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Y\ Construftive • Anatomy J George hiitructoiin B. Pelham. N. Bridgman. Bridgman and Anatoni\ of the y'ork Draiving and Lecturer on the Construction Human Figure^ Art Students^ League. Publisher A . Nnv P^DWARD C. Y.

Prlliam.. V. 1920 ^ '^ 10 §0 . Bridgman.Ct)pvriglit liv (jforgf B. X.

Dedicated to <J5fv '•Mother .

The author to Dr. 'I'ucker for his assistance in the aration of the text. G. A. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness prepfor Ernest K. Mr. Wilbur Crane r- n B. n . B. and to his helpful sugtrcstions.

The effective conception is that of wedging. line or a The eye or a mass. this or a in may movmust llrst. but as mental construction must precede ])hysica]. or a The line. so the concept of luass must come last. in drawing must follow a line. that of line Think in masses. plane In the process of drawing. in respect to their those of movement. define them in lines. but as one mass dift'erent proportions. . or as morticed or interlocking. are conceived as zcah/iiu/ into each other. Masses of about the same size or proportion are . that of plane second. moving plane. conceived not as masses. come first. actual construction. become a moving ing mass.Introduction The drawings that are presented here show the conceptions that have proved simplest and most effective in constructing the human figure.


while the muscles of the shoulder are larger still. the leverage being longer and the weight greater. there must be the corres|)onding muscle system. and express other laws of mechanics.General Anatomy Bones constitute the pressure system of the body. laws of dynamics and of power. IMuscles ex])ress also laws of leverage. therefore. them are expressed. the arches of the . such as the hinges of the elbows. etc. etc. For instance. attached to and acting on the bony and ligamentous systems. In contraction they are lifted and bulged. ])ulling in the ojjposite direction. throughout the body. they are fore paired. the pillars of the legs. they produce action by their contraction or shortening. Muscles constitute the contractile or power system. large in proportion to the length of the lever they move. as in the dome of the head. [II] . while in their relaxed state they are dabby and soft. Those of the individual fingers are small and can fit in between the bones of the hand. those of the arm larger than those of the forearm. constitute the motion In the muscles are expressed. laws of architec- In ture. Muscles. the levers of the limbs. for every muscle i)ulling in one direction. Ligaments constitute the retaining or tension system. The muscles of the forearm are larger than those of the fingers. foot. therefore. and laws of me- chanics. They growlarger as we ascend the arm. Muscles are thereEvery muscle on the right side must be paired with one on the left: for every flexor on the front there must be its corresj)onding extensor on the back.

they are as masses to be conceived as blocks. and in action never. whose lever extends backward to the long groove of the back. or Almost invariably. The conception of the figure must l)egin with the thoueht of these blocks in their relation to each other. twisted in the horizontal ])lane. they may in fact. tilted in the transverse plane. chest and pelvis are Whatever their surface form or markings. in reference to gravitation. In these various movements. and are finally connected bv the wedges or lines of the actual contour. of the head. of alternating discs of bone and very elastic cartilage. '&^ 12 f . all three movements are present. these blocks would be l)alanced symmetrically over each other. But rarely in fact. They are to be thought of first as one thinks of the l)ody of a wasp. to differ- ent degrees. be bent forward and back in the sagittal plane. The spine the structure that connects one part of the body with another. Each segment is a joint.Masses and Movements of the Body The masses unchanging". is this the case. Such movement as the spine allows the muscles also allow. ited to ]n their relations to each other they are limthe three possible ])lanes of movement. with only one line connecting them. all to connecting- Ideally. a strong column occupying almost the centre or axis of the body. That is. or without reference at portions. the limit tation to is the limiis movement It is of the spine.


CONSTRUCTION Masses and Movements of the BodyTilting OF THE Masses [14] .


and Traxsvekse Planes: Tilted and Twlsted [16 .CONSTRUCTION Tjie Hokizoxtal. Sacittai.


wrist). are larger. and of the middle finger joints. l^eyond. crossing only one moving the fingers individuallv. continuous with those of the fingers. and short muscles of the hand. joint. and on the front by tendons.The Hand Anatomy the hand are four bones. They converge on the wrist bones and are morticed almost solidly to them. The hand moves with the wrist. drawing away so are fastened to both sides fingers the muscles and to the outside of the other little In the thumb and of this set are called abductors. hand [i81 The masses — . There is a very slight movement like opening a fan between these bones. and being in exposed positions. They are in two sets. They are covered by tendons on the back. drawing the fingers toward the ossei middle finger. The dorsal interossei from the centre. and so are fastened to the inner side front. The palmar interare collectors. the other that of the thumb. and skin pads. the muscles 111 of the thumb and little finger. lie dee]) between the metacarpal bones and so are called interossei. the knuckle. little finger forms a long fleshy mass reaching to the wrist. That of the first finger that of the forms a prominent bulge between it and the thumb. back The and and palmar. The dorsal tendons converge more sharply than the bones. cari)us. Masses one that of the of the hand are two proper. are spreaders. or dorsal of each joint except that of the middle finger itself. called metacarpals (nieta.

due to their exposed positions. It is slightly Somewhat more arched flat surface. The pad of the palm overlaps the wrist below and the knuckles above. They represent two sets of tendons more or flat segment of the fingers. and from first to little finger from side arched across the back. never quite flat with the hand. on the palmar surface. reaching to the middle of the first except in the clenched fist. equal to it in length. the form is given by the abductor muscle and the overhang of the knuckle. [19] . the first is lower on its thumb side. the tendons of the long extensors are superficial. and may be raised sharply under the beveled from knuckles to edge. whose height is. In this latter position its first segment forms a triangle whose base is the side of the hand. equal to the width of the hand. concenThe second tric around the base of the thumb. where it has an overhang. and on the dorsal surface. in until The thumb may be drawn only its root bulges beyond the lateral line of the hand. On the little finger side. and bending under it to more than a right angle with its to side. knuckle is larger and higher than the rest. as has also the knuckle of the little finger. Belonging to the hand is the pyramidal mass of the first segment of the thumb. nearly less blended. are the knuckles. which joins on at an angle. and may almost as great. be carried out to a great angle with it. by which the curve of that side is carried well up to the middle of the first segment of the finger. On the back of the hand. so are double and have connecting bands between them. from wrist to knuckles on the wrist on the The first of these flat side.

VSSKS Its width is twice its thickness. ])rominent under the thuml) and the little hnger. which C(^nverge on its outer half. of the arch is The dome an ai)ex at seen on the back. The latter is the heel of the hand. It is crossed by the long extensor tendons of the fingers. easily tipping sideways (flexion and extension) with more difificvtlty tilting endways side-bending) which in combination give some rotary movement. but having no twisting ( [2ol . with first the trapezium under the finger.MKXTS L5eing solid with the hand. It is narrower both ways where it joins the arm. the wrist the hand on the forearm. There is always a step-down from the back of the arm. The two pillars of this arch are seen on the jjalniar side. to the hand. Eight i)ones (carpal hones) in two rows make the arch of the wrist in size they are hke deformed dice. and the hand of Morticed with moves with the wrist. Its moves with movement is like that of a boat in water. fingers and thumb. M. Under it pass the long flexor tendons to the . over the wrist. hut the arch is thicker and a hit higher on the thumb side. ^loX'K.The Wrist Anatomy tiie hones of the hand are the hones the wrist: the two nial^e one mass. giving an ai)pearance of constriction.

The inset of this boat-shaped joint with the arm gives the appearance of constriction. the arm bones being lifted from To the four corners of the front ) the surface. under the thumb. When hand and arm lie extended along a flat surface. the back of the hand with arm makes almost the a right angle. the total movement therefore is slightly less than two right angles. By their contraction the wrist is moved in movement forearm. When the wrist is fully flexed. except twisting. it forms at the back a great curve over which the extensor tendons are drawn taut. wrist are fastened muscles. fully extended. When the flexed. all is directions. is higher than the stern under the little finger. two in carpi radialis (flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris and two behind (extensor and extensor carpi ulnaris. it is the heel of the hand that is in contact. The prow. This movement is accomplished by the forearm. the former being double). when fullv palmar surface makes almost a right angle. Only the tendons cross the forearm. muscular bodies lying [21] . so much so that the fingers can never be closed when the wrist is fully flexed.movement at all. which the produced not in the in the wrist but in the wrist. In this position the flexor tendons are raised prominently under the skin.

THE HAND [22] .


THE HAND [24] .


26] . 5 Annular ligament. digiti. 2 Flexor brevis pollicis. 4 Lumbricales. 1 front palmar Abductor pollicis.THE HAND Muscles of the Hand. 3 Abductor transversus pollicis. 6 Flexor brevis minimi 7 Abductor minimi digiti.

'' \ r ( 7 .

THE HAND [28] .


THE HAND jNIuscles of 1 Back of Hand: First dorsal interossei. 4 Tendons of extensor communis digitorum. 2 Abductor pollicis. 3 Dorsal interossei. [30] .

s4 I rx. r-^- ^^. A T^7 .l^y^ r^'.


^&^- .

THE HAND Wedging of the Wrist: Little Finger Side 34 .


but drawn from the body. six in number. according as it is drawn in or out. and then joins the inaction line at the little finger. straight with the arm. The inaction construction line now runs straight to the middle joint of the thumb.. while the The inaction side thumb is almost at right angles with it. while the little finger is at almost right angles with it. the opposite is the inaction or straight side. the thumb side is the action side. hand turned down (prone) and drawn toward the hody. the thumb side is the inaction side. etc. then to that of the second finger. thence to the first joint. The action construction line runs down the arm to the base of the thumb at the wrist. With the the is little finger the inaction side. These construction lines. The side with the greatest angle is the action side. The inaction construction line runs straight down the arm to the base of the little finger. etc. and is straight with the arm. are the same with the ])alm turned up. from there out to the middle joint.THE HAND Construction In the hand as in the figure there is an action and an inaction side. They place the fingers and indicate the action and proportions of the hand. while the action line runs to the wrist on the little finger side. With the hand still prone. 36 . at the widest part of the hand: thence to the knuckle of the first finger.


THE HAND [38] .




THE HAND [42] .


THE HAND Turning of the Masses of Hand and Wrist [44] .


THE HAND Masses ov Fingers. Interlocking 46] . Wedging. Hand and Wrist: Step-down.

S-^:2^:J) "\f .

THE HAND Interlocking of Hand and Wrist: Little Finger Side [48] .


and a thin one. in any position. its joints more rugged. and the base of the first finger. each one concentric on this same basal joint of the thumb. The middle segment has only tendons. and a line connecting their tips forms a curve whose centre is this same point. the broad one forms the bulk (abductor) and the thin one [50] . form a corona around its tip. the fingers form arches.The Thumb Drill master to the fingers. Its last segment has a nail and a heavy skin pad. The basal segment is a pyramidal mass of muscle reaching The thumb has Its to the wrist. or closed as in clasping. gathered together. Anatomy joints. is the thumb. a broad one. This is true of the rows of joints (knuckles) also. The design and movement of even the forearm is to give the freest l)icej)s sweep to the thumb. its movement seen to begin really at the shoulder. they radiate from a common centre at its base. three segments and as many bones are heavier than those of the fingers. The superficial muscles of this mass are fat a fat one. each circle of knuckles forms an arch with the centre. same common The mass of the thumb dominates the hand. the hand and the forearm. The fingers. Clenched. is through the muscle. of the pyramid The muscle hugs lies the bone (opponens). Bent. Spread out. the "line of life" of the palm. while.

segment bends sharply back. rounded and bulged on all sides except where the bone is sui)erficial at the back. with a small pad. The ball faces more than sideways. especially when the thumb is flattened. [51] .inside. joint moves less freely. toward the index finger (flexor brevis). in one plane. smaller than the other two. Its skin pad. with that is. which is i)ulged. Movements has about one right angle of movement. first finger. but giving a twisting movement only with difticultv and strain. and may by pres. expressing sure-bearing function. Between the thumb and first finger the skin is raised into a web. pres- The middle segment The basal segment is is sciuare with rounded edges. by the adductor policis muscle. saddle joint. It reaches to the middle joint of the The last the nail.sure be twisted The last joint toward the fingers. gives it an its appearance not unlike a foot. with easy bending sideways. narrow in the middle. Masses The thumb to the front is pyramidal at the base. The heavy middle limited to one plane. less easy forward and back. also The joint of the base is a movement like one in a saddle. which two in combination give some rotary movement. carrying broad at the base. pear-shaped at the end.

2 Extensor brevis pollicis. 3 Extensor longus pollicis. [52] .THE THUMB Extensors of the Thumb: 1 Extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis.

X. >-'- >- "1.-. '^^•>) ! I . A .

palmar 1 view: Flexor brevis pollicis. 2 Abductor pollicis.THE THUMB Muscles of the Thumb. [54] . 3 Apponens pollicis.




The extensor tendon makes a ridge on the knuckle and connects it with the first phalanx. for two reasons. It may move farther and with is back than the other fingers. the shafts smaller but square. and bulges beyond. because in the clasped hand it is opposite the thumb it bears the chief burden. The little fineer the smallest and shortest and most freely movable for the oi)posite reason. with rounded edges. but on the middle and the last that is hand (metacarpal) knuckle. one is that the hand often "sits" on the base of the little finger the other is that being : diagonally opposite the thumb it is twisted farther backward so tends to in any outward tw'isting movement. There are no muscles below the knuckles l)ut the langes. The [58] . leaving exposed the end of the higher bone. and is usually held so. and assume that position. The middle finger is the longest and largest. Masses All bones of the body are narrower in the shaft than at either end. especially those of the fingers. and are covered on the front by tendons and skin pads. soldiers). fingers are traversed by tendons on the I)ack. joints are square. . In the clenched fist it is the end of the bone of the The exposed to make the finger bone (first phalanx) moves around it. the tips are triangular.The Fingers -*• Anatomy Each of the four fmg-ers has three bones (pha- Each phalanx turns on the one above. The middle joint of each finger is the largest.

in front. as on a dead centre. Into the square of the knuckles seen to enter from above. the fingers as a whole The masses arch toward the middle finger. the segments increase in length by definite proportions. at the tip of the finger. lateral movement. The whole last segment is a wedge. From it a long tapering wedge arises and enters the square of the middle joint. of these segments are not placed end to end. joint moves about one right angle except which moves slightly less. as [59] . bridged by a wedge. bevels backward and points to the to]i The of the knuckle in the back. The a blunt wedge is whole finger tapers from the middle joint. From tip to base. The palmar webbing oi)posite the knuckles. and limited to except the basal. In the back view. A series of wedges and squares thus marks the backs of the fingers. and on into the bones of the hand. there is a step-down from each segment to the one beyond. those of the middle finger being longest. which has also a slight in spreading the fingers. segments of individual fingers are of dif- ferent lengths. from which a blunt wedge also reaches backward.joints the tendon makes a depression or groove in the centre of the joint. In the profile view. Movements Each the last. which reaches to about the middle of the first segment of the finger. This form begins back of the root of the nail and bevels to below its end. either in profile or in back view. Another tapering wedge arises here and moves half way down the segment. one ])lane. to become embedded in a horseshoe form holding the nail.

FINGERS Pad Bkiwken Thumb and I First Finger. [60] . First dorsal interosseus.

Mechanism of the First Finger




While the segments of any

finger, seen

on the

back, are of ditTerent lengths, the pads seen on the

palmar side are of the same length, including the l)ad of the base which is part of the palm, so that the creases between them are not all opposite the joints. The reason is immediateh' seen when the finger is viewed closed on itself. The creases are then seen to form a cross, the pads to meet in the

In the










last joint;

finger the creases are: short of the opposite the middle joint; half way be-

tween middle and basal joint, and opposite the basal knuckle (above the joint proper, which is considerably beyond the point of the knuckle). In the second finger they are: opposite the last joint; beyond the middle joint; midwav between middle and basal joint, and opposite the basal joint.
in the other fing-ers they vary in dififerent individuals.

transverse except that opi)osite the basal joint, which forms one long wavy crease on the ]oalm; and those next beyond, on first


creases are


fingers, which slo])e down on the outside, spread fingers making a curve around the base of the thumb.

in the


si .

finger. palm side. 3 Tendons.FINGERS 1 Dorsal interossei of the hand. dorsal side. [66: . 2 Tendons. finger.


to flex or bend. but shows that the muscles that bulge the [681 . The flexors and i)ronators (flexor. so forearm are mainly the flexors and extensors of the wrist and hand. forming two-thirds of the joint. is a of bone which is the pivot for both the radius joint they and also the thumb. or turning bone. Between them at the elbow lies the cubital fossa. on the ulna. The other is slides as the hinge moves. which is always a landmark. The one It that is large at the elbow in the is the ulna. forms a hinge joint and moves bending of the elbow. lying side by side. hump Diagonally op])osite the thumb. Overlying them and reaching higher up on the arm are the pronators and supinators of the radius. or prone) form the inner mass at the elbow. This is a fat softly bulging mass which tapers to the wrist. Muscles must lie above the move. or arm bone. One is large at the wrist. the extensors and su])inators form the outer mass. arises the flexor-pronator group. This second bone it the radius.The Forearm Anatomy and Movements In the forearm are two bones. is large at the wrist and carries the wrist and hand. the other is large at the ell)ow. where it also forms two-thirds of the joint. pronator. They are joined at their sides and move like a long piece of cardboard folded diagonally. to turn face down. From the inner condyle. These are the tips of the flattened lower end of that bone. Both of these masses arise from the condyles of the humerus.

this wedge follows the direction of the thumb. which bulges higher up. which rises a third of the way up the arm. where is joins the shoulder blade. widens as far as the elbow.sses The masses of the forearm will be described in connection with those of the arm and shoulder. From the back view. and loses itself half way down the forearm. The outer condyle is hidden by its muscular mass when the hand is turned out. the elbow is seen ferred to. The overlying muscular masses meet over half way down. tapers beyond. Ma. is It dominated by the supinator longus.the pronator teres (round). to ha\'e three knobs of bone. the two condyles above re- and between them the ui)per end of the ulna. In turning. This mass is the extensor-supinator group. and becomes tendinous half way down. or olecranon. so that the ulna forms a thin dagger of bone ])()inting to the little finger. The lower end flattened out sideways to give [69 . whose turning function requires it to lie diagonally across superficially toward the thumb side. The Arm Anatomy The bone to of the upper arm is it part facing the shoulder the humerus. The latter is higher when the arm is straight and lower when it is Hexed. and overlies the condyle when the arm is straight with the forearm. The rounded and enlarged is form the head. forming the elbow proi)er.

The triceps also overlaid by the l^etween biceps and triceps are grooves. and on top of that the thin. and attaching to the shoulder blade above the shoulder joint. flat and short hrachialis anticus muscle. while midway of the arm the apex of the deltoid muscle sinks into it. and filled out above by the coraco-brachialis muscle. reaching is placed the broad. Its condyle and occupies the inner and lower ])ortion of the bone. The outer condyle sinks into the outer groove below. overlying the upper ends of both biceps and triceps. On the back. and is entirely covered with muscles except at the condyles. [70 I . shoulder. high and long biceps. the other passes outside. forming the condyles. it is The in- ner condyle sinks into the inner groove below. reaching to the On the tlat way up the arm. and occu])ies the outer and upper part of the back surface of the humerus. behind the flat surface made by the two condyles. One head passes to the inside of the bone and fastens to the coracoid process. under the shoulder. The inner head begins near the inner olecranon. entering the armpit.attachment to the uhia and radius. half front side of the condyles. The middle head reaches diagonally in and u\) to the back of the shoulder blade. These all converge on the ])road olecranon. flat tendon from the wedge surrounded by two is wings of muscle. its under the deltoid or shoulder hood. arising from the central knob or (three-headed) muscle. is the triceps outer head begins near the condyle. grooving the head of the humerus. upper end flattened as it begins to divide into its two heads. The shaft itself is straight and nearly romid. forming a deltoid above.

.Bone of the Arm T : Humerus. Bones of the Forearm: 2 Ulna (little finger side). 3 Radius (thumb side).

THE ARM Bonks of tiik Uppkr Limb: Humerus. ISicejxs.s 1 L'i'pek Limb.Icfioii: De])resses shoulder blade. Al rsoij. 2 3 llrachialis amicus. rotates outward. OF xii i-: little tiuL'X'r side.head from glenoid cavity (under acromion) through groove in head of humerus. 4 l^'onator radii 5 l<1exors. teres. Ulna — forearm. short head from coracoid process. grouped. Radius — forearm. half way down. inner side. rotates radius outward. to hu- merus. ISiceps: 72 .-arm. to radius. flexes forearm. miction: Draws forward. front view Coraco-braehialis. Coraco-brachialis: From coracoid process. 6 Supinator longus. thumb side. Long. . humerus.


2 Pronator radii teres. half way down. page <)2 [74] .: THE ARM SUPIXATIOX AND PkOXATION OF THE FoREARJI. grouped. outer side. Supinator Longus: From external condyloid ridge to end of radius. front view 1 Supinator longus. Pronator Radii Teres: Flexor group. Action: Pronates hand and flexes forearm. 3 Flexors. From internal condyle and ulna to radius. Action: Supinates forearm.

/-/^\ .

THE ARM Masses of the Arm. Forearm and Wrist Wedcixg axd Interlocking [76] .

r^- .

ISrachialis Anticus: half. 7 Flexors.THE ARM Muscles of the Arm. 6 Pronator radii teres. 5 Extensor carpi radialis longior. lateral view thumb side toward the body) ( : 1 Coraco-brachialis. to ulna. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longior: From external condyloid ridge to base of index finger. 3 fjrachialis anticus. [78 . lower Action: Flexes forearm. Action: Extends wrist. 4 Supinator longus. grouped. 2 Biceps. From front of humerus.

> \ .

OF THE Hand on the Forearm AND THE Forearm on the Arm [80] .THE ARM TuRNixt.


Action: Extends little finger. 4 Anconeus. [82] . 3 Extensor carpi radialis long-ior. Action: Extends forearm. From back of external cond\'le to cranon ])rocess and shaft of ulna. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris: From external condyle and back of ulna to base of little finger.THE ARM Muscles of the Upper 1 Lijib. outer view: Triceps. 2 Supinator longus. Coxdvi. Action: Extends wrist and bends down. Anconeus : ole- EXTENSOR GROUP From Exticrxai.e of : Humerus From external Extensor Digitorum Communis condyle to second and third phalanges of all fingers. : Extensor Minimi Digiti From external condyle to second and third ])halanges of little finger. grouped. 5 Extensors. miction: Extends fingers.


2 Extensor communis 82. page [84] . back 1 view: Extensor carpi ulnaris.THE ARM Muscular Mass of Forearm. '&' Extensor group. disfitormn.

A :^ ^ ./' .x-A* \ I I i /-' > .

THE ARM Wedging of the Arm into the Forearm. back view [86 .


4 Flexors. [88] . 3 Supinator longus.THE ARM Wedging of Arm ixto the Forearm AT THE Elbow: 1 Biceps. 2 Triceps. 5 Extensors.

I'- // .

THE ARM [90] .


base of little : finger. Action: Flexes fingers and hand. : Flexor Carpi Ulnaris From internal condyle and olecranon to fifth metacarpal. 3 Supinator longns. [92] . perforated to admit i)assage of profundus tendons.\l Co.ES OF THE Aroi. 5 Pronator teres. inner view: 1 Triceps. Action: b'lexes wrist and l)ends down.xdvlk of Hiimerus Flexor Car])i Radialis From internal condyle to first metacarpal. 2 Biceps. ulna and radius to second phalang-es of all fingers. 4 Mexors. Action: r^lexes wrist and bends up. Flexor Sublimis Digitorum atus) : ( flexor sublimis perfor- From inner condyle. gTouped.THE ARM Muscr. FLEXOR GROUP From 1xtkk\.

I ^ ft .

THE ARM [94] .


its outer curve and tail made by this forward turning. The shoulder girdle is made up of the collar bone and a ridge of the shoulder blade. meeting. Not only may the shoulder blade slide freely over [96] . Over to the ripi)le From the hollow of this S-curve a groove sinks first downward and then at an angle outward. its apex downward and wedging into the outer groove of the arm. the ridge a bit the lower. marking the border between the shoulder and the great breast muscle. a Hat hinge ])ointing straight for- ward. tra])e7. of the shoulder is At the point the joint between shoulder blade and collar bone. Just below the base is a which marks the head of the arm bone. The collar bone is an S-shaped bone. but both turn straight forward before meeting. They both point outward.ehind the inner two-thirds of the collar bone a triangular dc])ression between it and the its muscle behind: apex jjointing outward. its Movements In the shoulder are found two joints.ius base to the neck. allowing the shoulder Ijlade to slide freely over the flat surface of the back. An almost perfect triangle this muscle. its base upward and bent around to attach shoulder girdle. the point of union is a Hat s])ace. is P.The Shoulder Anatomy Form is given to the shoulder by the deltoid is (triangle) nuiscle.

the shoulder proper. its narrow edge straight forward. its narrow edge sideways while the lower . Masses The masses of the shoulder. . with its long diameter sloping down and out. They are joined by wedges and wedging movements.the back. [97] . It is made of two squares. under the deltoid is the joint of the shoulder blade with the humerus or arm bone. it being the only bony union of arm and shoulder with the trunk. Its movements are chiefly lifting forward and up and twisting forward. At the jimcture of the collar bone with the sternum or breast plate is a universal joint. This mass lies diagonally across and overlaps the mass of the arm. its broad side facing up and out. It is a vmiversal joint. facing sideways and a little forward. or deltoid muscle. with a right angle and a half of movement in two planes l)ut its sweep is always increased by the movement of both shoulder blade and collar bone. Its shape expresses an important spring functicMi. but with very narrow range. whose long diameter is vertical. The upper half of the forearm is a block whose broad side is forward. with movement in two planes and also twisting. its narrow edge forward. The mass of the forearm begins behind the end of the arm and passes across it at an angle forward and out. forearm and hand do not join directly end to end with each other. but may even lift from it at the point and inner edge. sHo-htly amplifying l^elow it its range. but overlap and He at various angles. we will have the mass of the shoulder. Constructing these masses first as blocks. beveled off at the end. arm. its broad side outward.

the elbow straight and the hand turned is the inner line of the forearm straight with that line of the arm. pointing always to the thumb. the extensor tendons on the back point always to the outer condyle. whose apex sinks into the outer groove of the arm half way down.half. it directly. this out at an angle that corresponds with the width of the wrist. The mass of the biceps ends in a wedge which turns outward as it enters the cubital fossa. of the lower mass not joining a step-down toward the front. and on the inside by a wedge that rises back of the arm and ])oints to the little finger flexor( pronator nuiscles). toward the thumb. the thin eds'e of the mass. held its than the upper. but with [98] . reaches a broad apex at the broadest i)art of the forearm and tapers to the wrist. is When in. The flexor tendons on the front of the forearm point always to the inner condyle. In the lower half of the forearm. The breadth of the hand corresponds with that . is When the hand is turned out. The little finger side (ulna) set being the hub of its movement. is made by a continuation of this wedge from little the outside: while the thin is edge toward the the finger made by the end of wedge from the inside. has its narrow edge broad side facing out (with the hand thumb up). These blocks are joined by wedges and wedging movements. and to the straight lines are wedded the curved lines of the contour of the muscles. smaller forward. The mass of the forearm overlaps the end of the arm on the outside by a wedge (supinator longus) that arises a third of the way up the arm. The deltoid is itself a wedge.

the mass of the shoulder sits across its top as in the front view. thicker because made of two muscles (latissimus and teres major).In the back view of the arm. The front wall is longer because the ])ectoraI muscle attaches farther down the arm. when the arm is fully raised. with the coraco-brachialis between them. The Armpit -*• into a deep ])it by the great breast muscle (pectoralis major) in front. Its floor slopes forward. be bulged by the head of the arm bone and the lym])h glands that lie there. filled with its friction latissimus dorsi behind. Its rear wall is deeper. the triceps tendon. following the slope of the chest wall. and the greater The hollow hairs. Into this pit the biceps and tricei)s muscles plunge. The upper end resolves itself into the three heads of the triceps the lower or truncated end is . The back edg'e of this mass is seen to be a trvmcated wedge arising under the deltoid and focusing on the elbow. is made of the arm. [99] . The bottom of the pit may. to which is to be added the tiny wedge of the anconeus (donkey's foot) muscle bridging from outer condyle to ulna. and rounder because its fibres turn on themselves before attaching to the arm bone. downward and outward. since the latissimus attaches farther down the back .

2 Triceps. sixth dorsal to sac- rum and Action: iliac crest. 1 front view: Biceps. Draws arm backward and inward. [ IOC] .THE SHOULDER Mechanism of the Armpit. Latissimus Dorsi : From spine. 4 Teres major. Action: Draws humerus outward and rotates backwards. : Teres Major From lower corner of scapula to front of humerus. 5 Deltoid. passes inside o£ lumierus to fasten to front side near head. 3 Latissimus dorsi.


i)ag'e ij/) 102 .TJiE ARM Wedging and Intkrlockin(. of the Masses OF THE Arm AXD SlIOl'LDER (See Classes.


back of humerus below musculo-spiral groove. 2 Triceps. 4 Teres major. Triceps : draws forward or backward. Action: Draws humerus outward and rotates backwards. Teres Minor: Erom scapula to inner tubercle of humerus. acromion and ridge of scap- ula to outside of humerus. Action: Elevates. Middle or long head. back view: Deltoid. Action: Extends forearm. Outer head. Teres Major: Erom lower corner of scapula to front of humerus. shoulder blade below socket to olecranon process of ulna. [I04] . Action: Draws humerus outward and rotates backward. Deltoid : Erom clavicle. Inner head. back of humerus above mus- culo-spiral groove. humerus.THE SHOULDER ]\Ifciianism of 1 the Shoulder. 3 Teres minor.


[ io6 . larger in men. column. larger women: and above it the angular cartilage larynx. The table shajjc of this muscle appears only from the back. From bony muscles ( i)rominences back of the ears two sterno-mastoid ).The Neck I-'roiu the sloping platform of the shoulders the a cylindrical neck rises. Its lateral corners arise from the shoulder girdle opp(xsite the deltoid. It is buttressed on the sides by the trapezius (table) muscle. a diamond with lower ajjex well down the l)ack.diagonally up- ward it braces the back of the head. which is somewhat Hat and overhung by the base of the skull. curving slightly is forward even when the head thrown well back. It carries the imagination back to the time in evolution when bared teeth were important weapons of defense. Rising. or Adam's apple. aptly called the bonnet- string muscles. The strength of the neck is therefore at the back. forming a triangle canoi)y of the chin. ward ( of the Crossing its upper corners outward and downis a thready skin muscle platysma myoides) which lifts the skin into high folds and draws down the corners of the mouth. It is canopied in front by the chin. whose base is the In this triangle below in is the thyroid gland. descend to almost meet at the root of the neck.


e From upper cervical verte- to uj^per angle of shoulder blade. i)ull head forward. From top of sternum and sternal end of clavicle to mastoid process (back Action: Together. 3 Trapezius. nape ligament and twelfth dorsal. Sterno-cleido-nuistoideus: of ear). separately. rotates to opposite side.^Icfioii: shoulder blade. Levator of the Scapula: l)r.THE NECK Muscles of the Neck: 1 Sterno-cleido-mastoid. 2 Levator of the scapula. liaises angle of : . Action: Extends head. [ 108 . Trapezius sjiine From as occijjital far as bone. elevates shoulder and tates shoulder blade. depresses head. to clavicle. ro- acromion and ridge of shoulder blade.

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2 3 Thyroid gland muscles. The joint of the skull itself moves only in nodding. Thyroid cartilage. that side of each vertehra moves back as far as the perpendicular and then the opposite sides move forward. MovK.MK. Sterne )-hyoid. which turns on a jiivot.x IS OF THE Xkck moving a Jn the neck are seven vertehrae. turned to one side. 8 Stcrno-cleido-mastoid.THE NECK Tongue-Box K axd Larynx 1 Hyoid hone. in which the rest of the neck may be quite stationary. 4 Digastric (has two portions). lengthening the neck as they do so. each little. 7 Onio-hyoid. 5 () Stylo-hyoid. 9 Trapezius. This motion is much freer at the second joint from the skuil. the neck is When [no] .

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: : Sterno-hyoid From sternum to hyoid bone. Action: Draws hvoid down and to one side. .xilla. From hyoid bone to shoulder.THE NECK Muscles of Neck Platysma Myoides: A sheathing.\dam's apple. Action: Depresses hyoid and . Stylo-hyoid Action: From hyoid t(i styloid process. upper border of scapula. Omo-hyoid: [112] . Draws back hyoid and tongue. Alylo-hyoid: Forms floor of mouth and canopy of chin in front. Action: Raises hyoid and tongue.from chest and shoulder to masseter and corner of mouth. Action: Wrinkles skin of neck. behind chin posterior belly. draws down corner of mouth. muscle): Anterior belly. Digastric ( doul)le-bellied from ma. from mastoid process fastened by loop to hyoid bone. .

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and complemental. oval is too indefinite. The block moreover carries witli it from any angle its ])erspective and its foreshortening. vertical line in the centre divides the head or the trunk into parts equal. Yet for many reasons the cube seems preferable. are exact though reversed duplicates of each other. The angle between these lines is practically con- [ii4l . no basis for measin-ement. and offers no points for comparison. How to construct such a block? Bell. the second passes from the upper incisor teeth to the prominent part of the Camper.— : The Head For so long. The Especially does it carry with itself the important element of the bilateral symmetry of the head a symmetry that is present indeed in all living things. any form may be built. however. The eye does not fix on any point in a curved line. and it carries with itself the sense of mass. the changes of position. limbs. Professor forehead. The first passes from the base of the nose to the roof of the ear canal.a time has the oval been used as the basis for the constrvtction of the human head and face that the use of the block or cube seems quite revolutionary. opposite. On the ground plan of a square. They finally fixed u]ion two lines with the angle between them. The right eye is the counterpart of the left A the two halves of the nose are symmetrical except for . and others have studied innumerable human skulls trying to discover some constant measurement by which to classify them as ancient or modern or according to race.

stant for a given race or a given age of evolution. although no actual Greek skulls is This angle less in the older and less which this is the case have ever been discovered. it will be found that the front and back are oblong and the sides are square. in the Caucasian races. evolved races. The cheek bones set back from the front of the cage about one-third of the in . If on these straight lines a cage be built. bounding the head and face. and by drawing the vertical line from the base of the nose where it joins the upper lip to the bridge of the nose. The top of the cage should be level with the top of the head. In the classical Greek head it even passes the perpendicular. the bottom with the bottom of the chin the border of the cheek should fit the sides. It is not easy to construct a block on such an angle. The length of the oblong front will equal one and threequarters times its width. is about eighty degrees. Individual variations occur. especially the Caucasian. where it joins the glal)ella. but they are less than the standard. This angle. By dropping the horizontal line at its rear end from the roof of the ear canal to the tip of the ear lobe. and it is very desirable to have a right angle. distance to the ear. and the vertical line approaches nearer the perpendicular in the newer races. we obtain such a right angle. [115] .


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Ridges axd Depressioxs OF the Skull ii8 .THE HEAD Emixexces.


THE HEAD The Angles of Construction Text Page 114 [ 120] .

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2 Masseter. Lesser and greater zygomaticus (muscles of expression).THE HEAD Muscles of Mastication: 1 Temporal. [ 122] . 3 P)Uccinator ( cheek muscle). 4 and 5.

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middle of which rises the [ '24] V ^ . then down and in. to the corner of the chin. Outside of and hehind this lower line is another wedge. Erom the lower outer corners of the forehead the wedt^e of the cheek hones hei^ins. narrower mass of the forehead hounded hy the tem])les at the sides and hy tlie Ijrows helow.sweep. in a long. Into the rounded mass of the cranium sets the. with the line itself for base. and a very low apex. the central face. moves ovitward and downward until it just passes the curve of the cranium. that of the corner of the jaw. and the jaw.THE HEAD CONSTKUCTION LiNKS IN PERSPECTIVE Masses The masses of the head are the cranium. the skeleton of the face. in the The two cheek hones form together mass of the nose.

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is the masses of the head are the the cranium.\i) — Profile same and the jaw. The planes and divisions of planes of the face are the same as in the front view. The plane of the face. line is broken on each side by a from the outer corner lip. running from to the outer border of the cheek bone to the corner of the jaw. almost parallel to the curve of the cranium. a lesser ridge the orbit. The In ])rofile He.— THE HEAD Planes The plane of the forehead slopes to upward and sides turn backward become the cranium. From cheek bone and zygoma. where is they meet. in different perspective. which also is again divided by a line marking the edge of the masseter muscle. [ 126 1 . and again making two secondary planes. of the cheek bone to the center of the upper making two smaller planes.-\nes and the part of the long line of the temple. of the cheek bone is seen to be prolonged backward toward the ear as a ridge (zygoma or yoke) which also marks the base of the temple. They vary in proportion with each individual. and the sharply to the plane of the temples. It slopes slightly down in front. the skeleton of the face. The The front border of the temple to]) seen to be a long curve. one toward the cheek and one toward the ear. The relations of these masses and planes is to the moulding of a head what architectvu'e is to a house. divided by the nose. and must be carefully compared with a mental standard. first seen rising between the temple and orbit marking the back of the Pl. The outer of these turns become the plane of the jaw.

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THE HEAD [128: .

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one slo])ing toward the root of the nose. whose bristles are so placed as to divert moisture and dirt outward away from the lid and eye. in part. the other directed toward and joining IJelow on the lid are three planes. which [ >3ol . bulge in the lid. 'i'he lower lid may be wrinkled and slightly lifted inward. When the eye is closed. It is the upper lid that moves. At the corners of the i)it are the openings of the tear ducts. The bridge of the nose to the eye. and whether open or closed. the curve of the eyeball straight back. and is always curtained by the u])]ier lid. first is : with the cheek bone. The eyeball has about half a right angle of movement in two planes. its curtain is drawn smooth when opened. it wedging into from the each other at different angles. folding in beneath the upi)er ])art as it does so. There is a continuous light secretion of this fluid. and leaving a wrinkle to mark the fold. so that it always makes a slight whatever the position. floored by a pinkish membrane. The second is from the brow to the cheek bone which is again divided into two smaller planes. which drain off the excess of lacrymal (tear) fluid. its lower part follows . At the inner corner of the lids is a narrow pit (canthus). which projects some distance beyond the walls of the pit when the eye is turned far out. The lower lid is ([uite stable.The Eye The upper part of the eye socket or orbit is marked by the brow. I1:e transparent cornea or "apple" of the eye is raised i)erceptibly. Imlging l)elow the inner end of the lid.

a . projecting there reflects light perfectly The lids. nose and cheek bones form a strong setting for this most variant and expressive of the features. the lids The opening between looj). luebrows may be or penciled. bulging or shallow. scanty Lids may be thick or thin. The immovable masses of the forehead. thick. Eye sockets may be far apart or near together. or with some mental standard or ideal. long or short or round. although the ui)])er lid is always thicker along its margin. or sloping. [ 131 . straight or arched. Comparisons In looking at any feature one naturally compares with his concept of the average of such of the upper spread over the eyeball by the constant winking lid. The thin film of liquid thus kept lashes. serve both as from its surface. and always i)rotrudes if the eye i)rotrudes. from the margin of the curtains to shade and as delicate feelers to protect the eye. The variations of such features will then fall it into classes which represent the more usual varialevel tions thereof. short or long. and is raised over the cornea. may be triangular or a button hole. narrow or wide.

Planes and Their Angles [ 132] .THE EYE SOCKET Wedges.

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THE EYE Angular Opening Between the Lids [134] .

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THE EYE 136 .

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[138] .The Nose The nose its is made of a series of wedges based on bony structure. The bony part of the nose is a very clear wedge. middle of the upper lip pands into the bulbous se])tum of the nose). small. the nose narrows and the ridge sinks slightly toward the Inilb. . tapering or twisted. dilated in heavy breathing. making a third it descends. Where to the bridge of the nose the forehead. wedge. The bulb rises as two sheets of ( cartilage from the sides. depressed.XKISONS Average variations classes. or very large. Beyond the bony part.e and flares out to form the or wings of the nostrils. wider as its making the second wedge. the wedges in under two ridges of the glabella descend form a wedge with apex at the bridge. base to base with the second. ex- ti]). Roman or they At the tips may be elevated. The wings are raised in laughter. Hows over the al. humped. concave straight. large. The wings may be delicate or puffy. and wings and tip are raised in scorn. wrinkling the skin over the nose. round or triangular. higher as it descends its base somewhat longer. narrowed in distaste. in noses divide them into They may be or con\ex . ridge only half the length of the nose. t COMP. horizontal. This cartilaginous ])ortion is quite movable. sf[uare or almond-shaped. or flat. flattened.

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2 3 Lower Wing.THE NOSE Cartilachs of the Nose: 1 Upper lateral. lateral. [ 140] . 4 Septum.

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in front of which is the hollow of the ear (concha) witli the opening of the canal. freely pended a lobe.'Xr.\R : Helix. 4 Anti-tragus [ 142] . ending" in a point. the external ear co])ia of cartilage. The remains of the point of marked or absent.ARTIL. up and back and down and back. 2 Anti-helix. but there are certain (k'linite forms: an outer rim (helix) bearing' the remains of the tip. These vary widely. is The ear vertically in line with the back of the jaw. the ear C. The first line marks a depressed angle between in ears present the its ])lanes. mav be medium or small. To the whole is ap- In animals.E 1 OF THE E. brow and the base of the it three planes are to be found. following oval or triangular. and In lies horizontally between the lines of the nose.The Ear is a smooth cornumovable. the second a raised angle. and its muscles. now mere elastic bands. an inner elevation (anti-helix). Average variations classes: large. overhung in front by a flap (tragus) and behind and below by a smaller one (anti-tragus). In man it is practically immobile. round. 3 Tragus. divided by lines radiating from the canal. serve only to draw it into wrinkles.


whose terminus is at the pillars of the mouth. It has a small linear central sets at 144 The base . not so long as the upper lip.The Mouth •*• mouth and lips is controlled by The more curved the jaw in front the more curved the lips the more flat it is. diminishing in thickness as they curve outward. nor a mouth on a curved set of upper teeth. of the mouth from nose margin of red lip) ])resents a central groove with pillars on either side. and two long slender wings disappearing under the i)illars of the mouth. It slopes backward and ends at the cleft of the chin. This i)ortion is set at an ( The curtainous portion to angle with the curtaincnis ]K)rtion. the largest depressed in the middle. The groove ends in a wedge entering the upper lip (red portion). at the groove. the straighter the lij^s. are yet quite different form. blending into two broad drooping wings. or curtainous ])ortion of the lower lip an angle with the red portion less than that in the up])er lip. . The lower red li]) has a central groove and two in lateral lobes. and two smaller ones on each side. the lower rounded. not occur on a jaw bone that straig'ht slit of a is flat in front. A much bowed mouth does The shape of the the shape of the jaw. The ui)])er and lower red lips. The upper red lip has a central wedge-shaped body. indented at the toj) by the wedge of the groove above. It has three surfaces. the upi)er being Hat and angular. accurately adapted to each other when closed.

etc. furrowed or dimpled elongated. pointed or ball. prolonged. curved or bowed. Hat. straight. outer margin in the skiii Average variations com])arisons : in lips ])rcsent the following thick or thin. From this muscle radiate various facial muscles of expression. the chin itself ])ro- trudes. wedges upward bordered on each into the base of the lower It is by two planes which reach to the angle of the jaw. lines Its breadth at the base is marked by two which. is usually marked by a crease running from the wing-s of the nose out and down to varying distances. bounded by the pillars of the mouth. pouting or compressed. raise the skin into the folds Its known as the pillars of the mouth. Variations in chins present the following comhigh or low. side making a triangle that lip. double. overlapi)ing at the corners. would meet at the sei)tum of the nose. paralleling the pillars.ridge and two large lateral lobes. [145] . Its lower end may blend into the cleft of the chin. The oval cavity of the mouth is surrounded by a circular muscle (orbicularis oris) whose fibres. rosebud. jirotruding or receding.clow the cleft of the chin. ])rominent. and each may be compared with the other in these respects. . The Chin r. ])arisons.

THE MOUTH Details of Mouth and Lips [146] .


but the outer ends move forward again..The Trunk front view Anatomy uijper part of the hody is caHed the thorax. the cage of the chest a cone with the apex upward. The next three grow shorter and shorter. and the two floating.ribs. 'J'he upper ribs are quite short and make a small circle: they grow longer until the seventh. bringing the mass of the shoulders with them to form the flat front siuTace. [148] . fastening to the spine behind and to the sternum or breast bone in front. The first seven are called true last ribs. conical cage The Ijuilt in shape.\K I'OXE To collar the breast bone at the top of this cone the bones are attached. The last two ribs are (|uite short and are free at their front ends. Mrscr. Under the muscles is this form may easily be seen.ES Thus. without the shoulders. and reach the sternum only through a long costal cartilage. lifting the whole mass away from the cone and making it a flat surface. which is the longest and the last to fasten to the breast bone. C()I-I. the next three false. twelve on each side. which with the projecting end of the sternum ensi( form cartilage) form the abdominal arch. The walls of this cage are the rihs. The inner ends of the S-shaped l)one are curved around the apex of the cone. around a hony and flat- tened in front. wedging downward.

This line is useful for placing the masses of the chest. profile of the sides The front surface. following the edge of the rectus muscle. the abdo- men the (|uite or pelvis. its lines almost meet at I)aralleling the line across the the sym])hysis ]nibis below. buttressed by a mass of lateral muscles over the shoulders. the uml)ilicus or navel. Its vipper third bevels more sharply in. just below the nijiple. It be- gins in the pit of the neck. formed mainly by the pectoral and rectus abdominis muscles. its u])per third. straight line first the top of the marking the collar bones defines mass and paralleling it. between the collar bones. . the epigastrium (over the stomach) and the abdomen. A 149 . is a pit (epigastric pit) marking the divergence of the ribs. The the iliac crest. Over the breast IM. forms a much more slender wedge. Its lower two-thirds bevels more shar])ly dowm. and between first them the epigastrium stable. running length. bounded l)y a bottom of the breast muscle. At the end of this. it marks the breast bone.. a wedge with the apex forms a wide wedge.\t the end of its lower third is the mound of the symphysis. At the end of its middle third is another pit. A vertical central groove divides the symmetrical its full halves of the front. and is deepened by the bulge of the ])ectoral nuiscles on either side. it With is downward.\SSKS The masses of the torse are the chest. as far as the lower border of the breast muscle. a line through the base of the breast muscles and pit of the epigastrium forms its base. . the two comparatively middle one movable. through the epig'astric pit. edge of that muscle.

separating thorax from abdomen. In the l)ending or turning of the body the central line of this portion bends always to the convex side. yet the mass itself changes Although the shoulders little except the slight change in respiration.are freely movable. Below this arch able part of the mobile portion. variously is curved. as far as the level of the epigastric pit. and the butlines tressing of the lateral muscles. Even in respiration the upper portion. the wedge of the chest and shoulders converging downward. At its centre. The central groove is here shallow and may lose itself below.the lines of the first mass. By is this movement the straight wedge of the front broken. It becomes not a bent wedge. Its profile shows the al)domen. ATore unchanging than cither of the above is the mass of the abdomen. but two wedges. It most movbounded l^elow by a line passing approximately through the anterior points of the iliac crests. and bulging the pectoral muscles. made of the cartilages of the false ribs. [130I . changes little. the is the lines of the cone of the thorax diverging of the downward. the lower ribs perform most of the respiratory movement. the end of the breast bone (ensiform cartilage) hangs pendent on either side the arch descends : diagonally. always paralleled by the borders of the rectus muscle. one the uj^per half of the original wedge. changing. i)rolonged upw-ard to meet the one above. Centering on this pit is the abdominal arch. The long wedge ends in the symphysis pubis. prolonged but not completed downward. the other the lower half.

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page 154 Deltoid. 4 Scrratus 5 I'Lxteriial o1)li([ne. ma_s. Rectus Abdominis: tilages of ribs. raises ribs. 2 IX'ltoid. From from symi)hysis pul)is to carfifth to seventh. Action: P'lexes thorax. Pcctoralis major. 3 l-Jectus abdominis.'nns.THE TRUNK Mrsci. iliac External Obli([ue: From eight lower ribs to crest and ligament to pubis. page 104. under surface. [ 152 . Draws shoulder blade forward. Action: Flexes thorax.KS OK 1 Till-: TurxK. front view: Pcctoralis major. Serratus ]\lagnus: ula miction: l-'rom eight upper ril)s to scap- — spinal edge.

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SKELETON OF THE TRUNK Muscles Coverixg Upper Portion. 1 front view: Pectoralis minor. 2 Pectoralis major. Pectoralis ?\Iinor: From tliird. Action: I^epresses point of slioulder. steras num. fourth and tiftli ribs to coracoid process.let ion: costal cartilag'es far as sixth and seventh ribs to humerus. Draws arm downward and forward. . Pectoralis ^Major: From inner half of clavicle. [ >54 .


front view Armpit and Siioi'lder 156] .. THE TRUNK Trunk.


paralleling the cartilages of the ribs.The Torse Profile The erect torse presents in profile the long curve of the front. Above. and It is marked by the ridge forms its by the "dig^itations" finger marks) of the serratus magnus (big saw-toothed) muscle. and that of the pelvis and abdomen. The first and last are comjiaratively unchanging. collar bone. and the shoulder moves freely carrying the shoulder blade. disappearing under the latissimus. by a line following the cartilages of the ribs. This mass is widened by the expansion of the . and the shorter curve of the buttocks. sloping down and forward. that of the chest. ( ['581 . The back presents the sharp anterior curve of the waist. over it. The former. In profile the torse presents three masses: that of the chest. bending into the long posterior curve of the chest. little triangles in a row from the corner of the breast muscle. broken by depressions at the border of the breast muscle and at the umbilicus or navel into three lesser curves. the mass of the chest is bounded by the line of the collar bones below. and muscles. chest in breathing. sloping up and forward. almost equal in length. is broken by the almost vertical shoulder blade and the slight bulge of the latissimus below it. opposite the umbilicus. being perpendicular to the long diameter of the chest. of costal cartilages that border. and by the ribs themselves. that of the waist.

Below, the mass of the pelvis and abdomen slopes up and forward. It is marked by the iliac crest and hip, described later. In front it may be flattened by contraction of the abdominal muscles. Over its surface the hip moves freely, changing the tilt of the

Between these the central mass contains the waist vertebrae, and is very changeable. Practically all of the movement of flexion and extension for the whole spine occurs here, and much of the sidebending.

This mass


marked by a buttress

of lateral

muscles, slightly overhang-ing the pelvic brim and

bearing inward against the side above.



greatly in different positions of the trunk.

— B.\CK \'i?:w

numerous depressions and l)rominences. This is due not only to its bony structure, but to the crossing and recrossing of a number of thin layers of muscles. It should be borne in mind
that the superficial or outside layers manifest them-

The back

when in action. For this reason, under changes of position, the spine, the shoulder-blade with its acromion process, and the crest of the ilium, must l)e regarded as the landmarks of this region. The spine is composed of twenty-four vertebrae. It extends the full length of the back, and its course is marked by a furrow. The vertebrae are known as the cervical, dorsal and lumbar. The cervical vertebras are seven in number, and the seventh is the most prominent in the whole of the spine. It is known as vertebra prominens. In the dorsal region the furrow is not so deep as below. Here there are twelve vertebrae. When the body is bent forward,
selves only


the processes of the vertebrae in this section are
plainly indicated.

becomes deeper as it reaches the lumbar vertebrae, where it is marked by dimples and depressions. It widens out, too, in this part of the body, and as it passes over the surface of the sacrum to the coccyx it becomes flattened. The average length of the spine is about two feet three


spinal fiu-row


Tlie outer corner of the shoulder girdle





of a ridge rising

which is from the shoulder blade.

the high outer extremity


shoulder blade or scapula (spade) is a flat plaque of bone fitting snugly against the cage of the thorax,

having a long inner vertical edge, parallel to the si^ine: a shar]) lower ])oint a long outer edge ixiinting to the arm pit and a short upper edge parallel with the slope of the shoulder. The ridge, or spine of the sca])ula, starts at the spinal edge, about a


third of the

way down,

in a triangular thickening,

passes high over the outer upi)er and corner, where the shoulder joint ties, then turns forward to join with the collar bone at the acromion.
rises until

The prominent

])ortions are this ridge

and the spinal

edge and the lower corner. Hie upper outer corner is thickened to form the socket for the head of the humerus, forming the shoulder joint pro])er.


entirely in the waist or

.Mo\ement of tlexion and extension occurs almost lumbar vertebrae. Movement of side-bending occurs throughout the whole length. Movement of rotation occurs in the lumbar vertel)r;e when the s]Mne is erect, in the middle vertebrae when it is half flexed, in the upper vertebrae when


the spine


fully bent.

In the lumbar vertebrje, the

axis of this rotation
dle vertebrae
it is

behind the spine; in the midit

neutral; in the upper dorsals


in front of the spine.

Each vertebra moves a little, and the whole movement is the aggregate of the many little movements.
blade slides against the surface of the cage of the thorax, in any direction, and may be
lifted from it so that its point or come prominent under the skin.

The shoulder


spinal edge beproduces easily





whole movement of the






the rear the

great wedge, with apex
comi)lex of lesser

mass of the torse presents a downward, marked by a wedges and diamonds, and the

shoulder blades. The profile of the sides presents a wide incom-

wedge, whose lines if jirolonged would form an apex well below the Ijuttocks. The surface projier of the back presents a great wedge, with base at the corners of the shoulders, with apex driven between the buttocks, buttressed on the sides by the lateral masses of waist muscle. With the addition of the neck, this becomes a diamond with a very blunt top. From end to end vertically runs the dividing line of the spine; when bent, a series of knobs (tips of when erect a groove except at vertebral spines )

the root of the neck, the spine of the seventh cervical vertebra. This serves as a sort of ridge pole for

muscular tendons for neck and shoulders; and around it therefore is a flat unbroken fascia without muscular fibres, forming a lesser diamond nestling below the upper apex.



The Trunk,

side view:

Latissinius dorsi.

2 External oblique.

Latissinius dorsi


T roni





sacrum and
to fasten

iliac crest;



front side near head.


Draws arm backward and inward.

External Oblique: I-'rom eight lower ribs to crest and ligament to pubis. miction: Flexes thorax.



\ .

E. back view: 1 Trapezius. acro- mion and Action: ride. to clavicle.xtends head. page 162. 3 Latissimus dorsi. [164] . Latissimus dorsi. 2 Deltoid. nape Hgament and spine as far as twelfth dorsal. page 104."e of shoulder of the Trunk. elevates shoulder and ro- tates shoulder blade. Trapezius: Fr(>ni occii)ital bone.THE TRUNK Musci. Deltoid.

//jTrf/. ^' \i \\. \ Kl .

extending from the blade diagonally ui)ward to the s])ine. The ridge of the shoulder blade is always consi)icuous. those on either side of the ridge are easily recognizal)le — the deltoid. from its ujjper corner almost verti- and tra])ezius. pezius also spreads cally to the top of the neck. and are converted into grooves by the muscles bulging in contraction. and corners at the shoulder girdle o])])osite the deltoid. while the lower ribs and lower corner of the shoulder blade diverge dcnvnward. and the levator anguli scapula'. pointing diagonally toward the corner of the shoulder. It sets at a fixed angle with the s])inal at a right edge (more than a right angle) and with the lower turned-out corner. heljMng to form the bulge. as though it were a The trapezius is a continuation of that muscle. both ridge and blade are ridges under the skin. From the sacrum the muscles diverge upward. diamond-shaped muscle. with upper apex at the base of the skull. are the rhomboidei. angle In relaxation.THE TRUNK Trlxk. below and out- above and inside. Of side. Under this. [ !()() . making lesser diamonds of various definiteness of outline. lower apex well below the shoulder blades. back view Anatomy. but the trafrom the inner end of the ridge to well down the spine. these muscles.

V .

MaSSKS AM) TiLTlXC.THE TRUNK Trunk. l)ack view Til KIR Mo\E?irEXTS: AM) TwiSTIXO [ i68 ] .

A\\ .

.THE TRUNK The Cage of the Torse [ 170.


THE TRUNK Wedging of the Cage into the Hips I 172] .

f r .

The rear corners of the top blades meet the sacrum in the the last joint of the thumb (coccyx). The two innominate bones are formed like two propellers. The two blades stand at right angles to each other. and is somewhat square as compared with the trunk above. and the front corners of the lower blades meet in front to form the symphysis ])ubis. It [174] . with triangular blades twisted in opposite directions. Its mass inclines a little forward. At the sides the ridge is called the iliac crest. The upper blade is called the ilium. and is large in proportion. The sacrum is a wedge about the size of the hand but more perfectly shaped. The hip socket itself forms the central point for the shaft. bent like a half-l)ent hand.The Pelvis Anatomy Three Ijones make the ])elvis: two innominate (without a name) bones and one sacrum (sacrificial bone). and carrying a very small tip about as big. and Markings The size of the j^elvis is due to its position as the mechanical axis of the body. The only su]ierficial parts are the top of the up])cr blade (iliac crest) and the front tip of the lower A[asse. the lower is called the pubis in front and the ischium behind. it is the fulcnmi for the muscles of the trunk and legs.s ( symphysis pubis). curving first back and down and then down and in. with an ()])ening between. It forms the central ])iece in the back.

immediately below it a groove or depression. From this whole line the gluteus maximus nuisclc passes down and forward. This M75] . : portion is overlaid l)y the tensor fasci. Only i)art of the medius is superficial its front The posterior line is joins the sacnun. making the mass of the l)uttocks and hip. Just in front of this.the fulcrum for the lateral muscles and flares out widely for that ])urpose rather more widely in front than behind. to just below the head of the thigh bone. but being beveled l)ackward. it a curve. Between these two muscles is the dimple of the thigh. from the top of the crest. literated when these are contracted in action. descends the gluteus medius muscle. made by the sag of the hip muscles. forming a wedge whose apex is at the head of the thigh bone. presents to the side view two lines and almost an angle between them it at the top. The guards ilio-tibial band). Above the rim is a roll of muscle belonging to the abdominal wall. marked by two dimples where and the line continues downward into the fold of the buttocks. which rises from the edge of the front line of the crest and descends to form with the gluteus maximus the wedge filled in two fasten to the dense plate of fascia that ( the outside of the thigh by the medius. The Hip So great are the changes iliac crest in surface form of the It is muscles in different positions of the hip that the remains as the one stable landmark.e femoris muscle. obis .

femoris. to Abducts and rotates inward thigh. passing to under the knee. 2 Sartorius.\is . TiiK 1 Pi-:i. Tensor Sartorius. overlaid therefore by the sartorius. marking the boundary between abdomen and thigh. [176] . 3 Rectus femoris. It forms a graceful curve as it lies in the groove of the inner side of the thigh. I iPage 182 ' Rectus femoris Gluteus IMedius: From ilium. rotates and turns out thigh. 4 Gluteus medius. forming a U-shaped wrinkle when the thigh is completely^flexed. From the knob. miction: outer surface. descends the rectus femoris muscle. longest in the body. 5 Gluteus maximus. tion. femur. From just below the knob. Action: Extends. rear por- sacrum and coccyx to femur. greater trochanter. the line continues down and in to the s\mphysis. from which descends the sartorius (tailor's) muscle. On the front end of the crest is a small knob. straight to the knee cap.muscle is always prominent and changes its appearance greatly in different positions of the hip.\xn Hii' Tensor vagina. Gluteus maximus : From crest of ilium.

yy Ai !' // .

the femur rests on the tibia (shin bone). and they are The great trochanter of the both visible. the second bone of the leg. From there the femora (thigh bones) conpelvis at the hip socket verge as they ai)proach the knees. the is femur (thigh bone). At the knee. which carries the shaft itself out beyond the widest part of the crest.The Lower Limbs Anatomy divided into three parts the thigh. the forearm. These two bones are almost parallel. femur is the upper tip of the shaft which reaches up slightly beyond where the neck joins. This is a small l)one almost triangular in shape. joined to the bones of the by a long neck. They are on the outer and inner sides. and the The thigh extends from the pelvis to the leg from the knee to the foot. and convex on the surface. the main bone of the leg. is the fibula. The tibia descends to form the inner ankle. not reaching quite to the knee. The lower portion of the femur widens to form two great hinge processes. known as tuberosities. and the hand of the upper The lower limb is — limb. bringing the knee under the hip socket. which descends to form the outer ankle. Above the juncture of the femur and tibia lies the ])atella (knee ca])). The longest and strongest bone of the body It is knee. and the foot. It is flat on its under side. the leg-. These parts correspond to the arm. Beside it. It is located on the outside. f 1/8 1 . and makes a hinge joint. and is attached to the tibia at the top and bottom.

around the back of the thigh and to the ilio-tibial band outside. The rectus femoris muscle makes a slightly bulging straight line from just ]. Behind and inside of this is the groove of the thigh occupied by the sartorius muscle. It is a dual mass of muscle. of the thigh is inclined and is slightly beveled inward from toward the knee from front. M. From On either side of the latter is a twin mass of That of the cuttside (vastus extcrnus) makes one mass with it. It makes a straight line from the head of the thigh bone to the outside of the knee.\ss The mass hip to knee. way down the Behind groove and adductors. [ 179] . is the mass of the ham-string muscles. dividing above the diamondshaped popliteal space at the back of the knee.el<>\v the iliac crest the head of the to the knee cap. similarly divided. bulges only in the lower third of the and overhangs the knee on the inside.The Thigh Anatomy femur (trochanter) to the outside of the knee runs a band of tendon called the ilio-tibial band. back and outside. and slightly overhangs the ilio-tibial band outside. whose tendons are found on either side of the knee at the back. Behind the groove is the hea\y mass of the adductors. passing from the ilium above to the back of the knee below. That of the inside (vastus muscles. reaching two-thirds of the thigh. internus) thigh. whose lower corner is formed by the gastrocnemius muscle.

: spine of Action: Extends From outer side of femur Vastus Extenms common tendon of patella. 3 Rectus femoris. Action: Extends and rotates inward leg. Til)ia — — Leg-— 1 and Fibula (outside). : to From inner side of femur to Vastus Internus common tendon of patella. to fascia lata. Rectus Femoris: ilium to From anterior inferior common tendon of patella. or ilio-tibial band.LOWER LIMBS Bones of the Lower Limb: Hip Pelvis. Thigh Femur. Action: Extends and rotates outward leg. lata. From spine to ilium in front to tibia Action: Flexes. C) Tibialis anticus. 5 \'astus internus. Tensor A'agin^e Femoris (tensor fasciae femoris) : From crest of ilium. Sartorius: inside. front view: Muscles of the Lower Limb. leg. abducts and rotates inward thigh. [ 182 ] . 8 Extensor longus digitorum. 7 Peroneus longus. Tensor of the fascia 2 Sartorius. front end. Action: Tenses fascia and rotates inward thigh. 4 A'astus externus.

2 -J 4V CI. > ^ 6-Hl rt t .I 14 .

6 Gastrocnemius. Long head from ischial tuberosity. from femur. Soleus. Semi-memliranosus: I<"roni ischial tuberositytotibia. 5 I'jiceps femoris. 184 . page 188. 4 Semi-membranosus. Action: Flexes knee and rotates thigh outward. 3 Semi-tendinosus. page 192. 2 Gluteus niaximus. Biceps Femoris: short head Gastrocnemius. to head of fil^ula. back view Gluteus medius. : tibia. 7 Soleus. Action: Flexes knee and rotates leg inward. Gluteus luedius Gluteus maximus | Page 176 j Semi-tendinosus From ischial tuberosity to Action: Flexes knee and rotates inward leg".LOWER LIMBS Muscles 1 of the Lower Limb.

I ^ ): ^> .4^ 4 If mmi N| m ri '\ u .

LOWER LIMBS Knee Joint. back view Ham-Strings. Gastrocnemius and Popliteal Space [i86] .


4 Vastus externus. 1 outer view Gluteus maxinius. Action: Flexes ankle and raises inner side of foot. Tibialis Anticus: From up])er and outer two-thirds of tibia to inner side of foot. Below the Knee Gastrocnemius: From tuberosities of femur tendon of Achilles. to base of big toe. : to Peroneus Longus From head and upijcr ])art of fibula passes beneath foot from outside. 3 Biceps femoris. raises body in walking. 2 Gluteus mcdius. Action: Extends ankle and raises outer side of foot. loiigus. 1 88 .: LOWER LIMBS Muscles of the Lower Limb. 6 Peroneus 7 Tibialis anticus. 5 Gastrocnemius. Action: Extends foot.

-.2 // 1/ \^ i I I I .» 1^: 4 i if 1 5 I ^ W n ' /y O V. \ \ >> \. 4-^. -. 'J .


I ./.

Mxtensor Connnunis Digitorum (extensor longus dig'itoruni ])edis) From til)ia and front of fibula to second and third ]ihalang'es of toes. Senii-tendinosus. 4 5 Gracilis. 6 Semi-menil)rannsus.xtends and lifts body in walking'. Diagram.Icfioii: l^xtends toes. foot l'". 3 Sartorius. 2 Vastus internus.ow Soleus: ^Ictioii: I'^roni iMiE Knee tibia to upper i)art of fibula and back of tendon of Achilles. Bki. 7 Gastrocnemius. : UJ2 . 1 inner view Rectus femoris. 8 Soleus.LOWER LIMBS MrscLES OF THE LowER LiMB. page 183. .


The Knee
The knee must be thought
and carryingin front the

of as a square with
like the

sides beveled f orward, shghtly hollowed at the back,

knee cap;


of an ink well.

powerful ligament connects the cap with the high ridge of the shin bone below, the two sliding together on the end of the thigh bone, which is therefore exposed in ilexion. The cap is always at the apex of the angle made by thigh and leg. From the knee cap at the top rise the three muscles already described, the rectus by a tendon narrowing upward the \ astus externus by a tendon angling slightly out; the vastus internus bulging prominently from the corner of the cap. When the knee is straight, its bursa, or water mattress, forms a bulge on either side in the corner between the cap and its tendon, exactly opposite the joint itself; the knee cap being always above the


level of the joint.






hollowed out by the ham-

string tendons on either side;


straight, the

bone becomes prominent between them, making, with these tendons, three knobs. The inside of the knee is larger; the knee as a whole is bent convex toward its fellow. The hip socket, the knee and the ankle are all in line: but the sJiaff of the thigh bone is carried some distance out by a long neck, so that the thigh is set at an angle with the leg.



Knee, outer view




THE KNEE Knee: 1 Pad or sack. [198] . 2 Common tendon. 4 Ligament of the patella. 3 Patella or knee-pan.


THE KNEE Knee. inner view [ 200 ] .

^-. ^-\ \t Si'' .

is a similar knol) corresponding with the l)ase of the little finger. the arches of the foot changing accordingly. the foot comes almost into straight line with the leg. the toes being flying The balls of the foot form a transverse arch. has developed into a wonderful series of arches. In the foot this tion symmetry adajited to the func- of weight-bearing. The inside. continuous with the heel. ment finally culminates in the two columns of the leg and the arch between. forming half of a transverse arch whose completion is in the opjjosite foot. as though raised by the greater power all of the great toe and the tendons of higher. wherefore the leg is placed somewhat to the inside of the central line of the foot.S In all positions. The five arches of the foot converge on the heel. on the outside. is To the front of the ankle is the knolj that corresponds with the base of the thumb. IMOVKMENT. the foot tends to keep itself flat ground. the outer or heel side strikes first and the whole foot settles toward the inside. The inner arches of the foot are successively higher. It is flat upon the ground.The Foot As the little finger side is the heel side of the hand. the toes. Opening gradually toward the ankle. Opposite it. •with the [ 202 ] . even the outer ankle it is lower than the inside bone is lower —and — it is shorter. In action. but when settling upon the ground. so the outside of the foot is the heel side. this arching movebuttresses to them.


Foot, outer view

Interlockixc. of the

Ankle with the Foot


Foot, inner view






















TOES Their Pads and Wedging 208 .

li-^-*'^- .

collar hone M a.elow In f ra Bones I'rontal In front Temporal Parietal ( "Time'' I'^rom paries. wall )ccipital h'rom oh. or large Mininuis Smallest Semi 'i'ertius Half Third I'. clieek Superior Inferior Ahove.ORIGIN Mcxor Extensor Aljiluctor AND COMMON MEANING OF ANATOMICAL WORDS Jiender Extender Adductor Sui^inator Drawing away (from median line) Drawing toward (median line) Turning face up Turning face down In front Pronator Anterior Posterior T liehind -ongus Long l^)rief. lower Nijjple-shaped ISreast hone Key. and caput.Vasal Malar Maxillary From Jaw mala. head. over against. upper Below. so hack of head X'ose .Spade . ( Brevis or short External Internal )utside of On inner side Rectus \'astus Straiglu N'ast. shoulder hlade Humerus Bone of upper arm [210] .stoid Sternum Clavicle Scapula .

words ending in -oid. Adam's apple Like Creek lateral) letter delta. wrist Trapezium Trapezoid Scapiioid Like a table I —two si<les parallel. heel Beyond the instep Ranks of soldiers Muscles Temporal Masseter Sterno-cleido- Pertaining to temporal bone Cbewer. .) ) L'lna Cubit Radius Carpal Spoke (of wheel I From Table carious. triangular (e(|ui- Pertaining to breast Major Minor Greater Lesser [211] . two not loat-shaped Semi-lunar 1 lalf-moon Cuneiform Pisiform Wedge-shaped Pea-sha])ed ( Os magnum Metacarpals ireat bone Phalanges Digit Beyond the wrist Ranks of soldiers Finger Os innominatum Sacrum Coccyx' Bone without Sacred (used a name in oracles) Femur Patella 'i'ihia Cuckoo Thigh Little ( beak of pan Shin Flute Fibula Calcaneum Tarsal Metatarsal Plialan<n\s From Instep calx. masticator Attaching to sternum. like) so shield-like. clavicle and mastoid bones Shield mastoid Thyroid Thyroid cartilage Deltoid Pectoralis (So all (and cidos.

^ole llsh. or iJuttocks (ireatest arm Maxinius Medius Minimus Tensor I'ascia Middle-sized Smallest Tightener. ) flat tendon) pal- ( the sole of the foot maris of the hand (compare ( iastrocnemius b'rog's belly .v. tliumb or l)ig toe 'Jdienar Palm L'nder (less than) the thenar ( Hypo-thenar Palmaris Trapezius )f the i)alm Table-shaped [ 212 I . Soleus Achilles' tendon or flounder b_\- The tendon held to in (li|)|)ing which Achilles' mother him into the River Styx F'eroneus Tibialis Anticus Pollicis I'in — anotbei^ make him invulnerable name for hbula tiliia In front of I'^roin pitUc. graceful Semi-tendinosus Half tendinous I Semi-membianosus I'lantaris lalf )f membranous (broad.Rectus alxlnminis Straig:ht muscle of abdomen Oblique Serratus Slanting Saw-toothed Teres Biceps Brachialis Round Two-headed Pertaining to ( arm in front Anticus Triceps Adjective ) Three-headed l)onke\'s foot l-'rom coracoid (beak-like) process of Anconeus Coraco-hrachialis (iluteus scapula to brachium. or holder Band I'road Lata Rectus femoris N'astus extenuis Straight muscle of the < femur ireat muscle outside muscle inside line) \'astus inteiniis (ireat Abductor (iracilis Drawing away (from meilian Slender.

Latissinuis dtirsi Rroadest muscle of Ijack Infra-spinatus Supi"a-s])inatus Helow the spine ( of scapula ) Above the spine (of scajnila i Teres major Teres minor Rhomhoideus Larger round muscle Smaller round muscle Rhomb shaped —quadrilateral l)Ut not right-angled [ 213 1 .


.atissimus dorsi Levator of the scapula 108 .sor 8"-^ . Insertion and Aftion of Muscles I-A(il' Anconeus liiceps 82 liiceps — Arm — ~i'2 I'^cnioris 1S4 18 IJracliialis anticus t'oraco-bracliialis ~i'i Deltoid 10-1 11"* Digastric iCxtensor carpi ulnaris l'3xtensor carpi radialis longior I'^xten..INDEX Origin.. 'f'i iastrocneniius 188 11<> (iluteus maximus medius Ciluteus IKi Hi- l.xor sublimis digitorum ( ... 18 S'.i Mxtens(jr communis digitorum communis digitorum digiti |)C(lis \'*'i ICxtensor minimi 8"i lt>". External oblique I'lexor ear]M radialis '^'i '••"' Mexor carpi ulnaris Me.. .

VI 154 I'eroneus long-us I'latysma myoides 188 112 Pronator radii terc Rectus alxlominis Rectus t'emoris Sartorius 182 1 82 Semi-tendinosus Semi-nienihranosus Serratus mag'nus 184 184 ^y> 112 1 Sterno-hyoid Stvlo-liyoid 12 Soleus Sterno-c lei do-mast oideu Su])inator l() 11(2 108 14 82 Tensor 'I'eres vat.^us .e teniori 1 Teres major 104 104 minor Tibialis anticiis 188 104 Trai)ezius Tricei^s .i(l ( )nio-li_V()i(l . 104 82 A'astus externus \'astus internus 1 182 . 11:2 IV'ctoralis IV'ctoralis major minor 1 .1 NDE \—confliuiC(l M ylo-h}<.




6268 .

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