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A.P.

STATISTICS FORMULA SHEET


(I) Descriptive Statistics
i

(II)

Probability

x x=
n

P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B) P(A | B) = P(A B) P(B)

sx =

1 (xi x)2 n 1

E(X) = X = xi pi
2 Var(X) = X = (xi X )2 pi

sp =

(n1 1)s12 + (n2 1)s2 2 (n1 1) + (n2 1)

If X has a binomial distribution with parameters n and p, then: n P(X = k) = p k (1 p)n k k

$ y = bo + b1 x

b1 =

(x x)(y y) (x x)
i i 2 i

X = np X = np(1 p)

b0 = y b1 x

r=

x x y y 1 is is n 1 x y

= p p
= p
p(1 p) n

b1 = r

sy sx

If x is the mean of a random sample of size n from an infinite population with mean and standard deviation , then:
2

$ (y y )
i i

x = x = n

sb1 =

(xi x )2

n2

A.P. STATISTICS FORMULA SHEET


(III) Inferential Statistics

Standardized test statistic: (statistic parameter) / (standard deviation of statistic) Confidence interval: statistic (critical value) (standard deviation of statistic) Single Sample
Statistic Sample Mean Sample Proportion Standard Deviation of Statistic

p(1 p) n Two-Sample

Statistic Difference of sample means

Standard Deviation of Statistic

Special case when

Difference of sample proportions

p1 (1 p1 ) p2 (1 p2 ) + n1 n2 Special case when p1 = p2 p(1 p) 1 1 + n1 n2

Chi-square ( 2 ) test statistic =

(observed exp ected)2 exp ected