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-D cac may may tinh co th lin lac voi nhau qua mang, chung phai su dung cung 1

ngn ngu hay con goi la 1 giao thuc (Protocol). Giao thuc la 1 h lut va chun cho phep
cac may tinh trong mang lin lac voi nhau.
-TCP/IP la vit tt cua Transmission Control Protocol (Giao thuc Diu Khin Truyn
Thng) / Internet Protocol (Giao thuc Internet).
-TCP/IP khng chi gm 2 giao thuc ma thuc t no la tp hop cua nhiu giao thuc. Chung
ta goi do la 1 H Giao Thuc hay B Giao Thuc (Suite OI Protocols). Bai vit chung ta s
tp trung vao B Giao Thuc nay.

-D cho cac may tinh trao di du liu voi nhau TCP/IP su dung m hinh truyn thng 4
tng hay con goi la M Hinh DoD (M hinh cua B Quc Phong M). Cac tng trong m
hinh nay la (Theo thu tu tu trn xung):
Tng Ung Dung (Application Layer)
Tng Giao Vn (Transport Layer)
Tng Lin Mang (Internet Layer)
Tng Giao Din Mang (Network Interface Layer)
- Mi giao thuc cua Ho TCP/IP du thuc 1 trong cac tng nay. Ta s cung tim hiu tung
tng .
1.Tng Giao Din Mang (Network InterIace Layer):
- Tng Giao Din Mang co trach nhim dua du liu toi va nhn du liu tu phuong tin
truyn dn. Tng nay gm cac thit bi phn cung vt li chng han nhu Card Mang va Cap
Mang.
- 1 Card Mang chng han card Ethernet chua 1 s HEX 12 ki tu (00-18-37-03-C0-F4)
duoc goi la Dia Chi MAC (Media Access Control) hay Dia Chi Truy Nhp Phuong Tin .
MAC dong vai tro quan trong trong vic gan dia chi va truyn du liu.
- 1 s giao thuc tiu biu thuc tng nay gm :
+ ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
+ Ethernet
+ Token Ring
+ FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
+ Frame Relay
2.Tng Lin Mang (Internet Layer):
- Nm bn trn tng giao din mang. Tng nay co chuc nng gan dia chi, dong goi va
dinh tuyn (Route) du liu. 4 giao thuc quan trong nht trong tng nay gm:
IP (Internet Protocol): Co chuc nng gan dia chi cho du liu truoc khi truyn va dinh
tuyn chung toi dich.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol): Co chuc nng bin dich dia chi IP cua may dich
thanh dia chi MAC.
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol): Co chuc nng thng bao li trong truong
hop truyn du liu bi hong.
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol): Co chuc nng diu khin truyn da
huong (Multicast)
3.Tng Giao Vn (Transport Layer):
- Co trach nhim thit lp phin truyn thng giua cac may tinh va quy dinh cach truyn
du liu. 2 giao thuc chinh trong tng nay gm:
UDP (User Datagram Protocol): Con goi la Giao Thuc Goi Nguoi Dung. UDP cung
cp cac knh truyn thng phi kt ni nn no khng dam bao truyn du liu 1 cach tin
cy. Cac ung dung dung UDP thuong chi truyn nhung goi co kich thuoc nho, d tin cy
du liu phu thuc vao tung ung dung
+ TCP (Transmission Control Protocol): Nguoc lai voi UDP, TCP cung cp cac knh
truyn thng huong kt ni va dam bao truyn du liu 1 cach tin cy. TCP thuong truyn
cac goi tin co kich thuoc lon va yu cu phia nhn xac nhn v cac goi tin d nhn.
4.Tng Ung Dung (Application Layer):
- Gm nhiu giao thuc cung cp cho cac ung dung nguoi dung. Duoc su dung d dinh
dang va trao di thng tin nguoi dung. 1 s giao thuc thng dung trong tng nay la:
+ DHCP (Dynamic Host ConIiguration Protocol): Giao Thuc Cu Hinh Tram Dng
DNS (Domain Name System): H Thng Tn Min
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): Giao Thuc Quan Ly Mang Don Gian
FTP (File TransIer Protocol): Giao Thuc Truyn Tp Tin
TFTP (Trivial File TransIer Protocol): Giao Thuc Truyn Tp Tin Binh Thuong
SMTP (Simple Mail TransIer Protocol): Giao Thuc Truyn Thu Don Gian
+ TELNET