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Overview

Introduction
Mechanism Of Camless Engine Types Of Camless Mechanisms

Current application of camless engine


Advantages Limitations Of Camless Engines

Conclusion
Reference

Introduction
Working Of Conventional Four Stroke IC Engine
Has four strokes. Movement of inlet and exhaust

valves with the help of cam. The crankshaft turns camshaft which operates valves. Timing of engine valves depends on shape of cams. The valvetrain consists of valves, rocker arms, pushrod, lifters, and camshafts. It involves many moving parts.

Working Of Camless Engines


Camless engine may debut on 2009

fiat 500. Could provide infinite variation of valve parameters Sensors sense parameters & send signals to ECU ECU contains microprocessors with associated software This ECU controls the actuators to work according to requirements

Valeo estimates that the efficiency

of a camless engine would be 20% greater than a comparable camshaft-operated engine.

Mechanism Of Camless Engine

Mainly five sensors are present, which senses:


1. speed of the engine. 2. load on the engine. 3. exhaust position sensor. 4. valve position sensor. 5. current sensor. microprocessors are present in ECU to issue signal and control the actuators.

Types Of Camless Mechanisms


Electromechanical Poppet Valves
Electromechanical Ball Valves Electro-hydraulic Poppet Valves

Electromechanical Poppet Valves


Early systems employed solenoid

and magnetic attraction/repulsion was used on an iron or ferromagnetic armature Varying air gaps which lead to high seating velocities which made varying of the lift difficult. It is replaced with a currentcarrying armature coil. A magnetic field is generated by a magnetic field generator and directed across the fixed air gap.

The force generated on the armature coil drives the armature coil linearly in

the gap in a direction parallel with the valve stem. Depending on the direction of the current supplied to the armature coil. The valve will be driven toward an open or closed position. Siemens report that a special software algorithm is used to control the actuator coil currents such that the valves are decelerated to a speed near zero they land. In conjunction with a switching time of barely three milliseconds. The 16-valve four cylinder engines that is currently undergoing tests in Germany, by Siemens, is equipped with 16 valve actuator and corresponding armature-position sensors.

Different views of poppet valves

Electromechanical Ball Valves


It consists of a ball through which there is a passage passes. If the ball is rotated such that passage

lines up with other openings in the valve assembly, gas can pass through it. The disc is permanently attached and indexed to the ball valve and contains permanent magnets around its perimeter. A crank trigger sensor on the crankshaft provides information about the position of the piston relative to top dead center.

Electromechanical Ball Valves


Electromechanical

valve train implementation would not be possible with a normal 12v electrical system. The automotive industry has chosen a 42v electrical system as the next automotive standard. The valve housing arrangement in a four stroke reciprocation piston engine eliminates all the independent moving parts in the valve train.

Electro-hydraulic Poppet Valves


A source of pressurized hydraulic

fluid and a hydraulic actuator coupled to the poppet valve. The use of engine oil as the hydraulic fluid simplifies and lowers the cost of the design. In one design, the provision is made for a three-way electrically operated valve to control the flow of the pressurized fluid to the actuator. The valve springs that are used to reset the poppet valve.

Ricardo electro-hydraulic valve train system

Electro-hydraulic Poppet Valves


The valve actuation and control

system need a manifold pressure sensor, a temperature sensor, a mass flow sensor, a coolant temperature sensor, a throttle position sensor, an exhaust gas sensor. A valve developed by Struma industries is said to be about six times faster than conventional hydraulic valves.

Current application of camless engine


Camless

valve trains using solenoids or magnetic system are being investigated by BMW and fiat. They are being prototyped by Valeo and Ricardo. Used in the new fiat 500.

Advantages
Offers continuously variable & independent control of all

aspects of valve motion - lift, operation duration, event of opening ECV system can control valve velocity, valve acceleration and deceleration Better fuel economy- 7 to 10 % increase Higher torque & power- 10 to 15 % increase Lower exhaust emissions- EGR system is eliminated since EGR effect occurs on its own & thus reduces NOx emissions Reduction in size & weight

Limitations Of Camless Engines


Relatively high cost.
Packaging. Power consumption.

Noise and vibration.

CONCLUSION
1. An electro hydraulic camless valve train was developed for a

camless engine. Initial development confirmed its functional ability to control the valve timing, lift, velocity, and event duration, as well as to perform selectively variable deactivation in a four-valve multicylinder engine.
2. Review of the benefits expected from a camless engine points to

substantial improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions over and above what is achievable in engines with camshaft-based valve trains.
3. The development of a camless engine with an electro hydraulic

valve train described in this report is only a first step towards a complete engine optimization. Further research and development are needed to take full advantage of this system exceptional flexibility.

REFERENCE
Michael M.Schechter and Michael B.Levin Camless Engine, SAE

paper [960581] John B. Heywood, Internal combustion engine fundamentals www.machinedesign.com www.halfbakery.com www.deiselnet.com www.greendieseltechnology.com www.autospeed.com P. Kreuter, P. Heuser, and M. Schebitz, "Strategies to Impove SIEngine Performance by Means of Variable Intake Lift, Timing and Duration", SAE paper [920449].