd hq;=hs' Wfoag f,a
.,kjd''' fuys isk wh ug ffjoHjrhd .ek lsis;a fkdlshhs'406

XWY l`AkQkyn\t rFkQy` spyn rtvl pYwQc`ry : svEqQ ar`bQy, kO@v|ty, @lbnny sh
ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&y
r@t| km|kr# nWwQ aq`l @n`vWm

g^h @s\vQk`vn\t qv@s\ v#dkrn p#y gNn sWm`vk\ n#w. a@nk\ @s\vkyn\t
qv@s\ v#dkrn p#y gNn p#y atkt sWm`vn awr, awQk`l qWmn` sh sQkOr`q`
qQnvl nQv`dEvk\q hQmQ@v|.407
-XWY lAk`@v| lQy`pqQAcQ vQ@q\X rFkQy` a`ywn sAgm@y\ sx`pwQ (ALFEA)
svEqQ ar`bQy,408 kO@v|ty,409 @lbnny410 sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWry411 yn rtvl pdQ @gvWm,
v#dkrn p#ygNn, pdQ shQw nQv`dE sh @s\vk vn\qQvlt aq`l sQylEm a`k`r@y\ km|kr# nWwQ
vQ{QvQ{`nvlQn\ g^h @s\vQk`vn\ sm|pRr\N@yn\m ivw\@k`t a#w. g^h @s\vQk`vn\ mRlQk km|kr#
a`rk\;NvlQn\ ivw\kQrWm mMQn\ km|kr# XYm sRr`k$mt r`j& avsry lb`@qmQn\ @s\vkyn\ wl`
@pl` v#dg#nWmt anEbl spyyQ.

403

Human Rights Watch interview with S.S. Wijeratne, Legal Aid Commission, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 17, 2006.
Ibid.
Human Rights Watch interview with SLBFE official, Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 17, 2006.
406
Human Rights Watch interview with Punya K., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 1, 2006.
407
Human Rights Watch interview with Al-Haj U.T.M. Anver, ALFEA, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 31, 2006.
408
Labor Law, Royal Decree No. M/51, 23 Shaban 1426 (September 27, 2005), art. 7(2).
409
Act No. 38 of 1964 Concerning Labour in the Private Sector, art. 2(e).
410
Labour Code, Act of 23 September 1946, as amended up to 24 July 1996, art. 7(1).
411
Federal Law No. 8 for 1980, On Regulation of Labor Relations, art. 3(c).
404
405

93

Human Rights Watch November 2007

ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&y, 1980 aAk 8 qrn km|kr# a`rk\;N pNwQn\ g^h @s\vk @s\vQk`vn\
p#h#qQlQvm ivw\@k`t a#w.412 ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&y q#n\ @mm nWwQy sA@X`\{ny kQrWm pQlQb[v
slk` blmQn\ sQtW. e@hw\ 2007 @pbrv`rQ@y\qW jnw` mw vQmsWm s[h` iqQrQpw\krn lq sA@X`\{Qw
@ktEm|pwQn\q pEq\glQk nQv`svl @s\vy krn sQylEm g^h @s\vk @s\vQk`vn\@g\ a`rk\;Ny
sQw`mw`m ivw\@k`t a#w. 2007 a@p\Yl\ plmE@vnQq` sQt ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&y vQsQn\ g^h
@s\vkyQn\ s[h` h[En\v` @qn lq @k`n\wY`w\wv
O tq v#dkrN p#y gNn sWm`kQrWm, awQk`l qWmn`
lb`qWm, vn\qQ @gvWm| @h`\ nQv`dE qQn sm|bn\{ kQsQqE vgn\wQyk\ a#wOlw\ @n`vn awr, vQ@X\X@yn\
ar\} qk\v` n#wQ "pYm`Nvw\ nQv`dE" sh s$m vsr @qkktm vrk\ m`syk pdQ shQw nQv`dE
lb`qQyyEwO bv pmNk\ ehQ s[hn\@v|.413 @mm @k`n\wY`w\ kYmy sh g^h @s\vkyn\tq km|kr# nWwQ
yt@w\ pYm`N\vw\ a`rk\;Nyk\ lb`@n`qWm awr pYbl prwryk\ pvwW. km|kr# nWwQ yt@w\ qQnk
@s\v` k`ly p#y atkt sWm`vn awr, swQykt qQnk nQv`dEvk\q, qQnkt p#yk vQ@v|kyk\q,
awQk`l qWmn`, vsrkt pdQ shQw m`syk nQv`dEvk\ sh vd@p`@l\qW sQqEvn anwOr#vlt vn\qQ@gvWm
shwQk @k@rn nmEw\ @k`n\wYw\wOvt em ayQwQv`sQkm| a#wOlw\ @n`@v|.414
km|kr# pYZ\p\wQy sA@X`\{ny kQrWm s[h` qXkyk\ mElEl\@l\ qQyw\vR kQYy`q`mykQn\ anwOr#v, kO@v|t
r`j&y g^h @s\vQk`vn\q km|kr# vQ{QvQ{`nvlt a#wOlw\ kQrWmt a@p`@h`sw\vW a#w.415 g^h
@s\vQk`vn\ kO@v|t@y\ km|kr# pnw\ @ktEm|p@w\ a`rk\;Nyt ytw\ @n`@v|. 2006 ok\@w`\br\
plmE@vnQq` kO@v|t@y\ ax&n\wr ktyEwO am`w&`AXy avm v#tEpk\ a#wOlw\ krmQn\ sh
km|kr#vn\@gn\ kQsQqE g`s\wOvk\ aykQrWm whnm| krmQn\ g^h @s\vk @k`n\wY`w\ sm|bn\{ nv
pYmw
Q y
Q k\ h[En\v`qEn\ awr km|kr#v`, kO@v|t@y\ rFkQy` a`ywny sh h`m|pEw` vQsQn\ eyt aw\sn\
w#bQy yEwOy.
nv @k`n\w`w\wOv h[En\v`qWm v#qgw\ iqQrQ pQyvrk\ vn nmEw\ sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\t eyQn\
l#@bn a`rk\;Ny km|kr# nWwQy yt@w\ a@nk\ @s\vkyn\t l#@bn a`rk\;Ny wrm| pYm`Nvw\
@n`@v|. ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\qW @mn\m, g^h @s\vQk`vn\ s[h`vR kO@v|t a`N\dE@v| @p`qE km|kr#
@k`n\wY`w\wOv ovEn\tq r@t| km|kr# nWwQvl a`rk\;Ny aq`lvn prQqQ nWwQ s#ksWm wrm| pYm`Nvw\
pQyvrk\ @n`@v|.
g^h @s\vQk`vn\t pYm`Nvw\ a`rk\;`vk\ lb`@n`@qmQn\ ovEn\t @vnmm nWwQ sm|p`qny kQrWm mgQn\
k`n\w`vn\ @k@rhQ brpwl @n`slk`h#rWmk\ sQqE@k`t wQ@b|. g^h @s\vQk`vn\ sm|mw km|kr# nWwQ
a`rk\;Nyn\@gn\ ivw\kQrWm j`w&n\wr nWwQy yt@w\ whnm|@k`t a#wQ, lQAgQkw\vy mw pqnm|vW
@k@rn brpwl @n`slk`h#rWmkQ.

412

Ibid.
Employment Agreement for Domestic Workers and Sponsors (UAE), put into effect April 1, 2007, arts. 2-3.
414
Federal Law No. 8 for 1980, On Regulation of Labor Relations, arts. 65-67, 70, 74-75, 144-146.
415
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union Rights 2006 (Brussels: ICFTU,
2006), http://www.icftu.org/www/pdf/survey06/Survey06-EN.pdf (accessed September 6, 2007), pp. 364-365.
413

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

94

k`n\w`vn\t e@rhQ sQylEm a`k`r@y\ @n`slk`h#rWm| wOrn\kQrW@m| pYZp\wQy (CEDAW), sQvQl\


sh @q\Xp`ln ayQwWn\ pQlQb[ j`w&n\wr sm|mEwQy (ICCPR)416 sh sAkYmNQk km|kr#vn\ pQlQb[
pYZp\wQyt anEv lQAgQkw\vy, x`;`v, j`wQkw\v @h`\ s`m`jyWy sm|xvy @h`\ @vnw\ s`{kyk\
pqnm|kr@gn @k@rn @n`slk`h#rWm| whnm| @k@r\. b#lR b#l\mt s`{`rN @ls @p@nn,
pYm`Nvw\ @n`vn km|kr# a`rk\;Nyn\ mgQn\ g^h @s\vkyn\@gn\ awQbhEwry vn k`n\w`vn\
@k@rhQ pYbl blp$mk\ a#wQkryQ.
svEqQ ar`bQy, kO@v|ty, @lbnny sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\qW sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\ r@t|
km|kr# nWwQvlt a#wOlw\ @n`kQrWm mgQn\ r@t| pErv#sQyn\ @n`vWm sh k`n\w`vn\ vWm @h\wO@k`t@gn
ovEn\ @qvw`vk\ @n`slk` h#rWmkt lk\@v|.
j`w&n\wr km|kr# sAvQ{`ny pvsn prQqQ: sAkYmNQk k`n\w`@v`\ v#d@p`@l\qW @qvw`vk\ @n`slk`
h#rWmt lk\@vwQ|. plmEv#n\n, vQ@q\XQkyn\ vWm @h\wO@vn\ sAkYmNQk pEr#;yn\ mEhEN@qn sQylEm
@n`slk` h#rWm|vlt k`n\w`@v`\q lk\@vwQ. @qv#n\n, k`n\w`vn\ vWm @h\wO@k`t@gn wm mvEbQ@m|
@h`\ @s\vykrn r@t| s`m|pYq`yQkv k`n\w`vn\ @k@rhQ pvwQn a`kl\p @h\wO@vn\ @k@rn @n`slk`
h#rWm|vlt ovEhE @g`qEr#@vwQ417.
s`m`n&@yn\ rtk pErv#sQyn\ @n`vn pEq\glyn\t a`gn\wOkyn\ vWm @h\wO@k`t@gn
@n`slk`h#rWm|vlt lk\@n`vW@m| ayQwQy hQmQ@v|. km|kr# ayQwQv`sQkm| @lsQn\ @n`s#l@kn k`rN`
kQhQpyk\ h#r#nE@k`t, ICCPR sm|mEwQy yt@w\ j`wQkw\vy mw @k@rn @n`slk`h#rWm|
sm|pRr\N@yn\m whnm|@v|.418 ICCPR sm|mEwQy nQr\vcny kQrW@m| vgkWm p#v@rn m`nv hQmQkm|
sm|bn\{ ek\sw\ j`wWn\@g\ kmQtEv vQgYhkrn prQqQ : "pErv#sQyn\ sh a`gn\wOkyn\ sQylE @qn`tm
kQsQqE @n`slk` h#rWmkQn\ @w`rv ICCPR sm|mEwQ@y\ sQylEm ayQwQv`sQkm| sm`nv hQmQvQy yEwOy
yn\n mRlQk sm|mEwQyyQ. @m| anEv ICCPR sm|mEwQ@yn\ shwQk @k`t a#wQ @n`slk`h#rWm|vlt
lk\@n`vW@m| mRlQk ayQwQy a`gn\wOkyn\tq aq`l@v|"419.
416

The ICCPR establishes that states shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection
against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin,
property, birth or other status. The UN Human Rights Committee, charged with interpreting the ICCPR, has interpreted the
Covenants sex discrimination prohibition by referencing CEDAWs language. In its General Comment on Non-discrimination, the
UN Human Rights Committee used the definition of discrimination set out in CEDAW to interpret the ICCPR non-discrimination
provision, so that the term discrimination is understood to imply any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preferencebased on any
groundand which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by all persons, on an
equal footing, of all rights and freedoms. UN Human Rights Committee, General Comment 18, Non-discrimination (Thirty-seventh
session, 1989), Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N.
Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.6 (2003), p. 146, paras. 6-7.
417
International Labour Organization, Migrant Workers, 87 International Labor Conference 10, (1999), para. 367. See also Review of
Reports, Studies and Other Documentation for the Preparatory Committee and the World Conference: Note by the Secretary-General,
U.N. GAOR, Preparatory Comm., 2d Sess., Agenda Item 6, 24, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.189/PC.2/23 (2001), para. 22.
418
The ICCPR reserves a few specific rights for citizens. Article 25 of the ICCPR expressly reserves for citizens the right to
participate in public affairs, to vote and hold office, and to have access on general terms of equality to public services. ICCPR , art. 25.
ICCPR, art. 12. In its General Comment 15, the UN Human Rights Committee stated that the ICCPR obligations apply to any foreign
national in the territory of a state party, except those rights in article 25 recognized in the ICCPR, which are expressly applicable only
to citizens. UN Human Rights Committee, General Comment 15, The Position of Aliens under the Covenant (Twenty-seventh session,
1986), Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc.
HRI/GEN/1/Rev.6 (2003), p. 140, para. 2.
419
UN Human Rights Committee, General Comment 15, The Position of Aliens under the Covenant, para. 2.

95

Human Rights Watch November 2007

nWwQy iqQrQ@y\ s$m @qn`m eksm`n b#vQn\ nWwQ@y\ a`rk\;Ny sQylE@qn`tm eksm`n vQyyEwObv
j`w&n\wr nWwQy anEvq shwQk @k@r\.420 ICCPR sm|mEwQy anEv, r`j&yk nWwQ pq\{wQyt
ytw\vn sQylE@qn`tm s#l@sn nWwQ@y\ a`rk\;Ny eksm`n vQyyEwOy.421 pErv#sQyn\ @n`vn
pEq\glyn\ sh k`n\w`vn\tq @m| a`rk\;Nyn\ aq`l@v|. eb#vQn\ km|kr# nWwQ v#nQ @s\v` @k`n\@q\sQ
@h`\ @v|wnvlt aq`l sQylEm a`rk\;N y`n\wYnyn\ k`n\w`vn\t sh pErv#sQyn\ @n`vn
pEqglyn\tq eksm`n an\qmQn\ kQYy`w\mk vQyyEwOy.422
sAkYmNQk nWwQ
svEqQ ar`bQ@y\, kO@v|t@y\, @lbnn@y\ sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\ pvwQn "kf`l`" @hvw\
anEgYhy q#k\vW@m| nWwQ anEv sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vkyQn\ ek\ h`m|pE@wkO@gn\ @vnw\ h`m|pE@wkOt
m`r#vW@m| idpYs\w` q#dQv sWm`@k`t wQ@b|. eb#vQn\ rFkQy`v m`r#kQrWmt ovEn\t kQsQqE avs\}`vk\
n#w. @mm "anEgYhy q#k\vW@m| nWwQ" vlt anEv sAkYmNQk km|kr#v`@g\ vWs` blpwYy ek\
h`m|pE@wkOt @n`@h`w\ "anEgY`hk@ykOt" pmNk\ aq`lvn awr e'mgQn\ km|kr#vn\ awvrvlt
lk\vW@m| @h`\ ovEn\@g\ XYmy sRr`k#mt lk\vW@m| anwOr wWvYkryQ.
svEqQ ar`bQ@y\, kO@v|t@y\, @lbnn@y\ sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\ anEgYhy q#k\vW@m| nWwQvlt
anEv, em rtvl @s\vy kQrWm s[h` vWs` blpwYyk\ lb`g#nWmt nm| ovEn\ @q\XWy anEgY`hk@yk\
@s`y`gwyEwOy. sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\@g\ nQl h#[EnEm|pw sm|bn\{ sm|pRr\N vgkWm
anEgY`hky`t hQmQ@v|. km|kr# vWs` blpwYy qWr\GkQrW@m| bly anEgY`hky`t hQmQ@vn b#vQn\, vWs`
blpwY@y\ kl\ ikOw\vWmt idh#rWm mgQn\ @s\vQk`v@g\ @k`n\wY`w\wOv avlAgOkQrWmt h`m|pEwOn\t
avs\}`v hQmQ@v|. sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\t rFkQy`@vn\ ivw\v y`mt avsr @qn\@n\q yn\n
pQlQb[vq hm|pEwOn\t sm|pRr\N bly hQmQ@v|.
sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vkt rFkQy`v m`r#kQrWmt avX&nm| mElQn\m h`m|pEw` a#y nQqhs\ kQrWmt
k#m#w\w pl@k`t lQKQw shwQkyk\ nQkOw\kLyEwOy. @m| @k`n\@q\sQy nQs` awvryt lk\vn
avs\}`vkqW pv` wm rFkQy`v m`r#kQrWmt @n`l#bW@m| brpwl avq`nmkt g^h @s\vQk`@v`\
mEhEN@qwQ. sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\@g\ vWs` blpwYy ek\ h`m|pE@wkOt pmNk\ bq\{@k`t wQbWm
nQs` awvryt lk\vR avs\}`vkqW h`m|pEw`@gn\ pl`gQy@h`w\ a#yt wvqErtw\ r@t| rF[WsQtW@m| ayQwQy
ahQmQvn awr, a#y aw\ adAgOvt pw\vW@m| @h`\ rtQn\ pQtEvhl\ krnE l#bW@m| anwOrt mEhEnp`yQ.
svEqQ ar`bQ@y\qW, sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\ rtQn\ pQtkLyEwOq sh e@s\ pQtkLyEw\@w\ kvq`q yn\n
sm|bn\{@yn\q wWrNy kQrW@m| bly h`m|pEwOn\t hQmQy. svEqQ ar`bQ@yn\ pQtv yn g^h @s\vkyn\
pQtvW@m| vWs` blpwYyk\ lb`gwyEwO bv a`N\dE@v| nQymy vn awr, ey sm|pRr\N@yn\m p`lny
420

UDHR, art. 7; ICCPR, art. 26.


The law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any
ground ICCPR, art. 26.
422
[T]he Committee observes that not every differentiation of treatment will constitute discrimination, if the criteria for such
differentiation are reasonable and objective and if the aim is to achieve a purpose which is legitimate under the Covenant. UN Human
Rights Committee, General Comment 18, Non-discrimination, para. 13.
421

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

96

krnE lbn\@n\ h`m|pEw` vQsQnQ. m`s wOnk\ svEqQ ar`bQ@y\ @s\vy kQrW@mn\ anwOr#v nQymQw k`lyt
klQn\ wm @k`n\wY`w\wO@vn\ ivw\vWmt g^h @s\vQk`vkt avX&nm|, e' s[h` pQtvW@m| vWs` blpwYyk\
sh a{QkrN nQ@y`\gyk\q avX& bv XWY l`AkQk @s\vkyn\ m#q@prqQg rtvl @s\vy s[h`
pQtw\kQrWm sm|bn\{@yn\ vsr 30kt a{Qk plpEr#q\qk\ a#wQ km|kr# nQ@y`\jQw@yk\ @pn\v`@qyQ : "
svEqQ ar`bQ@yqQ g^h @s\vQk`vk\ w`n`pwQ k`r\y`lyt gQyhm w`n`pwQ k`r\y`ly a#y a{QkrNyt
iqQrQpw\ krnv`. @k`n\wY`w\wO@vn\ ivw\@vn\n a#yt avsr @qnvq kQyl wWrNy krn\@n\
a{QkrNy vQsQn\.
It ps\@s\ e' nQ@y`\gyt h`m|pEw` aw\sn\ kL`m, vQ@q\X ktyEwO am`w&`AXy @k`n\wY`w\wOvt nQl
mEq`v wbnv`. @m| kQYy`vlQy ovEn\ h[En\vn\@n\ "nWwQgw kQrWm" kQyl`".423 rFkQy`@vn\ ivw\vm
W s[h`
h`m|pEw`@g\ anEm#wQy lb`g#nWmt @n`h#kQ g^h @s\vQk`vn\ @vnE@vn\ sm`j @s\v` am`w&`AXyq
pQtvW@m| vWs` lb`gn\n`wOr# rFkvrn spyn vQ@X\; m{&s\}`n pQhQtEv` a#w. h`m|pEw`@g\
anEm#wQ@yn\ @w`rv sAkYmNQk @s\vkyn\t rtQn\ pQtvWm s[h` pQtvW@m| vWs` lb`gw @n`h#k.
h`m|pEwOnt @m@s\ a{Qk blwl p#vrWm mMQn\, svEqQ ar`bQ@y\ a`N\dEv g^h @s\vkyn\@g\ nQqh@s\
h#sQrW@m| ayQwQy ul\lAGNy kryQ. wmn\t axQmw prQqQ pQtvW@m| vWs` lb`qWm pYwQk\@;\pkQrWm mMQn\
g^h @s\vQk`vn\@gn\ blhw\k`r@yn\ v#dg#nW@m| ww\vyk\q mwOvQy h#kQy.
m$wqW km|kr# nWwQ vQ{QvQ{`n sA@X`\{nykt lk\kl ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&y a#w#m| s`{nWy
sA@X`\{n h[En\v`qEn\@n\y. h`m|pEw` m`r#kQrWm sm|bn\{@yn\ p#vwQ nWwQ vQ{QvQ{`n sA@X`\{ny
@kr#Nw\, h`m|pEw` @vns\kQrWm sm|bn\{@yn\ sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\t pNv` a#wQ sWm` mMQn\
ovEn\t awvr kQrWmt avs\}`v s#l@s\. h`m|pEw` m`r#kQrWmt avX& sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vkyn\t
vsrk @s\v` whnmk\ p#NvW@m| nWwQy ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&y 2006 @pbrv`rQ m`s@y\qW
ivw\krgw\@w\y. klQn\ p#vwQ nWwQy yt@w\ rFkQy`@vn\ ivw\vEv@h`w\ vWs` blpwYy avlAgO vn
awrm vsrk @s\v` whnmk\q p#N@vn b#vQn\ sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\t wm anEgY`hky`
m`r#kQrW@m| h#kQy`vk\ @n`wQbEnQ. @k@s\vEvq h`m|pEw` m`r#kQrWm sm|bn\{ sA@X`\{Qw nWwQ yt@w\ pv`
g^h @s\vkyn\t wm anEgY`hhky` @vns\klh#k\@k\ ohE@gn\ "vQr#q\{ @n`vW@m| shwQkyk\"
lb`gw@h`w\ @h`\ wm @s\v` @k`n\wY`w\wOv avsn\vW a#w\nm| pmNQ. e@mn\m g^h @s\vkyQn\ vQsQn\
@s\v`q`yky` m`r#kQrW@m| g`s\wOv vX@yn\ dEb`yQhQqW dQr`m| 1500 k (a#. @d`lr\ 408 k) @h`\ a@nk\
emWr\ r`j&yn\hQqW dQr`m| 500 k (a#. @d`lr\ 136k) mEqlk\ @gvQy yEwy
O .424 h`m|pEwOn\@g\ awvryt
lk\vR g^h @s\vQk`vn\ @vnE@vn\ ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\ pQhQtQ ekm shN @s\v` a`ywn@y\
a{&k\;Qk` ;r\l` mEsbQ pvsn prQqQ : " @b`@h`\ h`m|pEwOn\ wmn\@g\ klQn\ @s\vkyn\t qVEvm| krn\n
hQwOnm vQr#q\{ @n`vW@m| shwQky nQkOw\krn\@n n#h#.
e@hm vEnhm ovEn\t rtQn\ pQt@vn\n @vnv`. wvw\ smhr# @m| @s\vkyn\t m`s gNnk i[l`
avEr#q\qk\ qk\v`vn @s\v` whnmk\ a#wOlw\ krnv`. e' kQyn\@n e' k`ly a#wOlw ovEn\t rtt

423

Human Rights Watch interview with retired labor agent, name withheld, Colombo, Sri Lanka, November 18, 2006.
Bassma Al Jandaly, Decision on Maids will Benefit all Parties, Say Officials, Gulf News (Dubai, UAE), August 22, 2006,
http://archive.gulfnews.com/indepth/labour/visas_and_the_law/10061828.html (accessed September 6, 2007).
424

97

Human Rights Watch November 2007

a#wOl\@vl` rFkQy`vk\ kQrWm whnm|"425. m`s @qkk\ mElEl\@l\ v#tEp\ @n`l#bEn bv sn`}klh#kQ
@s\vkyn\t sh km|kr# a`rvElk\ sm|bn\{v a{QkrNy hmEvt gQy @s\vkn\t mEl\ h`m|pEw`@g\
anEm#wQ@yn\ @w`rv @s\v`q`yky` @vns\kQrWm s[h` il\lEm|klh#kQbv nWw\@y\ s[hn\vn nmEw\,
pY`@y`\gQk vX@yn\ v#tEp\ @n`l#bEn bv sn`}kQrWm iw` qE;\kr awr g^h @s\vQk`vn\ sm|bn\{
@b`@h`\ g#tlE a{QkrNy hmEvt iqQrQpw\ @n`@v|.
2006 ok\@w`\br\ plmE@vnQq` kO@v|t@y\ ax&n\wr ktyEwO am`w&`AXy vQsQn\ pYk`Xyt pw\@kr#NE
g^h @s\vkyn\ aw\sn\ w#bQy yEwO @s\v` @k`n\wY`w\wOv mgQn\ sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vkyn\t anEgYhy
q#k\vW@m| vQ{QvQ{`n sA@X`\{nyt lk\vR awr, anEgY`hky` m`r#kQrWm sm|pRr\N@yn\m whnm| krn
lqQ. h`m|pEwOn\@g\ awvrvlt lk\vW pl`y`mt bl`@p`@r`w\wOvn g^h @s\vQk`vn\t @m| ww\vy nQs`
brpwl pYwQvQp`kvlt mEhENqWmt sQqEvQy h#kQy.426 nv @k`n\wY`w\wOvt anEv kO@v|t@y\ sQtQn
awrv`r@y\ wm nQvhn @vns\kQrWmt @h`\ @vnw\ rFkQy`vk\ @s`y`g#nWmt g^h @s\vQk`vn\t avsr
n#wQ awr, @s\v`q`yky`@gn\ ivw\vEv@h`w\ @h`\ @s\v`q`yky` vQsQn\ @k`n\wY`w\wOv hm`rkL@h`w\
ovEn\ vh`m rtQn\ pQtEvhl\@k@rnE a#w.427 km|kr#vn\ b[v`gn\n` a`ywnvl ekwOvk\ vn
Kuwait Union of Domestic Labor Offices (KUDLO) pY{`n kLmN`kr# h;Wm| mjWd| @mm
vQ{QvQ{`ny vQ@v|cnyt lk\@k`t a#w.428 anEgYhy q#k\vWm pQlQb[ nWwQ sA@X`\{ny kQrWmt
bl@p`@r`w\wOvn bv kO@v|t a`N\dEv 2005qW nQ@v|qny kLq @m| v`r\w`v pLkrn @m`@h`w qk\v`m
ev#n\nk\ iqQrQpw\@k`t n#w.429 anEgYhy q#k\vWm pQlQb[ nWwQy sA@X`\{ny kQrWm sm|bn\{@yn\
am`w& mN\dlyt v`r\w` iqQrQpw\ kQrWm s[h` a{&yn wOnk\ p#v#w\@vmQn\ wQ@bn bv km|kr# sh
sm`j @s\v` am`w&AXy nQ@v|qny @k`t wQ@bn nmEw\ em sA@X`\{n mgQn\ rFkQy` @k`n\wY`w\wO@v|
h`m|pEw` m`r#kQrWm sm|bn\{ vQ{QvQ{`n sA@X`\{nyt lk\vnE a#w\q#yQ p#h#qQlQ n#w.430
prWk\;N p#v#w\vWmt a#wQ b`{` sh v`r\w`vR awvr sm|bn\{@yn\ a{QkrN kQYy`m`r\g g#nWm
apr`{ nWwQ vQ{QvQ{`nvlt @klQn\m ytw\vn nmEw\ svEqQ ar`bQ@y\, kO@v|t@y\, @lbnn@y\ sh
ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\ bl{`rWn\ vQsQn\ prWk\;N pvw\v` qVEvm| p#mQNvWmt a@p`@h`sw\vR, XWY
l`AkQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\ vQsQn\ p#mQNQlQ krn lq awvrkQrW@m| sQqEvWm| kQhQpyk\ pQlQb[v hQyEmn\
ryQt|s\ @v`c| (HRW) sAvQ{`ny vQms` b#lWy.
h`m|pEwOn\@g\ awvrvlt lk\vn g^h @s\vQk`vk em awvr sm|bn\{@yn\ yEk\wQy pw` gQy@h`w\
a#yt b`{` gnn`vkt mEhENqWmt sQqE@v|. awvr krn h`m|pE@wkO g#n @p`lWsQyt p#mQNQlQ kL@h`w\
@b`@h`\vQt a#yt h`m|pEw` vQsQn\ el\lkrnE lbnE @s`rkm| kQrW@m| pYwQ@c`\qn`vkt mEhENqWmt sQqE@v|.
@b`@h`\ avs\}`vlqW g^h @s\vQk`vn\ wm h`m|pEwOn\@g\ sm|pRr\N nm @h`\ lQpQny @n`qn\n` b#vQn\
425
Email communication from Sharla Musabih, City of Hope/Dubai Foundation for Women and Children, to Human Rights Watch,
September 29, 2007.
426
The standardized contract cancels and replaces a previous directive that allowed domestic workers to transfer to a different visa
sponsor only once every two years, with the consent of the former sponsor, in the form of a signature on a letter of release.
427
Ahmad Zakaria, Domestics Transfer Ban Effective October 1, Daily Star Kuwait Edition, August 26-27, 2006.
428
Ibid.
429
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union Rights 2006, p. 364.
430
Sponsor System Alternatives, Kuwait Times , May 18, 2007,
http://www.kuwaittimes.net/read_news.php?newsid=MTU0NDYxMzYwMg== (accessed September 6, 2007).

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

98

@c`\qn`vlt lk\vR h`m|pEwOn\ h[En`g#nW@m|qW bl{`rWhEq qE;\krw`vlt mEhEn@qwQ. ek\ @s\vQk`vk


p#vsR prQqQ : "e'@g`l\l @p`lWsQyt k}`krl ey` @s`y`gn\n blnv kQyl, w`n`pwQ k`r\y`l@y
nQl{`rWn\ b`b@g qErk}n aAky il\lEv`. qErk}n aAkyk\ n$, lQpQnyk\ n$, apQ @m`kq krn\@n
kQyl e'@g`l\l m@gn\ a#hEv`. mm ey`@g qErk}n aAky q#n@gn hQt|@y n$".431 h`m|pEwOn\ sh
km|kr# nQ@y`\jQwyn\ a#w#m|vQt lQpQn @vns\vWm q#nEm|qWmt a@p`@h`sw\vn awr @m| ww\w\vy nQs`
awvrkrn h`m|pEwOn\ @s`y`y`@m|qW XWY lAk` w`n`pwQ k`r\y`ly qEX\kr ww\w\vykt mEhEN@qyQ.
hQyEmn\ ryQt|s\ @v`c| (HRW) sAvQ{`ny hmEvn
E sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\ kQhQp@q@nkOm
kQy`sQtQ@y\, h`m|pEwOn\@g\ awvr pQlQb[v wmn\ @s\vy krn r@t| bL{`rWn\t q#nEm|qEn\vQt ovEn\ wmn\
ylQw\ vrk\ wmn\t awvrkL h`m|pEwOn\tm x`rqEn\ bvyQ. svEqQ ar`bQ@y\qW wm h`m|pEw`@gn\ pl`gQy
es\ @p`n\nm|m` hQyEmn\ ryQt|s\ @v`c| (HRW) sAvQ{`nyt p#vsR prQqQ a#y akm#w\w plkrq\qWm
@p`lWsQy a#y ylQw\ vrk\ a#@g\ @s\v`q`yky`tm x`rqW wQ@bnv` :
mm @gqrQn\ p#nl @p`lWsQyt gQy`. m`v w`n`pwQ k`r\y`lyt @gnQyn\n kQyl mm @p`lWsQ@yn\
il\lEv`. @m|k sQq\qvE@n\ 2006 @n`v#m|br\ 22 @vnQq. e'@g`l\l m`v a`phE b`b lMt ar@gn
gQyhm mQnQht yk` n#g\g. Itps\@s e'@g`l\l m`v wv tQk@vl`vk\ @p`lWsQ@y wQy`@gn
hQtQy. Itps\@s ihl @p`lQs\ nQl{`rQ@yk\ a`v.
mm gOtQk`l wOv`l @vc|c w#n\ @pn\nEv. b`b mt g#hEv bv mm @p`lWsQyt kQvEv. b`b kQvEv
e'@vl`@v ey` @gqr hQtQ@y n#h# kQyl. @p`lWsQy a#hEv b`b mt pdQ @gvEvq kQyl. avEr#qE
ekhm`rk\ pdQ qEn\@n n#wQbv mm kQvEv. mt a`phE b`b lMt yn\n b#rQ bh#yQ kQyl mm
@p`lWsQyt kQvEv. mm kQvEv m`v w`n`pwQ k`r\y`@lt @gnQyn\n kQyl. "apQ uBv b`b@g
@gqrt @n@vyQ w`n`pwQ k`r\y`@lt @gnQynv" kQyl @p`lWsQy mt kQvEv.
m`v w`n`pwQ k`r\y`@lt gQhQn\ a#rlvn\n kQyl @p`lWsQy b`bt kQvEv`. e'w\ mQnQh m`v a`phE
@gqrt ar@gn gQy`. m`v a`phE ar@gn yn\@n @m`kq kQyl mm b`b@gn\ a#hEv. "uBv
@gqr yvn\n mt sl\lQ n$" kQyl mQnQh kQvEv. sl\lQ n#w\nm| m`v v#dt gw\@w a#yQ kQyl mm
b`b@gn\ a#hEv. b`b@g bQrQ[ mt @h`[tm g#hEv. ghl g$nQ kQvEv "svEqQ ar`bQ@y uB
@k`wnt gQyw\, e'@g`l\@l` ub @mh`t @gnw\ q`nv. apQ ubv mrl q#m|mw\, @p`lWsQy
@m`nvw\ kQyn\@n n$. uB p#nl gQ@y\ n#w\nm|, apQ uBv mrl kOnE@g`dt q`n wQbEn".
wvmw\ m@g\ mElE a#Mpwm rQ@qnv. mt e' @v|qn`v qr`gn\n b#rQvEn`.432
a#y in\psEv @qv#nQ vw`vtw\ em h`m|pEw`@gn\ p#ngQy awr, @p`lWsQyt gQy@h`w\ ylQw\ vrk\
ovEn\ h`m|pEw`tm x`r@qnE a#w#yQ @vnw\ XWY l`AkQk@ykO anwOr# a#MvR b#vQn\ e' vw`@v| a#y
@klQnm XWY lAk` w`n`pwQ k`r\y`ly bl` gQy`y.

431
432

Human Rights Watch interview with Ponnamma S., Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, December 14, 2006.
Ibid.

99

Human Rights Watch November 2007

a#w#m| avs\}`vlqW upk`r pw` yn g^h @s\vQk`vn\t @p`lWsQ@yn\ upk`ryk\ @n`l#@b|. em


bl{`rWn\ a#w#m|vQt a#@g\ akm#w\w @n`slk`m g^h @s\vQk`v ylQ h`m|pEw`tm x`r@qn awr, e@s\
n#w\nm| awvr kQrWm pQlQb[ @c`\qn` vQxgkQrWmt a@p`@h`sw\@vwQ. 26 h#vQrQqQ g^h @s\vQk`vk vn
db|lQyE @sl\vkOm`rQ apt p#vsR prQqQ svEqQ ar`bQ@y\qW h`m|pEw` sh ohE@g\ pEw`@g\ lQAgQk awvrvlt
m`s nmyk\ mElEl\@l\ lk\vW@mn\ anwOr#v ay nQvsQn\ p#n@g`s\ @p`lWsQ@y\ pQhQt p#wWy. e@hw\
@p`lWsQy wmn\ ylQw\ vrk\ wm h`m|pEw`tm x`rqEn\ bv a#y apt p#vsWy :
mm @p`lWsQyt kt uw\wryk\ qEn\n`. m@g\ h`m|pEw`@g crQ@w e'wrm| @h`[ n#wQbv mm
@p`lWsQyt kQvEv`. @p`lQs\ nQL{`rQy` @l`kO b#tn\ @p`l\lkOw\ ar@gn mt wr\jny krl a#hEv`
" uB @mh`t a`@v @k`@h`mq?" kQyl. mm kQvEv mm k`@gvw\ upk`ryk\ n#wQv wnQvm a`pE
bv. @p`lQs\ nQL{`rQy` m@g\ kt uw\w@r\ lQy`@gn a`phE m`v b`btm x`rqEn\n. m`v @vn
@gqrkt m`r#krnv kQyl @p`lWsQy mt kQvEv. e'w\ e'@g`l\l m`v b`btm x`rqEn\n.433
wmn\t awvr krn h`m|pEwOn\t sm|bn\{@yn\ nWwQmy pQyvr g#nW@m|qW g^h @s\vQk`@v`\ @vnw\
b{`vn\tq mEhEN@qwQ. svEqQ ar`bQ@y\, kO@v|t@y\, @lbnn@y\ sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\
bl{`rWn\@gn\ @h`\ XWY lAk` w`n`pwQ k`r\y`lykQn\ upk`r pwn avs\}`vlqW, p#mQNQl\lk\ iqQrQpw\
krn\@n\ @k`w#nktq sh @k@s\q yn\n pQlQb[v ovEn\t nQsQ @w`rwOr# @n`l#@b|. apr`{
prWk\;Nyk\ p#v#w\@vn awrv`r@y\qW g^h @s\vQk`vn\ qQgtm r@t| rF[W sQtQy yEwO nmEw\ e' k`ly
wOl obEn\t rFkQy`vk\ kQrWmt avsr n#w. @s`rkm @h`\ ay}` lQAgQk sm|bn\{w` p#v#w\vW@m| pYwQ
@c`\qn` ovEn\t e@rhQv el\lvWmt idwQ@bn awr, vQ@X\;@yn\m lQAgQk qR;Nykt lk\vR@y\ nm|
an`c`r@y\ h#sQrW@m| pYwQ @c`\qn`vk\ el\lvW@m| brpwl wr\jnykt ovEhE mEhEN@qwQ. ek\sw\ ar`bQ
emWr\ r`j&@y\qW g^h @s\vQk`vn\t pYwQpw\wQyk\ vX@yn\ a{QkrN@y\ pQhQt p#wQy h#kQ nmEw\,
"h`m|pEwOn\@gn\ el\lvQy h#kQ wr\jn @h`\ nQvsQn\ plv`hrQnE a#w#yQ bQy plvWm sh nWwQ a`{`r s[h`
@gvWmt mEql\ @n`m#wQkm @h\wO@vn\ @b`@h`\vQt ovEhE kQsQqE nQl kQYy`m`r\gyk\ g#nW@mn\ vlkQn"434
bv j`w&n\wr nQqhs\ v^w\wWy smQwQ sm|@m|lny v`r\w`kryQ. a{QkrN kQYy`m`r\gvlt b{`krn
a@nk\ k`rNy pYm`Nvw\ s`k\;Q @n`m#wQvWmyQ : awvr kQrWm| sQqEvn\@n\ pYsQq\{ s\}`nvl @n`vn
b#vQn\ an`gw@y\qW sQqEvQyh#kQ awvr h[En`g#nWm sh awvr kQrWm| sm|bn\{ s`k\;Q @s`y`g#nWm
pQlQb[v @p`lWsQyt nQsQ pEhENEvk\ l#bW n#w.

433
434

Human Rights Watch interview with Selvakumari W., Katunayake, Sri Lanka, November 9, 2006.
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union Rights 2006, p. 374.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

100

VI. nQgmNy sh nQr\@q\X

sAkYmNQk XWY l`AkQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\@g\ ayQwQv`sQkm| a`rk\;`kQrWm @vnE@vn\ XWY lAk` a`N\dEv
v#qgw\ pQyvr @gn wQ@bn nmEw\, @mm v`r\w`@v| q#k\@vn prQqQ, em pQyvr pYm`Nvw\ @n`vn awr
em v#dsthn\vl q#k\@vn ilk\kyn\ spEr`g#nWm s[h` e'v` kQYy`w\mk kQrWmt q#nt vd` pQyvr
g#nWm avX&@v|. g^h @s\vk
Q `vn\ @vnw\ rtk @s\vy s[h` yn avs\}`vl ovEn\ awvrvlt
lk\@n`vWm shwQk kQrWm s[h` XWY lAk` a`N\dEvt mWt vd` pQyvr gwh#kQy.
km|kr# vn\qQ lb`g#nW@m| ayQwQy, s`{`rN @v|wnyk\ l#bWm, awQk`l qWmn`, swQ@y\ nQv`dE qQnyk\
sh vrpYs`q a#wOlE km|kr# nWwQvl a`rk\;Ny g^h @s\vQk`vn\tq blp`n ayErQn\ svEqQ ar`bQ@y\,
kO@v|t@y\, @lbnn@y\ sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\ km|kr# nWwQ sA@X`\{ny@k`t kQYy`w\mk kQrWm
@m| @m`@h`@w\ hqQsQ avX&w`vykQ. e@mn\m svEqQ ar`bQ@y\, kO@v|t@y\, @lbnn@y\ sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ
emWr\ r`j&@y\ a`N\dE, q#nt blpvw\vn apr`{ nWwQ, g^h @s\vk @k`n\wY`w\ sh @m| s$m rtk\
vQsQn\m aw\sn\ wb` wQ@bn j`w&n\wr m`nv hQmQkm| sm|mEwWn\vlt aq`l a`rk\;Nyn\ kQYy`w\mk
kLyEwOy.
hQyEmn\ ryQt|s\ @v`c| sAvQ{`ny phw nQr\@q\X iqQrQpw\kryQ :
XWY lAk` a`N\dEvt
rFkQy` e'jn\sQkr#vn\ sh ovEn\@g\ up nQ@y`\jQwyn\ p`ln vQ{QvQ{`n sh nQrWk\;N y`n\wYnyn\
wvqErtw\ Xk\wQmw\ kQrWm.
up nQ@y`\jQwyn\ lQy`pqQAcQ krn@mn\ km|kr# e'jn\sQkr#vn\t nQ@y`\gkQrWm : up
nQ@y`\jQwyn\@g\ sQylE kQYy`k`rkm| sm|bn\{@yn\ e'jn\sQkr#vn\t vgkWm p#vrWm.
up nQ@y`\jQwyn\ @klQn\m p`lny kQrWm s[h` pQyvr g#nWm : ovEn\t a`N\dE@v| @h`\
e'jn\sQkr#vn\ smM lQy`pqQAvWmt nQ@y`\g@k`t, up nQ@y`\jQwyn\ vQsQn\ km|kr#vn\@gn\
mEql\ gs`k$m sh vAc`kQrWm v#l#k\vWm s[h` g`s\wO h` b[v`g#nW@m| kQYy` ptQp`tQy pQlQb[v
p#h#qQlQ pYmQwWn\ pYk`Xyt pw\kQrWm sh @mm vQ{QvQ{`n ul\lAGNy krn up nQ@y`\jQwyn\t
brpwl qd mEql\ nQymkQrWm.
rFkQy` e'jn\sQ a`ywn sh ovEn\@g\ up nQ@y`\jw
Q yn\ nQrn\wr@yn\ sh s\v`{Wn m`r\gvlQn\
nQrWk\;Ny kQrWm s[h` y`n\wYnyn\ pQhQtEvWm. rFkQy` e'jn\sQ a`ywnvlt ahm|@bn\ kd`p#n
vQx`gkQrWm.
sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\@g\ rFkQy` @k`n\wY`w\wO rFkQy` e'jn\sQkr#vn\ vQsQn\ sQAhl sh
@qml x`;`vlt sm|pRr\N@yn\m prQvr\wny kQrWm shwQk kQrWm s[h` vQ{QvQ{`n s#lsWm.

101

Human Rights Watch November 2007

rtQn\ pQtvWmt @pr ovEn\ rFkQy` e'jn\sQkr#vn\t sh up nQ@y`\jQwyn\t @gvR mEql\ pQlQb[v
vQ@q\X rFkQy` nQyEk\wQ k`r\y`AXy vQsQn\ g^h @s\vQk`vn\@gn\ pRr\N v`r\w`vk\ lb`@gn ey
nQrWk\;Ny kQrW@m| y`n\wYnyk\ a#wQkQrWm.
rFkQy` spyn rtvl rFkQy` e'jn\sQvl @s\vykrn XWY l`AkQkyn\ pQlQb[v l#@bn pmQNQlQ
sm|bn\{@yn\ q#dQ s#lkQl\l @y`mE@k`t prWk\;N p#v#w\vm
W . g^h @s\vk
Q `vn\t ev#nQ
@w`rwOr# w`n`pwQ k`r\y`lvlt sh ylQ XWY lAk`vt p#mQNQvQt p#mQNQlQ kQrWmt phsE@k@rn
y`n\wYnyn\ a#wQkQrWm.

svEqQ ar`bQ@y\, kO@v|t@y\, @lbnn@y\ sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr@y\ XWY lAk` w`n`pwQ k`r\y`l sh
@k`n\sl\ k`r\y`lvl g^h @s\vkyn\ s[h` vn @s\v`vn\ vr\{ny kQrWm.
vQ@X\;@yn\m @n`@gvR @v|wn lb`g#nWm, awvr sm|bn\{ prWk\;N sh ndE p#vrWm| h`
aw\ adAgO@v| r[v` sQtQyqW hQmQ ayQwQv`sQkm| v#nQ kr#NE sm|bn\{@yn\ @k@rn
vQmsWm|vlqW g^h @s\vQk`vn\t upk`r kQrWm s[h` pYm`Nvw\ k`r\y mN\dlyk\
nQrw@k`t w#bWm.
@s\vkyn\t pEhENEv lb`@qmQn\, up@q\XN @s\v` sh @s_K& phsEkm| sls`qW,
h`m|pEwOn\@gn\ pl` en @s\vQk`vn\t rFkvrn lb`@qn m{&s\}`nvl phsEkm| vr\{ny
kQrm
W .
XWY l`AkQkyn\ @s\vy krn rtvlqW XWY lAk`@v| w`n`pwQ k`r\y`lvl ovEn\ @vnE@vn\m
k#pvEn nQl{`rWn\ sh vQ@X\; qErk}n @s\v`vn\ a#wQkQrWm. svEqQ ar`bQy, @lbnny,
kO@v|ty sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\qW @s_K& phsEkm|, up@q\XN @s\v`, nWwQ a`{`r
sh rFkvrn lb`g#nWm s[h` ovEn\t a`{`rkQrWm.
svEqQ ar`bQy, @lbnny, kO@v|ty sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\qW awvrvlt lk\vR
sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\t p#mQNQl\lk\ iqQrQpw\ krn\@n\ @k@s\q, @n`@gvR pdQ
lb`g#n\@n\ @k@s\q sh nWwQ a`{`r @s\v`vn\ v#nQ kr#NE sm|bn\{@yn\ vth`@qmQn\
a`{`r krn an\qm pQlQb[v XWY lAk` w`n`pwQ k`r\y`lvl k`r\y mN\dly pEhENE kQrWm.
pWd`vt pw\v e@hw\ p#ny`mt akm#wQ @h`\ hkQy`vk\ n#wQ g^h @s\vQk`vn\ @s`y`
ovEn\t a{`rkrn kYm@v|qyk\ a#wQkQrWm. avX&@v|nm| e' s[h` pl`@w\ @p`lWsQ@y\q
sh`y p#wWm.
klQn\ w`n`pwQ k`r\y`lykQn\ a`{`r p#wS g^h @s\vQk`vn\ pQlQb[v vrQn\vr ylQ
@s`y`b#lW@m| y`n\wYnyk\ pQhQtEvWm.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

102

@qp`r\Xv@y\ ekMw\vy a#wQv kQYy`w\mk @k@rn rFkQy` @k`n\wY`w\wO kYmyk\ sh @s\vkyn\@g\


p#mQNQlQ sm|bn\{@yn\ @s`y`b#@ln kYm@v|qyk\ nQr\m`Ny kQrWm s[h` svEqQ ar`bQy, kO@v|ty,
@lbnny sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j\y\@y\ a`N\dE smM sh@y`\g@yn\ kQYy`kQrWm.
phw kr#NE anEgmny kQrWm mMQn\ q#nt @s\vkyn\ pQtw\vy`mt @pr lb`@qn pEhENEv v#dQqQyENE
kQrWm :
wm ayQwQv`sQkm| sh vQ@q\XWy x`;` sm|bn\{ pEhENEv v#dQqQyENE kQrWm.
vQ@q\XykqW sh a`psE XWY lAk`vt p#mQNW@mn\ anwOr#v rFkQy` e'jn\wyn\t sh h`m|pEwOn\t
e@rhQv nWwQmy pQyvr g#nW@m| kYm pQlQb[v p#h#qQlQ @w`rwOr# lb`qWm.
rFkQy`vkt b[v`g#nW@m|qW aykLh#kQ uprQm g`s\wO sm|bn\{ nWwQmy vQ{QvQ{`n phq`qW nWwQy
ul\lAGNy krn e'jn\wyn\t e@rhQv p#mQNQlQ kLh#kQ a`k`r pQlQb[v @s\vkyn\t
@w`rwOr# lb`qWm.
v#qgw\vn @w`rwOr# sh @mvlm| a#wOlw\ p`r\slyk\ rtQn\ pQtvn s$m g^h @s\vQk`vktm
lb`qWmt pQyvrg#nWm. h`m|pEw`@g\ nm, lQpQny sh qErk}n aAky : XWY lAk` w`n`pwQ
k`r\y`l@y\ lQpQny sh qErk}n aAky : @s\vkrn r@t| pQhQtQ rFkQy` e'jn\sQ@y\ nm, lQpQny
sh qErk}n aAky : XWY lAk` w`n`pwQ k`r\y`l@y\ h` rFkvrn m{&s\}`nyk qErk}n aAk
mEql\ @n`@gv` a#mwQy h#kQ qErk}n k`d|pwk\ : pQtw\v yn r@t| @q\XWy mEql\ kQsQym|
pYm`Nyk\ : gmn\ blpwY@y\ pQtpwk\ sh rFkQy` @k`n\wY`w\wO@v| pQtpwk\ eyt a#wOlw\vQy
yEwy
O .
ashnyt pw\v @s\vy h#rq` en @s\vQk`vn\t up@q\XN @s\v` spymQn\ sh p#mQNQlQ kQYy`q`my
sm|bn\{v v#dQqEr @w`rwOr# lb`@qmQn\ ylQ sQyrt p#mQ@Nn sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\t spyn
@s\v`vn\ v#dQqQyEnE kQrWm.
a`psE XWY lAk`vt p#mQNW@mn\ anwOr#v awvr sm|bn\{@yn\ gwh#kQ kQYy`q`myn\ pQlQb[v
q#nt vd` pYc`ryk\ lb`qWmt ktyEwO kQrWm. ylQ sQyrt p#mQ@Nn g^h @s\vQk`vn\t, p#mQNQlQ
kQrW@m| sh shn lb`g#nW@m| kYm@v|qyn\ pQlQb[v j`w&n\wr gOvn\ @w`tE@p`@l\qW h` vQ@q\X
rFkQy` nQyEk\wQ k`r\y`AX@y\ shn pQys rFkvrN m{&s\}`n@y\qW p#h#qQlQ @w`rwOr# lb`qWm.
j`w&n\wr gOvn\ @w`tE@p`@l\qW h` vQ@q\X rFkQy` nQyEk\wQ k`r\y`AX@y\ shn pQys rFkvrN
m{&s\}`n@y\qW ylQ sQyrt p#mQ@Nn g^h @s\vQk`vn\@g\ p#mQNQlQ q#nt vd` vQ{Qmw\v sthn\
krg#nWm. awvr krn h`m|pEwOn\ sh rFkQy` e'jn\sQ pQlQb[v ylQ p#mQ@nn @s\vkyQn\@gn\
@w`rwOr# lb`@gn, h#kQ s$m avs\}`vkm - nWwQy ul\lAGny @n`vn ayErQn\ - em
@w`rwOr# pYsQq\{Qyt pw\kQrWm sh vQ@X\;@yn\m g^h @s\vQk`vn\@g\ ayQwWn\ pQlQb[v ktyEwO
krn sAvQ{`nvlt em @w`rwOr# lb`qWm. awvrkQrWm| sn`}vR h`m|pEwOn\ sh rFkQy`
e'jn\sQvl l#yQs\wOvk\ lMwb`g#nWm.

103

Human Rights Watch November 2007

vQ@q\X rFkQy` nQyEk\wQ k`r\y`AX@y\ shn pQys rFkvrN m{&s\}`n@y\qW ylQ sQyrt p#mQ@Nn
sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\ @vnE@vn\ m`nsQk up@q\XN @s\v`vk\ a#wQkQrWm.
a`psE sQyrt p#mQNW@mn\ anwOr#v lb`@qn a`r\}Qk sh ylQ pqQAcQvW@m| a`{`r, h`m|pEwOn\t
@h`\ rFkQy` e'jn\wyn\t e@rhQv ndE p#vrWmt avX& @s\vQk`vn\t lb`@qn nWwQ a`{`r
@s\v`vn\ h` up@q\XN @s\v` sh @s_K& @s\v`vn\ spyn m{&s\}`n a#wOlE @w`rwOr#
a#wOlw\ pwQYk`vk\ ylQ p#mQ@Nn g^h @s\vQk`vn\t lb`qWm.
vQ@q\XgwvWmt bl`@p`@r`w\wOvn k`n\w`vn\ sm|bn\{@yn\ pvw\vn sQylEm @s_K& prWk\;N, upw\
p`ln @b@hw\ qYv& lb`qWm a#wOlE sQylE kQYy`m`r\g pQlQb[v ovEn\ @h`[Qn\ q#nEvw\@k`t e' s[h`
s\@v|c|C`@vn\ ovEn\@g\ anEm#wQy lb`g#nWmt kQYy`kQrWm. vQ@q\XgwvWmt bl`@p`@r`w\wOvn em @s_K&
prWk\;Nvl pYwQPl k`n\w`vn\t lb`qWm sh em @w`rwOr#vl rhs&x`vy a`rk\;`kQrWm shwQk
kQrWm.
rFkQy` e'jn\sQkr#vn\@g\ sh ovEn\@g\ up nQ@y`\jQwyn\@g\ vgkWm| @mn\m ovEn\t e@rhQv p#mQNl
Q Q
kQrWm s[h` pvwQn y`n\wYnyn\ pQlQb[v vQ@q\XgwvWmt bl`@p`@r`w\wOvn k`n\w`vn\@g\ q#nEm
vr\{ny kQrWm s[h` q#nEvw\kQrW@m| v#dsthn\ kQYy`vt n#MWm.
rFkQy` e'jn\sQkr#vn\t nWw&`nEkSlv aykLh#kQ uprQm g`s\wO, aq`l rtvl rFkQy`
@k`n\wY`w\wO sm|bn\{ vQ{QvQ{`n, phl @p`lW anEp`wQkyk\ shQwv Ny lb`g#nW@m| avs\}`
sh nWwQy ul\lAGNy krn rFkQy` e'jn\sQkr#vn\t sh up nQ@y`\jQwyn\t e@rhQv
p#mQNQlklh#kQ a`k`ry yn`qW kr#NE pQlQb[v (@w\ vwO, a#MlEm| km|hl\ ) sh qEX\kr
gm|m`n v#nQ g^h @s\vyt k`n\w`vn\ b[v`g#nWmt idwQ@bn s\}`nvlqW ovEn\ q#nEvw\
kQrW@m| v#dsthn\ p#v#w\vWm.
sAkYmNyvWmt bl`@p`@r`w\wOvn k`n\w`vn\ e'jn\sQkr#@vk\ @w`\r`g#nWmt sh avs`n
wWn\qEvk\ g#nWmt pY}m ovEn\t @mm @w`rwOr# lb`qWm s[h` sAkYmNQkyn\@g\ ayQwWn\
sm|bn\{@yn\ kQYy`krn sAvQ{`n smM ek\v ktyEwOkQrWm.
iw` ihl @p`lW anEp`wvlt Ny lb`@qn pEq\glQk w#rFvEkr#vn\@gn\ Ny lb`g#nWm @vnEvt
sAkYmNQk k`n\w`vn\t r`j& b#AkO sh @vnw\ mRl& a`ywnvlQn\ Ny lb`g#nW@m| avs\}` sls`qWm.
phl @p`lW anEp`wQkyk\ shQwv qQgOk`lWn Ny vX@yn\ @mm Ny lb`qW@m| v#dsthn\
kQYy`vt n#MWm s[h` pQyvr g#nWm.
sAkYmNQk k`n\w`vn\ @vnE@vn\ Ny lb`qWm s[h` shwQkkr#vn\ aw\sn\ w#bWm a#wOlE
vQ{QvQ{`n sWm`kQrWm.
q#nt kQYy`w\mk vn sh alEwQn\ kQYy`vt n#@gn Ny lb`qW@m| v#dsthn\ pQlQb[v q#nt
vd` pYc`ryk\ lb`qWm.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

104

@v@L[ ktyEwO am`w&`AXy vQsQn\ kQYy`vt nMn XWY lAk` apNyn Ny rk\;N sm`g@m|
(SLECIC) b#AkO shwQk v#dsthn pQlQb[v jnw`v q#nEvw\ kQrWmt pQyvr g#nWm.
XWY lAk` vQ@q\X rFkQy` nQyEk\wQ k`r\y`AXy vQsn
Q \ g^h @s\vQk`vn\ @vnE@vn\ pvw\v`@gn ynE lbn
km|kr# sExs`{k armEql pQlQb[v q#nt vd` pYc`ryk\ lb`qW eyQn\ lb`@qn shn wvqErtw\
pElEl\kQrWm.
v#d@p`@l\qW sQqEvn anwOr#, a`b`{QwvWm sh mr#mEvt pw\vWm h#r#nE@k`t lQAgQk awvr sh
phrqWm|q em armEq@l\ rk\;Nyt ytw\vn kr#NE ytwt awOlw\@k`t ev#nQ avs\}`vlqW
a`psE sQyrt p#mQNW@m| gOvn\ tQkt|pwq lb`qWm.
@mm rk\;N armEq@ln\ s#l@sn shn pQlb
Q [v sAkYmNQk @s\vQk`vn\t pElEl\ av@b`\{yk\
lb`qWm. ylQ sQyrt bl`en h` gOvn\gwvn g^h @s\vQk`vn\t j`w&n\wr
gOvn\@w`tE@p`@l\qWw\, XWY lAk` vQ@q\X @s\v` nQyk
E \wQ k`r\y`AX@y\ shn pQys rFkvrN
m{&s\}`n@y\qWw\, pEhENE m{&s\}`n sh vQ@q\XgwvWmt bl`@p`@r`w\wO@vn\ g^h @s\vQk`vn\
rFs\vn rkQy` e'jn\sQvlqWw\ @m| armEql pQlb
Q [v @w`rwOr# a#wOlw\ pwQYk` @bq`h#rWm.
g^h @s\vQk`vn\ awvryn\t lk\vR avs\}`vlqW ovEn\@g\ gOvn\ tQkt|p@w\ vQyqmq a`vrNy
vn ayErQn\, q#nt kQYy`w\mkvn m`s hyk\ pmNk\ vlAgO km|kr# rk\;Ny @s\vk
@k`n\wY`w\wO@v| vlAgOk`ly qk\v` qWr\GkQrWm.
nv pYwQpw\wWn\ sks\kQrW@m|qW sh kQYy`vt n#MW@m|qW sAkYmNQkyn\@g\ ayQwWn\ pQlQb[v ktyEwOkrn
sAvQ{`nvl aqhs\vlt s`v{`nv kn\qWm.
vQ@q\X rFkQy` nQyEk\wQ k`r\y`AX@y\ a{&k\; mN\dlyt sAkYmNQkyn\ sh ovEn\@g\ ayQwWn\
pQlQb[v ktyEwOkrn kQYy`{ryn\ pw\kQrWm.
sAkYmNQk km|kr#vn\@g\ pvEl\vl avX&w` h[En`@gn pYwQkr\m @yqWm sh em pvEl\vlt
a`{`rkrn v&`p^wWn\ qQyw\kQrWm s[h` sAkYmNQkyn\ sh ovEn\@g\ ayQwWn\ pQlb
Q [v
ktyEwOkrn kQYy`{ryn\@g\ aqhs\ vQmsWm.
n#wQvR gmn\ blpwYyk\ @vnEvt nv gmn\ blpwYyk\ nQkOw\kQrW@m|qW aykrn r#pQyl\ qsqhsk
g`s\wOv ivw\kQrWm.
wmn\@g\ kQsQqE vrqk\ @n`m#wQv vQ@q\XykqW gmn\ blpwYy ahQmQvn sAkYmNQk g^h
@s\vQk`vn\ @vnE@vn\ a`gmn h` vQgmN @qp`r\w@m|n\wOv @mm g`s\wOv ivw\kLyEwOy. (uq`:
h`m|pEw` vQsQn\ gmn\ blpwYy x`r@n`qEn\ avs\}`vlqW)

105

Human Rights Watch November 2007

svEqQ ar`bQy, kO@v|ty, @lbnny sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\ a`N\dEvlt

phw q#k\@vn kr#NE sm|bn\{@yn\ XWY lAk` a`N\dEv smM sh@y`\g@yn\ kQYy`kQrWm :
XWY l`AkQk pErv#sQ@ykO aw\ adAgOvt gw@h`w\ XWY lAk` w`n`pwQ k`r\y`lyt vh`m e' bv
q#nEm|qWm
@qp`r\Xv@y\m ekMw\v@yn\ kQYy`w\mk kLh#kQ rFkQy` @k`n\wY`w\wO kYmyk\ h[En\v`qWm
pdQ @n`@gvWm a#wOlE XYm sRr`k$@m| sQqEvWm| @h`\ apr`{ sm|bn\{@yn\ phsE@vn\ p#mQNQlQ
kLh#kQ y`n\wYnyk\ nQr\m`NykQrWm.
rtQn\ pQtEvl\ kQrWm h#r an\ vQkl\pyk\ @n`mwQ avs\}`vlqW sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\
rF[vEm| k[vEr#vl gwkrn k`ly avm kQrWm s[h` ovEn\ ik\mNQn\m pQtEvhl\ kQrWm
pQlQb[v XWY lAk` w`n`pwQ k`r\y`l smM ekMw\vyn\ a#wQkrg#nWm.
awvryt lk\vR sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\ @b|r`g#nWm sh awvryn\ pQlQb[v prWk\;`kQrWm
s[h` y`n\wYnyn\ a#wQkQrWm. pY`@q\XWy bl{`rWn\ smM ek\v v#d@p`lvlt @g`s\
prWk\;`kQrW@m| sh awvryt lk\v sQtQn XWY l`AkQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\ @b|r`g#nW@m| bly XWY
lAk` w`n`pwQ k`r\y`lvlt lb`qWm.
sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\tq pElEl\ sh ek h` sm`n nWwQ@y\ a`rk\;Nyk\ lb`qWm.
km|kr# vn\qQ, pdQshQw nQv`dE, swQ@y\ nQv`dE qQnyk\ lb`qWm, v#dkrn p#ygNn, pdQ k#pWm|
a#wOlE sQylE kr#NE sm|bn\{@yn\ a@nk\ @s\vkyn\t l#@bn nWwQ@y\ a`vrNy g^h
@s\vQk`vn\tq aq`lvn prQqQ r@t| km|kr# nWwQ sA@X`\{ny kQrWm.
svEqQ ar`bQ@y\, kO@v|t@y\, @lbnn@y\ sh ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\ ax&n\wr ktyEwO
amw&`AX@y\ vQ;yp}yt ayw\vn sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\ sm|bn\{@yn\ ktyEwO kQrW@m|
bly km|kr# am`w&`AXyt pvr`qWm.
gr\xnW ww\w\v prWk\;`v rtt a#wOlEvW@m| sh rFkQy`vk\ kQrWmt sEqEsEkm| l#bW@m| pRr\v
@k`n\@q\sQvlQn\ ivw\@k`t gr\xnW ww\w\vy mw k`n\w`vn\ @n`slk`h#rWmkt lk\@k@rn
sAkYmNQk nWwQ avlAgOkQrWm.

anEgYh`hky` @vns\kQrWm @h`\ rtQn\ pQtvWm s[h` h`m|pEw`@g\ anEm#wQy avX&@k@rn anEgYh
q#k\vWm sm|bn\{ nWwQy sA@X`\{nyt lk\kQrWm.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

106

h`m|pEwOn\ m`r#kQrWmt km|kr#vn\t id sls`qWm : uq`- km|kr#vn\t r@t| rF[WsQtQmQn\m


nWw&`nEkSlv @s\v`q`yky` @vns\kQrWmt avs\}`v s#l@sn prQqQ ek\ @s\v`q`yk@ykOt
pmNk\ aq`l @n`vn an\qmQn\ w`vk`lQk km|kr# vWs` nQkOw\kQrWm.
km|kr#@vkO rtQn\ pQtEvhl\ kQrWm h#r vQkl\pyk\ @n`m#wQ avs\}`vlqW @h`\ @s\vk@ykO ylQ XWY
lAk`vt y`yEwO bv pvsn avs\}`vkqW, h`m|pEw`@g\ anEm#wQ@yn\ @w`rv lb`gw@n`h#kQ
pQtvW@m| vWs` lb`g#nW@m| avX&w`vy avlAgO@k`t ovEn\t h#kQ ik\mNQn\ rtQn\ pQtvWmt
avs\}`v sls`qWm.
g^h @s\vQk`vn\t awvr @k`t r@t| pvwQn nWwQy ul\lAGny krn @s\v`q`ykyn\t sh
rFkQy` e'jn\sQkr#vn\t e@rhQv q#dQ pQyvr g#nWm.
g^h @s\vk
Q `vn\t lQAgQk awvr krn sh phr@qn pEq\glyn\ pQlQb[v prWk\;N pvw\v`
ovEn\t qVEvm| p#mQNvWmt pQyvr g#nWm.
km|kr#vn\@gn\ blhw\k`r@yn\ v#dgn\n` h`m|pEwOn\ sh r@t| pvwQn km|kr# nWwQ
ul\lAGNy krn a@nk\ sQylE@qn`t e@rhQv prWk\;N pvw\v` qVEvm| p#mQNvWmt pQyvr
g#nWm.
a{QkrN pq\{wQ@yn\ shn lb`g#nWm s[h` g^h @s\vQk`vn\t l#@bn avs\}` pElEl\kQrWm.
g^h @s\vQk`vn\t @k@rn awvr h[En`@gn prWk\;N p#v#w\vWm sh ev#nQ avs\}`vlqW
anEgmNy kLyEwO kQYy`m`r\g sm|bn\{@yn\ @p`lQs\ nQl{`rWn\t pEhENEvk\ lb`qWm.
@s\vk
Q `v@g\ k#m#w\@wn\ @w`rv a#y ylQw\ p#rNQ h`m|pEw`tm x`r@n`qW@m| v#qgw\km
pQlQb[v @p`lQs\ sh sAkYmNQk nQl{`rWn\ q#nEvw\ kQrWm. @s\v`q`ykyn\ sh rFkQy`
e'jn\sQkr#vn\t e@rhQ p#mQNQlQ sthn\ krgn\n` a`k`ry pQlQb[v ovEn\t pEhENEvk\
lb`qWm.
XWY lAk` w`n`pwQ k`r\y`ly a#mwWmt ovEn\t a#wQ ayQwQy pQlQb[v aw\ adAgOvt pw\ XWY
l`AkQk sAkYmNQk @s\vkyn\t vh`m q#nEm|qWm sh e' s[h` ovEn\t phsEkm| sls`qWm.
awvr krn h`m|pEwOn\t e@rhQv prWk\;N p#v#w\@vn awrv`r@y\ wvqErtw\ r@t|
rF[WsQtWmt avs\}`v l#@bn prQqQ awvryt lk\vR g^h @s\vQk`vn\@g\ vWs` blpwY
avlAgO@n`kQrWm @h`\ avX&nm| qWr\GkQrWm. vWs` qWr\GkQrWm s[h` ovEn\@gn\ g`s\wOvk\
ay@n`kQrWm. ev#nQ prWk\;N p#v#w\@vn awrv`r@y\ awvryt pw\ k`n\w`vn\ rF[vEm|
k[vEr#vl g`l\@n`kQrWm sh ovEn\t qQgtm rFkQy`vk\ kQrWmt avsrqWm.

107

Human Rights Watch November 2007

phw q#k\@vn kQYy`m`r\g mMQn\ sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\t @k@rn awvr nQrWk\;Ny @k`t
pQyvr g#nW@m| y`n\wYnyn\ vr\{ny kQrWm :
pdQ @n`@gvWm a#wOlE km|kr# XYm sRr`k$m| sh apr`{ sm|bn\{@yn\ phsE@vn\ p#mQNQlQ kQrWm
h#kQvn an\q@m| sh ik\mNQn\ pQyvr g#nW@m| y`n\wYnyn\ nQr\m`Ny kQrWm.
v#d@p`@l\ pvwQn ww\w\vyn\ nQrn\wr@yn\ prWk\;`vt lk\kQrWm. @c`\qn` el\lvW a#wQ
h`m|pEwOn\@g\ nQ@vs\vl ww\w\vy vQms` bl` ev#nQ sAc`ryn\hQqW g^h @s\vQk`vn\@gn\
@vnmm kr#NE vQms` b#lWm.
nWwQy ul\lAGNy krn h`m|pEwOn\t h` pErvsQyn\ sh vQ@q\XWy rFkQy` e'jn\sQkr#vn\t
brpwl qdmEql\ nQym kQrWm. avX&@v|nm| XWY lAk` w`n`pwQ k`r\y`l smM sh@y`\g@yn\
ktyEwO kQrWm.
rtt a#wOlEvWm sh rFkQy`vk\ kQrWm s[h` pRr\v @k`n\@q\sQyk\ vn ec|ayQvW e'd|s\ prWk\;Ny
anQv`r\y @k@rn pYwQpw\wQy avlAgOkQrWm.
sQylEm sAkYmNQk @s\vkyn\@g\ sh ovEn\@g\ pvEl\vl s`m`jQkyn\@g\ ayQwWn\ a`rk\X`kQrW@m|
pYZp\wQyt (sAkYmNQk @s\vkyn\ pQlQb[ pYZp\wQy) sh j`w&n\wr km|kr# sAvQ{`n@y\ a@nk\
pYZp\wQvlt aw\sn\ w#bWm. em pYZp\wWn\t anEkSlv kQYy`kQrWm.
sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\@g\ ww\w\vy pQlQb[v prWk\;`kQrWm s[h` wm rtvl sAc`ry krn @mn\
sAkYmNQkyn\@g\ m`nv ayQwQv`sQkm| sm|bn\{ ek\sw\ j`wWn\@g\ vQ@X\; nQ@y`\jQwy`t a`r`{n` kQrWm.
j`w&n\wr km|kr# sAvQ{`nyt (ILO)
g^h @s\vQk`vn\t lb`qQyyEwO a`qr\X @k`n\wY`w\wOvk\ pYk`Xyt pw\kQrWm. em a`qr\X
@k`n\wYw\wOv ar`bQ, sQAhl sh @qmL x`;`vn\t prQvr\wny@k`t ar`bQ rtvl
@s\vykQrWmt bl`@p`@r`w\wOvn sQylE XWY l`AkQk @s\vkyn\t ey lb`g#nWmt h#kQvn
an\qmQn\ @bq`h#rWm.
j`w&n\wr km|kr# sAvQ{`n@y\ pYmQwWn\ sh km|kr# ayQwWn\ sm|bn\{@yn\ sAkYmNQk
@s\vkyn\t a{&`pnyk\ lb`@qn v#dmElE v&`p\w kQrWm s[h` pY`@q\XWy kn\d`ym| smM ek\v
ktyEwO kQrWm.
j`w&n\wr km|kr# pYmQwWn\t anEv km|kr# nWwQ Xk\wQmw\ kQrWm s[h` aq`l a`N\dEvlt
w`k\;NQk sh x`;` sh`y lb`@qmQn\ ek\v ktyEwO kQrWm.
sAkYmNQkyn\@g\ m`nv ayQwQv`sQkm| sm|bn\{ ek\sw\ j`wWn\@g\ vQ@X\; nQ@y`\jQwy`t
j`w&n\wr nWwy
Q yt@w\ sAkYmNQk km|kr#vn\@g\ ayQwv
Q `sQkm| p#h#qQlv
Q vQs\wrkrmQn\
ihwkW rtvlqW ovEn\ mEhEN@qn ww\w\vyn\ pQlQb[v vQ@X\; v`r\w`vk\ nQkOw\kQrWm.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

108

sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\ mEhEN@qn ww\w\vn\ pQlQb[v vQms` b#lWm pQNQs XWY lAk`@v|,
svEqQ ar`bQ@y\, kO@v|t@y\ sh/@h`\ ek\sw\ ar`bQ emWr\ r`j&@y\ sAc`ry@k`t aq`l
pYwQsAs\krN s[h` nQr\@q\X iqQrQpw\ kQrWm.
jp`n j`w&n\wr sh@y`\gQw` a`ywny (JICA) a`sQy`nE sAvr\{n b#AkOv (ADB) @l`\k
b#AkOv, j`w&n\wr sAvr\{ny s[h`vR ek\sw\ jnpq e'jn\sQy (USAID) sh j`w&n\wr
sAvr\{ny s[h`vR s\vWdn sh@y`\gQw` a`ywny (SIDA) a#wOlE XWY lAk`vt a`{`rkrn
a`ywnvlt :
sAkYmNQk g^h @s\vQk`vn\ @vnE@vn\ kQYy`krn @q\XWy r`j& @n`vn sAvQ{`nvlt sh sQvQl\
sm`j up@q\XN a`ywnvlt q#nt vd` mRl& sh w`k\;NQk a`{`r lb`qWm.
sAkYmNyvWmt bl`@p`@r`w\wOvn k`n\w`vn\@g\ vQyqm| pQyv`g#nWm s[h` shnq`yk @p`lW
anEp`wQk yt@w\ Ny lb`@qn kOd` prQm`N Ny shn @s\v`vn\t anEgYhy q#k\vWm.
XWY lAk`@v| k`n\w`vn\ sh q#rQyn\ @vnE@vn\ a{&`pn v#dsthn\, v^w\wWy pEhENE
v#dsthn\, rFkQy` pEhENEv v#nQ XWY lAk`v wOl kQYy`w\mkvn g^h @s\vQk`vn\t rFkQy`
sm|p`qny kQrW@m| qQgOk`lWn v&`p^wWn\t mRl& anEgYhy q#k\vWm.
ylQ sQyrt p#mQNQ sAkYmNQk k`n\w`vn\t qQgOk`lWn s\vyA rFkQy` sh kOd` prQm`N
kr\m`n\w a#rBWm s[h` kOd` prQm`N Ny lb`qW@m| v#dsthn\vlt mRl&`{`r lb`qWm.

109

Human Rights Watch November 2007

VII. s\wOwQy
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sh uwOr# apQYk`nE aAX@y\ kQYs\@t`f\ vQl\k\ sh nqQm| hvErQ, a`sQy`nE aAX@y\ c`r# lw` @h`g\, nWwQ
sh pYwQpw\wQ pQlQb[ a{&k\; @j\m|s\ @r`s\ sh v#dsthn\ k`r\y`l@y\ nQ@y`\j& a{&k\; a#n\d^
@m`\sn\ @mm v`r\w`@v| gON@q`s\ vQms` b#lRh. @r\Xl\ j#@k`b|sn\, emQlQ a#ln\, an\@qYy` @h`lQ,
@h`@s\ m`tQ@ns\ sh fQt|s\ @r`\yQ @hp\kQn\s\ v`r\w`v pYk`Xyt pw\kQrWm s[h` w`k\;NQk q`ykw\vy
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@mm pr\@y\;N@y\qW nn\ ayErQn\ upk`rkL vQX`l pQrQskt sh sAvQ{`nvlt hQyEmn\ ryQt|s\ @v`c|
sAvQ{`ny wm s\wOwQy pEqkryQ. sm|mEK s`kc|C` sAvQ{`ny kQrWm s[h` sh`yvWm, aq`l pQrQs\
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s#mE@vl\ sh @s\p`lQ @k`\t|@t@g`d, sAkYmNQk km|kr#vn\ s[h`vR kQYy`k`rW j`l@y\ ... vylt|
@p@r\r`, XWYlw` a`rQyrw\n, a#n\@jl` @s`yErQy, im#kQyE@l\t| @s`yErQy, sAkYmNQk @s\vQk`vn\ s[h`vR
sAvQ{`n@y\ kl`pWy sAvQ{`ykyn\ vn f`wQm`, in\qY`nQ, cn\qY`, lk\;\mW, am`lQ, @sl\lqE@ryQ,
r`j\kOm`r\, hn\sm`l`, sh mAglQk` yn sQylE@qn`@g\ q`ykw\vy apQ vQ@X\;@yn\ agy krmE. XWY
lAk` vQ@q\X @s\v` nQyEk\wQ k`r\y`AX@y\ el\ @k\ r#hEN@g\ sh a@n`\m` r`mn`ykt ap vQ@X\; s\wOwQy
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q`ykw\vyq s[hn\ kLyEwOy.
@mm v`r\w`v sks\kQrWm s[h` ap smM wm aw\q#kWm| @hlQkQrWmt ekMvR k`n\w`vn\ vQX`l pQrQst
a@p\ q#dQ k^wZw`vy plkrn\@nmE. @mm v`r\w`v pYk`Xyt pw\krn\nt apt avs\}`v s#lsE@n\
wm aw\q#kWm| @hlQkQrWmt ovEn\ k#m#w\w plkL nQs`@vnQ.
@mm v`r\w`v sks\kQrWm s[h` mRl&`{`r lb`qEn\ a`r\@k\dQy`, @m`\rQy` armEql, o|k\ pqnm,
s\@t|Ysn\d| pqnm, b#n\kQ l` @r`k\ pqnm, ;Rnr\ pqnm, @j\@k`b| sh hQl\d` b|@l`\s\@tyQn\ pqnm,
@fY`g\ @kY`s\sQn\ pqnm, k`n\w`vn\ s[h`vR cQk`@g`\ pqnm, g^^br\ pvEl\ pqnm sh k`n\w`
ayQwQv`sQkm| aAX@y\ up@q\Xk kmQtEvt hQyEmn\ ryQt|s\ @v`c| sAvQ{`n@y\ k`n\w` ayQwQv`sQkm| aAXy
k^wZw`vy plkryQ.

wmkhkh fldg wmyrKhg bvyeu

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