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S T A N D A R D
ASABE is a professional and technical organization, of members worldwide, who are dedicated to advancement of engineering applicable to agricultural, food, and biological systems. ASABE Standards are consensus documents developed and adopted by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers to meet standardization needs within the scope of the Society; principally agricultural ﬁeld equipment, farmstead equipment, structures, soil and water resource management, turf and landscape equipment, forest engineering, food and process engineering, electric power applications, plant and animal environment, and waste management. NOTE: ASABE Standards, Engineering Practices, and Data are informational and advisory only. Their use by anyone engaged in industry or trade is entirely voluntary. The ASABE assumes no responsibility for results attributable to the application of ASABE Standards, Engineering Practices, and Data. Conformity does not ensure compliance with applicable ordinances, laws and regulations. Prospective users are responsible for protecting themselves against liability for infringement of patents. ASABE Standards, Engineering Practices, and Data initially approved prior to the society name change in July of 2005 are designated as ‘ASAE’, regardless of the revision approval date. Newly developed Standards, Engineering Practices and Data approved after July of 2005 are designated as ‘ASABE’. Standards designated as ‘ANSI’ are American National Standards as are all ISO adoptions published by ASABE. Adoption as an American National Standard requires veriﬁcation by ANSI that the requirements for due process, consensus, and other criteria for approval have been met by ASABE. Consensus is established when, in the judgment of the ANSI Board of Standards Review, substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests. Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity. Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered, and that a concerted effort be made toward their resolution. CAUTION NOTICE: ASABE and ANSI standards may be revised or withdrawn at any time. Additionally, procedures of ASABE require that action be taken periodically to reafﬁrm, revise, or withdraw each standard. Copyright American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. All rights reserved. ASABE, 2950 Niles Road, St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659, USA ph. 269-429-0300, fax 269-429-3852, email@example.com
2 Normative references The following standards contain provisions which.g. reafﬁrmed by ANSI June 2000. woven textiles of various types. reafﬁrmed by ASABE and ANSI February 2008. or synthetic particles. All standards are subject to revision. that may initiate the backwashing cycle. Only one tank is usually backwashed at a time. Standards organizations maintain registers of currently valid standards. reafﬁrmed by ASAE December 1999.1 Deﬁne a standard procedure to collect irrigation media ﬁlter test data.1 backwash: A procedure that ﬂushes clean water through a ﬁlter tank in reverse direction to the normal operating direction so as to remove captured organic and inorganic particulates from the ﬁlter media. reliability. Keywords: Filters. Expressed as ﬂow per unit cross-sectional area of media. and equivalent pore-size distributions. although it is extremely important to overall ﬁltration performance. These components deﬁne the containment and processing assemblies associated with media ﬁltration systems that ensure proper hydraulic characteristics. or quartz sieved to speciﬁc particle sizes. The media generally consists of crushed granite. At the time of publication. safety. and to minimize loss of media. Media ﬁlter is sometimes referred to as a depth ﬁlter. 3. Filtered water from one or more tanks is used to backwash another tank. February 2003.10 maximum operating pressure: The highest inlet pressure speciﬁed by the manufacturer that insures the proper and safe functioning of the device. ﬂow balance. accurate data to determine performance characteristics of media ﬁlters used for irrigation. 1 1 Purpose and scope 1. Sufﬁcient data are to be developed so irrigation system designers and others can evaluate the suitability of a particular ﬁlter system for a speciﬁc application. velocity of water through the bed. 3. and parties to agreements based on this Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated below. approved as an American National Standard October 1995. 1. 1. Testing ASAE EP405. stainless steel. reafﬁrmed by ASAE January 2001.4 The scope of this Standard is to describe methods for obtaining sufﬁcient. such as pressure differential.2 backwash control mechanism: A mechanism that initiates the backwashing action of the ﬁlter as determined by one or a combination of physical quantities.3 backwash ﬂow: A recommended rate of water ﬂow through the media to maximize uniformity of backwashing. Media may also consist of many other materials such as cardboard or synthetic ﬁbers. Each media ﬁlter is contained within a pressure vessel(s) or tank(s) that contains underlying drains (e. The ultimate effectiveness of ﬁltration depends on the depth and type of the media bed.2 This Standard establishes a consistent basis to validate and support manufacturer’s statements on the performance. or ceramic materials) with or without a gravel bed to facilitate the backwashing procedure. 3. 3.6 The selection of the actual ﬁltration media used inside the ﬁltration system is not part of this Standard. This Standard pertains only to media ﬁlters for irrigation water. adopted by ASAE March 1994. 1.11 media: The ﬁltration material used in a media ﬁlter. Testing of individual media for its efﬁciency in ﬁltration is likewise not part of this Standard. ‘‘Particle Size Analyses’’ 3 Deﬁnitions and terminology 3. 3. 1.1 This Standard has the following purposes: 1. reafﬁrmed February 2008 as an American National Standard Media Filters for Irrigation—Testing and Performance Reporting Developed by the ASAE Microirrigation Committee.6 duration of ﬁlter ﬂushing cycle: A period of time during which water ﬂushes ﬁltered material out of the media ﬁlter via the backwash action. PVC plastic. the editions indicated were valid. reafﬁrmed by ANSI February 2003. December 2001. or volume of water ﬁltered. through reference in this text. mg/L. Soil and Water Engineering Terminology ASA/SSSA monograph. Irrigation. and long-term effectiveness of individual irrigation media ﬁltration systems.ANSI/ASAE S539 MAR1994 (R2008) Approved October 1995.12 media ﬁlter: A ﬁltration device that uses a bed of media to remove suspended organic and inorganic particles from the incoming irrigation water. backwash mechanism.9 maximum operating ﬂow: The highest inlet ﬂow speciﬁed by the manufacturer that insures both proper ﬁltration and proper backwashing. L/(s·m2). 3. Particle sizes should be expressed in units of micrometers rather than screen mesh sizes. silica. and adequate cleaning of the media for a speciﬁc product design that has been installed and operated as recommended by a manufacturer. The process is also referred to as backﬂush and as reverse ﬂushing.3 This Standard does not establish design criteria for irrigation media ﬁlters or specify media.4 backwash pressure differential: A pressure differential between two points.1. Field Evaluation of Microirrigation Systems ASAE S526. 3.. one upstream and one downstream of the ﬁlter tanks. Part 1.7 ﬁltration level: The minimum particle size retained by the ﬁlters when operated according to ﬁlter manufacturer’s speciﬁcations using a given media grade. related valves. Design and Installation of Microirrigation Systems ASAE EP458 DEC93. 1. Methods of Soil Analyses. constitute provisions of this Standard.8 loading rate: The average concentration of suspended particulates in the inlet test ﬂuid. expressed in milligrams (dry mass) per liter of test ﬂuid. 3.7 Determinations of particulate composition of the outlet test ﬂuid are used to assess the potential effectiveness of the entire backwash system in cleaning the media after extended use. 1. duration of ﬁltration interval. and are not an evaluation of media performance. revised editorially July 1994.5 This Standard addresses the operation and performance of a system of media ﬁlter tank vessels. reafﬁrmed December 1998.5 backwash water volume: A volume of water ﬂushed from the entire media ﬁltration system (two or more tanks) during one backwashing operation.2 Provide procedures to classify and characterize media ﬁlter test data from manufacturers and independent testing laboratories. to maximize effectiveness of the backwashing activity.1 DEC93. physical composition and characteristics of the media. underdrains and manifolds. It is not intended for use in ranking different products. 3.1. 3. ASABE STANDARDS 2008 ANSIÕASAE S539 MAR1994 „R2008… . approved by the Soil and Water Division Standards Committee. 3. 1.
After the test particulates have been added.4 Inlet test ﬂuid supply tank.. and greater than 400 µm.14 media grade: The classiﬁcation of the media with respect to particles and their size distribution (percent of total mass). Each test shall be recorded and reported separately.1. the tanks shall be static pressure tested to at least 1. and shall not change size during the testing process by fracturing.5 times the maximum operating pressure for safety considerations.6 Test station piping. Design safety factor for the tanks should be stated as a ratio of the bursting pressure to the maximum recommended operating pressure (e. 3.2 Inorganic particles. 200–400 µm. Test particulate inorganic particle size distribution shall be 0–200 µm. clamps. — description of backwash control mechanism. 3. 5.5 Pressure rating of tanks.20 test ﬂuid: The ﬂuid used for testing the ﬁlter system.4 Tank safety factors. The ﬁlters shall be placed on a ﬂat. The upstream and downstream piping shall conform to the recommended sizes and length requirements on the ﬁlter connections for that particular test. Results of the pressure test shall be reported. 5. — material of tank construction (e. at least one ﬁlter set of each model and size should be tested under the same operating and temperature conditions. whichever is less.2.3. the inlet test ﬂuid shall contain not less than 2 mg/L and not more than 5 mg/L organic matter by dry mass of total suspended material. the following: — name of manufacturer. 5.0 dS/m. Maximum inlet pressure used in testing shall be at 100% of the manufacturer’s suggested maximum operating pressure or 80% of the maximum pressure rating of the tanks. and construction material (e.3 Selection of media. of the inlet test ﬂuid as introduced into the ﬁlter shall be not less than 0. 5. The test ﬂuid shall be water containing various standard concentrations of test particulates.1 Number of tests.3 Inlet test ﬂuid composition. — type of backwash automation. long-term operation of the ﬁlter system. PVC.3. physical composition. Descriptive schematic diagrams (front. 4. threaded. although tests on identical models may be combined in reports. Total suspended solids. The added suspended test particulates shall not change either the speciﬁc gravity or viscosity of the water by more than 2% of the unaltered test ﬂuid.g.1. Organic matter (e. ground plant material or pulverized newspaper) is often ﬁbrous but should pass through a 400 µm dry sieve. and geometric characteristics of the media particles are speciﬁed by the manufacturer. The electrical conductivity.2 Inlet test ﬂuid salinity. — description of ﬁltered water collector on tank bottom including type 2 ANSIÕASAE S539 MAR1994 „R2008… .g. TSS. but not necessarily be limited to. and stable surface. 5. 3.1 Inlet test ﬂuid temperature. stainless steel. 5.1.g. Successful completion of the pressure test shall be determined by the absence of leaks in any of the welds and/or connections. 5. Otherwise.5 times the maximum operating pressure for 30 min before initiation of the tests.g. 5. 4. 5 Site conditions and test equipment 5.3. Average water temperature during the test shall be reported. — total underdrain open area.19 suspended solids: Organic and inorganic particulates suspended in a moving water stream. Filters used for testing and analyses shall be randomly selected from normal production runs.1 Inlet test ﬂuid reproducibility. Each media ﬁlter system shall be described so speciﬁc references can be made to each system as tested at later dates.1 Filter media and all necessary components shall be installed according to the manufacturer’s instructions.1. — nominal diameter of tanks.. — date of testing.1 Filtering site. epoxy-coated steel with type and thickness of epoxy. testing of two tanks per tested media ﬁlter system set is adequate. Unless speciﬁc conditions or manufacturer’s recommendations warrant otherwise.21 test particulates: The solids in the test ﬂuid that enter a media ﬁlter under test. 10% 2% by dry mass. stainless steel.17 nominal pressure loss: The normal pressure loss measured through a back-ﬂushed. — model name and number. Media ﬁlter testing results shall be determined at three standardized inlet test ﬂuid compositions.1. ceramic) of underdrain assembly. 5. cross-sectional area or diameter.1.4 Maximum inlet water pressure. ASTM) shall be clearly identiﬁed by reference or full description of the speciﬁc procedures used in establishing the rating.16 minimum operating pressure: The lowest inlet pressure speciﬁed by the manufacturer that insures proper functioning of the device. — nominal inlet and outlet pipe sizes. EC. 4.2.18 outlet test ﬂuid: The suspended organic and inorganic particulates in the test ﬂuid that have passed through a ﬁlter and may also include particles from the media. if applicable. Inorganic particles shall be stable in water.15 minimum operating ﬂow: The lowest ﬂow into the ﬁlter system speciﬁed by the manufacturer that insures both proper ﬁltration and proper backwashing functions. 5. bolted with gaskets). level.1. May also be referred to as the ﬁltrate. 3. 5. top and side views) of the ﬁlter system with dimensions should be included.3 Organic matter. The system description shall include.g. PVC). The speciﬁc composition. size distribution. Inlet and outlet pipes shall be of the same material and general condition. or disintegration. Mechanical agitation of the tank(s) will usually be required.. TSS.3. Pressure rating of tanks determined in accordance with other standards (e.. 4:1). — underdrain slot opening or pore dimensions. To establish a set of typical test data. 30% 2% by dry mass.1. including backwashing without an additional higher pressure source. 4. cracking. velocity of water through the bed. — dimensions. 3.1. 60% 2% by dry mass. — other descriptive information pertinent to the particular ﬁlters being tested.. mill scale. is a measure of the concentration of suspended solids in the water expressed as mg/L.2 Selection of ﬁlters for testing. The inlet test ﬂuid composition shall be consistently reproducible (total suspended solids. L/(s·m2).2 Test ﬂuid. Tanks should be certiﬁed to withstand at least 1. if applicable. The inside surface shall be free of ﬂaking rust.1. 3. clean ﬁlter for efﬁcient. The inlet test ﬂuid supply tank shall maintain a uniform concentration of test particulates to the inlet side of the ﬁltration system..1. 3. depth of the media bed. and irregularities that could cause excessive ASABE STANDARDS 2008 4 Irrigation media ﬁlter description 4.25 dS/m or more than 2.5 Description of ﬁlter. — approximate date of manufacture.13 media ﬁltration system: A system of two or more media ﬁlter tanks manifolded together so ﬁltered water from one tank can be used to backwash the other(s) by actuation of valves.3. Recommended test ﬂuid temperature range shall be 10 °C to 38 °C. particle size distributions and concentrations). and type of inspection/ﬁlling and/or cleaning/media removal access port assemblies (e. ﬁberglass. 3.g. Expressed as ﬂow per unit cross-sectional area of media.1. 5. painted steel.
One instrument shall be located upstream to measure total system inﬂow and total volume. All tests of a ﬁlter system shall be conducted with a single ﬁltration media (and support gravel if used) conforming to the manufacturer’s speciﬁed size. elbows.g. but not smaller-sized particles. 7. — backwash effectiveness. bolts. respectively.5 Inlet test ﬂuid composition. — manufacturer’s name.5.. Operating conditions not supplied by the manufacturer that are required for this Standard shall be identiﬁed. and at locations where pressures can be measured across ﬁlter backwash valves. 6. — product description as outlined in 4.6 m3/(hr·m2) and 1. The test layout shall be designed to maximize the safety of testing personnel. 7. — 100 mg/L ( 10 mg/L) plus organic materials.1.3 Flow. Tests should be repeated at inorganic inlet test ﬂuid loading rates of — 0 mg/L (e. Any device that measures water temperature with an accuracy of 1 °C of the reading may be used. This device shall be located more than ﬁve (5) pipe diameters immediately downstream of the system ﬂow measuring instrument. Tests shall be conducted following the manufacturer’s recommended speciﬁed media and general operating conditions to the fullest extent possible.1 Flow measuring instrument(s). New particle or synthetic ﬁber media shall be installed prior to initiation of each testing sequence as stated below. 5. — calendar dates. Restraining rings. in these cases. shape.4 Sample collection. All taps shall be identical in design. pipe connections. This ﬁlter shall be cleaned after completion of a set of tests run at one test condition and the size distribution and composition of the contents analyzed.g. The ﬂow measuring instrument(s) shall be any device that measures ﬂow (or volume over time) with an accuracy of 2% over the ﬂow range being evaluated. 7. The ﬁlters shall be thoroughly backwashed 3 to 4 times immediately after installation of new media and prior to the initiation of any tests to remove any ﬁnes or other particulates contained in the media that could inﬂuence test results.. 7.2 Temperature. 6.3 Throttling device. shall be checked for proper placement and installation prior to the start of a test. depth. Additional locations may be measured at the tester’s option.4. Taps shall not protrude inside the pipes. valves. — testing location (organization and address). the determination of the unspeciﬁed values shall be at the discretion of the testing laboratory and reported as such..5 Sieve analyses of particle media. ﬂow measuring instruments. 7. After initial backwashing of particle media. 0. The edge of each hole shall be clean and sharp or slightly rounded.2 Pressure taps.2 Loading rate. a correction shall be made for the difference in elevation. The test particulate supply tank shall have constant mechanical agitation. the media ﬁlter system shall be ﬁlled with the test ﬂuid and all air bled off prior to the initiation of a testing sequence.5. and the initial mass of the new media shall be reported. 6. Pressure taps or ﬁttings shall be provided for measurement of static pressure and pressure loss across the ﬁlters and across ﬁlter backwash valves. random samples of the 3 6 Measurements 6. 7. immediately downstream of the ﬁlters. the speciﬁc particle sizes.1 Introduction of test particulates.5.1. volume. ‘‘clean’’ tap water). Flows used in the testing procedure are referenced to the maximum operating ﬂow and the minimum operating ﬂow [e. The location.1 Pressure.turbulence. Media ﬁlter testing shall be done in this sequence: — pressure loss-ﬂow relationships. The instrument(s) shall be calibrated to ensure the speciﬁed accuracy.2 Test identiﬁcation.3. based on the top surface area of media in the tanks]. 6.3. Test particulates shall be introduced immediately prior to the ﬁlter station so the distribution is uniform in time and density. particle size distribution. and to catch lost media. unobstructed pipe upstream and downstream from the instrument(s) as recommended by the manufacturer of the ﬂow measurement instrument(s). If two or more pressure measuring devices used to determine pressure are not located in the same horizontal plane.3.3 Media.1. of a mesh sufﬁcient to retain any media that might pass through the underdrain assemblies. Prior to the start of each testing sequence for ﬁlters with sand-type media.4 Changing of media. The use of a valve on the side of the outlet pipe is recommended for collection of water samples during a test for compositional and particle size analyses. The instrument(s) should cause minimum pressure loss.08 m3/(hr·m2). The sampling valve shall be located on the horizontal centerline of the outlet pipe. 7.5 Air relief. Filters and/or ﬁlter installations that may create a potential safety problem for testing personnel shall not be tested.3. including during backwash cycles. 7. Inlet pressure shall be the maximum allowed under 5. Pressure measuring device(s) capable of measuring pressure with an accuracy 2% of the anticipated reading shall be used. etc. Full pipe ﬂow shall be maintained within the inlet and outlet during the testing process.5. Each instrument shall be calibrated (bench tested) as necessary to maintain accuracy. The instrument(s) shall be installed with proper lengths of straight. 6. 10 mg/L) plus organic materials.3. This ﬁlter shall be ASABE STANDARDS 2008 ANSIÕASAE S539 MAR1994 „R2008… . A downstream throttling device shall be used to control ﬂow through the test ﬁlters. — name of the person in charge of the testing. etc. A screen ﬁlter shall be located downstream of the media ﬁlters to prevent the recirculation of particles back through the media ﬁlters.2 Location of ﬂow measuring instruments.3.4 Inlet ﬂuid pressure.7 Safety. Potential safety hazards shall be identiﬁed and corrected prior to conducting any tests. Taps shall be located a minimum of ﬁve pipe diameters downstream of any tees. 6. 6. access port assemblies. Measurements shall be made at a minimum of three locations: upstream of the ﬁlters. — times of day. There are no restrictions on the size or style of this device.6 Downstream ﬁltration. and. 6. 6. A pressure averaging ring with multiple taps is recommended.1 Pressure measuring device(s). — 300 mg/L ( 7. The instrument(s) shall be operated between 30% and 70% of the full operating range. Construction shall provide for full pipe ﬂow through all instrumented sections during the tests. and size of any air relief device used or recommended by the manufacturer shall be clearly stated. Information sufﬁcient to identify each particular testing sequence shall include: — test number. A second instrument shall be located to measure backwash ﬂow and total volume. 7 Testing procedures 7.5.1 After installation of media. — safe operation under extreme conditions. The instrument(s) shall operate under full pipe ﬂow conditions. Test particulates shall be introduced at a constant loading rate throughout the test period. Water ﬂow through the system and backwash ﬂow rates shall be measured and reported for each test. 6. Synthetic material media shall be supplied by the manufacturer and clearly described in the ﬁnal reports.5. type. etc. Pressures at selected points in the system shall be monitored and recorded for each test.3 Flow.
The duration (time) required for actual ﬁlter system backwash operations shall be reported for all backwash conditions. 3. In no case should the size of the support gravel be smaller than 90% of the ﬁltering media.g.6 Outlet ﬂuid composition.8. 7.1 Samples shall be collected 30 min or more after completion of the last backwash cycle..7. The samples shall be analyzed for TSS and particle size distribution in accordance with procedures outlined in ASA-SSSA monograph.9% 7.2 Backwash valve pressure losses. dwell time between tanks) shall be reported for each ﬂow and pressure combination used in the testing sequence. 7. in ASAE EP458. the time required for the backwash valve to close following backwash (e. 3.g.5.2 will be used to determine (calculate) the particle size for which 90% of the total mass of particles (test particulates and media) passing the ﬁlter are smaller. h) between backwash events.8. The sample analyses shall include the particle size distribution of the introduced test particulates in the test ﬂuid entering the test ﬁlters.5. and the total volume of test ﬂuid that passed through the ﬁlters during the entire test shall be reported.3 Flows. 7.5..1.5 Backwash duration. The times (h:min) between individual system backwash cycles and the average frequency (during the entire testing sequence) of backwashing required to clean the ﬁltering media to the manufacturer’s recommended post-backwash pressure differential shall be determined and reported for each tested loading rate.8. 7. general test conditions. ﬂow tests shall be conducted with newly installed. Backwash valve pressure losses during normal ﬁlter operation as well as during backwash shall be measured and reported. and allowed to dry prior to the test.6.4 Inlet and outlet pressures. 7.1 Test period.4.5. Backwash. The ﬁlters shall be backwash between each test condition until the manufacturer’s recommended post-backwash pressure differential is achieved. and the maximum recommended operating ﬂow per unit area as deﬁned above. 7.. Pressure losses across the media ﬁlter system shall be measured and reported for each ﬂow at the two loading rates (see 7.5 mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L 105 mg/L 28.3 An example of reporting TSS in the outlet water for each size range of the test particulate material after a typical test might be (assuming no media was removed from the tanks by the backwash process): Particle size 0–200 µm 200–400 µm >400 µm Organic Total concentrations Removal efﬁciency. 7. Inlet pressures shall be maintained at the manufacturer’s maximum recommended operating levels. rinsed with distilled water. It is not necessary to replace the media between ﬂow changes at the same loading rate. backwashed media.7.1 Backwash valve closure. The duration (time) for testing each pressure-ﬂow combination depends on the time required for the entire system to reach 4 conditions of hydraulic equilibrium. ﬂow shall be reported for the purpose of establishing pressure-ﬂow relationships across the ﬁlter system.6. S outﬂow is outlet concentration of suspended solids in mg/L.7.1. Tests shall proceed from lowest to highest ﬂows. Inlet and outlet pressures shall be reported at each ﬂow once equilibrium conditions have been established. 7. Backwash effectiveness shall be tested for two loading rates (100 10 mg/L and 300 10 mg/L).2.2 Removal efﬁciency shall be calculated in accordance with 3.3 Loading rate. 7. chemical. 7. 7. 7. These criteria shall be reported. compositional purity (e. and 3.5.2 Loading rate. 7.5 Backwashing.7. and the outlet test ﬂuid compositional purity shall be determined.6.5 Testing sequence. provide sieve analysis.4 Pressure differentials.7 Pressure loss-ﬂow testing. S inﬂow Er is the removal efﬁciency. 7.4 The data from 7. E r Inlet concentration 60 30 10 5 mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L Outlet concentration 20 5 2 1. In multi-tank systems. Data of pressure loss vs. Samples shall be collected. 7. and the particle size distribution in the outlet test ﬂuid. physical.6 Where support gravel is speciﬁed.4.1.2 Flows.1. and geometric description of media and any support gravel used in the testing procedure.8 Backwash testing. Backwash initiation and ‘‘optimal’’ cycle duration criteria shall follow manufacturer’s recommended operating procedures. Tests shall be conducted at a minimum of seven ﬂows ranging in nearly equal increments from about 75% of the manufacturer’s minimum recommended operating ﬂow per unit area to about 125% of the manufacturer’s maximum recommended operating ﬂow per unit area. 7.g. The pressure loss vs. Backwash initiation (if necessary) and optimal cycle duration criteria shall follow manufacturer’s recommended operating procedures.5 mg/L 72. The data will characterize the media.5.6.3) media used shall be taken from the tanks in sufﬁcient quantities for the sieve analyses.1. 7. if necessary.8. 7.8. Backwash duration of an individual ﬁlter system backwashing operation shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s criteria with respect to speciﬁed ﬂushing times (min) for individual tanks and post- ANSIÕASAE S539 MAR1994 „R2008… ASABE STANDARDS 2008 .1. All ﬂows used shall be reported. The ﬁlter system shall be tested at each ﬂow with clean water only (0 mg/L loading rate).3 Backwash initiation. 7.2 Outlet ﬂuid composition samples shall be collected downstream of the ﬁlter but above the downstream throttling device and the downstream ﬁltration. to maintain the manufacturer’s recommended post-backwash pressure differentials. These conditions will normally occur after about 20 to 30 min as determined by monitoring pressure and ﬂow ﬂuctuations.1.8. 7. One set of outlet test ﬂuid samples shall be taken at the end of the testing period for each ﬂow at each loading rate. % silica or % quartz).4. Loading rates shall proceed from lowest to highest loading. Each loading rate sequence should start with newly replaced and backwashed media.4. Turbidity meters to determine relative outlet test ﬂuid compositional purity shall not be used.8. 7.1 Sample size shall be at least 50 mL and collected into a sample bottle that has been thoroughly cleaned. Initiation of individual backwash operations for a ﬁlter system shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s criteria with respect to — speciﬁed timing (e.6. The speciﬁc criteria used for each test period and general test conditions shall be reported. Each test ﬁlter shall be tested continuously for a minimum of 48 h and have at least 20 complete backwash cycles during the test period.8.1 Test period. This equation is: E r 100* 1 where: S outﬂow .new and backwashed (see 7. 7. 7. Tests shall proceed from the lowest to the highest ﬂow.5.5.2). S inﬂow is the inlet concentration of suspended solids in mg/L. The speciﬁc criteria used for each test period. Tests shall be conducted at two ﬂows: the minimum manufacturer’s recommended operating ﬂow per unit area.184.108.40.206 Backwash interval.7.8. — both timing and pressure drop. — achieving a speciﬁed pressure drop across the ﬁlter system.8. 7.
7.8 also apply to these tests. for ﬂow over 15 L/s. 9.3. The operation of backwash control valves during backwashing operations shall be observed. Data shall be listed to at least the nearest 1 L/s.8. 9 Published data 9. 7. In addition to the information listed in 4. 7.2.backwash pressure differentials across the system (inﬂow-outﬂow: nominal pressure loss). Particle media will require drying.4 Outlet test ﬂuid composition. Data shall be listed in kilopascals.3 Description of the manufacturer’s recommended media and support gravel (if applicable) to be used. as well as a percentage of the total mass of media and residue in the ﬁlters.2 Flow.3. gravel.4 Manufacturer’s recommended minimum and maximum system ﬂow. 5. Much of the requested information in this clause is supplied by the manufacturer and is not part of the testing process. 7.9 Percent of residue remaining in media.8) for both the manufacturer’s maximum and minimum recommended ﬂow rates per unit area. Starting with new media. The loss of media per backwash cycle shall be reported as mass of media lost divided by the total number of backwash cycles and as a percent of initial ﬁll media mass. the manufacturer may also include inch-pound system units. The media cores shall be evaluated for organic matter content.8. Backwashing shall be manually initiated when the ﬁlter system has developed a pressure differential of not less than 0.2 Analyses of synthetic ﬁber media shall utilize methods to remove any accumulated material consistent with the chemical composition of the media (describe methodology).8. and reported.3. Each size and model shall have its own test record. — test period (h).8. — ﬂows. 9. residual particle sizes remaining in the media shall be reported for the same distributions speciﬁed in 7. The use of photographs of the testing setup is highly recommended. sieving. 9. ﬁltered (trapped) residues.1 These analyses should be determined by extraction of four cores (two near the center and two at the sides of the tank) that are at least 5 cm in diameter for approximately the full depth of any particle or synthetic media. Copies of all laboratory test results shall be made available on request. 9.3. 220.127.116.11. depressions.5.5.). or other problems that may reduce the ﬁltration effectiveness.1 Information to be reported.6 Backwash volume. media shall be examined for accumulated.9. 8.3. 9. The average volume of test ﬂuid used per backwash cycle shall be calculated and reported for each ﬂow and loading rate. The information requested in clauses 4. The operation of rinse control valves as well as the volume of water used for this operation shall be observed and reported. by the testing organization. 8. and/or cubic meters per hour.3.5. 9.7.5.06 m3/h. clays. Particle characteristics of the extract shall be analyzed and described. 9. etc. µm. depths. geometric and physical deﬁnitions of media. L/s. 7.3.5. 9. kPa.9) shall be reported: 9.6.10 Backwash valve operation.5. it is necessary to have it combined into one document for making appropriate design decisions.3 Interpolation of data.3.2 Manufacturer’s recommended media bed depth and nominal cross-sectional area of ﬁltration media in tanks.2. The creation of water hammer in the backwash discharge system due to the valve operation under testing conditions shall be reported. Flow shall be listed in liters per second. — loading rates.2. 6.1 General test information and conditions including: — date. The differential pressure loss and/or ﬂushing time criteria shall be reported for each tested loading rate.2 Units.3. Measurements of the particulate sizes and their distribution in the outlet test ﬂuid should be listed in micrometers. the mass of particle media remaining in the tanks shall be measured. as stated above.9 m3/h.2 Maximum pressure rating.5.1 The media shall be determined by the manufacturer and shall be clearly speciﬁed and labeled as ‘‘manufacturer’s recommended ﬁltering media.5 Water temperature. and 7. and measuring volume and sizes of the material that was not a part of the media prior to initiation of the test as compared to the media particle size analyses. tunneling. — inlet test ﬂuid temperature. 18.104.22.168 Data obtained and recorded in accordance with the methods and procedures as described by this Standard may be published as the minimum performance speciﬁcations of speciﬁc irrigation media ﬁlters. 9. and 7 shall be recorded on suitable forms selected or designed ASABE STANDARDS 2008 ANSIÕASAE S539 MAR1994 „R2008… . Supplemental data describing the conduct of the test may be included on the testing forms or in the test report.8. 7. The total volume of test ﬂuid used for backwashing shall be measured (see 6.’’ 9. 7. m3/h. Water temperature shall be reported in °C.3.8. The downstream screen ﬁlters shall be inspected and amount (dry mass) of any media or media-sized particles present shall also be measured and reported. Other testing parameters and reporting criteria contained in 7.5. 0.3. The creation of water hammer in the piping system due to the valve operation under testing conditions shall be reported.8.2) and recorded. as stated above. 7. 7. 5 8 Test records and data reduction 8. — electrical conductivity (dS/m) of the inlet test ﬂuid. m3/h·m2. 9.4 Manufacturer’s recommended media replacement intervals and/ or criteria to be used to determine media replacement needs. silica. 9. 9. These data shall be recorded and also presented in the pressure loss table section of the testing report.6 Rinse cycle valves. — location. No interpolation between ﬁlter sizes or models shall be used for the standard speciﬁcations. uneven upper surface media. Extracted. 9.3 Filtering media (sand. nature. of the tanks and manifolds including the designed safety factor (ratio of the bursting pressure to the maximum recommended operating pressure) and a description of the method (or identifying national or international standard) by which it was determined. Otherwise.7 Visual inspection of particle media.2 Sufﬁcient data should be recorded and retained to support published performance speciﬁcations so perceived or apparent conﬂicts can be resolved or further evaluated. Upon completion of each set of backwash tests at each loading rate. 0. Particle media should include particle size distributions. ﬂow shall be stated to within 2% of the actual ﬂow.8. Upon completion of the backwash test at each loading rate.9 Safe operation under extreme conditions. channeling. The existence. Flow velocities through the media shall be reported as ﬂow divided by cross-sectional area.5 times the manufacturer’s maximum recommended operating pressure to ensure backwash valve operation and safety under extreme conditions. a backwash test shall be conducted at only the highest loading rate (see 7.1 Pressure.2. synthetic material. Results shall be presented in SI units. etc. the particle media shall be visually inspected for the appearance of ‘‘dishing’’. Upon completion of each set of backwash tests at each loading rate.3 Flow velocity. kPa. Some media ﬁlters may have rinse cycles after the backwash process to prevent carry-over of contaminants into the irrigation system. silts. and sizes of these occurrences shall be measured.3 Supplemental data. however. recorded.8 Loss of particle media.9. the following data (see 7. however.
6 Maximum allowable pressure differential across the media ﬁlter system to initiate backwashing.3 Each tank shall bear markings in accordance with this Standard. 9. removal efﬁciency. 9. All other speciﬁcations are solely the recommendation of ‘‘Company name. 10.9. supporting data as speciﬁed in this Standard. 9. 22.214.171.124.3 Maximum and minimum backwash ﬂows as rates and velocities through the speciﬁed media. 9.9 Backwashing performance according to the manufacturer’s operational recommendations.126.96.36.199.3.8.14 Requirements for valves to isolate the ﬁlter system from the irrigation system during backwashing.9. dwell time.1.9..4 Backwash duration: length of time required for proper backwash. valves etc.) may be requested in writing from the above Company.3.3 Removal efﬁciency calculated for the selected loading rates.3. These results are representative of performance of production ﬁlters at the time of this publication. occurrence of water hammer. and backwash requirements for this product (model identiﬁcation.188.8.131.52 Volume of backwash water required at selected loading rates.9.1 The particle size for which 90% of the total mass of particles (test particulates and media) passing the ﬁlter are smaller.1. 9. 9. 9.3.12 Safe operation under extreme conditions (see 7. However.9.3. — at the above minimum recommended ﬂow for clean media. if automated.3.6 Manufacturer’s recommended minimum and maximum ﬂow velocities. unnecessary backwashings. etc.7 Manufacturer’s recommended allowable pressure drops (head loss) across the irrigation media ﬁltration system: — at the above maximum recommended ﬂow for clean media.9 Backwash valve pressure losses.3. 9.9.g.11 Maximum allowable pressure differentials for automatic backwashing when using system water to backwash adjacent tanks.3.3.3. organic and inorganic).1 Ratio of backwash volume to total ﬁltered volume at selected loading rates.8. Media Filters for Irrigation—Testing and Performance Reporting on (testing dates).4 A declaration as to whether the ﬁlter is equipped with some type of protective mechanism to prevent repeated. Actual product performance may differ from the published speciﬁcations due to normal manufacturing variations and test sample selection.4 Other supplemental data may be published in the manufacturer’s performance speciﬁcations. 9.1. 9.2 The particle size distributions of material in the outlet test ﬂuid. 10 Certiﬁcation 10.9.9. 9. 10.1 shall appear on each speciﬁcation page referencing ASAE S539.3. 9. composition (e.8 Mass of original particle media that has been lost from the tanks and results of visual inspection of particle media. 9. 9. testing laboratory or testing service’’ certiﬁes that pressure. pressure drop through system. ﬁttings.9.5 Manufacturer’s recommended minimum and maximum operating pressure.5 Recommended backwash frequency (days and hours)..3. and leakage during operation. 9. composition of discharge water.3.3.11 Other pertinent. 9.3. 9.9.7 Particle size distribution.1 Published performance speciﬁcations should be revised if product design changes alter the performance of that particular ﬁlter model and conﬁguration. 10.3. 9.9. The statement in 10.13 Manufacturer’s recommended size of pipe and valves for disposal of backwash water. 9.’’ Copies of speciﬁc testing results for this ﬁlter (actual test identiﬁcation numbers. 10. 6 ANSIÕASAE S539 MAR1994 „R2008… ASABE STANDARDS 2008 . to abrasion and corrosion under adverse water conditions.1 Certiﬁcation statement. 9.8 Expected outlet test ﬂuid composition. ‘‘Company name. 9.3.3. such data shall not be referenced to this Standard. manufacturer) were determined and listed in accordance with ASAE S539.9. 9.10 Characteristics of backwash valve operation including closure rates.3.2 Data certiﬁcation.9. ﬂow rate. and mass of residue remaining in media as a percent of total mass of media at the end of a test.10 Estimated lifetime (years) and resistance of tanks. Each model complying with this procedure shall be appropriately referenced to this statement. 9.9).
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