A reprint from

-f'.,. .

I
A tvk::GRAW-HILL PUBLICATQ\J PUBLI9-iED EVEr<Y OTHERrvoNDA.V

I

2·5:004

IS

""A''-,Gt

t

1\1.( -A ~
_..,J.

I

Plant Layout

!

~,'----'--- ~~

-'~~.

l~~····---... .
I 1.1. ",

;.

.

Y .. 1.5.CD M·LIS.
Ii L.. "
.::ll

.

•• Y".

~

,.~,,'-'-=-='

--.-n"I·.. -i-·· '·/0','" -I'''~~·~~-·

No:

.. _. ....

~

J3
Reprinted from CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Copyright © 1977, 1978 by McGraw·Hill Inc. 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10020

1<1

t

l\;S.

.A. t;I
.... G,

1
.\
The main guideline for the articles in this new CE Refresher is to present topics of plant layout that can be useful to chemical engineers in their everyday work. In addition to the designers' interest, management aspects of plant design have been included. A manager should know what to look for, how to control information flow and activitiesof plant design, and how to optimize cost and effort while maintaining high quality standards in design. Within this overall framework, the cost aspect of plant design will be emphasized, with stress placed on: • Relationship between process equipment and piping for planning and designing pnx.'ess plants. • Instruments in process plants from the plant-design standpoint, • Pipe-rack layout design. • The process-unit plot plan. • Housed chemical plants.
art

o o

o

Capital cost, operating and maintenance costs. Cost and manhours of design engineering. Quality of clesign.

To provide the needed information, this new series will cover: • Management of plant design for minimum cost. • Application of plant-design specifications. • Distillation-column arrangements. • Heat-exchanger arrangements. • Pump layout and process drums. • Vertical and horizontal relationship between process equipment. • Arrangement of process heaters and piping.

How to manage plant design to
'\

It is often said that plant layout and piping design is an and nota science. This is true to only a very limited degree. Although plant-layout design can be just as rational as the mathematics of fluid flow) here 'the language is projective geometry. Mathematics is abstract; geometry is visual. All engineering courses have mathematics; very few offer the subject of projective geometry; none has layout design. There is not a single formula available (or layout and piping design. However, systematic methods and procedures can be developed from engineering principles, specifications, practical engineering knowhow, and just simple common sense. All this is coupled with the necessityof seeing process equipment and piping three-dimensionally. While evaluating a P&I (piping-and-instrumentation flow diagram), one should be able to visualize either the parts or thewhole of a chemical plant.

obtain rmmmum cost
• •
used by many designers in the development of the mechanical-design concepts and layout arrangements of chemical process plants.

Planning ahead is the essence of economical design of layout concepts, arrangement studies and final drawings for chemical process plants.
Robert Kern, Hoffmann - La Roche Inc. Plant layout can be the biggest single cost saver in chemical plant design after process-design and equipmentdesign possibilities have been exhausted. On the other extreme, nowhere can so much money be wasted than in this field because of unfamiliarity with concepts and procedures. The money saved (or wasted) can be substantial at the concept phases of a large industrial project. At the initial stages of plant layout, five- to six-digit dollar amounts are not unusual between alternative ideas. The most economical plant design is not easily recognizable. While a manager readily appreciates schedule 130
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Economy of design
During the initial design phase, one frequently meets with opportunities where simple ideas can mean substantial cost savings. Let us see how such a cost-saving opportunity* was almost missed during the development of a design: Example - In a chemical plant, ten waste-heat boilers had to be installed at the exhaust of ten diesel engines. Design activities were directed through a contracting organization. (The design sequence is shown in its essence in Fig. 1) The process department supplied data to the exchanger department, which designed a vertical waste-heat boiler (Fig. la). The piping group located the exchanger and designed the inlet piping. The flexibility and pipe-support group requested an anchor near the exchanger outlet (Fig.
• All examples in these articles are from actual cases.

D

dates and related performance, he rarely assesses the quality of plant design even though this can considerably affect overall cost. Most managers know what to do when the items are accountable. But, it is not well known in the area of plant design when, where, how and what to look for in order to end up with a chemical process plant for the least cost. In addition to capital cost, plant layout also influences operating and maintenance costs. These are long-term items that affect profit. The articles in this series will introduce the chemical engineer to those ideas, methods and procedures that are
MA V 23, 1977

Ib). The structural department designed the anchor supports (Fig. l c), These supports became very-expensive, large braced structures about 12 ft high. With all the design and detailing for this project, considerable manhours were spent. All departments involved did a competent job in their specialties. At this point, the .suggestion was made to eliminate the supporting structures by turning the waste-heat boilers upside down, thus placing the inlet connection and anchor close to grade. The final design for the waste-heat boiler ended up as shown in Fig. 1d. This final design is very simple, cost savings are substantial, and less space is occupied. The result from a design quality and esthetics is superior, and there is no long-term cost for maintaining the structure. However, to bring about such a change, the exchanger has to be redesigned, its location changed, piping rerouted, flexibility and support calculations repeated, foundation and structural design changed. Add to these, all the paperwork, rework manhours, schedules, client comments, management attitudes, etc. What was to a designer
MAV 23, 1917

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING

131

CE REFRESHER

Ope raters' raqu irama nts

Layout specifications Process flow diagrams

2. 1.
PLANT D.ESIGN CONCEPT

=
r- ~~

Process-equiprnent

sizes & data

Anchor
Laboratorv, storage & handling and architectural requirements center

Concept model or proposed plot plan

ARRANGEMENT STUDIES

Approved arrangement Plot plans

studies

Plot plans issued for construction


I


I

Design cunsultatien
with all engineefing

Personnel

Control room, motor-control Special requirements

disciplines Material handling details
Design specifications Desiqn standards Equipment & process vessel vessel sketches & instrument

I I

Pipihg drawings issued for fabrication and construction
Piping dssiqn specifications Material specifications Design standards Vessels ~ equipment DraWings and d~ions piping components Instru ment & ~"ectric h~etBils drawings of

Process review

a. Waste-heat boiler design.

b. Location. \:::::::], Nozzle orientation. Piping design. Pipe flexibility and support requirements,

c. Structu ral and pipe-support desiqn,

d. Final, minimum cost design. Pipe-support structure eliminated.

Structural

review

Equipment removal Coustruction Vessel nuzzle and instrument location details Pipe flexibility and support details Safety

Review with enqlneer inq disciplines Project review Safety review Construction Management and maintenance review review

drawing,
Instrument

Maior electrical hardware data

a very simple idea becomes very involved in its execution. What can be learned from this? Many cost-saving ideas do not fall within the activities of one engineering discipline. This is why they are missed. The same way that the process department optimizes process-related or chemicalengineering-related costs, the plant-layout department should be able to optimize the cost of the mechanical engineering design. Most of the time, this is done where the process, structural and layout designs interact. It is useful to remember that the "gold mine" is where two or three engineering activities overlap, as emphasized on the shaded portions of the following diagrams: *

missing. Layout designers are able to visualize coordinated _de~ign concepts, can plan ahead, and can anticipate details. With planning ahead, the sequence for the design procedure will be:
Process

Space requirement for nanCfling & storage Construction re-view & maintenance

Operators' requirements

Exchanger

Design planning Flexibility Piping & detailing structural, parallel . 18S actrvi iti

}

The design effort, presented in Fig. 1, was poorly managed. It went through a seemingly logical sequence of inline design procedure:
Process Exchanger Location Flexibility Structural & piping

In this arrangement, the concept or layout-design step is
*This is also the area where most designs go wrong.

With this sequence, two important aspects of design can be accomplished: 1. The design/ planning step enables investigation for quality and economy of the overall design at the early stages of development. 2. The design performance will be effective. After design /planning, all disciplines can produce construction drawings simultaneously. For this example, flexibility investigation and structural-steel design can start earlier than piping design 'because these activities can (and often should) overlap in time with design / planning. Design development and design management go hand in hand. In the initial phases, a great number of specialists' requirements must be worked into the design. A sequence of information flow and a sequence of development steps are necessary for effective performance. In principle, there is not much difference between assemblyline mass production of automobiles and the production of engineering designs or drawings. In industrial - mass production, all steps are planned ahead and must be
MAY 23,1977

performed strictly as planned, otherwise production stops or quality suffers. It should be so with design. Unfortunately in design engineering, few recognize this. Far too often, steps are taken during design development that do not contribute to meaningful progress. Wellmanaged design activity is a plan-ahead coordination and not coordinate-as-you-go.

Time-and-motion study
These performance principles are well known to contractors engaged in the design of process plants. A time-and-motion study, recording activities from contract award to construction completion, ended up as a large flow diagram about 22 ft long and, in places, 6 ft wide. This diagram realistically presented the sequence of inline and parallel procedures, duration and volume of activities, all related to a time scale, The study of design procedures showed where much duplicated effort, misplaced activities, recirculated work, superfluous steps, missing steps and inefficient steps occurred. After streamlining some of the procedures, the endresult was shorter completion schedules, fewer manhours, and improved quality of design. Such a flow diagram can serve as a control and progress document in sections, and as an overall chart as well. A small portion of this chart related to plant layout (greatly condensed and simplified)
CHEMICAL ENGfNEERING

is shown in Fig. 2. The three major steps of mechanical-plant design development are: (1) plant-design concept (concept design), (2) arrangement studies (design planning), and (3) pipinglayout design. These are not always sharply divided areas. Concept design is often absorbed in the planning of arrangement studies. Although equipment arrangements can be made in combination with piping layouts, these activities normally become separate and well defined when dealing with large and complex plants. Extensive conceptual design is needed for one-of-a-kind chemical plants. On the other hand, repetitive designs, such as for ammonia or ethylene units, do not require much conceptual thinking once a unit has been arranged, except when changes in major process or project data require a change.

Concept design
Concept design takes place at the initial stages of plant design. Normally, only essential data are available, such as: design specifications; process-flow diagrams or blockflow diagrams; preliminary equipment sizes; equipment information from catalogs; project design data concerning the site, buildings, utilities and environment. Conceptual plant design is a highly innovative activity, covering diversified fields of engineering. A great deal of
MAY 23. 1977

132

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING

133

CE REFRESHER
plans, elevations and perspectives can be photographed. Thus, we elminate time-consuming drafting. The first floor photo-plot plan of this building is shown on p. 134. We give overall dimensions, titles, numbers and descriptions on these photographs. To build the concept model of this plant required four or five working days. However, the overall time spent on this project is longer because meetings with specialists have to be scheduled, information developed, photographer obtained and prints made. For concept design, two men are normally required: a designer and a model maker. The concept design is approved by the management and client, and by project, process, operation and all' engineering disciplines. The final result cannot be better than the information supplied. With a final process flowsheet and equipment data, the concept will be closer to a final design. Changes in process, operating philosophy or equipment type and size can end up in substantial changes on the conceptual arrangement. Though these changes are time-consuming, they are not expensive and manhour requirements are minimal.

Plant layout
Arrangement studies or planning studies are extensions of concept design in a more detailed manner. These are the drawings that are used for approval by all disciplines for final design. Planning studies are prepared so that all design sections will be able to work simultaneously and independently for producing the details of construction drawings. In the same way that P&I's (piping-and-instrumention Row diagrams) are the basic documents of chemical engineering design, arrangement studies are the basic documents for mechanical engineering design. These studies also coordinate the requirements of specifications, operations, maintenance and safety, as well as the process and project data. A plant-layout group has individuals with experience covering a wide field of expertise in design engineering. ......... ,generally, two to six designers can complete planning within two to eight weeks, depending on the size and complexity of the plant. A unit similar to that shown in the photo on p. 134 may require two designers for three to four weeks. If a concept model is followed by a pipingdesign model, planning can take place on the piping model, or a combination of paper design and model design can be used. Information requirements for planning studies are far more extensive and specific than those required for concept design. A general outline of the information requirements needed for a typical petrochemical plant in order to produce layout studies follows: (1) a good preliminary issue of the P&I's, specifications and insulation data; (2) vessel drawings with elevation, pipe connection and insulation requirements; (3) instrument connection details to vessels; (4) heat exchangers and cooler-box details; (5) pump, compressor and mechanical equipment details, NPSH (net positive suction head) details; (6) furnace and heater details; (7) weight and size of equipment that require handling; (8) electrical requirements: motorcontrol center, main cable runs, junction boxes and startMAY 23, 1977

Plant model provides

detailed

layout

and locations

of all process equipment,

piping and access

Layout of process equipment via plant model saves considerable design time and effort

coordination is required at this stage among engineering disciplines; process, project, maintenance and safety specialists; and operators. Essential process- and plantdesign requirements are established, an overall agreement is worked out, and design principles are determined. Horizontal and vertical equipment relationships are arranged. A system of access, emergency-escape routes, material-handling provisions are determined. Access and methods of operation, maintenance and construction are investigated. Space allocation is provided for personnel activities (laboratories, offices, locker rooms, storage, etc.). Control rooms, instrument panels, motor-control centers are planned; plant site, structures and building size are determined. The end-result of these needs is recorded via a drawing or model. Both methods use small scales (1/16, 1/8 or 1/4 in. = 1 ft.), and simplified presentation techniques. For an oil-refinery distillation unit, a proposed plot plan and elevations (with overall dimensions) can present a concept because such a plant is normally arranged on one level. At Hoffmann - La Roche, the chemical plants are unique and are arranged in a building of several floats. We save considerable time and effort by presenting these concepts on a model. The photo on p. 130 shows a chemical plant arranged in an existing building. The model can be separated at each floor. In this way, floor 134
CHEMICAL

ers; (9) instrument requirements: control house, panels, main instrument-line tray locations, and transmitter locations; (10) building sizes and floor space for personnel facilities. With these details; layout studies can be produced, problems recognized and solved, and necessary changes made in the original concept. Generally, drawings should be completed as far as each section or department has sufficient information with which to work. The piping department is supplied with the location of all equipment and nozzles, instruments, control valves, controllers and transmitters, valves and manifolds, orifice runs, and main pipe with supporting steel. The structural department will receive overall structural dimensions and elevations, the location of all equipment footings, roadways and paving, trenches and culverts; also pipe loads affecting structural design; platform, staircase and ladder requirements; fireproofing and equipment-handling requirements. The vessel department receives the types of all vessel supports; all nozzle, manhole, handhole and platformbracket locations, and loads affecting vessel design; heatexchanger support; davit positions on exchangers. For the electrieal and instrument departments, the instrument leads, cable runs in trenches or overhead, and switchboard and instrument locations, are shown.
CHEMICAl.,

The arrangement study is a composite mechanical engineering design, coordinating design information that is necessary to produce construction drawings. Dimensions are given for equipment location, overall dimensions for structures, routing of piping, electric and instrument lines. Generally, all equipment and piping components are shown that occupy floor space. Access, removal space, and handling facilities are outlined. For these drawings, the ideas of design are more essential than the quality of draftsmanship. Freehand drawings are encouraged. An important purpose of arrangement studies is to generate agreement at the early stages of design between client, project and process departments and all engineering disciplines. Usually, there are two issues of the planning studies: 1. "Issued for comments." This is the time to change, revise, add, delete and comment on the design. The changes are not costly because the design disciplines were only involved as consultants. However, calendar time is somewhat lengthened. 2. "Issued for design." With this document released, the design disciplines should be able to commence work simultaneously and independently. Design coordination should be necessary only to a very limited degree. To change the design after this release is expensive and involved because all disciplines are producing construction
MAY 23.1977

ENGINEERINC

ENGINEER1NC

135

CE REFRESHER
r.

.. ..
,,:

;".

Plant during construction shows the similarity between model on p. 135 and the full-size unit

drawings. Manhours and schedule dates can be seriously affected. Arrangement studies are not used for construction, they facilitate detail design in such a manner that all disciplines can work in parallel without involvement with each other's work. If arrangement studies are well coordinated, the design on construction drawings as produced by all disciplines will dovetail without costly interferences-for example, between steel and piping, and equipment. Planning studies can be released at the same time or shortly after the P&l's are released for detail design. After design release, a change in scope reflected on a P&I is investigated from a mechanical engineering and cost standpoint. Usually, only one layout designer is involved before a change is approved and released to the involved design groups. The execution of detail design (construction drawings) that follows enlarges substantially the scope of drawing production. . Although arrangement studies are distributed to all disciplines, we will only cover one group briefly in order to complete the third major step for plant-layout design presented in Fig. 2. The piping layout-design group produces fabrication and construction drawings. This is a large-scale, detailed, expensive operation. The cost, quality and performance of piping design depends to a large extent on how final the process design, concept and layout design is. Even small changes during piping design can make activities expensive, time consuming, and error prone.

well designed from their standpoint. For the unique plants of pharmaceutical manufacturing, process designers and operators have an intensive relationship in plant-layout design. No other group is so intimately involved in advising plant designers as are the operators. This role is emphasized on the flowchart of Fig. 2. The design of such plants involves: a large number of unit operations; unusual chemistry; special and wide variety of equipment; a combination of continuous processes and batch operations; liquid, slurry, and solids handling and conveying; inspections and controls; and special operating and safety procedures. All of these require the operators' experience when process design, plant concepts, layout studies and piping design are developed. For continuous fluid-processing plants, the operators' involvement is more in the process-systems and fluidsystems designs and not so much in the mechanical engineering design. Such plants have: highly automated controls, and one-level plant arrangements; goodspecifications competently applied; and decades of specialized experience. .Maintenance determines how long production-interruptions will be in the event of equipment failure. Good plant-layout minimizes the cost of maintenance. Easy, convenient and swift removal of equipment or machinery components or onstream maintenance depends on having excellent access to the plant's component parts. Access is the most important feature of plant design. The strictly administrative aspects of management are not mentioned here. These should be superimposed on the principles outlined in this article, and not the other way around. A design office that works in a constant maze of questions, communications, changing decisions, alterations, and frequent omissions between departments might show industriousness but embarks on a time-consuming and manpower-wasting route. Design performance, economy and quality of design, in contrast, depend on competence, planning ahead, following a system of opera',.tion, using simple methods and procedures-and a great deal of common sense.

PLANT LAYOUTL2

Specifications are the key to successful plant design
Plant -layout engineers must achieve economy of design; provide access for operation, maintenance and construction; produce design for structural components; plan equipment arrangements and handling facilities; and show the general details for piping and valving.
Robert Kern, Hoffmann - La Roche Inc .

I

/

for process-plant layout and plplllg design give the basic requirements for chemical-plant arrangements. A great deal of similarity exists among owners' and contractors' specifications for continuously operating plants such as oil refineries, and semicontinuous or batch facilities such as pharmaceutical plants, in the U.S., in Europe, and possibly in other parts of the world. The specifications encompass general, conceptual, specific and dimensional requirements. Specifications make references to or include the requirements of national

o Specifications

standards and codes. Design standards, project-design data and manufacturers' literature also offer a great deal of information. These can be just as important as the specifications. Changes, exceptions and additions to specifications are documented in supplements or authorized letters. Cost and quality of plant design will suffer if specifications are not known, or are ignored or not well applied.

Economy of design: outdoor plants
A typical cross-section of a petrochemical plant is shown in Fig. 1. Process equipment is arranged in a

Acknowledgement
All chemical plants in this series have been designed by the Design Engineering Staff at Hoffmann-La Roche. The next article in the CE REFRESHER will appear in the issue of July 4, 1977.
Platform
/

Mai nte nance road Catwalk j Platform for
I

Tube-bun die rem oval area

equipment

Process

Pipe rack

equipment

Process

Tuba-hundle ' Maintenance removal area road

relief valves

I
Pumps ••

1 ~ump.'

Access

~

The author
Robert Kern. is head of the plant-layout section in the corporate engineering department of Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, NJ 07110. He is a specialist in hydraulic-systems design, plant layout, piping design and economy. He is the author of a number of articles in these fields, and bas taught several courses for the design of process piping, plant layout, graphic piping and Row systems, both in the U.S. and South America. Previously, he was associated with M. M. Kellogg Co. in England and the U.S. Mr. Kern has an M.S. in mechanical engineering from the Technical University of Budapest, and is a member of AlChE.

Typical platforms on yard steel

Crane for removal of air coolers',

,,

Air coolers over pipe rae k --'-"

I
Control house -',
-,

..

The operators' involvement is important
The quality of any plant design is put to test by the operators. If they have convenient access to points of operation, inspection and handling, the plant has been 136
CFfEMICAL ENGINEERI1>IG MAY 23, t977

CHEMICAL

I';NGlNEER1NG

JULY 4, t9n

1.23

CE REFRESHER
world by many contractors using these principles. Dimensions and elevations as indicated in Fig. I are usually given on the plot plan or in engineering standards. At outdoor plants, most equipment is at grade] and elevated equipment rests on extended footings. Reciprocating compressors and pumps are usually sheltered (keeping the machinery supports and building foundations separate), Construction is convenient; equipment removal and inplace maintenance are simple. common in outside than in housed units. Mobile cranes and maintenance facilities are more often used outdoors than in buildings. Inplace bundle-pulling and exchanger maintenance are normal outdoors because space is available. But using these methods indoors would increase building cost and severely restrict layout and piping design. So we specify removal of the complete exchanger to the workshop for maintenance. (This is expensive if one or two lube-ends are reexpanded, but still cheaper than providing the necessary clearances around an exchanger and using up expensive building space.)

"The primary consideration in arrangement of units and equipment shall be to provide an economical plant, safe and easy to operate and maintain. The arrangement shall favor compactness and integrated disposition of units and equipment. Equipment shall be arranged in process flow sequence in plan and elevation. Space shall be provided around equipment for convenient operation and maintenance access.
Ali quotations

Economy of design: housed plants
The layout principles of many enclosed (i.e., housed) plants are similar to the open arrangement. Fig. 2 shows a housed chemical planl. If we remove .the building and leave the central pipe rack in place, the cross-sections of Fig. 1 and 2 become similar. Where applicable, this concept usually gives an economical arrangement for a housed unit. Ina multilevel plant, the vertical relationship of process equipment also has to be considered. In pharmaceutical plants, vertical gravity-How arrangements are-common for major process equipment. Frequent attention by operators, material handling] cleanliness, weather protection, environmental control and safety dictate an enclosed building. The confinement of a building does not change the principles of layout and piping design. However, the requirements for operation and maintenance differ. In a building, mobile platforms can be used extensively, but they are not practical outdoors. Because of this, permanent local platforms for individual equipment are more

Accessibility
Plant layout can also be considered a space-allocation plan. The space left open is just as important as the space filled in (see Fig .. 3). On design concepts, plant layouts and piping drawings, all accessways should be shown. Only occasionally are the design drawings reviewed by plant engineers and operators. To them, a clearly shown system of access via a graphic outline is the starting point for meeting design and operators' requirements. Fig. 3 shows a new process plant erected in an existing building. This cross-section well illustrates the space relationships between process equipment and access aisles. Access is given to at least one side of each row of process equipment. On the extreme left of Fig. 3, kettle-removal space on the first floor is given near two main doors. (The plot plan shows the access aisles on the right side of Fig. 3.) On the extreme right of Fig. 3, a 4-ft access is provided to a row of pumps. Pipe racks, most of the time, are planned over accessways. Note that pipe-rack require-

«Access arrangements should be straight and simple. Operating and inspection points shall be accessible and visible from operating aisles, preferably without the help of auxiliary platforms and ladders. Equipment parts, instruments, valve handwheels and piping shall not protrude into access aisles. Access aisles over 25 feet long shall not be dead-ended. 'J

JJ

in. Ihis article are- from the Roche specifications.

process-flow sequence on both sides of a central pipe rack. Pumps are lined up in two rows under the pipe rack. A road is provided between the two pump rows for maintenance and operation access. Two roads at the peripheries of the planl allow access for construction and maintenance equipment and operations. This type of layout is the most economical, and thousands of petrochemical plants have been built all over the

ments and the density of piping is greatest on the first floor. The large distillation columns were erected through a roof hatch. The closer we can get to a rectangular grid within a chemical-plant complex (or a process unit), the. more economical the arrangement will be. In a chemical-plant complex, overhead pipe racks, sewer systems] underground piping systems, trenches, electric cables and instrument lines, all usually follow the road configuration. Thus, curved or angular roads (creating triangular or odd-shaped plots) should not be considered when

'l ~
.' •

X
I I

.1
.
'I

,1/

j and agitator
.'"

Ro.of opening, removal space (T~lIey beam (removable) for motor and gear handling and for mixer-shaft seal renewal Elevation: 150 ft 0 in.

/1

i/

!
I I

i2
::; n,

E

0.

::> IT

~ c:
0.
::; OJ

,

!;? E

"

"' E

Construction and maintenance access fo~ mobile crane \ (size of crane \ determ ines space) \
\

0

Construction

access

'"

~

~E ~
1l"0 n, ::;

IT~ 0.

Plan "'Grade elevation: 100 ft 0 in.
'l st floor

124

CHEMICAL

ENGINEER1NC

JULY 01.1977

CHEMICAL

ENGtNEEIUNG

JULY 4. 1977

125

CE REFRESHER

1:P.f7!r.

.

niu.l'Il'...

llaa-'l

Description Width of walkways, catwalks and stairs at gra~e. or platform located outdoors or building floors. Platform width around manholes. Headroom for walkways, catwalks and stairs, and working areas under platforms. Clear headroom under pipelines and structures. (See also Note 11. Primary maintenance roads, roads between open or housed process units and utility plants. {See also Note 2. I. Secondary Indoor access roads aisles

I

I i
2 ft 6 in.

I

Dimensions Component Stationary tubesheet at lower end: Tube bundles, channels, and channel covers Shell covers and floating-head covers Entire small-size 6 ft 9 in. units Facility> Hitching points

I

Jib crane. davit or hitching point Hitching point or trolley beam

i"

I

20 to 24 ft wide

.. 14 to 16 ft headroom
16 ft wide 11 ft headroom 8 ft wide 9 ft headroom

I

.~.,----------l!------main-access

Access to rows of pumps: Indoors: Between Between

Outdoors

10 ft 4 ft 6 ft

""~---

Stationary tubesheet at upper end: For removing tube bundle from shell Tube bundles, channels, and channel Trolley beam , covers Shell covers and floating-head 'covers Hitching point Entire small-size units Hitching point or trollev beam For removing shell from bundle Entire unit or any component Hitching point Fixed tubesheet exchangers None

1 row of pumps and wall 2 rows of pumps

Headroom over railroads (from top of rails): Throughway Dead end Horizontal clearance: track centerl ine to obstruction Vertical rise of stairway Landing in the direction of-stairs Vertical rise of ladd·er. (See also Note 3.1, Platform under horizontal manhole top-head

22 ft 12 ft 8 ft 6 in. 15 ft 3ft 20 ft

i

...

2 to 5 ft 3 to 4 ft

Glass-lined kettle (from manhole to platform)

Clearances between exchanqer flanges and vertical-filter flanges Clearance in front of axchanqar's channel and cover ends: Outdoors Indoors Tube-bundle outdoors removal clearance,

1 ft 6 in.

14ft 0 in .. . 2 ft 0 in.

~

I.plus

Bundle length 2 ft 0 in.

Note 1: Headroom requirements range from 7 ft 6 in. (U.S.) to 6 ft 6 in. (elsewherel. Note 2: Verify headroom for available rno b ila-cr ane clearances. Note 3: Some specifications allow 18 ft for stairs and 30 ft for ladder r ise,

arranging chemical plants and their related utility and auxiliary facilities. Table I gives generally accepted access and headroom data. Exceptions to these cannot be allowed in plant design.

Maintenance
Specifications or design standards describe the details for .overall maintenance requirements and those for 126
CHEMICAL

specific process equipment. Preventive-maintenance activities usually do not need more space than that planned for the operators. Outdoor plants-There is usually no problem with maintenance for an open process unit arranged at grade. In petrochemical plants, design practices for maintenance and their relationship with plant layout are well developed. Manholes of distillation columns and exchanger channel ends are faced toward an access road (see Fig. 1). Mobile cranes, exchanger bundle-pulling structures and devices, and A-frames for pump handling can be convenien tly used. Most specifications give extensive guidelines for permanenthandling facilities. A section of one such specification (Table II) lists handling requirements for vertical ex'\changers in a petrochemical plant. . Sometimes, the question of how much to pay for convenient maintenance arises.. For example, let us compare the alternative arrangements for air coolers as shown in Fig. 1. Air coolers over the main pipe rack are usually more economical in relation to usage of supports, piping and real estate. On the other hand, air coolers at grade have the most convenient maintenance access to motors, gears, fans and tube-ends. Process equipment in open structures might not be accessible with mobile cranes. In this case, trolley beams, hoists or other handling provisions, and removal space to grade, have to be provided. Housed plants-For enclosed plants, handling requirements should be comprehensively described in the specifications or design standards. Maintenance or removal of a component that was overlooked can be very expensive. The removal from a building of large process vessels, e.g., glass-lined kettles, is one of the most costly maintenance items. Not only is space needed below or above the kettle, but an access aisle to the outside with sufficient clearance is also required. Locating such kettles close to doors will save building space (see extreme left .of Fig. 3
JULY 4. 1977

for kettles and access to them on ~first floor). Fig. 2 shows the removal (or installation) of a kettle through the building wall. This is feasible because this type of maintenance operation is infrequent. When developing the concept for a housed chemical plant, alternative removal facilities for process equipment can make substantial differences in capital cost. Let us examine the building concept in Fig .. 4 where equipment removal is planned in the center of the building by means of a permanent overhead traveling crane. If we apply these principles to the plant shown in Fig. 2, we get a much wider building, two pipe racks, cost of the crane and its housing, and increased structural loads. The only advantage gained by making a larger capital investment to follow the arrangement of Fig. 4, is that a wall segment win not have to be demolished to remove (and re-install) equipment for the concept shown in Fig. 2. For removing parts of process machinery, a trolley beam, without hoist, can save the substantial cost of future rigging. For example, the removable trolley beam in Fig. 2 handles the motors and gears of glass-lined kettles. One trolley beam is positioned over two kettles with a central removal space. On the rare occasion when the agitator shaft and blades are removed, access is planned through a roof-hatch for a mobile yard crane. Despite the multitude of handling requirements for this arrangement, building cost has not been increased and the cost of handling facilities is minimal. Traveling cranes, jib cranes, rigid and collapsible A-frames, davits, hoists and hitching points installed at negligible initial cost can make for substantial savings in future maintenance costs, and can minimize downtime. Cost savings can be achieved if a layout arrangement allows the use of maintenance facilities for material handling during plant operation. The hoist and trolley beam shown in Fig. 5 can be used in construction and maintenance, and also for handling catalyst between floors during operation. There are two points worth remembering in planning: 1. While space requirements for maintenance are outlined at the initial stages of design, they are often forgotten during detail design. For example, when removing a centrifuge or filter basket, space is required between the trolley beam and equipment flange for a hoist, hook, sling and lifting beam, in addition to overall clearances. The removed piece often travels over other vessels and it has to be taken out of the building. Laydown space is also required. Piping and structural steel should not interfere with maintenance clearances. And in removing equipment parts, a minimum of pipe dismantling should be done. Access aisles and doors must be wide enough for removal. 2.. Space has to be provided for removable handling facilities. Typical needs are: removal of vessel internals, loading and unloading of catalyst to and from packed columns through side or bottom outlets, solid-chemicals storage near a process vessel in bags or drums, tote bins for filter-basket cleaning, manual solids transport between process equipment.

Lf'\

'Crane

described-e.g., location of process equipment (outdoors or indoors); grouping, paving and curbing for equipment in acid or caustic services; location and safety requirements for fired heaters; location and enclosure for heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVI\C) equipment, and elevation of air intake and outlet. Some utility and auxiliary systems are not shown in the piping-and-instrumentation flow diagram (P&I) nor mentioned in specifications. These must not be forgotten in the layout. Space and access have to be provided (with hydraulics duly considered) for surge drums of heating systems; fired or unfired heaters; fuel tanks, exchangers and pumps; stearn-generating systems;. condensatecollecting systems; instrument-air dryers; Dowtherrn, brine, and cooling-water systems; caustic and acid tanks and pumps, etc. Overall plant arrangements are documented initially on a proposed plot plan. The plot plan or the processequipment arrangement on a concept model also determines the overall arrangement of pipe routings. (On composite drawings of concepts and planning studies, piping is not, or only sparingly, shown. Despite this, the designer must visualize the details of piping for the determination of space. Layout designers should be experts in graphic piping design and must know piping specifications. )

Piping layout
Specifications give the general requirements for piping, and detailed requirements for valve locations. The following descriptions can be applied to both outdoor and housed plants: Pipe TOuting-As far as practical, piping should run at the different elevations as designated for north-south and east-west banks, and should change elevation when
JULY 4,1977

Plant and equipment layout
A specification for the plant-layout arrangement is usually general. Preferred equipment groupings can be
CIIEMICAL

ENGINEER.lNG

ENGINEE.RI.NG

127

1
CE REFRESHER
should be lined up. Two pumps can be placed on common concrete footings with one motor-starter support between the two motors. Provide access between pairs of pumps. Piping at pumps should be arranged to avoid interference with operating and maintenance access. Flanges and pipe-spool pieces should be provided to permit maintenance without major disassembly of the piping. Compressors-Most of the requirements for pumps can be applied to small compressors. Particular consideration should be given to design of piping and supports subjected to vibration. For all process compressors, volume bottles or pulsation dampeners should be provided at the suction and discharge. If necessary, an analysis should be made by the compressor manufacturer, and piping design adjusted to minimize the possibility of excessive vibration. Centrifoges-These should be arranged so that the baskets can be readily removed. Centrifuges should be located and supported so that vibration is eliminated and there is no possibility of transmitting vibration to adjacent structures. Headroom and access are essential under a supporting structure for bottom-unloading centrifuges. The supporting structure must provide for, and space should be allowed for, removing the entire centrifuge from the building. Filters-Large filter-basket handling is similar (except as to weight) to centrifuge-basket handling. Nozzles and piping should be arranged so that pipe disconnecting will not be necessary. Inline arrangements are preferred for convenient access to filter flanges and baskets. Wrench clearance of at least 1.5 ft should be given between filter flanges. Access to one side of the filters is sufficient. Width of accessway (for possible use of tote bins) should be verified with the operator. For special filters, the manufacturer's recommendations should be carefully followed concerning removal and operating clearances. Dlyers-Rotating dryers usually require separate rooms or enclosures, and material-filling and removal clearances. Field visits, and discussions between owners, contractors, equipment manufacturers and operators are advisable. These are also necessary for all special process ""\~quipment. pressure gages can be made accessible from mobile or permanent ladders. Nothing should interfere with the opening of the cover for level controllers, and platform access should be available. All primary and secondary indicators (pressure, temperature, flow, level, valve positioner, etc.) should be visible from accessways, Clearance for cover removal should be allowed for the inspection and adjustment of differential-pressure cells.

.1

"Piping shall be arranged in an orderly manner and routed as directly as practical, preferably in established banks or pipeways. In general> process lines> utility headers (except water) > electric cables, HV AC ducts> and instrument lines will be carried on overhead pipeways at established elevations. Where future extension is anticipated> at the end of header or at branch connections> a valve shall ·be provided to facilitate additions to the system without costly shutdown. »

Instrumentation and electrical hardware
Usually nothing is said in plant-layout specifications about the arrangements of instrumentation tubing, supporting trays and steel, or of electric cables and their supports, starters and junction boxes. (Dimensional details are found in instrument and electrical specifications, design standards, and manufacturers' catalogs.) Far too often, layout designers do not take into account the space requirements for these services. Instrument and electric systems are usually field-installed with the help of line diagrams only. With outdoor installations, this oversight is not serious. However, with indoor installations, much of a good design in process-equipment layout and piping can be destroyed if instrument and electric facilities are installed as spiderweb in the access space. During the design-planning phase, the main features of instrument and electric components are coordinated into the layout. The layout designers for piping, instrument and electrical installations locate and integrate these facilities into the overall arrangement at a joint meeting. Specific locations are given (including types of support) so that instrument and electrical hardware and their supports do not interfere with operation and maintenance access. Effective field supervision during the construction stages of a process plant can greatly improve the quality of instrument and electrical installations.

changing direction. Combined changes of direction and elevation in pipeways will ordinarily be made with 90" elbows. Where a minimum difference in elevation is necessary, a 90° and a 45' elbow may be used. Inside the buildings, piping may run in vertical banks and Hat turns may be used. (See also the adjoining quotation.) Cooling-water headers may be above or below ground as established by economics. Water lines located underground should be below the frost-line or be provided with frost protection. In buildings, cooling-water headers should be overhead. Distillation columns- Piping should be located radially about the column on the pipeway side, and when possible, manholes and platforms on the access side. Valves and flanges should not be located inside vessel skirts. Valves should be located flange-to-flange on elevated nozzles, the piping turned straight down after the valve, and run as close as possible to the column. Exchangers- Piping should not be run over the channel, shell cover or removal space, or in the way of built-in or mobile handling facilities. Wrench clearance should be provided at the exchanger flanges. If necessary, spool pieces should be provided between channel nozzles and valves, with the valves clearing the removal space. Pumps- Wherever practical, pumps should be grouped with the pump drives facing access aisles (see rows of pumps on first floor of Fig. 3). The backs of motor drives 128
CHEMICAL

Valves and instruments
Accessibility of valves and instruments should be the primary concern when reviewing piping layout and isometrics. Accessibility as shown on piping drawings ranges from the convenient to the impossible. A reviewer should at least eliminate those valve locations that make a valve inaccessible. The following classification is made from the standpoint of designers, operators, Or managers: Process values- These valves should be readily accessible. Ideally, the valve-stem centerline should be 3 - 5 ft from grade, floor or platform, and the underside of the handwheel not higher than 7 ft from grade, floor or platform. There will always be valves that must be close to grade (e.g., in the horizontal run of the pump-suction line or outlets close to the floor), or overhead such as valves on elevated vessel nozzles. Valves (3 in. and up in size) elevated higher than 7 ft can have chain operators. In buildings, many valves can be reached with mobile platforms or ladders. Valves located at low or high locations can have extended stems reaching to access aisles.
JULY 4. 1977

Utility valves-Utility systems have two groups of valves. One group is closely related to the process and should be just as accessible as process valves. The other contains all the isolating. valves such as block valves on utility headers, root valves on subheaders or lateral branches, and valves for future connections. These valves are rarely used, and most of them are located overhead. A catwalk over a pipe rack (as shown in top left corner of Fig. 1) can provide convenient access to utility valves in petrochemical plants. Valves at the edge of pipe racks, or stems through the floor, can greatly improve access in housed chemical plants. Temporary-ladder access is usually acceptable for elevated valves .. If a vent valve is not accessible, its arrangement is poor. Vent lines can be piped to an accessible spot, and much frustration avoided during testing and operation. Drain valves should not be omitted at low points of pipe systems. Relief vaLves- These must be accessible for inspection, and where possible, local testing (steam service). For a 3 in. and larger inlet, a relief valve should be over a platform. In buildings, a mobile platform can be used. Control vaLves- In petrochemical plants, it is usual to locate all control valves about 2 ft above grade, and thus provide convenient access for operation and maintenance .. Block and bypass valves follow the same criterion. Orifices for flow ·control are in lines elevated about 7 ft, or located at the edge of pipe racks. Temporary-ladder and mobileplatform access to orifices is planned most of the time. In enclosed plants, mobile platforms can be used for access to control valves. Access is important, but pocketing the control valves to floor levels is not necessary, as it is for outdoor plants. Indoors, the control valves can often be located in a functional pipe configuration or in gravityflow arrangement. The face of the transmitter box (frequently located on the control valve) should be upright, visible and accessible. Isolating valves for level gages, level controllers and
CHENOChL

Miscellaneous aspects of plant layout
Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning facilities are large. It is essential to integrate the space requirements for ductwork, space heaters, access to diverting valves, filters, auxiliary and utility facilities into the overall plant design at the early stages of development. Machinery and equipment for this service are usually arranged in a separate space. Layout and piping specifications generally repeat structural and safety requirements if they affect plant layout. Dimensional details should be known for ladders, ladder caging, stairways, handrails, safety gates, toe plates, bracket spacings, circular platforms, and width and depth of landings, trenches, paving, etc. All these details are necessary when producing plant arrangements, and planning access to valves and instruments. Despite the similarity of many specifications, the experience of owners and contractors is not always the same. Contractors have design experience that does not necessarily overlap the owners' process-plant experience. Often, there is an experience gap between owners and contractors. Specifications, design standards and design descriptions can goa long way toward eliminating or narrowing this gap. The next article of this CE REFRESHER will appear in the issue of Aug. 15, 1977, and will cover the design activities when evaluating distillation columns.
JULY 4. 1977

ENGINEERING

ENGINEERING

129

CE REFRESHER

PLANT LAYOUT 3

<t

Ladder

Layout arrangements for distillation columns
Trouble-free operation and maintenance are the principal aims when evaluating design for tower internals, piping connections to tower nozzles, and external piping to other process equipment.

Inside- __ radius

Inside __ radius

3'-0" to 4'-6"

Platform-bracket spacing Vessel diameter Angular spacing

~
Circular platform

2'-6" to 3'-6" 3'-6" to 7'-6"
7'-6" and up

60° 30° 22}'2°

Robert Kern, Hti[mann - La Roche Inc.

equipment in chemical process plants, we must know how to plan the overall plant-design activities and meet the requirements of plant design. t We will start with the layout of distillation columns. In later articles, we will cover the arrangement of heat exchangers, pl'Ocessdrums, pumps, heaters, instrument and electrical facilities, and pipe-rack design. Finally, we will take all these components and assemble them into a plot plan for an outdoor process unit or for an enclosed (i.e., housed) chemical plant. In distillation-column design, we will answer the following: 1. What information is required? 2. What are the design activities when evaluating (a) column internals and pipe connections, and (b) flow diagrams, and process and project data? 3. How do we analyze a distillation-column layout and its piping in plan and elevation? 4. What information is produced?

o To deal with the layout and piping design of specific

Required

information

For arranging distillation columns, the designer is supplied with the following information: o Layout and piping specifications describe minimum access, walkways, platform width and headroom requirements; handling facilities for tower internals, manhole covers, line blinds, relief valves; maximum rise of ladders; pipe-system requirements, such as open or closed relieving systems, minimum line size and required hose stations; access to valves and instruments. o Design standards show details of ladder dimensions, ladder and platform position (step-through or side-step

landings); toe-plate, handrail and safety-gate details. For example, Fig. 1 illustrates the details for column platforms and bracket spacing. Design standards usually give the minimum skirt heights related to diameters and operating temperatures. o Process data come in the form of process and instrumentation (P&I) flow diagrams. These show interconnected equipment and piping; pipe sizes and pipeline components; steam tracing and insulation thickness. Tower elevations, and differences in equipment elevations, are given on the flow diagram or equipmentelevation data sheets.. o Plotplan gives the physical location of a distillation column and its relationship to other equipment, main access, main pipe runs, and pumps. o Instrument sketches or instrument standards show the location of instrument connections to the tower for gages; level controllers, and level alarms, and location (without orientation) of pressure and temperature connections. The complete instrumentation system is shown on the P&I, or on a separate process-control diagram. (The physical and dimensional details of instruments, equipment, piping and components are availabJe from manufacturers' literature.) o Vessel draining for the distillation column gives diameter and length, details and dimensions of internals, and manhole and process-piping connections in elevation (without orientation). Drum, pump and exchanger drawings present details of adjacent process equipment or equipment supported on the column itself. An integrated layout must be developed from this information. Requirements written in the specifications must be applied. The designed unit should be a functional part of the plant, properly laid out with respect to related equipment and facilities, as shown on the plot plan. Vessel drawings, instrument sketches, design
AUGUST 15. 1971 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

standards, pump or reb oiler data, and dimensioned equipment sketches will govern the external arrangement of the distillation-column piping.

Vessel internals and pipe connections
Frequently, interpretation of process requirements inside a tower is more exacting than exterior-piping design. Often, the location of an internal part determines within strict physical limits the location of tower nozzles, instruments, piping and steelwork. The piping-layout designer must concentrate his attention on a .large-scale diagram of tower-internal details and the arrangement of process piping. Let us consider how these factors enter into the layout of a typical distillation column whose dimensions and internals are sketched in Fig. 2. Dimensions and design are developed by the process-vessel specialist. Tower throughput, vapor and liquid flows, working pressures and temperatures determine vessel diameter and wall thickness. The required fractionation determines the number of trays and the tower height. Depth of liquid in the tower bottom and, consequently, the length of the shell beneath the bottom trapout-boot is largely controlled by the required holding time for the bottom product. Vapor space beneath the bottom tray is influenced by the reboiler circuit when a reboiler is provided. Reboiler draw-off quantities and vapor-liquid density govern both outlet-nozzle and trapout-boot sizes. Tower length is further increased by the space above the top tray for accommodating overhead-pipe outlet, reflux-inlet distributor, and manhole. The minimum tray spacing is increased, if necessary, at each manhole location. The pressure-vessel designer sets the elevation of each nozzle relative to tower internals. The piping designer
AUGUST 15, 1977

153

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING

154

CE REFRESHER
orients process arrangements.
(Two trays at 18" spacing) tl? 8" Vapor out - See Detail 5

and

utility

nozzles

to suit the piping

Typical arrangements

for tower nozzles

Cry Cry
,I

1)1," Reflux in

,"
I I

'"
Cry Cry
0;

- - See Detail 2a

--Similar
c

to Detail 3a

I

I

a. Vapor outlet at top of head

b. Vapor nutlet inside the she'lli

Detail 5: Overhead-line
6" Feed Similar to Detail 4a

cormectrnns

u

tl? "in

~

N r-. ..,

tl?

~ ~
'" >fr-,

OJ CL

'"

~

--See

Detail 2b

a. Restricted 8" Reboiler drawoff 1"drain

orientation

b. Freedom

at orientation

Detail 4: Distributors

1" Steamout

e

= Manholes

a. Simplest reflux pipe

b. Reflux pipe must clear bubble caps and weirs

Detail 3: Reflux connections

Bottom tray

<,

Heboiler drawoff nozzle Heboiler return nozzle
Si !lOis-flow tray

'T rapour boot

Detail 1: Reboiler connections
B.

Slnqle- flow traY

I--i

b. Double-flow

tray

I

Detail 2: Manhole locations

We will now examine the parameters affecting the location and orientation of the various nozzles required on a typical distillation column. Reboiler connections-Detail 1 in Fig. 2 shows reboiler drawoff connections for a single-flow tray. This connection can be very important for arranging tray orientation. The simplest, most economical location for reboiler drawoff connections is shown in Detail 1. Alternative locations may be within the angular limit of a", This angle depends on the size of the reboiler drawoff nozzle and the width (dimension b) of the trapout boot at the tray downflow, ManhoLes- Detail 2a shows the arrangement of typical single-flow trays within the tower shell. The arcs of b" are the angular limits in which a shell manhole or handhole can be placed. Detail 2b shows the arrangement of typical doubleflow trays. Possible areas for shell manhole locations are restricted to the four segments marked co. Manholes and handholes are not usually placed in either the downflow or sealpot section of trays. Generally, where internal piping is arranged over a. tray, a manhole is included for the removal of internals, Refiux crlnnections-Reflux nozzles are provided with internal pipes that discharge the liquid Into the sealpot of the tray below. The simplest reflux-pipe internal is shown in Detail 3a. If tray orientation has already been fixed within prescribed limits by other factors, this nozzle location may be undesirable for good piping arrangement. The problem can be overcome as shown in Detail 3b, but the designer must take care that the horizontal leg of the internal pipe clears the tops of bubble caps or weirs. He must make sure that the internal pipe can be fabricated for easy removal through a manhole, or can be fabricated inside the tower shell. Dist1"ibuton-Detail 4 shows double cross-distribution pipes. In Detail 4a, the shell-nozzle orientation is restricted to twice co. The arrangement in Detail 4b does the same job and gives the shell nozzle complete freedom of orientation if the distribu tor is above the top tray. If the distributor were located between trays, as shown in Fig. 2 (center of the column), the orientation would be governed by the tray downflows. This alternative is possible only where space permits dimension i. Overhead-line connections-The vapor-outlet nozzle can be located at the top of the head (Detail Sa), or it can be located inside the shell with an internal pipe-bend leading toward the center of the head (Detail 5b). This allows the piping designer more flexibility in locating the overhead line, and arranging platforms for access to vent and instrument connections, and the top manhole. The design shown in Detail 5a not only shows a simple outlet connection but also allows the best access through the manhole. Detail 5b shows a common internal-piping connection that makes the vapor-outlet nozzle accessible from the platform that serves the top manhole. The vessel's vent connection can also be piped to be accessible from the same platform. This arrange-

ment eliminates the need for a small platform above the top head of the column (around the vapor-outlet nozzle) for access to blinds, instruments and vents. Internal piping for vapor outlets, reflux inlets, inlet distributors and tray drawoffs must be designed to clear obstructions such as bubble caps, well' dams, and downflow and tray supports. At the same time, these components must fulfill the process requirements at their locations; as well as the physical requirements of fabrication, to permit withdrawal through manholes. Access, whether internal or external, is very important. This includes accessibility of connections from ladders and platforms, and internal accessibility through shell manholes, handholes or removable sections of trays. A manhole opening must not be obstructed by internal piping.

Layout evaluation

of flow diagrams

Feed enters at the.center or the lower half of a distillation tower. Light-ends exit as. vapor at the top and are condensed. In a gravity-flow system, the condensate splits into two streams: one stream is reflux, the other goes to storage or further processing. In a pumped condensing system, a reflux drum collects the condensate, and the reflux pump delivers the liquid to the top of the column and to further processing. The liquid residue at the bottom is usually pumped to further distillation. This residue is near its boiling point. Consequently, the column must be elevated in order to meet the required net positive suction head (NPSH) of the pump. The lighter the liquid in the column, the higher this elevation becomes. If the bottom stream is pressure-delivered to, say, the next distillation column, the height of the tower skirt can be minimal. The hydraulics of a reb oiler can increase skirt height. With a bottom pUInp, the reboiler drawoff nozzle usually is sufficiently high. (The hydraulics of reboilers and condensers have been previously discussed in detail, See Chem: Eng., Aug. 4, 1975, p. 1Q7, and Sept. 15, 1975, p. 129.) We will now examine the information in Fig. 3 to show how a layout designer visualizes the flow diagram for a distillation column.

Layout in elevation and in plan
The principal features, manholes, tower platforms and pipe runs of a tower are shown schematically in elevation in Fig. 4a. Nozzle elevations are determined by process requirements, and manhole elevations by maintenance requirements. For economy and easy support, piping should drop or rise immediately upon leaving the nozzle, and should run parallel, and as close as possible, to the tower itself. The horizontal elevation for piping (after the lines leave their vertical runs) is governed by the main pipe-rack elevations. Lines that run directly to equipment at grade, more or less in the direction of the main pipe rack, often have the same elevation as the pipe rack. Reboiler-line elevations are determined by the drawoff and return nozzles, and their orientation is influenced by thermal-flexibility considerations. Reboiler lines (and overhead lines) should be as simple and as direct as possible. Lines from tower nozzles 156

155

CH£MfCAL

ENClNEERTNG AUGUST 10,197)

CHEMICAL ENGINEER1NG AUGUST 15, 1977

CE REFRESHER
that usually leads to a well-designed layout. The entire circumference of a tower is theoretically available for arranging these components. The first step is to orient the manholes, preferably all in the same direction. The lowering of tower internals to grade will be made more convenient if the manholes face the main accessway. The lined-up manholes will occupy a segment of the total tower circumference. This segment should not be occupied by any pipe runs. From a layout standpoint, it is preferable to space the platform brackets on the tower equally, and to align the brackets over each other for the entire length of the tower. This will minimize interferences between piping and structural members. Access for tower piping, valves and instruments influences placement of ladders. In Fig. 4b, the segments located at 90 and 270 have been initially chosen for placing of ladders interconnecting the tower platforms. This restricts two segments of the tower's circumference for pipeline location. Some specifications permit single-flight ladders, while others set maximum lengths that vary from 20 to 40 ft. In routing pipelines, the problem is to interconnect tower nozzles with other remote points. The tentative orientation of a given tower nozzle is on the line between the tower center and the point to which the line is supposed to run. Segments for piping going to equipment at grade (for example, overhead and reb oiler lines) are available between the ladders and both sides of th.e manholes. Lines approaching the yard can turn left or right, depending on the overall arrangement of the plant. Respective segments for these lines are between the ladders and 180°. The segment at 180 is convenient for lines without valves or instruments, because this is the point farthesl from manhole platforms. The sequence of lines around the tower is influenced by conditions at grade. Piping arrangements without lines crossing over each other give a neater appearance and usually permit marc-convenient installation. The correct relationship between process nozzles and tower internals is very important. An angle is usually chosen between the radial centerline of internals and tower-shell centerlines. By the proper choice of this angle (usually 45 or 90 to the pipe rack), many hours of work and future inconvenience can be saved. Tower piping, simplicity of internal piping, and manhole access into the tower, are affected by this angle. After this, the information produced by the designer results in selecting the correct orientation of tower nozzles. Layout should be started from the top of the column, with the designer visualizing the layout as a whole. There will be no trouble in dropping the large overhead-line straight down the side of the column. The lower spaces can then be laid out with piping and nozzles by knowing what space is already occupied by the large vertical lines. If the design is started at the base of the column, there will be later revisions when the large pipelines are routed from upper levels. An elevated condenser is more convenient from the standpoint of tower-piping layout because the large overhead line leaves the tower at a high level and crosses directly to the condenser. This opens a segment
0 0 0 0 0

T -7, absorber 4' I.D. x 92'
Drop the overhead line along the tower. Orifice can be in the vertical run, accessible from a lower elevated platform. Lines to equipment at qrade (COndenSer)\segment for ', ladder Road Provide platform for line blind, vent and instruments. Locate handling davit, if required, and make it accessible from this platform. .~ Access a to _ manhol5--'

Position the relief valve on a lower elevated platform, but above the relief-line header in the pipe rack. Note that a closed relief-line system is specified.

Tail gas

-........

'"

~.

~lee - ....,>....<"~-:....,I · ..
1

/ '

r

of platform ...............

<t

1
I

brackets

,-,

'1'. Yard

~~--~~~
<

1

:

---~4"
Ci .5
<J

Positi on the orifice and . the control set .t made, after the exchanqer-she II outlet.

nr

!

pi ping

b. Plan

0,_
Arrange the tower, exchanger and pump adjacent to each other for a short pump circuit.

,
\

,
\

6"

, , ,
\

e
130"F 115"F

/

Manholes -;; between / trays 5-6 , and 10-11
/

5}

m

<"l

10 r-... IN x

Provide an access platform for all manholes that are 1.2 ft or higher above grade. - Use this manhole-platform for access to valves, line bHnds, and instruments.

r~
Manhole

""

....

>~

. J: I-

"I I ~,
!

/

Platform

\
\

-----'----

I
E·11 11,500,000 Btu/h 2 shells

,

\.

I

E-12 950,000 Btu/h

a-8"

Ci

P-2211,200 bbl/(stream){d) 39°API 3"
Arrange a straight run for orifice. Provide access to B-in. blind (investigate handling of blindl, The line approaches from the overhead condenser and reflux drum of another tower.

=>

..
/ I

I /

Manholes / between trays 20-21 and 25-26

"' '"
rN

c

5}

~ M

x

~ ""
<,
'\

'" >f;

4"

'in

Grade

8"

~~--------:~.:~-i':W-~:w-:::-.--m-j-f-:uuo-E_I_'~-a_:;_o_~ , --.--~--n-DJ-I-U-@----------.'

130.7 moles/h 38.3 molecular weight 5,OOOlb.lh P-2313,000
Elevate the tower according to the required NPSH and suction-line loss. Arrange suction line to pump located below the pipe rack.

4"

bbl/Istream)

42.5°API

(d)

located below the yard elevation (usually the same as pipe-rack elevation) should approach the yard 2 or 3 ft below the yard elevation (see Fig. 4a). The same elevation is used for those lines that run to pumps or to equipment located below the yard elevation. Pumpsuction lines are usually arranged on this elevation. They should be as short as possible and run without loops or pockets. Pipelines from pipe rack to tower should be on a level 2 or 3 ft higher or lower than the main rack. The plan view (Fig .. 4b) of a tower shows the segments of its circumference allotted to piping, nozzles, manholes, platform brackets and ladders, in a pattern
CHEMICAL ENGlNEEJZJNG

157

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING

AUGUST

15. 1977

AUGUST

I.,. 1971

158

CE REFRESHER
at lower elevations for piping or for a ladder from grade to the first platform. Whether the condenser is at grade or at an elevated level, flexibility and thermal load connected with the large-diameter overhead lines must be considered. The relief valve protecting the tower is usually connected to the overhead line. A relief valve discharging to atmosphere should be located on the highest tower platform. In a closed relief-line system, the relief valve should be located on the lowest tower platform above the relief-system header. This will result in the shortest. relief-valve discharge leads. The entire relief-line system should be self-draining.

Method of design
The designer should first put down on paper all the available information in order to form a three-dimensional picture of the tower and its details. An example will illustrate the procedures. In Fig. 5, black lines show those details that are copied from information supplied to the designer. The designer's work is shown in color. The designer's main work is concerned with the proper orientation of nozzles, and with provisions for access to points of operation and maintenance. The designer must also consider what happens to a pipeline when it leaves the tower area. Tower piping can influence-the layout and piping design in adjacent areas and, in turn, is influenced by the adjacent piping. In Fig. 5, three 30 segments of tower platforms serve manholes number 5, 7 and 8. A break in the ladder rise usually means an additional segment (see El, 112'-5" and 134'-11"). * Small valves are arranged outside the platforms (El. 112'-5" and 134'-11") and large ones over the platforms (El. 159'-11/1) for safe and easy access. Manhole platforms are used for service-hose connections (EI. 134'-11"). Some organizations insist on having gage glasses over, or at the edge of, platforms; others accept access to these from ladders. Additional platform access should be provided to valves located opposite the manhole (see El. 111'-5/1). At El, 120'-11", a relief valve, orifice plate, transmitter and a level controller are accessible. At El. 206'-9", a platform is provided for a davit, for access to the line blind and vent valve. Despite these provisions, tower design is not yet complete. TI1e vessel expert should check the correctness of the layout designer's work as it affects the tower, and then design the tower in all its fabrication details. Pipe expansion and loads that affect the tower shell and the structural design must be investigated. Support clips, special pipe supports, and other necessary details must be added. The structural expert should design the platforming and foundation details. A tower is usually a major part of a design problem. It is advisable to treat it as a central piece of equipment and extend the design around this center. Coordination within one area is as important as coordination between adjacent plant areas, and coordination among the various experts in plant design.
0

Davlt 214'·0"

Face of flange

207'-5"

T.L

205'-0"

Platform

206'-9"

W

MH#1 203'-0" 202'-6"
199'-11 " Platform

Tower arrangements
MH#4
Platform

168'-6"
165'-9"

MH#7

138'-0"
134'-11 "

-+

___ +-_f---+ __
134'-11"

Platform

Platform

126'-0"

125'-0"
Platform 120' 11"

119'-9"

118'-7" 1B" dla. Cl~l1il,g
(Skirt access)
R\"'1> '"

117'-0"

115'-0"

rl><f.
~Cl

T. L.
Phll[orm

113'-0"

Platform

113'-6" 112' 5"

111 '·5"

(Gl

109'-6"

103'-6"
Platform 111' -6"

_+-_..:.1.::.8'_' cc:_dia. opening
(Skirt access)

4'·0" Wide

Platform 111'-5" and 112'-5"

Grade 100' -0"

100'-6"

Elevation
Legend: []], []], []], .. Tower-nozzle locations

~,

[m,

lliill.-.-

ffil ... } Instrument-tap

locations

MH
T. L.

Manhole Tangent Une

'.

II

II"

The basic ideas for tower-piping analysis and procedure are the same for one or more towers. Towers set in a line, with connecting platforms, are sometimes preferred for maintenance access and convenient operation. Platforms are supported from the towers. Early cooperation between vessel and layout designers will aid in this design. Alterations in tray spacing, internal-piping arrangement, skirt height and tower length can help to horizontally align the manholes on all towers. The same alteration will also help in lining up platforms, and in providing common access on all towers to valves and instruments. When arranging common platforms for several towers in a line, allowance must be made for differential expansion between towers. Using hinges or slots in the platforms between towers is a cornmon practice tbat introduces the required flexibility. Another arrangement is that of placing towers adjacent to buildings or structures for supporting elevated exchangers and drums, or of towers framed into steel structures. In such cases, drum platforms or exchangers should be used for access to tower manholes, valves and instruments. Wall thickness can sometimes be reduced if a long, slender tower, operating under low pressure, is laterally supported in a structure at suitable heights. Exchangers are sometimes supported on the tower. Tube-handling facilities and tubeor exchangerremoval space must be provided. Platforms for access to the exchanger bonnet, channel, valves and instruments must also be specified. Drums supported on the tower may require additional platforms. These features should be decided at an early stage of design because they affect arrangements for piping. A davit usually handles heavy equipment such as large-size relief valves and large-diameter blinds. If the davit is at the top of the tower, it can also serve for lifting and lowering tower internals to grade. Clearance for the lifting tackle to all points from which handling is required, and good access, should be provided. For packed towers, a permanent trolley beam over the fining tnanholes is usually installed, with adequate access at grade for lifting and removing the packing. Housed distillation columns are usually located along walls where no obstruction to access space is created. Condensers can be located on the roof or close to the ceiling, with gravity-flow reflux arrangement. The reboilers and pu_mps for housed columns can be located as for an outdoor installation.
CHEMICAL ENGINEillUNC

*EI. = elevation.

Acknowledgement
The contribution on vessel internals and pipe connections (starting on p. 154) by Mr. Brian D. Wooke)" London, England is greatly appreciated.

159

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING

AUGUST

15, 1977

AUGUST

1:;,1977

160

CE REFRESHER
channel nozzle of reboilers, and condensate exits at the bottom nozzle. Vapor inlet for condensers is at the top, and liquid outlet at the bottom, When large quantities of vapor have to be condensed or released, the physical change usually takes place in the shell, where more volume can be provided than in the restricted space of tubes. Counterflow provides better heat transfer than concurrent flow and is preferred. This can only be fully satisfied with single-pass exchangers on both the tubeside and shellside, or with double-pipe units. With multipass tubes and crossflow shells, this principle loses its importance. Using these principles, a single-tube-pass condenser has been arranged after a distillation column, as shown in Fig. 2a. Here, inlet and outlet have been designed by the exchanger specialist and piped up accordingly. There is nothing wrong with it. But the arrangement of Fig. 2b works just as well, and Saves welds and fittings in the large-size overhead line. The essential parts of an exchanger, as shown in Fig. 1, are:"l) tubes or tube bundle with tubesheets, baffles and tie rods; (2) the shell, housing the tube bundle, with inlet and outlet nozzles; (3) channel (front head) inlet and in most cases outlet nozzles, partitions and occasionally channel cover; (4) shell covet (rear head) with or (mostly) without outlet nozzles; and (5) exchanger supports located on the shelL Tubes and tube bundle-The most popular tube sizes range from % in. to 1 in. Tubes are in square or triangular arrangement. After the baffles have been placed around the tubes, the tubes are roller-expanded into the tubesheets at each end. The tubesheets can be welded to the shell. If the tubesheets are separate (held between flanges), they form with tubes and baffles a removable bundle. The close spacing of tubes in triangular pitch makes mechanical cleaning difficult and increases shellside pressure drop, When low shellside pressure drop is required, square pitch is used. Because of wider tube spacing, with square pitch, the shell becomes larger and the exchanger will be more expensive. In plant design, access must be provided to the tubesheets because the exchanger covers are removed for inspecting the tube ends periodically. Baffles-These are an integral part of tube bundles, and serve to (a) direct the flow horizontally and vertically in the shell for optimum heat transfer, and (b) support the tube between the tubesheets. Cross-baffles are ]18- to %-in.-thick plates suitably cut and arranged for directing flow through the shell. Exchangers usually have vertical segmental baffles; condensers have horizontal baffles, Baffles also determine the locations for inlet and outlet nozzles on the shell. Typical baffie arrangements for various types of exchangers are shown in the sketches of Table I. Segmental baffles provide a single shell pass, with nozzles at each end of the shell (see Fig. 1 and Item 1 and 2 in Table 1.). Single split-flow design has one inlet and two outlets (Item 4). Single split-flow design with horizontal baffles necessitates one inlet and one outlet (Item 7). The double-split flow shell, with horizontal baffles, has two inlets and two outlets (Item 5). The segmental two-or-more shell-pass design has nozzles at one end 170

Undesirable

Desirable Slope

How to find the optimum layout for heat exchangers
Internal elements such as tubes, baffles and tubesheets, and external components including covers, channels and nozzles, determine the extent to which simplicity in piping can be achieved.
Robe)-t Kern, H offinann- La Roche Inc. Piping connected to heat exchangers is generally uncomplicated. Piping economy depends more on knowing what alterations can be made to exchangers than on piping design. Consequently, the layout designer can influence the mechanical design of heat exchangers in the interest of economical and functional piping. Alterations to exchangers should not affect their duty and cost.

-~)-'---[
a. Conventional arrangement condenser

lout

l'--~r

b. Most economical piping provided by rotating channel 1800

m

V'' --l
I
.~ c. System has loop and packet d. Gravity-flow suction line obtained by changing direction of flow thr-ough exchanger

m

To. pump]

~ 'I'
!

-{jt~

D

The variety of exchangers in type, duty and application is very large; our design analyses will be limited to shell-and-tube exchangers in chemical plants. With modifications, the design principles are also applicable to other types of exchangers arranged in outdoor (i.e., open) or indoor (i.e., housed) chemical plants. In order to evaluate alternative possibilities of exchanger piping, we must be familiar with the construction details of exchangers, the wide range of exchanger types, and the functions and duties of exchangers in chemical plants. We can then achieve the most eco-

-r-.ekl

Pi~

\IT

m+·.'

?B 7t1

Tap~-

e. Zig-zag flow pattern

f. Shorter plplng and better flow pattern produced by relocatinq nozzles

Jr
piping design

Simplifying

the flow path improves

Fig. 2

nornical plpmg arrangements to satisfy engineering, plant-operation, maintenance and safety requirements. Let us start by reviewing the design principles and construction details for heat exchangers as these affect piping design.

Shellside nozzle (inlet) Tubeside nozzle (outlet) -""
'",

Shallside nozzle ---(outlet)

Shell-and-tube exchangers
Most shell-and-tube exchangers used in chemical plants are of welded construction (Fig. 1). The shells are built as a piece of pipe with flanged ends and necessary branch connections. Up to 24 in. dia., the shells are of seamless pipe; above 24 in., they are made of bent and welded steel plates. Channel sections are usually of built-up construction, with welding-neck forged-steel flanges, rolled-steel barrels and welded-in pass-partitions. Shell covers are either welded directly to the shell, or are built-up constructions of flanged and dished heads and welding-neck forged-steel flanges. Heat is exchanged between two fluids of differing temperatures. One fluid flows in the tubes; the other through the shell in a predetermined pattern around the tubes. Generally, cooled streams flow downward, and heated streams upward, through the tubeside or shellside of heat exchangers. When phase change takes place, this principle is essential. For liquid streams, it is a matter of preference. Vapor and gas streams can flow upward or downward, regardless of temperature . Some typical examples illustrate these principles. In most cases, water inlets are at the bottom side of exchangers, and outlets at the top. Steam enters at the top

Channel,
\

COVer

c o

<L

~

flange partition

u 'i:

--Tubeside

nozzle

(inlet)

<l:

" "' '" E

o

.?

Shell-and-tube
L_--------

exchanger

with floating head is typical of many in chemical process plants

Fig. 1

~m

~
m

a

169

CHEMICAL ENGIN~:E1UNG SEPTf:MllER

12. 1~7)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SEPTEMBER 12, 1977

CE REFRESHER
Alterations to typical heat exchangers for better piping
Possible alterations* Change direction of flow on Change nozzle location Turn tubeside nozzle radially 180· Turn shellside nozzle radially 180'

Table I

Basic types of exchangers
Many combinations of shells, shell covers and channel sections, tubes and baffles are possible for heat exchangers [1,2]. We will discuss four types: Fixed-tubesheet-Exchangers with completely enclosed tubes (Fig. 3) can be used only in clean service. Cleaning can be done by flushing through the tubeside and shellside. Cleanout cormections are provided in the piping as close as practical to the exchanger nozzles between the exchanger and block valve. Two bolted covers facilitate inspection and cleaning of tubes. Because no provision is made for tube expansion, these exchangers are built for low-temperature service. When differential expansion between tubes and shell exists, an expansion joint is built into the shell. U-tube-In this type of exchanger, the tube bundle is hairpin-shaped and can freely expand. The bundle is removable from the shell. For inplace maintenance, space must be provided in the back and front of the exchanger. Space must also be allowed for mobile tube-removal facilities. The U-tube design is used when fouling inside the tubes is not expected. Floating-head- This is the most-often used type in chemical plants (Fig. 1), and is more expensive than fixed-tube or U-tube exchangers. One end of the tube bundle has a stationary tubesheet held between shell and channel flanges. The floating head can freely expand and contract with temperature changes. Kettle-type-For high evaporation rates, tbe kettletype exchanger is chosen (Item 8 in Table I). This type can have a U-bundle or a floating-head bundle. The shell is larger to accommodate the generated vapor. These examples of exchangers show details of interest to the piping designer. Exchanger type, size, construction details, nozzle arrangements, flow direction through shell and tubes are determined by the exchanger designer, usually without taking into account external piping. Most often, the piping. designer has no influence in the design and selection of heat exchangers, but can request alternate flow and nozzle arrangements in the interest of economical piping. The piping. designer is responsible for the physical arrangement of piping, and for the efficient and trouble-free operation of process equipment, including exchangers. For example, if the piping designer blindly followed the nozzle locations and flow requirements provided by the exchanger specialist, he could end up with the piping arrangements shown in Fig. 2a, 2c and 2e. The suction line in Fig. 2c has a pocket and a loop in the line, which means longer piping, more fittings, more vents and drains, and unreliable pump operation. By reversing the flow through the exchanger, a loop, pocket, vent and drain are eliminated, as shown in Fig. 2d. Moreover, the suction line has been shortened and simplified. Another comparison is illustrated in Fig. 2e and 2f. The long zig-zag flow in Fig. 2e has been si.mplified with the more functional arrangement of Fig. 2f.

Item No.

Typi.cal heat-exchanger arrangements

Tube passes

Interchange flow media

Shellside only

Tubeside only

Both sides
same

time

Removable heads

reJIIi:l:i:i:

I

101
.

Single-pass shell

2

dl

I

I

I I I, I III t
I !

11101
!

i

2 or 4

Single-pass shell

3

dl -------~j@1
DOUble-pass shell

2 or 4

4

dl ---------3 $I
I I I Single spl it-flow shell

2 or 4

5

dl -I--I--i-3$1
Double split-flow shell

2 or4

6 Single-pass shell

2 or 4

7 Double-pass I shell

2 or 4

• ••• • •••• • • • • • •••• • •
I 1

Welded shell

Expa nsi on j oint for shell

Heat exchangers

with fixed tubesheets

Fig. 3

8

(j
I

Kettle-type

reboiler

dOl
1

9

ql~':':':':
I

I

j

T~

Single-pass shell

10

( '

i'

I I I I I I II I I I I I I I j

1101
I

2 or 4

Single-pass shell

11

(

---------~1$1
Two-pass shell

2 or 4

• ••• • •••• • •
do not affect thermal

I i

'These

possible

alterations

to 'tvp lce! arrangements

design.

when the number of passes is even, and nozzles at each end if the number is odd (Item 5, 6, 9 and 10). Heads-A channel head at the front and a cover head at the back enclose both ends of the exchanger tubesides. Inlet and outlet connections may be on one or both heads for the return flow. The heads can be cast or built-up constructions of carbon steel or alloys. The choice of head design depends on inspection and mainterrancefrequency for exchangers, Heads can be welded to the shell, or they can be flanged with additional head covers (Fig. 1)for tube inspection without disconnecting piping. Piping has to be disconnected to remove the channel. The cover usually has no piping connections. Often a davit is provided, pivoted on the shell, for cover removal. (See Fig. 7.) Inlet and outlet nozzles, and flow direction, on both tubeside and shellside are arranged to give the required flow through the unit for optimum heat-transfer. The shell and channel have vent and drain connections. Pressure, gage-glass, level-controller and relief-valve connections can also be arranged on the shell, if they are required. Two supports are usually welded on the shell, one with elongated anchor-bolt holes to permit thermal expansion. When exchangers are stacked, additional supports are necessary on the top of the bottom shell. A light structure can be designed for spacing stacked exchangers between exchanger footings.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Exchanger modifications for improved piping
Table I lists alterations to heat exchangers that can be made without a cost increase in order to achieve an
SEPTEMBER 12. 1977

171

172

CE REFRESHER
optimum piping arrangement. These may range from changing the flow direction to relocating the nozzles. The possible alterations are: Interchange flowing media between the tubeside and shellside. This change is often possible, and more so when the flowing media are similar, such as liquid hydrocarbons. Preferably, the hotter liquid should flow in the tubes to minimize heat losses through the shell or to avoid the use of thicker shell insulation. Change direction of flow' on tubesidc, on shellside, or on both sides. These changes are frequently possible and are accepted by the exchanger designer if the tubes are in double-pass or multipass arrangement and the shell has a cross-flow baffle arrangement, In exchangers having counterflow conditions, changing the direction of flow should be made simultaneously on tubeside and shellside. Change the exchanger's nozzle location on tubeside or shellside ..These changes are frequently possible on the shell and channel without affecting the required duty on most exchangers in chemical plants. The following factors can also influence the decision of the piping designer when considering changes in exchanger construction: Viscous liquids-Exchanger performance is usually improved when viscous material flows through the tubes, particularly when cooling.. On the shellside, pockets can form, thereby reducing the effective heattransfer surface. Shell leakage-When gases, liquid hydrocarbons or chemicals are watcrcooled, the water usually passes through the shell. A tube leakage will result in contaminatingthe water; a shell leakage, On the other hand, can vent process materials to the atmosphere, with potential hazard. High-pressure service-If high-pressure fluid flows on the tuheside, only the tubes, tubesheets, channels and cover have to be designed for high pressure. (A relief valve must be provided on the shell.) High pressure on the shells ide requires a much heavier shell and covers, and considerably increases the exchanger cost. Pressure drop-Where pressure drop must be minimized, the How passes through the shellside, By opening up tube-and-baffle spacing, low mass velocities can be obtained and pressure drop reduced. The larger shell increases the cost of the exchanger. Shells ide fiow-Shellside volume can be designed much larger than tubeside volume. Vaporization or condensation of freely flowing fluid is more effective than through the tubes. Corrosion-Corrosive liquids should pass through the tubes so that the shell can be made of carbon steel. Only the tubes and channel have to be made of alloy steels. Fouhng-If one medium is dirty and the other clean, passing the clean one through the shell will result in easier tube-bundle removal for cleaning, or even simpler exchanger design.

Access,

D

Yard piping

D

j
3.

Elbow nozzle reduces height of single exchanger

I
~f\'--~E~H-/lJ"it--'l 04----1,__.....;1~-----------;---;-+!
I
I
--------:~±;::-

I

)<.Ai<.J<..'\l<,,'Y

Access to valves and instru ments

D

----l-----__J.*f--H--+-------i....---£l-. iL:~~I--+--------1----=l'

i#Jefg~~~~l l... ----__
- _. -............ -. .

.= ::=;:!c.~

~_/...,I

¥

4-Sundle.removal

area~

tube length + 18 in.

----::'::. ....Li ne up fo.oti nqs
if possible
Note: ~learance5,listed here. are for exchanger having about a 2-ftsheli'diameteL

<n(n
I
c. Anqula! connection for top nozzl es d. Angular connection for bottom nozzles

Exchanger piping in plan shows arrangements for heat exchangers and space required for access

Fig. 5

Variations to nozzle arrangements save space, pipe fittings and welds

Fig.4

Mechanical modifications to exchangers
Mechanical alterations to the basic exchanger do not affect the thermal design, and can save money, provide better access, and improve piping layout, Often, the slight increase in cost caused by a special nozzle ar-

rangement is more than offset by more-economical piping. A few variations in nozzle arrangements are-shown in Fig. 4. Elbow nozzles permit the lowering of exchangers to bring them closer to grade. Elbow nozzles also enable stacked exchangers, in parallel or dissimilar service, to be arranged closer to each other. This facilitates better access and easier maintenance of exchanger valves and instruments. Angular connections can save one or two bends in the pipeline. These are more often applied to the top nozzle of the shellside or tubeside, Too many angular connections at the bottom can mean a separate drainage point on the shell or channel. The maximum angle from a vertical centerline can be about 30°. This
12. 1977

1

angle depends on nozzle and shell sizes, and internals of the exchanger, such as the baffle arrangement in the shell, and partitions in the channel. Tangential connections can save fittings, make piping arrangement simpler; and improve access to valves. For restricted space at indoor installations, and for exchangers in structures or supported on vessels, the originally designed unit might be too long. It is possible to shorten exchangers to satisfy space limitations. However, the practical rule is that a more economical heat exchanger can be designed by using small-diameter shells and maximum shell-lengths. Horizontal exchangers can be turned vertical for conserving floor space. Verticals can be changed to horizontal when installation height is restricted. Exchanger footings relative to shell and channel nozzles can also be relocated to adjust to a more-economical overall (lined-up or combined) foundation design.

working space in front, and around both ends, of the exchangers. These working spaces should be kept clear of any piping and accessories to facilitate channel, shell-cover and tube-bundle removal, well as maintenance and cleaning ..(The clearances shown in Fig. 5 are for exchangers having about a 2-ft shell diameter. Smaller units will require somewhat smaller clearances, and larger ones slightly greater.)

as

Piping in plan
The overall plant layout influences the main arrangement of exchanger piping and access (see Fig. 5). The channel-ends of exchangers face the main plant road for convenience in tube removal. The shell cover faces the pipe rack. If piping is arranged on one elevation only (between exchanger and yard piping), one pipeline will be .10cated over the exchanger centerline. It is suggested that a top shells ide nozzle be chosen for this location. The top tubeside connection can be placed on a slight angle (Fig. 4c) to miss the top shellside pipeline, in order to avoid an offset in this line. Pipelines turning to the right in the yard should be run to the right of the exchanger centerline. Those turning left should approach the. yard on the left-hand side of the exchanger centerline. Pipelines from bottom connections of exchangers should also turn up on the

Heat-exchanger piping
The information required for p~pmg design as applied to heat exchangers is the same as that required for vessel piping. * After all information has been collected, with the exchangers located on the plot plan and their elevations established, the first step is to outline clearance and
<Part 3. Glum. Eng., Aug. 15, 1977, p. 153

Cl{EMICAL ENGINEEIUNG SEPTEMBEI,t 12, 1077

174

173

CHEMICAL ENGn-rEERIi''IG SEPTEMBER

CE REFRESHER

Dimensions 2t03ft

of

,~-=_'_--------------.;:.--,
I I I I I
_____ I

Orifice ~ Pump

-----~ discharge

--~~--I
Orlfice +<'e~~cal

--==----G2 ---~~--..,-.... /
onflce. ~ ~ - - -,--

\J ~ ~~ 7------ --I

:

~L--_Lt' de -..'·.atE;
I I I I

Elevations for piping between exchangers .and yard

Elevations for pipinq to adjacent equipment

\L__.~~~-~~_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_.=~~~_._-===.-_ //
~/ Cover-removal space

Clearance between pipes and top of davit

}I

I

I

I

~_l_
_c

'.

------

T

Grads-

~~)

w \7 Z

__

-+-_
:
I-~Valve
I

I
Fig. 6

rlT7 1\\ // ..
,

,

U
j

Control valve

I

I

I

I

!

!X 1/ \

-i

6t09in.

l_~
'"

TfT
\

Line up cooler--;t, inlet nozzles I!

+-t"t

' .:..

..... I .....

. ,Cooling-water main

Clearance betw.een bottom of pipe and grade for drain valve

~,

\

\.

Clearance betw.een -_ exchanger flanges ami concrete plinth

Exchanger piping in elevation shows location of pipeline runs in relation to main pipe rack

rig~t or left side of the centerline, depending upon which way the pipeline turns in the yard. Pipelines with valves and control valves should turn toward the access aisle, which is arranged close to the exchanger. Pipelines interconnecting exchangers with adjacent process equipment can run point-to-point, just above required headroom or about on the same level as the yard piping. Reboiler-line elevations are established by the drawoff nozzle and return nozzle on the tower. Steam lines connecting to a header in the yard can be arranged on either side of the exchanger centerline without increasing the pipe length. Cooling-water lines, in most cases, are below grade, and should run right under the lined-up channel nozzles of all coolers, The warm-water return header is usually adjacent 'to the cooling-water' supply main. Access to valve handwheels and instruments will influence the piping arrangement around heat exchangers. Valve handwheels should be accessible from grade and from a convenient accessway, These accessways should be used for arranging manifolds, control valves and instruments.

Piping in elevation
Fig. 6 shows an exchanger in elevation with adjacent process equipment and single-level yard piping. The main elevation for lines between the exchanger nozzles and yard piping is about 2 to 3 ft lower than the yard elevation. This elevation can be used for pump-discharge lines, if the pump is under the yard piping and near the exchanger, and for lines connecting to equipment arranged below the yard piping. To avoid condensate drainage toward the exchanger, the preferred 175
CHEMICAL

connection for steam lines is to the top of the header. However, there is nothing wrong in having a steam connection to the bottom of the header if steam traps are placed at the low point. Orifice flanges in exchanger piping are usually in horizontal pipe runs that should be just above headroom.. The orifice should be accessible from a portable ladder. When convenient, pipes having an orifice and differential-pressure-cell measuring element can be located about 2Y2ft from grade to the centerline of the \" pipe. Orifices in a liquid line and using a mercury-type measuring element require more height. Long, vertical measuring U-tube gages must be just below the orifice. In gas lines, the U-tube can be above the pipeline containing the orifice.. Lines containing orifice Banges should have the necessary straight runs before and after the orifice. Locally mounted pressure and temperature indicators on exchanger nozzles, on the shell, or on process lines should be visible from the access aisles. Similarly, gage glasses and level controllers on exchangers should be visible from. this aisle, and associated valves accessible. Instrument connections on exchangers should have sufficient clearances between flanges and exchanger supports, and between instruments and adjacent piping. Insulation of piping and exchangers should also be taken into account. Consideration should be given to internal details of heat exchangers when arranging instruments. Excessive piping strains on exchanger nozzles from the actual weight of pipe and fittings and from forces of thermal expansion should be avoided. The data in Fig. 7 emphasize often overlooked diSEPrmvIHER [2, 1977

I

Clearances are essential around shell-and-tube heat exchangers for ease of installation and maintenance

Fig. 7

I

1

mensions and interferences related to exchanger-piping design.

Layout of exchangers

affects pIpIng design

Process equipment in most plants is arranged in the sequence of process flow. Whatever layout system is used, the. general evaluation regarding exchanger locations is similar. In plant layout, the fractionation towers should be arranged first, and the other equipment after the proper tower sequence has been established. The position of an exchanger in chemical and petrochemical plants usually depends on the location of distillation columns. The relative position of exchangers can be readily evaluated from flow diagrams. For exchanger positions, the following general concepts apply:
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

1. Exchangers should be immediately adjacent to other equipment-for example, reboilers should be located next to their respective towers; condensers should be next to their reflux drums close to the tower. 2. Exchangers should be close to other process equipment-for example, exchangers in closed pump-circuits (some reflux circuits). In the case of drawoff flow through an exchanger from a vessel bottom, the exchanger should be close to and under the tower or drum in order to have short pump-suction lines. 3. Exchangers between two distant pieces of process equipment, as shown in Fig. Sa-for example, exchangers with process lines connected to both shellside and tubeside-should be located where the two streams meet in the pipe rack and have a parallel run, and on that side of the yard where the majority of related
SEPTEMBER 12, 1977

ENGINEERING

176

Most undesirable

location ·for exchanger Road Process equipment

Most undesirable

location for exchanger

PLANT LAYOUT/S

Process equipment Road \
\

Arrangements of process and storage vessels
b. Exchangers between equipment and unit limits

location xUndestrable

/
I

locations/
distant

a. Exchangers

between

equipment

Economical use of structural supports and space depends on the type of drum or storage vessel, its relationship in the flow sequence, and the connections to associated plant equipment.
Fig. 8 Robert Kern, Hciffrnann - La Roche Inc.

Locations for heat exchangers in plant layout depend on the functional use of each unit

equipment is placed. Fig. 8 shows that northside locations will cost more in pipe runs. 4. Exchangers between process equipment and the unit limit, as shown in Fig. 3b-for example, product coolers-should be located near the unit limit in order to minimize pipe runs. A further step in layout is to establish those exchangers that can be stacked in order to simplify piping and save plot space. Most units in the same service are grouped automatically. Two exchangers in dissimilar services can also be stacked. Sufficicnt clearances must be provided for shellside and channelside piping between the two exchangers. Reboilers and condensers usually stand by themselves, alongside their respective towers. Design specifications usually limit the maximum" height of exchangers to about 12 ft to the top of the shell, so that mobile equipment can conveniently handie the tube bundles.

flanges and head, and bundle-pulling space in front and in line with the shell (Fig. 5). Bundle pulling at grade is facilitated by hitching points. A chain or rope is fixed to the bundle and hitching point, and a pulley transmits the necessary force and motion for removal. The hitching point can be at grade. The distance between the front of the exchanger and the hitching point is about twice the bundle length. A more positive pulling force can be exerted horizontally if the hitching point is in line with the exchanger centerline. Existing structures, in convenient positions, can be used for rigging the pulling beam for bundle removal. Trolley and pulling beams in a permanent structure over exch angers can also be arranged for single or stacked exchangers. Structural clearances are '. equal to one bundle length plus 12 to 18 inches. For handling a row of single or stacked exchangers at grade, a travelling gantry can be provided. The gantry consists of trolley beam, trolley, and pulling beam on a structural frame that can be moved on rails along the front of a row of exchangers. With a mobile bundle-puller, four tubular legs are placed in front of the exchanger. These support the bundle at grade and enable a removal cart to be raised into position. The reaction to the pulling forces is taken up by struts attached to the exchanger footing. Ropes and pulley attached to the bundle transfer the force and motion while the bundle slides out on the elevated cradle, which is then lowered to grade, The next article of this CE REFRESHER appear in will the issue of Nov. 7, 1977, and will review arrangements for process and storage vessels.

Maintenance procedures
For shop maintenance, piping has to be disconnected in order to remove the exchanger from its location. Inplace maintenance can consist of changing gaskets, and cleaning, reaming or plugging of tubes. Removable bundles are pulled out of the shell for cleaning and repair; the shell is cleaned in place. The piping designer can help maintenance operations by: Designing and supporting piping so that no temporary support will be required for removing the channel and tube bundle. On the other hand, temporary supports can easily be built. Providing easily removable spool pieces (Fig. 7), flanged elbows, break flanges, or short pipe runs to provide adequate clearances for the operation of tuberemoval equipment. Leaving space and access around exchanger

All aspects of engineering design, from administration to engineering calculations, form a highly complex network of activities. An effective design engineer or manager must thoroughly know design concepts and details. Economy, time effectiveness, and quality have to be accomplished simultaneously, and depend primarily on design ideas, methods and procedures. Full knowledge of these will enable the design engineer to: • Control project budget. • Optimize project cost. • Assess quality of design. • Meet completion dates for project. Our discussion on process and storage vessels will illustrate layout procedures, design ideas and principles that are often generally applicable. We will begin with an assembly-line technique for vesseldesign, and follow with analyses for process vessels, drums, supporting structures, and plant layout for drums and tanks.

o

Assembly-line vessel design

T

1

o

o

References
1. "Heat Exchangers," Mal1ual No. 700-A,. The Patterson-Kelley Co, East Stroudsburg, PA 18301. 2. "Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association," Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Assn., New York, NY 10017.

Fig. 1 shows how layout activities fit into the overall effort for vessel design. We will describe this assembly line in five major steps: Step I is the basic process design that includes vessel sizing, design of internals, catalyst-bed dimensions, required process connections, number of manholes and locations. Step 2 establishes the hydraulic-design requirements. All vessel-connection sizes for process, utility and relief-valve lines are worked out, as well as sizes for vent, drain and steam-out piping. At this stage, the elevations of all connections are given relative to the vessel's tangent lines. Step 3 incorporates all instrument connections. The

necessary information is obtained from the process-control. diagram and instrument-data sketches. Step 4 adds the requirements for plant layout and graphic piping design. In this step, all nozzles are oriented, and the. details for the basic structural design worked out. These details include vessel elevation and support (legs, lugs or skirt), platform and access, any point load on the platform (for example, a relief valve), pipe flexibility and support. The required input for this step is obtained from the process-and-instrumentation flow diagrams, manufacturers' catalogs for dimensions of all piping components and instrumentation hardware, and standard drawings for structural details such as platform-bracket spacing and supporting clips on the vessel. The layout designer puts the vessel in its environment and produces a functional relationship between valves and access space (for example, between vessel and pump). Requirements for fabrication, construction, safety and plant operation should be satisfied. Up to this step, any changes in vessel design will not affect design time and manhours. All of the information worked out in Step 3 goes to piping, structural, and mechanical vessel-design groups for simultaneous progress in the overall design effort, Step 5 embodies the.mechanical design for the process vessel. This completes the activities of vessel design. In this step, stress calculations are made; vessel rating, wall thickness, and corrosion allowance added; material, specification, code and safety requirements evaluated; all details developed, and fabrication drawings produced. Changes to vessel design at this stage can affect time, manhours and quality of design. All of the steps shown in Fig. 1 can be executed by one designer. Or, each step can be performed by a specialized department (as is usual with large contrac-

o

177

CHEJ\-HCAL

ENGJNEERlNG

SEPTEMBER

12. 1977

CHEM1CAL

ENGINEERING

NOVEMllER

7. 1977

93

CE REFRESHER

[AJ

t;
'" '"
rb

t:iliti
<;F-

~!
9
e
Legend:

[K]
[[]

2" Inlet 2" Outlet 1" Vent 1" Drain 2" Relief·valve connection 11/2" Steam out 1" Pressure connection 1
U

[I]
1;>
N io [[] ' Tangent
line

8" HH-1

9
18"MH-2

N

rn
IT]
~

I

[ii]
Step 1: Basic design

~ ;,.
ir>
Grade elevation

I2illJ

rn:w
HH MH

Level gage

r

1" Level gage Handhole Manhole

All connections are 150 psi raised-face flange.

tors). Steps 2 and 3 can be parallel operations. Steps 1, 2 and 3 can be carried out in the process department, Step 4 in plant layout and piping, and Step 5 in the vessel section. An assembly line works well if each necessary operation is done in the shortest time possible and the time lag (handling) between operations is minimal. Major design contractors recognize this, They simplify design work, have uniform methods and procedures, standard engineering data and calculation forms, an established philosophy for plant layout and piping design, uniform and systematic design-drawing presentation, and welldeveloped procedures. The prime interest in design activities should be how to organize competence into performance. Paperwork (with all the printing and mailing) that does not contribute to performance is useless,A taskforce can reduce much of the "handling" between design steps. The following procedures can cut calendar time and manhours and improve quality: routing the original design documents directly between individuals, eliminating printing, transmittals and mailing; reaching agreements before formally distributing a design for approval; and incorporating design changes on drawings before printing.

categories: (a) intermediate storage generally located adjacent to process units or buildings, and (b) feed, chemicals and product tanks generally located remotely from process units. These drums and tanks occupy substantial space because of size, spacing, paving, curbing, acidproofing and diking requirements,

Arrangements

for drums

Spacing for process vessels
o o co

~D

I

.-l:::::' c ~"O
0> '"

Step 4: Vessel layout
7/'16" thick 2:1 ellipsoidal head each end /Std. dwg. No. 102
r

.Speclficatlons

Ladder clips Std. dwq, No. 10.4 -...., ~ E AP in "Platform clips
'1

18"IMH-2

fA]
Removable distributor 1" Sch 40 pipe 100-118" holes equall y 'paced b

I

Materials

~
Step 2: Process and utility connections

9
i--

'"
1" securing pin and·-,- __ release chain

Design data

,

I
I

---'-"'-'---=-"--/
'"

Ladder clips / Std. dwg. No. 104 3Ie9', l3" X 3" X 114" Std. dwg. No.1 01 Notes: Reference

Weight

_ drawings

Etc.

Table of connections Title, dwg. No., etc, o co

Step 3: Instru ment connections

Step 5: Vessel mechanical

design

Much similarity exists between distillation-column and exchanger layout and piping on the one hand, and vessel layout and piping on the other. The same set of information is required. * Much simpler but similar flow-diagram evaluation and graphic piping-design analysis can be made. Design methods and conceptual details differ very little. A layout designer is primarily interested in what space the process vessel and associated plant components occupy, The following classification is made from this standpoint: 1, Drums in process and utility systems are used for (a) surge volume to hold liquid for a specific length of time and (b) liquid-vapor separation, or separation of immiscible liquids with differing specific gravities. These vessels are simple and are usually arranged in a chemical plant in process-flow sequence. Drums in this category include reflux drums, surge drums and various hydrocarbon-collecting drums in process service; drums for additives in chemical plants, decanters, etc.; steam-flash and condensate-collecting drums in utility service; and holding drums for caustics and acids. 2. Drums with internal parts (often, agitators) for mixing operations, These can range from a simple drum with a motor and propeller agitator to a glass-lined kettle with agitator, seal, gear and motor drive, and a heating/cooling jacket. Materials of construction for these drums are carbon steel, stainless steel and glass lining. Mixing drums require more space than holding tanks in order to provide room for the removal of internal parts and associated exchangers, pumps and holding pots. These vessels are usually located in a process-flow sequence in chemical plants. 3. Storage vessels and tanks can be listed in two
'See Part 3 of this series, Glum. Eng., Aug. 15, 1977, PI'. 153~1~4.

Process drums are designed independently from plant-layout and piping arrangements, However, alternative drum sizes and details of manholes, nozzles and support arrangements can be evaluated in the interest of overall economy, The piping associated with drums is usually simple, Economy of piping, and access to valves and instruments, depend on well-oriented nozzles. Fig. 2a shows conventional nozzle arrangements for process, utility and instrument lines on a horizontal drum, Let us evaluate in detail the locations for the various nozzles and saddle supports. Inlet/outlet-Liquid or vapor/liquid inlet is on the top and at one end of the drum; outlet, on the bottom at the opposite end, A bottom inlet is also possible but this introduces an internal standpipe and weir-plate inside the vessel (see sketch in Fig, 2a). This arrangement may be feasible for a large-diameter connection because a bottom inlet can save piping and fittings, In some cases, centrally located inlet and outlet nozzles are more convenient, and often accepted by the process engineer and vessel designer. The vapor outlet in this case is usually diametrically opposite the liquid outlet. Veltts and drains-Vent nozzles are located on the top, preferably near one end, with the drum drain on the bottom, at the opposite end, This arrangement is especially important if the vessel slopes towards its drain point. On horizontal vessels,drain and vent lines can be anywhere along the drum where valve handwheels can be conveniently accessible, If the drum has a top manhole, the vent can be located on the manhole cover..A drain valve can be located at the low point of the outlet piping instead of on the vessel. Reliefvalue-Connections for relief valves can be placed anywhere on the top of the drum, preferably close to nozzles having valves, so that the relief-valve access platform can also be used for access to valve handwheels. Steam-outs-It is advantageous to position steam-out connections opposite the vent line (or manhole). These hillside connections (parallel to a tangent) are often located (Fig. 2a) to provide convenient access for attaching the steam hose, and for inducing the steam to whirl inside the vessel when the steam-out is operated, When steam purging, the vent (sometimes, the manhole) is open to release the gases accumulated in the drum. Levelgages-During operation, the liquid level in the drum is constantly agitated by the incoming liquid and by vortex action over the drawoff connection, (This agitation can be dampened by internal baffles.) If the inlet is at one end and outlet at the other end of the vessel, the least-agitated liquid section will be at about the center of the drum. This is the best location for gage glasses and level controllers, The instrument engmeer
NOVEMjjER l. J917

94

CHEMICAL

ENGfNEERlNG

NOVEMBER

7, ln77

CHEMIGAL

ENGINEERING

95

CE REFRESHER
much as possible, providing that the lines from these nozzles run in the direction of the pipe rack.
Relief valve Level controller Level gage

Layout variations
Press. gage

I

I

Itt

Vent

Vapor outlet

..
,

I
Tangent line

Tangent

line

1/5 L-+~---

3/5

L--~~-I-1-1/5L

~------L------------~I
a. Nozzle and manhole locations

For functionality and economy, a number of layout variations are available. Within limits, the drum size can be changed. Identical diameters or identical lengths can be an advantage when arranging supports and access platforms for a group of drums. Often, vertical drums can be changed to horizontal, or vice versa, if cost or space savings are possible. Drums having identical diameters and process-liquid temperatures can be combined (Fig. 2b). Vessel head, welding, supports, platform steel and spaCe can be saved by so doing. In some ammonia units, four drums, about 5 It dia. each, were combined to give a total overall length of about 24 ft. The combined unit required two tapered saddle supports, and only one access platform along the horizontal vesseL Vertical drums have also been combined. Horizontal drums up to 6 ft long can have one saddle support (Fig. 2c). A tapered saddle simplifies concrete support (Fig. 2d).

Maximum bending moment

-(1--- -9-

It

I

I

-8

11

1-

I-I}

-(1--'-'-8I I
Straight

Economy of supports
In plant design, overall economy of vessel layout depends on the supporting structure. A few commonsense examples will be given. The principles illustrated by these examples can be applied to a variety of designs for supporting equipment in process plants. A steel frame supports two vertical vesselsas shown in Fig. 3. Considering identical steel sizes for the structure, the arrangement in Fig. 3a requires 30%more steel than that in Fig. 3b. The difference between the two structures is in the orientation on the structural-steel grid of the legs supporting the vessel. The manner in which contact points are arranged between vessel legs or lugs on the one hand and the supporting-beam grid on the other can make a cost difference when supporting vessels in structures or buildings. Generally, a combined layout and structural review can establish the optimum supporting-beam configuration. (When a petrochemical plant is built on pile foundations, cooperation between the plant-layout group and the structural-design engineers can save substantial capital cost.) In Fig. 3c, corner supports are shown under the vessel 'lugs. These corner supports must be fabricated as removable members if the vesselis to be lifted into place. By supporting the vessel directly on the beam griq (Fig. 3d), we can eliminate the corner supports and facilitate easy erection of the vessel without doing fieldwork on steel. Fig. 3 also points out the advantage of having identical vessel diameters for simplebeam-arrangements. The bending-moment diagrams >I< for the supporting steel are shown in Fig. 3 for the two arrangements. The maximum bending moment is much greater for the arrangement of Fig. 3a than for Fig. 3b. In this example, the difference will perhaps not show up in steel
"The fixed-end moments fOI' the steel structures are not included in the. moment diagrams. See Merritt, F. S., ed., "Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers," 2nd ed., pp. 6-52-6-53, McGraw.Hill, New York, 1976, for further information.

a. Leq-supported drums (less economical design Vessel

f

b. l.eq-supported drums (more economical design) Lug position, during erection

:,

i\--Corner

I

supports

'j
\ \ \

-(I------I)-----IjI I

[1

-tl---t--Ij_ill
Tapered c. Single support for small drum d. Saddles

c. l.uq-supportad drums (less economical design)

d. Lug·supported drums (more economical design)

b. Combining

drums saves supports

supplies the range for liquid-level measurements and nozzle elevations. If flow quantities are very small, the meniscus in the gage glass will not be disturbed by placing an inlet nozzle close to instrument connections for measuring leveL Pressure and lemperature- The pressure connection should be located in the vapor space at the top of the vessel, so that the face of the pressure gage is visible from grade or platform. The temperature connection is usually a hillside connection, inline and close to the bottom outlet, and pointing toward the access aisle or platform. Manholes-These can be positioned on the top, to the 96

side, or at one end of the vessel, Customer preference often determines their location. Generally, platform access is required if the manhole centerline is 12 (t or more above grade. Vesselsaddles-Ideally, saddles are positioned at one fifth of the drum length from each tangent line (Fig. 2a). This dimension is flexible, and saddles can be quite close to the vessel's tangent lines if required. Plant layout and location of equipment around process drums can also influence nozzle location. The liquid outlet should be the Dazzle nearest the pumpsuction nozzle. Process, utility and relief-line connections should be grouped to run toward the pipe rack as

sizes. But the example does point out the need for consideration to be given when designing the supporting steel under process equipment. Hence, for economical loading patterns on steel supports, the aim should be closebeam spans, a minimum of point loads, and direct column loading. Between the alternates shown in Fig. 4a, the design on the b.ottom (narrower span and more-direct loading to grade) is more economical than the top design. For large, heavy reactors, the arrangement in Fig. 4b, where the vessel rests on concrete columns, can be an alternative to Fig. 4a. The central supports are combined in order to support two vessel lugs on each column. By examining the graphic configurations of the alternates in Fig. 4c, we find that the arrangements on the bottom will cost less than those on the top. (Note the direct column load and access platform supported on the piperack steel.) The combination of supporting drums and other process equipment can also save cost, as shown in Fig. 4d. Horizontal drums can be supported on exchangers if dimensions are suitable. 97

CHEMICAL ENGli'IeERING NOVEMBER 7, 1977

CHEMICAL ENGli'IEERlNG NOVEMBER 7, '977

CE REFRESHER

I
L-~

Future manufacturing

building
~...J

IIl:iJ~~~I
--

I
L.._

Future storage drums .J

l
- -Main

.

plant road-

II

-1-

I

Metering --hO'luse

000000
(Less economical) Side view (Less economical)

I ~

o I gig I g I
I ~

~--~==~--~'------~
/

Curb

0

I

Futur~J pipe rack

-'Ollerlle~d

Chern icalm anufacturi ng

I

91glglglg1 "v
\ iPlulmlpl'l IPlulmlPisI Cross section drum d. Drum and exchangers
_J._'II---'- _

---..,"Road
Future Dike

I

-_j

Elevation (More economical) a. Vertical drum b. Large, heavy reactors Side view (More. economical) c. Horizontal

_...J'--~~L.__/I"_

~_.LJ......!__~_L)\f--l_~

F~i'

o
I
I !

50ft
J

.

,.

Reactors with agitators, large motors and gears can become vibration-prone and noisy. One such example is a glass-lined reactor with a 325-hp agitator-motor drive. As shown in Fig. 5a, the foundation has been designed separately from the building footing to avoid vibration. No building or floor steel is attached to the kettle and drive, so as to minimize building resonance and, consequently, noise. The motor and gearbox are supported on the kettle. These layout principles can be applied when arranging reciprocating machinery, cen-

trifuges or process equipment having moving parts. Outdoor installations for large reactors are shown in Fig. 5b and 5c. Again, the graphic presentation shows that the arrangement in Fig. 5c is a more economical one and of superior design to that of Fig. 5b. Dimensional spacing determines the relative location between structural steel and reactors, platforms or floor access. In turn, dimensional spacing depends on (a) access to points of operation, inspection and maintenance, (b) equipment located around the reactor such

as condenser, collecting drum, heaters, pump and pipe manifolds, (c) size and depth of concrete foundation, and spacing for kettle and building footings, and (d) removal-space requirement for kettle internals, gearbox and drive.

be located toward the peripheral road. The following layout illustrates these concepts:

Layout of drums and tanks
Because drums and tanks are simple plant components in their arrangements, a commonsense plant-layout method can be illustrated for the relationship in a chemical manufacturing building between the intermediate, feed, solvents and chemical drums and tanks, and the piperack and handling activities. To begin with, let us examine the broad aspects * (in a plan view) for a chemical plant having a central piperack:

*
I

+---Road--+-----t
Pump' Process equipment
Process equipment
Work tanks

I

n..

+-----+--RO.d---+
Work tanks Unloading pumps

I

Pump,

I

~

Chemicals storage Charge pump' Hydrocarbons
Charge pumps

Unloading pumps

I
_

Road.l

storage

I

/ ,'/ ,/------------,_--; /' Building steel is not attached to reacto r and drive
/

Access on wing platform

Lugs on steel support

I

/

I I I I

+
..
I
Process equ ipmsnt

I

,
/

r

I Reactor

J

I

BuildinqBuilding' Dike
I

'

....
Dike

I ,

+-----+
This concept can be repeated for all the drums. Intermediate-storage or work tanks are often in or adjacent to the process unit or building, with the transfer pumps (inside or outside) located along the building wall. Storage drums are usually remote from the manufacturing building. For piping, the shortest distance between the process plant and the storage vesselsis in the center of the plant area. Charge pumps should be near or under the pipe rack. If separate unloading pumps are used, they should
'See also Fig. 2 in Part 2, Chern. Eng., July 4, 1977, P: 124.

I

I

I

/

/

/

~~___ a. Vi bration isolation

__ -=-_-:_-.: Separate

building and reactor footings b. Outdoor (less economical) c. Outdoor (more economical)

The next step is to estimate the areas required (adjacent to the manufacturing plant) that contain other vessels, pumps, piping and access to them, and additional plant facilities such as the truck scale, nitrogenstorage area, metering station, and truck turnaround areas. All of these are surrounded by roadways. The final arrangement is shown in Fig. 6. The truck scale is approached directly from the main entrance. Trucks can turn around and park at unloading pumps. The metering house is centrally located and near the piperack so as to provide a minimum distance to all the pumps, truck scale and process unit. (The metering house is where supervisory personnel are located.) Piping is overhead, as simple and as short as possible. Electric and instrument runs are also supported on the piperack steel. For safety, there are no pumps in diked areas. Dikes can be drained through plug valves operated from outside the dikes. Diked andcurbed areas are sloped to one corner toward the piperack in order to provide short drain-effluent leads to the process-sewer header located in the center of the drum-storage area. Roads are arranged in the center of the plant, under the piperack, and also at the peripheries of buildings, drums and tanks. 99

98

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING NOVEMBER 7, 1977

CHEMICAL ENGINEERJNG NOVEMBER 7. 1977

CE REFRESHER

PLANT LAYOUT 6
Capacity, gpm Single·inlet impeller ( End sucri on, top discharge) or (Top suction, top discharge)
I

Pump nozales Suction, in. 2 3 3 4 Discharge, . in. Suction, in. 2-3 4 4-6 6-8

Pipe sizes Discharge, in. 1-2 2-3 Floor space ft 1.5 1.5 2 2 X X X X 4 5 5.5 6

How to get the best process-plant layouts for pumps and compressors
Economy of piping and structures, along with ease of operation and maintenance, are the principal aims when making arrangements for pumps and compressors, their drivers and auxiliary components.
Robert Kern, Hojfinann - La Roche Inc.

up 100 200 300

to to to to

100 200 300 700

1% 2 3

3-4 3-6

'"

I

I

Double-inlet impeller [Side suction, side discharge)
Nozzle and pipe dimensions

700 to 1,000 1,000 to 1,500
are nominal pipe sizes.

6
8

4

6

8 10-12

6 6-8

2X6 2.5 X 6.5

D Layout design and piping configurations affect the capital cost of, and energy used by, pumps and compressors. We will combine the discussion for this equipment because the requirements for layout and piping design often overlap. Significant differences will be taken up separately. Piping design can be influenced only to a limited degree by the choice of alternatives. Since pumps and compressors have been extensively described [1-6], we will review only the pertinent details of this equipment as they affect plant design, layout, and piping design.">,
Centrifugal pumps for process plants
If a pressure difference does not exist between two points in a piping system, a pump (or compressor) has to be used to provide the necessary flow. Centrifugal machines are the types most frequently found in process plants. The discharge head of a centrifugal pump (or compressor) depends on the type of impeller, its diameter and speed. Impellers (Fig. la) have three basic forms: 1. Radial Flow-In the radial-flow pump, the inlet is axial and the outlet radial. The discharge head is provided entirely by centrifugal force. This impeller is suitable for developing high heads. Most process pumps and compressors belong in this category. Many horizontal and vertical pumps have this type of impeller. 2. Mixed Flow-In the mixed-flow pump, the liquid enters axially and the impeller discharges at an angle to the pump shaft. In this design, the energy imparted to

the. liquid is a combination of centrifugal force and axial displacement. Some vertical pumps have this type of impeller. 3. Axial Flow-In the axial-flow pump, the liquid' enters and leaves axially. All the energy imparted to the liquid is by the lifting action of the impeller. There is virtually no centrifugal force. Some vertical pumps have this type of impeller. Axial-flow compressors or blowers have low heads and high impeller speeds. Before considering layout and piping design for these machines, we will examine the mechanical-design characteristics of centrifugal pumps. The single-stag_epump has one impeller. In response to the needs of the chemical process industries, a "standard" design (Fig. 1b) was developed. This standard pump was originally known as the American Voluntary Standard, AVS, pump, but is now made in accordance with ANSI B73.1-1974. The pump has a single-end suction. A wide capacity range is available from a few interchangeable impellers. Rotating parts can be removed without disturbing piping, casing or motors. This pump can be used when the suction vessel is at grade, the suction line is near grade, the liquid is subcooled, or available NPSH is low. A variation of the horizontal end-suction pump has the inlet located at the top of the pump casing, as shown in Fig. lc. Here, the piping and valving will occupy less space, but the suction vessel must be elevated. The horizontal-Inlet pump can also be used, but piping and valving will occupy space in front of the pump suction. Estimates of the floor space required for these pumps are given in Table I. Multistage pumps have two or more impellers in

series. The discharge of one impeller is the suction of the next one. The heads developed in all stages are totaled. These pumps are for working against high discharge pressure-for example, heads provided by mediumpressure and high-pressure boiler-feed pumps. Depending on the number of stages, the casing can be long (Fig. ld) for multistage pumps, and more space will be needed. Suction and discharge nozzles are usually vertical on these pumps. Pumps having horizontally split casings should have access from both sides for convenience in maintenance. The barrel-type arrangements (vertically split 'casings) require removal space in front of the pump for pulling the shaft and impeller during inplace maintenance.

Impeller and casing design
A variety of centrifugal-type impellers exist. Liquid accelerates through the cavities of the enclosed impeller. The wide impeller provides high capacities and low head-usually for pumping slurries, sewage and water. The semi-enclosed impeller has one side open; the pump casing encloses the open side of the impeller vanes. The open impeller is enclosed on both sides by the pump casing. The double-inlet impeller has two impeller eyes, and is usually found in relatively highhead and high-capacity pumps used for, cooling-water and fire-water services. Large-capacity water pumps usually have horizontally split casings with a double-inlet impeller. Inlet and outlet are horizontal (i.e., at right angles to the pump shaft), and suction piping is simple-often a short, straight line with one or two expansion joints. A horizontal elbow at the pump suction is undesirable because it supplies uneven flow to the double-inlet impeller. This can affect the life of pump bearings. Maintenance is simple and can be done without disconnecting the piping. Considerable space is required around these pumps because of the large-size lines, fittings and valves, and to meet space requirements for mobile-maintenance facilities. Vertically split casing (perpendicular to the pump shaft) lends itself to good maintenance access. For lar:ge pumps, clearance has to be provided in front of the pump for casing-head removal, and shaft and impeller

pulling. (In some of these pumps, the impeller can be removed toward the driver.) Most pumps are horizontal and must be mounted with the motor shaft and pump shaft carefully aligned. Inline pumps are compact, and economical from the standpoint of capital cost, layout, piping design and maintenance. According to their manufacturers, inline pumps (5 to IOO-gpm capacity) can be mounted horizontally, vertically up or down, or at any angular position. If necessary, inline pumps can be located overhead without looping the piping to grade. However, it is important that temporary or permanent access be provided to these pumps and their associated valves and instruments. Large inline pumps have a pedestal and have to be supported on a vertical plinth. Such pumps are generally located at grade or floor level.

Vertical-shaft pumps
Vertical pumps occupy small areas but require removal access and vertical space for lifting the motor, pump shaft and impellers (Fig. l e and If). On many types, motor and pump shaft can be separately removed. Several types of vertical pumps are available. Their principal features are: • The submerged pump is a single radial-impeller pump with a long vertical shaft (Fig. l e), Required submergence and inlet dimensions are specified by the manufacturers. Suction-pit size and depth must satisfy these conditions. • The wet-pit propeller pump has a mixed-flow impeller. The impeller's lifting action is usually applied in several stages. In some pumps, the propeller blades can be adjusted to suit operating conditions. • Deepwell pumps have impellers with radial or mixed-flow discharge. Each impeller is in a semienclosed housing with discharge vanes. A great number of impellers can be mounted in series. Consequently, these pumps can develop high heads, and they find use for pumping well water. A long shaft (and the corresponding removal height) can be avoided by using a submersible motor. A foot valve at the inlet keeps vertical pumps primed. One of the maintenance operations is to clear the foot 132

131

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DECEMlIt:R 5, 1977

CHEM1CAL ENGINEERING DECEMUER, 5, 1977

_,
CE REFRESHER

I

Radial flow

Mixed flow
Est;;:lblish sequence of pumps

Provide gulley between

(or in front of) ptllnp'·.

Control

Axial flow

a. Type of impellers h. End-suction (For elevated and top-discharge pump vessels and vessels at grade)
Space pumpssvrnrnetricallv and equallv, and in case 'of two rows) on the same cenrerll nes . • Whe,n spacinq, estimate tD1Pingand valves, give access between pumps and between pump's and cotumn center lines. • 'Pos.ition control sets near to structural column. • Set rilmehston b. to each discharqe nozzle of pumps. _-,Piperack
--,.y/

Plan

_-•••••
Control valve, orifice runs \, Top-suction and top-discharge pump (For elevated suction vessels) d. Multiimpeller pump (Requires more space)
-,
.\ Co

•••••

••

Set elevation of floor and bottom of base plates',

, ,,~---Electric cables \ \Cooling water '--Gland oil

'0. E
OJ D-

'"
c o

~
DU III

-" c
u,

'" -e 'iii

g. Close-coupled

pump

[Mounts in any position!

e. Sump pump (Requires welldimensioned pit)

f. Vertical

process pump Flexibility in inlet and outlet orientation)

valve and inlet screen by removing the pl~mp from its pit. For this purpose, valves, piping and electrical conduits should not interfere with the operation. • The dry-well pump is the most commonly used vertical pump in process plants (Fig. 1£).It is a shorter and enclosed version of the deepwell pump ..Its suction and discharge nozzles are above grade, but the impeller inlet is below grade. Priming is not required. The pump is removed with its casing. To exploit the capabilities ofa vertical process pump, it should be located right under, or alongside, the vessel it takes suction from. Provision can be made for mobile-crane removal space or hitching points. For dry-well pumps, the suction and discharge nozzles can have any practical horizontal angle to each other to suit required piping arrangements. Off-the-

shelf pumps have suction and discharge nozzles at 180 to each other.

0

Types of pump drives
Cradle-mounted pumps having coupled drivers are the most common units (Fig. Ib, lc and l d), Most centrifugal pumps are electric-motor driven. Tu rhi nedriven (steam, gas or hydraulic) pumps need substantially more space for the gearbox, valves, piping and instrumentation than motor-driven pumps. Maintenance access and possible overhead trolley beams have to be planned for. Close-coupled pumps are mounted directly on the driver-motor shafi: (Fig. 19). These pumps are compact and can work in any shaft position. Due to their design, capacities are limited. The discharge nozzle can be 134

133

CH8MICAL

ENf;!NEERING

)JECEMIlER

5,1977

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DECEMBER 5, 1977

CE REFRESHER
rotated in bolt-hole increments relative to the motor base. These features give unusual flexibility in layout and piping design. Gear-driven pumps are designed to handle the different requirements between driver and pump speeds. These pumps· are usually installed horizontally, with a horizontal or vertical offset between driver and pump shafts. This increases overall width and length and, for vertical offset, height.
»:"

, Electric conduit

placed on a common concrete plinth, with one starter support for the two. Space usage and arrangements for such conditions are shown in Fig. 3. For safety and operators' convenience, pumps to vessels containing flammable liquids should be located outside the dikes. (An exception occurs with API tanks having iriline pumps mounted on the tanks' suction nozzles.)

Cost, operation and maintenance
Centrifugal pumps pay for themselves in a short time. The low-investment cost is due to simple designs, direct-coupled motor arrangements, and a wide range of material, size, performance and operating characteristics. Such pumps occupy small space without shelter. Piping arrangements are simple. Centrifugal pumps are dependable and long lasting. They can tolerate internal corrosion and erosion without .subst~ntially decreasing performance. Flexible operation gIves good flow-control characteristics over a wide capacity range at constant speed. Capacities can be conveniently varied by throttling the discharge. These pumps are quiet, need little attention, and operate pulsation-free. Due to the long life of the pumps, maintenance cost is also low. They can be easily disassembled, few parts have close tolerances, and worn parts can be quickly replaced. Capacity, head and efficiency rapidly decrease with changing viscosity. The centrifugal pump (except for the regenerative type) cannot transfer liquid having a vapor content. At low flows (below 15 to 20% of design capacity), the centrifugal pump becomes unstable. Thus, a minimum flow is necessary, This means an additional bypass line to the suction vessel. ~umps are. sel~cted by specialists, and the piping deSIgner has httle influence on the basic selection. However, the layout designer can request preferred orientation for suction and discharge, and NPSH limitations (to meet required equipment elevations).
Single pump arrangement /~-;cElectric ,,,/ condu its Space saved"

Pump layout and piping: indoors
I

'~

/ Motor starters ,/
/'

Motor starters / support

Paired pumps

Pump layout and piping: outdoors
Pumps rarely influence plant layout except where a common standby for two services might require the rearrangement of process equipment, Pumps are placed close to process vessels.A number of pumps should be lined up and esthetically well arranged. In a chemical or petrochemical plant, most pumps are located in two rows under the piperack, Lined-up motor ends define the access space in the center of the two rows. Pump suction and discharge face toward the process vessels. Fig. 2 illustrates one evaluation for a pump (or pump house) arrangement. Single pumps have access all around. With few exceptions, suction lines can be routed overhead. Discharge lines with flowmeters run just .above headroom under the piperack. Control valves are usually looped to grade preferably at structural columns to facilitate good support. The preferred pump-nozzle arrangement (for vessels at high elevations) is top suction and top discharge. Where space is restricted, or the pwnps are small, or in the expensive space of a structure, two pumps can be 135
CHEMICAL ENGINEERl.NG DEm:NfBER 5. 1977

Pumps that deliver subcooled liquid from process vessels usually take suction almost at floor level. These pumps must have an end-suction or side-suction inlet, and usually top discharge. Inline pumps are often chosen for such services. Looking from the access aisle, the motor-starter supports should be placed behind the pump and motor, away from pump flanges and maintenance clearances. Saturated-liquid, steam-condensate and vacuum conditions require elevated suction vessels.These vessels are placed under the ceiling, elevated through the floor, or upon the floor above. Fig. 4 shows the lined-up pumps for various arrangements. Hydraulically, .a long vertical drop for the suction lines is preferred. Because of building restrictions, a horizontal run is not often provided in the suction line. For thermal-expansion purposes, an expansion joint must be installed in the vertical leg, close to the pump. Piping at the expansion joint must be well guided so that side-deflection of the vertical line does not tear the expansion joint apart. Loads (deadweight and pipe expansion) should not be imposed on the flanges of pumps, or on any rotating machinery. A space-saving arrangement is possible if the pumps can be placed along structural walls. Motor starters, control valves and utility manifolds can be supported on the wall over the pump space. For example, the work tanks may be outside the building, while the pumps are inside. In general, existing structures, walls and building columns should be used for supporting instrumentation and electrical hardware. Auxiliary pipe manifolds should be located overhead above the pump. These manifolds may supply cooling water to bearings, or gland oil, or fluids for pump-jacket heating. Necessary spool pieces, break flanges, or couplings should be provided for convenient access to the pump, and for easy removal of valves and auxiliarypiping manifolds.

Positive-displacement pumps
Rotary pumps (and compressors) work with forcedvolume displacement and can deliver constant pulsation-free flow against much higher pressures than can centrifugal pumps. The layout and piping design does not differ from that of centrifugal machines. Rotary pumps must have built-in or piped-up relief valves. Reciprocating pumps pump liquids containing vapor. For the same flowrate, resistance through the machine because of nonreturn inlet and outlet valves is much greater than through a centrifugal pump, Consequently, when pumping a saturated liquid, a static head is required in front of the pump suction for vapor-free. flow to the pump cylinder. A vapor-liquid

mixture flowing to the cylinder considerably reduces the pump's volumetric efficiency. In practice, this creates a flowrate that is much lower than the pump's rated capacity. In layout, this means an elevated suction drum and simple, direct, restriction-free piping from the vessel to the pump's suction. Reciprocating pumps are classified by their type of cylinder and plunger arrangements. The principal pumps and their features: • The single-acting pump is a single-piston plunger pump. Pulsation is high in these pumps. It can be reduced by using an air chamber at the discharge, or by combining two or more pump cylinders in para.llel and out of phase. Proportioning pumps belong to this group and are usually motor driven. Capacity control is obtained by adjusting the length of stroke. Normal capacity ranges from 0.15 to 10 gpm. • The simplex pump is a direct-coupled machine having a steam cylinder at one end and a double-acting pump at the other. Because of its simplicity, this pump provides reliable service and is used in smaller boilers as a feedwater pump. It can handle volatile and viscous liquids. Power pumps of this type are driven through a crankshaft by an engine or electric motor. Many variations of cylinder, piston, valving and driving mechanisms have been designed for these pumps, The most common are: single pump (one cylinder), duplex, triplex and quadruplex. These pumps can be built with the cylinders in horizontal or vertical arrays. Horizontals usually require more floor space. • The diaphragm pump handles precise quantities of fluid. A reciprocating plunger forces a motive liquid to one side of a diaphragm to create pulsating motion, This causes the process liquid to be conveyed into the pumping chamber (which forms the other side of the diaphragm). Suction and discharge valves regulate the movement of the pumped liquid. This pump is not suitable for high-viscosity liquids. Diaphragm. pumps are compact and occupy a square-shaped floor area. Reciprocating pumps are used where high head is needed. Capacity stays constant for varying discharge pressures and viscosities. Discharge cannot be throttled to obtain capacity control as for centrifugal pumps. Instead, a variable-speed drive or stroke adjustment is used. Due to the characteristics of their suction and discharge valves, these pumps are not suitable for pumping liquid containing solids or dirt and are not built for corrosive or abrasive services. The alternating action of reciprocating pumps produces pulsating flow. The extent and frequency of pulsation depends on the number of cylinders in parallel and whether the cylinders are single- or double-acting'. Increasing the number of cylinders reduces the amplitude but increases the frequency of pulsation. To dampen pulsation, suction and discharge chambers are either built as part of the pump or are included in the piping. Without pulsation chambers, flow metering is difficult. Due to pulsating operation, these pumps are bulky, and require large foundations and substantial pipesupporting structures. Cushion-chamber sizes and locations are usually obtained from the pump manufac136

CHEMICAL ENCINEERING DECEMBER 5, 1977

~
CE REFRESHER
tnrer, Suction and discharge chambers often require more space in layout than does the pump itself. Streamlined piping is desirable at the suction and discharge lines of reciprocating pumps. Avoid dead ends, opposing flows and sudden changes of direction. Use long-radius elbows and angular branch connections. After the discharge nozzle, a check valve and a block valve are usually installed. For short discharge lines, a check valve is not necessary, Reciprocating pumps must have pressure-relieving arrangements. The following relief circuits are possible: (1) built-in relief valve integral with the pump ca~ing; (2) closed-circuit relief line connecting the suction and discharge pipes immediately after the pump nozzles; (3) relief-valve discharge connecting to the suction drum (in this case, the bjock valve in the suction line should be locked open); and (4) relief line discharging to sewer. Auxiliary-piping systems are usually associated with reciprocating pumps. These may provide cooling water, steam or heat-transfer media to jackets; seal oil to bear~ ing seals; lubricating oil to pump bearings; and vent and drain connections. Piping should not interfere with pump maintenance. Access to valve covers, case covers and shaft packing must be provided, as well as space for cylinder and shaft removal. Spool pieces or flanged elbows facilitate pump removal. Because maintenance of these pumps is relatively frequent, a trolley beam or manual traveling crane and weather protection are desirable.
c

alTA' Ii.U~ I

;[ ". ~"

-.J'

the compressor shaft at slightly higher pressures than that of the gas in the compressor case. The oil escaping on the low-pressure side of the seal returns to the reservoir and is recirculated, Oil escaping through the high-pressure side passes through automatic traps. Entry of oil into the compressor gas is prevented by labyrinth seals located between the oil seal and compressor impeller case. Both lube-oil and seal-oil components are integrally mounted on the respective oil reservoirs. One console can serve several compressors. Manufacturers' recommendations should be followed.

Reciprocating

compressors

o
I:

" "

tn 0..

j~~~~~
trolley beam (located over the compressor's centerline) is usually provided, The trolley beam extends over the removal space that may be inside or outside the compressor shelter, If a compressor bouse contains several machines, a hand-operated traveling crane is normally supplied '. The height of this crane has to be carefully estimated so that machine covers and rotors can be lifted over adjacent compressors and motors, Laydown space has to be allowed for. Knockout drums and interstage exchangers are usu-

.~

1~=all;;~~;~~~I~=~~~~ ~~~':
ally placed at grade, adjacent to the compressor platform or housing for short and simple interconnecting piping. Long-radius elbows or long-radius reducing elbows should be used immediately before the compressor's suction inlet. For air compressors, the vertical open-air intake has a strainer at the inlet that is protected from rain water, and, if required, a venturi meter to measure flow. The venturi requires a straight length of pipe on the upstream side.

Reciprocating compressors should be arranged as close to grade as possible. Smaller machines, with or without pulsation dampeners, have foundations about 1.5 to 2 ft above e- grade ..Larger machines, or groups of 8 them, have foundations about 4 to 55ft above grade. Sizable reciprocat~ ing compressors should not be sup-

Centrifugal

compressors

Layout and piping considerations and plant-design principles for arranging small centrifugal compressors (or blowers) do not differ in concept from the arrangements for centrifugal pumps. However, pipe sizes and components for centrifugal com pressors are much larger than for centrifugal pumps. Large centrifugal compressors are extensively used in process plants, e.g. in catalytic-cracking, ethylene and ammonia units. The advantages of these machines: (a). ability to handle large volumes in relatively small-size "'. equipment, (b) mechanical simplicity of one rotating assembly, and (c) adaptability to various drivers, i.e., electric motor, steam turbine and gas turbine. Large-size multistage compressors usually have horizontally split casings. Compressors with top connections can be arranged close to grade. The machine cover can only be lifted after piping has been disconnected and removed. Suitable break-flanges must be provided in the piping design. Large compressors having bottom connections are elevated (Fig. 5). Piping can stay in place, and the machine cover can be conveniently removed. In outdoor arrangements, a number of concrete supporting columns are arranged close to the machine. Access is provided by a cantilevered platform surrounding the machine. Concrete columns and a table-top arrangement are equally suitable ..The wide span of support between two columns will not become vibration-prone. Compressors inside a building usually have foundations that are independent of the building'S foundation. If a roof or housing is required over a compressor, a

Auxiliaries for centrifugal

compressors

Lubricating-oil and seal-oil consoles occupy large areas near or under these compressors. The lube-oil console (Fig. 6) supplies lubricating oil to the compressor bearings. It is a constant-pressure, forced-circulation system with gear pumps, oil coolers and filters, These units are neither small nor simple. From the compressor, oil flows by gravity to the storage tank ..The inlet has to be located below the compressor (see Fig. 5). A great number of valves must b<eaccessible; clearances for pulling the exchanger bundle must be provided; and access for operations and maintenance is essential. In some cases, the lube-oil pump is driven off the compressor, with an auxiliary pump provided for startup and shutdown. The seal-oil console (similar to Fig .. 6) supplies clean, filtered oil to the hydraulic seals of the compressor at constant pressure and temperature. The shaft end-seals prevent leakage of compressed gas to the atmosphere. Seal oil is forced between the seal rings at both ends of

ported higher than grade, and not on ~ a concrete table top. Most of these compressors have a shelter or compressor house whose floor level is near the top of the compressor foundation. Building and compressor foundations should be separate to avoid transmitting vibrations to the building structure. The floor has openings for access to pulsation dampeners and valves that are placed below floor level. Roof structure or columns support a traveling crane or trolley beams (over the cylinders) for maintenance. Sides of the shelter can be open, with a curtain wall above headroom, or completely enclosed. If it is enclosed, doors and stairways must be provided as required. Laydown space for compressor parts should also be planned. The compressor plpmg interconnects pulsation dampeners, knockout pots, intercoolers and aftemoolers, possibly reactors and other process equipment, valves, and measuring and controlling components. A compact arrangement with short and simple piping will be less vibration-prone than widely spaced equipment interconnected by long slender pipelines. Knockout pots and intercoolers should be as close as possible to the pulsation dampeners, which are placed on or below the compressor cylinders. Knockout pots either in the compressor house or lined up outside the edge of buildings and supported at grade are common arrangements. Compressor manufacturers can supply intercoolers that connect two cylinders as an integral part of the machine. Double-pipe intercoolers can be placed below the floor level or right outside the compressor house. To avoid vibration, it is advisable to provide three supports for a group of slender double-pipe exchangers 16 to 20 ft long ..

137

CHEMICALENGJNEERING

DECEMBER

5, 1977

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING

DECEMBER

5, 19!7

138

CE REFRESHER
Fig. 7 emphasizes these principles, and points out the importance of access needed around and above reciprocating compressors. Overhead traveling crane and housing are essential.
Low-frequency end

Preferred

design

Usual design Elbow

Bend

Piping for reciprocating compressors
Pipe runs are grouped and placed just below or just outside the compressor cylinders. If below, the piping goes under the compressor floor; if outside, the piping is adjacent to the compressor house. Preferred location of all such piping is at grade. The central question arising at every detail of compressor piping is: Will it or will it not induce vibration in the piping system? Because of the potential for vibration, customary piping details are modified. Even so, during final design it is impossible to predict which portion of a pipeline will have the potential for sympathetic vibration that is induced by flow and pressure pulsations. Discharge dampeners and piping can be well supported below the compressor cylinder or at grade. Pipe turns, elevation changes and pipe junctions should be streamlined, as shown in Fig. 8. The following designs will help in avoiding pulsating flow: bends instead of elbows (Fig. 8a), angular inlets instead of laterals (Fig. 8b), one-plane turns instead of double offsets (Fig. 8c), smooth junctions instead of head-on opposing flow (Fig. 8d), streamlined end-of-header arrangement instead of dead-end header (Fig. 8e). Obstructions should be kept to a minimum; components having large pressure losses should be avoided. It is advisable to check the process-flow-system diagram against the final piping design. The layout is not always connected in the same junction sequence as a flow diagram shows. An unexpected surge of suddenly changing flowrate and increased velocities, coupled with obstructions in the pipeline, can cause pulsating flow and vibration. Valves should be placed in the piping without altering the simple pipe configurations. Vibration-free pipelines are more important than lined-up valve handwheels. Supports for compressor plplllg should be independent of building structures, and building and compressor foundations. These supports also control piping movement. Expansion joints, anchors and guides are usually placed to support pipes and restrict pipe movements. Supports are also located at directional changes, at valves, and generally where external or internal forces act and might induce vibration. Because of its mass, a valve placed in the center of a pipeline between two pipe supports can have a larger amplitude of vibration than the bare pipe alone. A valve placed close to a, support is less likely to vibrate. Long compressor piping is more likely to vibrate sympathetically if supported and anchored at equal intervals than piping with irregular spacing of supports and anchors.

a. Pipe turns

r
Lateral

It'

I~ d
I

Angular

?
(,
b. Inlets

,I, ~
Pulsation dampener

I~
Y

.-

6

Double offset

..
c. Elevation changes

~

Streamlined

Opposing

""

Adjusting bolt

-~
d. Junctions Streamlined branching Conventional

-\

Wedge____ asSembIY~_~1

_L:::::===:::'L~~==~=:::"L+-.L.':::'//plate
»:.... 1
Anchor bait
I I

Support

Fou'ndation

branch
j_

A

Adjustable

support

hazard from vibration fatigue is at the dampener. Consequently, dampeners are rugged and heavy. A dampener is an elongated vessel with expansion chambers, connected by a network of venturi tubes, and so designed as to break up volume and velocities (Fig. 9). Dampener size depends on flowrate, frequency of gas pulses, and pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. Inlet and outlet locations depend on the dampener's design, compressor-cylinder outlets, and piping arrangement. Horizontal and vertical dampener arrangements exist. At large centrifugal compressors, they greatly reduce noise. Dampener design is highly specialized. In order to secure operating guarantees from manufacturers and design organizations, dampeners must be installed as specified. In general: • Dampeners should be located as close to the compressor nozzles as possible (each dampener has a maximum distan.ce limitation). Inlet and outlet nozzles are noted and flow direction indicated on the dampener's body. • Dampeners should be securely anchored to a foundation and held down with straps or braces. Compressor cylinders should not be supported on a dampener unless designed for. Adjustable wedge support for precise load distribution is shown in Fig. 9. Heat expansion of supports after adjustment should be avoided. For parallel compressor cylinders and a multiple-inlet single dampener, inlet flanges on the dampener should be field welded to the nozzle necks. In addition to design data, nozzle-orientation preferences must be given before final design and manufacture of pulsation darnpeners. During startup, screens and strainers should be installed in the suction line to prevent the drawing of foreign materials into the compressor an.d dampener. Pulsation dampeners have drains and vents. Reliefvalve nozzles can be located on the shell, preferably on the low-frequency end. Pressure loss across a pulsation dampener is small. Nozzle velocities at inlet and outlet are limited to a maximum of 50 ft/s. This value permits estimation of reasonable pipe sizes.. While construction access is necessary to install pulsation dampeners, servicing or maintenance access is usually not required. The next article of this CE REFRESHER will appear in the issue of Jan. 30, 1978, and will review layout design for piperacks.

e. Connections

Pulsation dampeners
Pulsating fluid flow can be seen at reciprocating compressors and pumps; at very large high-pressure centrifugal compressors and pumps; at blowers, rotary 139
CHEMICAl. ENG[NEER(NG

compressors and pumps; and at high-pressure letdown valves. If pulsating flow is transmitted to piping, structures and process equipment, material fatigue can occur. This results in failures and breakage, requiring frequent maintenance and even Gaming shutdowns. In piping, metering inaccuracies will occur, and unpleasant vibrations and considerable noise will arise. Vibration in piping and heavy machinery becomes
DECEMBER 5. 1977

more hazardous as frequency and amplitude increase. High-speed pistons and/orhigh compressor-inlet velocities increase pulsation frequencies. Pulsations from a single compressor cylinder can be as hazardous as those from several compressor cylinders in parallel that discharge into the same pipe system. Fluids with higher densities will produce higher pressure pulsations than those with lower densities. Therefore, high-speed and high-pressure compressors must have. pulsation-control devices. Pulsation dampeners are used to eliminate pulsation in suction and discharge piping, to separate the source of vibration from the piping system, and to increase the volumetric efficiency of the compressor. The greatest
CHEMICAL ENGINEERTNG

References
1. "Hydraulic 'Institute H115, 1969". Standards," Hydraulic Institute, Cleveland, OH2. Neerken, It, F., P'llIDP Selection for the Chemical Process Industries; Birk, J. R. and Peacock, J. H., Pump Requirements for the Chemical Process Industries. Glielli. Eng., Feb. 18, 1974, pp. 104-i24* :;, Holland, F. A. and Chapman, F. S., Positive-Displacement Pumps, Chcm. Eng .• Feb. 14, 1966, pp. 129-152. 4. Neerken, R. F.! Compressor Selection for the Chemical Process Industries; Lapina, R. P., Ca11 You Rerate Your Centrifugal Compressor>, Cham:' Eng., Jan. 20. 1975, pp. 78-98* 5. Pollak, R., Selecting Fans and Blowers, Clum. Brig., Jan. 22, 197:1, pp. 86-100 ." 6. Pump and Valve Selector, Glum. Eng. Daskbook, Oct. 11. 1971.' "These articles arc available as reprints. Ref. 2 is reprint number 200; Ref. 4 is number 220j Ref. 5 is number 173; and Ref. 6 is number 135. To order, check the appropriate number on the order form in the back of any issue. Prices are shown on order form.

DECEMBER

5, 1971

140

CE REFRESHER
ing stations, and cooling towers; variations in the site's grade level; safe distances between units, or between tankage, storage, loading, etc., facilities. Plot plan-« This shows the relationship between plant units, equipment, buildings and yard piping, and the position of incoming and outgoing lines, The plot plan also locates major structures, buildings and all equipment, and indicates roads crossing the yard or located under the piperack, Flow diagrams- Process-flow diagrams show the essential lines that connect process equipment. Mechanical-flow diagrams (developed from process-flow diagrams) indicate the complete flow systems necessary for plant operation, and include pipe sizes, valving, manifolds, and all piping and instrumentation details. Utility-flow diagrams show the number and size of water, steam, condensate, gas, air, etc" headers, and all equipment supplied by these headers, with the necessary valving and piping details. Fig. 1 shows portions of a process-flow diagram and a plot plan. From these two drawings, we can make an assessment regarding which portions of the process lines will be located in the yard and which lines will connect directly to nozzles on adjacent or nearby equipment. Heavy lines on the flow diagram indicate piping assumed to be located in the yard, These lines are also shown on the plot plan to give a visual idea of the. yard-space requirement. A mechanical-flow diagram is similarly evaluated. The greater the number of lines included in the plot plan, the more accurate the estimate of the piperack width. In addition to process lines, utility-How diagrams will show individual service lines and utility headers. Utility mains generally run the whole length of the yard ..These lines should also be taken into account when estimating space requirements. We can now proceed to the detailed analyses for yard piping. often, from pumps to the unit limits, or to storage or header arrangements outside the unit limits. Crude or other charge and chemical lines enter the unit and usually run in the yard before connecting to exchangers, furnaces or to other process equipment. Relief-line headers, individual relief lines, blowdown lines and flare Jines should be self-draining from all relief-valve outlets to the knockout drum, flare stack, or to a point at the plant limit. A pocketed relief-line system is more expensive because an extra condensate pot is required with its associated instruments, valves and pumps. To eliminate pockets, some relief-line headers must be at a higher elevation. Such headers are placed above the main yard on a tee support attached to extended yard columns, For some noncondensing gas systems, self-drainage is not as important. Utility lines in the yard can be classified as (1) utility headers serving equipment in the whole plant, and (2) utility lines either individually serving one or two equipment items, or a group of similar equipment (furnaces or compressors). The first category includes lines for low-pressure and high-pressure steam, steam condensate, plant air, and instrument air. The second category contains lines for boiler feedwater, fire steam, compressor-starting air, fuel oil, fuel gas, lubricating oil, inert gas, and chemical-treating. Steam headers should drain to the steam separator for effective condensate collection. Branch connections are usually made at the top of the headers in order to avoid excessive condensate drainage to equipment. Instrument lines and electrical cables are often supported in the yard, and extra space should be provided for them. The best instrument-line arrangement eliminates almost all elevation changes between the plant and the control room. This can easily be done when instrument lines are supported outside the yard column at a. suitable elevation.

Piperack design for process plants
Careful analyses of flow diagrams, plot plans, specifications and project data are essential to the layout of efficient and economical plant piperacks.

.~

I

)~

I

Robert Kern, Hoffmann - La Roche Inc. The main arterial system of a process plant is in the yard piperack, which contains the long process lines for connecting distant equipment, and the lines for entering and leaving a unit. Utility headers, supplying steam air, gas and water to process equipment are also located in the yard, as well as relief headers and blowdown headers. Instrument lines and electrical-supply conduits are often supported on the yard steel. We will provide a step-by-step evaluation for the layout design of pipcracks for open (i.e., outdoors) chemical plants. Piperack design for housed (i.e., indoors) plants will be discussed in a later article. Before attempting piperack layout, we must have the following information: specifications, 'project-design data, plot plans and flow diagrams. Let us summarize the details for each: Specifications-Only a few items in the job specifications affect yard-piping design. Such items are: the minimum headroom between road surfaces and overhead pipelines or steel beams; access, headroom and handling requirements for equipment arranged under the yard; requirements for ladders, catwalks and platforms located in the yard; details affecting piping and structures, operating and safety requirements, Project design data and site maps-These give required or existing conditions inside and outside the unit limits, such as the required location of cooling-water mains, whether below or above grade; location of furnaces, control and switch houses; location of utility and process lines entering and leaving unit limits; main pipe runs outside the unit; location of storage tanks relative to process units; location of blending, loading and fill-

o

P-4

T·3

Yard piping in plan
\

Line location in the piperack
Fig. 3a shows a one-level piperack. Regardless of service, heavy pipelines (very-Iarge-diameter lines, or large lines full of liquid) are placed over or near the supporting columns. (A centrally loaded column and a smaller bending moment on the cross beam may yield a lighter structural design.) All process lines and relief lines are placed next to the heavy lines. Utility lines are in the central portion of the rack. A general sequence for utility lines is also shown in Fig, 3a, The position of individual utility lines in the yard depends on the number and size of the branch connections, If a majority of similar-size branches connect to the header from the right, it is more economical to place the utility line in the right-half section. From a support standpoint, it is advantageous to group hot lines that require expansion loops, as shown isometrically in Fig. 3a. The most commonly adopted design is to elevate the expansion loops horizontally over the yard, with the hottest and largest diameter line on the outside, Line guides, line stops, and anchor points are usually required along a hot line, somewhere in the piperack. Pipe-expansion forces at some of these points will affect the design of the supports. Those process lines that connect equipment on the
JAl\lUARY :10, 1978

Process- flow diagram

P·5

The plant layout determines the main-yard plpmg runs, Fig. 2 shows typical piperack layouts for various plant arrangements. Smaller plants usually have the simplest yard piping, as shown in Fig. 2a and 2b. In Fig. 2a, the process and utility lines enter and leave at the same end of the plot. Fig. 2b presents a frequently adopted layout, with utility lines entering at one end and process lines at the opposite end. Layout conditions sometimes result in an L-shaped yard (Fig. 2c). In larger plants, yard piping will be more complicated, as shown in Fig. 2d, 2e and 2f. Fig, 2g shows the yard piping for a very large plant. This layout can be considered as a combination of several simpler yardpiping arrangements, Of course, configuration of the piperack is not determined when doing the plant layout. The yard results from an overall plant arrangement, site conditions, customer's requirement and, above all, plant economy. Pipelines in the piperack are classified as process lines, relief-line headers, utility lines and steam headers. Let us examine each type in detail. Process lines interconnect nozzles on process equipment units more than 20 ft apart, as shown in Fig. I. Product lines run from vessels, exchangers or, more
CHEMfCAL ENGlNEEIUNG

105

Cli.lllvnCAL

&NGlNEERING

JANUARY

30, 1978

106

CE REFRESHER

1i illLD ~m~1
0;d i-I
l.___ ____j

--

Road

I

i L___~

1---"

I

Control

house

n 'L'

.J

r---~-II
,
L. Process equipment . Road -' .
i

=11
I
I

1.1-1

I_I
Road

r-----P;ocessequipm:n-t----! L___
--------.__j

r

I-~
l__ _ _j

Heavy lines PF?CeSS (cooling water, lines I process) I Fuel-oil, chemical l.ones-~

Process lines" Utility lines \

Heavy lines (cooling water, blowdown)

1(

i ! I .I
,

Steam, condensate / lines

I

I

Hot steam

a. Dead-end yard. Lines enter and leave one end of yard.

b. Straight-through yard. Lines can enter and leave both ends of the yard.

lim~

. 'fit I

.,

b. Header valves in piperack. Condensate line-.1
I

High-temperature (shoes '" .~o

lines-----"'"\

pi"" ,"PPO"'~~_

'-\

\

i.-Bare lines \Moderate-temperature lines (cut insulation at supports) at steel support.

\.

c. Piping contacts

I

a. Typical pipeline distribution c. L-shaped yard. Lines can enter and leave north and east of the plot.

on a one-level pipsrack.

d. Large-diameter

lines supporting

small lines

I
d. T-shaped yard. Lines can enter and leave on three sides of the plot.

same side of the yard should be near the edges of the yard bank. Lines that connect equipment located on both sides of the yard should be closer to the utility lines, and can be placed on either side of the yard, The position of product lines is influenced by their routing after leaving the plant limit. Lines turning to the right should be on the righthand side of the yard; those turning left, on the lefthand side. Utility lines individually serving one or two equipment items should be on the same side of the yard as the equipment to which they connect. If two elevations for the piperack are required to accommodate a large number of lines, all utility lines are usually placed in the top bank and all process lines in the bottom bank Obviously, exceptions can always be made to the elevation of individual utility or process lines. Line sequence will be similar to that discussed for a one-level yard. Data for line spacing are usually available in contractors' and owners' design handbooks. Valves at the headers in piperacks should be lined up, with handwheels accessiblefrom platforms or walkways (Fig. 3b). Hot lines are usually provided with "shoes" and sliding plates. These normally elevate pipelines 4 in. higher than the supporting steel (Fig. 3c). Small-diameter lines can be suspended from large ones, with the supports located approximately at the centers of the pipe span (Fig, 3d).

f. Combination

of 1-and T-shaped yard.

Piperack in elevation
Fig. 4 shows in cross-sectiontypical yard piping for a process plant. The elevation is determined by the highest requirement for the following: (a) headroom over a

main road, (b) headroom for accessto equipment under the piperack, and (c) headroom under lines connecting the yard and equipment laterally outside the yard. Size of the supporting-steel beams should also be taken into account when considering headroom requirements between the piperack and grade .. Generally, process lines that connect two nozzles elevated higher than the top bank should be located in the top bank. Process lines having one end lower than the bottom yard elevation can run in the top or bottom bank. If both ends of a process line are lower than the bottom yard elevation, the line should be located in the bottom bank. The elevation of a line can also be influenced by valves and instruments in the line. Often, a convenient access platform can be provided for valves arranged in the top bank. The preferred location of lines with orifice runs is near the edge of the yard, with orifice flanges near a yard column for convenient access with a portable ladder. Orifice. ru ns, after pumps, can be located near supporting columns at 7-ft elevation. Control valves are usually near steel columns for convenient support. When pumps are arranged under the piperack, one or two slots (i.e., open space) are often required along the yard. These slots are usually over the pump-discharge nozzle for process, steam and other utility lines connecting the appropriate header in the piperack to the pumps and drivers. Local platforms and catwalks can also be supported on the piperack steel over yard and lateral piping. Keeping Dimensions Band C (Fig. 4) to the smallest
JANUARY 3D, 1978

107
• '<

CliEMICAL

ENGINEERING

JANUAR

Y 30, 1978

CHE1\,fiCAL

ENGINEERING

108

CE REFRESHER

Towers

L~-B~t--Lines with one end below and other end above yard can be located on either yard elevation \
\ \

Lines with both ends higher than top yard bank located on the higher level ---,_

tn-~hm!
1ITk£~1
I•
Drums

I

'CdR?r-o~.
'
Yard length

Plan

I

A----------

I'

a. Elevations

alternate

at lateral piperack junction

I I
r=-=--.:___ L_

a. Piperack length = 2L

L

Flat bend at edge of yard for la rge lines

II L
1

~ceSS_eqUipm-e~

--------:·1

I~·L
Process-aqu ipment areas for all arrangements are identical

,---

Elevation for orifice runs \

\

Nozzle-to-nozzle ........piping where possible /
_,/

\

\

\

,
J

No elevation .,/~-;' difference
'--,

,I

/

2 to 2.5-H /?elevation Idifference I I

a
J

b. Piperack length = L Flat turn requires consistent Elevation difference must be line sequence. given at most turns. b. Turns in piperacks
[ I

Control valves

I

Alternate pump' suction Instrurnent lines

,

, ,,

\

Lhng process lines with both ends lower than bottom yard bank are located on the lower level

1 ,
~-

--~-

-----

..

----~
--::.:=-J ----

.

I

Platforrns-."

required sizes will minimize the length of pipe (a) between the yard and process equipment, and (b) for connecting equipment on opposite sides of the yard. Dimension C is usually 6 to 7 ft. Keeping Dimensions D and E at not more than the necessary yard height will minimize the length needed for vertical pipe runs. A well-known rule in piping design states: Change elevation when changing direction. This applies to all lines connecting to yard piping. However, some largediameter lines can make a flat turn when entering the yard. These lines should be placed at the edge of the yard. In any other location, such lines will require excessive space in the piperack (see Fig. 4). Fig. 5a shows commonly used elevations for a piperack intersection. The 14-ft elevation of the lateral yard permits turning up or down at an intersection. It is important to elevate lateral pipebanks between two elevations of the main yard. The difference in elevation between the main bank and laterally connecting pipelines is about 2 to 21'2ft. This allows a difference of 4 to 5 ft between two main banks (Fig. 5a and 5b). If a building (e.g., control house, pump house, etc.) is located under the main yard, piping elevations will be higher. Building clearances, roof pitches, steel structures and pipeline clearances will affect the height of the yard. Plant specifications determine elevations over roads and railways (see Table I in Part 2 of this series, July 4, 1977, p. 126). Minimum clearances for cranes and mobile-handling facilities must be given. The elevation difference is not required if a flat turn can be made within the yard (Fig. 5b). In this case, the
109

line sequence must be identical before and after the turn. Varying line sequence in the two directions introduces an elevation difference, and an additional pipe elbow in each line. Fig. 5c shows a yard-piping junction with an adjacent exchanger-supporting structure. Yard elevations are governed by headroom requirements over the access road. The top of the yard sets elevation of the first platform in the exchanger-supporting structure because '_ lines must cross from below the first platform to the top bank of the yard. All lines from the exchanger structure to the piperack drop along the structure. Space has been left open in the yard, adjacent to the exchanger structure, for lines that connect to the lower main yard or to pumps below the piperack. Process lines turning into the yard from the exchanger structure have been arranged at the highest yard elevation. A number of vertical reflux drums have been arranged on the first level of the exchanger structure. All suction lines to pumps turn horizontally below the lower yard bank above headroom.

c. Pipsrack

length = L +

1-

-Access to

__~~==~~~_[~~~J[ ~ __ _l~pumps

...

c. Pipe chase for vertical piping

.~

Length of piperack
The economy of yard piping primarily depends on the length of the piperack. Approaches to economical design are shown in Fig. 6. Process equipment arranged entirely on one side of a piperack will considerably increase its length (Fig. 6a). Process equipment placed on both sides of the piperack (Fig. 6b) will result in a piperack having half the length of the one in Fig. 6a. Facilities not closely associated with the piperack (such

as control houses, treating buildings and storage areas) can waste valuable space along the piperack and increase its length (Fig. 6c). Fig. 7 shows some actual examples of how a design engineer can minimize and simplify piperacks, The first example involves the future doubling of a tank farm. Of the two arrangements shown in Fig. 7a, the one on the right requires 50% less pipe length, and results in a delayed capital expenditure. A second example concerns the layout of a utility plant (Fig. 7b). Here, the preferred arrangement requires turning the unit 90° to bring it into alignment with the piperack, and thus shorten pipe length substantially. In the preferred arrangement, future piperack is available; while in the original, future piperack will require additional expenditure. The third example (Fig. 7c) relocates the control house. The alternate, preferred, combines the originally designed two piperacks into one. The length of yard piping (Dimension A in Fig. 4) is governed by the number and size of equipment, struc-

tures and buildings arranged along both sides of the yard. On an average, about 10 ft of yard length are required for each piece of process equipment (exchanger, drum, tower, unhoused compressor) etc.) for petrochemical plants. With good layout practices, the cost of yard piping can be considerably reduced, by arranging the same number and size of equipment in a shorter length of yard. Under these conditions, a7 to 8 ft average length of yard for each piece of process equipment is not unusual. Equipment in pairs, stacked exchangers, exchangers under elevated Tuns,drums or exchangers supported on towers, two vessels combined into one, closely located towers with common platforms, drums supported on exchangers, drums supported on the piperack steel or concrete, and process equipment located under the piperack are only a few examples of what can help in shortening the yard. These arrangements, of course, shorten not only process lines connecting equipment but also the lines that pass through an area, and the utility headers serving an area.

Structural steel for piperack
Fig. 8 shows typical pipe-support bents. From a layout standpoint, cost depends on column spacing and span. 110

CHEMICAL ENGINBERING JANUARY 30. [978

Cl'IEMICAL ENGINEERING JANUARY 30, 1978

CE REFRESHER

Original design

Preferred

design Supports for lateral lines (between main elevations)

::;0

means equal dimensions

-ftt'';'

a. Tanks on both sides of rack reduce pipe length.
I

I I

T
Type 1 A

I_JLI

A

--

1-1 --

I~I

r\-/}_5-c_cess

kX)J @
Type 2

-r
I

A

c::Jk'

1S-/1 ,X'~
;J
Type 3

r
~~
BA A Type 6

rl
~B

It

Support and column spacing----

~
l_ Future

r

,
I
cJ

I

I
I

Future

J

I 1_

_J

IIFuture
B

J S~71 IT
--I

r-l•
I

I

I"J..
I

A

I

1-~2--

...-

'I

=

=

1 I L"~ ~
Type 4

B

I

I

I•

b. TUrning unit 90· simplifies configuration and reduces pipe length.

r:71 DllU l·X,~~
Type 5

~' '::J

f0

[i

~~I \.~ r.-'~ I!~D IH LJ 21
I."
'\. ~
\;:0
c, ~.

Control house

Total available width,

W,
Dimension A, ft Dimension B, ft Elevations, No. 1 1 1 Type No.

e.e-

~lE'

gti::l <:T

0\9-1
""I.

I~- 4~
ings or where loading and access spaces are needed to process equipment. The design manuals of contractors and owners usually contain tabulations of allowable spacing require.\ ments for insulated, bare, liquid-filled and vapor-filled lines for three temperature ranges. The weights listed in these-tabulations are fer calculating pipe loads on yard steel and yard columns. Width of the yard is influenced by the number of lines (including instrument and electrical lines), and space for future lines in the yard-or occasionally by space requirements for equipment under the yard. The number of lines to be, located in the yard can be estimated by routing the pipelines on a print of the plot plan, with the help of flow diagrams (such as shown in Fig. 1). By adding the number of lines in the densest section of the yard, we can obtain the total width of the yard from

c. Combining

It

II

H

~J

""

--

Without canti lever, ft

With cantilever, ft

piperacks

reduces capital cast.

-~k,X';JOO
Type 7

~-71

20-24 2,832 28~34 3947 4044 55'63

10 30·34 38-42 313-42 45~53 48-52
61-69

10 20,24 28·32 20-24 20-24 28-32 28·32

--

1

5

5 4 6
4 6

1% 2

2 3 6
4 7

1'h
2

5

Spacing between bents for the pipe yard is about 16 to 24 ft. A few small-size pipes can be intermittently supported from larger lines, as shown in Fig. 3d. This can permit wider and more-economical bent spacing. In determining the bent spacing, consideration should be given to: • Line sizes-c-Small-diameter lines must have support on shorter spacing than large-diameter ones. • Span-Liquid-filled lines require shorter spans than gas-filled ones. • Line temperatureVery-hot lines span shorter distances than cold ones of the same size and wall thickness. • Insulation-Heavily insulated small-diameter lines operating under cold temperatures must be supported at relatively short intervals. • Space requirement-Equipment at grade and equipment under the yard can sometimes influence the spacing between yard bents. Wide spacing of yard steel is necessary at toad cross-

I

I

..

.

• ~.i.!l!n

.~
of about 20 to 24 ft is required, depending on the length of the pumps. For a double row of pumps, a 28 to 32-ft span will be needed. Fig. 9 shows typical yard-steel bents with dimensions. The total available yard width for each type of support is shown in the table. This tabulation can be used for selecting a type of yard support after the total required width has been estimated. The most commonly used yard supports are Types 2, 3, 4 and 5. For economical design, an evaluation by a structural expert should be done. This expert can determine whether steel or concrete (or a combination of the two) is the most desirable choice, and what span and spacing will give the most economical arrangement. The next article of this CE REFRESHER will appear in the issue of Feb. 27, 1978, and will deal with arrangements for process furnaces.

W=jnS+A
where W width of yard, ft; f = safety factor; n = number oflines up to 18 in. dia.; S = estimated average spacing between lines, ft; and A= additional required width, ft. The safety factor, j; equals 1.5 if the lines have been laid out on the plot with the help of process-flow dia-

=

grams; f = 1.2 if the lines have been "laid out with the help of fully detailed mechanical-flow diagrams. Estimated spacing between lines, S, usually equals 1 ft; S = 0.75 ft if lines in the yard are smaller than 10 in. Additional width, A, is required for (a) lines larger than 18 in., (b) future lines, (c) instrument lines (about 2 to 3 £t), (d) electrical cables (about 2 to 3 ft) if these are also supported on the yard steel, (e) one or two slots for pump-discharge and utility lines (about 1.5 or 3 ft). Total width of yard, W, can be between 20 and 60 ft. If W is greater than 30 ft, two yard-banks will usually be required because the upper limit for the span of yard steel is 32 ft. Space requirements for equipment plus access below the yard can also influence width of yard. For a single tow of pumps with access aisles of8 to 10ft, a yard span

,1

111

CIiEMICA,L ENGINEERING JANUARY 30, 1mB

CHEMICAL ENGINEERlNG JANUARY 30, W78

112

CE REFRESHER

PLANT LAYOUT!S
Access to furnaces -_

f

Space requirements and layout for process furnaces
Here is practical information on arranging piperacks, manifolds, and product and fuel .lines around process furnaces to meet fire-fighting, safety and tube-removal requirements.
Robert Kern, H riffmann- La Roche Inc. temperature control, quick heating, and high-temperaFurnaces in chemical plants usually occupy large ture heating. areas of the plant site, and are located at the outskirts of Convection section-This is placed after the radiant the battery limits. Process equipment (such as reactors, section, with flue gases from the radiant section routed primary fractionatorsand distillation columns) conthrough it for indirect heating. Tubes, generally arnected to furnace outlets is located as close as possible to the furnaces so that transfer lines are short and simple. Fire-fighting space, and safety distances, are required between process units, buildings and storage on the one hand, and furnaces on the other. Tube-cleaning and tube-removal spaces must be provided, as well as access for mobile cranes. _--Monorail for Piperacks, control valves, pipe tube removal manifolds, and instrument and electrical facilities associated with these Convection furnaces have to be arranged within section this rather generous area. Furnaces are used to heat hydroplatform carbon liquids above 500°F. The liquids pass through rows of interconnected tubes (or coils) placed inside the furnace and are heated to the desired temperature. Process furnaces usually have a refractory-lined strucrRadiant ~- section tural-steel housing with two major compartments-a radiant section and a convection section (Fig. 1). ole Let us describe the importance of each section and of several major parts of such furnaces: Radiant section-This is the primary compartment of the furnace, in which fuel is fired to provide direct heating. It houses rows of tubes, usuurners ally along the walls and ceiling, and b. Box-type a. Circular positioned either horizontally or vertically. Tubes (most often vertical) can also be placed in the center of the firing space in order to obtain closer 117
CHEtvllCAL, ENGINEERING PEBRUARY 27, 1970

Safety~ distancej___

:

r.--- 0 0 q , o
FurnaceS l___fjRerack

-Safety jistanc';,_1

---

I-----Reactors--

~OOOO

I

Control house

'I"'-

II
,
Safety [ distance -

Safety ,/distance // Lateral piperack '"" if required Process equipment

Road

:I

Process

I

I[

equipment

Piperack Process equipment

~

Unit limit·

_

·1 I
L_ __

JJ.D__

I-_:;============~
Piperack Process equipment Road _

Ro_a_d_

UO:: ~minimum ...,
--\Reboiler furnace

Mobile crane access f--------_.._

o

~."
I/
~.~.I I

..
<,.. ,} ,

,

Safety distance-Furnace

o
Process equipment Tube-removal areas \
I

I

II
Utility equipment

\
I I I J

Tube-removal area

00

\

\

\.

!'- .~
-~-.~

.- .

ranged in a horizontal bundle, are placed across the path of the hot flue gases. The bundle works as a heat exchanger. This section is used for preheating a process stream, steam generation, and steam superheating. It is also used for process-stream afterheating if high process temperatures must be maintained for a specified time. The tubes in both radiant and convection sections can be removed for inspection or replacement. Horizontal (and vertical, if needed) removal space must be allowed for. Furnace stack-After the convection section, flue gases pass to the furnace stack. At the bottom of the stack, an air preheater is often placed for recovering waste heat. Preheated air is fed to furnace burners. The flue gases can pass through the furnace and stack under natural draft. In this case, the stack becomes tall, for maintaining the necessary draft. It can be shorter if a forceddraft fan is placed (usually at grade) between the outlet of the convection section and the inlet to the stack. Some furnaces have longer flue-gas ducts and an induced-draft fan at the end, located usually on top of the

furnace structure. For this system, a tall stack is not needed. Stack heights-Minimum stack height is determined by the furnace designer. For natural draft, this height must be maintained. However, for safety of plant operators, the stack height might have to be increased. A general rule is that stack height should be 10ft above any working platform located within a 70-ft radius of the stack. Stack height may be decreased by the difference between the distance of a remote platform from the stack and the 70-ft radius. Burners-Fuel and air are supplied through burners. They discharge into the radiant section, where combustion takes place to provide necessary heat. Burners are of three types: (a) oil burners that mix oil, air and atomizing steam, (b) gas burners that mix air and gas, and (c) combination burners that handle oil and gas. Pipelines via headers and branch connections supply the fuel, air and steam. Burner locations depend on furnace designs. Upfiring burners are placed in the floor of the furnace. Down118

CHEMlCAL ENGINEERING FEBRUARY 27, 1973

CE REFRESHER
firing burners are located in the ceiling of the furnace. Sidefiring burners are in the furnace walls. Mountings-Peepholes in the furnace walls make burner observation possible. CIeanout access doors and explosion doors are also installed. Soot blowers enable external cleaning of furnace tubes. Pipe connections are required for all process and utility lines, and thermowell connections for temperature sensors. Access platforms must be provided to peepholes, doors, and other points of operation and observation. Staircases and ladders interconnect the platforms, and also serve as escape routes. Slide poles from elevated platforms are sometimes provided for emergency escape.

-1.>1-[><J-

Check valve Gate valves Throttling
Control

-M-~

valve,
valves

Piperack High·p ressu re steam

BO;~;'h:::~\''''"icTF=~=:;=:o=:a=::_, Steam.generation coil Secondaryreformer air prehea~\. Reformer-feed preheat coil (

-Ii .

:

I

I

r-i--....,_'(----j

-1h~~~[J
I
,~Steam

sr J
coil sectio~~,

,

arrangement of control valves and valve manifolds. These are usually lined up under the furnace piperack, with convenient access provided. Furnaces are usually elevated so that headroom is available under the furnace-floor steel and under the piping for the floor burners.

Furnace piping: feed and transfer lines
Process feed enters the furnace through a single line or several lines, depending on furnace design, flowrate and heating conditions. Each stream has a flow-control valve arranged at grade, and usually lined up at the front of box-type furnaces (Fig. 3a). High-pressuresteam blowdow~ is provided after the control-valve manifold. Transfer lines are the product-outlet lines from the furnace. These lines are: • The hottest process lines. They must be flexible to stay within allowable thermal stresses and must have a very simple layout. • Large-diameter lines, occasionally water-jacketed, and internal1y or externally insulated. A careful hydraulic design must be made. • Sometimes part of a compressor circuit. An evaluation concerning capital costs, utility costs and payout time is warranted. • Often high-pressure pipes. This increases the importance of pipe-stress calculations and cost evaluations. • Often made of expensive alloys, sometimes with unusual lining or jacketing, to meet the foregoing criteria. Hence, each foot of pipe. and each fitting can represent substantial capital cost. Furnace transfer lines tend to coke. Coking can be kept to a minimum with a short line. Flow velocities are high to keep residence time short. The pressure differential available is that between the furnace outlet and the fractionation-column inlet. Liquid/vapor proportion is supplied by the furnace department. Because of the short line and high pressure differential, expanding two-phase (or gas) flow is usually the characteristic of a transfer line. Coking abo depends on temperature. In some petrochemical units, quench oil is injected at the beginning of the transfer line to rnin imize coke formation. In transfer lines where coking is expected, flanged fittings and elbows are specified to facilitate cleaning. Specific data (based on practical experience) concerning transfer-line length, severity of coking, pressure differentials, blowdown, quench oil, and cleaning requirements are given in contractors' and owners' design standards. Steam generation usually takes place in the convection section of process furnaces, and is often done by a thermosiphon system in which the difference in the static head in the downcomer water on the one hand and the water-steam mixture in the riser on the other maintains the fluid circulation. A steam drum at the top of the furnace provides the static liquid head and collects the steam generated. Water lines connect to the bottom section and steam return to the top section of the steam drum. (Forced circulation by means of a pump can also be used.) 120

superheat

Process furnaces
Some process furnaces function strictly as heat sources for raising the temperature of the proc.ess fluids passing through them-these may be termed fired heaters. Others raise the temperature of the proCESS fluid, and due to the heat imparted to it the fluid undergoes chemical and physical change-these are called pyrolysis and reforming furnaces. The principal types and characteristics of process furnaces: CircularJurnaces- These furnaces contain a number of tubes in a vertical array (Fig. h), or helical coils. The vertical tubes can be around the furnace walls or in a cross-arrangement in the firing area. Tubes located in the firing space (as in the typical reformer-furnace arrangement) provide high heat input and high temperatures (1,300 to 1,600°F). Circular furnaces are for small heat duties, are used as reboiler heaters, and have bottom burners. Tube removal is done vertically with the help of a circular monorail placed on the furnace stack. Inlet and outlet connections for process fluids are usually at the. top for the vertical-tube type. Inlet at top and outlet at bottom (or reversed) is the pattern for the helical-coil type. Box.-typefilmaces-The radiant section is a rectangular box with horizontal or vertical tubes (Fig. 1b). The convection section can be in upfiow or downflow arrangement. Large, radiant box-type furnaces can have two or more compartments, with two at more parallel furnace coils toa.ccommodate large flowrates. Fuel firing in these furnaces can be done with bottom-, topand wall-fired burners. Box-type furnaces usually have horizontal tubes. Hence, a large tube-removal area has to be available. In plan, this area must be as wide as the radiant section and as long as the furnace. A-frameJumaces-Most A-frame furnaces resemble the box-type ones ..They are often relatively long and narrow, usually floor-fired, and have one, two or more compartmen ts. PyrolysisJurnaces- The high heat-transfer rate through the tubes, relatively short residence time of the process fluid, and even temperature distribution along the tubes require that the tubes be placed in the center of the radiant section. Coking of the. internal tubewalls periodically necessitates steam decoking. Rifo17ning furnaces-In reforming furnaces, process fluid is preheated to a high temperature (900°F) and 119
CNEMICAL ENGlNBER1NG

Remote high-pressure blowdown rnanl+old

,----f--. I
each feed line

~r--f;ue --- f-\las !
/' ~

I 1
j

. 1-

Convection

.

.,

...

\c t-'f1A1'- __
v rrus>

Su perheated steam for process or power generation /Reformer tubes in center at radiant section _-·Radiant section

a. Furnace feed line and blowdown To stack, after dampener Process feed from control val Sample connection Throttling valves, near peep doors

t

~

1·-

J-

Reformer pro.duct .... gas ..... 1-1

1-1\J'

0

or sewer

"

" admitted to catalyst-filled tubes. With rare exceptions, the tubes are in" the center of the firing sp~ce. The furnaces can have single, double or multiple compartments, with wall or floor burners. . For economy, both pyrolysis and reforming furnaces have heat-recovery systems, such as waste-heat boilers and steam-generation coils in the convection section. The steam drum is usually located on top of the furnace steel, while pumps and associated equipment are located at grade.

Furnace arrangements
Fig. 2 shows the customary furnace arrangements for petrochemical plants. Furnaces are placed in upwind locations SO that flammable gases or vapors are less likely to be blown toward them. Safety distances are given in plant-design specifications. These distances from the furnace to the nearest process equipment are: 20 to 30 ft for circular furnaces; 40 to 60 ft in front of box-type or A-frame furnaces, and 20 to 40 ft at the sides ..Piperacks can be located within
FEBRUARY 27, 1978

these safety areas. Space for fire fighting is provided all around the furnaces, Furnaces are usually located at the peripheries of process units. However, circular reb oiler furnaces have been located (while maintaining safety distances) within equipment areas to avoid long pump-discharge lines (see Fig. 2, top left). Several process furnaces are usually grouped. A common stack for these saves capital cost. For reactor-furnace arrangements (as shown in Fig. 2, top left), the central piperack provides utilities to both the furnaces and reactors. Piping and vaIving between reactors and furnaces is expensive. Both the size and location of connections are determined by furnace and reactor designs; pipe expansion must be compensated for; and there are space and configuration limitations. Under such circumstances, piping-layout economy depends on the designer's ingenuity. Material and valving costs in reactor piping can be saved with a reduction in line sizes .. It is essential to recalculate and check pressure drops in the lines with an exact piping layout. It is also necessary to investigate pressure-drop distribution in the entire system. Decreased pressure drop in other equipment groups (exchangers, furnaces, reactors) can help in decreasing alloy-line and alloy-valve sizes, while maintaining constant the overall pressure differential. With large-diameter alloy piping, the smallest oversight can run into· high cost. The overall piping-layout design concentrates tm the

CHEMICAL ENGINEEIUNG FEBRUARY 27, 1978

CE REFRESHER
Piperack

Stack

Low-p ressu re steam
(100 to 125 psig)
I

To hose stations

Heater

Piperack

...--.1-------

Perforated

pipes under roof~.::--~'>o..

------'._

Fire-steam header (100 to 125 psig)

steam to cornbustlon

chamber

()

0

From control-!:l!.!---'--------l.n valve

Grade

Fig. 4 shows the steam-generating system of a reformer furnace. Resistance in the vertical riser should be calculated by considering the fluid to be in expanding two-phase vertical upfiow. The riser's resistance should be considerably less than that of the downcomer in order to avoid steam upflow in the downcomer at startup. Both the downcomer and riser should have the simplest pipe configuration without a loop or pocket. Horizontal pipelines should slope toward the waste-heat boiler.

Furnace piping: fuel supply
Fuel gas-For a group of box-type furnaces, the gassupply main (located in the piperack) branches off to each furnace as a gas-distribution header (Fig. 5). This header is arranged close to the rows of burners. Smallsize leads connect to each burner. A separate pilot-gas line is also provided. Since the fuel gas should be dry, the distribution header connects to the. top of the gas-supply main. The distribution header slopes in the direction of gas flow, without a pocket in the line. A drip leg is fitted at the low point. The system of gas-supply headers, branch and lead connections is designed as symmetrically as possible to yield an even flow of gas to all burners. Depending on the moisture content of the fuel gas, a separator drum (with gage glasses and drain) can be provided in the supply main, and should be placed about 50 ft from the nearest furnace. All fuel-gas drains are piped to a collection system and go either to the flare or to a safe process or utility line. A remotely located control valve or shutoff valve is installed either in the supply main or in each distribution header. The. choice depends on whether the furnaces are shut down together or individually. A globe

valve at each burner lead enables manual adjustment of the fuel supply. A bypass line and valve maintains a low fire if the supply control valve accidentally shuts. In cold climates, the supply control valve is steam traced if the gas contains water. For manual control, a globe valve is installed in the gas-supply header. Fuel oil-This fuel is handled by a looped circulating system (Fig. 5), which provides supply and distribution. The supply system is usually remotely located from the furnace area and consists of a storage tank and pump. The suction line has a duplex strainer in addition to the usual valving and instrumentation. '.\ Discharge from the fuel-oil pump goes to the supply . main in the yard bank. Supply and return headers are arranged near the row of burners.und leads connect to each burner. The return header connects back to the fuel-oil storage tank. A control valve is installed in the supply header, with a return bypass provided upstream from this valve. A throttling valve placed in the return line provides manual control. A steam-out connection is added downstream of the control valve. High-viscosity fuel oils might require heating by means of a tank or line heater. Fuel-oil burners need atomizing steam. The atomizing-steam supply piping usually runs adjacent to fuel-oil Jines and is wrapped in the same insulation (Fig. 5). This serves to decrease fuel-oil viscosity. To obtain effective combustion, atomizing steam is mixed with the oil at the exit nozzle of the burners. The atomizing-steam system consists of a distribution main (100 to 125 psig) in the yard, a looped-distribution header, and a lead to each burner. A condensate leg and steam trap are needed at the low point of the distribution header.

Furnace piping; steam supply
Snuffing steam is for fire fighting (Fig. 6). Perforated pipes are placed under the roof gables, header boxes and combustion chamber of a furnace. Each compartment has a separate (usually 1% in.) line running to a remotely located manifold with gate valves. This manifold is placed about 50 ft from the furnaces in the direction of the control house. The manifold feed may connect to the same supply header as the atomizing steam. The two header-box snuffing-steam lines, at each end of a furnace, have a secondary manifold near the furnace, as well as individual, l-in, leads to each headerbox compartment. Drains are at the low point of each header box. The collecting system for the drains is piped through a seal loop to the oily-water sewer. Blowdown steam is for forcing fuel out of the supply pipes in case of fire, or for cleaning the feed lines and furnace coils. The blowdown-steam line is connected through a remotely located manifold (adjacent to snuHing-steam manifold) to a high-pressure-steam main. This manifold has gate valves. Condensate leg and steam trap are provided at the manifold. A secondary steam manifold, near the furnace, connects steam lines to the high point of each furnace feed line. A check valve, followed by a gate valve (locked open), is placed in each line from the secondary manifold. The blowdown system is the discharge side of blowdown steam. It connects to each furnace coil at a low point. A manual globe valve is installed at each point. This valve may also be remotely located. A check valve is added to the blowdown collecting header if the blowdown main serves more than one furnace. Service-hose connections enable delivery of either atomiz-

ing steam or snuffing steam from the appropriate header. Steam-, water-, and air-hose connections are grouped at suitable points on all four sides of box-type furnaces.

Decoking operations
A decoking arrangement is shown schematically- in Fig. 3b. Each furnace coil or section of furnace piping is drained and blown out with steam. Header boxes are opened and plugs on the return elbows removed. A cleaning tool, pushed through each tube; removes the coke deposits from the inner wall. Loose coke is removed with air or steam. After this is done, all the tubes are reclosed, and burners gently fired while introducing steam to remove loose coke. The steam flowrate is generous to prevent overheating of tube walls. Air is then introduced to burn off the remaining coke deposits. A final steam flush cleans the tubes. All these flows are downflow operations. Steam and air discharge to the furnace stack. A coke-collecting drum can be used at the steam-coke effluent point near the furnace. Provision should be made so that coke is not blown into the transfer line. Because decoking is a delicate operation, careful planning and procedures must be followed. Overheating can easily damage the furnace tubes. Not all furnaces have decoking facilities. Distillation requires lower temperatures than pyrolysis. Consequently, little coking can be expected in crude and vacuum furnaces, and only a moderate amount in cracking furnaces. Decoking systems are usually provided for pyrolysis furnaces. The next article of this CE REFRESHER will appear in the issue of Apr. 10,1978, and will deal with layouts for process instrumentation. 122

121

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FEBRUARY 27, .197H

CHF.1VfTCAL ENGINEERING FEBRUARY 27, 1978

CE REFRESHER

PLANT LAYOUT/9

Instrument arrangements for ease of maintenance and convenient operation
Fluid flow, liquid level, pressure and temperature will be used to illustrate the principles of graphic design when planning instrumentation for meeting process conditions and the needs of plant operators and maintenance crews.
Robert Kern, Hoffmann - La Roche Inc.

..

Controller

----fl

tJ
. Flow diagram

I~
(Local

Control board or in central control

room

From a layout and piping-design standpoint, instruments are just as important as the structural steel, vessels, piping, or any other component of plant design. Layout and piping designers make detailed nozzleorientation studies when arranging instrument connections to vessels. Beyond this, plant designers and project engineers normally pay little attention to all of the details for instrumentationand electrical-hardware arrangements during the graphic plant-design phase of a project. And overall graphic design rarely goes farther than general routing diagrams for field erection of instrument and electrical systems. Further, installation personnel often place electric cables, instrument tubing, and components of instrument or electrical hardware in access ~'Pace intended for other purposes and in locations of questionable functionality. The result is often a poor installation-especially when plant-design practicality interfaces with plant-operation requirements. Let us review instrumentation in terms of layout design.

D

"

of the fluid. The sensing element is connected mechanically, pneumatically or electrically (or a combination of these) to an instrument that indicates, records or transmits the physical condition for observation, control and operation. The final link in the instrument circuit is the control valve (or final control element) that operates according to commands from the sensing elements through the transmitting and controlling devices. In short, automatic-control functions proceed as follows:

.I

I

Sensing

r

Transmitting

,
~

I

Indicating and/or recording {locally or remotelv) Adjusting or automatically)

(rnanuallv

Process control
Instruments give information about the physical state and properties of fluids in vessels, piping and process equipment. They indicate, record and control process variables such as flow, liquid level, pressure and temperature. Each instrument has a connection to the piping or vessels for sensing the physical state or condition

!

(e.g., control valve)

Acting

I

panel, or remotely on a panel in the central control room. Plant-layout and piping designers must be sure that (1) the instrumentation hardware for sensing, transmitting, indicating and acting elements is functionally installed and will operate as intended by the pipe-systems, instrumentation-systems and process designers, and that (2) these components are visible and accessible to plant operators and maintenance crews. Instrument components and control systems come in endless varieties. However, graphic-design principles can be explained via some basic installations:

Flow control
Fig. 1 shows the interconnected hardware for automatic flow control. An orifice plate in the pipeline creates variations in the differential pressure across the orifice, due to changes in flowrate, Instrument-air tubing connects the transmitter (differential-pressure cell) to the controller/recorder and, in turn, sends an air signal to the pneumatic actuator of the control valve.

Among these functions, elements for sensing and acting have hardware built into pipelines or other equipment. The transmitting element is usually grouped with the sensing and acting functions. Indicating and recording instruments can be grouped with the remaining functions, or can be mounted on a local
APRIL

Instead of pneumatic tubing, a converter can change pneumatic-pressure signals to electrical ones. This will not change the graphic configuration of the hardware. The supporting steel will carry electric cables instead of air tubing. Flow metering and components sizing have been covered in previous articles [l, 2 and 3]. Let us now examine the graphic-design aspects for the arrangement of Fig. 1. Orijice-In liquid service, an orifice can only operate well if it flows completely flooded. This is also true for all other flow-sensing elements, such as flow nozzles, venturi-pitot tubes, impact tubes and rotameters. The flooded condition is prevalent in pump-discharge and pressurized lines. To measure flow in gravity-flow lines, a static head must be provided in front of the orifice line in order to overcome orifice and control-valve resistances. The termination point of the pipeline, following the orifice straight-run, should be higher than the orifice-line elevation. In short, gravity-flow orifice lines are horizontal, and they must be pocketed. 128

127

CHEMICAL

ENGINE8RING

to, 1973

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING APRl'L 10, 1978

......._IIU~W,

-- •
Venturi tube Pitot tube or pitot-ventu ri

~I

Orifice plate

Flow nozzle

I
.

.

Hawing medium

Flowing_ medium

.... ...

room (Fig. 1), considerable space is required, e.g., 3-ft access space behind the board and a minimum of 4 ft in front of it. Long control boards need 6- to lO-ft frontal space for convenient observation by the operators . Control valv/{s-These are located close to the flow-metering devices. Extensive literature is available on control valves [3].

Pressure rel~y Air supply

Sediment chambers for collecting solids in liquid To orifice

~,

Output

Liquid-level control

Driplegs for collecting liquid in gas

Claim I.iqJJid,
djiy gaSl]Y 'aLl', wet gas or air

~

l
t
j

Clean liquid, dr.y ga~fof air

l
t
I

f

SatorateGLsteaJli, wlifgas.oralr

Satti rat4tl steam, superneahid steam

I

t
Not used

t
-

St>lids;stlspendefJ in liquid

!
t

'$QJld_sslisf)elnlei'l

fh

li~uid

Rarely used

Orifices in pressurized plpmg can be vertical, horizontal or slanted. Table I shows some practical alternatives for positioning flow-sensing elements in various services. Two-phase flow cannot be accurately measured with differential-pressure sensing elements. Transmitter-The differential-pressure transmitter (Fig. 2a) consists of a diaphragm, an attached pivoted linkage, and pressure relay. The diaphragm divides the housing into high-pressure and low-pressure sides. Each side is connected to the corresponding orifice tap. The diaphragm deflects in proportion to the orifice pressure differentiaL The pivoted linkage (attached to the. diaphragm) transmits the motion to an air-nozzle plate, thus opening and closing the air-supply nozzle .. This changes the air pressure in the relay, which sends an output signal to the controller, and an air signal from the controller to the control-valve actuator. A feedback bellows in the transmitter balances pressure fluctuations. Occasionally, the transmitter housing has to be re-

moved to make adjustments. For this purpose, clearance must be given above the differential-pressure cell, The. preferred arrangement is close to the orifice [1]. Often, differential-pressure cells have to be remote from the orifice. Where necessary, drip legs, sediment chambers and air chambers (as specified by the hydraulic designer) are provided between the orifice and differential-pressure cell (Fig. 2b) .. These separators should be close to the differential-pressure cell, and connections to them should be self-draining. The most economical support for differential-pressure cells is on existing structures or walls. Manufacturers of these cells have versatile attachment and support designs. Local supports can be provided with tubular stanchions, flanged to the floor. These should not be placed in accessways, Electric-starter supports can be combined with those for differential-pressure cells. Controller-The controller, often combining an indicator and recorder, is usually built into an instrument panel board that is mounted locally, or remotely in a central control room. For a board placed in a control
APRIL 10, )918

Level instruments are located on process vessels and storage tanks. The level range and elevations for instrument-nozzle connections are determined by the instrument specialist. Orientation of nozzles, access to isolating and drain valves, clearances and access to instrument boxes are usuAi r chambers for ally the responsibility of piping decollecting air in liquid signers. Displacer-type level controllers are the most widely used instruments in Low-pressure precess plants. The principle of this connection Linkage instrument is shown in Fig. 3a. As the attached to liquid level rises in the container, the diaphragm buoyant effect on the immersed displacer increases and its apparent b. Separate r arrangements 8. Differential-pressure cell weight decreases. This weight is held in balance by a torsion bar. At the II ~ pivot, an indicator points to a calibrated scale .. With no liquid in the chamber, the displacer force will be The two connecting nozzles on the displacer chamber heaviest and the torsional deformation will be the largcan be at the side, or at top and bottom. Isolating and est. Fully immersed, the displacer force will be smallest; drain valves can be accessible from a ladder; platform and the torsional deformation, the least. The controlaccess to the transmitter is preferred. ling range. for the liquid level depends on the length of The displacer can be placed directly in a vessel such the displacer. as a storage tank. This is an advantage if the level, The arrangement of Fig .. 3a (with much refinement) sensing range is wide. (Consequently, the displacer beis placed in a housing. Piping connections provide the comes very long. Installation and removal clearances means for process liquid to flow from a vessel through must be provided for this version.) the displacer chamber. Fig. 3b shows an externally Controller and control-valve arrangements coming mounted, displacer-rype level controller with integral after the transmitter are similar to those shown for the transmitter head. flow-control circuit of Fig. 1. The gage glass on the Fig. 3c to 3e show construction details, alternatives vessel (covering the range of level controller) should be and dimensions that affect vessel-nozzle orientation, reasonably visible from the related control-valve byclearances, and access to the level controller, transmitpass, so that the operator can observe the glass while ter, and isolating valves. turning the bypass-valve handwheel. For convenient access to the valve and displacer There are a number of variations for level sensing cover, any angular location can be used for the level [4]. The differential-pressure type is a mercury-filled controller around a vertical vessel, as shown in Fig. 3c. U-tubc in which a varying liquid head in one leg is The transmitter can be ordered with the case mounting balanced by a constant static head of liquid in the other to right or left (Fig. 3d). Clearances should be given for leg. A mercury float with mechanical linkage transmits 'swinging the cover open. For hot liquids, a finned the level variations to an indicator or recorder. torque-tube extension is specified, For subzero temperaThe internal (or external) ball-type level indicator/ tures, a plain torque-arm extension is used .. These excontroller is used in vessels containing viscous liquids. A tensions increase the distance from the displacer centerfloating ball is placed in the vessel through a nozzle 3 to line to the transmitter cover (Fig. 3e). 10 in. dia, The ball is installed and removed through For convenient orientation, the torque-mechanism the nozzle. Hence, clearances must be given in addition housing can be rotated relative to the displacer chamto the appropriate nozzle size. The ball is mechanically ber in increments of flange-bolt spacing (Fig. 3c).
I•

II

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING

APRIL

10,1978

130

I

129

CHEMICAL.ENGINEERING

I
CE REFRESHER
My atigl:J.iar .Iocatilin ean
on vertica I vessels nnte~nal and external details permittingJ
be arranged

.B
For small-diameter piping

i :.~ ~ ~
,raTA,fL.!G,

"1

a. Principle

Tee extension,

flow through

branch

Tee extension,

flow through

run

Local increase in line size

Verttcal vessel

For larqe-diarnetor

piping

'",/

.Displacer chamber

'G.

level controller

location Do not insulate beyond this disk

,,
I
/

/.Displacer

!

t/

Transmitter

In run of pipeline For vessels, fu maces, other' equipment
l.efthand Righthand Honed extension (abo." 500" Fl PI.in extension (below o°FI

At 45" to run of line

b. level controller

d. Case mounting

e. Extensions

linked to a transmitter that converts the signal to an air pressure. An air line is connected to the control-valve actuator.

Temperature

measurement

Local or control-room indicators and automatic-control hardware for pressure and temperature are usually not as elaborate as How and level controls. Applications can range between a control system (similar to Fig. 1) and a local dial indicator. In the following discussion, We will cover only how the sensing elements and local indicators are instaUed, because much of the information on the hardware for achieving automatic control is repetitive. Temperature indicators come in great variety, with straight and angular heads so that they can be oriented ina visible position. These indicators are bimetallic or bulb types. Thermocouples provide the vast majority of temperature measurements in process plants. When two dissimilar metals are joined at one end and heated, a small continuous voltage is generated, which is proportional to the temperature of the thermocouple. Resistance thermometers measure temperature by changes in the resistance of a nickel or platinum wire. As the temperature increases, so does the resistance of the wire. This resistance.is proportional to the temperature change and is detected by an appropriate electri131

cal-bridge circuit. The resulting s.ignalis transmitted to indicating, recording and controlling equipment, either locally or remotely. Temperature instruments are inserted with or without thermowells (protective tubing) into process fur'\ naces.vessels and piping. Mosttemperature connections 'are threaded, and made of high-temperature alloys. VVhen.frequentremoval is required .for cleaning, a I-in. ball-joint connection is used. In specified services, 1. 1'2in. ball-joint or flanged connections are also installed. The pressure rating for these connections is usually 6,000 psi. Often, special provisions have to be made in piping for installing thermowells (Fig. 4). Usually, there is no problem in inserting thermowells in large-diameter piping. In overhead lines, reboiler drawoff and return lines, and generally vessel inlet and outlet lines, the temperature points should be as close to the vessel as possible. Smaller lines may require angular (45 thermowell connections if the inserted length exceeds the internal diameter of the pipe. A flanged tee can be provided for a longer thermo well. Elbow connections permit the insertion of any length of therrnowell. It is impossible to insert thermowells in small-diameter piping C% to 2 in.) without restricting the flow. In this piping, a local increase in line size will be necessary. For long thermowells or thermocouples,a vertical
0 )

In vessel or tank wall

;;.;

""

arrangement is preferred. A horizontal instrument might need extra support inside the vessel, The piping designer must find practical locations for all temperature connections in order to satisfy the following: (a) instrument location, as shown on the piping-and-instrumentation (P&I) or the process-control diagram, (b) internal clearances for the length of thermowell, and (c) external clearances for removal and access to the connection. Dial-type thermometers should be visible from the access space., Temperature instruments are delicate; they should not be located near manhole. covets because of possible damage when opening the cover. Temperature instruments in vessels and piping must give representative readings ..For this reason, they are usually placed in the liquid space in vessels, close to outlet nozzles, (Fig. Sa), or at the bottom of the downcomer in a distillation column, with a radial or hillside connection depending on internal vessel dimensions and length of thermocouple. When required, temperature connections are close to inlet and outlet at pumps,

exchangers and control valves (Fig. 5b). These temperature locations are downstream of pressure connections, upstream of additive-injection points. . Thermowells should be placed well ahead of orifice runs, or just after the straight length of orificepiping, in order to avoid flow disturbances (Fig. 5c)..Where two streams of differing temperatures meet, a minimum of 10 pipe diameters should be allowed in order to mix the flow and even out differences in temperatures before sensing them.

Pressure measurement
Pressure taps are placed· in the vapor space of vessels(Fig, 6a); on pump-suction and pump-discharge nozzles; at a minimum distance in piping upfIow to exchangers, control valves and orifices(Fig. 6b and 6c), After a restriction in a pipeline, velocity increasesand pressure locally decreases. So for representative readings, a length equal to Jive pipe diameters is recornmended after the restriction or flow disturbances, for locating the pressure point at valves, pipe junctions,
132

CHEMICAL ENGINEER1NG APRIL 10, 197B

CHEMJGAL ENGINEERING APRIL 10,. 197.R

CE REFRESHER

Minimum Downstream of p ressu re gau ge

6 _~I -1--1 _ .. ---il-r-___j
I

o

~

Minimum

Before and after pump block valves Flushing, additives

LStraight~ length

I

! Minimum

1
Upstream of injection point

..
,

Close to pumps

6

I :

m ,"', ~

I.

5 Pipe diameters

I

Minimum

~_/-Li
___ L-I
I1 , I r-Ll!
_!L_l_-I
I I

.....t,L-t-+-.J:
\

I -/
I

..

--IOd;~lrT
/

1~5---,-PiP_e diameters

~U
"

Minimum

Maximum

,I I,

--"\q'T,
Before and after bypass junctions b. Pumps, exchangers,
tap and not type of indicator.

Minimum

LStraight.../ length

Minimum Minimum 5 pipe diameters

t

I

In liquid space of vessels, In vapor outlet for piping. a. Vessels
represents location of temperature

I~
valves

10 pipe diameters

.1

..
In vapor space of vessels. Visible from platforms,

.u.::
,

Throttling valve ",

5 Pipe diameters Minimum

Close to exchangers, Visible from walkways b. Pumps and exchangers

Before and after major flow d istu rbances c. Pipelines

control

c. Pipel ines

.

.

recorder,

controller.

o

a. Vessels
represents location

of pressure tap for sensor and not tvpe of indicator

'

.

recorder

, controller .

throttling valves, and thennowells (Fig, 6b and 6c). Pressure taps to piping are threaded (3/4 in.) or flanged connections. A valve usually separates the sensing instrument from its piping connection. Local indicators come in straight, angular or movable heads. These should be visible from access aisles. Temporary access by ladder for such pressure sensors and valves is usually acceptable. Flushing connections are added between the pipe coupling and the isolating block valve when coking, scaling, polymerization or slurry can plug up the pressure tap.

Instrument

location and layout

All instrumentation hardware in vesselsand piping is provided by layout designers. They are responsible for the visibility of indicators and recorders, and access to sensing points, operating points and control valves. For this work, they need: (a) P&I flow diagrams that show the hydraulic- and instrumentation-systems design; (b) vessel sketches that show location and elevation of in133

strument connections; (c) physical details and dimensions of instrumentation components, obtained from manufacturers' catalogs or certified drawings. Orientation and exact locations for instrument nozzles on vesselshave to be arranged for at the very early stages of design, after the above-listed information has been released. Vessels have to be ordered, and design finalized, as soon as possible. Instrument locations in piping are produced during detailed piping design, or at later stages when a piping model is built. Transmitter and electric-starter supports and locations should be arranged during the planning phase of design [5]. For this purpose, a meeting is held by layout, instrument and electrical designers. For construction, a plot plan or any suitable drawing or model is marked up for final location of supports, transmitters, electric starters and junction boxes, Floor attachments are dimensioned, elevations are given for locations on existing steel, additional steel requirements are indicated and, most important, orientation of in-

strumentation and electric hardware is shown, Operationand maintenance should be convenient from access aisles. Consideration should be given to the location of analyzers. Space is required for the often-bulky instrument, storage compartments, wash basin, portable equipment, and containers. Sample connections usually have floor or platform access and double-valving arrangements, The sample cooler is connected closely to the sample point. Because operators' attention is frequent, good access to these analyzers and accessory components must be provided. Operators usually review P&ls from an instrumentation standpoint, The same careful review should be given to the physical locations of all instruments, While such a review can be a manager's activity, an effective model review can be given by the operator who will observe the instruments and turn the valve handwheels. The next article of this CE REFRESHER will appea.r in the issue of May 8, 1978, and will deal with plot plans for process units.

References
1. Kern) R., Measuring Flow ill Pipes \;Vith Orifices and Nozzles, Fig. 7, Chern. Eng., Feb, :1, 1975, p. 72. ' 2. Kern) R' How To She Flowmerers, Chern. Eng.~ Mar. 3, 197.5, p. 161. 3. Kern, R., Control Valves ill Process Plants, ['hem. Eng., Apr. 14,1975, p. 85.
J

4. Liptak, Chilton

B. G., "Instrument Engineers' Book Co., Philadelphia, 1969.

Handbook,"

Vol. I, pp. 2:l-170, Cost, Chem.

5. Kern, R .• How To Manage Plant: Design To Obtain Minimum Eng., May 23, 1977, pp. 130-136. .

CHEMICAL ENGINEERI,NG,APRIL 10, 1978

CHEMICAl. I':NGIN.EERrNG APRIL 10, 1978

134

PLANT LAYOUTL10

How to arrange the plot plan for process plants
The plot plan is the initial drawing produced for the layout of process plants. All designers use this plan to develop the necessary requirements and drawings for operating, constructing and maintaining the plant. 0,

lines on a PFD, lines that interconnect closely-related equipment such as the bottom-outlet, pump, heater reflux circuit, or lines to reb oilers and condensers. 3. Feed and product lines-Feed lines and the usually small-diameter product lines can be minimized if they start at equipment close to the battery limit, where feed and product lines terminate.

Optimum location
In addition to tower sequence, every equipment item has an optimum location for minimum pipe run. Locations for individual process equipment have been discussed in detail in previous articles. * A short summary is given here. Exchangers, next to towers, have short pipe runs. These units are thermosyphon reboilers and condensers, usually with large-diameter lines. Pairing condensers between towers can result in a common structure (and access)for supporting the condensers and reflux drums. A single water line and return can be designed for grouped condensing equipment. Most reboilers are at grade. Space can be saved if they are located adjacent to condenser groupings. Otherwise, a commonly adopted arrangement has condensers on one side, and reboilers on the other side, of distillation columns. Generally, surge drums,storage drums, coolers, and heaters are placed between distillation-column groupings in a process flow sequence. Reactors are usually grouped with furnaces and/or compressors..Suction and knockout.drums, intercoolers and aftercoolers are adjacent to compressors. Pump locations have one general rule: put pumps close to and below their point of suction.

Robert Kern) Hoffmann - La Roche Inc. open (i.e., outdoor) process plant shows road systems, adjacent structures, cooling towers, location of power plants, adjoining piperacks, storage areas and administration areas surrounding the proposed site. This is the stage where the quality and economy of plant design is largely determined, substantial capital cost can be saved, and the requirements for' operation, maintenance, safety and construction will be satisfied. Obviously, the overall arrangements for open plants overlap into areas that have been previously discussed in this series. Before activities can begin, certain basic information must be available to the layout designer. This is evaluated, analyzed and finally shaped into a three-dirnensional reality.

0), G).

etc. are towers

D The overall layout of an

Information

required

For plant-layout design, the following essential information and data must be at hand: Process fioui diagram (PFD)is the most important document issued to the layout engineer. It shows how pieces of process equipment are interconnected. Flowrates and flow conditions are indicated, and pressure differences can be quickly computed for estimating line sizes. Temperatures show where alloy piping can be expected. A marked-up PFDshowing special piping-materials, alloy piping, high-pressure piping and corrosion requirements is a useful document to obtain from the pipingmaterial specialist. Process data provide the required elevations of process

equipment, and any special details that cannot be readily seen on the PFn-for example, operating procedures, unusual process conditions, and materials-handling methods and equipment. Specifications describe standard practices for all sections of plant design. Layout requirements mainly concern: access,headroom spacing and grouping of equipment; economy of layout, maintenance and operation; material and special conditions; housing for compressors,pumps and other processequipment; and, possibly, major equipment locations and relationships. Site data can be given by a site map or an overall plant layout. A site map shows geographic details such ""as' oads, railroads, river or seashore, contours of elevar tions, and inhabited areas. Soil-bearing data are useful for assessing the type of foundations that win be used. Project design data list: weather conditions, average seasonal temperatures, maximum rainfall records; locations and elevations for feed, process, product and utility lines; and diluent points of sewers. The prevailing wind can influence furnace, compressor-house,control-house and other equipment locations. Leaked flammable gas or vapor should not be blown towards furnaces; smoke from furnace stacks and fumes should not be blown toward control or compressor houses. Cooling-tower vapors should not be blown in winter to nearby structures or road surfaces. Grade evelation is usually referenced to a datum such as: "Elevation = 100 ft." This is for convenience in design and to establish a consistent elevation relationship between design disciplines. Reference point or reference coordinates are necessary for locating the plant relative to its surroundings. Equipment sizes and buildings include types and sizes of vessels,heat exchangers, pumps, compressors (with inMAY 8, 1978

tercoolers, pulsation dampeners, silencers, and floor 'space for lube-oil and seal-oil coolers), furnace and heater details (including product and fuel lines), control-house and switch-house arrangements.

Process plant in plan
A plot plan must optimizea great number of practical requirements. Often, the combination of several design ideas has to be adopted. Typical. concepts are: Inline layout-All process units incorporate more or less the inline process-flow sequence. This is the economical arrangement for most oil refineries and large chemical plants. Large-diameter pipe routings can be direct, from point to point, as shown in Fig. 2 for the feed-gas compressor area of a large ethylene unit. Similar equipment groupings-Client's preference, operating or maintenance convenience, and safety considerations can dictate the grouping of similar types of equipment. Distillation columns have been lined up, closeto each other, in order to provide common manhole platforms, which also enable the servicing of valves and instruments. In this case, condensers are arranged on the opposite side of the piperack, with all pumps under the piperack, Grouped exchangers and lined-up channel ends make possible the use of a common gantry crane for bundle removal. This crane moves on rails in front of the exchangers. Pumps have been housed andgrouped for convenient operation and maintenance. Suction piping becomes
"See Part "3 for columns, 4 for exchangers, Part 5 for vessels, Pa-rt 6 for pumps and compressors, and Part B for furnaces. Consult the index on the bottom of p. 191 far dates of publication.

Tower sequence
Information and data evaluation start with the PFD. From a layout standpoint, three types of piping can be considered: 1. Main process-flom lines~Fluid8 in these lines usually pass through furnaces, reactors, dryers and distillation columns. They may continue as tower bottoms and feed inlets to the next tower, often with exchangers and pumps between towers. Such lines will be shortest if the towers are arranged in process-flow sequenee, and as close to each other as equipment sizes and access space permit. Towers can be located farther apart without much increase in piping cost if other economies can be realized. Fig. 1 shows an example of alternative tower arrangements. Many configurations are possible and justified if shortening of process lines is the ultimate result. Process flow is not always a simple straight-through flow, but can split into two or three streams, as is often done with a number of distillation columns. Subsidiary circuits must also be considered, such as refrigeration circuits in ammonia or ethylene plants. 2. Lines between associatedequipment-Spacing of towers depends on the number and size of other equipment connected to them. This leads to the second group of
CHEMICAL

I

I

r~t

191

CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING

"ENGINEERING

MAY

a,

1918

192

CE REFRES.HER
somewhat longer than with pumps in the open. Compressors under one roof are a frequent requirement. Functional equipment groupingThe cost of alloy piping initiates perhaps the most compact and unusual arrangements for process equipment. Some examples are: nozzle-to-nozzle location between vessel inlet and exchanger outlet; head-to-head connection between exchangers; and stacked exchangers and drums. For safety reasons and good 'housekeeping, equipment containing acids or toxic materials is usually grouped within a paved and curbed area that is drained toward a neutralizing pit. Equipment may have to be grouped when a crane or trolley beam. is needed for removing equipment internals and for materials handling.

Main access road Piperack
I I

Reflux drum Fractionator

From furnace

rdl","II~'1
area Alternative air-cooler location

~./!

kX",,1
Road

I

("-=-!

~

_____j,~

I)
Pumps Access Pumps Road

II n

n 11

Control house

:1

II

II:

Process plant in elevation
In principle, all the variations for equipment locations, as shown in Fig. 3, are the same. One or two lines of process equipment are placed along the piperack, Maintenance roads are provided parallel to the piperack and process equipment. A central piperack is economical (Fig. 3a and 3b). Air coolers can be placed over the piperack, while air coolers at grade increase the unit area (Fig. 3a). When pumps are lined up under the piperack with a central access road, and air coolers are placed above the rack (Fig. 3a), insurance requirements may call for sprinkler protection over these pumps. Pumps placed outside the piperack increase the distance between the piperack and process equipment (Fig. 3b), resulting in additional pipe supports and pipe length to connect the pumps and equipment. The one-sided arrangements (Fig. 3c,3d and 3e) .are usually more expensive than those of Fig. 3a and 3b because only one side of the piperack is used. However, if only a narrow area is available or a future expansion is planned for, these arrangements can be optimum solutions. The control house and furnaces are often placed outside the main process-unit area. Supporting steel for instrument lines and auxiliary piperacks has to be provided for connecting the control room or furnace area to other equipment (Fig. 3b and 3c). Safety distances and the maximum allowable length for the transfer line can also influence furnace location. Many compressor houses have been arranged along the main yard. Extra yard length is required if the compressor house is at the periphery of the process unit (Fig. 3c). Structures for supporting process equipment are expensive. To achieve cost savings here, the three main 193

~0 k >1

(I
II ~
n

I)

n
0

II

@g
\

\ '---------------'---Pumps,

fM1
0

k

j

gdll :1

n

n

Ii
~ I
I
I

f;? k .J
I I

outside the piperack

principles of design are: eliminate, combine and minimize structures for process plants.

Compressor house

Elevations of vessels and exchangers
Elevated process equipment usually means extended footings, platforms, supporting structures, or some layout combination of vessels and exchangers. A summary will now be given of the requirements for elevating vessels and exchangers. (See references indicated.) Grade location-s-Yea: open plants, the most economical ~',\_locationof process equipment is at grade. Supporting structures and platforms are not required. Construction is easy. Most valves and instruments can be made accessible from grade. Operation and maintenance are convenient. Towers-Minimum skirt heights for towers vary from 3 to 6 ft for towers having diameters of 2 to 15 ft and bottom temperatures of 100 to 400°F. Higher temperatures can add 1 or 2 ft to these heights, to avoid the transmission of unduly high temperatures to the concrete foundation or supporting-steel structure. Tower temperatures below the freezing point also warrant investigation and will elevate the tower higher than the minimum. Drums-If flow conditions permit, drums can be at grade. The distance between grade and drum bottom is usually 3.5 to 4.5 ft, depending on drum size, bottomoutlet nozzle size, and required valving plus clearances. Exchangers-Most exchangers are at grade, with centerline elevations 3.0 to 5.. ft above ground level for 5 exchangers having diameters of 1 to 3 ft. Liquid leoei=Soia« exchangers have a condensate or

E9
II

.

PIPeraCk

r_P2?.:.r_:c':::-1
1-------1 I
I I 1
I

Future

I
I I

I

I I
I I I

"'.711 I··X'.I
.
, 'J.

I

q----=--=--=--=-t~

r+-~-------+" 4------~_I

!

Air coolers, outside the piperack I

/

Heaters

(I

D
~ II ~

CHEMICAL ENGTNRERTNG MAY 3, 1978

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING MAY 8,1978

194

CE REFRESHER
,I
Steam

-----....

,\

~-----------------II
I I I l

--::'::.,Adjacent

"

:T
-:

A_.

road/'

AREA 5

.1i!l!t\!lIIliii::a:
I "

vessels

,
\

I
b. Exchangers

,~.

I

a. Drums

Carbonate separator

li
,

_equipment te

~11-!W
N

similar arrangement exists if steam is generated in a liquid-holding pot after the shell outlet. In such cases, furnace heating coil. Sometimes, steam escaping from a the centerline elevation from grade must be more carewater-cooled reactor jacket is collected in a steam drum. fully chosen. These exchangers may have somewhat This drum must be supported above the high point of higher elevations than those at grade without a conthe reactor jacket. A liquid-vapor disengaging drum densate pot [6]. over exchangers can be mounted on the exchanger Gravity flow-Towers, drums, exchangers and other nozzles [7]. equipment must be elevated to meet gravity-flow reSpecial process requirements-These can elevate process quirements. Headroom, access, line sizes, vessel diameequipment. Required conditions, elevations, and elevaters, valving and supporting steel will determine elevation differences must be specified by the process- or tion differences between equipment inlets and outlets, flow-systems designer. and equipment heights from grade [5,6]. Layout reasons-Drums, exchangers and other equipFlow metering-If liquid is near its boiling point, a ment can be elevated for layout reasons. Fig. 4a shows a static head is required in front of an orifice run (and, drum where the interconnecting piping terminated at possibly, a control valve) to avoid flashing in the line. high elevations. There was sufficient system pressure to Minimum equipment elevation and minimum line size will result if the orifice is placed close to the vesseland if locate the drum at grade, but the saving in piping the pipe configuration is simple [7]. without additional cost for access and foundation influPump NPsr-r-Moving a saturated liquid with a enced the arrangement for supporting the drum on an pump having a high net-positive-suction-head (NPSH) adjacent structure. requirement elevates process equipment. An alternative There was sufficient pressure in the system shown in pump with a lower NPSHis usually more expensive. Fig. 4b to place the exchanger at grade. Investigation Occasionally, a cost comparison between equipment '.,showed that it was more economical to support the support and cost of pumps can point to an economical imall-diameter exchanger on one of the adjacent sepasolution [4]. rators than at grade. This saved jacketed piping beThe cost comparison between a long tower skirt or a tween the exchanger and the carbonate separators. high concrete plinth can also lead to cost reduction. A Elevated equipment with its associated structures, long tower skirt can affect shell-wall thickness, windplatforms, handling beams, etc" means a cost increase. load moments, and accessto the skirt interior. A slender In layout design, an attempt should be made to elimitower might require a more-expensive long, flared skirt; nate structures, extra supporting columns and extra a tall foundation can make possible a short and straight platforms. Smaller equipment can be supported on skirt. towers, on piperack columns-or on footings or strucThe selection of a vertical pump can bring process tures designed for larger equipment. The combining of drums close to grade, eliminating possibly high foottwo or three small structures can also save cost. Some ings, access platform and ladder, while improving operequipment regrouping might result in the overall plant ation and maintenance access [4]. layout, but savings in structural cost can be greater Pumps related to surface condensers can also increase than a possible cost increase due to extra pipe length. the floor height for a turbine/compressor set. A reboiler Foundations, underground lines and shipping with pump elevates the reboiler and, in turn, the related Spread footings-The size of founda tions depends on distillation column [5]. the bearing properties of the soil, in addition to the Liquid-vapor separation-Drums are often elevated to actual loads to be carried on the foundations. Compact meet liquid-vapor-separation and thermosyphon conequipment spacing allows combined footings. Large, ditions. A drum is located on the pyrolysis furnace for separate foundations might restrict minimum spacing collecting steam generated by a waste-heat boiler. A 195
CHElvllCAL ENGINEERING MAY 8, J970

~I

lural t tumns
W

u,

.I
I'

-----'-1
I

t-

4"0"

I -~~---_----

CHEMJCAL ENGINEERJNG MAY 8, 197R

196

for equipment. Support for reciprocating compressors should be separate from building-steel and from pipe supports. If variations in load-bearing values exist over the plot area, heavy equipment should be located over the best load-bearing surface. Grade elevation should be at a level where a minimum of earth moving will be required. Piling-Piled foundations are expensive. Often, equipment regroupings (in cooperation with a structural designer) can result in eliminating a number of piles, and in a most-economical foundation design. The cost of additional piping is usually much smaller than what the cost would have been had the piles not been eliminated. Underground p(ping-Occasionally, equipment spacing can be influenced by large-diameter sewer and cooling-water lines. Concrete footings should not be positioned over buried lines. Lines between concrete foundations can increase equipment spacing. If possible, major cooling-water users should be located toward the incoming cooling-water main. Power lines-To minimize the length of incoming power lines and to optimize underground (or overhead) power distribution, the motor-control center should be toward the incoming power line and close to the major electric-power users. Also, large electrical-junction boxes can be located so that optimum cable runs can be designed. Shipping-Railroads, truck-loading docks and jettyloading facilities for incoming and outgoing materials can considerably influence layout. A railroad spur is usually well determined on a site, and the chemical plant might be oriented to suit such a site. Materials handling, storage and necessary manpower are ongoing expenses, and must be minimized.

Construction, maintenance and operation
A construction review of the plot plan is often essential-especially if heavy drums have to be lifted to a high elevation, if tall, large-diameter towers must be lifted in place, or if heavy process equipment has unusual locations. Carefully planned open areas for a special1ifting gear, crane or derrick must be provided. Expense can rise rapidly if access for construction is poor. The area surrounding the proposed plot should also be investigated. Adjacent buildings, structures, rail sidings, or cooling towers may hinder the erection of process equipment. Guy ropes and deadmen to gin poles are often outside the battery limits of the proposed unit, and clearances must be available in the surrounding area. The plot plan is the first drawing sent to the field for construction and, most of the time, well before detail design is completed. Changes to the plot plan can become expensive in the field .. A systematically dimensioned plot plan helps the location survey of structural columns, foundation and equipment, makes for easy structural and equipment identification, and provides a logical equipment-dimensioning plan (Fig. 5). A list of equipment elevations is usually a tabulated part of the plot plan. A plant that has good construction access most prob197

ably will have good maintenance access. Therefore, it is essential to maintain specified spacing and headroom clearances during all phases of plant layout and piping design. The control room should be centrally located. Often, areas to be inspected should be close to the control room, with direct access to operating points. Besides convenience, an adjacent control room and motor-control center economize housing costs. The following design practices all add to economy of operation: duplicated, lined-up equipment, and pipe manifolds; functional location of metering points; accessible valve and instrument locations; and access and handling facilities for equipment and parts removal. Operators should review the plot plan. A well-designed plant is safe. A layout designer can heIp safety by providing short and simple escape routes from all points. All of the following contribute to safe operation: access at opposite ends of structures, grouping of hazardous equipment, proper safety distances, explosion walls, remote hazardous-equipment locations, application of sprinkler systems at places of fire hazard, eye-wash fountains or showers in dangerous-chemical areas (located on the plot plan). Access planned for construction and maintenance is usually adequate for fire fighting. Safety is a specialist's field. A plot-plan review with safety and insurance engineers can point out the requirements necessary for human and plant protection [8]. A plot plan is used from the early stages of estimate proposal to the end of detail design. It is used for preliminary pipe routing and piping-material estimates; for material- and engineering-cost estimates in all departments; for preliminary ·sewer-system layout and pipe sizing; for hydraulic-system design; for planning service-hose-station locations, fire loops and firehydrant locations, welding outlets and floodlight-pole locations. .L The plot plan is used during desig for determining t instrument and control-board locations, electrical distribution, lighting, and pushbutton-station arrange''\.ments; and for locating drinkin{water fountains and telephones. The plot planl~eful for design coordination and progress assessments. All disciplines cheek their design against the plot plan. Also, it is used for perspective and architectural renderings. The next article of this CE REFRESHER will appear in July, and will show how to arrange housed (indoor) chemical plants.

PLANT LAYOUT 11

Arranging the housed chemical process plant
A multiple-level open structure or enclosed building contains some or all of the process equipment. The designer's ability to develop a well-ordered plant in three-dimensional space depends on visualizing and integrating all components.
Robert Kern, Hqffmann - La Ruche Inc. this series," it has become evident that engineering information for plant layout can be classified into three major categories. These are: 1. Chemical engineering aspects of plant designconcentrating mainly on hydraulic-systems design, process coriditions, instrumentation, and operating requirements [1]. 2. Mechanical engineering aspects of plant design-concentrating on the physical features of process, utility and auxiliary equipment and piping; investigating practical alternatives and supports, and handling maintenance and operating requirements. t 3. Geometrical aspects of design (or space-allocation plan)-determining what to put where, while also satisfying the chemical and mechanical engineering aspects of design. This subject is the least known to engineers working outside the field of graphic plant design. In this article, we will deal with the geometrical aspects of plant design, and also show how to visualize, at the early stages, a housed (indoor) chemical plant or an equipment group in a structure. The plot plan ofa one-level open chemical plant is relatively simple (See Part to) because it is usually a two-dimensional plan. A multilevel open structure, or an enclosed building, has two or more floor plans that are superimposed. The layout designer has to relate equipment not only horizontally but also vertically.

o Throughout

References
1. Kaess, D., Guide to Trouble-Free Plant Layout, Chern. Eng" June 1, 1970, p. 122. 2. House, F. F., An Engineer's Guide to Process Plant Layout, Chern. Eng., July 28, 1969, p. 120. 3. Gysernans, E. E., Contractual Design in Piping and Ancillaries, CIl"," Process Eng' (London), Feb. 1966. 4. Kern, R., How To Design Piping for Pump-Suction Conditions, Chern. Eng., Apr. 28, 1975, p. 119. 5. Kern, R., How To Design Piping for Rcboiler Systems, Chern. Eng., Aug. 4, 1975, p. 107. 6. Kern, R., How To Design Overhead Condensing Systems, Chern. Eng., Sept. 15, 1.975, 129. 7. Kern, R., Pipe Systems fOT Process Plant', Chern. Eng., Nov. 10, L975, p. 209. B. Nelson, R. W., Know Your Insurer's Expectations, Hydrocarbon Process., Aug. 1977. p. 103.

Major allocation of building space
The basic geOInetric configurations used in initial layouts are simple: squares, rectangles, circles, and combinations of these if the plan is in two dimensions;

r-

cubes, short or elongated rectangular parallelepipeds, cylinders, and combinations of these if the design is three-dimensional. If we consider the often-used concept for a chemical plant having a central piperack, three rows of squares can represent a building plan (Fig. 1a). The central row of squares is reserved for access and piperack. The Iefthand and righthand row of squares are for process equipment. The corners of each square are steel columns; the exterior sides of the array outline the grid for the main structural steel. In a building, substantial space is occupied by the control room, motor-control center, mechanical room, locker room, laboratory, offices, and storage for raw material and final product. Let us call this space "personnel facilities." To accomplish economy of cost forthe architectural building, these personnel facilities should be planned as one block. A variety of divisions can be considered between the space for the process equipment and space for personnel facilities, as shown in Fig. l b, Ic and 1d. Length for the central piperack will be six bays long for the arrangements of Fig. lb and l c, and only five bays for that of Fig. ld. Assuming that both the process area and the personnel-facilities area are identical in all alternatives, nine bay-lengths are available for process equipment along the central piperack for the layout of Fig. lb. In Fig. I c and Id, ten bay-lengths are available. Exceptions always exist, but Fig .. Id has the most economical arrangement from the standpoint of piperack length, useful equipment space, and major buildingspace division. The central location of the personnel facilities in Fig. Ic separates the process structure (or building space) to a North and a South side. This building-block separation can be advantageous from safety and insurance-cost considerations. With this concept, two plants 123

II

CBEMICAL .ENGINEERING MAY 8, 1918

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JULY 17. 1978

CE REFRESHER

Building bay
\ \ \

r---r---r---l
N
1 I
r

Extension
" I

1

1
I

I I

i---~~~~~~;--l_j
I
(as required)

I

Personnel facilities
...

- !ii--:§_-+-",--i

'"
c

'3 E - [--1--+-.3-f-:::
Q_ 0>

E

n,

c

....
Persorfri'eI 1---+----1----1 facilities

co
<D

'" >CO>

~

OJ

0-

U
~

r--+- '" ---1----., c
'iii

~ o

0:

g

~-

'"

>co '" co

.,

t----+---+----il
Process

::2:
/

f--------t----t[
/ L.,_ __ --'.L_ __ --'

I---t--------+-J"'
d. Most economical

Personnel facilities a. Bas ic concept

I
I

I

I

1 L

Extension
,L~

I
-----l

1

__

_l_

1

I

I

I ':!.
I

......

. ..

b. Personnel

facilities

c.. Dual plants

/1/ t·1 -'Storm, process, '" etc. sewers '" Road' -.
I <,

Piperack/ a. Basic cross configuration

'Cooling layout

water

c. Parallel and' superimposed

L
~

~I ~

i".

----I

I

can be combined and have a common space for personnel facilities. The arrangement is economical compared with two separate buildings for the same two plants. Furthermore, the cost difference can become substantial if the required safety distances between the two plants, piperack length serving two buildings, and separate personnel facilities are considered. Personnel-facilities space (one or two bays across a building) can be allocated as follows: First floor-Incoming raw-material and product storage. If space permits, locker room, mechanical room and transformer room are included. Second floor-Control room, motor-control center and offices. Third floor-Laboratories and sample storage. Many exceptions exist to these arrangements, depending on individual space requirements, design, economy, and operating considerations. A stairway and elevator (personnel and freight), if required, are usually arranged in this space, toward the process unit area, and to the left or right of the central bay. A second stairway is arranged at the opposite end of the building. Stairways (open or enclosed) can be located on the outside of the structure when weather, building codes and safety permit. Architects work out the above details in cooperation with all necessary disciplines. For example: The instrument department provides control-board length and control-room size; the electrical department gives switch-floor plans and room size; manufacturing chemists furnish size, activities and safety requirements for storage areas, etc. Close cooperation between architects and plant layout experts is essential. Instrument runs, electric-cable runs, ductwork for air conditioning and ventilation, material-handling space and access, and utility piping, have to be arranged between the personnel facilities and the process plant. Fig. 1d illustrates a flexible concept. The building space can expand northward without affecting the process-plant area. Floor plans can closely follow architectural principles without restrictions from the process-plant designers. Plant layout and piping design can be done without getting extensively involved in architectural details. On each floor, space allocation can also be planned to indicate the desired horizontal and vertical relationships for the process operating steps. A general spaceallocation plan is shown along the bottom of Fig. 4.

ier lines on the peripheries of equipment areas indicate space toward access aisles. Instruments, valves, points of inspection, and operation should be arranged in this space. Space for local instrument panels, future equipment areas, emergency showers, sampling instruments, laydown space, and local storage areas, are planned toward the central aisles for easy access, removal and handling. In practice, the layout features are not squared up and lined up as conceptually imagined. An actual example is shown in Fig. 4 for the equipment arrangement and access on the second floor of a process building. This configuration lines up to a great extent on the first and third floors. The pipe rack is located under the main access for the second floor. Likewise, the main instrument tray is located under this floor and is inline with the control board that parallels the piperack along the structural columns. The main electric lines have a similar arrangement.

Piperack configuration and layout
Most of the time, piperacks have the same configuration as access aisles. In addition, access and piperacks

_/Equipmentareas

a.. Access and equipment

areas

,I
" ..

I c+.-~-~-----.localfuture
~I ~/~.

Equipment areas

Main access

l.

panels, equipment, laydown space

b. Main pipe runs

Vertical pipes .near steel beams N

L-I

Access aisles and space allocation
An often-used shape for allocating space is the reguJar or irregular cross-configuration, shown in Fig. 2a. Roads, outdoor piperacks, distribution and collecting systems are arranged with this configuration, as shown in Fig. 2b. The arrangement will be economical if these features are parallel, adjacent and superimposed. An example of superimposed cross-configurations for outside process units or for chemical buildings is conceptually shown in Fig. 2c. Access aisles are usually arranged in the center of equipment areas. If we superimpose Fig. l a and Fig ..2a, the relationship between building bays, access aisles and equipment areas will be developed (Fig. 3a). The heav-

[
I
Roads, and indoor and outdoor access

II
"I
,

I~
\
, I

I I I-~~---J
I
Distribution systems Collecting systems

t
---"~~~~
-

r

I

Buildings or process plants Piperack (indoor or outdoor) b. Appl ieations of basic confi gu ration

........
-\ \

----Access

for

removal

,
'Piping

c. Floor to ceiling access

124

CHEMICAL ENGINEERtNG JULY 17, 1'178

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JULY .17. 1.978

125

CE REFRESHER
in Part 8 of this series.* For a two-level pipe bank and 10-ft main-access headroom clearance, the second floor elevation is about 20 ft from grade. For a one-level main piperack and 8-ft headroom, 14 ft can be estimated. Differences in floor level for the upper floors can be estimated as 10 to 13 ft, depending on the density and complexity of piping, ductwork, instrumentation runs, and electric-cable runs. These floor levels must be adjusted for equipment sizes, handling requirements, and equipment and components removal. If mezzanines or platforms are planned between the main floor levels, the necessary elevation difference is approximately 20 ft. Detailed studies are often made to determine exact floor elevations and clearance requirements.

o
Roof of furnace
room

5

Scale; 10 15

20 ft ~---+-p.Z

1""I"r.I",rlrt,,'

Furnace stack

Ma in el ectric runs below floor
/

I

Instrument

trays, cables and ductwork

'Main instrument tray below floor

area

1----5ta i rs

overlap (Fig. 3b). Exceptions exist but a frequent arrangement is to have piperacks over access aisles in both open and enclosed chemical plants. If floor-to-ceiling removal space is needed, access can be provided in the center of the bay, with overhead piping placed along the column lines (Fig.. 3c). Using the same elevation consistently for pipe runs will result in an orderly design. For this purpose, one or two elevations are chosen for the main piperack 4 ft apart and 4 ft below floor level in a North-South direction. Lateral piperacks are 2 ft lower or higher than the main piperack. In a three-level building, one main piperack is sufficient; lateral pipe banks can be arranged to connect to the third floor (Fig. Sa). Vertical pipe banks should not interfere with equip-

ment and access space. For this reason, such runs are located along walls, and near building beams and columns, as shown in Fig. 3b, Sa and Sc. Generally, it is economical to have the piperack between two floors serve equipment on the floor above and the floor below (Fig. Sb). Systematic planning at the early stages of piping design will facilitate accessibility to valves, instruments and piping components. Fig. 6 shows cross-sections of a building in which piping and equipment have been arranged in accordance with the preceding principles. Note the repetitive overall arrangements in both the cross-section of the main incoming piperack and the ...... piping arrangements in bays. \.The width of piperacks can be estimated as described

Roof

-!- .. _
I .-~

I
Roof 4th

t
j

. ~.
'

t

3rd

2nd

,
I
+


f I

1st Floor

-i-.'-a. Lateral pipe banks (Section A·A, Fig. 3b)
;

.,

--

;::-

b. Piperack for every two floors

c. Vertical pipe runs

,
CHEMICAl" Ii.NGINEERTNG JULY 17, 1970

For the type of building shown in Fig. 6, instrument and cable runs are arranged near the ceiling, under the floor beams. The. main instrument trays and cable runs are in the center bay, side by side, or overlapping on a higher (or sometimes lower) elevation than the piperack. Throughout the entire building, a 12- to 18-in. horizontal space is left open under the floor beams for instrument and electric runs. Electric cables and instrument-tray supports are fastened to the floor steel, eliminating many miscellaneous, small, steel supports. At the first-floor ceiling, instrument tubing and cable runs are installed for equipment located on the first and second floors. At higher floors, preference is given to below-the-floor electric and instrument runs. Except for the first floor, tubing and cables are planned to go through the. floor to instruments and electric starters located on the floor above (Fig. 7a). This eliminates the spider-web effect that is apparent when tubing and cables run from the ceiling to equipment on the floor below and also facilitates more-economical tubing and cable supports. Instrument tubing and electric cables should be gathered and placed in supporting trays. Considerable space is required where the instrument tubing or wiring and electric cables approach the control room and the motor-control center. This approach can be from the ceiling or from below the floor to the respective control boards and motor starters. The floor-to-ceiling dimension is about 13 ft where the control room and motor-control center are planned. These principles are shown graphically in cross-section in Fig. 7. For heating/ventilating systems, a fiat, long cross-section is preferred for the ductwork, with the bottom of all ductwork for the distribution network on the same elevation throughout. The top of ductwork is about 12 in. from the floor beams. This minimizes interference between electric cables and instrument tubing on the one hand and pipe runs on the other. Alternatively, ductwork and its components can be arranged under piperacks, In general, piping should be the most accessible among these distribution systems. Future work will probably deal less with instrument and electric runs than with piping and its components. Ductwork is often bulky and requires considerable space. Early planning and cooperation between disciplines is essential. Duct cross-sections increase consider'*See index of art icles in footnote on p, '123.

126

CHEMICALENGlNEER1NG.JULY

17,1978

127

Roof

r----r---j----r---l----------------,
I I I " I

Future
I

II I

I , I

I'

I I
I

I I
I

I

Process equipment

at grade

I

I I I I

I
I

I

I

I I
I

I

lll-

II-I--

For a double-level
piperack, allow

±3 ft ±2 ft

t~t---=====::::::===~~~====t:-- Access

2nd Floor

±4

ft. --------

Electric condu its ---Instrument trays ~--Air duct --- Piperack (single level)

Personnel facilities

Open structure

M' am rperac,

I.

I

J

~ ~
I
/

/Door

-

'E
r-

I,
I
a. Tubing and cable services b. Grouping for tubing, cables, and piping

I
Process equipment at grade
___

I
Process equipment at grade

Meehan ieal,' room

!
I

~

-$-~-

lll-

III--

I

L.___

. , starrs ( r----r---T\

Step 1_ Outline main structural

steel
I
"

-------_j

-ko~----1-----i:

,

-TI I

Stairs

1

\

I

:

I
I I I

-,

I

I
I

I

I I

ii

ably in size toward the mechanical room, where the blowers and air-conditioning equipment are located. Valuable building space can be saved if mechanical equipment can be arranged in the basement or on the roof, with the main ductwork outside the building. A detailed study of this space in a building is useful. Floor drains and the routing of chemical-waste effiuent lines can be left to detailed piping design. These lines rarely interfere with the components of conceptual planning.

Equipment arrangement
A multilevel building or structure is usually chosen because gravity flow is desirable or essential between process equipment. The layout should accommodate this in the best possible way. Liquid lines can have substantial horizontal runs. This is not so with slurry

lines. Wet or dry solids should have vertical or doseto-vertical drops. Process flow diagrams usually indicate floor levels of equipment. If not, these are easy to determine (with the process engineer), in order to get the vertical equipment relationships and to evaluate alternative arrangements. For cost estimating and model making, building and structure sizes are determined at the early stages of design. Most of the time, these dimensions are needed quickly and have to be accurately estimated, often without the benefit of final process flow-diagrams and specific equipment types and sizes. Vessels, filters, centrifuges, dryers and special equipment occupy most of the floor space in a building. Many exchangers can be mounted over the vessels or under the ceiling space. Many pumps can be located under or close to vessels. Distillation columns should be

~

~j IT
1

~ ~ ~J'= ~ F=, fr= r= ~ r;= ~ ~
l':::::

-

tu _O"lJO
I

,

v.

Step 2. Plan the system of access aisl es k Control-1 rooms
I"

I.

DAIIP;p
:J~

,

ing man d out he re

I

.-

I·c.'

Stairs/

1--' l-:
-

-~

-

.+
I

-

~~
.-

,~

-

W ED·

Step 3. Outline main pipe runs and equipment

U QO
areas

<l~

,, ) ,/
/
/

\

,
\

~

I

/1 '

I

-TI I

-,

I'i [

!

I

I

IL-

IL_

0[0"'" uD
Instrument
~

,
I

1
I

I,

I

11=

=F ~ ~ r;=;=; r= =;

-

IL

bles

___

.'=;

t::::=

, J~ ,
I I I I J

I ...J

',
I \ , \

, I

I 1\ \

\

\

"i= F=

M

~

L_

~~

!I$

$>

Step 4. Design main electric and instrument

l]i Dr 0
L5b~
Electric runs

J~

,

--r-

=i
N;>=t
j--'-

Iii i. III --rI I "Ii~
--'-

i FF '

=

j
I

Extension

m

method

builds design around

m

I
i

1

I

1W
i ,

~~,
1

I!

F-+---: 1
;

1

,
I I

I~I
1

I

, ,

--l-+f.

I

central piece of equipment

~ i
"
"

f~
I

i \-Y

I
I

i

1

I ~ -ct- ~-I-rr --!-p= J_
I
1==1 .

"

i
i
I

II

-+~+
I i
I

pq,

I

u

J_
!

1 I

No'

[ 1 IT
rb:l

r,

I J_

II
'== Fill-in method
.• I

I

u,

!

N! !

u

,

u

I

confines vessels too early in the design stage
•.

128

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JULY 17, 1!)78

CH1'.MTCAL ENGINEERING JULY 17, 1978

129

CE REFRESHER
located toward walls or placed outside the building or structure. Vibrating equipment is located close to building columns, and close to or over the main building beams. Using a small scale and freehand drawing, floor-plan studies can be sketched. A building bay is rarely less than 20 X 20 ft. Including access and provision for piping, valves and instruments, a la-ft-dia. vessel (horizontal or vertical) or six 4- to 5-ft dia, drums can be placed in a 20-ft bay. Four 6-ft-dia. vessels will also fit. For four 8-ft-dia. vessels, more than one bay cr one larger than 20 X 20 ft will be needed. There is an optimum bay size for each overall arrangement. A bay is rarely larger than 30 X 30 ft. Often, more-detailed studies are necessary to establish the bay size, and the horizontal and vertical equipment-relationships in a building. Generally, piping, components and instruments will be arranged near or around each vessel or piece of equipment. Space requirements for these should be kept constantly in mind during layout. In process areas,substantial space is frequently occupied by auxiliary and utility equipment. Vacuum systems, pumps, air compressors, refrigeration units, effluent-collecting drums, vent systems, blowdown drums, dust collectors, scrubbers, air filters, etc., need considerable space. Such equipment can also be placed on the roof, in the basement, or outside the building along with the additional components required for environmental control. Changes to the internal dimensions, bay sizes and floor elevations of a building can be made during detailed design. Changes to the overall dimensions or height of a building usually mean changes in cost that are often unacceptable. Therefore, a detailed .study should be made for congested areas, for unusual equipment locations where handling and removal is necessary, and for unusual design requirements. Frequently, local conditions influence building width and height. Fig. 8 shows alternative design approaches for a group of equipment in a structure. In principle, a design should establish what space is required, and the structural outline should be the result of the layout studies. A central piece of equipment is chosen (top of Fig. 8), and the design is developed around it. Adjacent equipment, steel members, large piping, and access are considered, and finally the steel structure is lined out. Restricting the design development with preconceived structural dimensions will not give the same quality, reliability and efficiency to the design (bottom of Fig. 8). Reference elevation for grade has been chosen as El.
100 ft at the high point of paving. The North-South

piperack is at El. 112 ft and 116 ft. The vertical pipe Tuns are in the center on the South face of the steel structure. Instrument and electrical lines are planned on the top piperack elevation, so that leaks in chemical lines will not damage tubing and cables. East-West piping is planned at EL 114 ft, both within the structure and at the equipment areas at grade. The second level of the main structure is at El. 120 ft. Pumps are arranged in several rows, at grade, under the structure. All pumps are readily accessible from walkways. The distillation-column manholes, valving and instruments are accessible from the levels of the steel structure. Most condensers are on the top level, parallel and in the same direction, for a simple arrangement of the cooling-water headers. Direct access is provided from the second-floor control room to grade and to all operating levels. Stairs and a ladder escape are diagonally located in the structure for safety.

PLANT

LAYour712

Controlling the cost factors in plant design
Time, effort and money can be saved at every step from conception to final documentation in the design of process plants. Here are many practical methods for reducing costs.
Robert Kern) H riffmann- La Roche Inc. the operational aspects of plant design, we must obtain answers to the following: • What are the procedures? . • "¥hat are the cost factors of these activities? • What alternatives are available? • What are the advantages and drawbacks of the various methods of design? The importance of the answers to these questions becomes evident when we recognize that engineering cost generally represents between 10 and 25% of the overall capital cost of a process plant, and that a considerable part of this engineering cost reflects money paid for plant design (estimate plans, concepts, planning, layout, piping design, plant model, and detailing). In addition to manhours, calendar time also depends to a great extent on plant design. Practically, this has an influence on the fabrication and delivery date of process equipment and vessels on the one hand, and construction startup and completion on the other. Looming over all these activities, the quality of plant design must be maintained and client requirements satisfied.

Plant size and scope of layout
In order to help the reader appreciate the magnitude of the chemical process plants illustrated or described in this series of articles, the overall sizes of the buildings range from 65 to 90 ft in width and 150 to 250 ft in length, with few exceptions. In scope and variety, layout design can only be compared with proces.sdesign. The activities of the two are closely related. In process design, one can more readily apply engineering principles to a specific problem. In plant layout, activities overlap to the areas of all design disciplines. Many principles and requirements have to be simultaneously remembered and applied in order to end up with an economical and well-arranged plant. The next article of this CE REFRESHER ill appear in w the Aug. 14th issue, and will deal with methods for reducing plant-design costs.

o When examining

References
..... , '\. L Kern, R., Practical Piping Design. C/,,,,,, Eng., Dec. 23, 1974, p. 58; Jan. 6, 1975, p. 115; Feb.3, 1975, p, 72; Mar. 3, 1975, p. 161; Apr. H, 1975, p. 85; Apr. 28, 1975, p.l19; May 26,1975, p, 11:ljJune23, 197:}, p. 145; Aug. '1, 1975, p. 107; Sept. 15,1975, 1'.129; Oct. 13, 1975, p, 125; Nov. 10,1975, p. 209.' 2. T'hompson), D.~ A Rational 'Method of Layout From Process to Plant, Cbem. Eli!!.:, Nov. 30, 1959, PI" 69-74; Rational Approach to Plan t Layout, Chem. EIl.~., Dec. 28, 1959, PI'. 7:l-76. "The articles in Ref. 1 arc available as a repr-int. To order, check number on the order form in the back of any issue. Price is. shown on form. 238

Initial design activities

..

Design procedures for plant layout
Let us now review a practical example that is based on the principles covered in this article. A chemical plant is to be arranged partly at grade and partly in an open structure (Fig. 9). A number of freehand sketches have been produced (not to scale) showing equipment arrangements on all levels both horizontally and vertically. Then, an overall estimate has been sketched, freehand and to scale (similar to Step 3 in Fig. 9), to establish the overall and main structural dimensions. The design work and model building are self explanatory, as shown in Fig. 9.
130
CHm"IlCAL

Fig. 1 condenses overall plant-design activities (top) with a hypothetical manhour-requirement chart (bottom). The manhour chart intends to show only orderof-magnitude comparisons between the major activities. Line A indicates how process design relates to plant design. (Process design will not be considered here.) Line B in Fig. I represents the initial phase for plant design-i.e., estimate, concept and layout studies. Even .if the initial phase is a continuous activity between

Points 1 to 6, it consumes less than 3% of overall engineering cost (assuming that plant-design cost is half of the overall cost for design engineering). Estimates and concept design (between Points 1 to 4) represent less than 1% of overall engineering cost. Considering what can be accomplished during these activities, it is hard to find another design area that is more economical in time and rnanhours. Presentation methods and manpower requirements for the concept-model have been described in Part 1 of this series (Chem. Eng., May 23, 1977, pp. 130-136). A model-design technique coupled with photography is the quickest and most economical way for designing chemical plants in a multilevel building. Recording and presenting a plant concept on drawings wiIl roughly doubJe the manhnurs and increase calenda:r time for this design phase. Graphic design without a plant model is usually the best way to produce a one-level chemical plant. It is important to have a well-qualified design specialist. Groups of people producing a plot plan, or a poorly managed sequence of activities, will quickly multiply the manhours necessary to make an initial plan. Much drafting time can be saved by using markedup prints for revamp proposals or by using printing techniques to produce alternative layouts. Fig. 2 shows two arrangements for which we do not redraw a plot plan to meet new conditions, or a new site or a revised flow diagram. Instead, we use a print, and cut apart the sections of the "old plan" (Fig. 2a), and then reassemble the parts for a revised or alternative plot plan (Fig. 2b). In initial design work, printing and phototechniques can be used extensively to save drafting manhours. From the standpoint of graphic design, the basis for efficient piping and detailed designs on the one hand and the quality of design on the other is established during the layout-study phase, as shown on Line B between Points 5 and 6 in Fig. 1. Layout studies are 141

ENGINEERING JUl.Y 17, 1976

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AUGUST 14. 1978

CE REFRESHER
PFD

Process flow diagram P&ls Piping and instrumentation

flow diagrams

---j-

Owner

-Contractor

QL_

-li't-I==:::==~

,.
Pipihg desiqn on paper

.f...lL.__-.-J---"r.i,_ ---(E3)
QL_ Jil..____ '"

C
D
Isometrics

1-8
1'1'I~

Detail ' design

t

I'

Planning model

I
,

-B.i"'O

-<-' -

I-B_H_ i

J-",

1

Model structure,_ and com portents fabrication

'V".j.__

Piping design ...;,;;m,;;,od;;,;.;;,I_ .... .;;E;....

i-B~
I-B.liL

L1

i-B_,I_1_

m
,

Point

3

4

5

6

7

~'j
8

~--¢~
I
pr?c~s2 equipment

1-E3L!.A i-E3.!.l

ID
.

coctco,

5;0~ (isometrics)

____!::::Ipi=pe=~~c:::::!k and

I--

----'-----.-Road Process equipment Piperack and pumps 20'·0" -40'·O"-15'-0"~

I

---

Average 3 men Model fabrication,

t

6 men

-115'-0"1-35'-0,,J::,~:~ I

I

(I sometrics)

~

-15'-0"-35'-0"~

150 h

150 h
\

2 men
4 men

1L

~
2 men

\

\

\

q

-.- -~
..."...--.

I I

6 men Piping plans

10,000 h (plans and isometrics) '-'

n

'----a. Original

5'-0"-,

1--------125'0"----------1

b. Revised

_,

...

lO;OOOb
{modelf

."'~.

(moileD
;,:

G.men

1.0~r h
II

'.,

~

I I

1 to 2 wk..

1 to Z wk.

I..

Layout studies

I

-±6

wk.- ---------

I

±40wk.--------

drawings that provide a composite design for use by all disciplines and for building a piping model (See Part 1 of this series). Designers doing this type of work have unique talents and usually work efficiently. The time spent in this activity is repaid many times over with the time saved during model building or during piping design on paper. . It is important to have full understanding between owners and contractors before layout studies are made. Specifications, special or unusual design and owners' requirements should be conveyed to the group producing the layout studies.

Detailed design of process plants
Plant-design activities in the past were performed by using orthographic projection for plans, elevations and details..Often, drawings for piping, steel and equipment were made in extensive detail. (Because of congested 142
CHEtvUCAL ENGINEERiNG

arrangements, this is still done in marine engineering and for some areas of power-plant design.) Later, single-line plans and isollletrics enabled a considerable reduction in drafting cost. Today, we have model design and computer isometrics. All paper-design systems in the past were developed by the major contracting companies in a highly systematic way, and the methods resembled mass-production techniques. Most design manhours are consumed in activities shown on Lines C, D and E in Fig. 1. Detailed piping plans are made after P&Is (process and inatrurnentation flow diagrams) and planning studies are released. For this activity, three alternative routes can be taken (1) plans and isometrics, i.e., piping design on paper; (2) piping model and isometrics, in which design on paper is minimal; and (3) piping plans, model and isometrics, which combines Routes (1) and (2).
AUGUST 14, 1978

Design on paper-For many years and up to the present, petrochemical plants were generally detail-designed on paper (Lines C and D in Fig. 1). The only drawings made are plans and the detailed isometrics for fabrication. (A model means substantial additional cost. However, when design is done directly on the model, this additional cost is not as great because at the modelmaking stage, a "final" design is already available.) Design on model-For multistory buildings, the direct model-design method (without paper design) can be very effective (Line E in Fig. I). The drawback is the rarity of designers who can (or want to) do both piping design and the practical task of model building ..Layout studies can be prepared in such a way that they serve as layout and "piping drawings" for model making. Model making is a small-scale construction job. Planning studies give the dimensional details of structural steel and equipment locations. Manifolds, control valves, laydown space, and generally all features occupying floor space are located, lined up and organized on the planning studies. These are not piping drawings, but they determine to a great extent piping design. Important, large-size or critical piping is shown. Main pipebanks, electric-cable runs and instrument trays should be studied and shown on these drawings. Some sketches and studies are also made while building the
UH}~MrC:AL ENGINEERlNG

model. Changes and revisions on the model are more expensive than doing them on paper. Paper design and model-Some organizations claim that the highest quality of design can be achieved by doing all of the activities described on Lines B through E in Fig. 1. Unavoidable changes at the early stages of design are made on paper and not on the model. Modelmaking starts when the design is well developed and quick progress can be made. To an extent, this method can be considered a duplication of effort and is the most expensive way of plant design among the three described. Here, the cost of the model is much less than when design is done directly on the model. If flow diagrams and layout studies can be produced with well-defined segments of a process plant, detailed design can start earlier than the date of complete release of P&Is and planning studies. In this case, piping design will overlap hydraulic design and layout.

Isometric drawings
Purchasing and all other cost-controlling, monitoring and data-processing functions are based on the isometrics and the subsequent material takeoffs. Isometric drawings can be produced manually or by computer. Manual[v-Isometric drawings present the details for the fabrication and erection of piping. This is the most
AUGUST 14; 1978

143

CE REFRESHER
and structural design must be final, which again points out the importance of the planning phase. Plant additions-New equipment added to existing plants restncts the layout designer but gives more flexibility in the methods used, from the preparation of flow diagrams to final construction. Existing prints can be marked up for equipment locations; piping is generally field-fabricated. Often, direct observations and field decisions can accomplish completion much quicker and cheaper than by using conventional design. Installation of a small distillation column with half a dozen associated pumps and exchangers, including steel additions, was planned on marked-up prints. The rather-involved small-diameter piping, control valves and components installations took place without piping design. Flow diagrams were used for the piping, electrical and instrument installations. Design cost for this planning amounted to 3% of overall capital cost, and installation-supervision costwas 3.25%, using the same designer. Repetitive deSign-Drafting cost can be largely elirninated when designing for identical equipment and piping. The design of ten small kettles in two rows was executed with a plot plan, a model for one typical installation, and dimensioned model photographs of plans and elevations. Pipe sizes were two inches and smaller. For designing the instrument and cable runs, prints of the plot plan were used. The model was taken to the construction site, and the designer became the construction supervisor. Rebuilt plants-Where existing process equipment of an entire plant can be substantially reused for a new process (with some removals and additions), more compromise can be allowed in layout than with a new plant. In this case, direct construction methods can be adopted, Piping manifolds, control-valve sets, and involved pipe runs can be drawn, shop-fabricated, and located in the field. The interconnecting piping is then

..

field-fabricated.
As in all production techniques, a highly systematized plan is needed for the direct construction method. Even if a production operation is simple, the plan to

Drafting by computer saves time and money
An example of computer-aided design as applied to piping systems providesa view of the inputs required to, and the. outputs available from, a computer progl"am. Com pu terized piping isometrics consti tutes an efficient and economical means to obtain scheduled completion and accuracy verification ofa project's piping design. A piping specification file is built into the program, using the project specifications. The material description format can be customized to readily interface with the purchasing commodity-code or stock-code numbering of the material-control system. These material descriptions are keyed into the program through a library-code nurnbering system, Insertion ofthese code numbers via remote computer terminals or manually on the fixed-format input form has the effect of automatically retrieving from the specification file, material descriptions by size and quantity for the bill of material. Material descriptions can be deleted for out-of-specification items at any time via a simple instruction code, and the new material description inserted during input. These data are usually compiled by the computer into summary bills of material as required. The bills of material can be summarized by: specification, shop or field, area, piping component, service, or by a com bination of the preceding. Descriptions used in the bills of material and summary can be used directly for purchasing. In addition La the library-code system, input practices permit the use of X, 1'; Z absolute coordinates and/or incremental dimensions. Unnecessary, incremental or overall dimensions may be selectively eliminated by the inputter on the drawing by insertion of a suppressed instruction code. The program allows the addition of construction notes anywhere along the pipeline. A byproduct of the program-input technique provides a coordination check of flowsheets, model or orthographic drawings, equipment drawings, and imine instrumentarion data. The program can use a sketch of the
line as required by a digitizing procedure or can be inputted directly from orthographic piping drawings or a suitable construction scale-model. The program's graphics are consistent with the pra€tices of the pipefitting and stearnfitting industries. Therefore, no training is involved for those who use these symbols. The standard Library-code symbols can handle FRP, glass, flanged, lined, socket-welded and screwed pipe with the same ease as carbon-steel and stainless-steel welded pipe. Each piping isometric drawing can be furnished with its own manhour fabrication/erection estimate report. The erection-type piping isometric is produced on a preprinted format (11 X 22 in.) with an integral bill of material. However, the program can be adapted to any drawing format up to an "E" size drawing (3 X 4 ft). Another progralTI is used to produce spool drawings (in isometric form) by piecemark. These arc produced on an 11 X 17-in. format with integral bill of material from the line printer, and the necessary requirements for pipe fabrication in the field or shop. This pl"ogram produces the spool drawings from the same information required for the erection-type isometric. The use of piping isometrics as part of the design package has proved to be invaluable in piping fabrication and erection, but reduced labor costs are not the only savings. Companies are discovering that it is alm'ost impossible to meet delivery dates on the larger projects when drawings and bills of materia. I. are preparedmanua.lly. The time required for manual isometrics is considerably greater than that for a computer program. The description of the preceding computer programs was condensed from information supplied to the author by P. R. Schneider, Pedco Inc., Chester Towers, Cincinnati, OH 45246. Additional programs for piping design will be contained in the article, Computer Programs for Chemical Engineers: 1978-Part 4, to appear in the Aug. 28, 1978 issue.

systematically organized actrvity in drafting. Handbooks have been written with minute details in order to maintain uniform presentation. Training courses are given by design contractors in order to have a supply of personnel with the necessary skills. Even so, it is a time-consuming and expensive activity, requiring an average of 8 to 15 h to produce each isometric drawing. Drafting time for isometrics is consumed by two major activities (a) drawing and dimensioning the pipeline and its components, and (b) preparing a material- takeoff list. An experiment has shown that an isometric drawn freehand serves the purpose just as well as a ruler-drawn one, and the freehand isometric requires only half the time. Interestingly, the freehand technique was more readily adopted when used as input to a computer. To a large extent, piping plans and isometrics are simultaneously produced (Lines C and D in Fig. 1) if the design is executed on paper. With model-design, isometrics are drawn somewhat later, often subcontracted after the model is completed. By compulel'-Computer graphics are comparatively recent developments in the field of piping design. The first computer application to piping was for cost control. Material-takeoff summaries quickly found the way to the computer because of their repetitiveness in activities, bulk and many-sided manipulations. The next step was to take off material in a sequence in order to list and record the length, size, fittings, specification and components in the pipeline, and also describe its configuration. By starting at a coordinate, this directional and sequential material takeoff (made either with piping plans or a piping model) became the input for the wide range of data manipulation readily available 144
CHEMICAL

with the computer and also for plotting an isometric drawing. The computer program simplifies material takeoff and eliminates manual drafting. Clients' specifications, cost data and other required material are stored in the computer. For example, the listing of a pair of pipe flanges under a specification code can also automatically determine the number of bolts and gaskets, as well as pressure rating, material, weight, price and erection cost, for the flanges. All like items are summed on the printout of the parts list. Drafting-by-computer equipment and services are "\available for flowsheet drafting, instrument-line and electrical-line routing, and other technical matters. See the accompanying box for more information.

Construction startup
The incentive is strong to develop a system that largely eliminates the cost of the activities on Lines C, D and E in Fig. 1, and the corresponding calendar time and manhours. Many organizations have discovered that piping designers can be sent to the field to design directly on the site and also supervise construction. If well done, the most economical way of plant design is for construction to start at the conclusion of planning studies, Point 6, Line B of Fig. L (Small-scope piping revamps can be done by using flow diagrams.) Early comtruction-Construction can start when plot plans and structural drawings are available. This occurs at, or shortly after, the conclusion of planning studies for one-level plants, and at the conclusion of structural design for plants in a building or open structure. (Usually, the piping drawings and detailed equipment drawings are not completed at this time.) The plot plan
AUGUST 14, 1970

ENGINEERlNG

Cl-IF:MfCAL ENGINEER1NG AUGUST 14, ·1978

145

CE REFRESHER
accomplish it can become elaborate. Many ideas in the past did not work because the unusual task was just assigned to a designer without giving him well-thoughtout instructions. (Because of this, the model design technique developed slowly, and is still not widely practiced. ) accurately determined. How removal and handling of equipment and components can be done in a building or structure can now be appreciated. An assessment can also be made on how quickly and conveniently these operations can be performed. The last review is on the completed piping model (Point 9, Line E). Preferably, this should be done by the personnel who will operate the plant. The review is done with P&Is and by observing the physical location of points of operation and observation (Fig. 3). If necessary, this is the time to relocate valves and instruments, and alter piping details. If a plant is revamped because of operators' likes and dislikes after it has been newly built, construction cost will obviously increase. Design manhours quickly increase if changes are required in process design, hydraulic-systems design, equipment types, sizes, methods of operation and maintenance, or any other basic component or procedure.

Operators

and process reviews

Engineering cost can also be reduced by a logical division of work between the owner and contractor on the one hand, and by arranging systematic plant-design reviews on the other. Fig. 1 shows the points at which the work for design development c_:~~ __ be conveniently divided between owner and contractor. If a contractor provides process engineering, procurement and construction, the work obviously starts at Point 1 and normally finishes at Point 10. Someone who already has a process and a plant concept can engage a contractor at Point 4, or at Point 6, depending on time, economy and manpower. During concept design, the requirements for safety, maintenance and all other design disciplines are usually satisfied. The process, chemical-operating and plantdesign departments * cooperate throughout all phases of plant design. The process must work, the operators must live with the plant and produce. Plant design should fulfill what the process designer and operator want. When manhours are within budget, and schedule dates are met, one additional question should be asked: What has been accomplished concerning the quality of design? Quality can be viewed from a number of angles. The definition here is that quality is equal to the chemical operators' satisfaction. The colored dots in Fig. 1 indicate "milestone" dates. These can also be considered dates for the operators' review. At Points 2 and 4 of Line B (Fig. 1), process designers, chemists, and managers of chemical production are usually interested in the design because the conceptual requirements of the plant are developed at this stage. At Point 6, more-specific details are worked out. A review at this point becomes important if piping design will be done on paper only. Maintenance, equipment, parts removal and space for operating activities are the essential design features from a reviewer's standpoint. Piping drawings and isometrics are also reviewed before they are issued for construction. For a thorough understanding of paper design, the reviewer must have as much skill in visualizing a plant as a layout designer has. Often, the two must cooperate closely in accomplishing a meaningful review. A model solves these difficulties. The reviewer can concentrate on plant design, and there is no problem in trying to visualize the designer's intent. The first piping-model review takes place when most of the process equipment is located on the model and no piping is shown (Point 7, Line E in Fig. 1). It is useful at this stage to line out major access space on all floors so that piping, components and small process equipment will not interfere with the operators and with maintenance access. At this stage, the relationship between process equipment and steel, and that for the space between trolley beam, hoist or crane and process equipment, are
*The process department alone can. also be responsible for operation.

Cost of management
Each specialist, section or department-indeed, the whole engineering organization-works within its own systems. There is a network of overlapping systems in engineering and personnel management. Specifically, a manager directs and controls the activities of individuals and groups toward a common goal with a great deal of tact and flexibility. The goal is the design ofa chemical plant for the least amount of money, time and effort. Management activities are the same whether a company is large or small. However, the volume of work is proportional to the number of projects or the yearly volume of business. Large contracting companies (annual business in hundreds of millions of dollars) usually have five levels of manpower: a manager (at the top), division heads (over twa or three sections), section heads (for each discipline), job leaders (mostly in the piping section), and designers.. Shortening the lines of communication and bringing the manager's technical expertise closer to the designer will reduce management manhours, Large companies use the taskforce approach to managing and executing design. Here, two or three levels of manpower are en''-gaged on design and its management. This is all that is needed for small organizations. Activity does not necessarily mean useful performance. Too many people, started too soan, can add substantially to engineering cost. Poorly related operations and out-of-sequence, misplaced and misdirected activities add to manhours, Working without having essential information is a waste of time. Many large meetings are called when simple contacts between two Of three people could accomplish the same end. Many engineers are involved in activities where they have little to contribute. Many uselessreports and memos are written.

Yer No. Yazar Sovadi,
Kitap Ad I

. .25-00 - 'Jr'G . _ :::1.b

.

ad: :.Mr;,:..&r.Q.~:.HI.JLPv,h.l{cP.+,f01 .

:.\:..h€m.\j:;.4\\L.~~(\.~r.ef'
No. . {G~3{ .................

llemirbas

_

.

146

CliEMICAL ENGrNEERTNG AUGUST 14,. 19)8

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful