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jahangir@wol.net.pk www.ser.com.pk

2008 Mawlawi Jahangir Mahmud

We shall study three basic themes of the Quranic verses

Himself

Relationship with His Creation

Relationship with His Messengers

LETS BEGIN THE QURANIC PASSAGES

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Key Features of Allahs relationship with His creation


1. 2.

3.
4. 5. 6. 7.

He is most Gracious & Merciful. All Praise is due to Allah He is the Lord of the Worlds, Master of the Day of Judgment Will reward / punish as per deeds Only He is to be worshipped He is to be feared

He grants Guidance Those who follow guidance get Grace 10. Those who dont, earn His anger 11. He is the Creator of all, us & all around us; of Good & Evil 12. We Should not set up rivals with Him 13. He gave us knowledge 14. His refuge should be sought from evil
8. 9.

In the name of Allah, most Gracious, most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, Most Gracious, most Merciful, Master of the Day of Judgment. You alone we worship, and Your aid we seek. Show us the straight way, The way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, those whose portion is not wrath, and who go not astray.

Surah Al-Fatiha 1:1-7

Surah Al-Fatiha 1:1-7


In the name of Allah, most Gracious, most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, Most Gracious, most Merciful, Master of the Day of Judgment. You alone we worship, and Your aid we seek. Show us the straight way, The way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, those whose portion is not wrath, and who go not astray. R E L A T I O N S H I P

The Main Theme(s)


1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

This is the opening Surah of the Quran and it covers a variety of themes in its text It begins by introducing Allah and His Powers by glorifying His praise, announcing that He sustains everything, declaring His colossal mercy, and the belief in Hereafter It further highlights the two basic features of Tauheed. Firstly, that the focus of all forms of worship shall only be for Allah and Him alone. Secondly, that we should only ask Allah for help Failing these two would mean committing an unforgiveable sin, Shirk. The Surah ends by teaching a Dua for guidance from Allah of the straight path which is the path of the Prophets and all pious people. It also asks us to invoke Him to protect us from going astray.

The Presentation of the Theme


1. 2. 3.

4.
5. 6.

The Surah Fatiha presents a multitude of themes in a very distinctive manner from most other passages of the Holy Quran because it in covers so many subjects in just seven short sentences. Unlike many other Surahs that present different arguments, it simply presents the outlines of all basic Quranic themes These include the attributes of Allah, Tauheed, Allahs relationship with mankind, articles of faith and following the path of Guidance Many scholars call Surah Fatiha the preface or introduction of the Holy Quran It is also called the seven oft repeated verses in the Quran as it is recited in every rakah of Salah by all Muslims. Repeated recital ensures that Quranic principles become deeply ingrained in a Muslims mind

Comparison Between (i) & (ii)


PART (I) MAIN THEME Themes Meanings Content Teachings
PART (II) PRESENTATION OF THEME

How themes have been presented by Allah to make people understand them How this passage is different from other similar passages

Surah Baqara 2: 21-22

21. O people! Adore your Guardian-Lord, who created you and those who came before you, so that you may have the chance to learn righteousness 22. Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy; and sent down rain from the heavens; and by it brought forth fruits for your sustenance; then do not set up rivals to Allah, when you know.

21. O people! Adore your Guardian-Lord, who created you and those who came before you, so that you may have the chance to learn righteousness 22. Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy; and sent down rain from the heavens; and by it brought forth fruits for your sustenance; then do not set up rivals to Allah, when you know.

R E L A T I O N S H I P

The Main Theme(s)


1.
2. 3.

4.

The main theme of these verses is to help a person understand the relationship of Allah with humans. It stresses that Allah is the Creator of all peoples, past and present. Also it is He who had created the heavens and the earth, it is He who sends down the rain that produces fruit; all these He has done for mankind Hence, it directs us that keeping these bounties of Allah in mind, we should worship Him alone, and that is the path to piety.

The Presentation of the Theme


1. 2.

3.
4.

5.

The distinctive theme of this passage is that it encourages us to recognize Allah through His bounties. The Quran says, No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all visions (Surah Al Anaam: 103). As we cannot see Him, therefore it is through His bounties that we may recognize Allah and see His Hand in all matters We are repeatedly reminded by the Quran to worship Allah alone and not to commit Shirk with Him, but in this particular passage it explains this by reminding us of His unlimited bounties and blessings that He sends down upon us This appreciation and gratitude leads us to the path of righteousness.

Surah Al Alaq 96; 1-5

1. Read! in the name of your Lord, who created 2. Created man out of a clot of congealed blood 3.Proclaim! And your Lord is most bountiful 4. He who taught by the pen 5. Taught man what he did not know.

1. Read! in the name of your Lord, who created 2. Created man out of a clot of congealed blood 3.Proclaim! And your Lord is most bountiful 4. He who taught by the pen 5. Taught man what he did not know.

R E L A T I O N S H I P

The Main Theme(s)


(I)

The Presentation of the Theme


(II)

Teachings Lessons Beliefs Theme

How does the Quran explain it What examples etc it uses How similar themes are mentioned in the HQ Example from the Quran or the Ahadith

The Main Theme(s)


1.
2.

Man has been asked by Allah to acknowledge His great favours that make man superior to all other creations 4. Allah perfected man through various stages of development 5. and enabled him to read and write with the help of pen.
3.

i. His creating man ii. bestowing knowledge upon him

This is part of the first ever revelation sent to the Prophet It mentions two of Allah's most important attributes and these are

These

verses present the nature of the relationship of man with Allah by teaching him that He created, shaped, and taught him Knowledge While these verses do not directly ask man to worship Allah as in Surah Baqara where after reminding of Allahs favours, man is ordered to worship Him only. It presents the above facts before man with the purpose of making him recognize Him.

The Presentation of the Theme

Surah ZilZal 99; 1-8

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

When the earth is shaken to her utmost convulsion, And the earth throws up her burdens And man cries out: 'What is the matter with her? On that day will she declare her tidings For that your Lord will have given her inspiration On that day will men proceed in companies sorted out, to be shown their deeds 7. Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good see it 8. And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil shall see it.

1. When the earth is shaken to her utmost convulsion, 2. And the earth throws up her burdens 3. And man cries out: 'What is the matter with her? 4. On that day will she declare her tidings 5. For that your Lord will have given her inspiration 6. On that day will men proceed in companies sorted out, to be shown their deeds 7. Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good see it 8. And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil shall see it.

R E L A T I O N S H I P

The Main Theme(s)


The

main theme contained in this Surah are four 1. The fact that Allah is Master of the Day of Judgment 2. Allah records all deeds 3. Allah will evaluate every individual based on their actions 4. Allah will reward or punish even the smallest of deeds.

The Presentation of the Theme


1.

2.

3.

4.

While describing the relationship with the mankind, Allah tells them that this life is a temporary and it will end with the unimaginable earthquake The surah distinctly highlights the relationship of Allah with mankind by making it clear that Day of Judgment will be a day of justice for everyone. Other Surahs of the Quran also tell us regarding the Day of Judgment, but this Surah is different as it is one of the shortest Surah on this Subject E.g., Surah Waqiah has a similar theme but presents lengthy details about the same theme.

The Prophet said, "Seven (people) will be shaded by Allah by His Shade on the Day of Resurrection when there will be no shade except His Shade.(They will be), 1) A just ruler, 2) A young man who has been brought up in the worship of Allah, 3) A man who remembers Allah in seclusion and his eyes are then flooded with tears, 4) A man whose heart is attached to mosques, 5) Two Muslims who love each other only for Allah's Sake, 6) A man who is called by a charming lady of noble birth to commit sin with her, and he refuses, saying, 'I am afraid of Allah,' 7) And (finally), a man who gives in charity so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given. Allahhumma Rabbana Jaalna Min Hum May Allah include us amongst them

The 7 in Allahs Shade

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Key Features of Allahs relationship with His creation


1. 2.

3.
4. 5. 6. 7.

He is most Gracious & Merciful. All Praise is due to Allah He is the Lord of the Worlds, Master of the Day of Judgment Will reward / punish as per deeds Only He is to be worshipped He is to be feared

He grants Guidance Those who follow guidance get Grace 10. Those who dont, earn His anger 11. He is the Creator of all, us & all around us; of Good & Evil 12. We Should not set up rivals with Him 13. He gave us knowledge 14. His refuge should be sought from evil
8. 9.

Surah Al-Nas 114: 1-6

In the name of Allah, most Gracious ,most Merciful. 1. Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Mankind, 2. the King of Mankind, 3. the Allah of Mankind, 4. from the evil of the whisperer who withdraws, 5. who whispers in the hearts of Mankind, 6. from Among Jinn and Mankind.

Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Mankind, the King of Mankind, the God of Mankind, from the evil of the whisperer who withdraws, who whispers in the hearts of Mankind, from Among Jinn and Mankind.

R E L A T I O N S H I P

Comparison Between (i) & (ii)


PART (I) MAIN THEME Themes Meanings Content Teachings
PART (II) PRESENTATION OF THEME

How themes have been presented by Allah to make people understand them How this passage is different from other similar passages

The Main Theme(s)


This is the last Surah of the Quran and is partner to the preceding Surah (Al-Falaq) The Surah was revealed to cure the Prophet when a spell was cast on him It also teaches us to seek protection of Allah Almighty against the evil effects of the whispering of Satan that are aimed at distracting man from the Right Path This Surah focuses on three important themes of man's relation with Allah: 1. Allah alone is the sole Sustainer and Supreme over all humans 2. Therefore, He is only to be worshipped 3. Allah is the One who can protect us from all evil, may that be hidden or visible

The Presentation of the Theme


The themes of this Surah, overall Lordship of Allah and the seeking of His protection against all evil, have been presented differently from other similar passages in the Quran. Firstly, the concept of whisperings has been identified as a method used by both Jinn and Man to divert a believer from the Right Path. Secondly, it declares Allah in three short sentences the relationship that Allah has with Man, namely being their Sustainer, King and God. In other similar passages, such as Surah Falaq, such reminders of God-Man relationship are not used, rather the powers of Allah as the creator of all good as well as evil are presented. It is as if Allah is reminding us that as He is our Sustainer, King and God, it is He who shall protect us from all evil.

Some of the Books authored by Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud

2008 Mawlawi Jahangir Mahmud www.ser.com.pk jahangir@wol.net.pk

Multi-Media Edition

2008 Mawlawi Jahangir Mahmud

jahangir@wol.net.pk www.ser.com.pk

We shall study three basic themes of the Quranic verses

Himself

Relationship with His Creation

Relationship with His Messengers

ALLAH & HIS MESSENGERS

WE SHALL STUDY ABOUT 4 MESSENGERS


Adam Ibraheem Jesus Muhammad (2 passages)

KEY FEATURES OF ALLAHS RELATIONSHIP WITH HIS MESSENGERS


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

7.

They are Allahs vicegerents on earth They have been granted special and great knowledge by Allah They are much higher in status than the angels They must follow His instructions They are very intelligent They recognize Allah very well through His Signs Their focus is towards Allah only

8. 9. 10. 11.

12.

13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

They dont do Shirk Allah has favored them He gave them miracles He never forsakes them He is never displeased with them They have His Shelter He grants them guidance He grants them abundance His deals with their enemies They have special missions

What do we learn from these passages regarding:

SURAH BAQARA 2: 30 TO 37
30. Behold, your Lord said to the angels: 'I will create a vicegerent on earth.' They said: 'Will You place there one who will make mischief there and shed blood?whilst we celebrate your praises and glorify your holy (name)?' He said: 'I know what you do not know.' 31. And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said: 'Tell me the names of these if you are right.' 32. They said: 'Glory to You, of knowledge we have none, save what You have taught us: In truth it is You who are perfect in knowledge and wisdom.' 33. He said: 'Adam! Tell them their names.' When he had told them, Allah said: 'Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heavens and earth, and I know what you reveal and what you conceal?'34. And behold, We said to the angels: 'Bow down to Adam'. And they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: he was of those who reject faith. 35. We said: 'Adam! You and your wife dwell in the Garden; and eat of the bountiful things in it as You wish. But do not approach this tree, or you will run into harm and transgression.' 36. Then Satan made them slip from there, and got them out of what they had been in. We said: 'Go down, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood, for a time.' 37. Then Adam learnt from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord turned towards him; for He is
Often-returning, most Merciful

30. Behold, your Lord said to the angels: 'I will create a vicegerent on earth.' They said: 'Will You place there one who will make mischief there and shed blood?whilst we celebrate your praises and glorify your holy (name)?' He said: 'I know what you do not know. 31. And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said: 'Tell me the names of these if you are right.' 32. They said: 'Glory to You, of knowledge we have none, save what You have taught us: In truth it is You who are perfect in knowledge and wisdom. 33. He said: 'Adam! Tell them their names.' When he had told them, Allah said: 'Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heavens and earth, and I know what you reveal and what you conceal? 34. And behold, We said to the angels: 'Bow down to Adam'. And they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: he was of those who reject faith 35. We said: 'Adam! You and your wife dwell in the Garden; and eat of the bountiful things in it as You wish. But do not approach this tree, or you will run into harm and transgression.' 36. Then Satan made them slip from there, and got them out of what they had been in. We said: 'Go down, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood, for a time.' 37. Then Adam learnt from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord turned towards him; for He is Often-returning, most Merciful

What do we learn from this passage regarding:

COMPARISON BETWEEN (I) & (II)


PART (I) MAIN THEME
Themes

PART (II) PRESENTATION OF THEME

Meanings
Content

Teachings

themes have been presented by Allah to make people understand them How this passage is different from other similar passages

How

THE MAIN THEME(S)

These verses describe the divine scheme of


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

creation of Adam prostration of angels before him defiance of Iblis Adam's stay in and eventual exile from Paradise Adam being forgiven by Allah after his disobedience

Iblis proved to be disobedient to Allah and was cursed forever We learn here that Allah puts all humans through test, including His Messengers Another teaching is that if a person accepts his mistake after committing any wrong he can be forgiven The example of Adam can be cited who prayed to His Lord which is mentioned in the Quran: Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves and if you do not forgive us and have mercy upon us we will surely be among losers.(7:23).

When something, anything goes wrong Blame yourself, and no one else
Think of what you could have done to avert it, or can do so in the future

THE PRESENTATION OF THE THEME(S)

This passage explains the relationship of Allah with the Prophet Adam. The theme of this passage is that it relates a historical event so we learn lessons from it. Adam was created by Allah and he was given importance over angles as Angels were asked to bow down before him. The verses also inform us the nature of Satan who refused to bow down before Adam, due to pride The passage thus makes it clear that Allahs support always remains with the Prophets The distinctive manner of these verses is that they are teaching the theme by giving the example of the 1st Man and Prophet Adam, thus making it clear that every human has certain built in traits.

SURAH AL ANAAM (6: 75-79)

75. So also did We show Abraham the power and the laws of the heavens and the earth, so that he might have certainty. 76. When the night covered him over, he saw a star: He said: 'This is my Lord.' But when it set, he said: 'I do not love things that set.' 77. When he saw the moon rising in splendour, he said: 'This is my Lord.' But when the moon set, he said: 'Unless my Lord guides me, I will surely be among those who go astray.' 78. When he saw the sun rising in splendour, he said: 'This is my Lord; this is the greatest.' But when the sun set, he said: 'O my people! I am indeed free from your giving partners to Allah.' 79. 'For me, I have set my face firmly and truly towards Him who created the heavens and the earth, and never shall I give partners to Allah.'

SURAH AL ANAAM (6: 75-79)

75. So also did We show Abraham the power and the laws of the heavens and the earth, so that he might have certainty. 76. When the night covered him over, he saw a star: He said: 'This is my Lord.' But when it set, he said: 'I do not love things that set.' 77. When he saw the moon rising in splendour, he said: 'This is my Lord.' But when the moon set, he said: 'Unless my Lord guides me, I will surely be among those who go astray.' 78. When he saw the sun rising in splendour, he said: 'This is my Lord; this is the greatest.' But when the sun set, he said: 'O my people! I am indeed free from your giving partners to Allah.' 79. 'For me, I have set my face firmly and truly towards Him who created the heavens and the earth, and never shall I give partners to Allah.'

What do we learn from this passage regarding:

75. So also did We show Abraham the power and the laws of the heavens and the earth, so that he might have certainty. 76. When the night covered him over, he saw a star: He said: 'This is my Lord.' But when it set, he said: 'I do not love things that set.' 77. When he saw the moon rising in splendour, he said: 'This is my Lord.' But when the moon set, he said: 'Unless my Lord guides me, I will surely be among those who go astray.' 78. When he saw the sun rising in splendour, he said: 'This is my Lord; this is the greatest.' But when the sun set, he said: 'O my people! I am indeed free from your giving partners to Allah.' 79. 'For me, I have set my face firmly and truly towards Him who created the heavens and the earth, and never shall I give partners to Allah.'

COMPARISON BETWEEN (I) & (II)


PART (I) MAIN THEME
Themes

PART (II) PRESENTATION OF THEME

Meanings
Content

Teachings

themes have been presented by Allah to make people understand them How this passage is different from other similar passages

How

THE MAIN THEME(S)


These verses describe Prophet Ibraheem's attempt to recognise Allah by way of some of the marvels of nature Ibraheem observed the rise and the setting in of stars, the moon and the sun in order to identify his Lord, the Creator of all. He was convinced that the Lord Almighty is ever-living and is free from any decline Finally, he reached his goal of realizing the Oneness and supremacy of Allah Once he did that, he began to preach to his people about Tawhid and tried to dissuade them from Shirk or associating partners with Allah.

THE PRESENTATION OF THE THEME


Like other messengers of Allah, Ibraheem was also nurtured spiritually for the formal awarding of Prophethood Unlike Musa who witnessed a Holy Fire (28:30) to receive Prophethood or Jesus who began to show prophetic signs while in his cradle (5:110), Ibraheem reached the ultimate goal of prophethood after observation and being tested He firmly professed Tawhid Shunned shirk before starting his prophetic mission Allah thus strengthened the faith of His chosen servant by showing him the contrast between the temporary shine of the creation and the eternal glow of the Creator The Creator Lord is the source of all light and brightness.

KEY FEATURES OF ALLAHS RELATIONSHIP WITH HIS MESSENGERS


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

7.

They are Allahs vicegerents on earth They have been granted special and great knowledge by Allah They are much higher in status than the angels They must follow His instructions They are very intelligent They recognize Allah very well through His Signs Their focus is towards Allah only

8. 9. 10. 11.

12.

13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

They dont do Shirk Allah has favored them He gave them miracles He never forsakes them He is never displeased with them They have His Shelter He grants them guidance He grants them abundance His deals with their enemies They have special missions

SURAH AL MAIDA 5: 110


Then will Allah say: 'Jesus son of Mary! Recount my favour to you and to your mother. Behold! strengthened you with the holy spirit, so that you spoke to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel. And behold! You make out clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by my leave, and you breathe into it and it becomes a bird by my leave, and you heal those born blind, and the lepers, by my leave. And behold! You bring forth the dead by my leave. And behold! I restrained the Children of Israel from you when you showed them the clear signs, and the unbelievers among them said: 'This is nothing but evident magic.'

Then will Allah say: 'Jesus son of Mary! Recount my favour to you and to your mother. Behold! strengthened you with the holy spirit, so that you spoke to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel. And behold! You make out clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by my leave, and you breathe into it and it becomes a bird by my leave, and you heal those born blind, and the lepers, by my leave. And behold! You bring forth the dead by my leave. And behold! I restrained the Children of Israel from you when you showed them the clear signs, and the unbelievers among them said: 'This is nothing but evident magic.'

COMPARISON BETWEEN (I) & (II) PART (I) MAIN THEME


Themes

PART (II) PRESENTATION OF THEME

Meanings
Content

Teachings

themes have been presented by Allah to make people understand them How this passage is different from other similar passages

How

THE MAIN THEME(S) This verse describes Allah's address to Jesus, one of His messengers. Like other prophetic messengers, Jesus was also granted certain prophetic signs that distinguished him from ordinary mortals. (such as of his miraculous birth, his ability to speak in infancy, treat the leper and the blind and give life to the non-living, Torah and Gospel) The objective of granting such unusual powers to Allah's chosen people is to strengthen them internally and prepare them to face opposition by their people It also describes the fact that Allah protects His messengers from their enemies.

THE PRESENTATION OF THE THEME While showing His relationship with the Prophet Jesus, Allah tells how Jesus was supported by Allah (SWT) through Jibraeel, Ruhulqudus, and was given miracles. These favors show how much Allah loved His messenger The passage distinctly explains how Allah supports his messengers. Many other verses contain the same theme, but this one is distinctive because here Allah reminds His messenger face to face about His favours. In other similar passages, such as those about Ibraheem, Allah addresses us, not the Messenger

SURAH AL-DUHA 93: 1-11


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.
7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

By the Glorious Morning Light, And by the Night when it is still Your Lord has not forsaken you, nor is He displeased. And indeed, the Hereafter will be better for you, than the present and soon your Lord will give to you, and you will be well pleased. Did He not find you an orphan and gave you shelter? And He found you wandering, and He gave you guidance. And He found you in need, and made you Independent, Therefore do not treat the orphan with harshness, nor repulse the petitioner (unheard); but proclaim the bounty of your Lord.

What do we learn from this passage regarding:

By the Glorious Morning Light, 2. And by the Night when it is still 3. Your Lord has not forsaken you, nor is He displeased. 4. And indeed, the Hereafter will be better for you, 5. than the present and soon your Lord will give to you, and you will be well pleased. 6. Did He not find you an orphan and gave you shelter? 7. And He found you wandering, and He gave you guidance. 8. And He found you in need, and made you Independent, 9. Therefore do not treat the orphan with harshness, 10. nor repulse the petitioner (unheard); 11. but proclaim the bounty of your Lord.
1.

COMPARISON BETWEEN (I) & (II) PART (I) MAIN THEME


Themes

PART (II) PRESENTATION OF THEME

Meanings
Content

Teachings

themes have been presented by Allah to make people understand them How this passage is different from other similar passages

How

THE MAIN THEME(S)

Theme of this Surah is Allah's special care and concern for His chosen people specially in times of crisis and difficulty Allah's support is as much part of prophetic mission as the trials and tests designed by Him Allah puts His prophetic messengers into a variety of tests only to bring them closer to Him and thus strengthen their faith.

THE PRESENTATION OF THE THEME The Surah mentions Allah's reassurance for the Holy Prophet who was being mocked by the Quraysh This explains Allah's special association with the Holy Prophet Many other passages speak of Allahs favors to His Messengers but here there is a distinctive style Because this was revealed to the Holy Prophet during his lifetime, it gave him support and strength. Whereas in other similar passages such as Surah Maida, Allah will remind of His favours after this World.

SURAH AL-KAUTHAR 108: 1-3

1.

2.
3.

We have given you the Abundance; Therefore pray to your Lord, and sacrifice. For the one who hates you, he will be cut off (from future hope).

What do we learn from this passage regarding:

COMPARISON BETWEEN (I) & (II) PART (I) MAIN THEME


Themes

PART (II) PRESENTATION OF THEME

Meanings
Content

Teachings

themes have been presented by Allah to make people understand them How this passage is different from other similar passages

How

THE MAIN THEME(S)

Theme of this short Surah is Allah's promise and reassurance for His chosen people (prophetic messengers) in times of hardship and opposition by their people The main theme of Surah Al-Kauthar is to console the Prophet (s.a.w.) and to give him reassurance that he is unlimitedly blessed by Allah The teaching we get from this Surah is that there is no room for any to disrespect of the Prophet. He is taught that he should not abandon his religious obligations in any of the situation but must submit to the will of Allah. In this passage, Allah condemns those who condemn the Prophet (s.a.w).

The Surah shows Allah's special care for the Prophet in times of hardship. Here, distinctively, Allah mentions that HE will deal with the enemies of the Holy Prophet Himself. Allah mentions such special support for His messengers in other passages as well. Here the distinctive style is prominent that Allah revealed these verses during the Holy Prophets life and hence announced in his lifetime the prophecy of the destruction of his enemies. Such a declaration is a consolation not only for the Holy Prophet but all those involved in the propagation of Islam.

THE PRESENTATION OF THE THEME

Some of the Books authored by Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud

2008 Mawlawi Jahangir Mahmud www.ser.com.pk jahangir@wol.net.pk

Question 1: Major themes of the Quran


Q: Choose any two of the following Passages from the Quran and, (a) Briefly describe the main theme(s) in each passage (b) Briefly explain how each passage presents these theme(s) in a distinctive way.

Each Passage has 2 parts

Part (i) Main Theme

Part (ii)
Presentation

of Theme

Part (i) Main Theme Answer (2 marks)

Explain:

Themes
Meanings

60-80
words in

Content
Teachings

3
minutes

Quote Quran verses/Ahadith to support and illustrate points (optional) Demonstrate knowledge of Arabic

Part (ii) Presentation of Theme (2 marks)

Explain:How

themes have been presented by Allah to make people understand them


How Allah teaches similar themes in other Surahs verses, yet this one this different

3
minutes

Comparison Between (i) & (ii)


Part (i) Main Theme Part (ii) Presentation of
Theme

Themes Meanings Content Teachings

How themes have been presented by Allah to make people understand them How this passage is different from other similar passages

Lets Start the Lesson!

We shall study three basic themes of the Quranic verses

Himself

Relationship with His Creation

Relationship with His Messengers

Person

Powers

Tauheed

Attributes

Signs

Allah in Himself (Signs)

Among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Adore not the sun and the moon, but adore Allah, who created them, if it is Him you wish to serve Surah
Fussilat/Sajda

Allah in Himself (Person)


Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His Light is as if there were a Niche and within it a lamp: the Lamp enclosed in Glass: the Glass as it were a brilliant star: lit from a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the East nor of the West, whose Oil is well-nigh luminous, though fire scarce touched it: Light upon Light! Allah doth set forth Parables for men: and Allah doth know all things. (Nur : 35)

The Holy Quran describes and elaborates details about the person of Allah. Usually certain symbolic expressions and parables have been used for this purpose. For example, Surah An Nur describes Allah as a 'light',

Sura Ikhlas

Allah in Himself (Attributes)

The Holy Quran describes and elaborates details about the nature and attributes of Allah using parables & analogies Attributes of Allah

Allah is He, than whom there is no other god the sovereign, the Holy One, the Source of Peace (and Perfection). the Guardian of Faith, the Preserver of Safety, the Exalted in Might, the Irresistible, the Supreme: Glory to Allah! (High is He) above the partners they attribute to Him. (23) He is Allah the Creator, the Evolver, the Bestower of Forms (or Colours). To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names: whatever is in the heavens and on earth, declare His Praises and Glory: and He is the exalted in Might, the Wise. (Surah Al Hashr)

Allah in Himself (Powers)


Another oft repeated theme is that of Allah's Unmatchable power, Verily, when He intends a thing, His command is "Be" and it is! (36:82) Sura Al Anaam

Allah in Himself
Person

Signs

Attributes

Powers

Ayat Al Kursi (2:255)

In the name of Allah, most Gracious, Most Merciful. Allah! There is no God but He, the Living, the Self-subsisting. Neither slumber nor sleep can seize Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. Who will intercede with Him except by His Leave? He knows what is in front of them and what is behind them, While they encompass nothing of His Knowledge, except what He wills. His Throne extends over the heavens and the earth, And He is never weary of preserving them. And He is the Sublime, the Supreme.

Allah! There is no God but He, the Living, the Self-subsisting Neither slumber nor sleep can seize Him To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth Who will intercede with Him except by His Leave? He knows what is in front of them and what is behind them, While they encompass nothing of His Knowledge, except what He wills. His Throne extends over the heavens and the earth, And He is never weary of preserving them. And He is the Sublime, the Supreme.

Comparison Between (i) & (ii)


Part (i) Main Theme Part (ii) Presentation of
Theme

Themes

Meanings
Content

Teachings

How themes have been presented by Allah to make people understand them How this passage is different from other similar passages

The Main Theme(s)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The main theme of this passage, which we know as the verse of the Throne, is the oneness of Allah, or Tawhid Allah is a being unlike any other beings because he knows everything and can do everything Also He has neither parents nor children Similarly Surah Ikhlas also states that He cannot be compared to anyone or anything His throne signifies His absolute power over all as well as His absolute knowledge of everything.

The Presentation of the Theme


1.

2. 3. 4.

This passage teaches us the powers of Allah, which are limitless in all aspects, thus clearly marking the differences between Him and His creation. This passage states all this in a authoritative tone, and declares its teachings in a distinctive manner. It teaches multiple articles of faith and belief in very few words, thus making it a unique passage. Other Quranic verses similarly teach such themes but seldom in so few words and also they tend to at times give logical reasoning along with their teachings such as Surah Anam which gives a logic that Allah cannot have a son as He has no wife

Surah Al Anaam 6: 101 to 103

101. To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: how can He have a son when He has no consort? 102. He created all things, and He has full knowledge of all things. That is Allah, your Lord! There is no god but He, the Creator of all things: then worship Him: and He has power to dispose of all affairs. 103. No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all visions: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things.

101. To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: how can He have a son when He has no consort? 102. He created all things, and He has full knowledge of all things. That is Allah, your Lord! There is no god but He, the Creator of all things: then worship Him: and He has power to dispose of all affairs. 103. No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all visions: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things.

Comparison Between (i) & (ii)


Part (i) Main Theme Part (ii) Presentation of
Theme

Themes

Meanings
Content

Teachings

How themes have been presented by Allah to make people understand them How this passage is different from other similar passages

The Main Theme(s)


1.
2.

3.
4.

5. 6.

The main theme of this passage is the unlimited power of Allah that proves Tauheed It describes how He created all things including the heavens and the earth from scratch The Arabic word Badee means He who creates without any raw materials to start with It strongly refutes any concept of him being a parent or husband when it is He who cannot even be seen by anyone Another important aspect of the theme is fact the His knowledge is absolute. These arguments establish Him as the sole being to be worshipped.

Another Sample answer of the Theme


The doctrine of Tawhid is based on Allah's power of creating His domain out of nothing and by His single command, Be (36:82) and that is the main theme of this Surah: teaching Allahs Onesness by explaining about His Person and Powers 2. Exercise of this power explains Allah's immense power and unlimited knowledge 3. Demands us to demonstrate our belief by bowing down before Him in all submission and worship like the other creations: And the stars and the trees both bow in adoration (Surah 55). 4. This further negates any form of shirk (associating partners with Allah), specially associating any relatives with Him. 5. Surah Ikhlas more emphatically and explicitly refutes the corrupted idea of assuming descendants of Allah 6. Such degree of uniqueness of Allah renders our imagination just helpless to comprehend His entity.
1.

The Presentation of the Theme


1.

2.

3.

4.

The teachings of this passage are the Oneness of Allah, His Powers as well as His Person which is beyond human comprehension. These are taught here in a distinctive manner that uses common logic so people may understand. It also explains how unlimited and absolute His Power of Creation and Knowledge are, thus making it a logical result that we should worship Him only. This manner of explanation is distinct from other passages as they usually only declare or order man to worship Him without giving any reason or logic.

Surah Fussilat/Sajda; 41. 37

37. Among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Adore not the sun and the moon, but adore Allah, who created them, if it is Him you wish to serve.

Allah in Himself
Person

Signs

Attributes

Powers

37. Among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Adore not the sun and the moon, but adore Allah, who created them, if it is Him you wish to serve

Surah Fussilat/Sajda;41. 37
Person

Signs

Attributes

Powers

The Main Theme(s)


1.

2.

3. 4.

The main theme of this passage is Tauheed or oneness of Allah which is being taught by explaining His powers. Throughout history, many people have begun worshipping the sun and the moon due to their beauty or power. The Quran says that these are just signs of Allah, who is the Creator of all. Similar themes are found in many places in the Quran such as in Surah Rehman where Allah states that He has absolute power over all heavenly bodies.

The Presentation of the Theme


Tauheed, the theme of this passage is presented through a distinctive manner of giving examples of His signs 2. Mankind should recognize the Designer of all these and submit to His will. 3. This is distinctive from other verses such as in Surah Ikhlas where Allah states the theme of Tauheed but without explaining or using any example 4. This passage urges us not only identify HIM but also to Worship Him.
1.

Surah As Shura 42: 4 & 5

4. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth: and He is most High, most Great. 5. The heavens are almost rent asunder from above them, and the angels celebrate the praises of their Lord, and pray for forgiveness for beings on earth: Behold! Verily Allah is He, the oft-Forgiving, the most Merciful.

Surah As Shura 42: 4 & 5 4. To Him belongs all

that is in the heavens and on earth: and He is most High, most Great. 5. The heavens are almost rent asunder from above them, and Signs the angels celebrate the praises of their Lord, and pray for forgiveness for beings on earth: Behold! Verily Allah is He, the oft-Forgiving, the most Merciful.

Person

Attributes

Powers

The Main Theme(s)


1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

The main theme in this passage is Tauheed of Allah as everything is His property. His greatness and supremacy is evident by the fact that the heavens are bent and on the brink of falling to pieces due to the weight of the angels worshipping Him. It is no wonder that countless angels are continuously engaged in glorifying the name of Allah while seeking forgiveness for mankind. Allah Himself has ordered them to do so as only He Himself is full of forgiveness and mercy for His creation. Thus He has also ordered humankind to glorify Him and then ask for forgiveness as in many other verses in the Holy Quran

The Presentation of the Theme.


This passage presents the great mercy of Allah by stressing on His supreme majesty. 2. The angels not only to celebrate His praise, and also pray for forgiveness for us because Allah Himself has ordered them. 3. The greatness as well as mercy of Allah is presented here distinctively here by first stating His being the owner and supreme Lord of everyone and everything, yet His being kind and benevolent to His creatures. 4. This is a distinct style from Surah Al-Fatiha where Allah simply announces Himself as merciful but doesnt discuss His rank and status
1.

Surah Al-Ikhlas 112: 1-4

1.
2.

3.
4.

In the name of Allah, most Gracious, most Merciful. Say: He is Allah, the One; Allah, the Absolute (the Eternal). He does not beget nor is He begotten, And there is none like Him.

Surah Al-Ikhlas 112: 1-4


1. 2. 3. 4.

Say: He is Allah, the One; Allah, the Absolute (the Eternal). Signs He does not beget nor is He begotten, And there is none like Him.

Person

Attributes

Powers

Main Theme(s)
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

This Surah is a comprehensive summary of Tauheed The theme clearly asserts Him being the one and only god, thus negating any parenthood or kinship assigned to Him by anyone It defines the very nature of Allah to be free from the phenomenon of birth as He is not in need of anyone or anything Allahs attribute AsSamad mentioned here means He who doesnt need anyone rather everyone is in need of Him Also by saying that He is incomparable with everything, this Surah negates all forms of Shirk.

The Presentation of the Theme


1.

2.

3. 4. 5.

The Surah Ikhlas presents the theme of Tauheed in a very distinctive manner from most other passages of the Holy Quran because it in covers so many aspects of Tauheed in just four short sentences It doesnt offer any sort of explanation or argument as certain other passages, rather it simply makes a statement of fact by saying that Allah is One, Absolute and incomparable to anyone or anything For example, in Surah Al-Maeda, Allah specifies that it is disbelief to call Jesus the son of Allah But here in Surah Al-Ikhlas, He simply declares that He doesnt give birth at all Thus all false beliefs regarding any son or daughter of Allah are shattered.

Key Features of the Passages: Allah in Himself: 10marks


1.

2.

3.

4.

Allah in Himself (Person) i. The Holy Quran describes and elaborates details about the person of Allah. ii. Usually certain symbolic expressions and parables have been used for this purpose. iii. For example, Surah An Nur describes Allah as a 'light', (give example here) & Sura Ikhlas Allah in Himself (Attributes) i. The Holy Quran describes and elaborates details about the nature and attributes of Allah using parables & analogies ii. Attributes of Allah: (Surah Al Hashr) Allah in Himself (Powers) i. Another oft repeated theme is that of Allah's Unmatchable power, ii. Verily, when He intends a thing, His command is "Be" and it is! (36:82) & Sura Al Anaam Allah in Himself (Signs) i. Among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Adore not the sun and the moon, but

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CONQUESTS UNDER HAZRAT ABU BAKR


PERSIAN EMPIRE
VENUE 1. Chaldea DATE 633 AD (i) Muslim Commander (ii) Commander of opposing forces (i) Khalid bin Waleed (ii) Hormuz Hormuz killed and his forces defeated at this famous battle of Chains 2. Walaja 3. Hira 633 AD (i) Khalid bin Waleed (i) Khalid bin Waleed Persian regiments defeated Peace Treaty signed and amnesty granted OUTCOME

ROMAN EMPIRE
4. Firaz 5. Mulah 634 AD 632 AD (i) Khalid bin Waleed (i) Usama bin Zaid Arab Christians defeated Byzantine forces were defeated

6. Ajhadyn

634 AD

(i) Khalid bin Waleed (ii) Heraclius Heraclius forces were defeated with them commander killed

CONQUESTS UNDER HAZRAT UMAR


VENUE 1. Namarag 2. Jasr DATE 634 AD 634 AD (i) Muslim Commander (ii) Commander of opposing forces (i) Musana, Abu Ubaid (ii) Rustam (i) Abu Ubaid bin Ziyad (ii) Bahman Persian forces defeated in this famous Battle of Bridge, where Muslims suffered heavy losses with their Commander Martyred 3. Buwaib 634 AD (i) Muthana (ii) Mehran Persian forces defeated and Mehran killed. Majority of Persian army was destroyed 4. Qadisiya (i) Saad bin Abi Waqas (he was unwell) (ii) Rustam 5. Al-Madain 634 AD (i) Saad bin Abi Waqas Rustam got killed, with his forces defeated. This completely broke down the strength of Persians Laid seige, eventually had to surrender, King Yazdigard fled away 6. Jalula (i) Qaka sent by Saad bin Abi Waqas 7. Tekrit (i) Saad dispatched the forces Laid seige to the city eventually captured it they agreed on terms of Jizya The combined forces of Christian Arabs, Persians and Romans had to face defeat 8. Ubulla (i) Utba bin Ghazwan
Captured the city of Ubulla, TOWNS OF KUFA AND BASRA FOUNDED

OUTCOME Persian forces were defeated

9. Nehawand (consequence of Treaty broken by Persians alter Jalula) 10. Jordan 11. Palestine 12. Damascus 635 AD (i) Shurabil bin Hasan (i) Amr bin al Aas (i) Khalid bin Waleed - assisted by Abu Ubaida and Yezid 13. Yarmouk Valley 14. Damascus 16. Jerusalem 17. Alexandria (Egypt) 18. Babylon 641 AD 640 AD 636 AD 636 AD (i) Abu Ubaida bin al Jarrah (ii) Theodorous (i) Abu Ubaida (i) Amr bin Aas (i) Amr bin Aas Captured the city Captured the city Laid seige to city, finally captured. Peace Treaty signed. Syria was lost to Muslims (Victorious) Recaptured Laid seige. Treaty Drawn Heraclius died. Egypt Mastered over alter this conquest Captured (ii) Persian King The defeat of Persians resulted in end of sassanid Dynasty. This being the last great battle fought between Muslims and Persians

Revision Handout
Note on Belief in Divine Decree (10 Marks) Belief in the Divine Decree is an article of Faith. Without this, a believers Imam or Faith is incomplete. As mentioned in Iman-e-Mufassal, which says: I believe in Allah, in His angels, in His books, in His Prophets, in the Last Day and in the fact that everything, good or bad, is decided by Allah Almighty and in the Life after Death. This means that the belief that everything, good or bad, is known beforehand by Allah. Allah is the sole Creator and Cherisher of the entire Universe. His power is not limited in any sphere whatsoever. The Quran says repeatedly, Verily, Allah has power over everything., Verily, Allah is all Knowing, All Powerful and He is the Exalted in Power, full of Wisdom. As Allah is the Creator, Sustainer, All Powerful and All Knowing, not only He has knowledge of each and every affair of the entire Universe but also all the matters and phenomena are under His control as well as within His Knowledge. Man, the most supreme creation of Allah is no exception to this divine Will. However, he is given a great deal of free will and will be tested how he behaves in this life. Allah's knowledge encompasses the past, present and the future. This doesn't mean that our free will is taken away by this rather it is another manifestation of Allah's Supreme Power (Qudrat or Taqdeer) that He already knows all things. The Holy Prophet said that only Du'a can alter our destinies. (250 words)

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Based on Authority or Source

Four types of hadith can be identified.


1. Qudsi - Divine; a revelation from Allah ;

relayed with the words of the Prophet. 2. Marfu - elevated; a narration from the Prophet, e.g. I heard the Prophet saying ... 3. Mauquf- stopped: a narration from a companion only, e.g., we were commanded to ... 4. Maqtu' - severed: a narration from a successor.

As per Authority

Main Features of Qudsi/Nabwi


Qudsi Words & Meaning both from Allah Starts with "Allah says" Nabwi Words of Prophet & Meaning from Allah Starts with "the Prophet said etc

Few in number-Less than 1000 Over 100,000 Topic regarding Man-God Relationship, Akhira, Tauheed, Beauty of Worship. Wide range of Topics They can be Sayings, They are only Sayings Actions, etc

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Compilation of the Holy Quran

Since the Holy Quran was not revealed all at once and its

different verses were revealed as and when appropriate, so it was neither possible nor practicable from the very beginning to write and preserve it in a book form. Before one can begin to understand the manner in which it was preserved, the amazing memories of the Arab nation must be kept in mind. And of course, the fact that Allah Himself has said: Verily, it isWeWho have sent down this Message and it isWeWho shall guard it. (Surah Hijr; 15:9)

Total Time of Revelation= 23 years (610 to 632 AD) Total Verses = 6,666 Total Suwar = 114

How the Quran was Revealed

ALLAH
Holy Jibreel Prophet Companions

Different Stages in its Compilation


In The Time of The Holy Prophet

In The Time of Abu Bakr & Umar


In The Time of Uthman

How the Quran was preserved in the time of the Holy Prophet.
The Quran was revealed to the Holy Prophet through Jibril , who would make

sure that he s learnt its verses by heart. Once the Holy Prophet had memorized the verses, Jibril would tell him that these verses should be placed in so and so Surah in so and so order. When the Holy Prophet had learnt the verses, he would then teach them to his companions who would Learn them by heart (these Huffaz were 1000s) The scribes of the Holy Prophet, would write the verses under his instruction on paper, stone tablets, bones, palm leaves, wooden boards or animal skins. (These companions were about 34). Ardah Quran was preserved in partial volumes in writing, but primarily in the hearts of tens of thousands of his companions.

Preservation and Compilation during the caliphates of Abu Bakr and Umar
A large number of Huffaz killed at Yamamah Umar proposed to Abu Bakr: Lets Write it down in a single

volume After some initial hesitation, he Agreed A team of Muqri Sahaba led by Zaid bin Thabit were formed to conduct this task

How did Zayd ensure authenticity?


The contributor must have in writing as well as be a Hafiz He tested its reliability against his own memory and that of

his team of Huffaz Two trustworthy witnesses had testified to the fact that the particular verse had been written in the presence of the Prophet The written verses were matched with the collections of companions

The Final Volume


This Task was completed by Umars time and stayed with him

until his martyrdom. Then it went in the custody of Hafsah and thus became known as Mushaf-i-Hafsah.

Preservation and Compilation in the period of Uthman bin 'Affan


Islamic Empire had spread far and wide New people with new tongues, languages, dialects and

pronunciations had become Muslims They began to use these to recite Quran in sometimes odd ways.

Hudhayfa bin Yaman approached the caliph Uthman and told

him about the possible dangers of this Uthman immediately took action Reassembled a team under Zaid bin Thabit Made seven copies of Mushaf e Hafsa Sent these to the provincial capitals Destroyed any deviant/incomplete manuscripts

Questions that you get


Note on compilation of the Quran in the time of

Holy Prophet Abu Bakr & Umar Uthman All of the above

Role of Scribes in the compilation of the Quran Steps taken by Zaid in Thabit (2 parts)

Before going any further, now we must study the sources of

Islamic Law

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Elements of Qiyas
1.

2. 3.

4.

The ORIGINAL CASE (asl), on which a ruling is given in the text and analogy seeks to extend it to a new case. The NEW CASE (far), on which a ruling is needed. The EFFECTIVE CAUSE (illah), which is an attribute (wasf) of the original case and it is found to be in common between the original and the new case. The RULE (hukm), governing the original case which is to be extended to the new case.
Examples

Prohibition of wine drinking based on Quranic verse in Surah Maida 90 1. 2. 3. 4. Asl wine drinking Far taking drug Illah intoxicating effect Hukm - prohibition

Smoking in Masjid 1. 2. 3. 4. Asl eating onion in mosque Far smoking in mosque Illah causing bad smell to the mouth Hukm - prohibition/haram

EXTRA COURSE QUESTIONS

Importance of Ijma
1. It answers the queries of the people in various situations with logical reasoning 2. If something is explained very briefly in the Quran and Sunnah, Ijma can be done for clarification 3. Since it is done by those who are scholars so there is no doubt in their work 4. Through Ijma the principles of Quran and Sunnah can be extended to new situations 5. Ijma is source of uniting Muslims on new issues 6. It is a source of making the religion applicable to all times and places

What do Muslims mean when they call the Quran the kalamAllah 1. It is the of God)? Allah Himself. (word Divine speech of
2.

These are the exact words relayed to the Holy Prophet by Jibril. 3. Allah Himself protects it 4. It is the very basis of all thought and action in Islam 5. All Islamic laws are either derived from it or based on it 6. Commandments of Quran are invariable and unchangeable for all times to come. 7. Refusal to believe in even a single verse is disbelief. 8. If someone consciously disobeys, becomes a unbeliever 9. It is the fountainhead of all belief and practice 10. All Muslims belonging to all sects agree on its text.

Why is the Quran considered a central miracle in Islam?


1. It is the Final revealed book of Allah

2. It is the word of Allah


3. Allah Himself took the responsibility to

ensure it will never be corrupted 4. It has remained unadulterated to date

Why was the Quran revealed in parts?


1. 2.

3.
4. 5.

Because Allah willed it to be revealed as His Wisdom judged. The Quran explains: Those who reject Faith say: "Why is not the Qur'an revealed to him all at once?" Thus (is it revealed) that We may strengthen your heart thereby and We have rehearsed it to you in slow well-arranged stages gradually. (Surah Furqan; 25:32-33). It would be hard for the people if they would get all the instructions together, because they would have to start acting on them at once This way they found it easy to progressively follow Allahs commands as they were revealed step by step. Many verses would be irrelevant if revealed before a certain stage. E.g., verses regarding Jihad would be irrelevant in Makkah, because Jihad would be allowed only once an Islamic state had been formed.

Why wasnt the Quran put down in book form during the time of the Holy Holy Quran was not revealed all at 1. Since the Prophet?
once and its different verses were revealed as and when appropriate, so it was neither possible nor practicable from the very beginning to write and preserve it in a book form. 2. Unless it was complete, it would not be proper to put it in one volume. 3. Otherwise there would be confusion. 4. Hundreds remembered it by heart

Importance of the compilation of the Quran


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

The compilation of the Holy Quran set the basic standard for All Muslims to follow. It made sure that the future generations would not be led astray. Through compilation It became easy for the Muslims to keep and carry the Quran. It solved the problem of dialect in the time of Hazrat Uthman Since the scribes were appointed by the Prophet himself so their work can never be doubted They were aware of the situation and condition in which the Quran was revealed so their interpretation to the verses of the Quran cannot be doubted Their work also ensured the unity of Muslim Ummah.

Reasons for the change in Prophets Attitude towards Jews


1.

2. 3.
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Jews never accepted the Holy Prophet and always went against him Islam spread and that threatened Jews supremacy over Arabia Jews had socio-economic and political reasons to tolerate Muslims Riba being declared illegal deteriorated the relations between Banu Quainqah and Muslims Banu Quainqah and hypocrites active in exterminating Islam For Jews the arrival of muhajireens and the Holy Prophet was unbearable Jews mocked at Muslims for having Jerusalem as their Kiblah and fasting on Ashura Composed anti-Islam verses and mispronounced Islamic verses Opposite beliefs

The End of the Prophetic Mission


1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

This day have I perfected your religion for you, revealed after the Final Sermon Most of Arabia accepted Islam 9th A.H is called Year of Delegation or Am ul Wafoud- the entire Arab nation came under one banner of faith Holy Prophet fell ill on 29th of Saffar 11A.H and died within few days Appointed Abu Bakr as the Imam after him Spent his last days in the Adobe of Ayesha Second week of Rabi ul Awwal 11 A.H he died

PROPHET AS MODEL OF EXCELLENCE

Why is he an ideal to follow?


The Quran insists: if you love Allah,follow the Prophet he who obeys the Prophet obeys Allah Verily in the Prophet of Allah you have the best example Short explanations of the above

Honesty & truthfulness

Titles of al-Sadiq (the truthful) & al-Amin (the trustworthy) even before formal awarding of prophethood.

Worst enemies would trust him e.g. the night of his migration asked Ali to sleep in his bed to return belongings to the owners.
Marriage with Khadija outcome of his honesty & fair dealings. Had another trade partner, Saib, at Makka both alternately led the trade carvans Prophet, on his turn, would 1st of all produce accounts before doing anything else Abu Sufiyan in the court of Roman emperor couldnt tell a lie about Prophets personal conduct Stressed on fulfilling promises: One who does not keep promise, has no religion Refused to accommodate Abu Jandal, who had escaped from the clutches of Quraish, after signing the treaty of Hudaibiya. Makkans were ready to accept his word when he addressed them from the Safa hill (about telling them that an army ready to attack Makka from behind the hill. Condemned all forms of unfair earnings: One who cheats is not among us &

Leadership & statesmanship


Emerged as a dynamic & vibrant leader in Madina

Unified stranger & mutually hostile groups e.g. Mawakhat faith based brotherhood b/w Muhajireen & Ansar Bonded together the Aws & Khazraj tribes Avoided hostility of the Jews by including them in the Charter of Madina Treated the Jews with both justice & mercy when they violated terms of the charter A successful strategist in the battlefield accepted advice of others e.g. digging ditches around Madina Foiled attempt of the Allies to win Jewish support in the battle of the trench Reorganized the fleeing army in the battle of Hunayn.

How to imitate these qualities in modern times


Simplicity overspending on weddings, other joyful occasions. Muslims today can celebrate in a sober & simple way, while helping the needy with whatever excess wealth they have e.g. may give charity to various organizations. Muslim parents should revive the example of simple dowry of Fatima & Prophets refusal to arrange her maid after the conquest of Khyber, 7 A.H.

How to imitate these qualities in modern times


Honesty Muslim traders should avoid hoarding, giving short measures and adulteration of food etc. So establish weight with justice and do not fall short in the balance. (55:9) Sense of responsibility in joint business e.g. Porphet & Saib.

How to imitate these qualities in modern times


Leadership Muslim leaders can learn great lessons from Prophets qualities how to ensure protection of non-Muslim minorities in Muslim states e.g. Christians, Hindus & Sikhs in Pakistan. Avoid war & accept peace Treaty of Hudaibiya Other treaties

How to imitate these qualities in modern times


Mercy & forgiveness Muslims in the contemporary world need to control tempers in unfavourable environment e.g. on a busy road, when someone violates traffic rules in hurry, he/she should be instructed politely. Try to win hearts of enemies (conquest of Makka) Make sober & modest jubilations on joyful occasions e.g. on winning a match against a strong rival.

How to imitate these qualities in modern times

Simplicity overspending on weddings, other joyful occasions Muslims today can celebrate in a sober & simple way, while helping the needy with whatever excess wealth they have e.g. may give charity to various organizations. Muslim parents should revive the example of simple dowry of Fatima & Prophets refusal to arrange her maid after the conquest of Khyber, 7 A.H. Honesty Muslim traders should avoid hoarding, giving short measures and adulteration of food etc. So establish weight with justice and do not fall short in the balance. (55:9) Sense of responsibility in joint business e.g. Porphet & Saib. Leadership : Muslim leaders can learn great lessons from Prophets qualities how to ensure protection of non-Muslim minorities in Muslim states e.g. Christians, Hindus & Sikhs in Pakistan. Avoid war & accept peace Treaty of Hudaibiya Mercy & forgiveness Muslims in the contemporary world need to control tempers in unfavourable environment e.g. on a busy road, when someone violates traffic rules in hurry, he/she should be instructed politely. Try to win hearts of enemies conquest of Makka. Make sober & modest jubilations on joyful occasions e.g. on winning a match against a strong rival.

Special Features of an Islamic community


brotherhood based on common faith, social equality piety being the sole criterion of one's superiority over the other specified spheres of rights and responsibilities Masjid is center of the community
modesty

healthy circulation of wealth promoting peace and love establishment of justice tolerance towards the non-Muslim citizens We see such a community in its perfect shape in Madinah

A REVIEW OF THE PROPHETS CONDUCT IN BATTLES (GHAZWAT)

The Prophets rules in War


1. 1st priority should be to spread Islam then 2. 3.

4.
5.

Treaty of Peace otherwise war! Non Combatants (civilians) cannot be attacked! Private property cannot be harmed nor confiscated Mistreatment of Captives Not allowed Mutilation of dead bodies not allowed

Page 1of3
1. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) was the

2. 3. 4. 5.

greatest military leader, most righteous, the most insightful He showed superior genius, strictness, bravery, Excellent arrangements Stood fast facing the enemy He made war to defend the faith not to be offensive. He was able to impose security, institute peace

Page 2of3
6. Previously wars were for robbing, killing,

plundering, tyranny, oppressing the weak, rape , cruelty. 7. Jihad seeks to free man from oppression, tyranny and aggression & spreading security, safety mercy and compassion as well as observing the rights of the conquered people

Page 3of3
8. Issued honourable strict rules about war

9. forbade torturing, killing children and women, robbery, destroying property,

hurting non-combatants 10. Treatment of Captives (examples) 11. Treatment of Conquered People (examples)

ISLAMIYAT 2058/2: REVISION HANDOUT

Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud

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Unit 5: Selected Hadith

Unit 5: Formula (i) & (ii)

(i)Teachings What teachings it contains regarding what Muslims believe and should practice What are the implications for the Muslim individual & community Cross Ref either here or in (ii): from Quran or Sunnah

(ii)How can Muslims put these teachings in to action

How the teachings in

this hadith can be applied to our lives What advantages would that have for the community & individual Modern Day example if any

Hadith No 1:'Religion is sincerity.' We said: 'To whom?' The Prophet said: 'To Allah, His Book, His Messenger, the leaders of the Muslims and to their common people.

(a)
1. 2.

(b)
1.

Islam demands sincere and genuine faith. This sincerity is needed in the fundamental beliefs as well as towards the leaders and the members of the community. This means strong belief in Tawhid (oneness of God), the divine message of the Quran and the messenger of God who conveyed this Message to us. Also, the leader of the community, who follows the Quran and Sunnah, should be sincerely followed: And obey God and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you. (4:59) Finally, Muslims should believe in respecting and caring for the fellows in the community.

Belief in Tawhid, Quran and the last Messenger is demonstrated by following the eternal guidance of the Quran and Sunnah. Muslims should observe the five pillars of Islam As for cooperating with the leader of the community, Muslims should remember the speech of Abu Bakr on his election as caliph:

2. 3.

3.

4.

4.
5.

Help me if I am in the right, set me right if I am in the wrong


Similarly, sincerity towards fellows should be expressed by being kind, polite, just and respectful to them.

5.

6.

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Hadith 2: None of you believes until he wants for his brother what he wants for himself

(a)
1.

(b)
1.

2.

3.

4.

According to Islamic faith, all believers are bonded together by a common faith in Islam They, therefore, constitute a single family or brotherhood where all members are familiar to each other regardless of geographical, racial or linguistic barriers. The Holy Quran endorses this by saying: Believers are a single brotherhood (49:10). Now this sense of belonging to a single family unit demands that a spirit of sacrifice for the other members be nurtured and kept alive.

2.

A true believer is supposed to be ready to give preference to the needs and feelings of his Muslim brothers over his own. He should try to emulate the example of the Ansar of Madinah who readily shared all their belongings with their Muhajir brothers. Muslims should negate selfishness, promote spirit of sacrifice and love for the fellow Muslims Should develop a sense of collective welfare and make efforts to ensure comfort and benefits for others as much as for himself:

3.

4.

5.

True believers should not look down upon others and should not taunt them or call them by offensive nick names or ever break ties with them.

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Hadith No 3 : Let him who believes in Allah and the Last Day either speak good or keep silent, and let him who believes in Allah and the Last Day be generous to his neighbour, and let him who believes in Allah and the Last Day be generous to his guest.

(a)
1.

(b)
A faithful believer ought to be a source of comfort to his neighbours and should project generosity and hospitality towards all human beings giving preference to other Muslim brethren. 2. The Quran commands its followers to be kind and polite in speech: And speak kindly to mankind (2:83). 3. Neighbors and guests are important components of the Muslim society and showing them generosity would strengthen the bonds of love and fraternity 4. Allah elaborately enjoins upon us, in (alMa'un), certain duties signifying the importance of neighbourly needs
1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

The Messenger of Allah, in his saying, has laid down certain cardinal disciplines for a true believer Unless belief expresses itself practically, it remains but a pretension. Teachings of the Prophet aim at inculcating and developing the feelings of generosity and kindness in our day to day interaction with others True belief is palpably associated with kindness in attitude. Practical demonstration of true belief has to be projected through action

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Hadith No 4 : A man asked the Messenger: Do you think that if I say my prayers regularly, fast in Ramadan, treat as lawful that which is lawful and treat as forbidden that which is forbidden, and do nothing further, I shall enter paradise? He said: Yes.

(a)
1.

(b)
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Amongst the five pillars upon which Islam stands, after Shahadah, the two mentioned above are those which are obligatory for each and every Muslim. This Hadith highlights the principles upon which is based eligibility for Paradise. Without the establishment of Salah and observance of the Sawm, it is impossible to avoid Hellfire Another thing that is mentioned, is the adherence to the Halal and avoiding the Haram If Islamic teachings are followed, i.e. only the lawful is acted upon and the prohibited is shunned, the path to Jannah becomes clear and sure

2. 3.

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5.

6.

Salat and Sawm are both aimed at promoting self-discipline and complete submission to Allah's command The Quran elaborates the objective of fasting in these words: O you who believe! Fasting has been prescribed to you ____ so that you may learn self-restraint (2:183). A Muslim is not merely ordered to pray individually but to 'establish' prayer, meaning to bond collectively with the community through the daily prayers and also through celebrating Ramadan These together prepare the believers to observe patience, perseverance and avoid Halal so as to achieve the objectives Thus such a conduct in life would pave the way to Paradise.

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Hadith No 5 : Every person's every joint must perform a charity every day the sun comes up: to act justly between two people is a charity; to help a man with his mount, lifting him onto it or hoisting up his belongings onto it is a charity; every step you take to prayers is a charity; every kind word is a charity and removing a harmful thing from the road is a charity

(a)
1. 2.

(b)
1.

All physical powers as a gift & trust from Allah Muslim should remember this and express gratitude to Allah by helping fellow Muslims brothers All such acts are acts of charity Such acts should be equated with exerting energy in the worship of God The Prophet said: The best among the people are those who are a source of benefit to the people This hadith emphasizes that a Muslim must spend each day of his or her life doing acts of kindness

Islam includes all good deeds whether acts of worship or kindness to others in the scope of charity that shall be rewarded by Allah. Muslims should help their brothers and sisters in day to day affairs. They should hurry to offer their prayer, share the burden of fellows and, wherever possible, remove anything harmful from thoroughfares. As in the examples given by the Holy Prophet, all joints and organs of the body working for goodness perform acts of charity So much so that the Holy Prophet said that, even a smile is a charity.

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Hadith No.6: Whosoever of you sees an evil action, let him change it with his hand, and if he is not able to do so then with his tongue, and if he is not able to do so then with his heart, and that is the weakest of faith

(a)
1.

(b)
1.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

Islam teaches its followers to first establish a true Islamic society based on the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah The faith inside a Muslim expresses itself through his or her opposition to evil It further commands them to defend the society against all possible evils with whatever available resources. A Muslim must physically stop evil or attack it verbally, or at least have feelings of resentment for it. The Quran declares the distinguishing factor of the Muslim Ummah as: You are the best of the people, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong and believing in Allah (3:100) If a person doesn't even feel bad upon encountering an evil, then perhaps true faith has not yet entered his or her heart.

2.

Eradication of evil involves struggle of varying degrees depending on the available resources with the Muslim community and government. If s/he does nothing, nor even feels the need to do so s/he should be warned that as per this Hadith, even the weakest degree of faith is missing from his or her heart. Evil may be suppressed through speech or writings by individuals, or use of law enforcement by Muslim rulers. Thus suppressing evil, (Qital or Physical Jihad.) or verbally admonishing (Dawa'/intellectual Jihad) it, is the duty of a Muslim.

3.

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5.

But at all times a believer is required to shun evil internally and for this ask Allahs help (Surah Falaq)

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Hadith No 7 : It was said: O Messenger of Allah, who is the most excellent of men? The Messenger said: 'The believer who strives hard in the way of Allah with his person and his property.

(a)
1.

(b)
1.

2.

3.

4.

The importance of striving for the cause of Allah can easily be understood by the Quranic verse: Those who believe, and suffer exile (Hijrah) and strive with might and money, in Allah's cause, with their goods and their persons, shall attain the highest rank in the sight of Allah (9:20) Thus belief in Allah is subject and conditional to striving in His way with all resources so as to attain the status of a martyr which is the highest reward bestowed upon the believers by Allah Jihad is aimed at suppressing evil, stopping aggression and transgression but within the limits prescribed by the code of conduct of war in Islam. Muslims believe that all their physical and financial resources are granted by God, and so, they develop the spirit of placing them at Gods disposal.

2.

3. 4.

The Messenger of Allah, in this Hadith, has described some of the most excellent Muslims for all times, the Mujahideen or those who conduct Jihad with the best of their resources To be included in 'the best' we must be ready to sacrifice our time, money and even life if need be in the path of Allah This includes physical, mental and spiritual Jihad One who strives in Allah's way will be ranked as a shaheed even if s/he dies a natural death

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Hadith No 8: The Messenger of Allah said: Whom do you count to be a martyr among you?' They said: O Messenger of Allah, whoever is killed in the way of Allah is a martyr. He said: 'In that case the martyrs of my community will be very few!. (We asked): Then who is Shaheed?. He who is killed in the way of Allah is a martyr, he who dies a natural death in the way of Allah is a martyr, he who dies of plague is a martyr, he who dies of cholera is a martyr.'

(a)
1. 2.

(b)
1.

The entire life of a Muslim is spent in some form of Jihad He or she may be performing spiritual, mental or physical Jihad at any given time The Quran and the Prophet have repeatedly admired those busy in Jihad and ranked them as the best Muslims. The Holy Prophet fought battles, received wounds and also witnessed martyrdom of his close associates. It was generally believed that this rank can only be achieved if one was actually in combat, but this Hadith has included all those Muslims who are struggling in Allah's Path in one way or the other.

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3.

3. 4.

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5.

If the desire of a Muslim is to attain the exalted status of a Shaheed (Martyr) he or she should spend every living moment in Allah's Way This can be achieved simply by making the intention to seek Allah's pleasure in all that we do Allah's Path, in a broad term, applies to many aspects of goodness If one's life is spent in this manner, then no matter if death comes naturally or through a disease, he or she shall be amongst the Martyrs This serves as a great encouragement for those who do not get an opportunity to be involved in physical jihad

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Hadith No9: No one eats better food than that which he eats out of the work of his hand

(a)
1.

(b)
1.

2.

3.

4.

This Hadith stresses on two important teachings: Dignity of Labour & Superiority of Halal income The Holy Prophet said that the test lies not in how much you earn, but whether it is earned through fair or unfair means Islam warns that those who use wrongfully acquired wealth actually fill their stomach with hellfire The Holy Prophet himself set an example of labour many a times in his life: Construction of the Masjid & Daily chores

2. 3.

4.

5.

The Holy Prophet also said that, He who works with his hand is a friend of Allah. The Holy Prophet himself never evaded physical hard labour In the light of this Hadith and the Prophet's example, no Muslim should avoid physical labour nor consider it below his or her dignity. Also they should respect those who engage in physical labour and not consider them inferior They should prefer to earn through hard work than unfair means

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Hadith No. 10 : One who manages the affairs of the widow and the poor man is like the one who exerts himself in the way of Allah, or the one who stands for prayer in the night or fasts in the day

(a)
1.

(b)
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Islamic teachings train the believers to develop a sense of fulfilling the rights of God as well as those of the fellow beings. Islam strictly instructs us to take care of the less privileged in the society. Such people have been equated by the Prophet to a regular worshipper and the one who strives in the way of God. The Quran links true faith with a supportive attitude towards the poor and declares those who fail to do so as the rejecters of faith Islam also requires that fellow Muslims behave with each other in a brotherly fashion as an expression of genuine faith. The Holy Prophet declared mutual love and care among the members of the Islamic community as one of the prerequisites to the true faith

The Muslims should follow the example of the Prophet who was known even before awarding of prophethood as the supporter of widows & orphans. They should support those in need by regular charity and almsgiving By taking care of the poor, the needy, widows, etc one can prove whether s/he is actually a believer or merely a pretender of faith The Quran links kindness to Tawheed by saying: Serve Allah and do not join any partners with Him; and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need. (4:36) In a Muslim society special arrangements should be made to support the needy with Zakat and other acts of charity.

2. 3.

4.

5.

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Hadith No 11 : 'I and the man who brings up an orphan will be in paradise like this.' And he pointed with his two fingers, the index finger and the middle finger.

(a)
1.

(b)
1.

Islam instructs its followers to be caring and considerate towards the unsupported and the needy. It promises greater rewards for such noble attitude, e.g., earning the pleasure of God and closeness to His Messenger. It also associates such nobility with the love for God:And they feed for the love of God, the indigent, the orphan and the captive (76:8) Care and support of the orphan is greatly admired by the Quran and Sunnah, as both promise huge rewards for those who are kind towards the orphan. This Hadith guarantees such people closeness to the Prophet in Paradise for any believer this is no less than a fabulous award in the Hereafter

The Prophet was asked in Surah alDuha: Did He not find you an orphan and give you shelter? He therefore, showered special love on the orphan

2.

2.

3.

3.

Muslims should imitate his examples in whatever possible ways such as supporting orphanages
They should adopt orphan children in the light of the admiration expressed by the Prophet, the best Muslim house is that in which an orphan is well treated. Such noble tasks strengthen the communal bonds among the members of the Muslim community.

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Hadith No 12 : The Messenger sent Abu Musa and Mu'adh ibn Jabal to Yaman, and he sent each of them to govern a part. Then he said: 'Be gentle and do not be hard, and cause rejoicing and do not alienate.

(a)
1.

(b)
A Muslim ruler is expected to discharge his duties with such a faith deeply ingrained in his mind and show maximum kindness and patronizing attitude towards his subjects Both the companions mentioned in this Hadith were highly trained by the Prophet and it was virtually unthinkable that they would be harsh to anyone, so his warning to them was actually directed towards the rulers to come Muslim rulers need to follow these model rulers who ruled not only the state but also the hearts of their subjects.

1. 2. 3.

This Hadith highlights the attitude of a Muslim ruler A Muslim ruler is given the power to rule a country as a trust from Allah A Muslim ruler is required to consider himself the custodian of his people, responsible for their prosperity and welfare True Muslim rulers try their best to win the hearts of their people by kindness and by being very close to them, avoiding any degree of harshness. The Prophet said, Be merciful to those on earth and He, Who is in the heavens, shall show mercy to you.
2.

3.

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4.

They should remove all barriers that separate them form their people and should treat them in a kind and fatherly way so that people do not fear but respect them with sincerity.
We also understand that 'Ruler' also means everyone in responsibility, such as a parent or employer; who should also take a lesson from this Hadith.

5.

5.

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Hadith No 13 : He who studies the Qur'an is like the owner of tethered camels. If he attends to them he will keep hold of them, but if he lets them loose they will go away

(a)
1.

(b)
A Muslim should bind himself and herself with the Quran as a person firmly ties up his prized camels 2. The Holy Prophet has used this analogy in order to emphasize on the significance of the Quran as camels were a very precious belonging in those times. 3. He further said, 'The best amongst you is the one who studies the Quran and teaches it.' 4. In any Muslim community, readers and teachers of the Quran are held in high esteem. 5. In most families, formal education of a Muslim child begins by learning the recitation of the Quran
1.

Holy Quran is the ultimate source of guidance for the worldly matters as well as the Hereafter. The conduct of the Muslims depends on the degree of their association with the Quran because it is the basis of their lives. The Prophet has linked this bond with the ownership of the tethered camels As long as the camels are supervised and kept tethered, they remain under control. Similarly, as long as a Muslim remains attached to the Quran by recitation, learning and comprehending it, the Quran continues to benefit him; but if this relation is weakened, the effect of the Quran gradually fades away. Quran continues to guide the reader as long as the latter continues to read and comprehend the message of the Quran

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

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Hadith No .14: May God show mercy to a man who is kindly when he sells, when he buys, and when he demands his money back

(a)
1. 2.

(b)
1.

Muslim should demonstrate compassionate behavior towards fellow Muslims in dealings with them . Islamic Economic Teachings stress on honesty and justice on one hand, while mercy and lenience on the other. Sellers should believe that honesty and generosity are liked by God. Buyers similarly should not have any ill intention of exploiting any weakness of the seller. Creditors should believe that God alone enabled him to be a source of helping those in need and so, he should develop spirit of magnanimity when some needy person approaches him. In conclusion, mercy and compassion should not be left out during business transactions

The Prophet conducted trade not only with full honesty and dedication, but also with kindness The Messenger also said: Be compassionate to those on earth and He who is in the heavens will be compassionate to you. He would not hide defects of merchandise while selling any items or cheat the buyer.

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3. 4.

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5.

4.
5.

The buyer nor the seller should exploit each other.


A creditor should show generosity & grant relief to the debtor because the Prophet greatly admired such degree of kindness: Whoever has a claim on a brother which is payable and he allows respite to the debtor in his payment, he will be given the reward of charity.

6.

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Hadith No .5: God will not show mercy to him who does not show mercy to others.

(a)
1. 2. 3.

(b)
1.

4.

5.

Allah Himself is the fount of mercy The Quran says that Allah's mercy wraps His anger In this Hadith the Holy Prophet is laying down the condition for Allah's Mercy only for those who show mercy to others Allah loves His creation and doesn't allow anyone to be harsh as He Himself is not harsh or unfair to anyone To deserve His Mercy, one must show it to His Creation

The Muslims are required to follow the footsteps of the Prophet who never cursed his enemies and insulters in Makkah, Taif and the battlefield. He kindly treated captives of Badr and forgave his fatal enemies on the conquest of Makka. Muslims today may imitate such noble conduct and generosity of heart. They should not overburden their employees and should have the moral courage of forgiving the insulters because they will receive huge reward from their Lord: Even if someone is harsh, we should try to win over him with love and compassion The Prophet said Be compassionate to those on earth and He, who is in the

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Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 0321 44 60606

6.

Hadith No.16: The believers are like a single man; if his head is affected he is all affected and if his eye is affected he is affected

(a)
1. 2.

(b)
1. 2.

3.

4. 5. 6.

This Hadith emphasizes Muslim brotherhood and unity Islamic teachings strike at the root of racial, geographical, social and linguistic barriers and discriminations All the Muslims are bonded together by the strong fabric of common faith that makes them a single fraternity: Believers are a single brotherhood (49:10). When a brother is in pain, his pain is felt by all his siblings Just as siblings are one family unit, so is the entire Muslim community Just as a body cannot be at rest, if any single part is afflicted, the Muslims cannot be at peace if some amongst them is in trouble.

The believers may follow this Hadith in a variety of ways. The Ansar of Madina accommodated the Muhajireen of Makka by sharing all their assets with them.

3.
4.

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6.

They should care for fellow Muslims in hour of need and trials The finest example in history of such mutual compassion was the brotherhood between the Muhajireen and Ansar Each Ansari divided his entire belongings in half and half and presented the same to his Muhajir brethren Muslims should follow this example and sacrifice their wealth for the less fortunate Muslims Brothers & Sisters

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Hadith No.17: Modesty produces nothing but good.

(a)
1.

(b)
1.

Modesty is perhaps the most important component of the moral teachings of Islam Modesty is the barrier, like piety, against all indecencies and evils and is thus a source of strengthening faith and submission before divine commands.

2.

The Prophet said: ' Be modest before Allah: the correct way to be modest before Him is to control your heart and head and keep them pure We must practice modesty by shunning evil thoughts Modesty keeps us away from all evil acts The Muslims must lower their gaze as it may lead to sin Thus the practice of modesty eliminates evils and social problems so that a balanced society develops.

2. 3. 4.

3.

So, modesty strengthens and accompanies faith, and faith, in turn, promotes mental piety.
Mental piety reflects a believers obedience to God and is a means of earning Gods favor. The Prophet declared modesty as a cardinal feature of Islam: Every religion has a distinctive quality and distinctive quality of Islam is modesty Modesty is not only to be observed towards fellow human beings, but towards Allah too

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6.

Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 0321 44 60606

Hadith No 18 : He who has in his heart as much faith as a grain of mustard seed will not enter hell, and he who has in his heart as much pride as a grain of mustard seed will not enter paradise

(a)
According to Muslim belief, true faith alone guarantees a believers salvation from the fire of Hell and entry to Paradise. 2. This Hadith underlines the importance of true faith and renunciation of pride 3. It also identifies faith and arrogance being opposites of each other 4. When a person embraces Islam, he actually and practically submits to the will of Allah and submission is diametrically opposed to any form or degree of pride 5. Quran and Sunnah reiterate that faith and pride cannot co-exist in the heart of a Muslim
1. 1.

(b)
We must shun all types of pride and observe modesty and humbleness in all of his postures and dealings

2. By strengthening a sense of humility, pride can be effectively resisted and controlled. 3.

This ensures pleasure of God:for God does not love the arrogant (4:36)

4. Following the divine guidance is the best means of promoting humility and resisting pride.

As faith and pride cannot co-exist in one heart, we must continuously analyze our own selves and keep our hearts under check 6. We must adopt humility not only in behavior, but also in dress and manners
5.

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Hadith No 19: The world is the believer's prison and the unbeliever's paradise

(a)
1. 2.

(b)
1.

Allah created charms in this world to test His obedient servants. A believer is trained by Islamic teachings to consider this world a prison where he is not free to live a life of his choice and so, cant get attached to it just as a prisoner cant develop a lasting association with the prison. The Holy Prophet said This world is but a cultivating ground for the Hereafter. A true believer strongly believes in the eternal joys of the Hereafter whereas a non-believer is fully enticed by the temporary glow of this world and thus, denies the Hereafter. A non-believer on the other hand, never wants to leave this world because as he doesnt believe in Hereafter, he sees this as the only place to be happy.

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Paradise is the place where one would get whatever one would wish for Believers, for whom the world is a testing ground feel imprisoned here The unbelievers strive solely for the pursuit of temporal happiness We, as Muslims, should focus on concentrating to spend our lives in this 'prison' as per rules and regulations set forth by God Almighty And shun our desires and wishes in this world, to project ourselves before God Almighty as true Muslims. A Muslim should never lose sight of his/her real objective and purpose, and should not become overly involved in worldly desires

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Hadith No 20: Allah does not regard your appearances & your possessions, but he regards your hearts and your actions.

(a)
1.

(b)
We must purify our hearts and our intentions 2. Our actions must be strictly according to the Islamic teachings, even if they may seem alien to some society, because our intention is to please Allah
1. 3.

This Hadith categorically declares the criterion by which God judges actions and conduct. God does not consider outward appearance or worldly gains made by a person. He simply considers a persons conduct and the intentions behind it because the Prophet clearly stated in another Hadith: Actions are judged by intentions However good appearance we may carry and whatever success we get, God is so supreme and high that everything is worthless before Him because He is Lord of all the worlds and He knows secrets of hearts. So, a true believer strives to act according to the Quran and Sunnah and with sincerity of intention.

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Perhaps the people around us may only appreciate our appearance and wealth, but the only one whose appreciation is worth getting is Allah

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4. They should reject any form or degree of hypocrisy or showing off and develop sincerity of faith and intention, keeping in mind: Whether you hide whatever is in your hearts or reveal it, God knows it all. (Al Quran 3:29)
5.

They should do all noble deeds with the pure intention of earning Gods pleasure and not for showing off to others.

Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 0321 44 60606

There are 3 ways of performing Hajj. Decide yours.

Hajj al-Ifraad IF YES


Change into Ihraam from Miaqaat Make Niyyah for Hajj only Say Talbiyah

Hajj al-Qiraan IF YES


Change into Ihraam from Miaqaat Make Niyyah for Hajj & Umrah Say Talbiyah

Hajj al-Tamuttu IF YES


Change into Ihraam from Miaqaat Make Niyyah for Umrah only Say Talbiyah

Perform Tawaf Al-Quddum (optional) May perform Sai for Hajj *on 10th Dhul Hajjah perform only Tawaf-ul-Ifadah

Perform Tawaf-ul-Umrah 2 Rakaat behind Muqaam-e-Ibrahim Perform Sai for Umrah May Perform Sai for Hajj too

Perform Tawaf-ul-Umrah 2 Rakaat behind Muqaam-e-Ibrahim Perform Sai for Umrah

Stay in Ihraam & wait for the 8th Dhul Hajjah

Shave or get a hair cut & take of Ihraam

8TH DHUL HAJJAH (morning) Proceed to Mina (*reach there before Duhr) Offer Duhr, Asr, Maghrib & Isha Offer Fajr Salah on the 9th Say Talbiyah repeatedly

8TH DHUL HAJJAH (morning) Put on Ihraam Make Niyyah for Hajj Say Talbiyah

Proceed to Arafaat on the 9th after sunrise *reach there before Duhr

9TH DHUL HAJJAH Offer Duhr & Asr Salah at Duhr time (early) Make Dua

Proceed to Muzdalifah after sunset *reach there before midnight

Offer Maghrib & Isha Salah at Isha time Collect alteast 49 pebbles Offer Fajr Sahalh & make Dua

Return to Mina after sunrise on the 10th *reach befor Zawal

Stone Jamraat-al-Aqba *with seven pebbles before Zawal Slaughter animal *for Hajj Qiraan & Tamuttu only Shave or get a hair cut & take off Ihraam

Proceed to Makkah to perform Tawaf-Al-Ifadah by Zafal of the 11th

Perform Tawaf-Al-Ifadah Pray 2 Rakaat behind Maqam-e-Ibrahim Perform Sai for Hajj *if not performed before

Return to Mina to spend nights of 11th, 12th & 13th *not take rest in Makkah

11TH DHUL HAJJAH On the 11th, after Zawal stone 3 Jamraat * 7 pebbles each, starting with the smallest Make Dua after 1st & 2nd Jamraat

12TH DHUL HAJJAH On the 12th, after Zawal stone 3 Jamraat * 7 pebbles each, starting with the smallest Make Dua after 1st & 2nd Jamraat

In a hurry? Leave Mina before sunset on the 12th Dhul Hajjah

IF YES
Return back to Makkah

IF NO
13TH DHUL HAJJAH On the 13th, after Zawal stone 3 Jamraat * 7 pebbles each, starting with the smallest Make Dua after 1st & 2nd Jamraat

Perform Tawaf-Al-Wida while leaving Makkah 2 Rakaat behind Maqam-e-Ibrahim

HAJJ MABROOR & MAQBOOL INSHAALLAH!

RETURN HOME

Rights of Non Muslims


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Their life, wealth and honour should be protected by the state The Jizyyah imposed on them should be according to their financial conditions. Jizyyah should only be imposed on individuals who can take part in a war. Children, women, the handicapped, the insane, the old and the sick who cannot earn their living dont have to pay any tax The needy and poor among them should be provided the basic necessities of life Their personal matters and religious rituals should be exempted from the law of the state and no interference should be made in their faith and religion. Their places of worship should not be tampered with. They should be given all the rights which are sanctioned by the norms of justice and fairness for people in a civilised society

6.

7. 8.

Examples from Sunnah


Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud

0321 44 60606

jahangir@wol.net.pk

Prophets treatment of Jews as per Treaty Prophets respect for elderly Jew and Jewish funeral bier Prophet said, Beware! Whoever is cruel and hard on a non-Muslim minority, curtails their rights, burdens them with more than they can bear, or takes anything from them against their free will; I will complain against the person on the Day of Judgment.

Examples from Caliphs


Umar ibn al-Khattab the second caliph of Islam, once passed by a old, blind man begging in front of a house. Umar asked him which religious community he belonged to. The man said he was Jewish. Umar then asked him, What has brought you to this? The old man said, Do not ask me; ask poverty, and old age. Umar took the man to his own home, helped him from his personal money, and then ordered the head of the treasury, You must look after this man and others like him. We have not treated him fairly. He should not have spent the best years of his life among us to find misery in his old age. Umar also relieved him and others in his situation of paying the jizya In another instance, Umar ibn al-Khattab, the Muslim Caliph, was visiting Damascus. He passed by a group of Christian lepers. He ordered that they be given charity and regular stipends for food.

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Unit 5: Comparison between (i) & (ii)


(i)Teachings
What teachings it contains regarding what Muslims believe and should practice What are the implications for the Muslim individual & community Cross Ref either here or in (ii): from Quran or Sunnah
(ii)How can Muslims put these teachings in to action

How the teachings in this hadith can be applied to our lives What advantages would that have for the community & individual Modern Day example if any

How does belief in Tauheed affect the personality of a Muslim? [4]


1> Fearlessness of all except Allah 1> Allah becomes focus of Life 2> Belief in Tauheed infuses a spirit of Submission Obedience & Avoiding evil Express our gratitude

GHAZWAH e HUNAIN
& Siege of Taif

Background
The conquest of Makkah which came forth as a consequence of a swift blow astounded both the Arabs and other tribes who realized that they were doomed and had to submit to the new situation Some of the fierce, powerful proud tribes did not submit and favoured resistance. These were mainly: Hawazin and Thaqif. Nasr, Jashm and Sad bin Bakr etc So they selected Malik bin Awf An Nasri to fight against the Muslims

The March begins


The enemy had reached Hunnain (10 miles north of Makkah towards Arafat) Shawwal (nineteen days after conquest of Makkah) 12,000 Muslims (including 2000 new Makkan Muslims) Well equipped and armed Sends ahead scouts to bring info about the enemys location etc

Events of the Battle


Fierce fighting began against the just 4000 enemy soldiers The attack was so fierce that the Muslims had to retreat t in disorder and utter confusion The Prophet was left alone except for a few companions He prayed to Allah for His Help Soon Abbass reorganized them. Then the enemy began to retreat in utter confusion. In just a few hours had elapsed they were shatteringly defeated 70 men of Thaqif alone were killed along with many many others Allah mentions this in the Quran (Surah Taubah): Assuredly Allah did help you in many battle-fields and on the day of Hunain.. Huge chest of Spoils of war (6000 captives, 24000 camels, 40000 sheep 4000, silver ounces)

Onwards to Taif
After their defeat, the majority of enemy troops took refuge in Taif and surrounding areas Upon finishing with Hunain, the Prophet marched towards At-Taif. He laid siege to it for about 2 weeks A number of Muslims were wounded and twelve were killed. Heaving shooting of arrows; throwing of molten iron To force the enemy to surrender, the Prophet (peace be upon him) tended to a war policy of burning and cutting the enemys crops. Now the enemy implored the Prophet to stop and have mercy on them for the sake of Allh and out of kinship motives. The Prophet agreed and announced that anyone seeking asylum wouldnt be harmed When the deadlock prolonged, the Prophet decided to lift the siege and depart

When the Messenger of Allh was asked to invoke Allh against Thaqif, he said: O Allh, guide Thaqif and bring them to us as Muslims. He sent to Makkah, performed Umra & Left for Madinah The Arab resistance is now almost completely broken

Battle of Tabuk
9 A.H.

Events leading to the battle


The Byzantine power, which was considered the greatest military force on earth at that time, didnt like the rising power of Muslims in Arabia Caesar mustered a huge army of the Byzantines and pro-Roman Ghassanide tribes to launch a decisive bloody battle against the Muslims. The Prophet came to know and began to prepare as well. He announced and appealed to all Muslims They participated and donated generously

Events of the battle


30,000 Muslims army, though still not large enough to fight with Romans reached Tabuk Allah struck terror in the hearts of the Byzantines and their allies None of them dared set out to fight. Muslim forces gained a great military reputation in Arabian Peninsula The tribes, who used to a lly the Byzantines, became quite certain that their dependence upon their former masters came to an end. Therefore they turned into being pro-Muslims.

Importance of Tabuk The effect of this invasion is great as regards extending and confirming the Muslims influence and domination on the Arabian Peninsula It became obvious that Muslims were the absolute power in Arabia Non Muslim Arab tribes now became subjects Abdullah bin Ubay died and verses about him & hypocrites revealed Many verses revealed

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Welcome to Islamiyat 2058 Multimedia Edition (Beta)

Summary of Early Life & Conditions of Arabia

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Conditions of Arabia at the Time of Prophets birth

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Conditions of Arabia at the Time of Prophets birth


1. History of Arabs as Banu Ismail 2. Political Arena 3. Religious Beliefs 4. Social Setup 5. Tribal Culture & System 6. Economic Situation
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Conditions of Arabia at the Time of Prophets birth

1.History of Arabs as Banu Ismail


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Ibrahim

Sarah

Keturah

Hajar

Ishaq

Midian

Ismael

Yaqub (Israel)

Bani Israel

Bani Ismael (Arabs)

Countless Prophets: Last Jesus

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Muhammad

Conditions of Arabia at the Time of Prophets birth Political Arena


1. Stuck between Two great super powers 2. Divided in to countless tribes 3. Quraish were the superior most

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Conditions of Arabia at the Time of Prophets birth

Religious Beliefs
Were originally on the Faith of Abraham and Ismael Slowly began to drift away from Tauheed Then adopted Idol worship Had become to believe that Idols were necessary to worship Allah Still thought they were true followers of Ibrahim
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Conditions of Arabia at the Time of Prophets birth

Economic Situation
Main Income was 2 sources 1. Trade because Makkah was center of all Arabia 2. Quraish had immunity from Robbers

Conditions of Arabia at the Time of Prophets birth

Social Setup 1. Tribal Culture & System 2. The Chief was all powerful 3. Tribal Laws Applied 4. Only Free men were humans 5. Law of the Jungle 6. Law of Booty 7. Women buried Alive. Why? 8. Slavery and mistreatment

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The Birth of The Prophet


Family Background Death of Father before birth Mothers Blessed Dreams

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The Birth of The Prophet


Early Childhood Mother Haleema Sadia Abdul-Muttalib Zubair bin Abdul-Muttalib Abu Talib Abdul-Muttalib

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Important Events
1. The Prophet as a special person even before Hira

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Important Events
1. The Prophet as a special person even before Hira 2. Childhood Nature (Halimas Comments &
Experiences)

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Important Events
1. The Prophet as a special person even before Hira 2. Childhood Nature (Halimas
Comments & Experiences)

3. Splitting of heart 4. Buhaira

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Important Events
1. The Prophet as a special person even before Hira 2. Childhood Nature (Halimas Comments &
Experiences)

3. Splitting of heart 4. Buhaira 5. Fixing of Black Stone

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Important Events
1. The Prophet as a special person even before Hira 2. Childhood Nature (Halimas Comments &
Experiences)

3. 4. 5. 6.

Splitting of heart Buhaira Fixing of Black Stone As a Businessman (Sadiq & Amin)
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Important Events
1. The Prophet as a special person even before Hira 2. Childhood Nature (Halimas Comments &
Experiences)

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Splitting of heart Buhaira Fixing of Black Stone As a Businessman (Sadiq & Amin) Maulvi Jahangir Marriage to Khadija Mahmud
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Questions that you get


Q: What were the special qualities that proved Muhammad was a special person even before he was awarded prophethood? (5 marks) or Q: Outline the events in the early life of the Prophet that showed he was a special person. (5 marks)
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Key Features of the Passages


Main Points for Revision

Allah in Himself
Allah in Himself (Person) The Holy Quran describes and elaborates details about the person of Allah. Usually certain symbolic expressions and parables have been used for this purpose. For example, Surah An Nur describes Allah as a 'light', (give example here) & Sura Ikhlas Allah in Himself (Attributes) The Holy Quran describes and elaborates details about the nature and attributes of Allah using parables & analogies Attributes of Allah: (Surah Al Hashr) Allah in Himself (Powers) Another oft repeated theme is that of Allah's Unmatchable power, Verily, when He intends a thing, His command is "Be" and it is! (36:82) & Sura Al Anaam Allah in Himself (Signs) Among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Adore not the sun and the moon, but adore Allah, who created them, if it is Him you wish to serve Surah Fussilat/Sajda

Key Features of Allahs relationship with His creation


He is most Gracious & Merciful. All Praise is due to Allah He is the Lord of the Worlds, Master of the Day of Judgment Will reward / punish as per deeds Only He is to be worshipped He is to be feared He grants Guidance Those who follow guidance get Grace Those who dont, earn His anger He is the Creator of all, us & all around us; of Good & Evil We Should not set up rivals with Him He gave us knowledge His refuge should be sought from evil

Key Features of Allahs relationship with His Messengers


They are Allahs vicegerents on earth They have been granted special and great knowledge by Allah They are much higher in status than the angels They must follow His instructions They are very intelligent They recognize Allah very well through His Signs Their focus is towards Allah only They dont do Shirk Allah has favored them He gave them miracles He never forsakes them He is never displeased with them They have His Shelter He grants them guidance He grants them abundance His deals with their enemies They have special missions

Chart of Outcome
Name 1 Negus 2 Muqawqis 3 Chroses Country King of Abyssinia King of Egypt Emperor of Persia Outcome Accepted Didnt Accept Misbehaved

4 Ceasar
5 Mundhir 6 Haudhah 7 Al-Harith 8 Jaifer & Abd

Emperor of Rome
Governor of Bahrain Governor of Yamamah King of Syria Rulers of Oman

Didnt Accept
Accepted Misbehaved Misbehaved Accepted

1. 2.

3.
4.

5.
6. 7. 8.

9.
10.

All the Muslim to be sincere & Obedient to their leaders Muslim leaders to show kindness & justice towards their people All members of the Muslim community to promote communal welfare Great stress for taking care of the poor and the widow and the orphan Muslims to be united Feel Pain for each other Spirit of sacrifice for each other Helping each other in all tasks Collective efforts to suppress any evil What kind of Community will be built in the light of these Ahadith? 5 marks for the above and 5 marks for 5 Ahadith as examples

Islam introduced to Yathribites


The 10th & 11th Year of Prophethood The Prophet is preaching to Hujjaj (Pilgrims) He meets 6 individuals from Yathrib. These include influential people like Suwaid bin Samit, Eyas bin Muadh & AbuZar Ghifari. Through them, news of Islam begins to spread in Yathrib

12th year of Prophethood (621AD)


Influenced by these people, 7 people meet with the Prophet at Aqaba in Mina Valley during the Hajj. 5 from Khazraj & 2 from Aws They make a Pledge / Bait know as

1st Pledge of Aqaba

1st Pledge / Pledge of Women


They avowed their faith in Muhammad (Peace be upon him) as a Prophet and swore: We will not worship any one but one Allah we will not steal neither will we commit adultery nor kill our children we will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood and we will not disobey you in any just matter. When they had taken the pledge, Muhammad (Peace be upon him) said: He who carries it out, Allah will reward him; and who neglects anything and is afflicted in this world, it may prove redemption for him in the Hereafter; and if the sin remains hidden from the eyes of the men and no grief comes to him, then his affair is with Allah. He may forgive him or He may not.

A teacher is sent

Musab bin Umair Al-Abdari, (May Allah be pleased with him) Asad bin Zurarah hosted him in Madinah To teach the people there the doctrines of Islam, give them practical guidance and make attempts at propagating the Islam among those who still professed polytheism Also he was instructed to preach to other tribes in the area So prepared was the ground, and so zealous the propagation that the Islam spread rapidly from house to house and from tribe to tribe So the next year..

2nd Pledge / Pledge of War


13th year of ProphetHood (622AD)/Hajj 73 men & 2 women Many of them Leaders & Cheifs They are already Muslims, have come just to make a pledge in the same place where the 1st Pledge had taken place They intend to take the Prophet along with them.

Abbas warns them!

O you people you all know the position that Muhammad holds among us. We have protected him from our people as much as we could. He is honoured and respected among his people. He refuses to join any party except you. So if you think you can carry out what you promise while inviting him to your town, and if you can defend him against the enemies, then assume the burden that you have taken. But if you are going to surrender him and betray him after having taken him away with you, you had better leave him now because he is respected and well defended in his own place. Other figures also stressed on the dangers of inviting the Prophet. But the are not deterred!

The Terms of the Pledge

1. To listen and obey in all sets of circumstances. 2. To spend in plenty as well as in scarcity. 3. To enjoin good and forbid evil. 4. In Allah's service, you will fear the censure of none. 5. To defend me in case I seek your help, and protect me from anything you protect yourself, your spouses and children from

The Yathribites Offer


To Take along the Prophet now (or later) as their leader to their city To protect him always He also promised never to leave them They were willing to fight there & then, but the Prophet forbade it The Prophet divides them into groups and sends them back as an organized body

Importance of this Event?


New life for Islam & the Muslims 2. Great consolation and Morale Boost for the Muslims 3. Safe haven available 4. Migration begins 5. End of day to day persecution 6. The Muslim community can be established that can have its own laws
1.

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Q: Describe the Prophets experience of receiving the 1st revelation (7 marks) Q: What is the importance of this event? (4 marks) Q: What is the importance of: a) Warqa bin Naufal (4 marks) b) Jibril (4 marks)

From the Prophets Thannuth to Meeting with

Warqa

First Time meeting with Jibril 1st revelation

Beginning of Prophetic Mission


Major Change in his life Stops going for tahannuth now

Great Christian Scholar though Arab Both Muhammad & Khadija respected and

trusted him Recognized Muhammad as Prophet and declared his support He is the 1st person to do so Foretold of coming opposition and difficulties

He is the arch Angel & Ruh ul Quddas He brought revelation to all Prophets as well

as Muhammad He is called the teacher of prophets He is called Rasul e Karim in Quran He brought the Holy Prophet revelation now for the next 23 years

There are 5 basic reasons why the Quraish Opposed the Prophet
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Loyalty to Tradition/Forefathers/Religion Tourism Industry Travel Immunity Social System Egoistical Problems

Revision Handout #27 Unit 6: History & Importance of Hadith

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Four types of hadith can be identified as per the final authority, ie where they originate 1. Qudsi - Divine; a revelation from Allah ; relayed with the words of the Prophet. 2. Marfu - elevated; a narration from the Prophet, e.g. I heard the Prophet saying ... 3. Mauquf- stopped: a narration from a companion only, e.g., we were commanded to ... 4. Maqtu' - severed: a narration from a successor.

As per Authority

Main Features of Qudsi/Nabwi


Qudsi Words & Meaning both from Allah Starts with "Allah says" Nabwi Words of Prophet & Meaning from Allah Starts with "the Prophet said etc

Few in number-Less than 1000 Over 100,000 Topic regarding Man-God Relationship, Akhira, Tauheed, Beauty of Worship. Wide range of Topics They can be Sayings, They are only Sayings Actions, etc

Revision Handout #3.3

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Chart of Outcome of Prophets Letters


Name 1 Negus Country King of Abyssinia Outcome Accepted

2 3
4 5 6 7

Muqawqis Chroses
Ceasar Mundhir Haudhah Al-Harith

King of Egypt Emperor of Persia


Emperor of Rome Governor of Bahrain King of Syria Rulers of Oman
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Didnt Accept Misbehaved


Didnt Accept Accepted Misbehaved Accepted

Governor of Yamamah Misbehaved

8 Jaifer & Abd

Main Points of The Last Sermon


Venue & Date The Farewell Pilgrimage. 9th day of Dhul-Hijjah, 10 A.H. ( 623AD) Uranah valley of Mount Arafat in Makkah Life & Property are Sacred "O People! just as you regard this month, this day ,this city as sacred ,so regard the life and property of every Muslim a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners.

Main Points of The Last Sermon


Do not hurt others Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Accountability Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that he will indeed reckon your deeds."

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Main Points of The Last Sermon


Prohibition of Interest
"Allah has forbidden you to take usury, therefore all interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital is yours to keep You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequality Allah has judged that there shall be no interest All interest due to Abbas Ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib be waived."

Pre-Islamic Enmity Cancelled "Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived and the first such right that I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabiah ibne al-Harithiah."

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No Tampering with Laws


"O men! the unbelievers indulge in tampering with the calendar in order to make permissible that which Allah forbade, and to prohibit what Allah has made permissible. With Allah the months are twelve in number. Four of them are holy, three are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Shaban." (Zilqada, Hajj, Muharram, Rajab)

Pillars of Islam
"O People! listen to me in earnest,

worship Allah, say your five daily prayers, fast during month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat Perform Haj if you can afford it."

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Rights of Women
"O People it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. It is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well never to be unchaste."

Main Points of The Last Sermon


Mankind is One Family Superiority of only Piety

"All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a White has no superiority over a Black nor a Black has any superiority over a White except by piety and good action.

Brotherhood of Muslims Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly."

Main Points of The Last Sermon


Parting Advice Reason well, therefore O People! and understand words that I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and the Sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray." Finality of Prophethood "O People! No Prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born.

Completion of Islam
As part of this sermon, the prophet recited to them a revelation from Allah, which he had just received, and which completed the Quran, for it was probably the last passage to be revealed: This day the disbeliever's despair of prevailing against your religion, so fear them not, but fear Me (Allah)! This day have I perfected for you, your religion and fulfilled My favor unto you, and it hath been My good pleasure to choose Islam for you as your religion. (Surah Maida; 5:3)

Revision Handout: UNIT 4 1st Islamic


Community: Key Points & Answer Formulas

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WHY ARE THE 10 BLESSED COMPANIONS SO CALLED?

All the Prophets companions are blessed and exalted. Amongst them there are certain individuals whom the Prophet has ranked even higher. Amongst these, there are ten known as Ashra Mubashira the ten blessed companions or the ten given glad tidings (of Paradise). These are known as such because the Holy Prophet (SAWS) declared Jannah (paradise) for them in one single hadith. He declared them all to be going to paradise without going through the process of accountability.

THE ANSWER FORMULA FOR 10 BLESSED COMPANIONS


Acceptance of Islam Biographical details (Born, Died, Buried) Services rendered by them
in the life of the Prophet After the Prophets Death

Any Verses / Ahadith about them? How many ahadith they narrated?

Mothers of the Faithful: The Answer formula

Conversion / Marriage Biographical details (Born, Died, Buried)


Except Khadija, All are buried in Baqee in Madinah. Khadijah is buried in Makkah

Services rendered by them Any Verses / Ahadith about them? How many ahadith they narrated?

Early Figures: The Answer formula

Explain their importance in the history and beliefs of Islam. (Conversion Event if any) How were they important in the life of the Prophet & after (Services rendered by the individual) Any Verses / Ahadith about them? How many ahadith they narrated? Why their examples are worthy of respect

Why are there 11 mothers?


From: To: Sent: Subject: Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud Davidthomas@cieislamiyat.lists.ucles.org.uk 15th November 2005 12 Mothers of Faithful? From: To: Sent: Subject: Davidthomas@cieislamiyat.lists.ucles.org.uk Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 17th November 2005 Reply: 12 Mothers of Faithful?

Dear Dr David. I wanted to know why Maria The Copt & Rayhanna are included in the marks scheme as mothers of the Faithful? The Muslim scholars unanimously agree that they were concubines. Refer to the earliest sources of Islam including Ibne Saad, Ibne Ishaq, Ibne Qayyim, and all Hadith Sources. Please clarify why does the question paper ask the candidates to identify 12 mothers of the faithful. Best Regards, Maulvi Jahangir

Dear Jahangir I do not dispute what you say at all. But the point is that candidates do not appear to make any distinction between the wives and concubines of the Prophet. All the scripts I have marked so far contain lists with 12 or even 13 names. So for the purposes of the examination at least no one will be penalised. I hope this reassures you. Yours, David Thomas

Rights of Non Muslims

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1. Their life, wealth and honour should be protected by the state 2. The Jizyyah imposed on them should be according to their financial conditions. 3. Jizyyah should only be imposed on individuals who can take part in a war. 4. Children, women, the handicapped, the insane, the old and the sick who cannot earn their living dont have to pay any tax 5. The needy and poor among them should be provided the basic necessities of life 6. Their personal matters and religious rituals should be exempted from the law of the state and no interference should be made in their faith and religion. 7. Their places of worship should not be tampered with. 8. They should be given all the rights which are sanctioned by the norms of justice and fairness for people in a civilised society

Examples from Sunnah


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Prophets treatment of Jews as per Treaty Prophets respect for elderly Jew and Jewish funeral bier Prophet said, Beware! Whoever is cruel and hard on a non-Muslim minority, curtails their rights, burdens them with more than they can bear, or takes anything from them against their free will; I will complain against the person on the Day of Judgment.

Examples from Caliphs


Umar ibn al-Khattab the second caliph of Islam, once passed by a old, blind man begging in front of a house. Umar asked him which religious community he belonged to. The man said he was Jewish. Umar then asked him, What has brought you to this? The old man said, Do not ask me; ask poverty, and old age. Umar took the man to his own home, helped him from his personal money, and then ordered the head of the treasury, You must look after this man and others like him. We have not treated him fairly. He should not have spent the best years of his life among us to find misery in his old age. Umar also relieved him and others in his situation of paying the jizya In another instance, Umar ibn al-Khattab, the Muslim Caliph, was visiting Damascus. He passed by a group of Christian lepers. He ordered that they be given charity and regular stipends for food.

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Special Features of an Islamic community


brotherhood based on common faith, social equality piety being the sole criterion of one's superiority over the other specified spheres of rights and responsibilities Masjid is center of the community modesty healthy circulation of wealth promoting peace and love establishment of justice tolerance towards the nonMuslim citizens We see such a community in its perfect shape in Madinah

Significance of the Quran as the basis of all thought and action for Muslims
1. The Quran is Allah Final Message to humankind 2. It is the undisputed text for all Muslims 3. It contains the principles of all aspects Deen: Belief & Practice. 4. It is the Furqan: Criterion between right & wrong (Sura Furqan; 25:1) 5. It says that dont who dont decide by it are unbelievers (Surah Maida; 5:44) 6. Its contains the Laws for all situations, Personal, Financial, Criminal, Law Making (Page42) 7. It is the 1st and invariable Source of Law (Hadith Muaaz bin Jabal) Explain each point & Quote 4 Verses for point 2 to 6

THE SLANDER AFFAIR: Shaban 6 AH When the Prophet was returning from an expedition they stopped for a while. Aishah discovered that she had dropped her necklace & went out again to search for it. When she returned, the army had already marched away, thinking that she was in the litter. In her helplessness she s at down and cried till sleep overpowered her. Safwan bin Muattal, an Emigrant, who was coming in the rear recognized her as he had seen her before the verse enjoining the veil was revealed, and brought her on his camel to Madinah without saying asingle word to her, himself walking behind the animal. The hypocrites of Madinah led by Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul, sought to make capital out of this incident and spread a malicious scandal against Aishah (May Allah be pleased her) and unfortunately some of the Muslims also became involved in it. On arrival in Madinah, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) held counsel with his Companions, who pronounced different opinions ranging from divorce to retention. The incident almost roused a fight between two rival factions, Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj, but the Prophets intervention silenced both parties on the sport. Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) unaware of the rumours being circulated, fell ill and was confined to bed for a month. On recovering, she heard of the slander and took permission to go and see her parents seeking authentic news. She then burst into tears and stayed for two days and one sleepless night ceaselessly weeping to such an extent that she felt her liver was about to rip open. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) visited her in that situation, and after testifying to the Oneness of Allh he told her, If you are innocent, Allh will acquit you, otherwise, you have to beg for His forgiveness and pardon. She stopped weeping and asked her parents to speak for her, but they had nothing to say, so she herself took the initiative and said Should I tell you I am innocent, and Allh knows that I am surely innocent, you will not believe me; and if I were to admit something of which, Allh knows, I am innocent, yo u will believe me, then I will have nothing to make recourse to except the words of the father of Prophet Yusuf So (for me) patience is most fitting. And it is Allh (Alone) Whose Help can be sought against that which you assert. *12:18+ At that decisive moment the Revelation came acquitting Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) of all the slanderous talk fabricated in this concern. Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) of course, was wholeheartedly joyful and praised Allh thankfully. Allhs Words in this regard went as follows: Verily! Those who brought forth the slander (against Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) the wife of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) are a group among you. *24:11+ The principal elements involved in the slander affair, Mistah bin Athatha, Hassan bin Thabit and Hamnah bint Jahsh, were flogged with eighty stripes.

In the Shite sect of Islam known as the Ithna-ashariyyah or Twelvers, the articles of faith or fundamentals of Islam differ from those of the Ahle Sunnat or Sunnis. These are also known as Usool -ad-Deen or Roots of Religion. They are 1. Tawheed: The Oneness of God 2. 'Adl: Belief that God is Just and He will reward or punish any person according to his deeds. 3. Nubuwwat: Belief in the Messengers. 4. Imamat: Belief in the divinely appointed leadership or the Imams 5. Qiyaamat: Belief in the Day of Judgment. Amongst the above, we shall study Imamate or belief in the Twelve Imams. The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Prophet. Each of them is an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community with justice, but also is able to keep and interpret the Divine Law and its esoteric meaning. The Prophet and Imams' words and deeds are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through the Prophet. It is believed by Twelver Shi'a Muslims that the Twelve Imams were foretold in the Hadith of the Twelve Successors. He is reported to have said: "The (Islamic) religion will continue until the Hour (day of resurrection), having twelve Caliphs for you, all of them will be from Quraysh." The Imams were bestowed with Divine wisdom (aql) and knowledge (hikmah). They suffered for the sake of religion and their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees. Although the Imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation, he had a close relationship with God, through which God guides him, and the Imam in turn guides the people. There is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. Hazrat Al was the first Imam of this lineage, and in the Twelvers' view, the rightful successor to the Holy Prophet of Islam, followed by male descendants of the Prophet his daughter Fatimah. Each Imam was the son of the preceding Imam, with the exception of Hazrat Hussain ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hazrat Hassan ibn Ali. The twelfth and final Imam is Hazrat Muhammad al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers to be currently alive, and hidden till he returns to bring justice to the world.

Belief in Imamat, the divinely appointed leadership after the death of the Holy Prophet is an integral part of Shite faith. Their role is to protect and guide mankind with the revealed Truth, the Holy Qur'an and the true practices of the Holy Prophet himself. They play an integral part in the protection of all the Messengers and their divine Messages. Allah appointed them through the Holy Prophet himself to protect mankind from misrepresenting and misinterpreting the Truth. They are sinless (ma'soom) and perfect in the highest sense of the word. As the Imams have direct knowledge from God, and their verdict is the verdict of God. List of Imams 1. Hazrat Imam Ali bin Abu Talib 2. Hazrat Imam Hassan bin Ali 3. Hazrat Imam Husain bin Ali 4. Hazrat Imam Ali bin Husain 5. Hazrat Imam Muhammad bin Ali 6. Hazrat Imam Ja'far bin Muhammad 7. Hazrat Imam Musa bin Ja'far 8. Hazrat Imam Ali bin Musa 9. Hazrat Imam Muhammad bin Ali 10. Hazrat Imam Ali bin Muhammad 11. Hazrat Imam Hassan bin Ali 12. Hazrat Imam Muhammad bin Hassan

Hazrat Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (23 pre-Hijri to 40 AH) He was the first Imam and is also called Amir al-mu'min or Commander of the faithful. His father Hazrat Abu Talib was the uncle, guardian and lifelong supporter of the Holy Prophet. Hazrat Imam Ali was born ten years before the commencement of the prophetic mission of the Prophet. When six years old he was placed directly under the guardianship and custody of the Holy Prophet who brought him up like his own son. When the Prophet received the first revelation, Hazrat Imam Ali was the first person to publicly declare his faith in the Divine Message. Hazrat Imam Ali became the supporter and deputy of the Prophet and was by his side during the hard times in Makkah. On the night of the migration to Madina (hijrah) when the infidels had surrounded the house of the Prophet and were determined to invade the house at the end of the night and assassinate him as he

slept, Ali slept in place of the Prophet, while the Prophet left the house and set out for Madina. After the departure of the Prophet, Ali gave back to the people the trusts and charges that they had deposited with the Prophet. Then he went to Madinah with his mother, the daughter of the Prophet, and two other women. At Madina when the Prophet was creating bonds of brotherhood among his companions he selected Ali as his brother. The Prophet gave Fatimah, his beloved daughter to Ali as his wife. Ali participated bravely in the battles of the Holy Prophet, except the battle of Tabuk when he was ordered to stay in Madina in place of the Holy Prophet. Ali was thirty-three years old when the Prophet died. He spent the next twenty five years as an advisor to the first three caliphs and in educating people in Islamic knowledge. He became the fourth Caliph in 35 A.H. His caliphate of lasted for nearly five years, throughout which he followed the way of the Prophet and gave his caliphate the form of a spiritual movement and renewal. Unfortunately, his caliphate was ridden with civil strife. The Muslims had split into two groups, one supporting him and the other supporting A'ishah and Muawiya. These two armies fought the "Battle of the Camel," and then the "Battle of Siffin." After this a faction of his own supporters turned traitor. They are known as the Khawarij. He also fought against the Khawarij in the Battle of Nahrawan Therefore, most of the days of Ali's caliphate were spent in overcoming internal opposition. Finally, in the morning of the 19th of Ramadan in the year 40 A.H., while praying in the mosque of Kufa, he was wounded by one of the Khawarij and died as a martyr during the night of the 21st of Ramadan. He was buried in Najaf, Iraq. Ali had no shortcomings from the point of view of human perfection. And in the Islamic virtues he was a perfect example of the upbringing and training given by the Prophet. He was equally learned in science and wisdom and was most eloquent. His courage was proverbial and services to Islam were exemplary.

Hazrat Imam Hassan ibn Ali (3-50 AH) He was the second Imam and was also called al-Mujtaba. He and his brother Imam Hussain were the two sons of Amir al-mu'minin Ali and Fatimah, the daughter of the Holy Prophet. Many times the Holy Prophet had said, "Hassan and Hussain are my children." Because of these same words Imam Ali would say to his other children, "You are my children and Hassan and Hussain are the children of the Prophet." Hazrat Imam Hassan was born in the year 3 A.H. in Madinah and shared in the life of the Prophet for somewhat over seven years, growing up during that time under his

loving care. Soon after the death of the Prophet, Hazrat Fatimah also died and Hassan was placed directly under the care of his noble father. After the death of his father, through Divine Command and according to the will of his father, Hazrat Imam Hassan became Imam; he also occupied the function of caliph for about six months. The governor of Syria, Mu'awiyah, who had been an opponent of his father as well, challenged the caliphate of Hazrat Imam Hassan. War ensued, and finally the Hazrat Imam made peace and yielded to the caliphate to Mu'awiyah, under certain conditions. He did this as he desired to put an end to the civil strife and bloodshed amongst the Muslims. Hazrat Imam Hassan devoted the rest of his life to teaching and training scholars in the Islamic faith, undergoing extreme hardship and persecution by his political rivals. Finally, in the year 50 A.H. allegedly motivated by the Caliph Mu'awiyah, his wife poisoned him and he was martyred. In human perfection, Hazrat Imam Hassan was reminiscent of his father and a perfect example of his noble grandfather. There are many traditions of the Holy Prophet and Ali concerning the fact that Hazrat Imam Hassan would be the Imam after his noble father.

Hazrat Imam Hussain bin Ali (4-61 AH) Hazrat Imam Hussain, known as Sayyid al-Shuhada' or "the chief of martyrs"), was the second child of Ali and Fatimah. He was born in the year 4 A.H. and after the martyrdom of his brother, Hazrat Imam Hassan Mujtaba, became Imam through Divine Command and his brother's will. Hazrat Imam Hussain was Imam for a period of ten years. The last six months of his Imamate coincided with the caliphate of Mu'awiyah. Hazrat Imam Hussain lived under the most difficult outward conditions of suppression and persecution. This was due to the fact that, first of all, religious laws and regulations had lost much of their weight and credit, and the edicts of the Umayyad government had gained complete authority and power. Secondly, Mu'awiyah and his aides made use of every possible means to put aside and move out of the way the Household of the Prophet and the Shi'ah, and thus obliterate the name of Hazrat Imam Ali and his family. And above all, Mu'awiyah wanted to strengthen the basis of the caliphate of his son, Yazid, who because of his lack of principles and scruples was opposed by a large group of Muslims. Therefore, in order to quell all opposition, Mu'awiyah had undertaken newer and more severe measures. By force and necessity, Hazrat Imam Hussain had to endure these days and he had to suffer every kind of mental and spiritual agony

and affliction from Mu'awiyah and his aides, until in the middle of the year 60 A.H. Mu'awiyah died and his son Yazid took his place. Yazid, immediately after the death of his father ordered the governor of Madinah either to force a pledge of allegiance from Hazrat Imam Hussain or send his head to Damascus. After the governor of Madinah informed Hazrat Imam Hussain of this demand, the Hazrat Imam, in order to think over the question, asked for a delay and overnight started with his family toward Makkah. He sought refuge in the sanctuary of God which in Islam is the official place of refuge and security. This event occurred toward the end of the month of Rajab and the beginning of Sha'ban of 60 A.H. For nearly four months Hazrat Imam Hussain stayed in Makkah in refuge. This news spread throughout the Islamic world. On the one hand many people who were tired of the iniquities of Mu'awiyah's rule and were even more dissatisfied when Yazid became caliph, corresponded with Hazrat Imam Hussain and expressed their sympathy for him. On the other hand a flood of letters began to flow, especially from Iraq and particularly the city of Kufa, inviting the Imam to go to Iraq and accept the leadership of the populace there with the aim of beginning an uprising to overcome injustice and iniquity. Naturally such a situation was dangerous for Yazid. The stay of Hazrat Imam Hussain in Makkah continued until the season for pilgrimage when Muslims from all over the world poured in groups into Makkah in order to perform the rites of the Hajj. The Hazrat Imam discovered that some of the followers of Yazid had entered Makkah as pilgrims (hajjis) with the mission to kill the Imam during the rites of Hajj with the arms they carried under their special pilgrimage dress (ihram). The Imam shortened the pilgrimage rites and decided to leave. Amidst the vast crowd of people he stood up and in a short speech announced that he was setting out for Iraq. In this short speech he also declared that he would be martyred and asked Muslims to help him in attaining the goal he had in view and to offer their lives in the path of God. The next day he set out with his family and a group of his companions for Iraq. Hazrat Imam Hussain was determined not to give his allegiance to Yazid, knowing fully well that he would be killed. He was aware that his death was inevitable in the face of the awesome military power of the Umayyads, supported as it was by corruption in certain sectors, spiritual decline, and lack of will power among the people, especially in Iraq. Some of the outstanding people of Makkah stood in the way of Hazrat Imam Hussain and warned him of the danger of the move he was making. But he answered that he would never pay allegiance to a ruler like Yazid and give his approval to a government of injustice and tyranny. He added that he knew that wherever he turned or went he would be killed. He would leave Makkah in order to preserve the respect of the house of God and not allow this respect to be

destroyed by having his blood spilled there. While on the way to Kufa and still a few days' journey away from the city, he received news that the followers of Yazid in Kufa had put to death the representative of the Imam in that city and also one of the Imam's determined supporters who was a well-known man in Kufa. Approximately seventy kilometers from Kufa, in a desert named Karbala, the Imam and his entourage were surrounded by the army of Yazid. For eight days they stayed in this spot during which the circle narrowed and the number of the enemy's army increased. Finally the Imam, with his household and a small number of companions were encircled by an army of thirty thousand soldiers. On the tenth day of Muharram of the year 61/680 the Imam lined up before the enemy with his small band of followers, less than ninety persons consisting of forty of his companions, thirty some members of the army of the enemy that joined him during the night and day of war, and his Hashimite family of children, brothers, nephews, nieces and cousins. That day they fought from morning until their final breath, the Imam, the young Hashimites and the companions were all martyred. The army of the enemy, after ending the war, plundered the haram of the Imam and burned his tents. They decapitated the bodies of the martyrs, denuded them and threw them to the ground without burial. Then they moved the remaining members of the family, all of whom were helpless women and girls, along with the heads of the martyrs, to Kufa. Among the prisoners there were three male members: a twenty-two year old son of Imam Hussain who was very ill and unable to move, namely Hazrat Ali ibn Hussain, the fourth Imam; his four year old son, Hazrat Muhammad ibn Ali, who became the fifth Imam. The event of Karbala was a colossal crime that reminds us how the third Imam down his life for the sake of Islam but refused to comprise on principles.

Hazrat Imam Ali ibn Husayn (38-95 AH) He was known as al-Zayn al-'Abedin or the Crown amongst the worshippers. Hazrat Imam Ali was the only son of Hazrat Imam Husayn to survive, for his other three brothers Hazrat Ali Akbar, aged twenty-five, five year old Hazrat Ja'far and Hazrat Ali Asghar (or 'Abdallah) who was a suckling baby were martyred during the event of Karbala. The Imam had also accompanied his father on the journey that terminated fatally in Karbala, but because of severe illness and the inability to carry arms or participate in fighting he was prevented from taking part in the holy war and being martyred. So he was sent with the womenfolk to Damascus. After spending a period in imprisonment he was sent with honour to Madinah because Yazid wanted to conciliate public opinion. But for a second time, by the order of the Umayyad caliph,

'Abd al-Malik, he was chained and sent from Madinah to Damascus and then again returned to Madinah. The fourth Imam, upon returning to Madinah, retired from public life completely, closed the door of his house to strangers and spent his time in worship. He was in contact only with those seeking knowledge from him and other scholarly activities. Among the works of the fourth Imam is a book called Sahifa al-Sajjadiyah. It consists of fifty-seven prayers concerning the most sublime Divine sciences and is known as "The Psalm of the Household of the Prophet." The fourth Imam was poisoned by Walid ibn 'Abd al-Malik through the instigation of the Umayyad caliph Hisham after thirty-five years of Imamate.

Hazrat Imam Muhammad ibn Ali (57 114 AH) The Fifth Imam was given the title Baqir, meaning he who cuts and dissects. He was just four years old at Karbala and thus escaped being murdered. After his father, through Divine Command and the decree of those who went before him, he became Imam. During the Imamate of the fifth Imam, due to revolts against the Umayyads, he and his family were left alone somewhat and thus were able to pursue scholarly activities freely. Large numbers of people would come to Hazrat Imam Muhammad for spiritual and academic guidance. In the year 114 AH he was martyred through poisoning by the nephew of Hisham, the Umayyad caliph. Hazrat Imam Ja'far ibn Muhammad (83 148 AH) The Sixth Imam was known as As-Sadiq, or the Truthful One. He was the son of the fifth Imam and after the death of his father, became Imam by Divine Command and decree of those who came before him. During the Imamate of the sixth Imam greater possibilities and a more favourable climate existed to propagate religious teachings. This came about as a result of revolts against the Umayyads. For twenty years, he had a free hand for the propagation of the true teachings of Islam and the sciences of the Household of the Prophet. He instructed many scholars in different fields of the intellectual and transmitted sciences, such as Mu'min Taqi, Jabir ibn Hayyan, Sufyan Thawri and Abu Hanifah. It is said that his classes and sessions of instruction produced four thousand scholars of hadith and other sciences. The number of traditions preserved from the fifth and

sixth Imams is more than all the hadith that have been recorded from the Prophet (sawas) and the other ten Imams combined. The Imam was arrested several times by both Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs, and finally when he was released he spent the rest of his life in hiding in Madinah. He too was poisoned and martyred through the intrigue of the Abbasid Caliph Mansur. Hazrat Imam Musa ibn Ja'far (128-183 AH) The Seventh Imam, also known as Kazim, became Imam after the death of his father, through Divine Command and the decree of his forefathers. The seventh Imam was a contemporary of the Abbasid caliphs, Mansur, Hadi, Mahdi and Harun. He lived in very difficult times and in hiding, until finally Harun went for Hajj. In Madinah, he had the Imam arrested while praying in the Mosque of the Prophet. He was chained and imprisoned, then taken from Madinah to Basra and from Basra to Baghdad where for years he was transferred from one prison to another. Finally he died in Baghdad in the Sindi ibn Shahak prison through poisoning and was buried in the cemetery of the Quraysh which is now located in the city of Kazimayn. Hazrat Imam Ali ibn Musa (148-203 AH) The Eight Imam was given the title of al-Ridha and was the son of the seventh Imam. He was active in the scientific and scholarly debates that were popular at that time. He followed the scholarly tradition as was befitting an Imam. The period of his Imamate coincided with Mamun Abbasi. Mamun, in order to end the conflict between the ruling class and the family of the Prophet, offered him the caliphate and then the succession to the caliphate. The Imam, after much hesitation and conditions, accepted the successorship. But then Mamun had second thoughts and had the Imam poisoned and martyred. The Imam was buried in the city of Tus in Iran, which is now called Mashhad. Hazrat Imam Muhammad ibn Ali (196-220 AH) The Ninth Imam was called Taqi and was the son of the eighth. He was born in Madinah At the time of the death of his father he was in Madinah. Ma'mun called him to Baghdad which was then the capital of the caliphate and outwardly showed him much kindness. He even gave the Imam his daughter in marriage and kept him in Baghdad. In reality he wanted to keep a close watch upon the Imam through his daughter. The Imam spent some time in Baghdad and then with the consent of Ma'mum set out for Madinah where he remained until Ma'mun's death.

In 220 AH, he was poisoned by his wife, the daughter of Ma'mun, at the instigation of the Abbasid caliph Mu'tasim. He was buried next to his grandfather, the seventh Imam, in Kazimayn Hazrat Imam Ali ibn Muhammad Naqi (212-254 AH) The Tenth Imam is also called Naqi and Hadi. He was the son of the ninth Imam. At that time Ali ibn Muhammad Naqi was in Madinah. There he became the Imam through Divine Command and the decree of the Imams before him. He stayed in Madinah teaching religious sciences until the time of Mutawakkil, who was an ardent but secret hater of the Imam and his family. In 243 AH, Mutawakkil deceptively arranged for the Imam to come to visit him in Samarrah, just to humiliate him. Throughout his caliphate, Mutawakkil spared no chance to insult and harm the Imam and the members of the Prophets family. In 254 AH, the tenth Imam too was poisoned and martyred by Mu'tazz the Abbasid caliph. Hazrat Imam Hasan ibn Ali (232-260 AH) The Eleventh Imam, also known as Hassan Al-Askari was the son of the tenth Imam, and gained the Imamate after the death of his noble father, through Divine Command and through the decree of the previous Imams. During the seven years of his Imamate, due to untold restrictions placed upon him by the caliphate, he lived in hiding and dissimulation (taqiyah). He did not have any social contact with even the common people among the Shi'ite population. Only the elite of the Shi'ah were able to see him. Even so, he spent most of his time in prison. The caliph of the time had decided definitely to put an end to the Imamate in The Followers of Ahlu Bayt through every possible means and to close the door to the Imamate once and for all. However, he still managed to train many scholars and intellectuals in his lifetime. He was poisoned and martyred through instigation of the Abbasid caliph Mu'tamid. Hazrat Imam Muhammad ibn Hasan (256 AH- ) The Twelfth Imam is the promised Mahdi, who is usually mentioned by his title of Imam-i 'Asr (the Imam of the "Period") and Sahib al-Zaman (the Lord of the Age), and is the son of the eleventh Imam. He was born in Samarrah and until his fathers martyrdom, lived under his care and tutelage. He was hidden from public view and only a few of the elite among the Shi'ah were able to meet him. After the martyrdom of his father he became Imam and by Divine Command went into occultation (ghaybat). Thereafter he appeared

only to his deputies and even then only in exceptional circumstances. Through these special deputies he would answer the demands and questions of the Shi'ah. But in 329 AH, he went into come occultation which will continue as long as God wills it. However, he shall eventually return as per the prophecy of the Prophet to lead his followers once again. In the meantime, it is he who directs man's spiritual life and orients the inner aspect of human action toward God: Clearly, his physical presence or absence has no effect in this matter. The Imam watches over Shia inwardly and is in communion with the soul and spirit of men even if he be hidden from their physical eyes. His existence is always necessary even if the time has not as yet arrived for his outward appearance and the universal reconstruction that he is to bring about. The reappearance of the twelfth Imam is awaited by the Shiah and when he shall return (as contained in many ahadith), he shall perform many great tasks and rid the world of evil.

The 12 Imams

Shia Beleifs
In the Shite sect of Islam known as the Ithna-ashariyyah or Twelvers, the articles of faith or fundamentals of Islam differ from those of the Ahle Sunnat or Sunnis. These are also known as Usool -ad-Deen or Roots of Religion. They are 1. Tawheed or the Oneness of God 2. 'Adl or the belief that God is Just and He will reward or punish any person according to his deeds. 3. Nubuwwat or belief in the Messengers. 4. Imamat or belief in the divinely appointed leadership or Imams 5. Qiyaamat or belief in the Day of Judgment. Amongst the above, we shall study Imamat or belief in the Twelve Imams.

Belief in Imamate
Belief in Imamat, the divinely appointed leadership after the death of the Holy Prophet is an integral part of Shite faith Only Ali & the Prophets descendents can be Imams Their role is to protect and guide mankind with the revealed Truth, the Holy Qur'an and the true practices of the Holy Prophet himself They play an integral part in the protection of all the Messengers and their divine Messages Allah appointed them through the Holy Prophet himself to protect mankind from misrepresenting and misinterpreting the Truth Imams have direct knowledge from God, and their verdict is the verdict of God

Qualities of the Imams (1of2)


Only the 12 Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Prophet Each of them is an infallible human individual Only he is able to keep and interpret the Divine Law and its real meaning The Prophet and Imams' words and deeds are a guide and model for the community to follow They are free from error and sin Chosen by divine decree, or nass, through the Prophet It is believed by Twelver Shi'a Muslims that the Twelve Imams were foretold in the Hadith of the Twelve Successors: "The (Islamic) religion will continue until the Hour (day of resurrection), having twelve Caliphs for you, all of them will be from Quraysh."

Qualities of the Imams (2of2)


The Imams were given divine wisdom (aql) and knowledge (hikmah) They suffered for the sake of religion and their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees He had a close relationship with God, through which God guides him, and the Imam in turn guides the people. There is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community

List of the 12 Imams


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Al ibn Abu Talib Hassan ibn Al Husayn ibn Al Al ibn al-Hussein Muammad ibn Al Ja'far ibn Muammad 7. Musa ibn Ja'far 8. Al ibn Musa 9. Muammad ibn Al 10. Al ibn Muammad 11. Hassan ibn Al 12. Muammad ibn alHassan

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Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (23 pre-Hijri to 40 AH)


1. 2. 3. He was the first Imam Also called Amir al-mu'min or Commander of the faithful His father Abu Talib was the uncle, guardian and lifelong supporter of the Holy Prophet. 4. When six years old he was placed directly under the guardianship and custody of the Holy Prophet who brought him up like his own son. 5. Imam Ali was the first person to publicly declare his faith in the Divine Message. 6. Imam Ali became the supporter and deputy of the Prophet and was by his side during the hard times in Makkah 7. Slept in his bed on the night of Hijra 8. At Madina when the Prophet selected Ali as his brother 9. The Prophet gave Fatimah, his beloved daughter to Ali as his wife. 10. Ali participated bravely in the battles was the Prophet, except the battle of Tabuk when he was ordered to stay in Madina in place of the Prophet. 11. Ali was thirty-three years old when the Prophet died

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Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (23 pre-Hijri to 40 AH)


12. He spent the next twenty five years as an advisor to the first three caliphs and in educating people in Islamic knowledge. 13. He became the fourth Caliph in 35 A.H 14. His caliphate of lasted for nearly five years 15. Caliphate was ridden with civil strife 16. Battle of the Camel & Siffin 17. Khawarij 18. Died as a martyr during the night of the 21st of Ramadan 19. Buried in Najaf, Iraq. 20. Perfection human like all Imams 21. Learned both in science and wisdom 22. Most eloquent 23. Highly courageous.

Imam Hassan ibn Ali (3-50 AH)


He was the second Imam and is also called al-Mujtaba Sons of Amir al-mu'minin Ali and Hadrat Fatimah "Hassan and Hussain are my children." After the death of his father, through Divine Command and according to the will of his father, Imam Hassan became Imam Caliph for 6 months Yielded the caliphate to Mu'awiyah to end to the civil strife and bloodshed Devoted the rest of his life to teaching and training scholars in the Islamic faith Extreme hardship and persecution by his political rivals. wife poisoned him and he was martyred (Allegedly motivated by Mu'awiyah) Human perfection Perfect example of his noble grandfather Many traditions of the Holy Prophet and Ali he would gain be Imam after his father

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Imam Hussain bin Ali (4-61 AH)


Sayyid al-Shuhada' or "the lord among martyrs" Second child of Ali and Fatimah became Imam through Divine Command and his brother's will after the martyrdom of his brother Imam Hassan Imam Hussain was Imam for a period of ten years Lived under the most difficult outward conditions of suppression and persecution. This was due to enmity with Mu'awiyah Yazid, ordered the governor of Madinah either to force a pledge of allegiance from Imam Hussain or send his head to Damascus.

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Imam Hussain bin Ali (4-61 AH)


For 4 months Imam Hussain stayed in Makkah in refuge Kufans invited him to come and lead them in revolt against Yazid Made a speech in Makkah saying he would be martyred and asked Muslims to help him in attaining the goal Then he set out with his family and some companions for Iraq He refused to pay allegiance and give his approval to a government of injustice and tyranny In Karbala, the Imam and his entourage were surrounded by the army of Yazid (30,000) He and almost all his clan were brutally massacred by them Laid down his life for the sake of Islam but refused to comprise on principles.

Imam Ali ibn Husayn (38-95 AH)


Known as al-Zayn al-'Abedin only son of Imam Husayn to survive in Karbala because of severe illness Spend most the next several years in imprisonment Retired from public life completely & spent his time in worship Met only with those seeking knowledge from him Many scholarly works; e.g. Sahifa al-Sajjadiyah Poisoned by Hisham after thirty-five years of Imamate.

Imam Muhammad ibn Ali (57 114 AH)


Title Baqir, meaning he who cuts and dissects He was just four years old at Karbala and thus escaped being murdered Became Imam after his Father He and his family were not that persecuted as other Imams Pursued scholarly activities freely. Large numbers of people would come to Imam Muhammad for spiritual and academic guidance. Martyred through poisoning by Hisham

Known as As-Sadiq, or the Truthful One Son of the fifth Imam and after the death of his father, became Imam by Divine Command and decree of those who came before him Favourable climate existed to propagate religious teachings He had a free hand for the propagation of the true teachings of Islam and the sciences of the Household of the Prophet. He instructed many scholars in different fields of the intellectual and transmitted sciences Produced four thousand scholars of hadith and other sciences The Imam was arrested several times by both Umayyads and Abbasids Finally released & spent the rest of his life in hiding in Madinah. He too was poisoned and martyred through the intrigue of the Abbasid Caliph Mansur.

Ja'far ibn Muhammad (83 148 AH)

Musa ibn Ja'far (128-183 AH)


Known as Kazim Lived in very difficult times and in hiding Arrested while praying in the Mosque of the Prophet For years he was transferred from one prison to another Died in Baghdad in prison through poisoning Buried in Kazimayn.

Ali ibn Musa (148-203 AH)


Title of al-Ridha Son of the seventh Imam. He was active in the scientific and scholarly debates Mamun offered him succession to the caliphate Accept the successorship with conditions. But then Mamun had second thoughts and had the Imam poisoned and martyred The Imam was buried in Mashhad.

Muhammad ibn Ali (196-220 AH)


The Ninth Imam & called Taqi The son of the eighth Imam Born in Madinah Ma'mun gave him his daughter in marriage and kept him in Baghdad Spent some time in Baghdad and then Madinah He was poisoned by his wife, the daughter of Ma'mun (orders of Mutasim) Buried next to his grandfather, the seventh Imam, in Kazimayn

Ali ibn Muhammad Naqi (212-254 AH)


The Tenth Imam & called Naqi and Hadi The son of the ninth Imam Stayed in Madinah teaching religious sciences Persecuted by Caliphs Poisoned and martyred by Mu'tazz the Abbasid caliph.

Hasan ibn Ali (232-260 AH)


The son of the tenth Imam & called Al-Askari Restrictions placed upon him by the caliphate Lived in hiding and dissimulation (taqiyah) Did not have any social contact with people Spent a lot of time in prison Train many scholars and intellectuals in his lifetime. Poisoned and martyred through instigation of the Abbasid caliph Mu'tamid.

Muhammad ibn Hasan (256 AH-

He is the promised Mahdi & called Imam-i 'Asr (the Imam of the "Period") and Sahib al-Zaman (the Lord of the Age) The son of the eleventh Imam. He was born in Samarrah and until his fathers martyrdom, lived under his care and tutelage Kept hidden from public view After the martyrdom of his father he became Imam and by Divine Command went into occultation (ghaybat) Appointed deputies for his work & met them only when absolutely necessary In 329 AH, he went into Occultation which will continue as long as God wills it Shall eventually return as per the prophecy of the Prophet to lead his followers once again. Even now it is he who directs man's spiritual life and orients the inner aspect of human action toward God Awaited by the Shiah When he shall return , shall perform many great tasks and rid the world of evil.

The Battle of Mu'tah


8 AH / 629 CE

The Battle of Mu'tah


It was the most significant and the fiercest battle during t he lifetime of the Messenger of Allh peace be upon him, a preliminary and a prelude to the great conquests of the land of the Christians. Mu'tah is a village that lies on the borders of geographical Syria.

Events that led to


The Prophet peace be upon him had sent AlHarith bin 'Umair Al-Azdi on an errand to carry a letter to the ruler of Busra. On his way, he was intercepted by Sharhabeel bin 'Amr Al-Ghassani, the governor of AlBalqa' and a close ally to Caesar, the Byzantine Emperor who tied and beheaded Al Harith (Killing envoys amounted to war declaration)

Preparation for Battle


The Prophet peace be upon him was shocked on hearing the news and ordered that a large army of 3000 men be mobilized and dispatched to the north to discipline the transgressors. Zaid bin Haritha was appointed to lead the army. Ja'far bin Abi Talib would replace him if he was killed, and 'Abdullah bin Rawaha would succeed Ja'far in case the latter fell. The Prophet peace be upon him recommended that they reach the scene of Al-Harith's murder and invite the people to profess Islam. Should the latter respond positively, then no war would ensue, otherwise fighting them would be the only alternative left

Special Orders of the Prophet


He ordered them: "Fight the disbelievers in the Name of Allah, neither breach a covenant nor entertain treachery, and under no circumstances a new-born, woman, an ageing man or a hermit should be killed; moreover neither trees should be cut down nor homes demolished.

The Muslim army then marched northward towards Syria. Met a army sent by Heraclius of 100,000 Roman troops together 100,000 Allied tribes The Muslims, on their part had never thought of encountering such a huge army and debated what to do?? They finally decided to march and meet the enemy at Mu'tah Zaid bin Haritha, Ja'far bin Abi Talib, Abdullah bin Rawaha all fell after fighting bravely. Khalid bin Al-Waleed then took charge He succeeded in retreating in a fully organized and well-planned withdrawal. The Byzantines, seeing this new strategy, believed that they were being entrapped and drawn in the heart of the desert. They stopped the pursuit, and consequently the Muslims managed to retreat back to Madinah with the slightest losses. (12 martyrs) Byzantines lost a much larger number

Events of the Battle

Importance / Conclusion
It was the largest Muslim army never mobilized on this scale except in the process of the Khandaq Battle. Even though the battle did not satisfy the Muslims' objective, namely avenging Al-Harith's murder, it resulted in a far-ranging impact and attached to the Muslims a great reputation in the battlefields. The battle was a real miracle proving that the Muslims were something exceptional not then familiar. Moreover, it gave evidence that Allh backed them and their Prophet, Muhammad, was really Allh's Messenger Many tribes were so impressed that they embraced Islam out of their own sweet free will. Mu'tah Battle was the 1st but not the last encounter with the Byzantines subsequently. Many battles would follow in the years to come during the era of the Caliphs resulting in the supremacy of the Muslims.

The Four Books or the Shia Books of Hadith


By M.J. Mahmud

Handout: The Four Books or the Shia Books of Hadith by M.J. Mahmud / 0321 4460606/ Jahangir@wol.net.pk

The Four Books or the Shia Books of Hadith


The Four Books or Al-Kutub Al-Arbah is the term used by Shia to refer to their four best known hadith collections. Shi'a Muslims use this different set of hadith rather than the Six major Hadith collections followed by the Sunni. They consider that only the Imams, Muhammad's descendants through Fatima Zahra and Imam Ali bin Abu Talib are trustworthy.

Handout: The Four Books or the Shia Books of Hadith by M.J. Mahmud / 0321 4460606/ Jahangir@wol.net.pk

These Four Books are:


Name of Book Collector Muhammad ibn Ya'qub alKulayni Size

1 Kitab al-Kafi Man la yahduruhu al2 Faqih 3 Tahdhib al-Ahkam 4 Al-Istibsar

15,176

Muhammad ibn Babuya Shaykh Muhammad Tusi Shaykh Muhammad Tusi

9,044 13,590 5,511

Now let us discuss these one by one

Handout: The Four Books or the Shia Books of Hadith by M.J. Mahmud / 0321 4460606/ Jahangir@wol.net.pk

Kitab al-Kafi
Compiled by Muhammad Yaqb Kulayn in 3rd century Hijri, it is divided into three sections: 1. Usl al-Kf, which is concerned with the principles of religion 2. Fur al-Kf, which is concerned with the details of religious law 3. Rawdat al-Kf, which is concerned with various religious aspects and includes some writings of the Imms In total, al-Kf comprises of about 16,000 narrations The author states that this book would be sufficient for all the needs of a believer as it includes all branches of religious knowledge He further says in his preface that he only collected ahadith he thought were important He left the verification of these ahadith up to later scholars.

Man la Yahduruhu al-Faqih


Compiled by Muhammad ibn 'Ali al-Qummi commonly known as Al-Shaykh al-Saduq in the 4th century Hijri Contains over 9,000 ahadith The literal translation of the title Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih is For him not in the Presence of a Jurisprudent. The book is meant to be a reference book to help ordinary Shia Muslims in the practice of the legal requirements of Islam Isnad are absent Thus, the book is a summary of the study of legal traditions. Shi'ites regard this book as among the most reliable Hadith collections.

Handout: The Four Books or the Shia Books of Hadith by M.J. Mahmud / 0321 4460606/ Jahangir@wol.net.pk

Handout: The Four Books or the Shia Books of Hadith by M.J. Mahmud / 0321 4460606/ Jahangir@wol.net.pk

Tahdhib al-Ahkam fi Sharh al-Muqni 'a


Complied by Shaykh Tusi in the 5th century Hijri Contain over 13,000 narrations Means "The Refinement of the Laws in Terms of the Explanation of the Sufficiency It is actually a commentary on the ahadith of the great scholar, al-Shaikh al-Mufid, the teacher of al-Tusi. Shi'a Muslims regard this book as among the most reliable It contains not only traditions but also lengthy discussions about the legal standing and implication of each hadith The chapters are well divided and contain the commentaries by some earlier scholars.

Handout: The Four Books or the Shia Books of Hadith by M.J. Mahmud / 0321 4460606/ Jahangir@wol.net.pk

Al-Istibsar fima 'khtalaf al-akhbar


Complied by Shaykh Tusi in the 5th century Hijri Contains over 5,000 narrations. Is essentially a summary of Tahdhib al-ahkam Its methods are similar but briefer; there are not so many traditions used in the work and the explanations are more concise It is similar to Man la yahduruh al-faqih, but gives full isnads for the traditions quoted Intended to be used as ready reference works for students and scholars

Revision Handouts #22 Islamic Teachings Regarding Treatment of Animals

Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud

0321 44 60606

jahangir@wol.net.pk

Why Allah Made ANIMALS


And the cattle, He has created them for you. You have in them warm clothing and (other) advantages, and of them you eat. And therein is beauty for you, when you drive them back (home) and when you send them out (to pasture). And they carry your heavy loads to regions which you could not reach but with great distress to yourselves. Surely your Lord is Compassionate, Merciful. And (He made) horses and mules and asses that you might ride upon them and as an ornament. And He creates what you know not. (Quran 16:5-8)
Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 0321 44 60606

The Prophet said:


"Fear Allah in the way you treat animals" The mercy of Islam extends beyond human beings to all living creations of God. Islam prohibits cruelty to animals.

Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 0321 44 60606

Once, the Prophet of Mercy spoke of Gods forgiveness due to the humane treatment of animals. He told his companions the story of a man who got thirsty on his way. He found a well, climbed down inside it to the water, and quenched his thirst. When he came out he saw a panting dog licking on mud out of extreme thirst. The man thought to himself, The dog has become as thirsty as I was! The man went down the well again and got some water for the dog. God appreciated his good work and forgave him. The companions asked, O Prophet of God, do we get rewarded on humane treatment of animals? He said, There is a reward in (doing good to) every living being.
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On another occasion, Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, described Gods punishment of a woman who was sent to Hell because of a cat. She kept her locked up, neither feeding her nor setting her free to feed herself.

Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 0321 44 60606

A person said to the Prophet, Verily I slaughter a sheep and show mercy to it. The Prophet of Allah replied, If you show mercy to a sheep, Allah will show double the mercy on you. Islam laid down humane slaughtering regulations. Islam insists that the manner of slaughter should be that which is least painful to the animal. Islam requires that the slaughtering instrument not be sharpened in front of the animal. Islam also prohibits the slaughtering of one animal in front of another.
Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 0321 44 60606

Rights of Animals 1 of 4
First, Islam requires that pets or farm animals be provided with proper food, water, and a place to live. Once the Prophet passed by an emaciated camel due to hunger, he said: Fear God in regards to these animals who can not speak their will. If you ride them, treat them accordingly (by making them strong and fit for that), and if you [plan to] eat them, treat them accordingly (by making them fat and healthy).
Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 0321 44 60606

Rights of Animals 2 of 4
Second, an animal should not be beaten or tortured. Once the Prophet of Mercy passed by an animal branded on his face. He said, Has it not reached you that I have cursed the one who brands an animals face or hits it on its face? The Prophet of Mercy advised his wife to treat an unruly camel that she was riding kindly. Making animals fight one another for entertainment was also forbidden by the Prophet.
Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 0321 44 60606

Rights of Animals 3 of 4
Third, Islam forbids using animals or birds for targets when practicing shooting. The Prophet cursed anyone who made a living thing into a target (for practice) The Prophet also said: Whoever kills a bird or anything else without its due right, God would ask him about it. It was said: O Messenger of God! What is its due right? He said: To kill it for foodand do not sever its head, and throw it!
Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 0321 44 60606

Rights of Animals 4 of 4
Fourth, separating nestling birds from their mothers is not allowed in Islam. Fifth, it is forbidden to mutilate an animal by cutting off its ears, tails or other body parts without just reason. Sixth, a sick animal under ones care should be treated properly.
Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud 0321 44 60606

Steps by (Muhadditheen) to ensure authenticity

For this purpose, a branch of specialized study was established called Usool e Hadith This itself had many branches First of all they divided the hadith into two sections, the text and the chain and its introduction.

Parts of a Hadith
Components of Hadith

sanad Chain of narrators

Matn Text

Yahya narrated from Malik who narrated from Nafae who narrated from Abdullah bin Umar that the Holy Prophet said: He who misses the Asr prayer is as if he has lost his family and property.

How a hadith is declared Authentic.


To be declared absolutely reliable, a hadith must fulfill three conditions:1. The chain (sanad) must be continuous, i.e. every narrator must be known to have met each other, and each and every narrator must be sound in character and memory. 2. The text (matn) must be free of any defect in language, and must not clash with established Islamic belief. 3. The Companions (sahabah), the Followers (Tabaeen) and their Successors (At Taba Tabaien) must accept them as reliable.

What qualities must a narrator possess to be considered sound?


1.

2. 3.

4.

5.

Al-Adalah: The narrator must be a sane Muslim adult who has never committed a major sin and is known to avoid even the minor ones. His trustworthiness (Amanah) must be above par. Ad Dabt: The narrator must have an excellent memory and transmit the hadith as it is to the next in line. His truthfulness (Sidq) be above par and must never have been accused of lying, even in a joke. He should not have been accused of committing a crime.

What qualities must a narrator possess to be considered sound? (cont)


6. 7.

8.

9.

He should have not have spoken against other reliable persons. He should be careful and intelligent, and must have shown responsibility in the narration or writing of the hadith. The name, nickname, title, parentage and occupation of the narrator should be known so his/her entire biography can be investigated. If a narrator referred his Hadith to a narrator, the two should have lived in the same period and must have met each other.

What test must the text (matn) pass to be considered sound?


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

It should not contradict or clash with a Quranic verse or already authenticated Saheeh Hadith. It should be in the classic Arabic language, the tongue spoken by the Holy Prophet. There shouldnt be any vulgar or odd language that the Holy Prophet cannot be expected to use. It should not differ with established laws of nature and science, unless it is regarding miracle by Allah. It should not have any modern words that didnt exist at the time of the Holy Prophet

Main Divisions of Hadith and their examples


Main Types of Hadith

Sahih
Authentic

Hasan Good

Daif Weak

Maudo
Fabricated

As-Sahih (The Authentic Hadith)

The True. This name is given to the absolutely correct Hadith in which there is no weakness. Both its chain of transmission ('Al-Isnad) and the text (Al-Matn) must pass ALL the tests such as those previously stated to verify their authenticity.

Main Types of Hadith

Sahih
Authentic

Hasan Good

Daif Weak

Maudo
Fabricated

Example of Sahih Hadith

Yahya Narrated from Malik, who narrated from Abu Zinad from Al-Araj from Abu Hurraira that the Messenger of Allah said, the food of two is enough for three and the food of three is enough for four
Sanad is perfect and so is Matn

Al-Hasan (The Good.)

It is like As-Sahih Tradition, except for the fact that a slight weakness is found in its chain. Though reliable, it is lower in status to a Sahih hadith.

Main Types of Hadith

Sahih
Authentic

Hasan Good

Daif Weak

Maudo
Fabricated

Example of Hassan Hadith


Muhammad bin Ismail narrated from Malik bin Ismail who narrated from Israel bin Yunus from Yusuf bin AbuBurda from his father who narrated from Ayesha that she said, whenever the Holy Prophet used to leave the toilet, he would say, Ghafranak. Imam Tirmizi says that this is a hassan hadith because although the sanad is joined, some of the narrators do not have a perfect memory.

Ad-Daif (The Weak)

This refers to that Tradition in which there is some problem in either the chain of transmission, in the proper understanding of the transmitter or in its contents, which may be in disagreement with Islamic beliefs and practices.

Main Types of Hadith

Sahih
Authentic

Hasan Good

Daif Weak

Maudo
Fabricated

Example of Daef Hadith but acceptable

Narrated Musadad from AbdulWahid bin Ziad from Hujjaj from Zuhri from Amarta bint AbdurRehman from Ayesha who said that the Prophet said , when you have stoned the JamaratulAqaba, all conditions of Ihram are removed except relations with women. This is a daef hadith because Hujjaj has never met Zuhri. However, the matn is supported by other Sahih Hadith thus it is acceptable.

Example of Daef Hadith but Unacceptable


Narrated Abdullah from his father who narrated from Yazid bin Haroon from Hujjaj from Amr bin Shoaib from his father and he from his father that when the Prophet made AbulAs pay a new Mahr and performed a new nikah for him with his daughter Zainab This is Daef because 1. Hujjaj is not a student of Amr bin Shoaib 2. Another Sahih hadith is that the Prophet validated the previous Nikah So Sanad and Matn, both are unacceptable

Al-Maudo (The Fabricated)

A false Hadith made up. This class of 'Ahadith have been carefully uncovered by our learned Islamic scholars in the past. They have no place in true and authentic 'Ahadith collections. The hadith scientists have meticulously books of these so that at no stage they may be confused with the real thing.

Main Types of Hadith

Sahih
Authentic

Hasan Good

Daif Weak

Maudo
Fabricated

Example of Maudu-Fabricated Hadith

1.

2.

AbdulWahad narrated from Mubarik from Ibne Bakran from Qazi from Yatiqi from Ibne Dakheel from Muhammad bin Abdous from Abu Khutheema from Yazid bin Haroon from Qazat bin Soaid from Asim from Alshath from Shadad bin Aous that the Prophet said, Whoever related poetry after Isha prayers, his Salah will not be accepted for that night. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal says that Qazat bin Soaids narrations are full of mistakes Reciting poetry is not Haram.

Handout Unit 2: Why Some Scholars Reject Qiyas? & Most Dont!

Maulvi Jahangir Mahmud

0321 44 60606

jahangir@wol.net.pk

Some of the Scholars such as Zahris & Shia reject Qiyas because of several reasons.
1. A verse of the Qur'an says: "0 ye who believe! Put not yourselves forward before God and His Apostle...." [Qur'an 49 : 1) These Scholars claim that Qiyas (analogy) means "putting yourself forward 2. There are many sayings of the Companions in which they have condemned the use of rai/ (personal opinion), and analogy is personal opinion. 3. Analogy leads to discord among the Muslims, because it does not lead to exactly the same opinion when different jurists are exercising it and what leads to differences should be shunned. 4. It cannot be said that the ahkam of the shari'ah are based upon similarity and equality.

Arguments in favour of Qiyas


1. Quran repeatedly asks us to use our reason 2. Hadith of Mu'adh ibn Jabal 3. There are many cases in which the Prophet gave answers in a form that was quite similar to analogy (eg Hajj on behalf of Mother) 4. The Companions used to settle cases by performing analogy & there are sayings of the Companions to this effect. 5. The cases in the texts of the Qur'an and the Sunnah are limited and the cases that are faced by human beings are unlimited, therefore there has to be some way of extending the law in these sources to cover new cases as well so that the new cases are settled according to Islamic legal norms. 6. New issues come forward that were unimaginable in the time of the Prophet

Practical Importance of Qiyas


1. The main point here is that the judge has to give relief to the litigants who come to him. 2. It is not possible for him to say to them that "I cannot find anything in the Qur'an and the Sunnah 3. to settle this case, therefore, I cannot help you." 4. The presumption is that a solution exists in the shari'ah and the judge has to adopt some method of legal reasoning to extend the law from the limited number of texts that he can employ 5. As long as he is required to do so, analogy is a good and strict method of legal reasoning that maximises the chances of the discovery of the intention of the LAWMAKER