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spintronics

spintronics

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Published by Vivek Prasad

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Published by: Vivek Prasad on Apr 25, 2012
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12/07/2013

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spINTRONICS

• Spintronics (meaning "spin transport electronics), also known as magnetoelectronics, is an emerging technology that exploits both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, in solid-state devices. • The idea is to use the electron's spin, as well as it's charge. Electrons can spin in two directions (Spin-Up, Spin-Down, which is actually clockwise and anti-clockwise), and the spin is detectable as weak magnetic energy.

Introduction

• 1997 .A new device allows the polarization (or spin) of an electron to determine the switching of the device . • 2001 .first GMR (Giant magnetoresistive) Harddisk head introduced by IBM.HISTORY [5] • 1988 . • 2002 .University of Arkansas physicists have successfully injected a stream of electrons with identical spins into a semiconductor.Giant Magnetoresistive Effect (GME) discovered by Albert Fert in France and Peter Gruenberg in Germany.

2GHz MRAM devised." could lead to solid state electronic devices . • 2007-First breakthrough in applying spin-based electronics to silicon o Researchers have taken the first step toward building siliconbased computers that use a fraction of the power of today's machines. A team has injected electrons into silicon in such a way that their spins. tend to be aligned in one direction instead of the other. • 2008-IBM shows New racetrack memory technology o racetrack memory.HISTORY • 2005. and therefore more durable .New Spintronic Speed Record . so named because the data "races" around the wire "track. or magnetic orientations.with no moving parts.

HISTORY • 2009 o Scientists prove the existance of a 'spin battery‘ o Korean researchers created the first first spin field-effect transistor • The transistor's basic structure of source. gate and drain is similar to the complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor (CMOS) model used for making microprocessors and other integrated circuits. o Researchers manipulated and detected spin at room temperature for the first time .

HISTORY • 2011 o Researchers managed to generate a spin current in Graphene o Researchers manufactured a spintronics nano-switch using self-organized magnetic molecules • by coating synthetic adhesives on magnetic molecules so that the molecules fitted themselves on a nanotube without any interference. .

THEORY • The spin of the electron is an angular momentum intrinsic to the electron that is separate from the angular momentum due to its orbital motion. .

implying that the electron acts as a Fermion by the spin-statistics theorem.THEORY The electron's spin is 1/2h . the magnitude of which is expressed as • . the spin has an associated magnetic moment. • Like orbital angular momentum.

an electron has different energies when electron spin is parallel or antiparallel with the field. • Directional and coherent motion of electron spin circulates a spin current. . which will carry or transport information and control quantum spin in an spintronic device.THEORY • In a magnetic field.

. • The most common application of this effect is a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) device.THEORY • The simplest method of generating a spin-polarised current in a metal is to pass the current through a ferromagnetic material.

ELECTRON SPIN .

ELECTRON SPIN .

ELECTRON SPIN .

into silicon at room temperature.APPLICATIONS • Room-temperature Spintronic transistors [1] o transistor that can be used to align electron spin for a record period of time in silicon chips at room temperature. o The researchers used electricity and magnetic fields to inject "spin polarized carriers" .namely. . electrons with their spins aligned either all up or all down .

without a chemical reaction.APPLICATIONS • Spin battery might be used to drive cars in the future[2] o a battery that is "charged" by applying a large magnetic field to nanomagnets in a device called a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) o The new technology converts the magnetic energy directly into electrical energy. The electrical current made in this process is called a spin polarized current and finds use in a new technology called "spintronics." .

APPLICATIONS • THE SPINTRONIC SCANNER FOR CANCER DETECTION[3] o After surgery and the removal of the tumor. change in spin is determined . the patient is exposed to a strong magnetic field o Now the polarized electron beam is applied over the unaffected part and spin orientation of electrons are determined using polarimeter o Then the same polarized beam is targeted over the affected part of the body and from the reflected beam.

APPLICATIONS • Plastic Computer Memory Device That Utilizes Electron Spin to Read and Write Data[4] o Used as Alternative to Traditional Semiconductors .

APPLICATIONS • Magnetoresistive Devices • An alternative to traditional microelectronics. socalled "spintronics" could store more data in less space. and consume less power . process data faster.

When the two magnetization vectors of the ferromagnetic layers are aligned. the electrical resistance will be lower (so a higher current flows at constant voltage) than if the ferromagnetic layers are anti-aligned. This constitutes a magnetic field sensor.APPLICATIONS • Metal-based spintronic devices o A typical GMR device consists of at least two layers of ferromagnetic materials separated by a spacer layer. .

The resulting electronics.and have been working on a way to store data using spin. dubbed spintronics. .either "spin up" or "spin down" -. They refer to this orientation as spin -. would effectively let computers store and transfer twice as much data per electron.ADVANTAGE • Normal electronics encode computer data based on a binary code of ones and zeros.

which is way they are significantly more efficient.ADVANTAGE • The main advantage that spintronic devices have over today's electronic devices is the fact that unlike electronic devices they do not only use charge of the electrons but also their spin. • Spintronics does not require unique and specialised semiconductor .

DRAWBACKS • Spin of electrons cannot be instantaneously monitored. • Spintronic devices can only be manufactured at nano scale. .

spintronics-info.com/doc/7278424/Applicatio n-of-Spintronics • [4]http://www.scribd.sciencedaily.spintronics-info.BIBILIOGRAPHY • [1]http://www.com/releases/2010/08/ 100809171533.com/researchersprove-existance-spin-battery-might-be-used-drivecars-future • [3]http://www.com/researchersuniversity-utah-develop-new-room-temperaturespintronic-transistors • [2] http://www.com/history .spintronics-info.htm • [5] http://www.

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