This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**shape the laser beam by using lenses and other optical elements. In
**

general, laser-beam propagation can be approximated by assum-

ing that the laser beam has an ideal Gaussian intensity profile,

corresponding to the theoretical TEM

00

mode. Coherent Gaussian

beams have peculiar transformation properties that require special

consideration. In order to select the best optics for a particular laser

application, it is important to understand the basic properties of

Gaussian beams. Unfortunately, the output from real-life lasers is

not truly Gaussian (although helium neon lasers and argon-ion

lasers are a very close approximation). To accommodate this variance,

a quality factor, M

2

(called the “M-square” factor), has been defined

to describe the deviation of the laser beam from a theoretical

Gaussian. For a theoretical Gaussian, M

2

=1; for a real laser beam,

M

2

>1. Helium neon lasers typically have an M

2

factor that is less

than 1.1. For ion lasers, the M

2

factor is typically between 1.1 and

1.3. Collimated TEM

00

diode laser beams usually have an M

2

factor

ranging from 1.1 to 1.7. For high-energy multimode lasers, the M

2

factor can be as high as 3 or 4. In all cases, the M

2

factor, which

varies significantly, affects the characteristics of a laser beam and

cannot be neglected in optical designs.

In the following discussion, we will first treat the characteristics

of a theoretical Gaussian beam (M

2

= 1) and then show how these

characteristics change as the beam deviates from the theoretical. In

all cases, a circularly symmetric wavefront is assumed, as would be

the case for a helium neon laser or an argon-ion laser. Diode laser

beams are asymmetric and often astigmatic, which causes their

transformation to be more complex.

Although in some respects component design and tolerancing

for lasers are more critical than they are for conventional optical

components, the designs often tend to be simpler since many of

the constants associated with imaging systems are not present. For

instance, laser beams are nearly always used on axis, which eliminates

the need to correct asymmetric aberration. Chromatic aberrations

are of no concern in single-wavelength lasers, although they are

critical for some tunable and multiline laser applications. In fact, the

only significant aberration in most single-wavelength applications

is primary (third-order) spherical aberration.

Scatter from surface defects, inclusions, dust, or damaged coat-

ings is of greater concern in laser-based systems than in incoherent

systems. Speckle content arising from surface texture and beam

coherence can limit system performance.

Because laser light is generated coherently, it is not subject to

some of the limitations normally associated with incoherent sources.

All parts of the wavefront act as if they originate from the same

point, and consequently the emergent wavefront can be precisely

defined. Starting out with a well-defined wavefront permits more

precise focusing and control of the beam than would otherwise be

possible.

In order to gain an appreciation of the principles and limitations

of Gaussian beam optics, it is necessary to understand the nature of

the laser output beam. In TEM

00

mode, the beam emitted from a laser

is a perfect plane wave with a Gaussian transverse irradiance profile

as shown in figure 2.1. The Gaussian shape is truncated at some

diameter either by the internal dimensions of the laser or by some

limiting aperture in the optical train. To specify and discuss propa-

gation characteristics of a laser beam, we must define its diameter

in some way. The commonly adopted definition is the diameter at

which the beam irradiance (intensity) has fallen to 1/e

2

(13.5%) of its

peak, or axial, value.

BEAM WAIST AND DIVERGENCE

Diffraction causes light waves to spread transversely as they

propagate, and it is therefore impossible to have a perfectly collimated

beam. The spreading of a laser beam is in precise accord with the

predictions of pure diffraction theory; aberration is totally insignif-

icant in the present context. Under quite ordinary circumstances,

the beam spreading can be so small it can go unnoticed. The fol-

lowing formulas accurately describe beam spreading, making it

easy to see the capabilities and limitations of laser beams. The

notation is consistent with much of the laser literature, particularly

with Siegman’s excellent Introduction to Lasers and Masers

(McGraw-Hill).

Introduction to Gaussian Beam Optics

F

u

n

d

a

m

e

n

t

a

l

O

p

t

i

c

s

M

a

t

e

r

i

a

l

P

r

o

p

e

r

t

i

e

s

O

p

t

i

c

a

l

S

p

e

c

i

f

i

c

a

t

i

o

n

s

G

a

u

s

s

i

a

n

B

e

a

m

O

p

t

i

c

s

O

p

t

i

c

a

l

C

o

a

t

i

n

g

s

2.2 1 Visit Us OnLine! www.mellesgriot.com

Figure 2.1 Irradiance profile of a Gaussian TEM

00

mode

13.5

CONTOUR RADIUS

41.5w 1.5w

20

40

60

80

100

4w 0 w

P

E

R

C

E

N

T

I

R

R

A

D

I

A

N

C

E

Chpt. 2 Final 7/30/99 4:59 PM Page 2.2

Visit Us Online! www.mellesgriot.com 12.3

where z is the distance propagated from the plane where the wavefront

is flat, l is the wavelength of light, w

0

is the radius of

the 1/e

2

irradiance contour at the plane where the wavefront is flat, w(z)

is the radius of the 1/e

2

contour after the wave has propagated a

distance z, and R(z) is the wavefront radius of curvature after

propagating a distance z. R(z) is infinite at z = 0, passes through

a minimum at some finite z, and rises again toward infinity as

z is further increased, asymptotically approaching the value of z itself.

The plane z = 0 marks the location of a Gaussian waist, or a place

where the wavefront is flat, and w

0

is called the beam waist radius.

A waist occurs naturally at the midplane of a symmetric confocal

cavity. Another waist occurs at the surface of the planar mirror

of the quasi-hemispherical cavity used in many Melles Griot lasers.

The irradiance distribution of the Gaussian TEM

00

beam,

namely,

F

u

n

d

a

m

e

n

t

a

l

O

p

t

i

c

s

G

a

u

s

s

i

a

n

B

e

a

m

O

p

t

i

c

s

O

p

t

i

c

a

l

S

p

e

c

i

f

i

c

a

t

i

o

n

s

M

a

t

e

r

i

a

l

P

r

o

p

e

r

t

i

e

s

O

p

t

i

c

a

l

C

o

a

t

i

n

g

s

R(z) = z 1 +

w

z

and

w(z) = w

z

w

0

2

0

0

2

p

l

l

p

j

(

,

\

,

(

,

¸

,

,

,

]

]

]

]

]

+

j

(

,

\

,

(

,

¸

,

,

]

]

]

]

2

2

1 2

1

/

Even if a Gaussian TEM

00

laser-beam wavefront were made

perfectly flat at some plane, with all elements moving in precisely

parallel directions, it would quickly acquire curvature and begin

spreading in accordance with

where w = w(z) and P is the total power in the beam, is the same

at all cross sections of the beam. The invariance of the form of the

distribution is a special consequence of the presumed Gaussian

distribution at z = 0. If a uniform irradiance distribution had been

presumed at z = 0, the pattern at z = ∞would have been the familiar

Airy disc pattern given by a Bessel function, while the pattern at

intermediate z values would have been enormously complicated. (See

Born and Wolf, Principles of Optics, 2d ed, Pergamon/ Macmillan).

Simultaneously, as R(z) asymptotically approaches z for large

z, w(z) asymptotically approaches the value

where z is presumed to be much larger than pw

0

/l so that the 1/e

2

irradiance contours asymptotically approach a cone of angular

radius

This value is the far-field angular radius of the Gaussian TEM

00

beam. The vertex of the cone lies at the center of the waist (see

figure 2.2).

It is important to note that, for a given value of l, variations of

beam diameter and divergence with distance z are functions of a

single parameter. This is often chosen to be w

0

, or the beam waist

radius.

The direct relationship between beam waist and divergence

(v ∝1/w

0

) must always be considered when focusing a TEM

00

laser

beam. Because of this relationship, the spectrally selective coating

of the spherical output mirror of a Melles Griot laser is actually sup-

ported on the concave inner surface of a weak meniscus lens. In

this paraxial, high f-number configuration, the lens introduces no

significant aberration. A new beam waist, larger than the intra-

cavity beam waist, is formed by this lens near its output pupil. The

transformed beam has greatly reduced divergence, which is

advantageous for most applications. Note that it is the 1/e

2

beam

diameter of this extracavity waist that is published in this catalog.

As an example to illustrate the relationship between beam waist

and divergence, let us consider the real case of a Melles Griot red

5-mW HeNe laser, 05 LHR 151, with a specified beam diameter of

0.8 mm (i.e., w

0

= 0.4 mm). In the far-field region,

I (r) = I e =

2P

w

e

0

2r w

2

2r w

2 2 2 2

4 4 / /

,

p

w(z)

z

w

0

≅

l

p

v

l

p

=

w(z)

z

=

w

0

.

w

w0

w0

z

w

0

1

e

2

irradiance surface

v

a

sy

m

p

to

tic co

n

e

Figure 2.2 Growth in 1/e

2

contour radius with distance

propagated away from Gaussian waist

(2.2)

(2.1)

(2.3)

(2.4)

(2.5)

Using the asymptotic approximation, at a distance of z = 100 m,

v

p p

=

w

=

632.8

( (0.4)

= 5.04 10 rad.

0

6

4

l ×

×

10

5

5

)

w(z) = z

= (10 5.04 10

= 50.4 mm

5 4

v

)( ) ×

4

which is approximately 126 times larger than w

0

.

Chpt. 2 Final 9/2/99 4:07 PM Page 2.3

2.4 1 Visit Us OnLine! www.mellesgriot.com

For the expanded beam, the ratio w(z)/w

0

is only a factor of 12.6

for a distance of 100 m, but it is a factor of 126 for the same distance

when the laser is used alone.

graphically in figure 2.4. If we put this value for w

0

(optimum) back

into the expression for w(z), w(z) = √}} 2 w

0

. Thus, for this example,

w(100) = √}} 2 (4.48) = 6.3 mm.

By turning this previous equation around, we can define a

distance, called the Rayleigh range (z

R

), over which the beam radius

spreads by a factor of √}} 2 as

If we use beam-expanding optics (such as the 09 LBC, 09 LBX,

09 LBZ, or 09 LCM series), which allow us to adjust the position

of the beam waist, we can actually double the distance over which

beam divergence is minimized. Figure 2.5 illustrates this situation,

in which the beam starts off at a value of w(z

R

) = (2lz /p)

1/2

, goes

through a minimum value of w

0

= w(z

R

)/√}} 2 , and then returns to

w(z

R

). By focusing the beam-expanding optics to place the beam

waist at the midpoint, we can restrict beam spread to a factor of √}} 2

over a distance of 2z

R

, as opposed to just z

R

.

This result can now be used in the problem of finding the starting

beam radius that yields the minimum beam diameter and beam

spread over 100 m. Using 2z

R

= 100, or z

R

= 50, and l= 632.8 nm,

we get a value of w(z

R

) = (2lz /p)

1/2

= 4.5 mm, and w

0

= 3.2 mm.

Thus, the optimum starting beam radius is the same as previously

calculated. However, by focusing the expander we achieve a final

beam radius that is no larger than our starting beam radius, while

still maintaining the √}} 2 factor in overall variation.

Alternately, if we started off with a beam radius of 6.3 mm

(√}} 2 w

0

), we could focus the expander to provide a beam waist of

w

0

= 4.5 mm at 100 m, and a final beam radius of 6.3 mm at 200 m.

F

u

n

d

a

m

e

n

t

a

l

O

p

t

i

c

s

M

a

t

e

r

i

a

l

P

r

o

p

e

r

t

i

e

s

O

p

t

i

c

a

l

S

p

e

c

i

f

i

c

a

t

i

o

n

s

G

a

u

s

s

i

a

n

B

e

a

m

O

p

t

i

c

s

O

p

t

i

c

a

l

C

o

a

t

i

n

g

s

OPTIMUMCOLLIMATION

Typically, one has a fixed value for w

0

and uses the previously given

expression to calculate w(z) for an input value of z. However, one can

also utilize this equation to see how final beam radius varies with start-

ing beam radius at a fixed distance, z. Figure 2.4 shows the Gaussian

beam propagation equation plotted as a function of w

0

, with the

particular values of l = 632.8 nm and z = 100 m.

The beam radius at 100 m reaches a minimum value for a starting

beam radius of about 4.5 mm. Therefore, if we wanted to achieve

the best combination of minimum beam diameter and minimum

beam spread (or best collimation) over a distance of 100 m, our

optimum starting beam radius would be 4.5 mm. Any other starting

value would result in a larger beam at z = 100 m.

We can find the general expression for the optimum starting

beam radius for a given distance, z. Doing so yields

Using this optimum value of w

0

will provide the best combina-

tion of minimum starting beam diameter and minimum beam

spread (ratio of w(z)/w

0

) over the distance z. The previous example

of z = 100 and l=632.8 nm gives w

0

(optimum) = 4.48 mm, shown

STARTING BEAM RADIUS w0 (mm)

F

I

N

A

L

B

E

A

M

R

A

D

I

U

S

(

m

m

)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0

20

40

60

80

100

Figure 2.4 Beam radius at 100 m as a function of starting

beam radius for a HeNe laser at 632.8 nm

w (optimum) =

z

0

1/2

l

p

.

(2.6)

Figure 2.3 Laser beam expander 09 LBM 013 (reversed

telescope)

w(z) =

(10

= 5.04 mm.

5 4

)( . ) 5 04 10

10

×

5

Suppose instead that we decide to reduce the divergence

by directing the laser into a beam expander (reversed telescope)

of angular magnification m = 10, such as Melles Griot model

09 LBM013 (figure 2.3). Consider the case in which the expander

is focused to form a waist of radius w

0

= 4.0 mm at the expander

output lens. Since v ∝ 1/w

0

, by definition, v is reduced by a factor

of 10; therefore, for z = 100 m,

z =

w

with

w(z w

R

0

2

R 0

p

l

) . = 2

(2.7)

Chpt. 2 Final 7/30/99 4:59 PM Page 2.4

Visit Us Online! www.mellesgriot.com 12.5

INCORPORATING M

2

INTO THE BASIC EQUATIONS

The following discussion is taken from the analysis by Sun [Haiyin

Sun, “Thin Lens Equation for a Real Laser Beam with Weak Lens

Aperture Truncation,” Opt. Eng. 37, no. 11 (November 1998)]. From

equation 2.5 we see that, for a theoretical Gaussian beam, the small-

est possible value of the radius-divergence product is

w

0

v = l/p.

For a real laser beam, we have

w

0M

v

M

= M

2

l/p >l/p

where w

0M

and v

M

are the 1/e

2

intensity waist radius and the far-

field half-divergent angle of the real laser beam, respectively, and

M

2

factors into equations 2.1 and 2.2 as follows:

w

M

(z) = w

0M

[1+(zlM

2

/pw

0M

2

)

2

]

1/2

R

M

(z) = z[1+(pw

0M

2

/zlM

2

)

2

]

where w

M

and R

M

are the 1/e

2

intensity radius of the beam and the

beam wavefront radius at z, respectively.

The definition for the Rayleigh range (equation 2.7) remains

the same for a real laser beam and becomes

z

R

= pw

0R

2

/l.

Together, equations 2.9, 2.10, and 2.11 form a complete set to

denote the input of a real laser beam into a thin lens.

F

u

n

d

a

m

e

n

t

a

l

O

p

t

i

c

s

G

a

u

s

s

i

a

n

B

e

a

m

O

p

t

i

c

s

O

p

t

i

c

a

l

S

p

e

c

i

f

i

c

a

t

i

o

n

s

M

a

t

e

r

i

a

l

P

r

o

p

e

r

t

i

e

s

O

p

t

i

c

a

l

C

o

a

t

i

n

g

s

beam expander

w

0

zR zR

w(–zR) = √2w0

w(zR) = √2w0

Figure 2.5 Focusing a beam expander to minimize beam

radius and spread over a specified distance

(2.8)

(2.9)

(2.10)

(2.11)

Melles Griot manufactures many types of lasers and

laser systems for laboratory and OEM applications.

These, along with a wide variety of laser accessories, are

found in Chapter 41 through 47. Laser types include

helium neon (HeNe) and helium cadmium (HeCd) lasers;

argon, krypton, and mixed gas (argon/krypton) ion

lasers; diode lasers, and diode-pumped solid-state

(DPSS) lasers.

LASERS AND LASER SYSTEMS

Chpt. 2 Final 9/2/99 4:05 PM Page 2.5

This is often chosen to be w0. /w 2 = 2P pw 2 e42r 2 / w2 . The irradiance distribution of the Gaussian TEM00 beam. or the beam waist radius. with a specified beam diameter of 0. Simultaneously. In the far-field region. The transformed beam has greatly reduced divergence. w0 is the radius of the 1/e2 irradiance contour at the plane where the wavefront is flat. The plane z = 0 marks the location of a Gaussian waist. A waist occurs naturally at the midplane of a symmetric confocal cavity.5) z w0 Optical Coatings Figure 2.2). w0 = 0. is the same at all cross sections of the beam. (See Born and Wolf.2) where z is the distance propagated from the plane where the wavefront is flat. passes through a minimum at some finite z.4 mm). it would quickly acquire curvature and begin spreading in accordance with p w2 0 R(z) = z 1 + lz and 2 This value is the far-field angular radius of the Gaussian TEM00 beam. w(z) = zv = (10 5 )(5.com 1 2. Note that it is the 1/e2 beam diameter of this extracavity waist that is published in this catalog. R(z) is infinite at z = 0. As an example to illustrate the relationship between beam waist and divergence.mellesgriot.4) = 5. at a distance of z = 100 m. let us consider the real case of a Melles Griot red 5-mW HeNe laser.8 × 1056 (p)(0. l is the wavelength of light. Pergamon/ Macmillan).Fundamental Optics Even if a Gaussian TEM00 laser-beam wavefront were made perfectly flat at some plane.1) Gaussian Beam Optics 2 lz w(z) = w 0 1 + 2 p w0 (2. I (r) = I 0e42r 2 Optical Specifications Using the asymptotic approximation. for a given value of l.8 mm (i.3) where w = w(z) and P is the total power in the beam. 2d ed. w(z) is the radius of the 1/e2 contour after the wave has propagated a distance z. and R(z) is the wavefront radius of curvature after propagating a distance z. and w0 is called the beam waist radius. and rises again toward infinity as z is further increased. If a uniform irradiance distribution had been presumed at z = 0. Principles of Optics. v = l pw0 = 632. 05 LHR 151.4 mm which is approximately 126 times larger than w0. It is important to note that. The vertex of the cone lies at the center of the waist (see figure 2. 1/ 2 (2. In this paraxial. as R(z) asymptotically approaches z for large z. which is advantageous for most applications. or a place where the wavefront is flat. A new beam waist. Because of this relationship. high f-number configuration.04 × 1044 ) = 50. the spectrally selective coating of the spherical output mirror of a Melles Griot laser is actually supported on the concave inner surface of a weak meniscus lens.e. The invariance of the form of the distribution is a special consequence of the presumed Gaussian distribution at z = 0.. the lens introduces no significant aberration.4) w w0 w0 1 irradiance surface e2 p asym v totic cone where z is presumed to be much larger than pw0/l so that the 1/e2 irradiance contours asymptotically approach a cone of angular radius v = w(z) z = l p w0 . (2. (2. with all elements moving in precisely parallel directions. Another waist occurs at the surface of the planar mirror of the quasi-hemispherical cavity used in many Melles Griot lasers. while the pattern at intermediate z values would have been enormously complicated. is formed by this lens near its output pupil.3 . w(z) asymptotically approaches the value w(z) ≅ lz p w0 Material Properties (2. The direct relationship between beam waist and divergence (v ∝ 1/w0) must always be considered when focusing a TEM00 laser beam. asymptotically approaching the value of z itself.2 Growth in 1/e2 contour radius with distance propagated away from Gaussian waist Visit Us Online! www. namely.04 × 1054 rad. variations of beam diameter and divergence with distance z are functions of a single parameter. larger than the intracavity beam waist. the pattern at z = ∞ would have been the familiar Airy disc pattern given by a Bessel function.

. or 09 LCM series). over which the beam radius spreads by a factor of √}} as 2 zR = pw2 0 l 2w0 . which allow us to adjust the position of the beam waist. but it is a factor of 126 for the same distance when the laser is used alone. shown 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 STARTING BEAM RADIUS w0 (mm) Optical Coatings Figure 2. for z = 100 m.4 Beam radius at 100 m as a function of starting beam radius for a HeNe laser at 632.4.4 1 Visit Us OnLine! www. Using 2zR = 100.3 Laser beam expander 09 LBM 013 (reversed telescope) Figure 2. (2.5 mm at 100 m.3). and w0 = 3. z. or zR = 50. Since v ∝ 1/w0. and l = 632. we can restrict beam spread to a factor of √}} 2 over a distance of 2zR. However. 09 LBX. 2 By turning this previous equation around. by focusing the expander we achieve a final beam radius that is no larger than our starting beam radius. with w(z R ) = For the expanded beam.3 mm. If we put this value for w0 (optimum) back into the expression for w(z).8 nm gives w0 (optimum) = 4.2 mm.8 nm. Therefore. This result can now be used in the problem of finding the starting beam radius that yields the minimum beam diameter and beam spread over 100 m.4 shows the Gaussian beam propagation equation plotted as a function of w0. in which the beam starts off at a value of w(zR) = (2lz /p)1/2. w(z) = (10 )(5. Figure 2. z. 2 w(100) = √}} (4. we can actually double the distance over which beam divergence is minimized. we could focus the expander to provide a beam waist of 2 w0 = 4.48 mm. However. we can define a distance. 2 Alternately. by definition.5 mm.Fundamental Optics Suppose instead that we decide to reduce the divergence by directing the laser into a beam expander (reversed telescope) of angular magnification m = 10.0 mm at the expander output lens. for this example.3 mm at 200 m. w(z) = √}} w0. the ratio w(z)/w0 is only a factor of 12. if we wanted to achieve the best combination of minimum beam diameter and minimum beam spread (or best collimation) over a distance of 100 m. (2.48) = 6. such as Melles Griot model 09 LBM 013 (figure 2.8 nm 2. the optimum starting beam radius is the same as previously calculated. goes through a minimum value of w0 = w(zR)/√}} . if we started off with a beam radius of 6.com . OPTIMUM COLLIMATION Typically. 09 LBZ. called the Rayleigh range (zR). our optimum starting beam radius would be 4.8 nm and z = 100 m.5 illustrates this situation. as opposed to just zR. The previous example of z = 100 and l=632. Doing so yields lz w 0 (optimum) = p 1/2 Optical Specifications If we use beam-expanding optics (such as the 09 LBC. while still maintaining the √}} factor in overall variation. We can find the general expression for the optimum starting beam radius for a given distance.mellesgriot.5 mm. and then returns to 2 w(zR). Any other starting value would result in a larger beam at z = 100 m. Thus. one has a fixed value for w0 and uses the previously given expression to calculate w(z) for an input value of z. The beam radius at 100 m reaches a minimum value for a starting beam radius of about 4. Consider the case in which the expander is focused to form a waist of radius w0 = 4. with the particular values of l = 632.5 mm.04 × 10 10 5 54 graphically in figure 2.6 for a distance of 100 m.6) Material Properties FINAL BEAM RADIUS (mm) Using this optimum value of w0 will provide the best combination of minimum starting beam diameter and minimum beam spread (ratio of w(z)/w0) over the distance z. we get a value of w(zR) = (2lz /p)1/2 = 4.04 mm. By focusing the beam-expanding optics to place the beam waist at the midpoint. therefore. and a final beam radius of 6. Figure 2. one can also utilize this equation to see how final beam radius varies with starting beam radius at a fixed distance.3 mm (√}} w0 ). Thus. v is reduced by a factor of 10.7) Gaussian Beam Optics ) = 5.

and M2 factors into equations 2. we have w0MvM = M2l/p >l/p (2. “Thin Lens Equation for a Real Laser Beam with Weak Lens Aperture Truncation.” Opt. For a real laser beam.mellesgriot. along with a wide variety of laser accessories. 2.7) remains the same for a real laser beam and becomes zR = pw0R2/l. and 2. 37.5 Focusing a beam expander to minimize beam radius and spread over a specified distance INCORPORATING M2 INTO THE BASIC EQUATIONS The following discussion is taken from the analysis by Sun [Haiyin Sun. equations 2. From equation 2. and mixed gas (argon/krypton) ion lasers.com 1 2. diode lasers. (2.9) Material Properties (2. and diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) lasers. are found in Chapter 41 through 47. Optical Specifications where w0M and vM are the 1/e2 intensity waist radius and the farfield half-divergent angle of the real laser beam.9.10. These. the smallest possible value of the radius-divergence product is w0v = l/p. Laser types include helium neon (HeNe) and helium cadmium (HeCd) lasers. respectively. Optical Coatings Visit Us Online! www. no. The definition for the Rayleigh range (equation 2.10) where wM and RM are the 1/e2 intensity radius of the beam and the beam wavefront radius at z. argon. Eng.8) Melles Griot manufactures many types of lasers and laser systems for laboratory and OEM applications.5 .11) Together. for a theoretical Gaussian beam. 11 (November 1998)]. respectively.1 and 2.2 as follows: wM(z) = w0M[1+(zlM2/pw0M2)2]1/2 RM(z) = z[1+(pw0M2/zlM2)2] (2.11 form a complete set to denote the input of a real laser beam into a thin lens.Fundamental Optics w0 beam expander LASERS AND LASER SYSTEMS w(–zR) = √2w0 w(zR) = √2w0 zR Gaussian Beam Optics zR Figure 2.5 we see that. krypton.

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Untitled
- 2007 Chugui Optical Measuring Systems and Laser Technologies for Scientific and Industrial Applications
- Laser II Nd BPT_3rd Class
- physics laser and fiber optic
- Laser
- Datasheet 8014 Speedy500 En
- Biophysics of Lasers - Part II
- Pioneer CDJ 800MK2.Service
- 165 - Hidden Government Scanners
- 7_phy_light
- A.M.R.P. Bopegedera et al- Laser Spectroscopy of Calcium and Strontium Monoacetylides
- MTME1
- Laser Driven Plasma
- Beam Reducers
- D.G. Papazoglou et al- Sub-picosecond ultraviolet laser filamentation-induced bulk modifications in fused silica
- Angel Wars Light vs Dark
- Istsemlasers
- Quantum transients
- r05010103 Engineering Physics
- A Wavelength-Tunable Optical Transmitter Using
- Laser Cutting410 39553
- Laser Ship Communications
- Tugas Translate OPTO
- pmr-v46-i2-066-072.pdf
- Term Paeper (Physics)
- 2300226-catalogo-laser-2013
- Astrath et al JAP106(2009)073511
- Optical Computers
- Laser Safety Training
- 666_wcndtfinal00668
- Introduction to Gaussian Beam Optics