T. Masud, S. Shehla, M. Khurram University of Arid Agriculture, Department of Food Technology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan Correspondence to: Tariq Masud E-mail:

The effect of coagulation temperatures and strength of coagulant on the quality and quantity of paneer prepared from buffalo milk was investigated. Paneer prepared at 95oC required minimum amount of coagulant, contributing low cost of production and paneer prepared at 85oC got maximum sensory score. However, both are moderately liked by the judges according to 9-point hedonic scale. As buffalo milk is the main source for preparation of this product, further study is needed by changing the strength of coagulant used and applying the same temperature for preparation of high quality paneer with minimum losses. Keywords: milk, cheese, coagulant, chemical composition, organoleptic evaluation for 5 min, cooled to 70°C and coagulated with 10% lactic acid solution added with constant stirring till the completion of coagulation. Curd was allowed to settle for 5 min. The whey was drained with a muslin cloth and the curd was salted at the rate of 1.5 % by weight of curd. The curd was then moulded and pressed for 2-3 hours at room temperature. The paneer was weighed and stored at 4°C for further evaluation. Paneer samples were analyzed for protein (%), fat (%), ash (%), total solids (%), moisture (%) and yield (%) on weekly basis. Whey was also analysed for same parameters. Amount of coagulant required for complete coagulation was also measured. AOAC (1) methods were used for the chemical analysis. Statistical Analysis was performed using MSTAT-C (Michigan State University microcomputer program, 1991). The sensory attributes of paneer were evaluated on ninepoint hedonic scale by a panel of five experienced judges.

Paneer, analogue to cottage cheese, is an indigenous coagulated milk product prepared by the addition of organic acid to milk at higher temperature. This product is extensively used as an ingredient for preparing cooked meat and vegetable dishes in North West frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan (2, 3). This product is mostly prepared from coagulation of buffalo milk at boiling temperature. In the present investigation an attempt was made to study the effect of coagulation temperatures and strength of coagulant on the quality and quantity of paneer prepared from buffalo milk.

Materials and Methods
The direct acidification process as described by Kosikowski (5) was used for the preparation of paneer from buffalo milk collected from dairy farm located at Animal Science Institute, Pakistan. Milk was standardized to 6% fat and 9% solid not fat levels and 1.5 L for each heating treatment was taken in stainless steel containers, heated to 75°C, 85°C or 95°C, respectively,

Results and Discussion
It is clear from Table 1 that amount of coagulant required to complete coagulation increased with fall of temperature leading to an increase in cost of production as described TABLE 1

Effect of coagulation temperature on quality attributes for paneer and whey Quality Attributes for Paneer 95oC 85oC 75oC 30 c 34 b 36 a 20.58 a 19.77 a 18.75 a 23.5 a 23.0 a 23.67 a 2.92 a 2.75 a 2.17 b 52.94 a 53.19 a 49.6 b 46.81 b 47.05 b 50.4 a 21.54 a 21.85 a 21.96 a 4-6 b 6-8 a 5-7 ab Quality Attributes for Whey 95oC 85oC 75oC 0.62 b 0.35 a 0.45 a 8.33 a 91.67 a 923.3 c 0.72 a 0.37 a 0.49 a 8.10 a 91.90 a 1016.6 a 0.61 b 0.33 a 0.45 a 8.44 a 91.56 a 986.6 b

Amount of Coagulant used (ml) Protein (%) Fat (%) Ash (%) Total Solid (%) Moisture (%) Yield (% for Paneer and ml for Whey) Sensory scores (9-point hedonic scale)
Notes: * All values are mean of three replications.

** The differences between the values with same letter are non-significant (p>0.05) to each other within every parameter



Ganguli N. 40. (1981) Cultured Dairy Products Journal. 5.W. Athar I. The flavour of high grade paneer should be pleasing mild acid. Athar I. USA. 7. The texture of high-grade paneer should be compact (close knit). Athar I. Masud T. (1986) Indian Journal of Dairy Science.6% for buffalo milk. 4. However. both of which have non significant effect on paneer quality except lowest amount of coagulant used and whey yield for milk preheated at 95oC (Table 1). (1992). 8. 9).H.. Notes: * All values are mean of five replications. total solid percentage and high moisture percentage as compare to milk treated at 85°C and 95°C.A. the difference may be attributed to the difference in the chemical composition of milk. Yee J. Sen D.R. Washington D. (1982) Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods (2nd Edition).earlier (4. USA. Raychaudhuri U. Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Masud T. 5. Chem. 2. 357-559.. 244246. Kosikowiski F. Martin J.. 6. Banbyopadhyay A. Chakraborty R. smooth and velvety... (1981) Journal Society of Dairy Technology. p.H. The degree of whiteness and smoothness in the texture of paneer increased with the dropping of coagulation temperature whereas there was no effect on the sweet and nutty flavour irrespective of coagulation temperature (Table 2).180... Shah M. A desirable body of paneer is neither too firm nor too soft. Soni K. This was due to the retention of higher moisture in paneer at lower coagulation temperatures. strength of coagulant and heat treatment of milk. Yield values are more than reported by Masud et al. Most satisfactory quality paneer was obtained at coagulation temperature of 85oC whose score ranged 6-8. REFERENCES 1. 16. 33.C. 21/2007/4 . (1980) Indian Journal of Dairy Science. TABLE 2 Sensory qualities of paneer prepared at different coagulation temperatures Coagulation Colour Fairly 95oC white o 85 C White Bright 75oC white Texture Coarse and Fairly soft fibrous Very soft Smooth Extremely Very soft smooth Body Flavour Sweet and nutty Sweet and nutty Sweet and nutty with the work of Sen (8). 10).H. (6). fat contents and yield. Phelan J..A. 7. 799-810. who reported paneer yield of 16. (2005) International Journal of Food Science and Technology.J. 14th Ed. 563-565. 31. slight sweet and nutty. However.K. Agri. 39. 152-162. 34. Masud T. AOAC (1990) Offic. 3.C. The flavour of paneer is a characteristic blend of flavour of heated milk curd and acid. New York.There is no significant difference among the cheese prepared by different heating temperatures in protein contents. 10.. EQ. Ali A. (1989) Journal of Animal Health and Production. 40-55. It should be sufficiently firm to hold its shape during cutting/ slicing yet tender enough not to resist crushing during mastication.H. Spurgeon K. milk preheated at 75°C showed lower ash contents.C. Book Tondale. 9. 355-361.. & BIOTECHNOL. Similar views are expressed by other authors (4.. 9. 5-10. (1989) Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. These findings are in line 452 BIOTECHNOL.. Bandyopadhyay M.

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