BY

K AREN B AICKER

New York • Toronto • London • Auckland • Sydney Mexico City • New Delhi • Hong Kong • Buenos Aires

For Joseph Baicker with thanks for all the help with math, even though he wouldn’t let me do it the teacher’s way.

Scholastic Inc. grants teachers permission to photocopy the reproducibles from this book for classroom use. No other part of this publication may be reproduced in whole or in part, or stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. For information regarding permission, write to Scholastic Teaching Resources, 557 Broadway, New York, NY 10012-3999. Cover and interior design by Maria Lilja Interior illustrations by Jason Robinson Copyright © 2004 by Karen Baicker. All rights reserved. ISBN 0-439-53991-9 Printed in the U.S.A.
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Contents
......................4 How to Use This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Tips for Teaching With Origami . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Language and Symbols of Origami . . . . . . . . 7 Basic Geometric Shapes Reference Sheet . . . . . . . 8

Introduction

7

Box It Up! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Math Concepts: multiplication, division, dimension NCTM Standard 3

8

Noise Popper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Math Concepts: measurement, shape, spatial reasoning, symmetry NCTM Standard 3

Activities
1

Turn a Rectangle into a Square . . . . 9
Math Concepts: shapes, patterns, symmetry, spatial relations NCTM Standard 3

9

Itty-Bitty Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Math Concepts: spatial reasoning, shapes, symmetry, fractions, multiplication, division NCTM Standards 1 and 3

2

What a Card! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Math Concepts: shapes, patterns, size, symmetry, spatial relations NCTM Standards 2 and 3

10

Jumping Frog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Math Concepts: shape, measurement, distance, height NCTM Standards 3 and 4

3

Whale of Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Math Concepts: size, symmetry, shapes, patterns, spatial relations NCTM Standards 2 and 3

11

Kitty Cat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Math Concepts: angles, symmetry NCTM Standard 3

4

Instant Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Math Concepts: spatial reasoning, shapes, volume NCTM Standards 3 and 4

12

Floating Boat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Math Concepts: shape, fractions, area NCTM Standards 2 and 3

5

Playful Pinwheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Math Concepts: spatial relations, pattern, symmetry, motion NCTM Standards 2 and 3

13

Page-Hugger Bookmark . . . . . . . . . . 42
Math Concepts: shape, spatial reasoning, symmetry, congruence NCTM Standards 3

6

Handy Hat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Math Concepts: spatial reasoning, sequence, symmetry, scale NCTM Standards 2 and 3

14

Paper Airplane Express . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Math Concepts: symmetry, balance, spatial reasoning NCTM Standards 3 and 4

Glossary of Math Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

3

Introduction
Why fold? The learning behind the fun
The first and most obvious benefit of teaching with origami is that it’s fun and motivating for students. But the opportunities for learning through paper folding go much further. Many mathematical principles “unfold” and basic measurement and computation skills are reinforced as each model takes shape. The activities in this book are all correlated with NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics) standards, which are highlighted in each lesson. In addition, origami teaches the value of working precisely and following directions. Students will experience this with immediacy when a figure does not line up properly or does not match the diagram. Also, because math skills are integrated with paper folding, a physical activity, students absorb the learning on a deeper level. Origami helps develop fine motor skills, which in turn enhances other areas of cognitive development. Best of all, origami offers a sense of discovery and possibility. Make a fold, flip it over, open it up— —and you have created a new shape or structure!
Tactile Learning Suppose you want to see if two shapes are the same size. You can measure the sides to get the information you need about area. But the easiest way to see if two objects are the same size is to place one on top of the other. That’s essentially what you are doing when you fold a piece of paper in half. Spatial Reasoning Origami activities challenge students to look at a diagram and anticipate what it will look like when folded. Often, two diagrams are shown and the reader must imagine the fold that was necessary to take the first image and produce the second. These are complex spatial relations problems— — but ever so rewarding when the end result is a cat or an airplane! Symmetry Origami patterns often call for symmetrical folds, which create congruent shapes on either side of the fold, and clearly mark the line of symmetry. Fractions Folding a piece of paper is a very concrete way to demonstrate fractions. Fold a piece of paper in half to show halves, and in half again to show quarters. For younger students, you can shade in sections to show parts of a whole. For older students, you can explore fractions. You can even show fraction equivalencies. 1 2 2 1 Is __ of __ the same as __ of __ ? 2 3 3 2 Through paper folding, you can see that it is! Sequence With origami, it is critical to follow directions in a precise sequence. The consequences of skipping a step are immediate and obvious. Geometry Most of the basic principles of geometry— —point, line, plane, shape— —can be illustrated through paper folding. One example is Euclid’s first principle, that there is one straight line that connects any two points. This postulate becomes obvious when you make a fold that
connects two points on the paper. For another example, older students are told that the angles of a triangle add up to 180º. Folding a triangle can prove this geometric fact, as you see in the diagrams below. You can also demonstrate the concepts of hypothesis and proof. Predict what will happen, and then fold the paper to test the hypothesis.

4

net This site is a clearinghouse for information and resources related to origami. suitable for elementary students.Lesson 2 How to Use This Book The lessons in this book are organized from very simple to challenging. you may also want to distribute copies of reference pages 7 and 8. a script of teaching points and questions designed to help you incorporate math concepts with every step on the student activity page.org Click on “Explorer” to find some math-related origami projects with step-by-step illustrations. A reproducible pattern for creating the activity is also included for each lesson. Encourage students to keep these diagrams and bring them home so that the skills and sequence can be reinforced through practice. To further support students’ work with origami and math. Math Vocabulary. Scholastic Teaching Resources .com/math This excellent site explores the mathematics behind paper folding. 5 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker.origami. Although geared for older students. you will find a list of Math Concepts. Nonetheless. all are geared toward the interests. and math skills of second and third graders. the lessons also stand independently and you may select them according to the interests and needs of your class. in any order. Both the math concepts and the origami models are layered to reinforce and build on earlier lessons.paperfolding. Look for related activities to help students further explore these concepts at the end of the lesson in Beyond the Folds! Step-by-step illustrations showing exactly how to do each step in the origami activity appear on a reproducible activity page following the lesson. The Language and Symbols of Origami and Basic Geometric Shapes Reference Sheet.mathsyear2000. www. Here are some recommended resources: www. In each lesson. it provides a useful overview for teachers. and NCTM Standards that highlight the math skills addressed. www. The pattern pages feature decorative designs that enhance the final product and provide students with visual support. abilities. At the heart of each lesson is Math Wise!. The pattern is provided for your convenience.origami.com This comprehensive site also sells an instructional video for origami in the classroom. www. including folding guide lines and ★s that help them position the paper correctly. Origami on the Web There are many great websites for teaching origami to children. though you may use your own paper to create the activities.

Lesson 2 The Language and Symbols of Origami colored side or front of paper white side or back of paper fold toward the front (valley fold) fold toward the back (mountain fold) fold. then unfold turn over folded edge fold crease raw edge cut 7 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. Scholastic Teaching Resources .

All squares are rectangles TRIANGLES A triangle is any figure that has three sides Right triangle a triangle with a right angle Isosceles triangle a triangle with two congruent sides and two congruent angles Isosceles right triangle a triangle with two congruent sides and one right angle Scalene triangle a triangle with no congruent sides and no congruent angles Equilateral triangle a triangle with three congruent sides and three congruent angles CIRCLE a round shape measuring 360º OVAL an egg-shape with a smooth continuous edge PENTAGON a shape with five sides HEXAGON a shape with six sides OCTAGON a shape with eight sides 8 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker.Lesson 2 Basic Geometric Shapes Reference Sheet CONGRUENT equal in measurement congruent line segments QUADRILATERALS A quadrilateral is any figure that has four sides congruent angles 60° 60° congruent figures Parallelogram a quadrilateral that has two pairs of parallel sides and two pairs of congruent sides Rectangle a quadrilateral that has four right angles (90°). Scholastic Teaching Resources . All rectangles are parallelograms Square a quadrilateral that has four right angles and four congruent sides.

Now we have a perfect square. Distribute copies of The Language and Symbols of Origami. patterns. page 8 (Basic Geometric Shapes Reference Sheet) 3 Let’s open up this triangle. and rectangles can be used together to make a wide variety of shapes. Find bigger angles and smaller angles around the classroom. spatial relations NCTM Standards analyze characteristics and properties of two. Explore shapes further by distributing the Basic Geometric Shapes Reference Sheet. angles. If their right angle covers up the other angle. If the edges line up with their paper.) Give students a little background on the history of tangrams. (Point out the corners of the room.1) use visualization.and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships (Geometry Standard 3. or shapes that are equal in measure? (congruent) Math Concepts shapes. It has a wider mouth. and so on. What is the word that describes lines. Math Vocabulary rectangle square right angle isosceles right triangle triangle congruent 9 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. Explain that squares. books. Let’s look around the room and find some right angles. Another word for a square corner is a right angle. Scholastic Teaching Resources .) When we make our fold. the corners of this rectangle are perfect square corners. Challenge students to match the pictures shown and to create their own tangrams activities. We also have two right angles. and geometric modeling to solve problems (Geometry Standard 3. which means that the two sides of the triangle that form the right angle are the same length. spatial reasoning. symmetry. And now we have two isosceles right triangles. rectangular sheet of paper. page 7. page 10.Lesson 1 Turn a Rectangle into a Square Math Wise! Distribute copies of page 10. Show how you can take a piece of paper with a square corner—any size—and use it to test various corners in the classroom. Use rectangular paper of any size. What shape is this? (rectangle) Materials Needed page 10 (steps and pattern). Then invite students to use the reproducible tangrams puzzle and geometric shapes reference sheet to further explore basic shapes. and review the word and picture cues presented. (For best results. the other angle is bigger. then the other angle is smaller. they have found a right angle. All four sides are the same length. triangles. Use these tips to highlight math concepts and vocabulary for each step.4) Beyond the Folds! Help students become familiar with the step-by-step directions they’ll read in each lesson. 2 Now we have an extra shape we have to cut (or tear) away. page 8. 1 When we start. page 7 (The Language and Symbols of Origami). tables. The tangram is a seven-piece puzzle that has been played in China for over 200 years. Knowing how to turn a rectangle into a square is an invaluable origami technique! It’s also a great way to teach some basic geometry. you can try the tangrams activity at the bottom of the page. Distribute How to Make a Square. or congruent. photocopy onto heavier paper or glue onto cardstock. we’ve cut this angle exactly in half. Note that if their right angle fits inside the other angle with extra room. After students have made a square from any rectangular sheet of paper.

Then try to make the shapes shown below. Now you can take a square and make it into a whole lot more! These seven basic tangrams shapes can be used to make hundreds of designs. Crease it well. fold the crease or crease and tear 3 Now open up your square. Or make up your own figures for others to solve. Then hold the paper down firmly with one hand. Find the two triangles! back and forth. so that the bottom edge and the left side line up. Tear along the crease. Cut out the shapes below. scoring it each time with your finger or fingernail. see if you can put them back into a square again. Bring the bottom right corner up. 10 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. as shown. Tangram Puzzle Pieces You just made a rectangle into a square. Or fold the extra paper at the top. When you’re done. Keep your hands close to the fold for better control.Lesson 1 How to Make a Square 1 Take a rectangular sheet of paper. using the top of the triangle as a guide. Tip: To tear. Scholastic Teaching Resources . and use the other hand to tear the rectangle away. 2 Cut off the extra rectangle.

press it firmly. This activity is a simple but important introduction to basic math and origami concepts— please don’t skip it! You might teach how to make origami cards before a class party or holiday. Look. The short side is now the long side. and now we have two rectangles. Repeat again in the opposite direction again. That’s because we’re making a little valley here.1) represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols (Algebra Standard 2. fill in the first row with 1 (fold) and 2 (sections). 2 & 3 This fold is sometimes called a book fold. Folded paper is 4 2 one way. Make a chart that shows “Folds” in one column and “Sections” in a second column. The middle line is called the “line of symmetry. 1 This fold is called a valley fold. pie charts.” let students paint with watercolors on one half of a piece of paper. Look what else has happened. you see.) Math Vocabulary half quarter fraction line of symmetry 11 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. crayons or markers Math Concepts fractions. Standard 1. How much would one of these squares be worth? (25¢) So that’s a hundred cents divided into 4 parts. Encourage them to use a square sheet of colored paper and follow these directions to make a card of their own. We also have an inside and an outside now. (The number of sections doubles with each fold.00. Let’s say the whole card cost \$1.3) Beyond the Folds! 1 Ask students to find different ways to express __ and __ . and tailor the cards accordingly. We started with a square. Why do you think it has that name? Let’s unfold it for a minute just to see what’s happened. and open up again. spatial relations. you have two sections.Lesson 2 What a Card! Math Wise! Distribute copies of page 12. 1 To further explore the “line of symmetry. Have students fold the paper again (while it is still folded) in the other direction.1) apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations (Geometry Standard 3. Then fill in the chart. symmetry NCTM Standards understand numbers. ways of representing numbers. relationships among numbers. Have them try to determine a pattern. we have four equal squares. Let’s fold it back up again. (Let students discuss and then decorate and fill in their cards. Have students continue to fill in the chart. following the same steps.and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships (Geometry Standard 3. rectangular paper or square paper (optional).) Materials Needed page 12 (steps and pattern). Use these tips to highlight math concepts and vocabulary for each step.2) analyze characteristics and properties of two. They will have a symmetrical design. Bar graphs. Notice how one side now forms both the inside and the outside of the card? The other side is all folded up inside. size.” That’s because the line divides the rectangle into two halves that are exactly the same. Scholastic Teaching Resources . Then have them fold the page in half. and number systems (Number and Operations. If you fold a piece of paper once. Coins and dollars are another. and measuring cups are some others.

bringing the 1 Cut out the card pattern below. in the bottom right corner. left side over to meet the right. Fold in half. Place the paper facedown. Scholastic Teaching Resources RSVP:_______________________ where:______________________ date:_______________________ a r d wa s d e s i g n e d is c by Th time:_______________________ Make a e n th design o page of this back it and fold r a kwards fo rd! bac le ca reversib ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ . bringing the top down to meet the bottom. 3 Decorate and fill in your card! 12 ★ Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. with the ★ Crease well again.Lesson 2 How to a Make Card and Card Pattern 2 Fold in half again.

Fold the left point over to meet the right point. Scholastic Teaching Resources .Lesson 3 How to Make the Whale 1 Cut out the whale pattern on page 15. or line of symmetry. 4 Fold the right side over to meet the left side. Position the square so that it looks like a diamond with the ★ at the top facedown. 5 Rotate the shapes so that the long flat line is at the bottom. 3 Fold the top point down to meet the folded triangles. Open it up again. 2 Fold the two lower sides to meet the center fold. 14 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. Slit the tail along the cut line. 6 Fold the left point up along the dotted line to form a tail. Fold the triangles out to form the flukes.

Scholastic Teaching Resources .Lesson 3 Whale Pattern Follow the steps on page 14 to create a whale. ★ ✂ 15 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker.

The top point is called the apex. use visualization. Then dump and geometric modeling to solve that water (or grains of rice) out. and they have a right angle. For each triangle.4) times the smaller cup fills to compare the capacity of the two cups. two sides are the same length. This cup really works. don’t tuck the final flap in.and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships (Geometry Standard 3. You can also punch holes and add straps to make a little carryall. 16 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. See how many problems (Geometry Standard 3. systems. Let students make and decorate their own hats. Keep the back triangle up. That is one kind of symmetry. Which sides are parallel? What would happen with a cup if the bottom and top were not parallel? (The liquid would spill out. What kind of triangle is it? (Isosceles right triangle) What makes it so? (two sides the same length. one right angle) Materials Needed page 17 (steps).1) Beyond the Folds! apply transformations and use Ask students if they think that a square double the size of the original square symmetry to analyze mathematical will make a cup that holds double the volume. and Make a large cup out of a big square of newsprint.3) experiment: Make two cups with different-sized paper and test the volume. 1 A diamond is just a different way of looking at a square! Let’s make two triangles. Then have them conduct an situations (Geometry Standard 3. A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with one set of parallel edges. Use these tips to highlight math concepts and vocabulary for each step. punch a hole in it. water (optional) 4 & 5 In origami. Our final shape is a trapezoid.Lesson 4 Instant Cup Math Wise! Distribute copies of pages 17 and 18. It can hold liquid—until the water soaks through! You can adapt this model to make a hanging pocket holder. At the last step. shapes. volume NCTM Standards it wouldn’t balance on a table!) analyze characteristics and properties of two. understand measurable attributes of objects and the units.1) Math Vocabulary quadrilateral trapezoid parallel line of symmetry square isosceles right triangle diagonal matter of perspective—just like turning the square into a diamond in the first step. Fill the larger cup and then pour it into the smaller cup once. Turn it upside down and it’s processes of measurement a hat! Use this activity to discuss the fact that form and function are often a (Measurement Standard 4. 3 Let’s fold this top triangle down and tuck it in. That makes them isosceles right triangles. and hang it up to collect Valentines. This bottom part of our cup is called the base of the triangle. you often do something to one side and then repeat the exact sequence on the other side. and refill from the larger cup. spatial reasoning. Scholastic Teaching Resources . Start with a bigger sheet of paper. page 18 (pattern) or 6-inch square paper. Math Concepts spatial reasoning. 2 We’re making this point (the tip of the angle) meet the dot (a small circle).

with the ★ in the top point. tucking it into the pocket of the cup as far as it will go. Fold in half. Crease. 17 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. Scholastic Teaching Resources . Line up the corner so that it meets the dot.Lesson 4 How to Make the Cup 1 Cut out the cup pattern on page 18 and place it like a diamond. 5 Gently pinch the sides together to open your cup. 3 Fold down the top layer of the triangle above. bringing the bottom corner up to meet the top. positioned facedown like a diamond. facedown. Or use a square sheet. 2 Fold up the bottom right corner to meet the opposite edge. 4 Turn over and repeat steps 2 and 3 above tucking in the remaining triangle. Crease the fold.

Lesson 4 Cup Pattern This cup actually holds water. you’ll always be able to whip up a cup anytime you’re thirsty and you’ve got paper to fold! ★ 18 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. Once you learn this simple model. Scholastic Teaching Resources .

square paper (optional). (They would come together or intersect in the middle.1) specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems (Geometry Standard 3. This classic paper-folded pinwheel is fun to create and play with. symmetry. Then test what the designs look like in motion! Have them take their pinwheels apart and refold them from the opposite side. like a sail. if they are using different paper. Describe what would happen if they continued. and it makes a great model for exploring symmetry and patterns. adjust the tension by pulling the thumbtack out slightly.) Ask them to make a design with a repeating pattern or image or to use complementary colors or patterns on the opposite sides. pattern. Also adjust the angle of the blades so that they do not hit the pencil. in a way. you would have four equal triangles. glue (optional). Discuss the fact that motion.2) apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations (Geometry Standard 3. relations. What shape does the motion of the pinwheel form? (a circle or a spiral) Math Vocabulary diagonal intersect isosceles right triangles center 19 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. motion NCTM Standards understand patterns. (Or have them decorate both sides. Beyond the Folds! Experiment with patterns and using the back and front of the paper: Have students decorate the backside of their pinwheel pattern before folding it. Scholastic Teaching Resources . 1 When we cut along these lines from the corner in.) Materials Needed page 20 (steps and pattern). what direction are the lines? (diagonal) The cut lines stop before they reach the center of the square. Use these tips to highlight math concepts and vocabulary for each step. pencils with erasers. can have a shape.) Math Concepts spatial relations. push pins. and functions (Algebra Standard 2. If they were cut. Encourage them to consider how the direction of the folds makes the backs and fronts interconnected and alternating.Lesson 5 Playful Pinwheel Math Wise! Distribute copies of page 20. crayons or markers 2 What are the four different shapes we’re folding? (triangles) 3 Why do our folds allow the pinwheel to spin? (The pockets can catch the air.3) Tip: If students’ pinwheels do not spin freely. scissors.

the bigger the hat we’ll end up with. Math Concepts spatial reasoning. It may help to do it first on a smaller scale using our reproducible Hat Pattern. Robin Hood-style. symmetry. length-wise. as described. Math Vocabulary horizontal vertical line of symmetry perpendicular isosceles right triangle right angle rectangle 21 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. We have two lines of symmetry—one horizontal and one vertical. page 23 (pattern) or newspaper sheets 2 What shapes are we folding down? (triangles) Notice that in origami when we make a fold on one side.Lesson 6 Handy Hat Math Wise! Distribute copies of pages 22 and 23. fold the bottom up twice: Fold once to meet the base of the triangle. Students can fold a strip in half. This presents another opportunity to explore symmetry. we often repeat it on the other and we get two halves that are exactly the same. How many rectangles do we have? (five: the big one plus the four smaller ones inside) Materials Needed page 22 (steps).3) Beyond the Folds! Distribute copies of the tangrams puzzle on page 10. There is one additional step when using the newspaper sheets (see Math Wise! step 3).4) specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems (Geometry Standard 3. scale NCTM Standards analyze change in various contexts (Algebra Standard 2. Use strips of construction paper to make feathers to stick in the hat. The bigger the rectangle. They can color the shapes and make a design that reflects something about them. Scholastic Teaching Resources . This is the traditional newspaper hat. Then fold again. Use these tips to highlight math concepts and vocabulary for each step. These lines are perpendicular—they form right angles where they cross. 1 We’re starting with a big rectangle. just to take a look at the lines. What is the word that means perfect balance or exactly the same on each side? (symmetry) 3 & 4 What is the shape we are folding up? (rectangle) Note: for a newspaper hat. sequence. and then try it with big sheets of newspaper. Open up the page after these two folds. and ask students to use the shapes to make a design for their hats.2) apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations (Geometry Standard 3. to make slits on both sides and open to find a feather shape.

Scholastic Teaching Resources . 3 Fold up the top layer of the bottom edge. leave the paper folded. 4 Pull out on the sides to open it. Crease. 2 Fold in the top corners to meet the center line. Crease and unfold.Lesson 6 How to Make a Hat 1 Cut out the hat pattern on page 23 and place the page facedown with the ★ in the top left corner. Then. Fold in half right to left. or a sheet of newspaper opened up. Try it on. Turn over and repeat on the other side. fold in half top to bottom and crease. Or use a plain rectangular sheet of paper. This time. 22 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker.

Scholastic Teaching Resources . but you might use it for a doll or an action figure! Make these same folds on a sheet of newspaper and you’ll be covered! ★ 23 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker.Lesson 6 Hat Pattern This page won’t make a hat big enough for you.

Crease and unfold. Crease sharply. Scholastic Teaching Resources . 25 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. right to left. Fold in half. Unfold. Flex the sides inward. 5 Fold up the bottom right corner up along the fold line so that the corner meets the dot. Crease these bands sharply. 1 Fold each side in half. away from the center. top to bottom. Repeat this step with the other three corners. Crease firmly. 6 Fold back the edges. Or use an 1 8 __ by 11-inch rectangular sheet of 2 heavy paper and position the paper facedown. This time. folding in the long edges to the center fold. 7 Now form the box by pulling open the bands. 2 3 Fold in half. do not unfold. Note that the top edge does not quite reach the center fold. Crease very sharply. 8 Help shape the corners of the box by creasing the corners and bottom edges.Lesson 7 How to Make a Box Cut out the box pattern on page 26 and place it facedown with the ★ in the upper left corner. to cover the top part of the triangles. 4 Fold in the short edges to meet the center fold. Unfold.

Use it for paper clips. your favorite collector cards. rubber bands. or any other favorite item! Crea design o te a n th which w e back. pennies. Color as w if you w ell. on the in ill show sid folded b e of your ox this side . ★ 26 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. Scholastic Teaching Resources . ish.Lesson 7 Box Pattern Make two of these so your box will have a lid or attach a strip of paper to make a basket with a handle. hair clips.

snap down and pop pinch here 28 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. 5 Fold the front flap down. Scholastic Teaching Resources . 3 Fold in half. Turn over and repeat. top to bottom and crease. keeping your fingers toward the bottom so they do not block the action of the inner folds. and crease sharply. If it doesn’t come out. Fold in half.Lesson 8 How to Make a Noise Popper 1 Cut out the noise popper pattern on page 29 and place it horizontally. loosen it a few times and try again. with the ★ in the upper left corner. Snap your wrist forward and the inner flap will pop out. pinch flaps together firmly at the point. 6 To snap the popper. bottom to top. Unfold. making a snapping noise. Or use a sheet of loose-leaf paper. facedown. 2 Fold the bottom right corner up so that the right side lines up with the center crease. 4 Fold the top left corner over to meet the top right corner. Repeat with the other corners. so that the top edge lines up with the left edge.

Or great sheet of lo use a ose-leaf paper. Scholastic Teaching Resources . ★ 29 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker.Lesson 8 Noise Popper Pattern Bang! Pop! See how loud you can snap this noise popper. Who knew paper could make such a racket? Enlarge th pattern to is or larger to 125% popper wit create a ha sound.

Open the whole sheet. so that the two long edges meet. top to bottom. Fold in half. and leave it folded. so that the slit opens and the inner pages are formed. Crease and unfold. Scholastic Teaching Resources . Crease it sharply. 4 Cut in from the left side to the center.Lesson 9 How to Make an Itty-Bitty Book 1 Cut out the book pattern on page 32 and place it facedown with the ★ in the upper left corner. Unfold this last step. Crease the edges of all pages to make the book. Fold the paper in half. Or use a rectangular sheet. 7 Design your book! 31 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. 5 Fold in half top to bottom. left to right. and place it horizontally. facedown. following the cut line. 6 Push the two outer edges in. Make sure to stop at the middle crease. 2 3 Fold again in the same direction.

Use it to make a mini-journal. or a long card for your best friend.Lesson 9 Book Pattern How can you turn one page into an eight-page book with one little snip? Try this brilliant paper-folding project. ★ 32 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. Scholastic Teaching Resources .

C (top right). 1 We’re folding a square to make two rectangles. and B (bottom right). plus the bottom triangle that’s part of the house-shape (a pentagon).2) 5 Now if we folded these triangles so that they line up perfectly with the top point. distance. page 35 (pattern) or a 6-inch square of paper. To make that fold. We could just start with a rectangle this size. 6 This looks a little like a house now. Have a frog-jumping contest and measure the distances in both inches and centimeters. But we’re collapsing the two side triangles in Math Concepts shape. height half. The point where the two lines cross is called the intersection.Lesson 10 Jumping Frog Math Wise! Distribute copies of pages 34 and 35. D (bottom left). the shape looks more like a rocket. but we make the paper thicker this way. You can measure distance. That will help the frog keep its shape and jump better when we’re done. and processes of measurement (Measurement Standard 4. What letter are we making along the side edge? (Z) Let’s make a big “Z” on the board.1) specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems (Geometry Standard 3.and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships (Geometry Standard 3. That’s five triangles lining up over the bottom triangle. We’ll fold them so they stick out here. Label the corners A (top left). Use these tips to highlight math concepts and vocabulary for each step. One is to make a fold that forms the line segment. You may also ask students to guess the distance before measuring and record the accuracy of their estimates. Did I just make the angle of the folded triangle bigger or smaller? (smaller/narrower) Take a look at how that changes the length of this edge. tools. crayons or markers 4 When we’re starting this fold. height. This is a popular origami model that jumps! Introduce or reinforce measurement skills such as distance and height by holding an origami frog-jumping contest. then we couldn’t see the feet. measurement. What is this five-sided shape called? (a pentagon) When we fold these sides in. we have three triangles. The other way is to make a fold in which A and B end up on top of each other. Scholastic Teaching Resources . Ask students to show you the fold that makes line segment AB. NCTM Standards analyze characteristics and properties of two. systems. Can you see why this shape is springy? How will this Z-shape design help the frogs to hop? Beyond the Folds! In step 2. you end up making line segment CD! Line segments AB and CD are perpendicular. and accuracy. and formulas to determine measurements (Measurement Standard 4.1) apply appropriate techniques. Math Vocabulary rectangle intersection pentagon triangle perpendicular lines right angle 33 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. See how we have four perfect corners at the intersection? That means that the two lines are perpendicular to each other. Materials Needed page 34 (steps). 7 & 8 First we make a valley fold and then a mountain fold.2) understand measurable attributes of objects and the units. Point out that there are two ways that points A and B can be related through folding. 2 & 3 Look. you can also introduce the concepts of line segments using the top square with the intersecting folds. we’ve made an “X” here.

8 Your frog is ready to hop! Push down on the spot on the frog’s back and release to make him go. bottom to top. 5 Take the bottom two points of the triangle and fold them up to create the front legs.Lesson 10 How to Make a Frog 1 Cut out the frog pattern on page 35 and place it facedown with the ★ in the upper right corner. 4 As you fold the top part down again. 2 Fold the top right corner over to meet the dot on the left edge. Crease the sides of the triangle well. facedown. 3 Fold the top points of the X down to meet the bottom points of the X. Crease and unfold. top to bottom. Do not crease this fold sharply. Or start with a 6-inch square. Fold the top layer in half. right to left. Repeat on other edge. Fold the page in half. Scholastic Teaching Resources . Use your fingers to poke the triangles in as you fold. 7 Fold in half. Again. collapse the side triangles inward. 34 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. away from the legs and head. simply bend it. Crease and unfold. Use the fold lines as a guide. do not crease sharply. The top becomes a triangle. and unfold so that you have an X at the top. 8 Flip over. 6 Fold the side edges in toward the center.

Lesson 10 Frog Pattern Hop to it with this little jumping frog. Scholastic Teaching Resources . ★ 35 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. Hold a frog-jumping contest with your own frogs or challenge a friend to a hop-a-thon.

They might start by folding the shape gently in half to find the center line (line of symmetry). and number on each side. can’t we? What shape are the ears? (triangles) This kind of triangle has no congruent or equal sides or angles.) Invite students to create an origami cat with a new piece of paper and draw their own cat faces that are exactly symmetrical. crayons or markers Math Concepts angles. let’s find the midpoint. 36 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. NCTM Standards analyze characteristics and properties of two.4) 4 & 5 If we cover up the ears. page 38 (pattern) or a 6-inch square of paper. just make enough of a fold to mark the midpoint. or middle. What special type of triangle is this? (isosceles right triangle) Materials Needed page 37 (steps). proportion. whiskers.Lesson 11 Kitty Cat Math Wise! Distribute copies of pages 37 and 38. Tape the folds down over the string to make them stay in place. Scholastic Teaching Resources . ask students if cats have nine lives.and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships (Geometry Standard 3. Have them work off of this line. what shape does the face become? (a hexagon) Math Vocabulary congruent isosceles right triangle midpoint base angle scalene triangle hexagon Beyond the Folds! You can display a litter of these cats by hanging a string across the room and threading it through the top triangle fold of each origami cat. spatial reasoning. we can see where the ears will be. how many lives are represented by this string of cats? Help them multiply by 9s. For a multiplication connection. 1 Make a valley fold to create two layers of congruent or equal-sized triangles. You can make this easier by creating a story in which the cats have two lives each. Now when we fold these corners up. and geometric modeling to solve problems (Geometry Standard 3. How can we do that? (fold it in half) Let’s not crease it firmly here.1) use visualization. 3 Now that we’ve folded the top down. eyelashes. It’s called a scalene triangle. of the base of the triangle. notice that we are making three congruent or equal angles at the base. symmetry 2 Before we make this fold. and have them count by 2s. Use these tips to highlight math concepts and vocabulary for each step. and so on in the same place. drawing eyes. Make these cat faces with black paper and use them as Halloween decorations. (Have students who need more support count two ears for each cat.

Fold the bottom corner up to meet the top. 5 Turn over and decorate the face of your cat.Lesson 11 How to Make a Cat 1 Cut out the cat pattern on page 38 and place it like a diamond. 37 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. with the ★ at the top. facedown. facedown. so that the triangles cross. 4 Fold the bottom point up to meet the top point. 2 Fold up the bottom right corner along fold line. 3 Fold the top triangle down (both layers) along the fold line. Scholastic Teaching Resources . Repeat on the left side. Or start with a 6inch square.

Or make one big cat with a large square and a litter of kittens with smaller squares.Lesson 11 Cat Pattern Make a bunch of black cats to hang up on Halloween. ★ 38 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. Scholastic Teaching Resources .

Math Vocabulary rectangle triangle hexagon area 39 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. What two shapes do we have now? (rectangles) 1 2 How much of the page do we have with this strip here? ( __ ) 4 Materials Needed page 40 (steps). starts with a square. crayons or markers. 1 Let’s make a book fold.1) analyze characteristics and properties of two. and functions (Algebra Standard 2. Measure speed. like a canoe. and accuracy. all of the back side of the paper disappears. This simple boat will actually float in water. Use these tips to highlight math concepts and vocabulary for each step.1) apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations (Geometry Standard 3. Show students how to determine the area of a square by counting squares in a grid. Show how you can multiply the width by the height (8 inches x 8 inches) to get the same answer. Scholastic Teaching Resources . Use a coin to help balance if the boat is too tippy.) Beyond the Folds! Set up a basin of water and let students have a boat race. Open it up and repeat these folds in the other direction to create 8 rows. Open it again. Discuss and adjust balance as necessary.3) 6 How do you think this shape helps keep the water out? Many boats have this shape. fractions.Lesson 12 Floating Boat Math Wise! Distribute copies of pages 40 and 41. distance. like many. and then in half again two more times to create 8 columns. It’s all tucked inside here.and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships (Geometry Standard 3. NCTM Standards understand patterns. basin of water (optional) 3 1 How much of the page do we have showing now? ( __ ) 2 4 What shape are these corners? (triangles) And what shape do we have here when the corners are folded in? (hexagon) Math Concepts shapes. Which floats better? Which moves faster? This activity. Experiment making boats from different weights and sizes of paper. A flat front would slow down the speed and make the boat hard to control. and you should have 64 small squares. Count the squares to determine that the area is 64 square inches. area 5 When we make this fold. relations. Tell students that each square is 1 inch x 1 inch. Explain that they can use this formula to find the area of any rectangle. page 41 (pattern) or 6-inch square. Take a fresh 8-inch square of paper and fold it in half. How does this shape help it float through the water? (The pointed ends help the boat glide through the water smoothly.

Fold in half. Fold the top corners down to the center line and crease. face up. front layer only. This time. unfold that last fold. Press down along the bottom and pull out the sides to create a flat bottom. Separate the top edges to open the boat.Lesson 12 How to Make a Boat 1 Cut out the boat pattern on page 41 and place the ★ in the upper right corner. Crease. face up. top to bottom. to meet the bottom folded edge. Make sure to fold all the layers. 2 Fold down the top edge. bottom to top. Fold the bottom corners up to the center line and crease. 3 Turn over and repeat step 2. 6 40 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. 4 5 Fold in half. Scholastic Teaching Resources . Or start with a 6-inch square. Crease and leave folded.

Scholastic Teaching Resources .Lesson 12 Boat Pattern This simple boat actually floats. Try blowing it across a small tub of water with a straw. ★ 41 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. Have a boat race with a larger and smaller boat to see which moves faster.

Lesson 13 Page-Hugger Bookmark Math Wise! Distribute copies of pages 43 and 44. the diamond is not really a shape. index cards. congruence 3 Before we make our fold. glue 1 As you might know. Students can use this friendly folded corner-hugger as a bookmark. or cutting it in half. If the bookmark is set on page 11. crayons or markers. with this other flap here! 5 & 6 We’ve formed a pocket here that can fit on the corner of our page. On what page would you find his bookmark? Note that this bookmark actually marks two pages— —the front and the back of the folio corner it covers.4) Math Vocabulary diamond square triangle perpendicular pentagon line of symmetry congruent Beyond the Folds! Give students book-reading word problems or let them generate their own. These two lines that we’ve folded are perpendicular to each other. let’s look at this shape here. Actually. what page does it also mark? (12) Suppose you use a regular bookmark— rectangular strip. Scholastic Teaching Resources . Example: Joe read five pages at bedtime. or cross. scissors. or right angle) NCTM Standards analyze characteristics and properties of two. page 44 (pattern) or 6-inch square.1) use visualization. Can you find it? Could we use this pocket as a bookmark as well? (no) Why not? (because it’s not shaped like a corner. —a what page does it also mark? (10) 42 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. symmetry. How many sides does it have? (5) What do we call a shape with five sides? (a pentagon) 4 How many sides does our shape have now? (4) We’re taking this big triangle and bisecting it. card stock. and geometric modeling to solve problems (Geometry Standard 3. If the bookmark is set on page 11. or heavy paper. spatial reasoning. See how the corners where they intersect. are perfect square corners? 3 2 What fraction of the corners have we folded? ( __ ) 4 Math Concepts shape. it’s three congruent triangles. The next morning he got up and read three more. to form two equal. It’s just a square that we’ve rotated so that we see it differently. Use these tips to highlight math concepts and vocabulary for each step. spatial reasoning. or congruent triangles. a right-hand page. Materials Needed page 43 (steps).and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships (Geometry Standard 3. There’s another pocket in our bookmark too.

4 Tuck the right hand point inside the pocket formed by the left-hand triangle. Fold up the bottom left corner to meet the top point. 2 Fold up the bottom point to meet the center point. Crease and unfold. Fold in half top to bottom so that the corners meet. facedown. Crease. Crease and unfold.Lesson 13 How to Make a Bookmark 1 Cut out the bookmark pattern on page 44 and place the square like a diamond with the ★ at the top. Or start with a 6-inch square. Crease well. Leave the right corner unfolded. Scholastic Teaching Resources . Leave that part folded. Decorate your page-hugger bookmark. 5 6 Fill in your name on the back. 43 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. so the corners meet. facedown. Fold in half left to right. 3 Fold down the top left corner to meet the bottom right corner. Repeat with the left and top corners.

Lesson 13 Bookmark Pattern Keep this bookmark buddy handy and you’ll never lose your place. Scholastic Teaching Resources . ★ b t __ __ is gs __ __ Th n __ lo __ __ be __ __ __ __ __ __ __ k oo o 44 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker.

) Math Vocabulary half center weight corner bisect angle surface area 7 & 8 What does the paper clip do to the nose of the plane? (It adds more weight and keeps the sides together tightly. measure the distance between the launch and landing points. This model has good gliding action.Lesson 14 Paper Airplane Express Math Wise! Distribute copies of pages 46 and 47.) Beyond the Folds! Stage an airplane gliding contest and measure distance and accuracy. we’ll fold this point and make a blunt nose. That’s because planes depend on symmetry for smooth flying. What would happen if the two sides were different? (It would fly crooked. it doesn’t travel very far! But if we crumple it up. or bisecting them. each wing with a different design. measure the distance between a target point and the actual landing point. Less of the paper hits the air. tools. Scholastic Teaching Resources . we want to make a design that has not much surface area and little wind resistance.2) 3 We’re folding these angles in half. 2 Many paper airplanes have a sharp point at the front. Have students decorate their own planes. page 47 (pattern) 1 or 8__ x 11-inch rectangle. Calculate the average distance by compiling the flight records of all students. look! We can throw it much better. so it doesn’t slow down the way the open sheet does. Later. spatial reasoning NCTM Standards apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations (Geometry Standard 3. Use the airplane pattern on page 47. balance. Why do different forms of the same page fly better than others? (The crumpled-up ball has a smaller surface area—most of it is tucked into the center of the ball.3) understand measurable attributes of objects and the units. paper clip 2 we fold an airplane. How might the shape at the front affect the way a plane flies? (The shape of the plane’s nose affects the flight pattern.) Math Concepts symmetry. we do on the other. 4 In this model you might notice that whatever we do on one side.) 5 & 6 What happens to the plane when we fold the nose back? (The nose gets heavier.1) apply appropriate techniques. For accuracy. and formulas to determine measurements (Measurement Standard 4. There are hundreds of ways to make paper airplanes. so there’s less surface area and wind resistance. For distance. 45 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. or 1 any 8 __ by 11-inch sheet of 2 copy paper! 1 If we take a plain piece of paper and try to throw it. Use these tips to highlight math concepts and vocabulary for each step.) When Materials Needed page 46 (steps). and processes of measurement (Measurement Standard 4. systems.

3 Fold in each side from the point. 5 Fold in half. Fold in half left to right. Crease along the fold lines. to meet the center line. 6 Fold down the top layer of the rear wing. Add a paper clip to the nose for balance and weight. along the fold line. Make a light crease. page 47. along the short fold line. Repeat on the other side. 2 Fold down the top corners to the center line. Unfold. left to right. 46 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. 4 Fold down the tip of the plane’s nose toward the middle. 8 Spread the wings. Use the long fold line as a guide. 7 Fold down the wings to the base. and place the pattern facedown with the ★ in the upper right-hand corner. starting from the nose.Lesson 14 How to Make a Paper Airplane 1 Start with the paper airplane pattern. Turn over and repeat on other side. Crease well. Scholastic Teaching Resources .

Scholastic Teaching Resources .Lesson 14 Paper Airplane Pattern What’s the longest distance your plane can fly? ★ 47 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker.

which forms a square corner right triangle a triangle with a right angle (90º) scalene triangle a triangle with no congruent sides and no congruent angles square a quadrilateral that has four right angles and four congruent sides (All squares are rectangles.) right angle an angle of 90º. continuous edge volume the space contained within a three-dimensional object 48 Origami Math: Grades 2-3 © Karen Baicker. Scholastic Teaching Resources . and therefore never intersect parallelogram a quadrilateral that has two pairs of parallel sides and two pairs of congruent sides pentagon a shape with five sides perpendicular at right angles to a line quadrilateral any four-sided figure rectangle a quadrilateral that has four right angles (All rectangles are parallelograms.) equilateral triangle a triangle with three congruent sides and three congruent angles fraction a number that is not a whole number.) symmetry a balanced arrangement of parts on either side of a central dividing line or around a central point trapezoid a quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides triangle a figure with three sides vertical running from top to bottom intersection the point where two lines cross isosceles triangle a triangle with two congruent sides and two congruent angles line of symmetry a line that divides two alike halves midpoint a point that lies halfway along a line octagon a shape with eight sides oval an egg-shaped figure with a smooth.Glossary of Math Terms angle the space formed by two lines stemming from a common point area the measurement of a space formed by edges base the bottom edge of a shape bisect to divide in half circle a round shape measuring 360º congruent having the same measurement diagonal a slanted line that joins two opposite corners diamond a square positioned so that one corner is at the top (A diamond is not a distinct geometric shape. such as 1/2. formed by dividing one quantity into multiple parts hexagon a shape with six sides horizontal running across. or left to right parallel two lines that are always the same distance apart.