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GREEK AND ROMAN
GREEK AND ROMAN
Copyright, 1917, by THE CENTURY Co.
Printed in U. S. A.
as surprisingly many . but the fact is that to those who come to its study. English literature. the method of assuring such a familiarity to the rising generation differs in different schools. and as the knowledge gained from the occasional use of reference books is unsubstantial and unsatisfactory. has proved that as even the most eleexperience mentary knowledge of mythology gained in childhood cannot be presupposed. however.PREFACE WHILE familiarity with classical mythology is generally recognized as essential to the understanding of literature and art and to the preservation of a great and spiritual and valuable part of our artistic heritage. a systematic course in mythology for students of highschool age is necessary. It might seem that to to present such students this subject would be so simple as no difficulties. and any further knowledge of the subject depends upon the study of Vergil and other Latin or Greek writers and on the use of reference books in connection with reading in In many schools. In many the stories of the gods and heroes are read in the lower grades from one or another of the children's books based on the myths.
After many years' experience with such students the writer has been led to believe that is there need for a text book in a style to appeal who have outgrown children's books. narrative it is difficult for an inexperienced student to distinguish between the important names and those that merely form part of the setting of the story. In preparing an elementar y book on mythology there are naturally two pu /poses to be kept in mind: (i) By a sympathetic and accurate treatment to give understan (ing and appreciation of the character and ideals of the people among To whom the mythology developed. the mass of new and strange names and the divergence of the conceptions from those to which they are accustomed make the study not a little difficult. The mention of any names beyond those that should be remembered has therefore been avoided. secure brevity and simplicity only the most famous and interesting of the stories have been incorporated in this book.vi Preface un familiarity that the name do. but of content so limited and treatment so simple as to make it possible for the average boy or girl to those to assimilate it in a course of about thirty lessons. and the effort has been made by reiteration and cross-reference to impress these names upon the student. certain others are In reading a briefly mentioned in the index. Any study that . with such entire of Apollo or Venus conveys nothing to them.
references in literature and representations in art. trations reference has not been lish made in the text to it Eng- poems based upon the myths. but . but that by the use of ancient sources. has been left to the individual teacher carefully to intro- duce such illustrations and parallels an appendix Another suggests a few of the more notable. careful study of the people's own understanding of their mythology. direct quotation and free reproduction of the works of Greek and Latin poets. (2) By placing the familiar stories in their proper relation to enable the student better to understand ancient and modern. illus- drawn from Greek sculpture and paintthe effort should be made to leave an honest ing. whose interpretation of Greek thought and religion has been affected by the thought and religion of their own times. Because of the subjective element in the treatment of mythology in later It ages the conceptions have become confused.Preface vn gives this understanding and appreciation of one of the peoples through whom our own spiritual life and civilization has come to be what it is is believed by the writer to be important to an intelligent valuation of our present life and ideals and to a sane building for the future. is the writer's belief that to avoid confusion and misunderstanding on the student's part the subject should not be treated through the medium of modern writers and artists. Therefore picture of the mind of the Greeks. .
is The writer has wished to make it clear that what known as classical mythology is a product of Greece. e. In these incon- . us. but the subject matter when the work of some and the conception of the tale. but when one deals with Roman deities used. but it is not the nomenclature. as a. that has been followed. Ovid. which is Latin. (Poseidon is a common exception. even though they are less familiar than the Latin.g. In spelling Greek names the most familiar and the simplest English spellings have been used. The Greek names have therefore been employed primarily. has been followed..viii Preface it is misunderstanding that sought to avoid is the popular association of these anthropomorphic conceptions and imaginative tales with the Romans. names have been one quickly gets out of the realm of mythology into that of ritual and history. and e takes the place of before the terminations has been rende'a. Au ge'as. It may seem inconsistent that this has been done even version of a tale as it appears in the Latin poet. subjects which seem out of place in such a book as this. the story is mainly of Latin development Latin is Perhaps it may seem that too scant attention has been paid to Roman gods. In most cases has been transliterated by English i. ) as. os by Latin us. at by cc. Me K dered c. and that in general the Latin writers have merely retold stories that were not original with their people. which Where Greek.
and in case of direct quotation the reference has been given. Pausanius. separate articles in Roscher's Lexikon der griechischen imd romischen Mythologie. Golden Bough. from the Iliad the translation of Lang. Lawson's Modern . is indicated. in an elementary book such as this the use of many notes has been avoided as undesirable. Apollodorus. yEschylus. that of Butcher and Lang. Hymns. and Ovid. the Pauly-Wissowa Real-Encydopadic Frazer's der classischen Alter tumszvissenschaft. Of modern authorities Preller's consulted the most important are: Griechische Mythologie revised by Robert (unfortunately incomplete) . Jane Harrison's Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. the Homeric Sophocles. Euripides. Vergil. from the Odyssey. that of Lang. Leaf. Hesiod. and in an appendix a few simple foot-note the rules of pronunciation are given.Preface sistencies the usual IX and permissible custom is folIn the index and upon their first mention the accent on names of more than two syllables lowed. In many stories one author has not been followed exclusively. Pindar. and from the Homeric Hymns. Those chiefly followed are : Homer. Apollonius Rhodius. Hy- In quoting ginus. and Myers has been used. Wissowa's Religion itnd Kultus der Romer. but various features have been borrowed from various sources. While in many instances in a version of a story followed has been indicated.
Furtwangler. and others have. Overbeck. and many been helpful and have Festivals. December. . TATLOCK. Baumeister. of course. art. Warde Fowler's Roman other books and articles suggestive. M. 1916. The comprehensive works of Col- lignon.x Greek Folklore Preface and Ancient Greek Religion. been taken as authorities in dealing with representations in J.
. 122 122 ...139 143 VIII THE GODS OF THE SEA IX THE GODS OF THE EARTH X THE WORLD OF THE DEAD xi . . ARES AND APHRODITE i ii Ares Aphrodite VII THE i ii LESSER DEITIES OF OLYMPUS Eros Other Deities of Olympus . 3 16 III . 36 36 40 49 55 55 IV APOLLO AND ARTEMIS i ii Apollo Artemis 80 91 V VI HERMES AND HESTIA i Hermes Hestia 91 ii 98 105 105 109 . . 186 .153 . . THE GODS II THE WORLD OF THE MYTHS THE GODS OF OLYMPUS: ZEUS HERA. HEPH^STUS i Hera ii Athena in Hephaestus . . . .. ATHENA. .CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION xix PART CHAPTER I I.
..xii Contents PART CHAPTER II. 244 256 266 XV ...IA i 210 228 228 234 236 241 Stories of Crete Stories of Sparta Stories of Corinth ii in iv . . .. . . APPENDIX B INDEX . . .. .. CORINTH. . . .TOL. TROJAN WAR . . . Stories of ^tolia . . JE. . XIV STORIES OF ATTICA STORIES OF THEBES .. . . . . . . 280 305 WANDERINGS OF ODYSSEUS TRAGEDY OF AGAMEMNON . . APPENDIX A .... .. ... 355 356 363 .. . . . . . . 326 331 LEGENDARY ORIGIN OF ROME .. THE HEROES PAGE XI XII XIII STORIES OF ARGOS 199 HERACLES STORIES OF CRETE. XVI THE XVII THE XVIII THE XIX THE XX THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION . . SPARTA.
Naples) 27 31 5. Rome) 50 54 Xlll 14. 4 . 43 " Athena " Minerva of (Louvre) 45 Hephaestus and the Cyclopes preparing the shield of Achilles (Palazzo dei Conservatori. copy of a stone bound with fillets that was set up at Delphi to mark the center of the earth (Museum at Delphi) 2. Ganymede and the eagle (Vatican) Head of Hera (Museo delle Terme. Copenhagen) . 8. 33 Ny 37 . Dirce tied to the bull (National Museum. 7. Head View of Zeus found at Otricoli (Vatican) of ruins at Olympia " Hera. 4. 13. 10. Apollo from the pediment of the temple at Olympia .. 11. 1. offering Cronus the stone in place of Zeus (Vase in Metropolitan Museum) Zeus (Metropolitan Museum) Rhea 6 17 . 3.. 9.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. PARE Omphalus. Rome) Lemnian Athena (Albertinum. Dresden) Birth of Athena 39 40 41 (Gerhard Velletri Auserlese- ne Vasenbilder) 12. 6. Borghese Juno" (Glyptothek Carlsberg.
Birth of Aphrodite from the sea delle (Museo Terme. Hermes (Olympia) Hestia. Venus of Aries (Louvre) Eros. The sun-god ish in his chariot (Vase in Brit- Museum) Muses (Vatican) (Uffizi. 21. 107 Rome) 31. Artemis of Versailles (Louvre) Artemis of Gabii (Louvre) . Illustrations PAGE 15. (Capitoline 24. 22. 17. 56 57 16. Museum... Judgment of Paris (Tomb Rome) 33. 83 Actaeon killed by his dogs (Vase in Eoston Art Museum) Sleeping 86 87 23. so-called (Rome) (Wall-painting 99 Genius and Lares from 101 28. 19. Pompeii) Ares with Eros (Museo (Museo delle Terme.. 104 Rome) 29. 27. Niobe and her daughter Asclepius (Capitoline Florence) . Bearded Mars delle Terme. Aphrodite of Cnidos (Museo delle Terme. Endymion . . 26. no in 114 32. 34. Rome) of the Anicii. 123 Rome) . . 1 Foundations of Apollo's temple at Delphi Apollo as leader of the 60 69 75 81 8. 93 97 Naples) 25. 106 Rome) 30. Museum. Rome) 20. or Cupid (Capitoline Museum. '. Rome) Hermes in repose (National Museum.xiv FIG.
Cupid and Psyche (Capitoline Museum. 181 Rome) . 38. .155 159 162 and Persephone 45.. Bacchic procession (Vase in Metropolitan 51.Illustrations FIG. 44. Rome) 36. . . .. 127 Clio (Vatican) . Athens) 179 . and 41.. Naples) 180 Praxiteles (Capitoline 54.. Dionysus (Museo Bacchic delle Terme. 149 42.167 Museum. 47. (Athens) Triptolemus (Eleusis) in the Museum) 153 . 172 173 Cotta from Asia 50. Dancing Satyr (National Museum. 168 49. Thalia (Vatican) Terpsichore (Vatican) 142 145 39. Triptolemtis. Poseidon (Athens) Marriage of Poseidon Amphitrite (Vase in Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg) 148 . Pan and Museum) a nymph (Terra 52.. Minor) 175 Votive offering to Pan and the nymphs (National Museum. Faun of Museum. . 53. dragon-drawn chariot 46. Cybele her car (Metropolitan Demeter (Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg) Demeter.. Naples) Youthful Dionysus Naples) (National Museum. 40. . Head of a sea-god in . 163 Silenus with Dionysus (Vatican) procession (National . 43. Rome) . xv PAGE 35. 140 141 37. 48.
221 Auserlesene Vasenbilder) . and Marsyas (Reconstruction made in Munich) 182 Apollo and Marsyas (National Museum. . Museum) 58. Heracles killing the Hydra Auserlesene Vasenbilder} . 219 Heracles in the bowl of the sun (Gerhard. Illustrations PAGE 55. Athena 56. . . Heracles carrying the boar (Metropolitan 69. . . Heracles (Vatican) . Athens) 183 Charon in his skiff (Vase in Metropolitan . .193 . 67. Museum) Amazon (Capitoline Museum. 70. . . . Perseus killing Medusa (Metope for Selinunte) 205 Atlas 63. Rome) . . . 188 Heracles carrying off Cerberus (Gerhard. . Carpenter making the chest for Danae and Perseus (Vase in Boston Art Mu- seum) 61.xvi FIG. Auserlesene Vasenbildcr) . Naples) 64. Rome) (Gerhard. . 59.211 214 215 65. 207 .191 . 20 1 Head of Medusa Rondanini (Glyptothek. Naples) . Five of Heracles' labors (Borghese Gallery. supporting the heavens (National Museum. 57. . . . . . 203 Munich) 62.217 218 . Parting of Orpheus and Eurydice (National Museum. 60. Heracles strangling the serpents painting from Pompeii) (Wall- 66. . 68.
in in (Metope from the 253 257 82. Centaur (Capitoline Museum. Bellerophon and Pegasus (Palazzo Spada.. 237 76. (Wall-painting from Pompeii) .. Phrixus and the ram (Metropolitan Mu266 . in 246 251 79. (Vase . and the rescued Athenians 252 (Wall-painting from Pompeii) ... Centaur and Lapith Parthenon) .. 84. .. 74. the magic brew (Ger. Chimsera (Archaeological ence) Rome) 231 now set up in Rome) 234 FlorMuseum.. The Dioscuri (Ancient statues before the king's palace 75. Europa on the Pompeii) bull (Wall-painting from 228 73. seum) 85. 72. xvii PAGE 71. Cadmus and the dragon (Vase politan Museum) CEdipus and the Sphinx (Vase Art Museum) MetroBoston 261 83.. . Auserlcscnc to Vasenbildcr) kill 87. 78. Theseus killing the Minotaur Boston Art Museum) Theseus in 80.. Medea preparing hard.. . . Daedalus and Icarus (Villa Albani. 81.. 239 242 Meleager (Vatican) Cephalus and the dawn-goddess (Vase Boston Art Museum) . .. Rome) 77...Illustrations FIG. . Nessus running off with Dejanira (Vase 226 in Boston Art Museum) . Medea preparing her children . Rome) 268 276 278 86.
.. . The wolf with (Capitoline Romulus and Museum. Museum) 94. 98. . Auserlesene Vasenbilder) Nausicaa 96. . . Naples) 89.. . ors (Vase in Munich Museum) 325 yEneas wounded (Wall-painting from 332 Pompeii) yEneas fleeing from Troy (Gerhard. 289 in Naples) 90. Odysseus appearing 318 (Vase in Munich) makes himself known to TeleOdysseus machus (Vase in Metropolitan Mu322 seum) Odysseus avenging himself upon the suit. Sacrifice of Iphigenia (National Museum.xviii PIG. 302 93. Priam slain on the altar (Vase in the 304 Louvre) and the Sirens (Vase in British Odysseus . 92. 313 before 95. Priam ransoming Hector's body (Vase Vienna) Laocoon and his sons (Vatican) . Illustrations PAGE 88.. 91. 299 . 337 99. Rome) Remus 349 . 97. The persuasion of Helen (National Mu285 seum.
as they have looked out on * the world about them. eclipses. Physical events. power of natural forces. .INTRODUCTION PRIMITIVE people. on the sky and the clouds. or violent storms. such as the rising and and ripening of the grain. the heat of the sun. at early people have seen living. supreme God. the violence of the wind. The He- an early time recognized one brews. as the the sun. they have conceived these beings less after their more or own nature. as earthquakes. Able to understand only those motives and sensations that are like their own. who had created and who directed all the world according to his will. stories more or less complete these acts. and as they have felt the Myths and mythology. have recognized in these things the expression and action of some being more powerful than themselves. but most other indeed. and have wor- shiped these beings as gods or feared them as devils. setting of the sun. or occasionally disturbing the orrising of dinary course of nature. willing beings in the forms and powers of nature. or the springing whether regularly recurring. on the sea and the trees. are to them actions of the beings In accounting for identified with sun or grain.
C.xx told of Introduction grow. Asia. reflects their individual nature and de- veloping life. the noble youth of the Hermes of Praxiteles. is rooted deeply in the civilization of Rome. or the gallant action of the horsemen in the frieze of the Parthenon satisfy us in the fifth twentieth century as they did the Greeks in the and fourth centuries B. first. whose genius taught them to conquer and govern without destroying. and who learned from the nations that they conquered. and form a mythology. and believed. Much heritage from the civilization of Greece. America as well as Europe. all these myths together The interest The mythology of any because it people is interesting mythology. are repeated. of this heritage comes to us quite directly from the Greek writers and artists whose works have been preserved. Egypt. that of the Greeks is more interesting to us than any other. But more of this heritage comes down to us through the Romans. all that centuries of rich civilization had The civilization of the modern world. and Greece. because our own thought and art are. The dramas of Sophocles and Euripides hold an audience in America as they held those in Athens. and through Rome in that . because their art is true and great. a . to give. in great part. These stories superhuman beings and believed by a whole people are myths. because it expresses the nature of a people gifted with a peculiarly fine and artistic soul secondly.
is still a hint of our daily language there mythology our troops still march in : Even to martial music. the Muses of Pieria are not too far away to inspire the music of our western world. The very personages of Greek mythology are familiarly known to-day in the United States. These beliefs and stories have been handed classical down through so many ages and modified in so many ways that confusion as to their real origin has naturally arisen. xxi Greek thought and Greek principles run through our law. the music of the war-god Mars.Introduction of Greece. It is Greek. our standards of taste. divorced from religious meaning but set up before our eyes as symbols of truths that are in the very nature of things. the gift corn-goddess Ceres. the goddess of wisdom) is set above the doors of our libraries and colleges. and the adventures of Ulysses (or Odysseus) and of many other Greek heroes are painted on the walls of our Congres- waves his sional Library. our government. The Romans did not develop an original mythology but took over stories from the Greeks and others and told truly Greek* them of their own gods. the noble head of Minerva (the Greek Athena. our art. not Roman. and our literature. of the and we eat at breakfast cereals. It was . The winged Mercury (the of travelers. whose Greek name was Hermes) god magic wand above the main entrance to the Grand Central Station in New York.
" So the mythological stories grew and changed as they passed from Asia Minor to Greece. the truth as they saw it. fostered variety and permitted artists and poets so to modify tradition as to express something of their individual ideas. their stories and their art veiopment mythology. not that of the Romans. who received the Classical golden Trojan Paris. and no autocratic government or powerful priesthood exerted undue restraint. in poetry. Moreover. have an appeal that is universal. the expression of the nature and mythology of the Greeks. This added infinitely to the richness of mythology . and changed with changing For when we speak of Greece we do not speak of a nation in the strict sense that is. and sculpture. or from Greece to the islands of the ^Lgean Sea. there is Greece. who had Aphro- it was the Greek not the apple is Roman from Venus. and be- cause imagination.xxii Introduction the Greek Zeus. where men thought for themselves. not the so many love adventures dite. and love of beauty were united in them. thought For the Greeks were by nature artistic. Roman . Jupiter. a people under one central government " but of the Greek race Wherever the Greeks : are. to Italy and Sicily. the independence of the individual in the Greek states. ^he ren gi n an d mythology of the Greeks was not a fi xe(i and unchanging thing. insight. it varied with different localities conditions. they in- stinctively expressed their ideals. story.
within and the fires of Hephaestus burned many a volcano (called after his Latin name. xxiii Local conditions. added variety to re- In mountain districts the god ligious customs.Introduction and art. Finally. Furthermore. and the Aphrodite of Asia Minor was far more Asiatic and sensual in character than rites celebrated in his the Aphrodite of Greece. in a country broken both geographically and politically into small divisions. Many different places claimed to be the birthplace of Apollo. or Bacchus. as social conditions changed. since mythology is not based on authority but grows from the soul of the people. as they came in contact with other peoples and became familiar with their religious stories and ceremonial. in the sea and protected commerce. and local pride. and local pride led people to place important events. they incorporated much that was of foreign origin into their own religion. Vulcan). and the extravagant honor were imported from the East. Local heroes gathered stories about themselves. The stories connected with Dionysus. while on the coast men needed the favor of the gods who were powerful over the shiped. it necessarily fol- lows that as Greek life and thought grew and developed. too. the gods of earth and harvest. as art . of the sky and storms was most feared and worfertile plains. in their own localities. birth of a such as the god or some important manifestation of his power.
the telling of the myths and their interpretation changed and developed. powers outside of themselves of which men The intensity of the Greek sun.xxiv Introduction was perfected and poetry and philosophy grew less simple. the mountain barriers . of gods and king of men. a worship of the powers of nature. in art and literature." over the other gods did not make the religion a monotheism any more (1) was polytheistic. It must be as a mass of legend. its the nearness of the sea and importance in the daily life of the people. This is natural to primitive men everywhere. Before proceeding to the mythological stories that spring from the Greek religion. (2) The religion was. in origin. the worship of " father many gods. continually reflecting the developing When life and soul of a great and vital race. in the present book that version is given which has become most famous rhe character of the Greek religion. Mythology was a living. handed down regarded through the people and poets of generation after generation. growing thing. it was than the hegemony or leadership of one Greek state over others made Greece one united nation. it is well to notice some of the more marked It characteristics of that religion. because these are the first are conscious. impossible to seize and fix in a consistent system. The supremacy of Zeus. one is not necessarily more authentic than another. different versions of a story are found.
purity. was an anthropomorphic religion (3) that is. and became the goddess wisdom and of skill in war. is generally supposed to have represented the descent of the storm when the thunderbolt has opened the heavens. The clear. as their thoughts and their lives became less simple. all xxv pendence upon nature. originally So his weapon as sky-god. men more could understand and spiritual conception leads to a loftier ideal. became the of his world power as god of law and orsymbol der. and abstract ideas entered into the government of their actions. who in his worshipers required birth tus Athena. illuminating brightness of the sun made of the god of light. greater and more beautiful and of a finer of practical It substance. the gods were conceived in the forms of men. almost lost this original meaning. this Greek conception of the gods as of like nature with men exalts and ennobles offers subjects for poets spiritual and the human body and and sculptors. tended to emphasize men's deBut as the Greeks de- veloped in intelligence and civilization. the all- seeing prophet. or moral meanings. yet such as While a represent. owing to the story of her from her father Zeus's head when Hephaeshad cleft it. A purely god can never be so represented as even human life in part to satisfy his worshipers. these nature gods assumed ethical the thunder of Zeus. who.Introduction about them. but the noble . Apollo.
Apollo threw the discus with his friends. Even games and athletics were shared by the gods. the king cf gods. sons of gods by mortals. enjoyed a pleasure like their own. so easily understood. the gods. part of the meat and drink was offered to the gods. When they danced and sang. Each was his family's priest. men needed the help of no powerful priesthood gifted with peculiar sanctity and mysterious knowledge and powers. and Hermes was famous for his swiftness of foot. there were priests and priestesses devoted to the gods' service. At the great shrines. but these prophets only occasionally or indirectly con- trolled people's actions determining religious father and had little authority in belief and practice. called on to be present. When the family ate and drank. was so realized by the sculptor Phidias that his great gold and ivory statue quite worthily expressed to the peo- What gulf there was between and men was bridged by the existence of gods heroes or demigods. each man could prayers and his own sacrifice and be understood and accepted by the god he adoffer his own dressed. nature so close to men. .xxvi Introduction dignity of Zeus. and of nature and powers half human. So athletic contests became a form . and there were men and women peculiarly inspired by the god to interpret his will and give warning and promise for the future. half divine. (4) To worship and propitiate these gods. it is true. in ple their ideal.
The gods experienced and understood. Hermes was a shepherd and understood the needs of other shepherds. was always ready to champion mortals in those interpreter to call relations. but the number of deities to be recognized was vastly multiplied. and they did not appear to their worshipers as distinct personalities. while the rights of kings were very dear to Zeus. So all the acts of daily life. and no human smith needed an upon him for aid in his craft. too. No act of life. as wife and mother. The maiden Artemis lent an ear to girls who were in trouble. connected with daily life as were those of the Greeks. Hephaestus was a smith. readily and the offering of their childish playthings was Hera. them all distinct much more to give characters and to determine the . from the cooking of the family B" religion. No material from the oven which the bread was baked to the city of Rome. Business as well as pleasure was a repetition of divine actions and therefore joined with religion.Introduction xxvii of worship. . the king of gods. rinding their counterpart among the Olympians were ennobled and rilled with religious meaning. acceptable to her. these innumerable divinities. all the simple things that men used. the different relations of life. but was under the special care of thing. some in divinity. meal to the declaration of war. just J The gods of the Romans were as closely The character of th e r i . but had its own inEven to know the names of all dwelling deity.
. just as unquestioningly observed as the other conventions and regulations to which the citizens were subject. was quite imfor the busy practical citizen. State and were one and indivisible. later under Maximus. possible a purely conventional system of religious cere- way monial and invocation ran through Roman life. So the state. failure in religious duty was failure in national duty.xxviii best Introduction to approach each one. Each family under its its father as head worshiped family about its hold his place in the family without performing his duty to the family gods. tion of a more personal faith. such as that of the Greeks. and no one could own religious head. first the king. its own hearth in the shrine of Vesta in the Forum. had its own deities. and a wrong committed against the civil law was a the Republic the Pontifex religion This was a strong civilizing side of religion that made for good morals and good citizenship. The stories we are accustomed to associate with the Roman gods are either borlate rowed from the Greeks or were creations of imagination inspired by and modeled on the traditions of Greek mythology. Hence. its own gods of the home and own hearth. but it lacked the inspirasin against the gods. Nor had the Roman gods sufficient individuality to bring into existence any body of mythology. as the greater family.
PART I THE GODS .
vaulted by the sky. and Italy. their own native land.GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY CHAPTER THE I THE WORLD OF THE MYTHS knowledge that the world we live in is a sphere and but one of an endless number Mythical geography. that are whirling through space with incredible speed. in Central Greece. is not a knowledge that we have by nature or by we must be persuaded of this scienFor as we look around us and above us. at Delall phi. Distant Beyond those lands to which -Greek enterprise and civilization penetrated lay distant lands in- . to Africa. we seem to stand at the very center of a circular plane. This was the view held by the Greeks of early times. Near and far were counted from Delphi it was with the sacred permission of the oracle established there that those daring colonists set out who brought Greece to the shores of Asia Minor. To them the world was flat and round. the holy place of their race. across whose spacious arch the sun travels by day and the moon by night. . a disk whose central point was in experience. tific fact.
copy of a stone bound with fillets that up at Delphi to mark the center of the earth. . ran the Stream of Ocean. but were specially loved by the gods. who paid them frequent visits and ate at blameless their tables. Fig. i. and serpents. one-eyed giants. was set Omphalus. Beyond all lands.4 Greek and Roman Mythology habited by strange people and monsters. and circling the disk of earth. Far the in the North bo're lived a Hy per good and happy people. and to the South " the ans. These had no dealings Ethiopians. a great and mysterious river without a farther shore. the tiny race of Pygmies.'' with other men.
Then Uranus and Gaea the sea and all the hills. Gaea in her distress When called upon the Titans for deliverance. Greeks believed that the natural world came into being by birth or generation. taught that created our universe of heaven. From Chaos sprang Er'e bus (the darkness under the From these two were born earth) and Night. next came Gaea (Earth). in the beginning was Chaos. most beautiful of immortals. who existed from the beginning. fearing his children. ^Ether (the light of heaven) and Day. drove them back into the earth.The World The account of as the Greek poets tell unlike the account that ter of the Myths 5 ning the wor ii the beginning of this world. and sea. they gave birth to the hun- dred-handed giants. bore U'ra nus (Heaven). and that even the gods whom they worshiped were the children and successors of an earlier and more elemental The earlier race of beings. Thus. the For while the Hebrews were God. is in one respect quite in the first chap- is found of Genesis. ending in man. . of the sea. were united by Eros and became the parents of the Titans. and Eros (Love). who represent the violence Uranus. touched by Eros. The begin of it. misty void. But Gaea. who represent the great ungoverned forces of nature. lastly. the Cyclopes and the hundred-handed giants. the lightning. who are the rumbling thunder. a formless gods. earth. and the three Cyck/pes. and all the forms of life. and the thunderbolt.
. and having sickle. and Hades (Pluto). 2. he adopted the extraordinary precaution of swallowing his children as soon as they were born. Rhea offering Cronus tne stone in place of Zeus. seized his mother's Birth of the gods. Cronus married his sister . rule. Thus Hes'tia (Vesta). maimed him with a After this. Rhea and became the father of six children but since he had been told that a son should overthrow his Fig. came to the light only to be devoured. attacked his father. Cronus. power.6 The Greek and Roman Mythology greatest of them. obedient to his call. and Hera (Juno) Posei'don (Neptune). Deme'ter (Ceres). as he had overthrown that of his own father.
tween them. The infant Am for safety in a cave in Crete. as Zeus and his be called. mountain spirits was kept where he was of Crete or priests of Rhea. armed with the thunderbolts given him by the Cyclopes. by giving Cronus a 5 strong potion he forced him to disgorge the five children he had swallowed. Zeus gained the Those Titans who had taken Cronus' victory. while the Cu re'tes. and for ten years the war raged without ceasing. forti- brothers and sisters should now themselves on Mt. Myths 7 bore her him from the fate of his brothers Zeus (Jupiter). was supreme over heaven and earth. nourished on honey and the milk of the goat al the'a. Zeus. When Zeus was grown. After this. as far below part the earth as earth is below heaven.The division of the worlo. He then declared war upon him. Finally Gaea advised Zeus to loose from their prison under the earth the Cyclopes and the hundred-handed giants. as truly a sky-god as his .The World When Rhea she saved sisters of the last son. The rugged mountains and jumbled rocks of Thessaly bear witness to the fury of the battles. The three brothers now divided the world be. Olympus. were buried deep in Tartarus. and assisted by the convulsions of sea and land caused by the hundred-handed giants. in Thessaly. chosen as king. and in by giving to Cronus a stone wrapped baby's clothes in his place. fied The gods. drowned his cries by clashing their spears on their shields.
lord over the waters. the waters seethed at the convulsion . wr with the giants. from whose shoulders grew a hundred serpent subjugation of her heads. complete she brought forth Typhon. and from whose throats came fearful sounds. like the bellowing of bulls. Although Gaea had aided and abetted the gods the realm that bears his in their war against Cronus. scorching all his hundred heads. ' and when other enemies threatened his power. was buried beneath the earth. him all the earth was shaken.8 Greek and Roman Mythology all grandfather Uranus had been. and dominion over the dead. and the hissing of serpents. even Hades below trembled the world. This monster. a fearful monster. the howling of dogs. name below the earth. he had their assistance in overcoming them. Not all are agreed as to just what the form of the giants was. This new war was brought on by a race of giants who had sprung from the blood of Uranus. To Zeus were born many sons and daughters. his gift from the Cyclopes. of But Zeus seized the thunderbolts. when he was wounded by his son Cronus. she resented the Therefore sons. with darting tongues and fiery eyes. his nostrils shoot up through the craters of volcanoes. and overthrew Typhon. too. but artists sometimes depicted them with . but still from uneasy and the flames from The his writhing at times the earth trembles. the roarUnder ing of lions. and to Poseidon was Hades was given Typhon.
too. justice. It science. in which the higher gains the by crushing the lower. to nature ordered by thought. And this development comes through love and birth. Much of this story of the world is allegory. Prometheus had fashioned the first man. traveling in his own country. who rose from the ground. Zeus with the help of his brothers and children overthrew and buried. given Greek gentleman of the second century A. life he was molded out Pro me'theus. half serpent. Zeus is called " " or and this came Father of gods and men . half man. he was told by the natives of by A the'na. After this his rule and armed. of the Myths 9 savage men might be. was shown a small brick hut in which.D. or he was descended from the gods. A the place. and beauty. J r T^ Day springs from night. history. was undisputed. These. heaven and earth are the parents of the powers of nature. and the wise daughter of Zeus. Of creation : as in the story of the earliest king of Athens. and through struggle. told as an allegory. and the spiritual rule is the story of life..The World the tails of serpents. a from unordered forces of nature. . It is from the lower to the higher. to be the accepted account of clay by the Titan's son. Large masses of clay-colored stone lay . the origin of man in the world the Greeks The had three explanations he was born of the earth. as a tribe of with tree-trunks and rocks. development all Meaning of the myths.
Prometheus gave the gift of fire. which ever grew again. because he wanted to bring trouble And on Prometheus and gods deprived his creation. although he saw the deceit. Although 1 at any time he might have won 4. fire men of means of livelihood. bringing it secretly in a hollow reed. his Pausanias.1O Greek and Roman Mythology it about. chose the bones and fat. Then he told Zeus once for all to choose what should be his portion. where an eagle ever tore at his liver. 1 he of fire! had ft When him he had created man. So the and denied them their until Prometheus stole it once more from heaven. 3. and the credulous tourist says that the odor of human flesh. Zeus. divided it He in in two portions. cut up an ox and one was the flesh covered by the hide. man. and in the other the bones temptingly covered by fat. he pre- pared a cunning device. which raised him above all other animals and enabled him to make use of him by forging weapons and Fire was the means and tools for agriculture. . But Prometheus fell the world about under the displeasure of Zeus for his favor to- ward man . for when a joint meeting was held to determine what part of beasts offered in sacrifice was due to the gods and what to men. the symbol of civilization. For this defiance of his power the god punished Prometheus by having him bound to a rock in the Caucasus Mountains. X.
freedom by telling Zeus a secret which he alone knew, the much-enduring Titan bore this torture The two were at last reconciled and for ages. Prometheus set free, by Her'a cles (Hercules),
the son of Zeus, who, as part divine, part human, was suited to act as mediator between the gods
Because of the theft of
against men, too,
fire will I
give them an evil thing wherein they
the father of
embracing their own doom. So spake gods, and laughed aloud. And
he bade glorious Hephaestus speedily to mingle earth with water, and put therein human speech and strength,
and make, as the deathless goddesses to look upon, the fair form of a lovely maiden. And Athena he bade teach her handiwork, to weave the embroidered web. And he bade golden Aphrodite shed grace about her head and grievous desire and wasting passion. And Hermes, the messenger, the slayer of Argus, he bade give her a shameless soul. (Hesiod, Works and Days, 56 ft. Translation by A. W. Mair.) Now when he had fashioned the beautiful bane in the place of a blessing, he led her forth where were the other gods and men. And amazement held immortal gods and mortal men, when they beheld the sheer delusion unescapable for men. For from her cometh the race of woman-kind. .Yea, of her is the deadly race and the tribes of women. A great bane are they to dwell among mortal men, no help-meet for ruinous
poverty, but for abundance.
(Hesiod, Theogony, 585
Translation by A.
Greek and Roman Mythology
Although Prometheus (Forethought) had warned his brother Epimetheus (Afterthought) never to accept anything from Zeus, Epimetheus foolishly
hands of the gods' messenger, Hermes. She had with her a jar which she was commanded
on no account
strong. ten thousand
instant the lid
But curiosity was too was raised out flew
winged plagues, diseases, pains, no one on earth could escape them. Only Hope stayed within the mouth of the jar and never flew out. So in this Greek story the hitherto peaceful, innocent world received its
burden of trouble through the curiosity of the
just as in the Bible story the inno-
cence of the Garden of
The Greeks were not
quite consistent in their
explanations of the coming of sin and trouble into the world, for while in the one account it
all came when Pandora opened her jar, the account of the Four Ages shows a gradual deterioration. For, first of all, in the Age of Gold
lived like gods,
The generous earth bore fruit of herself, and there was neither numbing frost nor burning heat to make shelter necessary. This was during the reign of Cronus, known among The men of this age the Romans as Saturn. never grew old and feeble, but when death came,
came like a peaceful sleep. And when this was hidden in the earth Zeus made of them good spirits who watch over mortals. The second race, that of the Silver Age, the gods made inferior to the first in mind and body. The time of helpless infancy was long, and the time of manhood short and troubled, for they could not refrain from injuring one another, and they failed to give worship and sacrifice to the gods. Yet the men of this age, too, had some honor, and lived on as spirits under the earth. Next came
of Bronze, when men insolently delighted Of bronze were their homes, of bronze
were as hard as
was the Age of
was no end
to their weariness
Family and friendship parents neglected, and the rights of hospitality forgotten. Might became right, and respect for truth and plighted faith was made of no account. Reverence and their heads, forsook men and Justice, veiling withdrew to Olympus. When Zeus, then, saw how utterly wicked men had become, he resolved to clear the earth of them all. To the council summoned in heaven destruction by fire seemed a method too dangerous to the homes of the gods; a flood over the earth was a safer plan. To this end, Zeus shut the north wind and all the others that drive up
woe, nor by night to their anxieties.
The Flood of Deucalion.
Greek and Roman Mythology
the clouds, and sent out the rainy south wind, and he called upon his brother Poseidon
to let out the waters under his control. flood spread over the fields
and broke .down the
the flocks with
their shepherds, the houses
and the holy
was one now, a limitless ocean. Fishes swam in and out among the branches of the trees, and awkward seals stretched themselves where lately the nimble goats had played. The water-nymphs swam wonderingly among the houses. The birds, flying long in search of a restSea and land,
exhausted in the watery waste. all but the son of
Prometheus, Deu ca'li on, and his wife Pyrrha. These good people, taught beforehand by the wise Titan, had constructed a great chest in which they had gathered all that was necessary for life, and when the flood came they took refuge in it themselves, and floated for nine days until the chest touched ground once more on Mt. Parnassus. When Zeus looked down and saw all the violent race of men swept off the earth, and only this one man, a lover of justice and a devout
worshiper of the gods, left alive with his wife, he called upon the north wind to disperse the
clouds and upon Poseidon to recall his waters. Then Deucalion and Pyrrha stepped out of the
saw a waste and unpeopled earth about and in their loneliness they called upon them,
the gods for help.
they should cast behind them the bones of their mother. Knowing that the god could never or-
der them to be guilty of the impiety of disturbing the tomb of their mortal parent, Deucalion di-
vined the true meaning of the mysterious comThe earth is the mother of all and the
they descended the mountain, casting stones behind them. Those that Deucalion threw
assumed the forms of men, those that Pyrrha So the earth was threw, the forms of women.
THE GODS OF OLYMPUS: ZEUS
the gods of the Greek religion were personifications of natural powers, yet they were conceived after the fashion of human beings, both
form and in their needs and passions. They were born, grew, married, and suffered, though death never came to them. These beings, like men, only greater and more beautiful, must have cities and homes like those of men, only So the Greeks of greater and more beautiful.
the mainland looked
up to the cloud-capped peak of Mt. Olympus, majestic, mysterious, eternally enduring, and saw there, under the arch of
heaven, the golden halls of the divine
There, as they say,
eth fast forever.
the seat of the gods that stand-
wet with rain, but most clear
Not by winds is it shaken, nor ever nor doth the snow come nigh thereto,
air is spread about
it cloudless, and the Therein the blessed gods are (Odyssey, VI. 42 ff.)
true celestial city, conceived after the model of the Greek city-states. At the gates of
Hours stood as guardians, within the walls rose the palaces of the gods, and on the
. ye gods. Ambrosia was the food served at these banquets. 18 ff. The nostrils of the feasters were filled with the rich odor of sacrifices of- fered on earth.The Gods of Olympus: Zeus 19 topmost peak. all brothers. the acropolis. counselor supreme. sons. . while about them assembled the other ten Olympians. make trial that ye all may know. and all ye gods lay hold thereof and all goddesses. By so much am I beyond gods and beyond men. his sister and wife. sisters. But once I likewise were minded to draw with all my heart. sat beside .. then should I draw you up with very earth and sea withal. Fasten ye a rope of gold from Heaven. him. yet could ye not drag from Heaven to earth Zeus. .) As sky-god he drew the clouds over the face of heaven. and their ears charmed by the songs the Muses sang to the accompaniment of Apollo's lyre. (Iliad. and Hera. was the great hall where the members of the Olympic Council gathered for deliberation or for feasting. the goddess of youth. or daugh" father of gods and king of men. He challenges : the other Olympians to dispute his power Go to now. In the place of honor sat Zeus on his golden zeus (Jupiter) throne. and nectar. VIII. sending storm and rain upon the earth." ters of the For after his victory over the Titans Zeus ruled supreme over heaven and earth. nourished the ichor flowing in the gods' veins instead of blood. poured into the cups by Hebe. not though ye toiled sore.
using against her For lord all the traditional weapons of a woman. he song of the Virgin Mary: Muses of Pieria. as Zeus Almighty will. intriguing to get her own way. Lightly he giveth strength. Works HIS marriage Heaven. as Homer portrays her. Hesiod calls upon the Muses to sing of him in words that recall the violence.2O Greek and Roman Mythology down over all or he dispersed them and looked as a benignant father. and lightly he afflicteth the strong. Yet his rule was not one of arbitrary was the author and promoter of law and order. come sing of Zeus your father. yet. of hospitality and just treatment of man by man. implacably power and majesty. lightly he bringeth low the mighty and lifteth up the humble lightly he maketh the crooked to be straight and withereth the proud as ." a beautiful. i ff. chaff. through whom are men famed and un famed.) Zeus was married to his sister. jealous of Zeus's other loves. Olympian Zeus went in dread of his wife's reproaches and persistency and drew the thickest of clouds between them when he indulged in any pleasure of which she would not approve. of a civilized and regulated intercourse between men. who dwelleth and Days. who glorify with song. Zeus. and declare his praise. "Hera of the golden throne. sung and unsung. Victory stood at his right hand. a very human woman. The weapon of his anger was the thunderbolt. queenly goddess. Though she had no choice all his . who thundereth in in the height. (Hesiod.
as the great. she reserved to herself the compensation of taunts and a sullen demeanor. 539 ff. Many of these unions originated as symbols of natural facts.' He said. (Iliad. may be born." Then the father of gods and men made answer to . . the young corn of the new year. others as symbols of philosophic truths. . regume'ter.The Gods of Olympus: Zeus 21 but to yield when he asserted his will. the son the gods. her Hera. Thus as sky-god. Zeus must join the in marriage grain-goddess. curbing her heart. De . " Anon with Now who among itation to give thy judgments. hath good pleasure to hold aloof from me and in sweet medof Cronus. thou crafty of devised counsel with thee? It is ever thy mind. . this altercation took place : taunting words spake she to Zeus. think not thou to know all my sayings hard are they for thee. that Per seph'o ne.'. But whichsoever it is seemly for thee to hear. even though thou art my wife. be he god or man. On one occasion when he had promised a favor to another of the goddesses. and sat in silence. and Hera the ox-eyed queen was afraid. nor of thine own good will hast thou ever brought thyself to declare unto me the thing thou purposeth. thou shalt know.) Though Hera was desses and mortal wife. he united himself with Zeus's queen and lawful many other god- m s otter women. god of sun and union with rain. then do not thou ask of every matter nor make question. I. Only : " when I will to take thought aloof from the gods. creating. Again. none sooner than.
and thinking himto rest. The religious traditions of many peoples with whom the Greeks had intercourse were incorporated by them into their own mythology.). music. very many of them the sons of Zeus by mortal women. But the extraordinary number of Zeus's unions was due to the fact that Greek mythology was not the creation or inheritance of one land and people. each Greek state had its own local hero. the ancestor or early king of that group. the goddesses of poetry. One day. alone in the woods. she lay Zeus saw her there. 410 ff. wandering down upon the ground came down secretly and wooed her. a favorite companion of the huntress Ar'te mis. Thus the Arcadians traced their descent from Areas. may draw from father and mother what is needed for all great creative work. of whose love the following story is told. but was drawn from the religion and traditions of Greeks in many different lands and under many different conditions. that the Nine Muses. II. and science. Cal lis'to was a nymph. self quite safe from the jealous eyes of Hera. a son of Callisto by Zeus. and these heroes were always of divine origin. but retaining the original Greek names. Callisto would gladly have escaped the attentions of the 'Following the story as told by the Latin poet Ovid (Metamorphoses. .22 lating Greek and Roman Mythology mind. Moreover. he must unite with Mnemosyne (nemos'ine) or Memory.
beauty by which you charmed my husband's love. fearing to rest in the dark often woods. when she would have rejoined nymph known that lived in the woods Solitary and sad the until she bore to Zeus a son." In vain Callisto begged for pity. that face which once aroused Zeus's love was deformed by huge ugly jaws. Areas. as herself a maiden. and an angry frightened growl was all that she could utter. said she to the " for I shall take away nymph. her How often in her grief and her love remained. turned Callisto away her. solitary anguish.The Gods god and gone of Olympus: Zeus 23 . in the Often she hid from the bears she met tains. arms began to be covered with coarse black hair crooked claws grew from her hands. Now Zeus's love for Callisto was " You shall not go unpunished. the power to speak was taken from' her. moun- So forgetful that she was now of their kind. She recognized her child and ran to greet him. she sought her old home! she How ! was driven away by a huntress. When she would have prayed for mercy." to Hera. which now served as forefeet. out hunting wild beasts. herself Once the barking dogs she was now the hunted. One day her fifteen troubled years passed. who. Artemis and her nymphs but who could withstand Zeus! Artemis. Terrified by the rush of . would have none but maidens to rejoin in her company. met with his mother in the forest. Her . son Areas. But under her bear's form her human heart.
and wondering to see the low-lying cloud under a clear sky. ing the trick. at once suspected some wrong-doing on her husband's part. dip below their waves. had foreseen the coming of his wife and had changed the daughter of Inachus into a beautiful white heifer. looking down upon eyes. Zeus checked his blow and raised Callisto to the heavens. the realm of Argos. Following Ovid. ID. I. he aimed at her his hunting-spear. however.24 Greek and Roman Mythology the great bear. a river-god. Zeus loved and wooed and won her. She glided down from heaven and bade the cloud recede. . 583 ff. Metamorphoses. story Another that shows the lo was the daughter of In'a chus.* unrelenting hatred with which Hera pursued those favored by Zeus is that of lo. and thus it is that the Great Bear can always be made a goddess! Is guilty woman! my seen in the heavens and never sinks below the waters. "Behold I took from her her human form and now Is this the this she is punishment for a " She went to the sea-gods and power! that they would never permit Callisto to prayed The prayer was granted. coming to her secretly under cover of a cloud spread be- tween their meeting-place and Hera's watchful But the jealous queen. Zeus. where he set her as the constellation of Hera's jealousy was not at all the Great Bear. satisfied by this. 4 Hera requested Suspectthe heifer as a gift.
upon the heifer's through all lands. He sent Hermes. weary of his lonely and tedious watch. At last with her hoof she traced in the sand the letters of her " " lo. to destroy the ever-watchful Argus. of Olympus: Zeus 25 and Zeus was constrained to yield or acknowledge lo was given by her mistress in charge of Argus. found you. Hermes approached Argus. a monster of whose hundred eyes but two were closed at one time. came to the banks of the river Inachus where she was wont to play. and put her in a new pasture. When she tried to She speak.The Gods his love. called to him to come and share the shade of his tree. her. When she would have held out supplicating hands to Argus. . who. when she saw the reflection of her great mouth and new. Laying aside his winged sandals and disguised as a shepherd. did not not ters know know her.formed horns. she had no hands to hold out. she The Naiads fled from her own image in terror. her own father Inachus did She followed her father and sis- and offered herself to be petted and admired. She licked their hands and kissed her father's palms. nor could she keep back the big tears from rolling down her nose. and fell Woe is me ! cried her father. most wily of gods. she was terrified by her own lowing. own name." Hundred-eyed Argus parted them as they lamented. have sought you Better were it that I had never neck. I " But Zeus could not endure to see her so unhappy. his son and messenger.
After some years she made her escape and fled to Mt. she wandered. An ti'o pe was Thebes.26 Greek and Roman Mythology Seated beside Argus. until at last she arrived in Egypt. In her weary at last Hermes search peace. where they may be seen But her jealous wrath still pursued unto-day. where they grew up among the shepherds. where she was restored to her natural form and gave birth to a son. She sent a gad-fly to torment her and drive her from land to land. Antiope. The hundred eyes Hera took and placed in the tail of her sacred peacock. As one of a company of . Hermes piped to him charmingly on his shepherd's pipes. fortunate lo. at once slew him and set lo free. Two by two the hundred eyes were closed. Cithaeron. whose wife Dirce treated her with the greatest cruelty. Bosphorus. the Ionian its Sea. whence derives name. their birth the babies Am phi'on where she happened to take refuge in the hut where her sons lived. too. the way of the cow. until no eye was awake to watch his charge. Over the sea. the ancestor of the Ionian Greeks. that bears her name. Cithreron. Antiope fell into the power of her uncle Lycus. sons By Zeus the daughter of the king of she became the mother of two and Zethus. varying with song the long stories with which he beguiled the hours. strait that divides for the heifer passed over the it Europe from Asia. Immediately after were taken from her and exposed on Mt.
Dirce tied to the bull. Dirce came. and finding the hated Antiope. votaries of the wine-god Bacchus. They were about to carry out this barbarous command when the shepherd informed them that the victim was their own of a fierce bull. 4. Releasing her. mother. they now executed the . to the same place. by chance. she ordered Amphion and Zethus to kill her by tying her to the horns Fig.The Gods of Olympus: Zeus 27 Bacchantes.
pieces by Lycus. It is said that when they were building walls about the city Zethus' strength enabled him to lift huge stones into place. the Immortals. but that Amphion's same sentence on Dirce. skill as story of Baucis and Phi le'mon shows how Zeus could reward those who respected the law of hospitality and punish those who violated it. making happiness even out of their poverty by bearing it Here then came together with contented hearts. in Zeus came his son in the guise of a mortal. Yet one. too. received Here good old Baucis and her husband Philemon had grown old together. 620 ff. who was a musician was so great that when he played his lyre stones yet more huge rose of themselves and took their places in the wall. all were barred against them.D a certain place where now is a marsh freHere quented by wild birds was once a village. and the brothers became kings of Thebes. while Baucis bustled to throw over it a coarse covering. and bending down their heads entered the low door. Then she gathered together the dying embers. The old man placed a seat and bade them sit down. was killed. winged sandals laid aside. a little house thatched with reeds. They went to a thousand dwellings seeking rest and refreshment.28 in Greek and Roman Mythology instantly torn the angry bull. them. and with him Hermes. Baucis and The fbuemon. . Metamorphoses. VIII. added dry leaves and fuel and blew it into a flame with her feeble 5 Following Ovid.
cottage-cheese. dried dates. radishes. for the wine not rich old wine. endive. as often as it filled up again of its own accord. While the gods reclined on the couch. cut a fat piece cherished flitch fire cabbage from from the longof bacon. After this the mixing-bowl and cups. and in they had. the tremsoft sedge-grass. carefully fried. set out One foot of the table was uneven. the guardian of the little farm. purple grapes gathered from the vines. with off the top. a brick steadied it. were set out berries. and . and a handful of greens cleaned bling old the table.The Gods breath. but the best There were nuts. all the middle of the table the honey-comb. They trem- and holding out their hands in supplication. stewed and eggs all served in earthenware dishes. and fragrant apples served in baskets. There was one single goose. was emptied. It escaped them. and put them over the their cushion of it to cook. of Olympus: in a Zeus 29 Her husband brought the little garden. Above there were cordial looks and eager good-will. The feast began with olives. poor and patched put though it was. and plums. bled. laid tucked up. And now the astonished couple began to notice that the mixing-bowl. They shook up on the dining-couch. they used only on great festivals. and over it a covering that. this its masters now prepared to slaughter for their divine guests. asked forgiveness for the humble fare. figs. made of beech-wood lined with smooth wax. skirts woman.
you shall be free from misfortune. Then the son of Cronus " Ask. they were guardians of the temple as long as they lived. Leave your house and old people obeyed and. that little old In place of the hut of theirs was transformed. let the same of hour take us both. climbed the hill. with their sticks. bent with age. and beams. and bewailed their neighbors' fate. and since we have lived happily together. this We and while neighborhood pays the penalty for its inhospitality. reeds." Their prayer was granted. One day as stood side by side before the temple each they saw a change come over the other." Philemon consulted a : moment with Baucis and then answered " : We ask to be priests and to keep your shrines. righteous old man and worthy spoke woman. own house was marsh only While they wondered . hobbling along When a little way from the top. rose the pavement of marble.30 and Greek and Roman Mythology its flapping wings. dodged about the its little room are at last took refuge at the feet of the gods. " " slaughter. Then as the wav- . The Immortals forbade gods. forked sticks supporting a roof thatched with marble columns crowned with gilded the doors were of embossed metal. and let me never see the grave my wife nor have to be buried by her hands. what you will." said they." The two and saw their all the village covered by a left. Now their forms. grew straight and strong and rooted firmly in the earth. they looked back follow us.
.. ." Zeus was represented in art as a man of gener. gods care for the godly. And so. his brows heavy. . Head of Zeus. in after years. 5. his hair and beard extremely . and said : Fig. and protect those who zeus: MS appearance do them service.. the shepherds pointed out the oak and the " The linden growing side by side. O Wife! O Husband!" and then the bark covered their mouths. His head was massive.The Gods ing tree-tops of Olympus: Zeus 31 grew over their heads. . and worship. each said: "Farewell. 11 j j ous build and majestic bearing. usually draped from the waist down. .
selves the statue Among the Greeks them- most admired was that of gold in the temple at and ivory set up Olympia. the winged thunderbolts.32 Greek and Roman Mythology though his face looked out from masses Beneath his overhang- thick. the eagle. Victory. He was generally represented as seated upon a throne. a winged female figure. holding in one hand his scepter or a spear. Greeks from all parts of the Hellenic world met once in every four years to offer sacrifice and to compete in athletic contests. His whole appearance was that of the majestic and powerful god of heaven and earth. honoring their divinity by the exhibition of perfect bodies under perfect control. genius to celebrating them in hymns. as of piled thunder-clouds. which were sung by choruses to the accompaniment of . for he held the balances of fate and gave victory to this or that warrior as he willed. the bird that flight With him often appeared by his bold heavenward descent upon his prey was and lightningassociated with the On his scepter or beside him appeared sky-god. ing eyebrows gleamed those eyes whose glance was lightning. So great was the honor paid to successful contestants that the most famous lyric poets of Greece devoted their. Before this representation of the greatest of their gods. and the heavily lined forehead foreboded that frown at which the heavens shook. and in the other his weapons. in southern Greece.
here he can make out the plan of the palestra in whose wide spaces Greek youth wrestled. nude as they appeared when winning their right he gained of having his statue set . the greatest sculptors joined to do them honor. 6. rivaled one another in throwing the discus. View of ruins at Olympia. the lyre or flute when the victors returned to their state.The Gods of Olympus: Zeus 33 Fig. for the proudest glory of an Olympic victor was the up in the As one walks now through precinct of the god. long rows of statues of youths. the ruins at Olympia. ran races. in front. own cities in triumphal Moreover. Here was the long colonnade or stoa beneath whose shade poets read their works.
and the stories told of the one were transferred to the other. in Olympian Zeus. one of the oldest holy places in all Greece. Here the priestess read the will of the god from the sound of the rustling leaves of the great oak. Temples in his honor crowned many high hills in Italy. a tree especially sacred to Zeus. rise the high foundations of the great temple of At Do do'na. as Zeus was. even now umns. of treasuries of the states of Greece. the Alban Mount the temple of Jupiter Latiaris was the religious center of the Latin Jupiter Optimus Maximus was on the Capitoline Hill at Rome as worshiped guardian of the state and giver of victory in Confederacy. In every part of the Greek world were places set apart for his worship. and he was called On upon to send rain in time of drought. strangely combined with thoughts of death. Epirus. was a famous oracle of Zeus. impressive for the great drums of its colfallen and piled in confusion by the earth- quakes of centuries. and king of gods and men. . for conceptions of immortal gods were Jupiter. Jupiter or Jove. Zeus was identified by the Romans with their old Latin god.34 all Greek and Roman Mythology Here was the line victories. As late as early Christian times in Crete the grave of Zeus was pointed out. Jupiter was originally a sky-god. and each state claimed his favor for some special reason. and in the center.
. the Roman oaths.The Gods of Olympus: Zeus 35 war. Jupiter was protector of right and truth and the sanctity of Like Zeus. and to him generals returning victorious to celebrate a triumph offered the best of the spoils of war.
a TroZeus saw the boy on earth and loved jan prince. At Samos the anthe greatest of festivals. the god came nectar. in beauty preeminent. an immortal queen. I sing of bore.) The wife of Zeus. children. she 36 . As wife of the supreme god. Hera was naturally The bride the guardian of the marriage state. Hephaestus (Vulcan). the lady renowned. whom all the Blessed throughout high Olympus honor and revere no less than Zeus whose delight is in the thunder. sacrificed to her. whom Rhea I. and matrons of the city were the priestesses of her temple. god of war. god of the forge. him for his boyish charm and beauty. and Hebe. HEPHAESTUS HERA (JUNO) golden-throned Hera. (Homeric Hymn to Hera. Though Hebe was originally also cup-bearer to the gods. Assuming the form of his royal eagle. Translation by Andrew Lang. for some reason. the sister and the bride of loud-thundering Zeus. goddess of youth. nual celebration of her marriage with Zeus was By Zeus she had three Ares (Mars). ATHENA. perhaps because she slipped one day when pouring the was displaced by Gan'ymede.CHAPTER III HERA.
Hera. 7.Fig. .
and carried him off to Olympus to This aroused Hera's anger. Athena. Hephaestus 39 upon Ganymede when he was watching his flocks on Mt. 8. not only against her husband but against the whole race of Trojans. men knew trail of her coming by the many-colored she left behind her. be his cup-bearer.Hera. who bore her commands to other gods and to mortals. Ida. Ganymede and the Eagle. mortals and his children by mortal wives were objects of jealous hate to Hera. for Iris was the rain- . whom ever after she pursued Indeed all Zeus's favorwith relentless hatred. Fig. fleet messenger of Hera. As she flew down from Olympus Iris iris. ites among was the wind-footed.
Appearance uid emblems. As a matron she was portrayed clad in a long full garment. and on her head a crown.) gus eyes. adorned by the hundred ArHera. sometimes a pomegranate. with a serene and beautiful face. the wife of Jupiter. Head pears the peacock. Fig. the symbol of fertility for women and tail plants. his of She too of in old times had been the special guardian the marriage-tie. Often she held a scepter. the symbol of connection between earth and heaven. of majestic form and carriage. the queenly protector of wifehood and motherhood. Of all the children of Zeus the one nature and power and resembled her father who most enjoyed his respect and confidence was the maiden goddess. Greek artists conceived of Hera as a woman in the full bloom of her age. women and n. Pallas Athena. The story . (See p. 9. in Roman worship stood Juno. Beside her often ap- Juno. a conception inspired by the ideal for which she stood. ATHENA (MINERVA) who most in The Birth of Atbena. Corresponding to Hera as wife of Zeus. 26.40 Greek and Roman Mythology bow.
. Athena (known as " Lemnian Athena").Fig. 10.
even Pallas Athena. Pig. and Zeus the counselor rejoiced. II. and suddenly brake forth the foam. Quickly did the goddess from the immortal head. and the glorious son of Hyperion checked for long his swift steeds. Hephaestus of her birth tion. shaking her sharp spear.) immortal The Greek birth of artists. while in awe leap did the other gods behold it. Yea. is 43 fully consistent with this special relafully since she sprang.Hera. Her all armed did Zeus the counselor beget from his holy head for war in shining golden mail. till the maiden took from her shoulders her divine armor. and the sea was boiling with dark waves. from the head of Zeus. (Homeric Hymn to Athena. and stood before Zeus. Athena. child of aegis-bearing Zeus. while earth rang terribly around. Birth of Athena from the head of Zeus. Athena Zeus is is a favorite subject with Her and origin nature. and high Olympus trembled in dread beneath the strength of the gray-eyed maiden. grown and armed. represented seated upon his . Hail to thee.
Athena ceased to be regarded and was worshiped as godreason and practical wisdom. and as On the other hand. beside her father. the temple that crowns the height of the Acropolis. Hephaestus. the was dedicated Parthenon. Athena stands triumphant. suggests the thunder-cloud and the forked lightning. brandishing her her breast protected by the aegis. Athena seems to have represented the waters of heaven let loose from the clouds (represented by the head of Zeus) when the thunderbolt (the ax of Hephaestus) cleaves them. the forge. (See p. as has been well said. At an [early time. The dreadful Gorgon's head with its snaky locks. on the breast-plate." The Parthenon. however. and the intellectual activity that As champion makes it fruitful. still grasping in his hand the ax with which. as a nature goddess dess of she was the goddess of war-strategy. aegis. adorned with the head of the Gor- gon Medusa. fender of ens. especially her own city of Ath- of civilization and justice. or sacred spear.) Originally. to assist the miraculous birth. in the ancient nature myth. " the warlike courage that gives peace. breast-plate.44 Greek and Roman Mythology him are others of the OlymBefore him stands the god of pian divinities. the decities. To Athena. Here was . father granted it to her to wear his the almighty Thus she represents. patroness of arts and crafts. while about he has cleft the skull of Zeus. as guardian of the city of Athens. 209. throne.
Athena. Her finely molded features express courage and In high intellectuality.Hera. Fig. When all the great city of Athens . Athena flowing garment. addition to the aegis she usually wears a helmet. 12. . Hephaestus 45 the great gold and ivory statue by the sculptor Phidias. The emblem is of the olive given her as guardian of the city of Athens. is represented as of strong and noble dressed in a long form. or. were recognized as having the best claim to it. in spear. surmounted by a sphinx and holds griffins. and it was determined that of the two that one should be (Neptune) chosen Athena and Poseidon who should give the best gift to the city. blems are the snake and the owl. the gods desired to have it own. was founded as their The contest over Athens. Athena (known as "Minerva of Velletri"). a her small winged figure of Other emVictory. and she hand a frequently. woven by the women of Athens as an offering to the goddess of handicrafts. and hither each year the Athenians came in procession to offer to the goddess the new peplos or robe.
served as a witCecrops. historians. One would think that she had been taught by Pallas. and the story of its miraculous sprouting in a night. I ff. The scene of the contest was the height of the Acropolis. when the Athenians returned to rebuild their citadel after in the Persian its burning To this Wars. for the olive was al- ways a great source of wealth to the Athenian state. the mark of was not Poseidon's trident in the rock below the ancient Some say that Poseidon's gift temple. is one may d?. To Athena was adjudged the victory. . In the story of A rach'ne. VI. Arachne was a mortal who excelled all other in weaving. Nor was it more the maidens finished work that excited this admiration than the grace and skill of the maiden while she wove.46 Greek and Roman Mythology The twelve gods assembled to act as judges. Athena appears as goddess of handicrafts. ness. The sacred olive tree was preserved in the temple precinct. an olive tree sprang up. Her work became so famous that the very nymphs deserted their woods and streams to see it. told see. Metamorphoses. by Greek also. 6 Angry Following Ovid. but a horse. Yet she herself denied this and chal- lenged the goddess to compete with her. Poseidon struck the rock with his trident and a salt Then Athena advanced and spring gushed forth. struck the rock with her spear. and the king of Athens. a spring.
all The nymphs and ter of Zeus did not refuse. and beside her the newly-sprung olive tree. and threw aside her the bystanders worshiped. her breast protected by the aegis. " you wish to be called more skilful than all mortal women." The maiden angrily eyed her visitor and answered rudely: " You have grown weak-minded with old age. yield at and ask forgiveness for your boastful words. disguise. kingly Zeus in their midst.Hera. the 47 goddess determined to She put on the form of a whitehaired old woman. Athena. rash girl. and The daughobstinately insisted on the contest. she said to Arachne. Pallas wove There the scene of her sat contest with Poseidon. Hephaestus at this presumption. Arachne began to weave she wove a web thousand colors were like the as fine as a spider's. and Athena herself. the twelve gods in august assembly. least to the goddess. you have any daughters. her feeble limbs supported by " a stick. Athena wove the stories of mortals who ." humble her. Take the advice of an old woman. There was Poseidon with his trident. Why does not the goddess come herself? Why If does she avoid a trial of skill?" "She has come. there. that the presumptuous girl might learn by example. . bestow your advice upon them! I can attend to my own affairs. so finely shaded that A each faded into the other until the whole was rainbow." said the goddess. Then. only the maiden was unterrified.
punishment. Zeus and his loves. transformed the maiden into a spider. and it crumbled into bits. but her arrogance aroused her resentment. web with her shuttle. Then about it she wove a lovely border. Athena herself could not but wonder She struck the delicate at the maiden's skill. and hanged herself with a skein of her silk. and on it school-children were given the a holiday. By her later identification with the Greek Pallas Athena she became known as goddess of military strategy and as protectress of cities. . festival was celebrated by guilds of artisans and physicians. she cut the skein and. Minerva was an old Etruscan goddess whom Romans worshiped as patroness of handiHer crafts and goddess of practical wisdom. Minerva. Jupiter. She wove into her web stories of the weaknesses and strifes of the gods. sense of her A dure impiety rushed over the girl.48 Greek and Roman Mythology had dared to compete with gods and had suffered But Arachne was not daunted. own ful a But Athena did not wish that so skilworker should die. that through all ages she might continue to spin her matchless webs. she could not enit. and Minerva formed a di- vine triad worshiped on the Capitoline Hill. then she touched Arachne's forehead. and jealous Hera many were the foibles there held up to derision. Juno. sprinkling upon her the juice of aconite.
resenting his . was He phses'tus. threw him out of heaven. the forge and metal-work. and as such. Athena. Hera. of Hephaestus. shrill Muse. the lame god of fire. (Homeric Hymn to Hephastus. chagrined According to finding her son physically imperfect. Hephaestus in. According to the championship of other story Zeus. 49 HEPHAESTUS (VULCAN) Half-brother of Athena.Hera. even to men that before were wont to dwell in caves like beasts. Hephaestus cunningly constructed a golden chair and brought it as a present to Hera. lightly the whole year through they dwell happily in their own homes. When she had taken her seat upon it. (Bacchus). the one. the wine-god. made him drunk and so brought him to Mt. To avenge himself for this cruelty on his mother's part. to Sing. until Di o ny'sus pleaded held her fast. a with his great their mighty helper of men in struggle dressed in the Homeric for civilization. but now. who with gray-eyed Athena taught goodly works men on earth. Olympus and induced him to undo his own handiwork. Hera. He is thus ad- Hymn: renowned in craft. Hephaestus. but two stories are told from heaven that would more than at account for any such deformity. and son of Zeus and The god of fire. together sister.) He was of his fall born lame. nor could she be freed. invisible chains The gods with Hephaestus in vain. being instructed in craft by the renowned craftsman.
and the Greeks of and Sicily. and the shield of Achilles. Hephaestus and the Cyclopes preparing the shield of Achilles. under Mt. 13. seized him by quarrels between the foot and hurled him from Olympus. 592. (Iliad. I fell in Lemnos. where volcanoes gave an outlet to the fires of his forge. and in at the set of sun I. All day I flew.50 his Greek and Roman Mythology mother in one of the many the royal pair. yEtna or on the Greeks . and Appearance little life was me. Thus volcanic island of South Italy saw his home in the Lemnos. His workshops were under the earth. the glorious palaces of the he mac'e the scepter of Zeus Fig.) Hcphsestus made gods on Olympus. he helped to mold Pandora.
(Iliad. and they have the skill of the immortal gods. and due prayer and sacrifice made to the god. and took a stout staff and went forth limping. often a peace- maker. Hephaestus one of the Lipari Islands. was the popular belief that if the metal were left over-night near the crater. his gear wherewith he worked into a silver chest and with a sponge he wiped his face and hands and sturdy neck and shaggy breast. standing at their hearts. and did on his doublet. And the blessed gods to (Iliad. 597 . Athena. Hephaestus was beloved of men and gods.Hera. XVIII. bellows he set away from the fire. but there were handmaidens of gold that moved to help their In them is underlord. I. 51 it On the latter. The said. from right from the bowl. his .) Hephaestus is when he appears not a favorite subject in art. ladling the sweet nectar the gods. but it is as a strongly-built man. and gathered all . laughter unquenchable arose among see Hephaestus bustling through the palace. a marvelously forged him sword would be found in the morning. He : is described in his workshop by Homer He bulk. 410 ff. the semblance of living maids. though his limping gait subjected him to ridicule. in them are voice and strength.) Ever friendly and helpful. To aid in his work he had wonderful maidens of gold. a huge but under him his slender legs moved nimbly. Then he poured forth wine to all to left. and from the anvil rose limping.
Vulcan. His worship. lameness only hinted He is dressed in a workman's short tunic and wears the workman's Probably he originally represented the lightning.52 Greek and Roman Mythology at. hence the story of his fall from heaven. vuican. was kept outside the city. the fire-god. so cap. was more feared than courted in Rome. with its close-built streets. theresubject to destructive fires. fore. as originally that of the war-god Mars. .
from Olympia. Apollo. 14.Fig. .
In his chariot he drives across the heavens. Nothing false or impure might be brought near to him. he was their patron. the giver of the 55 . the glorious god of light. With his arrows. he destroyed his enemies and brought pestilence and death upon those that had fallen under his disBut he was a destructive god only pleasure. the vine physician As cle'pi us. he was preeminently the god of healing and medicine. This healing gift di- was especially exercised by Apollo's son. when provoked to anger. who incurred Zeus's The Oracle at Delphi. attended by the Hours and Seasons. the rays of the brilliant Greek sun.CHAPTER IV APOLLO AND ARTEMIS I. But Apollo's greatest importance in the Greek world was as god of prophecy. wrath by even restoring the dead to life. It was he that inspired physicians to divine the hidden cause of disease. APOLLO healin g- THE purest and highest worship of the Greeks was perhaps that offered to Phoebus Apollo. and horses in at evening stables his the golden west. who in later mythology took the place of the Titan Helios. his was a cleansing and enlightening power.
seated rock.prophetic gift. vapors that rose about her. Here the on a tripod over a cleft HI the priestess. a town of central Greece situated on the slopes of Mt. but from distant and non-Hellenic lands. The most famous of all oracles was that at Delphi. not only from all the Greek world. Her incoherent ut- terances were interpreted by the priests of the shrine. No great undertaking might be entered upon without the sanction and . Parnassus. 15. was thrown into an inspired frenzy by the Fig. Hither came those seeking guidance. The Sun-God in his Chariot.
16. . Foundations of Apollo's Temple at Delphi.Fig.
while rosy-fingered Dawn throws open before him the gates of the East and he is the Hours and Seasons accompany the chariot. he is dressed in the long flowing garment of the Greek bard and holds the lyre. and at the banquets of the golden lyre. He him all is He Mt. About his forehead he wears the wreath of laurel. cities. is always represented as in the prime of youth. poets and musicians owe the divine spark. but to tellect. Parnassus he led his chorus of the Nine gods he charmed the Olympians by the music of his Muses. As sun-god he appears in his chariot drawn by " " winged horses. In all his manifestations Apollo stands for the The god of beauty and Greek ideal of manly strength and beauty. the extender of just and civilized law. Apollo was the son of Zeus and the goddess . sacred to him and always the reward of the poet. with smooth face and refined (in later art almost feminine) features. As god of music and leader of the Muses. Thus the god was the founder of the promoter of colonization. As the archer Apollo usually entirely nude and holds the bow. of the music highest and purest development of body and in- inspires not alone physicians with their art and prophets with their power. especially those seeking to found a new colony must first consult the oracle of Apollo.Apollo and Artemis 59 guidance of the god. On the giver of all beauty and harmony.
Apollo as leader of the Muses.60 Leto Greek and Roman Mythology (Lato'na). driven by the cruel jealousy of Hera to seek a birthplace for her children. Zeus fastened it to the bottom with adamantine chains. in return for its hospitable reception of Leto. Fig. is told in the Homeric Hymn. 17. But the lands trembled sore and were adread. and none. and of how at last the little rocky isle of Delos 7 offered her a refuge. dared to welcome Phoebus. and speaking winged Delos had up to that time been a floating island. not till Lady Leto set foot on Delos. The story of his mother's wanderings. nay not the richest. 7 .
Their backs are green and their might never leave that pool. raised a cry. and threatened the fainting goddess with violence." And forth leaped the babe to light. Nor did his mother suckle Apollo. with a golden girdle around thee. the They even waded into pond and stirred up the mud to make the water undrinkable. would that thou wert minded to be the seat of my son. (Homeric Hymn to the Delian Apollo. or squatstill. like them in the nearest frog- . their heads grow out of bloated cold- bodies. the story tells how once in Lycia Leto came. to a pond where some countrymen were gathering reeds. and all the goddesses . weary and parched with thirst. the golden sworded. new-woven. in that she had borne her strong son. the bearer of the bow. delicate. and to let build him therein a rich temple. . . You can see blooded creatures pond. Apollo and Artemis. while Leto rejoiced. and wound thee in white swaddling bands. great Phoebus. their eyes bulge. the goddesses water holy and purely. ting on the bank.Apollo and Artemis " : 6l words besought her Delos. bellies are white . washed thee in fair Then. but Themis with immortal hands first touched his lips with nectar and sweet ambrosia. In just anger at their boorishness and cruelty the goddess prayed that they There they live often coming to the top to breathe. The boors refused her the privilege she entreated of quenching her thirst. Phoebus Apollo. croaking their discontent with hoarse voices.) After the birth of the twins.
chievous boy. Phoebus mine pierce you.Ovid. the of the oracle was guarded by a pestilential At site earth-born serpent. the song of triumph and thanksgiving. This monster of disease and darkness god of light killed with his golden shafts and made the oracle his own. pire to him Your arrows pierce all things.62 python. Daphne. he wounded Apollo. s came to be sacred to Apollo is told by the Latin poet Ovid as follows Eros (Cupid) was responsible for Apollo's unhappy love for Daphne. he taunted the little god of love. the one with point of gold that inspires love. 452 ff. I. Greek and Roman Mythology Delphi. and on the the scene of his victory he planted his sacred laurel tree. the daughter of a riverthe 8 With Fol!o\vinp. what have you to do with such weapons! These are arms that become my shoulders I." As he spoke he drew from : . Metamorphoses. who lately with my arrows laid Be you content to track out love-adventures with your torch. . before the coming of Apollo. and being the laurel : How haughty because of his recent victory over " MisPython. Python. with the second he pierced Daphne. he now sang for the first time the Paean. Once the sun-god saw him fitting an arrow to the string. who laid waste all the land. do not aslow swelling Python. first tipped with lead repels it. Exulting in his victory. " my honors! " Aphrodite's son answered his quiver two arrows.
you know not whom you flee. Alas! no medicine can skill my love. Many suitors sought her. My arrow is sure. too. to hunting wild things in the woods. stay ! I who if enemy. I who love you am no ankles. stay! love pursue you am no is the cause of my fall! Alas! what you should What ! the horrid thorns should wound your innocent should be to you the cause of pain The ground is rough. I am called savior all the world. yet one arrow is surer it has wounded my heart. girl. Medicine through cure is my invention. but she refused them all and persuaded her father to But permit her always to live a maiden. Through me what was and is and will be is disclosed through me the notes ring boorish mountaineer. pursuit. will follow more slowly. he thought her all beautiful." that saves all others save . run not so fast! I. She fled from him more elusive than the light breeze. he saw her eyes beaming lips and longed to kiss her hands and her shapely praised arms. like the maiden goddess Artemis. . harmonious on the strings. Apollo fusion about her neck. I Rash . He : I pray you. like stars . its nor can the master. he saw her them. He saw her hair in charming conloved.Apollo and Artemis 63 god. nor " did she stay to hear his entreaties Nymph. if Nymph. I and am no rough shepherd. Straightway the god loved. but the nymph hated the very name of lover and gave herself. Jupiter is my father.
so the As fragrant hyacinth springs from his unhappy attachment to a mortal youth snatched away by an untimely death. X. you shall surely be my tree. The still her locks became leaves. and my And as my head ever crowned with youth and beauty. he swifter yet as he drew so close upon winged with love." the ever-green laurel recalls the story of Apollo's unrequited love for a nymph. so shall your branches ever be crowned with green and glossy leaves. he felt her breast tremble beneath the new- ground. 162 ff. loved her. " Then said the god Since you cannot be my wife. kissed the put his arms about it and wood shrank from his kisses. and formed bark. is my lyre. her soft bosom was inclosed in a delicate As bark . the river-god Help : me. Now her that she felt felt his breath upon her neck. O Laurel.64 Greek and Roman Mythology still But the nymph fled and the god still pur- sued. was rooted in the Phcebus only her beauty remained. she swift through fear. Metamorphoses. her arms branches. and placing his hand upon the trunk. He wood . the : ever shall you adorn quiver. . She her strength go from her and in her despair " called upon her father. my head. foot. or " form that has been my ruin ! she ceased her prayer a heaviness seized her limbs. There was a time when even Delphi was de9 Following Ovid. lately so swift. else O Father! this change Let the earth open for me.
so often are these . " Ai (Alas. celebrated by him in song. in his dogs. It bore on its petals Ai. and. The god caught him in his fall and held him close. exhibiting skill and ward strength in the sport. Apollo threw it high and far. He spent all his days with carrying his hunting-nets. having taken off their clothes and been rubbed with oil. were amusing themselves throwing the discus. And as often as the fresh young spring drives away the winter. trying to staunch the wound and herbs. applying medicinal For as a when upon faints the rays of the sun have struck hot droops its head towards the earth and dies. One day the friends. Hyacinthus rushed forto get the discus. and so the mortal youth drooped his head upon his breast and fell lifeless from the god's embrace. when the bow and the lyre lost charm for him. accompanying him on the hunt or in his sports. declared that at least his name should live for! ever.Apollo and Artemis serted their 65 by Apollo. the red blood had flowed out And lo where earth. holding Hy a cin'thus. lily For once it his art failed him. It glanced upward and struck the boy full in the temple. upon the there sprang up a splendid purple flower with " a form like a lily. not counting for the strong rebound from such a throw. Alas). since he could not restore the boy to life. a memorial of the sun-god's mourning. In his grief Apollo upbraided himself as its cause.
and freedom from all earthly trouble.66 Greek and Roman Mythology fresh in flowers again. fearing unfaithfulness part. But Niobe was too haughty ff. Apollo with his sister Artemis appears as his mother's avenger. and preferring with one capable die. drew his bow prevent the unequal contest. To woman on the god's to live. On the other stood Idas. since immortal youth was not life. glory. VI. Following Ovid. granted her with immortal and Niob. who. love. But Idas. grow old. The against him. chose the mortal. The story of Arachne's punishment for her presumption towards Athena should have been a warning to 10 all. with the help of winged horses given him by Poseidon. power. loved by Idas. offering immortality. 146 . the fields. stole her from her father. Hyacinthus rises There was an occasion when Apollo presented himself as rival to a mortal and was rejected. and his golden arrows bring destruction. On the one side stood the glorious sun-god. Mar pes'sa was a beautiful maiden. fearing not even the god in defense of his beloved. 10 In the tragic fate of Ni'o be and her fourteen children. Marpessa. Zeus gave Marpessa her choice between the two. Apollo overtook the runaway couple and seized the maiden for himself. of a like love and destined to a like fate. offering only faithful love and partnership in his life with its mingled joy and sorrow. Metamorphoses.
she was proud of her children. all. subjects lips. Go! enough honor has what cause I been paid to her and her offspring. More than . " to place celestial beings of seen! whom is Why is you have only heard above those Leto worshiped at the altars." " What madness." said she. while no incense rises in father Atlas. beauty is worthy of a goddess. all ye people. the worship of Leto was neglected or celebrated . and see my have for pride! I know not how Leto. My Wide kingdoms own me other grandfather is Zeus. Add to all this my seven sons and seven daughters. Her husband was a celebrated musician on both sides of her family she was descended from the gods. as queen. The Priest of Leto had cried through the city: " Come. offer to Leto and the children of Leto the sacrifice of prayer and incense Bind your heads with laurel Leto bids it by ! ! my All the people obeyed and offered sacrifice. Then came Niobe. seven sons and seven daughters. and she ruled over a great kingdom.Apollo and Artemis 67 to heed it. Moreover. laurel Put off the from your heads!" Niobe was obeyed. Many things made her proud. dressed in purple and gold. moving stately and beautiful among her and casting haughty looks about. my honor? My grand- who bears on his shoulders the starry heavens. who is you dare to prefer Leto to me the mother of but two! I am beyond the power of Fortune to injure.
hoping to escape. gave free rein to his horses. " " ye gods. Moreover. I. overtook him. hear- ing the whizz of the arrow and seeing no man. Dropping the reins from his dying hand. and Two others of the sons were wrestling in the palestra. way. The elder was just nearing the end of the course when he received Apollo's arrow full in the breast. am brought to doubt whether I am a goddess. Apollo's unescapable shaft his blood reddened the earth. Chance report and the prayers of those about . Hidden in clouds they came to the city of Thebes. said Lo. this woman adds insults and has her two children dared to set her children above you. I am cut off from the honor due. your mother. His brother. As they fell. One arrow pierced the two. locked as they were in one another's arms. Two ing their horses of Niobe's sons happened to be practison the race-course near the city. unless it be Hera. unless you help me. A sixth met his death in the same . and second to no one of the goddesses. but the arrow had already left the The youngest raised his hands in prayer : O all string.68 to Greek and Roman Mythology The goddess was indignant and " : in secret. he fell from his chariot in the dust. another brother rushed up to save them he fell before he could reach them. spare -me! Apollo might have been moved." Apollo and Artemis heard her. proud of having borne you.
18. satisfy your are you the victor! More remains to me in my wretchedness than to you in your vengeance. With her seven daughters Fig. Her husband. now pitiable . even to her enemies. fell One by one six of the daughters dead beside their brothers. But . " : throwing herself my Gloat over upon them. Niobe and her Daughter. to the place where the bodies lay and. she came grief." Hardly were the words spoken than the cord of Artemis' bow twanged. How different was Niobe now from her who had lately driven the worshipers from told Leto's altars and had passed in haughty state through her city envied then by all. cried Yet cruel heart! Leto.Apollo and Artemis her first 69 Niobe of her calamity. had fallen on his own sword. unable to bear his grief.
To right and left stood the Days. the Months. but. among In stony grief she sat there no breeze ters. young Spring. there she still sits on the mountain. her eyes . the Years. 750 ff. . beyond the borders of earth. unmoved her blood was frozen in her veins she was turned to stone. her cheeks . asked his mother to give him some assurall ance of his parentage. were pallid. she Niobe childless . There too were the Seasons. and the Ages. I. fell. and came to the palace of the sun. and from her marble cheeks the tears still flow. crowned with robe. dressed in a purple The boy was seated on a throne glittering with gems. Clym'e Pha'e thon was the son of Apollo by a nymph.70 one remained. When one of his playmates mocked for believing that him Apollo was really his Phaethon made no answer. home. by that was sacred that she had told but suggested that if should go and put the question to his father himself. prayed the corpses of her sons and daughwidow. the youngest. he eagerly traveled toward the sunrise. ne. her mother tried to " shield her with her own body. Phcebus. Clymene swore to him him truly. and that the youngest! " she cried. stirred her hair. but she for whom and a sat. Leave one. he was not satisfied. Magically borne to her fatherland in Asia. coming father. Metamorphoses. 11 Following Ovid.
who wields the thunder." father embraced him and promised to grant what- Phoebus. tion. When Phoebus saw the earth grow . Phoebus did all in his to dissuade him. Summer. As Phaethon wondered at the work. and icy Winter. encouraged by his recogni" answered O light of the vast world. ! was Hephaestus' work. could drive that chariot. and stood hesitating near the door. rugged and hoary-haired. : permitted. and marvelously wrought. greeted him kindly and asked the reason of his ing at coming. all of gold ivory. I that I may be pray you pledge In answer the recognized as your very son. Phaethon. stained with trodden grapes. unable to bear his father's brightness. if that name is to give me some by the Styx. wakeful Aurora threw wide the golden gates and chariot The and opened the courts fled full of rosy light. The stars away. an oath no god might break. telling him the dangers of the way. Before this company appeared the boy Phaethon. and that not even Zeus. set with gems. But the sun. for a mortal obstinate in his But Phaethon was and Apollo had sworn demand. 71 of grain. Surely it power was no task by the Styx. nude but for her wreaths Autumn. he swore it the chariot of the sun. my father. But when Phaethon asked for the privilege of driving for one day ever he should ask . look- him with those eyes that see all things.Apollo and Artemis fresh flowers .
commit the rest to Fortune. if too low." The boy joyfully mounted the chariot and thanked his father. he bade the red and the pale Hours Then he touched his harness the fiery horses. his eyes were blinded by excess of light. speak. outstripping the wind that rose at dawn from the east. had he known. Take the reins. son's face with sacred ointment that it might bear the scorching flame. for if you go too high you burn the homes of the gods. And now he wished that he had never touched his father's horses. As I . and the horses bolted and left the trodden road. nor. and on his head he " If placed the rays. the I earth. horses sprang forward. we are demanded. if you are still resolved. clamp Night has reached its western goal we may no longer delay. and Dawn has put the shades to flight. he grew pale and his knees trembled in sudden fear. But the chariot seemed light withfiery The out the accustomed weight of the mighty god. he wished that he had never even known of his high birth. giving him this last advice. What should he do? He looked at . heed your father's words.72 Greek and Roman Mythology moon vanish. When from his dizzy height he looked down on the lands lying far below him. Keep spare the whip and firmly hold the reins! to the middle course. my boy. could he have guided the horses. where you will see the you can still tracks of will my wheels. Phaethon neither knew which way to turn.
and the clanger to his own realm of heaven if this wild conflagration continued. The ground cracked so wide that the light pene- and startled Hades and his queen. They say that this was how the people of Africa were turned black. Then all the moisture in the was dried up and the ground cracked. He measured the two with his Trembling. he dropped the reins. threatened death with his poisonous fangs. At sight of this monster Phaethon's heart failed him and . Trees and crops. The horses ran wild. The seas shrank and the fishes sought the bottom. The Sereye. The Moon wondered clouds earth to see her brother's chariot running nearer the earth than her own. At last Earth. 73 the great expanse of sky behind his back yet more was before him. hissed horripent.Apollo and Artemis . Three times Poseidon dared to raise his head above his waters. . from his age-long lethargy by the too near approach of the sun's chariot. the mother of all. roused bly there Scorpio. all were turned to ashes. seeing their fountains dried up about them. and how Sahara became a sandy waste. he saw about him the monsters of which his father had warned him. faint and scorched. curving menacing arms. and the river-beds were dusty hollows. The nymphs pined away. appealed to Zeus for help. and each time trated even into Tartarus the heat forced him back. and the all on fire. calling him to witness her own undeserved distress. cities with their inhabitants.
" Another son of Apollo. like a shooting until the star. to Rome at the There is still his teresting to worship was established. inscription his father's : chariot. . leaving a trail behind him. As cle'pi us. if he could not control yet he fell nobly daring. raising over lies it a tomb with this " Here Phaethon. and it is inknow that at this day a city hospital there. and about the shrine rose a great establishment to which flocked those needing his ministrapius tions. the Romans ^Es cu la'pi us) Asciepius (called by was brought It time of a plague. Here his priests cared for the sick. has already been mentioned. waters of the river Po in Italy closed over him. was widely worshiped as god of medicine. not so The god appeared by night often in his own form as to the patients. and at his temple in Epidaurus marvelous cures were wrought. The waternymphs found Phaethon's body and buried it. The raging fires gave light. left the chariot a wreck.74 Greek and Roman Mythology thunder-bolt against Apoltore themselves loose and Then Zeus hurled his The horses lo's son. Then Apollo hid his face in grief. the divine Asciephysician. who drove it. is said that the serpent left the ship before it came to land and swam to an island in the Tiber. Phaethon of fire fell. and they say that one whole day went by without a sun. in that of the It was in this form that serpent sacred to him.
Fig. . 19. Asclepius.
would feel disposed to offer his life as a ransom.Apollo and Artemis 77 When in restoring the Zeus. When the day approached that was destined Aicestis. All even his though reminded by his son that in any case he had not long to live. Alcestis. and that he should feel quite content to die since he would leave a son to carry on the family. or. by a thunderbolt. tion that he could induce place. It al- most seemed that Death must have his own. after another. Ad me'tus. one of his parents. a prince of Thessaly. the wife of Admetus. Zeus compelled him for one year to serve a mortal. Admetus appealed refused. 12 Euripides. the CyIn punishment for this insubordination. During this time of exile he kept the sheep clopes. and Then Admetus' Apollo's promise be unfulfilled. of the just Al ces'tis. that prince won the reward for his just and wise treatment of his divine ise shepherd for Apollo gained for him the promof a postponement of that evil day. quite obstinately refused. to one father. gained a place women famous in story among the by an act of noble self-sacrifice. some other to take his With full assurance that some one of his devoted friends and servants. on condi. most certainly. struck and slew him Apollo rashly attempted to avenge his son's death by shooting with his arrows the forgers of the thunderbolt. in anger at Asclepius' presumption dead to life. . 12 for Admetus' death.
offered to go to the dark home of Hades in his place. To the house of mourning the hero Heracles (Hercules). came and begged entertainment. and before the shrine of Hestia. Admetus came and with tears entreated her not to leave him forlorn.78 Greek and Roman Mythology young wife. Only one request she made as her step- strength ebbed. whose brightness and purity might not be polluted by nearness to the dead. and Apollo. but that relentless enemy passed inside the house to cut from his victim's head the lock of hair that consecrated her to the gods of the lower world. and for love of her husband. she bade them each one a loving and courageous farewell. took his fate upon herself. had been preparing herself She put on her finest robes and her ornaments. Meanwhile Alcestis for her terrible visitor. . prepared to leave the house of his servitude. The day of the sacrifice came. on one of his many adventurous The journeys. He did not offer to meet Death for her. she prayed that her two little children might find in the goddess a And when the protectress loving as a mother. let her husband bring no mother to tyrannize over her children. Alcestis. the guardian of the home. he vainly tried to persuade him to spare Alcestis too. Meeting Death by the way. she decked the house with garlands. children came running to her and the servants sadly crowded round her.
was unwillremembering had been committed returned to his ing to admit any woman to his roof. his promise to Alcestis. The warmed by food and wine. Then Heracles drew off and disclosed Alcestis herself. but Admetus. left the The funeral ceremonies were over and Alcestis Her husband to the tomb. and swearing that the courteous Admetus should never regret his kindness. . he hurriedly house. unwilling that their attentions to their dead mistress should be interrupted. dered a feast to be prepared for his guest. widowed home. Admetus. became so noisy in his enjoyment of it that the servants could not their contain with his indignation and reproached Great inconsiderate behavior. concealed his trouble and or- hero. with him a veiled woman whom he urged leading the prince to keep for him for a time. wishing to avoid even the appearance of setting up any one wife's place. whom he had rescued by wrestling with and overthrowing the veil Death. bowed with grief and half awakened to the selfishness of his own choice. true to the Greek law of hospitality. Only by much insistence could the hero induce him to take her by the in his hand and lead her in. it Heracles' mortification at finding that him was was a house of mourning he had unwittingly invaded. At this moment Heracles reappeared.Apollo and Artemis servants 79 would have turned him away.
like his. early With the introduction of his worship was associated the acquisition of the Sibylline Books. of Apollo. that purpose. with quiver and bow over her shoulder ture. she was yet the friend and protectress of beasts. In her chariot she too drove across the heavens her weapons.8o Greek and Roman Mythology the Greek god Apollo was introduced into Rome under the same name. ii. so Artemis sister took the place of Se le'ne as goddess of the moon. pulled up through her belt to give her freedom of motion. Her were the mountain nymphs and the companions To her the of the woods and streams. ARTEMIS (DIANA) The goddess of the moon Ar'te mis was the child of Zeus and Leto. she scoured the forest in pursuit of game. But though a huntress. sold. As Apollo took the place of the Titan Helios as god of the sun. were the bow and arrows. according to the legend. But Artemis was more generally known as goddess of the chase and of all wild things in naDressed in the short hunting-dress. huntsman made his prayer and to her he offered the first fruits of his game on rough stone altars. both wild and dospirits . to King Tarquin by the The worship of These precious books of prophwere kept beneath the temple on the Capecy itoline Hill and in time of danger to the state were solemnly consulted by those ordained for Sibyl of Cumae. . twin and the chase.
20. Artemis of Versailles. .Fig.
together with their dolls when in trouble it was to her they . Ar e thu'sa. V. animal of the chase. of modand of graceful esty. now a fountain in the Sicilian city Artimsa. Greek girls offered in or other toys a lock of hair. active Appearance and emblems maiden. sacrifice worship was served by Artemis of Gabii ' Before marrying. 577 ff. As Apollo the ideal stood youthful manly beauty. Her emblems crescent. and she often has or beside her deer some other for The patroness of maidens. are the and bow a and quiver.Apollo and Artemis mestic. and armed with bow and quiver. called for help. . is Artemis represented moon-goddess she pears in When as apthe her chariot. activity. so Artemis was the ideal of of maidenhood. She was and the patron goddess girls of her Fig 2I " " young them. Metamorphoses. 13 is Following Ovid. dressed in a short hunting-dress coming only to the knee. 83 special and their young were under her represented as a graceful. care.
A cold sweat poured from the maiden's limbs.84 Greek and Roman Mythology of Syracuse. " The to goddess heard and threw about her a thick mist hide her from the eyes of her pursuer. Then Artemis opened the earth. the hoarse " voice of the river-god Al phe'us Whither are : She fled and the you hastening. flowing silently through the woods. cared nothing for admiration and love but was wholly devoted to the chase. she heard a murmur under the water. laid aside the human form he had assumed. the nized her and. and Arethusa flowed down through black underground ways until she rose again across the sea in Sicily. the cold water was so refresh- ing that she took off her clothes and plunged into the stream. Through eager god pressed fields and pathless woods. first her toes. to mingle his waters with hers. and ever the sound of his pursuing feet grew nearer. drops fell from her hair. Arethusa ? hard upon her. was once a nymph. But . then as far as her knees. While she was enjoying her bath. and as she hastened to the bank in sudden fear. At last she was exhausted and cried to Artemis. the protector of maidens. cold She stream. baffled. and lived in southern Greece. a follower of She Artemis. she was transformed into a But even in this form Alpheus recogspring. over rocks and hills she ran. she came upon a clear. Though god still sought her. drew near and dipped in. One day when she was tired and hot.
saying Now. Following Ovid. 14 That Artemis could be cruel in punishing one who offended her maiden modesty is seen in the wooded with pine and pointed cypress trees was a natural cave. She splashed as she did so water from the spring in Action's " : face. Hoping to find water At sight of him the nymphs raised a shrill outcry and crowded about Artemis Insulted by to hide her from his profane eyes. Artemis protected herself even better. was high noon. Metamorphoses. hot with the heat of the dogdays. while others took off her hunting-shoes. In a valley thickly She would enter the cave. her bow and quiver to another. if you " ! can. . hand her hunting-spear one of her attendant nymphs. and Actaeon. satisfied with the morning's sport. Here Artemis. while the nymphs poured water over her. used to bathe. waves with Actaeon. to story of Ac tae'on.Apollo and Artemis 85 the river-god endured even the darkness of the under-world in pursuit of his love. innocently into the grove. Then she would step into the spring. boast that you the have seen 14 me unappareled At touch of III. and in that bright Sicilian land at last joined his hers. had left the other hunters and wandered It he entered the cave. to a third her mantle. unintentional though it was. 138 ff. wherein bubbled a spring of clearest water. when tired with hunting. the intrusion.
eager that he should have a share in such good sport. your master! and all the air resounded with the baying of the : . called loudly for Actaeon. They closed in on him and tore him to pieces. 22. for trembling fear entered his once bold heart and he fled. As he own home and former fled. all of them. while the hunters.86 Greek and Roman Mythology . Over hills and rocks he fled and Fig. I am Actaeon know longed to stop and cry " But the words would not come. that . who had urged them It is said on. his own dogs. " dogs. driven his mad by fifty Artemis. saw him and gave chase. water his human form was changed to that of a stag and not his form alone. Actaeon killed by his Dogs. dreading alike the woods and companions.
Once even the maiden Artemis loved a mortal. Artemis down and saw the youth sleeping. Her long absences and her paleness when she returned . En dym'i on was a shepherd who kept his flocks Fig. seeking their master. Each night she left her course to descend to the mountain-top and kiss the shepherd. Sleeping Endymion. As she drove her chariot across the sky by night. looked in Asia Minor. on Mt. they ran howling through the woods.Apollo and Artemis when 87 the dogs recovered from their madness. 23. Latmos. His beauty as he lay drew the moon-goddess to him in love.
pastures later the This story was originally told of Selene. only too glad to detect a sign of weakness in the maiden. onon. her father made him wooing drunk and then put out both his eyes. too. Endymion chose the latter. his way by the sound of the in hammers to He- phaestus' forge the lame god's assistants to act as his guide. visited each night by the moon-goddess. in this case.88 Greek and Roman Mythology aroused the suspicions of the other Olympians. won the affection of Artemis. and still he sleeps in his cave on Mt. he borrowed one of brightness of the sun-beams restored his sight. Wishing to remove temptation from her way. Finding on the land. and The so came to the far east where the sun rises. she looked upon him rather as a congenial companion in hunting than as a lover. though perhaps. . Nor do his flocks suffer. Zeus gave Endymion his choice between death in any form and perpetual youth cold with perpetual sleep. The giant O ri'on. but Greeks transferred it to the younger goddess. Latmos. He was a son of Po- seidon and had from his father the power of walking through the sea as easily as he walked Because he was too hasty in his of a certain girl. for to rich Artemis drives them by night and watches over their increase. who silently and sadly kisses his pale cheeks. Lesbos. and Orion became a constant companion of Artemis. Apollo disapproved of the friendship.
it was too late when she learned that the mark was Orion's dark head. who and the horrors of night and darkness. Sirius. one of the brightest and most All the winter nights beautiful that we can see. associated with witchcraft is for that mysterious deity. Artemis appeared under quite a different character as Hec'a is maidens Hecate. grows pale before her. a time and place that open the superstitious mind to impressions of terror and the pres- ence of mysterious powers.Apollo and Artemis 89 and one day he challenged his sister to hit with her arrow a dark speck that was moving on the water. Orion appears in the east at dawn. . bright moon-goddess. he races across the heavens with his dog. at the time of the witchcraft panics. at his heels. te. but another form of the Her dark and mysterious knowledge. for he loves the dawn-goddess and. or he pursues the seven Ple'ia des. she put him in the heavens as a constellation. 13 15 She was a goddess In New England. As she could not restore him to life. such knowledge as sorceresses and witches made use of in their evil charms. changed to stars that one sees all crowded together and pale with fright as they flee. came from her association with grave-yards and from the celebration of her worship by night at crossroads. In the summer. those people suspected of being in league with the Devil were believed to hold their dark and hateful assemblies by midnight at the cross-roads. great and brilliant as he is.
QO of Greek and Roman Mythology triple three forks of the roads often set nights form. Here all the towns of the cial deity Latins united in her worship. A temple was dedicated to her in a lonely wood beside the lake of Nemi. . The Latin goddess Diana was originally a speof women. Diana. to be a was thought warning of her ap- proach. and was then worshiped as goddess of the moon and the chase. as a goddess of women and of became identified with the Greek Artemis nature. in the Alban Hills. and that he who could pluck this bough and slay the priest who kept the shrine thereby succeeded to his honor and retained it until he himself was slain by another. her three faces looked down the where her statue was The baying of dogs on moonlight up. It was said that in the wood grew a tree on which was a golden bough. This shrine is famous because of the gloomy legends connected with it. Diana.
of travelers and merchants. covered it two horns. put on it seven strings. and stealthily left his cradle by mid-day he the cave he and set forth to seek adventure. and stretched across 16 with ox-hide. from the translation by Andrew Lang.The windgod's infancy HERMES was ductor of souls to the lower world. He was " the son of Zeus by Maia. the mischievous thief on the other hand. bored holes through it its shell. a speckled Then he thou. a shepherd and patron of shepherds. gottest thou that welcome art thou! Whence shell. the patron of trade.CHAPTER V HERMES AND HESTIA i. skilled in all wiles. " Hail darling and dancer." who gave him birth in a cave in Arcadia " rich in sheep. 91 . he could make of it. On the threshold of waddling along on the At once the ingenious boy saw what use grass. HERMES (MERCURY) the messenger of Zeus. the con. tortoise. Quota- tions Following the Homeric Hymn to Hermes. gay garment. a mountain-dwelling tortoise?' scooped out the flesh of the tortoise. the guardian of ambassadors." 16 In the morning he was born. ' met a friend of the feast. a fair-tressed nymph. deceit and trickery. .
From cattle and drove them their the herd he separated fifty hither and thither to con- tracks. Then he made a great fire and roasted two of the beasts. this nimble infant left his cave and lyre. into small space. head. and his tortoise-shell .92 Greek and Roman Mythology Touching the strings he sang gaily to the accompaniment of the newly-invented lyre. rose from the stream of Ocean. " he sank down bent on vengeance. within his fragrant swaddling-bands and curled himself up. like a breath of wind. when morning swaddling-clothes. Next. where fed the cattle of the sun. he en- Through a hole. and treading noiselessly. tered the cave. Carefully covering up the marks of the fire and the feast. and hands. in before the the east and catch the sun-god should rise thief at his work. When the chariot of Apollo had sunk into the waves of Ocean. missed the cattle and questioned an old man who was digging in From the old fellow's a vineyard on the hillside. When that little thief saw Apollo. feet. back to his mother's cave he flew. account of the marvelous child who had stolen the cattle Apollo at once recognized his newborn brother. enter the cave. he made sandals of woven twigs and fastened them on his own feet fuse to obscure his tracks. climbed into his cradle and wrapped about himself the But Apollo. and throwing aside his sandals. and ran to the shadowy hills. though really wide awake. and so drove the cattle back- ward to the river.
24.Fig. . Hermes in Repose.
Hermes as the herdsman. " ' The Sun I love. adding submissively: and other gods. Hermes drew forth his lyre and played and sang bewitchingly that Apollo was pacified and gladly formed a compact with his clever little so brother. the cattle of the sunsee. We . there was nothing for but their father Zeus. ." and bade the brothers be reconciled and tle.' He dared even to add a ' great oath that he far to was innocent.Hermes and Hestia 95 But Apollo saw he kept beneath his arm-pit." through the wiles of the cunning baby and angrily threatened to throw did him into Tartarus. and . see myth. In vain the Hermes plead " ' : that he knew nothing of cattle Other cares have I. Olympus and put their dispute before Even there the crafty little I thief dared to repeat his lies. Hermes was to his to be keeper of the cattle lyre. milk. Thee and him ' I dread but do Thou But perhaps because the inaid the younger. greatly revere. driving off the clouds. god. As Apollo was it from go to satisfied. and give afterwards Apollo the favorite side. of his evil-witted child. which was ever In this instrument. and warmed baths. sleep and mother's and about my shoulders swaddling-bands. a wind- god. When Hermes show Apollo his catApollo was again roused to anger by the sight of the hides of the slain cattle. on the nature we Hermes. too. .' fant could not refrain from adding a wink to his " Zeus laughed aloud at the sight innocent tale.
Clever and agile. in his compact with Apollo. perhaps also. statues of Hermes had a prominent As he was the guide of travelers. square place.96 Greek and Roman Mythology the inventor and the cunning thief. traders and travelers. especially for success in athletic contests. The nerald Zeus and ductor of souls to the lower world. of con- Hermes is best known as herald of the gods. over that caused such a panic at the time of the Athe- nian expedition against Sicily. and by his smoothness of address and his nimble wit. and swiftly commands of the he who conducts to Hades the soul the men Appearance and emblems. flies takes his herald's staff in hand. In the market-place. he was the natural patron of traders. his At Zeus's bidding he binds on to earth to carry to father. and gives it into the of the gods of the lower world. games of chance. we see him as the trader. It was the mutilation of these Hermre presided. Both by his speed in hastening from land to land. charge Hermes is represented as a young man with when close-cropped curly hair. vivacious look. leaves the body. and to him they prayed. too. and . Hermes was the patron of young men. The patron of athletes. It is it winged sandals. His statue was set up in gymnasia he . good-humored and young. blocks topped by a head of Hermes marked the cross-roads and the important street-crossings in the city. the commercial and financial center of Athens. Alcibiades was recalled from the war to answer to the charge of having impiously destroyed them.
Hermes and Hestia agile. at the top. pie. winged it. "the alert the intelligence. 97 He wears his winged sanvigorous frame. with two serpents twined about He most fully expresses the character of the Greek peo- Fig. dals. In his hand he carries ." inventive the made supple by the Mercury. 25. (Collignon) says. The worship of Hermes under the name of Mercury was introduced into Rome at a time when there was anxiety about the grain trade . Hermes from Olympia. often a traveler's hat or a winged cap otherwise he is usually nude. as a French writer genius. his caduceus. physical vigor. developed and training of the palestra. or herald's staff.
Greek and Roman Mythology
commerce was, one in Rome.
His function as patron of his most important
fire of the forge is typified by HeHes'ti a represents another aspect, the phaestus, fire on the hearth, the natural altar and the spir-
About the hearth
the gods of the family had their places here the family celebrated their festivals; here the stranger
found protection, and about
to the family
was carried as a symbol of
every new-born his admission
So, too, the city, as the larger hearth whereon the holy
of Hestia must always be kept lighted. And when a group of citizens, self-exiled from their
out under Apollo's sanction to found
a colony, the hearth of the new home on the foreign shore must receive a fire kindled at the hearth
of Hestia in the mother-city. Thus the spiritual bond between. the parted kinsmen remained unbroken, and the same goddess held the new homes under her protection. Moreover, the essential
in the great hearth-fire of Hestia at the center of
the Greek world, Delphi. So closely is Hestia identified with the fire of the hearth that no further outward
form was needed
eldest sister of
statues of her
Hermes and Hestia
ever, represented as a
of stately form and calm, benign expression, dressed in the double
chiton or tunic of a Greek lady, her head covered
passage in the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite shows the respect that Hestia enjoyed among the gods of Olympus:
Greek and Roman Mythology
to the revered
maiden Hestia are the
Aphrodite a joy, eldest daughter of crooked-counseled Cronus, that lady whom both Poseidon and Apollo sought to win. But she would not, nay stubbornly she refused; and she swore a great oath fulfilled, with her hand on Father Zeus of the ^Egis, to be a maiden forAnd to her Father Zeus gave ever, that lady goddess. a goodly mede of honor, in lieu of wedlock; and in mid-hall she sat her down, choosing the best portion and in all the temples of the gods is she honored, and
chief of gods.
The Roman Vesta is identical with Hestia of At Rome the small round temple the Greeks. of Vesta in the Forum was the religious center of the community. Here no image of the goddess was needed, but her fire, kindled yearly on
1 5th from the rays of the sun by means of a burning-glass, was kept always lighted by the Vestal Virgins. These maidens were drawn
from the noblest families of Rome, and served
the goddess for thirty years under a
Every honor was paid them, and they
could extend their protection over whom they would even a criminal who met a Vestal on his
might thus gain
was and their influence on state punished by death, affairs was often considerable. On the other
disrespect to a
hand, as any breaking of the vow of virginity brought pollution to the city hearth and evil to
Hermes and Hestia
community, such unfaithfulness was
punished; the guilty priestess was buried alive. When the Roman emperor wished to demonstrate
was the center
of the political
as well of the religious as of Rome, he transferred the
Genius and Lares.
hearth of Vesta from the
to the Palatine
where his palace was. Associated with the worship of Vesta at the of the Lares and family hearth was the worship Pe na'tes, the gods of home and of the household
Their images must be guarded jealously
Greek and Roman Mythology
by the householder, and must go with him, should he be forced to leave his old home for a new one. So JE ne'as, when fleeing from Troy, bids his father on the flight to hold fast to the penates.
Ares with Eros.
ARES AND APHRODITE
IF Athena, as the warlike defender of right The god of war.
and justice, the protector of cities, enjoyed the honor of all men and the fullest share in her
mighty father's confidence,
clares in his anger,
with Ares, the god of war and
me art thou of all the gods that thou ever lovest strife and wars
Athena addresses him
Ares, Ares, blood-stained bane of mortals, thou stormer of walls." (Iliad, V. 31.)
the personification of battle, alwaysfor blood his worship originated among thirsting the savage tribes of Thrace. He was drawn in
by his fiery horses, Fear and Dread, borne by a Fury to the North Wind, and was attended by Strife, Rout, Terror, and Battle-din.
In art, however, this blood-stained Ares gave
forged a net. t<red of her marriage with the lame god of fire. whe.C. told of his wife's infidelity by the sur -god.io6 Greek and Roman Mythology much milder conception. other than a helmet and a shield or club. B. and slender. 29. nude form. he appears as a young man Fig. Hephaestus. Eros (Cupid). ein he insnared the . He is frequently seen with Aph re di'te (Venus). Often he has no arms graceful. place to a In the fourth with spircentury ited but somewhat thoughtful face. Ares. fine as a spider's web. into which she was forced by Zeus. For Aphrodite. goddess of love and beauty. Bearded Mars. Homer tells how H\ yielded to the love of phaestus. or their child.
30. Aphrodite of Cnidos. .Fig.
With Mars was (See p. APHRODITE (VENUS) Her birth and . according to the better known story she sprang from the foam of the sea and was wafted gently over the crest of the waves to Cyprus. A re op'a- near the Acropolis in Athens.) associated Bel lo'na. the legendary founder of the Rome. and on her deathless head set a well-wrought crown.Mars. in Rome the war-god oc. on the return of a victorious army. Aph beauty. 266 . and in her ears put ear-rings of orichalcum and Odyssey. her sacred island. Her did the golden-snooded Hours gladly welcome. and to him. 17 From Ares was gus. VTIT. the Romans claimed the special favor of the war-god. were dedicated the spoils of war. a laughing-stock to the gods. n. a field where the army met to be numbered. To him was dedicated the Campus Martius.Ares and Aphrodite guilty lovers so that they could not 109 a limb. and clad her about in immortal raiment. where cases of murder were Worshiped cupied a as Mars. Through his city son of Romulus. daughter of Zeus and the goddess Dio'ne. a goddess personifying war. ro di'te was the goddess of love and According to one story she was the marriages. move Here he held them all prisoners. tried in old times. much higher place than in Athens. of the hill derived the name. 348. fair and golden.
Birth of Aphrodite from the Sea. and how Hephaestus avenged himself and held them up to the ridicule of the other Olympians. 31. Because of her beauty and her power over the hearts of men and gods. her home to and each God prayed that he might lead be his wedded wife. wherewith are bethey decked the golden-snooded Hours themselves. And when they had adorned her in all goodliness they led her to the Immortals. so much they marto veled at the beauty of the fair-garlanded Cytherean. they come to the glad dance of the Gods in the dwelling of the Father. (Homeric Hymn Aphrodite. who gave her greeting when they beheld her.) But Zeus gave her as wife to the lame fire-god It has been already told how she Hephaestus. and welcomed her with their hands. Her delicate neck and white bosom adorned with chains of gold.11O Greek and Roman Mythology Fig. left him for Ares. when of precious gold. Aphrodite naturally aroused the jealousy of the .
and . the son of the king of Troy. Zeus sent them to appear for judgment before Paris. To avenge herself for the Goddess of Discord. Unwilling to expose himself to the storm of wrath a choice among the three would raise. Fairest. Athena. the marriage of Pe'leus To The Apple of Discord." Hera. Eris threw among the guests a " For the golden apple bearing the inscription.Ares and Aphrodite ill Hera never forgave the Troother goddesses. and was now keepThe three goddesses ing his sheep on Mt. came before him. Judgment of Paris. arrayed in all their charms. had been exposed as an infant and brought up among shepherds. 32. and the sea-godcless Thetis all the gods were invited except Ens. Ida. This Paris. this neglect. jan Paris for awarding her the famous golden apple. Fig. and Aphrodite each claimed the apple.
with less . j In the figure of Aphrodite Greek artists tried to express their ideal of beauty and of womanly charm. struction of the city. glory in beautiful As a him power and riches. the most in woman the world as his wife. but the statues of a later date than Hera. Her emblems are the and pomegranate. Paris decided in her favor. or. Not only men and gods. apple and the tortoise. and Aphrodite. but all creation witness to Aphrodite's power. which ended in the utter de- Her appearemblems. and she triumphantly bore off the golden apple. By her child Eros (or Cupid) all nature is given life and the power are usually quite nude. the rose and the myrtle. by swans.if*'i Athena. intellectuality than Her powers. Athena. through her all green things grow and put forth . of She is less stately strength and Earlier artists represented her covered by a thin clinging garment. Through her power birds and beasts mate and give birth to their young. was the cause of fulfilment the Trojan War. on the waters.112 Greek and Roman Mythology Hera offered each demanded judgment in her favor. bribe. to betoken her birth from the sea. Helen. Her chariot is drawn by sparrows or doves. war. To Paris and the Trojans this judgment proved a curse. since the of Aphrodite's promise in giving to Paris Menelaiis' wife. to reproduce itself. Whether influenced by her promise or by the sur- passing charms of golden-crowned Aphrodite.
Unable distraught to save her lover. and when the gentle all shown in the west wind breathed is over the land and the earth grew green and fertile. she entered her chariot drawn by swans and drove away to Olympus. worship of Aphrodite with the celebration of the Adonis feast. forgot his promise. Dreading his rashness. then a note of deep sadness came honor. the Greeks sang songs of praise to violetcrowned Aphrodite and held a festival in her But when the hot Greek summer came. others. Aphrodite. but to be content with deer and hares and him other innocent game. Adonis. she caused to grow from the drops of his blood the anemone or wind-flower. Aphrodite. on the track of a wild boar. One day. she made him promise to hunt no dangerous beasts. entered on the chase. into the A do'nis was a beauti f ul youth who grew up under the care of the nymphs. For his sake she dressed herself like the huntress Artemis and spent her days roaming over the hills with him and following the chase. As the boy lay dying. scorching the blossoms and robbing the fields of their beauty. which turned on him and drove its white tusk into his tender side. 113 And so her divine power spring. . after warning thus. victim of the same love that made her powerful over all Adonis. came to him. loved this youth and devoted herself to the enjoyment of his company. with anguish.Ares and Aphrodite seeds. and wounded the boar.
is wounded. his white thigh with the boar's tusk. killed by the fierce heat of summer. covered with flowers. carrying a bier whereon lay a wax figure of Adonis. while the women chanted the lament. and hi? thigh with the boar's tusk. 33- Venus of Aries. Low on the hills is lying the lovely Adonis. and sorrow on Cypris (Aphro- . the city in procession.114 Greek and Roman Mythology a delicate purple flower that grows plentifully in the Greek meadows in the spring of the year. Each year in com- memoration of his death the people went through Fig. In this story Adonis is the springtime.
death the penalty of the vanquished. 7 ff .Ares and Aphrodite dite) 115 life he brings. Metamorphoses. the protectress Venus. is she should never marry. Contend with me quished My hand service of Artemis : ! shall be the victor's reward. Venus was an old Italian goddess. the giver of bloom and fruit fulness in nature. lovers Aphrodite or Venus was always ready to help who were wise enough to go to her. Idyl. of gardens. despising women.) the image was thrown into the sea. and. away. as softly he breathes his I. (Bion. X. Yet the mourning ended with joyful anticipation of Adonis' return from the lower world at the At dawn coming of the next spring. Hip pom'e nes had come as a spectator. had laughed at the folly of 18 Ovid. . To the throng of lovers who sought her hand she always an" I am not to be won unless first vanswered in a race. the bountiful goddess of love and beauty. At a lan'ta had been warned by the gods that J Atlanta's race." Yet so great was the power of her beauty that even on these hard conditions many entered the contest. Translation by Andrew Lang. she therefore lived a maiden in the forests and devoted herself to the and the hunt. The Romans identified her with the Greek Aphrodite. The following famous love stories are some of the many that witness to her power. 560 ff.
Hippomenes was by no means deterred by their fate. some other maiden would ger. but the on-lookers demanded the race. the grandson of Poseidon. not that I am not worth am touched by such a price. when I have let so many others meet their fate ? But I wish that you should depart a boy. since you are so foolish." said she. From a tree of golden apples she picked three . and if you win you will gain a name worth " Atalanta looked at him and seemed winning! to doubt whether she would rather vanquish or : ! be vanquished. I could wish that you were swifter!" So she hesitated. to destroy at such a risk? It is " What bids I god. his youth or. Then Hippomenes help called upon Aphrodite to a daring lover. be willing to be your wife. Depart. Yet why should I pity you. and the goddess heard. " wishes him and I him to seek me as wife. his beauty it though still might well be touched by but he is moves me.n6 those the Greek and Roman Mythology who entered the race. the crown their success. As she ran Atalanta grew continually more beautiful in his eyes. But when he saw maiden the mocking laugh died on his lips. he leaped into the " It is an race-course and facing Atalanta said easy title to fame you seek against those slow runners Contend with me. of victory placed on Atalanta's head. stranwhile you can. he hated his rivals and dreaded The goal was reached. and her suitors paid the penalty.
Delayed by the throwing . of the Then Hippomenes threw one golden apples. the great mother In the gods.Ares and Aphrodite 117 and gave them to Hippomenes. Hippomenes passed by the air resounded with applause. but the goal was still far off. she turned aside up the fruit. Aphrodite side of the course with ! " his strength he threw the last of the golden apples. In his victory. but Aphrodite forced her to turn aside once more. The . Hippomenes unluckily forgot and she. and averting her eyes times she darted ahead. The maiden's eye was picked caught by the gleam of the gold. Only a short space remained. the pair into lions changed of punishment Cybele to and forced them draw her chariot. quick. Hip! when she could have pomenes!" Many passed him the maiden delayed an instant. wishing in her anger to destroy him. seemed for an instant to hesi- tate. now is the time Quick. tempted him to profane the temple of Cybele (see p. to give thanks to Aphrodite. Atalanta made up for the delay by an effort and was once more ahead. all Toward The girl he help me. spectators shouted encouragement to the youth: " Now. she again caught up and passed her competitor. 153). The trumpeters gave the signal the racers darted forward. Hippomenes was victor and claimed his reward. and of a second apple. " Now be with me and the prayed. .
. every night Leander across the Hellespont and stayed with Hero until dawn began to break. At first love bore him up. on the opposite side in Sestos. who was especially worshiped island. The goddess had granted him more than he had dared to ask.n8 Gaiatea. Greek and Roman Mythology He made the king of Cyprus and a out of ivory a statue great sculptor. lived a young man named Le- ander. and He called her his wife. so beautiful that he fell in love with it. necklaces. statue it seemed to him to return the pressure. to the image. flush. tival on the of Aphrodite. Though they were forbidden to see one another. the ivory cheeks glowed with a warm . In Abydos. costly dresses. a maiden named Hero lived in a tower by the shore and cared for Aphrodite's sacred swans and sparrows. embraced and kissed He brought to her all sorts of presents such as please maidens. he offered sacrifice and prayed the goddess to give him a wife exactly like the ivory When he came home and embraced the image. of Aphrodite. the Hero and eyes answered his tender glances the lips opened to respond to his endearments. One night the wind was high and the water dangerous. As if he had a living woman before Pyg ma'li on was him he spoke it. but the lover swam was not deterred. on one side of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles). At a fesear-rings. At a festival of the goddess the two met and immediately fell in love. and the light his lady showed guided his way.
living: in adioinins. endearments. their fathers for- They would have married.Ares and Aphrodite 119 But the wind blew out the flame. or. but that the swimmer is carried down so far by the swiftness of the current that the distance covered 20 is not less than four miles. they might wall. " " O hateful why do you stand in the small a thing it would be way for you to allow us to be united. Following Ovid. We each other's voices. if that is too much to ask. more ardent became. Metamorphoses. after vain regrets. in time the acquaintance grew into love. Thisbe. VI. without exciting suspicion. dawn she found her lover's body washed and > ashore. 19 Pyramus Pyr'a mus and Thisbe. and bade signs. they came to a Byron. 20 J houses in Babylon. ff. 55 . through which. The English who swam the strait as Leander did. in these poet One day. his strength failed him and the waters closed over his head. They could speak only by nods and but the more the love was kept secret the it In the high wall that separated the two gardens they had found a tiny crack." they murmur would say." Speaking thus they said their lips each to his good-night and pressed indulging 19 own side of the unresponsive wall. that you would at least open a way of lovers? How for our kisses fess that it is ! are not ungrateful we conto you we owe the chance to hear . came to know one another. at Hero watched out the night in an agony of fear. says that at this point the Hellespont is not more than a mile wide. but it.
night Thisbe cautiously opened the door and She had come to the out unobserved. As she fled she The lioness. and bade you come by night to a fearsome place.120 Greek and Roman Mythology desperate resolve. Pyramus. happy girl. She tore in with her bloody jaws and so left late. " shall destroy two lovers. coming somewhat sand the tracks of the beast. passed tomb and seated herself under the mulberry tree. where a white last mulberry tree grew beside a spring. and plunged his sword into . ye lions that live among the rocks! But it is the part of a coward only to wish for death. pressed kisses upon it." He raised Thisbe's mantle. Receive the He saw my blood " ! he cried. fallen they When the silence of night had would escape their guardians' watchful eyes and go out from home. Unnight I it is I that have been your death. The long day wore away and at came. it. Tear my body in pieces and devour my flesh. One garment stained with blood. By the rays of the moon poor Thisbe saw her." said he. came not first myself. " and weeping. dropped her fill. and with trembling feet she fled to a cave near by. They agreed to meet at the tomb of Ninus. her with the blood of fresh-slain foaming jaws smeared cattle. having drunk her cloak. was returning to the forest it when she chanced to see the cloak where it lay. when lo! a lioness. saw the He grew " pale. came to drink at the spring.
yet unwillher lover. . recognizing her cloak and the naked sword. still ing to fail trembling with fright. at once the cause and the companion of your death. she saw the body lying on the ground. She embraced the limp form and. and of dearest Thisbe calls you. what upon the cold lips. and still the mulberry mourns in dark purple. You who could be torn from me shall give by death alone shall be torn from me not even by death. The blood spurted Thisbe. already heavy in death. raining kisses " Pyramus. And she. too have a hand bold for this one deed. cried : O cruel fate has snatched you from me ? Pyramus. beating her breast and tearing her hair." She spoke. and falling upon the mulberry tree stained the white berries a dark purple. While she hesitated in bewilderment. she recognized her lover and raised a cry of anguish. unhappy I hand and Pyramus. 121 high. fell upon the sword. Pyramus raised his eyes. Shuddering. to the spot the changed color of the berries made her uncertain whether she When she came was right. and placing the point under her breast.Ares and Aphrodite his breast. " At the your drooping head! Hear name Thisbe. Love I shall me too strength for the blow. answer! Your lift me. The ashes of the lovers rest in one urn. and having seen her. follow you. closed them. returned to seek him. cried aloud again: "If your your love have destroyed you.
or Cupid. ten have been al- ready described. These are : Zeus.CHAPTER VII THE LESSER DEITIES OF OLYMPUS OF made up Apollo. Poseidon. of whom later chapters will tell. originally he was conceived as a youth. the grain-goddess. some say by Ares. i. Ares. was the child of Aphrodite. the twelve great gods and goddesses that the Olympic Council. god of the sea. for they inspired the passion of love. Against his arrows no man or god was safe. Aphrodite. Besides these greater gods there were many lesser deities. Those that had a place in Olympus are described in this chapter. Hera. Hestia. EROS (CUPID) Eros. Hermes. Hephaestus. and Demeter. Athena. But once his weapons wounded their master himself and he fell under the spell of Psyche. The two that remain are Artemis. The conception of him as a little winged boy is later. 122 .
D. elder sisters was remarkable. 34. a Latin poet of the 2d Century A.The Lesser Deities of Olympus 21 123 THE STORY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE three daughters. It differs greatly in and character from the mythological stories of early . tells this its fully developed form. Eros or Cupid. There were once a king and queen who had While the beauty of the two Fig.. was beyond the power 21 that of the youngest of human tongue to ex- story in style Apuleius.
at this transference of her honors to Venus called to her help her winged son Cupid." " said she. the Enraged another. consulted the oracle of for Hope was given: no mortal son-in-law the maiden is Apollo.124 press. To omit the details would so detract from its interest and charm that it is here given at some length. suspecting that in some they had offended the gods. Greek and Roman Mythology . Latin names are em- ployed. The fame of her beauty drew people from most distant lands to see her men said that this was no mortal maid. the worship due to her was paid to the maiden. the divine perfection of Psyche's beauty and the ill-will of the goddess had hindered suitors from aspiring to her love. The answer . . punish this rebellious beauty and the insult to me. one so degraded that in the wide world is not his like. " I conjure you by your love for your mother. Following Apuleius. destined to be the bride of a monster before whose flames and weapons Jupiter himself tremGreece. but that Venus herself had deserted the heavens and come to dwell on earth. and has many of the features of the fairy tales of other European peoples. Her way " parents. therefore. avenge Inspire her with love for the lowest of beings. and the ashes grew cold on her altars." Now married while the two elder sisters were happily to princes. that pert and mischief-making boy. The shrines of the goddess were deserted.
we. funereal rather led to the top of the The king and than bridal. Lesser Deities of Olympus 125 To meet her husband the maiden must be mountain and there left. Why Her fears allayed by the gentle royal banquet." did as she was bidden. (the west wind)." queen. and in due voice. while the walls were covered with silver wrought in marvelous designs. delight. ! home of some god No " one appeared. wafted her gently to a flowery valley below. Before her she saw a when Zephyr grove and the in the midst of it a fountain. though overcome with grief. dress you and prepare for you a riches are yours. The pavement was a moFilled with wonder and saic of precious stones. Near surely fountain rose a wonderful palace the For the ceilings of cedar and ivory were supported on golden columns. Dressed as a bride prepared to obey the oracle. and accompanied by a procession. Psyche . your attendants. Lady ? All these Yonder is your bed-chamber. and the parents and friends were dissolved tears. Psyche plucked up courage to enter and examine the unguarded treasures of the place. will wait upon you diligently. tenderly lifting the trembling maiden. in Scarcely was Psyche left alone upon the moun- tain. but a voice spoke softly to her: are you astonished. A day of mourning was proclaimed in the city.The bles. When you have rested and refreshed yourself by the bath. Psyche was led to the destined spot.
and know . with only the bodiless voices to people her solitude. that she must not listen to her sisters' persuasions and attempt to see or inquire about her husband's form. she learned to look forward to his coming and to love him for his sweet voice and his tender caresses. sweet Wife. he unwillingly yielded to her caresses. and Psyche had showed them the beauties of the palace and had regaled them with the delicacies prepared by the invisible attendants." said he. and sor- rowed fate. " Dis- obedience. to leave her family in ignorance of her She told her trouble to her husband and At entreated him to allow her to see her sisters. however. she felt lonely. warnlast ing her solemnly. envy crept into the hearts insatiable curiosity to of the sisters.time partook of a feast exquisitely prepared and served by invisible attendants. sang to the accompaniment of an unseen That night the master of the place came to her and made her his wife. but before the light he Thus it happened each night. when the two sisters came mountain and called upon Psyche by name." will bring " me The following to the day. sorrow upon and destruction upon you. After they had embraced and rejoiced together. however. In the day. and disappeared. obedient Zephyr carried them down to the valley and set them before the palace. while bodiless musicians lyre. though she had never seen him. beating their breasts and lamenting her fate.
Fig. Cupid and Psyche. . 35.
uncovered the lamp and moning seized the knife. who was was often seen gliding down the mountain until she at daybreak. though at first she indignantly the suggestion. let her kill him and so make her escape. they told her that her husband was well known to be a venomous serpent. well fatted keeping her only then he would devour her. therefore. Let her conceal in the bed a lamp and a sharp knife. and when her husband was buried in sleep. stingy kings in foreign lands. He was .The the Lesser Deities of Olympus 129 happy master of all these riches. and with the darkness came her hus- The simple as he was asleep. who passed his days hunting on the mountains. Psyche. was at last persuaded. rejected Night came. As soon all no awful monster. while the youngest was married to a beauEven tiful god and had control of untold wealth. sumher courage. Psyche told them that her husband was a beautiful youth. the winds were her servants They persuaded themselves that she had acted arrogantly toward them. On their third visit. Then she loaded them with gifts and bade Zephyr carry them back to the mountain. bald-headed. But when by its light she saw band. but the gentlest and loveliest . the sisters talked over their visit to the palace the more angry and envious they They complained that they were given over to old. assuming a tone of sisterly solicitude. and they resolved to bring about her down! fall. girl. The more became.
overcome with delight and shame she fell upon her knees. was I dis- obedient to my mother Venus. you will I punish So saying he spread his . the golden curls. and thus did Psyche fall in love with Love. Pausing for he turned and addressed for you I O simple Psyche. they shall feel my by my flight alone. But while she pressed kisses on his and hung over him.130 of Greek and Roman Mythology all creatures. the delicate wings that sprang from his shoulders. At the foot of the bed lay his bow and arrows. seeing the signs of his from her wife's tore himself faithlessness. face a drop of burning frenzied embraces and flew away. bewildered with delight. have wounded myself with my own arrow and have made you my wife. Psyche pressed the arrow point against her finger. Cupid himself. anger. the most famous of archers. Curious to try how sharp they were. And you would believe me to be a monster and would cut off my head It was of this that I so often warned you. As for those wicked plot! ters. that she remained wrapped in admiration and forgot to extinguish the light. The god sprang up and. the ruddy cheeks. Tiny drops of blood welled out. oil fell upon his shoulder. instead to come to you myself as a lover. and when she bade chose I. me give you over to some base marriage. So enchanted was she with the beautiful sight. the beautiful God of Love. one instant her " : in his flight." wings and flew away.
and that. too. suf- ond sister. In the same way Psyche visited the secshe. love had left the world. she leaped from the rock and was dashed in pieces on the stones sister. and in the same manner fered the penalty of her treachery. in consequence of his Hot with anger neglect." she " I will at once marry your quoted him as saying. Towards evening she found herself close to the city where her eldTo her she recounted what had est sister lived. the goddess hastened to her golden chamber. goaded by love of and glory. always . Then calling on Zephyr to waft her to the valley. even to me. cried to him " in a passion of rage This is fine behavior : and becoming your birth and character! You trample upon the commands of your mother and take to wife that base girl whom I had sent you to torment with an ignoble love! But you were troublesome and disrespectful. In the meantime the sea-gull had brought word to Venus. The wicked queen. Quit my house this instant. left her home and her husband gold and hurried to the mountain. and finding him as she had been told. home grievously sick and likely that Cupid He added malicious gossip had been guilty of a disgraceful love affair with a mortal girl. she of Cupid.The Lesser Deities of Olympus 131 When Psyche had recovered her senses. that her son was lying at to die. only that she changed Cupid's parting " words. set forth in search happened. who was bathing in the sea." below.
but shall You I shall adopt one of the sons of and give to him the bow and arrows my I must have that you so little know how to use. came by chance to a teming of Ceres. and near it scythes and other tools lying in disorder. Regretfully she drove Psyche from her temple. The goddess came to the temple while she was Throwing herself at her feet the " her girl besought By thy plenty-giving hand. repent of slaves it! at all. 154) to a lightless wedlock. she will soon " blunt your arrows and extinguish your torch So she turned her back upon her wounded son ! and left the house. above. As she left the shrine of Ceres. Psyche set to work to bring order out of the confusion. Meanwhile Psyche. Here was a confused heap of corn ple and grain. luckless Psyche! of grain let me hide for a few heap " until the wrath of Venus is abated pity your ! Ceres was moved but feared to offend Venus. : rites of harvest. Amid days. by thy secret mysby thy dragon-drawn car. this suppliant. thus engaged. by the Sicilian fields and that thieving chariot and the descent of Proserpina (see p. and the return of thy child to the world by the joyful teries. Psyche saw in . in search still distractedly wander- of Cupid.and your father Mars you fear not are ever driving him into love affairs. recourse to my old foe Sobriety. Piously anxious to win the favor of any goddess that might help her.
convinced mistress that to propitiate her. prayed the goddess to help her in her desperate need. the herald." This name. a king's daughter. Thither she turned her weary steps. when she saw her." said she. had asked and secured the Venus and humbly Now lost He help of the herald Mercury. let . who. Psyche by him repair to Mercury. and Sorrow ? These. mission.The Lesser Deities of Olympus 133 the valley beneath a shrine of Juno. Solicitude Where " are my servants. and falling down before the altar. scourged and otherwise tortured the . proclamation further persuaded Psyche that the only course now open to her was one of sub- She therefore hastened to the house of Venus. to heaven in her golden Venus. maiden through all the world: flight had cried the " If any one can seize in her or can discover the fugitive slave of Venus. raised a joyful " At last. " have you deigned laugh. who lies still in danger from the wound you gave him? But take courage! I shall receive you as a good to mother-in-law should. resolved to surrender herself to her fugitive slave of her Then Psyche. Juno listened kindly but answered that she could give no protection to a daughter-in-law Venus. repairing dove-drawn chariot. pay your respects to your mother-in-law ? Or perhaps you came to visit your husband. at the temple of Venus he shall receive as a reward from Venus herself seven sweet kisses. immediately appearing. no hope of help lay in any other.
134 Greek and Roman Mythology be- unhappy Psyche. not hoping to secure the lock of wool. out to her a " At dawn Venus called Psyche." said cess of her hated slave. " this is not the work of your hands but that she. Despairing at the impossible task. Separate the various grains in this heap. Venus next set the girl before a great heap of wheat. saw with anger the suc" Worthless girl. returning from a feast. and see that the work is finished before evening!" So she left her. but intending to throw herself into the river. Venus. But a reed of the river spoke to her " : O sorrowful Psyche. beans. and pointing wood by the river. poppy. But a little ant took pity on the wife of Cupid tribe and called together the populous neighboring ant-hill. millet. barley. and said scornfully to her " : You seem to me so deformed a slave that only by industry can you deserve your hus- I shall make trial of you. band. and every other kind of grain and seed. from a In a very short time the grains and seeds were piled neatly into separate Then the little ants disappeared. And throwing her a of your wretched lover! crust of dry bread she retired to rest. and then brought her again fore her mistress. fragrant with perfumes and wreathed with roses. Psyche gladly set out. ordered her to get a lock of golden wool from the sheep that fed there. pollute not . Psyche sat still without moving a finger to the confused mass. heaps.
and you shall find the golden wool caught on the bushes. but when at noon they go to rest under the trees. hope " terrible to Jove himself ? 'Give me the little urn ! Psyche. full urn." said ." Venus greeted her ter smile " : I know successful return with a bit" that you well. she saw the impossibility of the undertaking. they ! are fierce and destroy any who come near them. joyfully The goddess was only laid on her another task. one drop of the Stygian waters. then with safety you may cross the river." Psyche hopefully received the urn and hurried to the mountain. Bring me from the fountain on yonder lofty mountain liquid dew in this crystal urn. nor dare to approach the sheep on For while the sun is hot. the roaring waters called to her as they " " crashed down Depart. therefore.The my Lesser Deities of Olympus 135 the farther bank waters. So shall you accomplish the task safely. and Take this box. Now I did not perform this task by yourself. will make trial of your courage and prudence. For the fountain rose from the top of an inaccessible rock and plunged down thence into a terrible chasm where fierce dragons kept perpetual watch. But when she reached the top. a simple mortal. the eagle of Jupi: ! And ter came to to her steal " : Can you." said she. or you will perish As she shrank back in dismay. receiving the returned to Venus. the " more enraged.
why do you seek to destroy yourself before the last test of your endurance? Listen to me! Near Lacedsemon in Achsea is the cavity through which Pluto breathes. Take with you two pieces of bread soaked in honey. But the tower spoke to her : O girl. and in your mouth two pieces of money to pay Charon (see p. the appeals for help Venus you you will But be careful not to stop to listen to from those you meet. bread will appease the fierce three-headed dog. Here is the entrance to the lower world.136 " she. Greek and Roman Mythology and direct your steps to the abode of There say to Proserpina that Venus begs Pluto. On no ac- . 1 88) for The ferrying you across the river. for must dress for the theater of the gods. return at once to the upper world. for she has exhausted all her own in anxious Return at once. Go from thence by a straight road to the palace of Pluto. Proserpina will receive you kindly and will offer you a soft ! bed and a dainty banquet." And now truly Psyche saw that she was face to face with destruction. She therefore ascended to the attendance on her sick son. I top of a high tower. Decline them both When you have received what you came for. her to give her a little of her beauty in this box. for send many wretched beings to induce to stop or lay aside the sop or the coin that need for your return journey. Cerberus. meaning to cast herself down and so reach the infernal world by the shortest " wretched way.
and arousing Psyche by the touch of one of his "Unfortunate girl. I will take care of the rest. a second time arrows. he took the sleep and shut it up again in its little box. therefore. had flown through the window of his room and come to find Psyche. Psyche Meanwhile Cupid flew straight to heaven.The carry ! Lesser Deities of " Olympus 137 count open or even look at the box that you out as the tower had said. he saw her lying there motionless. answered kindly: . and all She obeyed his fell in- structions resolutely until the danger were passed and she was just about to emerge into the light of day. Then she was seized with a rash curi- osity and a longing to take for herself a little of the divine beauty she carried so that she might appear better in the eyes of her lover when she should see him again." So saying he flew away and carried the box to Venus. being now quite recovered of wound. said: would have perished by that fatal curiosity! you But now fulfil your task to Venus. Psyche started on her enterprise. so that she tionless. smilingly ter. But when she opened the there came forth no beauty but only a box. Stygian sleep that instantly overpowered her. asked his aid. stroking the cheeks of Cupid. When. and presenting himself before his grandfather JupiThe father of gods. fell down where she stood and lay mohis Cupid.
Jupiter by Juno. and be Take this. due. and so all the other gods and goddesses in order. while Apollo accompanied them on and Venus danced to their music. yet I will do dignity and so injure all that you ask. Cupid reclined beside Psyche. and the Muses sang his lyre melodiously." Then the wedding banquet was served. to be in the end reunited with Love and to 'jive with him forever . the Graces scattered balsam. Psyche is the soul. and by your arrows cause me to act un- ' Though worthily of fore sent my tion. he told them that he thought it best that Cupid should marry. the Cupid ever depart from your embraces. my child." my reputaHe there- Mercury to call the gods to a council meeting. and even goes down to Haaes. and she received from Jupiter the nectar " " and ambrosia. Mercury brought the bride before him. the Hours scattered roses all about. Venus he bade submit. By her own act she de- stroys her happy and inno:ent life with Love. Ganymede poured the nectar for Jupiter. presuming on your never pay me the reverence that is my power. endures in the world every trial and suffering.you. nor shall supper. and Bacchus for the other gods. promising to make the marriage legal by raising Psyche to the order of gods. Vulcan prepared the immortal . but this marriage shall be eternal. and addressing them." said he.
holds a roll of writing of epic poetry. the muse of tragedy. in trans- parent drapery. all feast demanded their that men's everyday life. holds a tablet e ne. Memory). II. Tha li'a. the muse of the choral lyric and the dance. tes) presided over the The the gracious and festive For the Greek ideal side of social intercourse. art. the muse of comedy. holds a tragic mask.The Lesser Deities of Olympus 139 in heaven. daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (nemos'ine. It is story as it is told here belongs a philosophical fairy tale. the . no less than worship. They were three in were number and were represented nude or roses. and their Clio. The Nine Muses. or science. The Nine Muses. the god of music. their functions. The Graces (or Chart and the dance. wears a long garment and . They formed the chorus of Apollo. or danced about the springs of Pieria. presided. each over a distinct form of poetry. and the deities to life who brought this harmony fittingly conceived as the daughters of no less a one than Zeus. Their names. The to a late time. . emblems are as follows: tory. and with him haunted the heights of Parnassus or Helicon. holds a comic mask . OTHER DEITIES OF OLYMPUS Graces. muse of hisli'ope. the muse and pen Mel pom'Cal or wears the distinctive costume of the actor of comedy Terp sich'o re. adorned with spring flowers and . should be ruled by grace and beauty.
the muse of astronomy. ra'ni a. holds a globe. wears a thin garment and holds a lyre Eu ter'pe. holds a double flute. and when man's allotted life was spun. the muse of religious poetry or the flute muse of pantomime." the To " Fortunate The Three (Homeric Hymn to the Muses.) The Three Fates held in their hands the thread of life. 36. tation. Er'ato. holds a lyre. : Muses poets offered prayers and is he whomsoever the Muses and sweet flows his voice from his lips. the muse of love poetry. is represented in an attitude of medi- Fig. vows love. Po lym'ni a. the U music. .140 Greek and Roman Mythology . Clio.
present. Nem'e sis. " and At'ro pus. Clotho. Thalia. . a darkly mysterious power that overshadowed even the gods themselves. and future. sever They tell of the ! past. Fig. spin. 37. 141 the shears of the fates cut Their names are given in the little verse from Lowell's Villa Franca: twist ! "Spin. for evil done or for excess of pride brought divine vengeance from which there was no hope of escape. spin! Lach'e sis.The Lesser Deities of it Olympus off.
In a vast cave in one of the volcanic quiet Lipari Islands. they would sweep earth and sea and sky in their destruc- course. is Bo're as is the wild north wind . ment. 38. he and his twelve boisterous children. the winds. Terpsichore. There they struggle against their prison doors and cause mighty rumbling of the moun- tain. away tive If let loose. lived a life of feasting and merri- whom Fig. The winds were under Zeus gave the power to rouse or to them.142 to Greek and Roman Mythology the control of JE'o lus. Vergil says. . Zeph'y rus the gentle west wind.
his glistering golden mansions builded. and mounted his chariot. (Iliad. was given control over all the waters. and forth he drove across the waves. To him. x and brother of Zeus. He girt his own golden array about his body and seized the well-wrought lash of gold. and with gladness 21 ff. imperishable forever. 143 . Thither went he and let harness to his car his bronze-hoofed horses. He supplanted Oceanus of the older dynasty. There was his famous palace in the deeps of the mere. earthquakes were due to them. he had his palace in the depths of Ocean.CHAPTER VIII THE GODS OF THE SEA Po SEI'DON was the son of Cronus and Rhea (Neptune). And the sea-beasts frolicked be- neath him. for well they knew their lord. Moreover the Ocean flowed of the earth as a great " all about the circle salt river. XIII. of the Olympic Council. fresh as well as salt. on all sides out of the deeps. The early Greeks thought that the waters were beneath the earth and held it up." Though he was a member of Poseidon as.) the sea stood asunder. swift of flight. Homer speaks he that girdleth the world. clothed with their golden manes. the shaker of the earth. after the overthrow of the Titans.
) will be told later in the story . appeared and rescued her. heralding their approach by on their shells. They agreed with of Troy. 220. attributes to him the creation of a salt spring. of Heracles. his anger sent ravage the and a terrible sea-monster to appease the monster no sacrifice was acceptable but that of He si'o ne. for a certain reward to build the walls of his city." Am 148. phi tri'te. and how he avenged wrongs. daughter of Laomedon. Apollo and fell under the displeasure of Zeus. (See p. but the other version attributes to him the creation of the horse. fair-ankled the daughter of Nereus (see p. that friend of troubled mankind. king When the work was completed. floods coast. The princess was about to be de- To voured by the monster when Heracles. while before and about blasts his chariot swam the Tritons. One ens. half man. half lord's fish. In addition to his lordship over the waters Poseidon presided over horses and horsemanship. Laomedon Poseidon in re- fused to abide by his bargain and insolently dis- missed the gods. he too was cheated of his re- How ward by the his faithless Laomedon. The waiis Poseidon After the overthrow of the giants.144 Greek and Roman Mythology " Beside him was seated his wife. version of his contest with Athena over Athas was said earlier. La om'e don. who therefore forced them to serve a mortal.
39.Fig. . Poseidon.
Many young men wished to marry her. hurled Myrtilus into the sea. fleet as the As he was the owner of horses as wind. This Hippodamia was the daughter of (En o ma'us. the who would win reward of success . for. by their ingratitude and treachery brought down upon their already accursed family the further displeasure of the gods. however. now he obtained in addition four winged steeds. in a fit of rage. for Peiops. by the power of Aphrodite. The lovers. Peiops hajd_been^_granted by Poseidon extraordinary skill in horsemanship. king of Elis. The tragic history of the race of Peiops . Nor was Poseidon Peiops' only divine helper. he made the condition that he the daughter must first contend with the father in a chariot-race. It is as sod of horses and horsemanship that Poseidon appears in the story of Peiops and Hippo da mi'a. Hippodamia's heart was so won at first sight that she bribed her father's charioteer tilus to take out the bolt fore starting Myrfrom his chariot-wheel beon the race. Many had staked their lives on the venand the maiden remained unmarried. So (Enomaus perished and Peiops led away Hippodamia as his wife.The Gods of the Sea 147 Peiops and Hippodami?.being the hand of Hippodamia and the price of failure the suitor's life. and so offered himself for the perilous race. ture. but her father had been warned by an oracle to beware of his future son-in-law.
down into the sea and disappear. Marriage of Poseidon and Amphitrite. Fig." lived with his in below the waters His fifty chants and sailors venture out in ships. and in sunlight or in moonlight may be seen sitting on the shore or on a rock covered with seaweed. Three of the fifty are especially famous: Amphitrite. or riding on the dolphins. but often rise to the surface. 40. Thetis . He personifies the sea as a source of gain to men. they will slide tons. Kerens. " Old Man of the Ne'reus. represent its many phases.148 is Greek and Roman Mythology associated with the Trojan War and will be told in that connection. 281. the Ne'reids. Poseidon's wife. Neptune god when they identified him with the Greek Poseidon.) Neptune. or playing in the waves with the TriIf a mortal comes near. early times worshiped of moisture and of flowing water. (See p. drying their long green locks. the sea on whose calm and friendly surface mer- The Romans had from Sea.also as god of the sea. the wise and kindly as fifty charming daughters a great shining cave. They live together happily in their deep-sea cave. they recognized him. the sea in all daughters. for their bodies end in green fishes' tails and the deep water is their real home.
or if one still held to that slippery . the Sea was Pro'teus. the mother of Cyclops Gal a loved. 149 and 283). the shepherd of Posei- Fig. He had the future and would tell the gift of prophif one could catch itself.The Gods (see p. don's flock of seals. ecy. But. and hold him. te'a. of the Sea Achilles. like the sea his he con- form. he glided away as a serpent. 41. whom the Pol y phe'mus A stranger and " more mysterious " Old Man of Proteu. Head of a Sea-God. and when one had tinually changed seized him as a roaring lion.
He who heard their magic voices no longer remembered his dear native land. me Harpies. beautiful maidens in face and breast but winged and clawed as birds. suddenly he was a flame of fire. Especially in the west. was white with the bones of men. Although from the earliest times the Greeks were a sea-faring people. with their huge and strong talons. were the Harpies. By the charm of their singing they lured mariners to drive their ships upon the rocks. while he himself was kept from the fatal leap by being fast bound to its his own mast. or as running water he slipped through the hands.150 Greek and Roman Mythology form. near Sicily and Italy. nor the uncertainty of trusting themselves to its waters. Wholly without the malign charm of the Sirens. fable told of the dangers that lay in wait for the rash voySomewhere in that part of the sea was ager. The much-enduring Odysseus was warned of these alluring maidens and passed by them safely only by having the ears of his companions stuffed with wax. The sirens. Fair sang they seemed as the smooth bright surface of the sea that treacherously smiles over the bones of victims. They were goddesses wings of storm and death. nor his wife and children. but only heard the charmer and cast himself into All the beach below where they sat and the sea. the island of the Sirens. who snatched and carried . they never forgot the perils that lurked in the deep. terrible.
down swooped these vile birds and carried off the food in their claws. on the other side lay Char- yb'dis. they and only the left to tell the tale. the monster Scylla. of a bull. So Alpheus rose to pursue Are- From and nymphs thusa (see p. (See Sometimes the river-god took the form p. three times each day. had ignorantly landed on the Harpies' shores. 296. From out the dark cavern she stretched her six heads. the water streaming from his hair and beard. who had steered too close to shore! Drawn in as by a drag-net were crunched bones were caped in the great jaws.The Gods away their booty as if sailors of the Sea 151 When weary sat on the wings of the wind. armed with rows of Woe to the unlucky mariners great sharp teeth. Their coming brought not alone famine but the mournful omen of approaching death. And if men es- this horror. 84) so the god of the Xanthus near Troy rose and fought with Achilles. sucking down the water into her black whirlpool and belching it forth again. cliff -11 of a precipitous Here in the side was a cave where lurked -1-1 scyiia and Charybdis. Against these monsters even Posei- don's help was of no avail.) Each little brook and . ) . The passage between the coasts of Sicily and T i Italy was i beset with danger. down to enjoy it. having prepared their feast. 225. (See p. salt Fresh water as well as had each its own River-gods the river at any moment its god deity. might rise up. and. by her twelve long arms.
a 184. with laughing voice and lightly (See p.152 Greek and Roman Mythology its lovely maiden with tossing hair.) . These are the Naiads. dancing feet. spring had own nymph.
her as Cy'bele or the Great Mother. Zeus and Poseidon rule there. and represented her crowned with a turreted crown like the wall of a city. was also an Rhea or cybele the Great The people of Asia Minor knew Mother. Fig. and the great seas. for she was the bringer of . earth-goddess. are male beings. Cybele in her Car. Rhea. is the great mother goddess. Gsea. that gives life to plants and animals and men. The earth. the mother of the gods.CHAPTER IX THE GODS OF THE EARTH THE skies that rule over all. that cares for and generously nourishes her children. 42.
Demeter (Ceres). The worship of in. . i narcissus. . in the sunny land of Sicily. Per seph'o ne had her place in the new (or Proser'pi na). looking to Zeus. the protectress Lions drew the chariot. draped from head to foot. We see and kindly aspect. civilization. More characteristic of the Greek people was the worship of De me'ter. the fresh young corn of the year. who acclaimed her with shouts and the clashing of cymbals. the giver of rain and sun. these two is a beautiful. This worship never took firm root in Greece. natural harvesters' worship. the king of the lower world. as . She was the sister of Zeus and her. and led her worship with wild dances. out of the earth sprang the black horses and golden chariot of Hades. as her father. She had wandered a little way from her friends and stooped to pick a . . of generous Olympic Council. or ears of wheat and corn mingled with poppies. When Persephone was still a young girl she j was playing with the ocean nymphs one day. or Pluto. the bountiful goddess of the grain. black god carried the maiden off with In spite of her cries for help. holding a torch. As she uprooted the fragrant flower. was her only daughter. and about her were Cor y- ban'tes. the Mm. . but trouble and loss enter The Rap? of Persephone (Proserpina). but it was introduced into Rome and was there one of the most influential of the for- eign religious cults.154 her Greek and Roman Mythology of cities.
Fig. 43. . Demeter.
In grief at her failure she had wept herself into a fountain and so had lost the power of speech. his queen. with the stolen girl and had vainly tried to bar his passage. and soiled. and above all the lovely land of Sicily that had be- Not far from Cyane is antrayed its trust. All that she could do was to wash by tears. in her flight from the river Alpheus rushed down into the earth in as was Greece and rose again in Sicily. Demeter. she would not hear nor answer. in her wanderings she came to the fountain of Cy'a ne. the flowers fell from her hands. and though they called on her. 84). who. up at the mother's feet the girdle that the girl had dropped in her passage. Without her ministry the fields yielded no crops. other fountain. At last. in Now the nymph Cyane had seen Pluto Sicily. cursed the ground. men and beasts starved. Arethusa. Disconsolately she her serene and kindly the earth. in her anger and despair. Then the earth opened at the word of the god. who had gone to Asia Minor to Cybele. Then Demeter. once a nymph. told above (see p. but did not know the robber visit who was nor where she should begin her her all search for wandered over face befouled daughter. her clothes torn her corn and flowers abandoned. heard of her loss.The Gods of the Earth 157 she passed. and Pluto descended with his prize into the gloomy Here he made her regions over which he ruled. On her way .
Demeter makes the fields beautiful with poppies. Here were celebrated the Mysfresh The of the dark earth. demand Zeus decreed that Pluto should give up his stolen bride on one that no food had passed her lips during condition. is over. But when the time agreed upon light. learned at last the truth and at once went to Zeus Induced. but by the agonized to redress. El eu'sis is a small town a few miles distant from Athens.158 Greek and Roman Mythology through the lower world she had seen Persephone From her. but each year she should descend again into the lower world to stay as many months as she had eaten seeds of the pomegranate. By ill fortune she had been persuaded by Pluto to taste the seeds of a pomegranate. her stay beneath the earth. And so each winter when the seeds of grain are sowed. Demeter sharing Pluto's throne. and the fields are bare and unlovely while the mother mourns. and then. then Demeter and Persephone comes again to the is glad and looks to her Mysteries. and . cries of all the suffering earth. A compromise was made: Persephone should return to her mother. the daughter of the grain-mother goes down into the dark ground. men gather them joyfully and bring them into their barns and praise the bountiful Demeter and her lovely daughter. fields. young spears of grain come out when the time comes and the crops begin to ripen. when the ears are full. not alone by Demeter's tears and prayers.
Fig. Triptolemus and Persephone. . 44. Demeter.
but to the Mysteries themselves only those who had been initiated were admitted. . All Athens took and the purification. and the disguised goddess took the baby to nurse. The ceremonies seems that the rape of Persephone and her return were dramatically represented. the mortal part and make But the anxious queen watched through the door one night.The Gods teries in of the Earth 161 part in the procession honor of Demeter. and each night as he slept she placed in the embers on the hearth. they spoke to her kindly and brought her with them to their father's house. wandering. sin'i an Mysteries is connected with Demeter's search for her daughter. Demeter had come to Eleusis and had sat down beside a well. fill their woman. and that the initiate gained some secret. She anointed him with lately Seeing the tired old him him ambrosia. Exhausted by nine days of fasting and useless J of these El eu Demeter and Trlptolemus. Then all her divine foolish "O woman! now have you brought incurable evil upon your son I would have made him immortal . Here came the four daughters of the king of that land to water-jars. for so she in- tended to burn away as one of the gods. The king's wife had borne a son. and rushed in with terrified cries to rescue her baby from the the goddess rose in majesty and said to the mother: fire. but it were kept very known deeper trust in a happy immortality than was The story of the institution to others.
" . Through him.162 Greek and Roman Mythology and given him everlasting youth. up. but now must he suffer the common lot of men. Yet I will give him imperishable honor since he has lain on my breast. too. he knoweth life's end. he knoweth its be- ginning given of God. the goddess taught and sent him in to raise grain and corn a dragon-drawn chariot through him every land to teach men how to sow and reap. As the Greek poet Pindar says Happy is he that hath seen those things ere he go beneath the earth. build rites me here a temple. Triptolemus in the dragon-drawn Chariot. myself preSo they built to Demeter a great temit in I will and when the child Trip tol'e mus had grown Fig. 45. But come now. she gave the Greeks her Mysteries and a better hope for the future " : life. and the scribe/' ple.
Dionysus or Bacchus.Fig. 46. .
all why 22 should he not come to you in all his glory. the legendary king of Rome. was soon a command of the Sibylline the worship of Demeter. Dionysus or Bacchus. he vital in truth. . Disthis and was filled with angry jealousy. Di on y'sus or Bacchus is familiarly known as . springing His mother was Sem / e le. she led the girl on to talk of her love. is. she was herself a mortal. power of (see ther p. and Persephone was given the Latinized form Proserpina... the strength of everything that grows.. the convivial wine-god but while the vine is most .. Ceres was al- ways the special protectress of the plebeians. . the founder of Thebes. When she had heard the story.. the life. fertility and of joyful. closely associated with him. and his faThough Semele was of divine descent on both sides of her family. 256). believe that the lover was Zeus. she pretended not to "If he were.The Gods It of the Earth 165 ceres.. At first she rejected his attentions. at the time of a failure of crops. but when he told her who he was. and to make love to her Zeus put on form of a mortal. she Hera knew of yielded and gladly received him. but was indentified with an old Latin in obedience 22 to books introduced goddess named Ceres. that the Romans. the guising herself as Semele's old nurse Ber'o e. after the expulsion of the kings. Even then she was not worshiped under her Greek name. Books of prophecy said to have been received by Tar- quin. was Zeus.. daughter of Cadmus His with and travels.. from the Sibyl.
Just so Semele's baby. As he grew older Si le'nus. the secrets of nature.i66 Greek and Roman Mythology Hera? as he does to little He is treating you with Semele's pride was touched. or seared by the lightning. the Styx had been given. they Wherever thronged of women. Then she asked would grant whatever she should that he should show himself to her in The all his Olympian majesty. came to birth ashes. was given to him as a tutor. Nysa to nurse. deities. So the earth is scorched by the full blaze of the Greek sun at midsummer. even to fatal oath by He save one he loved Zeus could not recall it. of Heaven. No reduced to ashes. poor Semele was came to her as God thunder-bolts. only the seeds within it remain alive. respect. the Intoxicated new drink. His grieving father took him and gave him to the mountain nymphs of or Bacchus. armed with the mortal could endure his glory or the flame of the lightning. invincible myswomanish weakness. . the rustic to make from terious source at once of and care. he was joined by crowds together in Bacchic revels. he went." very her lover came she induced him The next time to swear that he demand. especially the culture of He taught his followers. power and joyous freedom from by the the grapes wine. Dionysus from his mother's and ivy sprang up miraculously to shade him from the hot sky. and with his help he discovered all the vine. one of the lesser divinities of earth.
As a conquering hero he returned to Greece and demanded worship every- . teaching the cultivation of Fig. the grape and the power of wine. Silenus with Dionysus. to India. the clashing of cymbals. 47. shrill flutings. and unrestrained shouts. where even the panthers He penetrated and lions fell under his charm and obediently drew his triumphal chariot. Always so accompanied. the beating of drums. who celebrated his worship by wild dances.The Gods called of the Earth 167 Bac chan'tes. Bacchus trav- eled over the world.
his own mother There is probleading in the murderous assault. brandishing snakes or the ivytwined wand or thyrsus. in the de- Fig. 48. the king. shrill outcries With The Bacchic rites. they joined in the wild they tore in pieces the sacrificial animals and devoured the raw flesh. with streaming hair. commands. for these ably extravagant wild rites. went out to join the Bacon the secret rites.168 where. Dressed in the skins of beasts. some historical basis for this story. he followed to spy Enraged at this opposition. Greek and Roman Mythology And everywhere the women flocked to his revels. fiance of his chantes. Bacchus made the They mistook the king for a wild beast and tore him to pieces. and when the women of his city. . forbade revels. introduced from Thrace women mad. dances. At Thebes Pen'theus. Bacchic Procession.
they The helmsman. tive's and wine flowed about the deck. recognizing the god in his divine grace and beauty. but they were deaf to his words. Bacchus saved and made his follower. Suddenly the ship stood rooted in the sea. a sweet odor filled the air. ivy trailed up the mast. When the god awoke he tearfully besought his captors to take him to the island of Naxos. as he was Many stories are told of The good lying asleep on the shore of an island. all but the . and in his place lion. implored his companions to set him free. and vines wreathed the sails. carried him off to their ship. On one occasion. and the Bacchic mysteries were received and practised with immense enthusiasm.The Gods of the Earth 169 or Asia Minor. of raising the worshiper above the bounds of the natural. crouched a In their terror the sailors leaped overboard and were instantly transformed into dolphins whom god-fearing helmsman. some pirates came upon him. Bacchus and his travels. and thinking that the beautiful youth might be held for a large ransom. met with bitter opposition in some But the promise they offered parts of Greece. plodding human life and giving a high and divine power through mystic union with the god. overrode all opposition. and of how he punished his enemies and rewarded his friends. The capbonds dropped from him. Pretending to consent they steered the other way.
being excessively fond of riches. He picked some ears of grain golden was the harvest. Midas entertained him well and sent him back to his pupil. . it try be: came golden. one would have thought . He mingled wine with his water. molten gold flowed down his throat.23 Greek and Roman Mythology Midas was a king in Phrygia. in fresh water. 200. 85 ff. If he touched the door-posts with his fingers. He lifted a stone from the ground it was a mass of gold. Dionysus was sorry for the foolish wish. . And now he hated and loathed the wealth that he had loved 23 . he was Following Ovid.170 Midas. Metamorphoses. his teeth closed on a lump of gold. it one of the golden apples of the Hesperides. One day Silenus in a dazed and drunken condition was brought before him. Bacchus offered to fulfil whatever wish the king should make. but could not withdraw his offer. To new power he touched an oak branch. when he touched the bread it hardened under his fingers when he raised a dainty morsel to his lips. The very earth became hard and yellow at his touch. ) The servants placed a banquet before him. asked that whatever he touched might become gold. his Midas returned home in delight. When Midas. He pulled an apple from the tree. the When he washed his hands posts shone as gold. golden shower that deceived Danae. In return for this good office. XI. Recognizing Bacchus' tutor in the muddled old man. the drops that fell were like the (See p.
. travagant enthusiasm. A ri ad'ne. Raising his hands and gleaming arms to heaven he cried: " Have pity on me. or Bac cha-na'li a. whose sands are mixed with gold to this day. 250) had carried away from her home and had then deserted on the island of Naxos. and makes them of friendly and kindly feelings towards one another. Her divine lover Dionysus came to her while she slept and wakened her by a kiss. were always celebrated with wild orgies and expair .. Dionysus married cess of Crete. whom a beautiful printhe hero Theseus (see p. and as a wedding gift the god gave his bride a crown studded with brilliant stars. frees men from care.. By his . who . He bade him go to the ! ! river Pac to'lus and wash in the spring from which it rises. pity me. Praise was given to him as the hospitable and genial deity brings joy to the feast.. Dionysus also received worship of a different character. There the golden touch left him and was transferred to the river. kindly Bacchus. Although the Di on -/si a. her grieving husband threw the crown up into the heavens. He brought to men civilization and law he was a lover of peace.. Corona. The wedding of the was celebrated with great magnificence and joy. and take away the cursed boon Bacchus heard him. There it can still be seen as or Ariadne's Crown.. When she died.The Gods of the Earth 171 starving in the midst of plenty. I have sinned " Oh. The Dionysia. Ariadne.
The Attic vals of Dionysus. hanging in curls like that of a woman. There is much variation in the representations of the god. were reduced to character. two distinct types are especially familiar.172 Greek and Roman Mythology exhilarating power he inspired poets and musicians and thus is associated with Apollo and the Muses. He is either nude or wears a panther's or lion's usually skin Fig. and the songs took on From The was developed tragedy is and comedy. 49. great theater of Athens in the precinct of Dionysus. drama originated at the festiThe rough dances and music form. early other he In the appears as a smooth-faced young man. and he holds in his hand Sometimes he grapes or a shallow cup of wine. hair is that His sometimes and sometimes caught up on his head long. bearded and heavily draped this in . is represented as the eastern conqueror in his Dionysus. of grace and charm is almost feminine. Youthful over his shoulder. In the one he appears as a mature man. Dionysus: appearance and emblems. the choral dances became dramatic this pantomimic. His head is crowned with ivy or grape-leaves. . was the regular type times.
the spirit of the mountains and woods of Greece. while about him throng his followers. A strange child he was. Muse. Maenads (see the 179). who haunts the wooded dells with dancing nymphs that tread the crests of the steep cliffs. as the poet sings. His . drawn by lions or panthers.) that mysterious pastoral god. the two-horned. 50. Pan. with horns and a goat's beard. Fig. Lord is he of every snowy crest and mountain peak and rocky path. the goat-footed. laughing and jumping even from his birth. Satyrs. twined staves. calling upon Pan the pastoral god of the long wild hair.The Gods of the Earth 173 triumphal car. the lover of the din of revel. Tell me. Bacchic Procession. Sileni. who brandish snakes or ivyp. The daughter of a mortal bore him to Hermes as is This he tended her father's sheep in the hills of Arcadia. (Homeric Hymn to Pan. concerning the dear son of Hermes. Bacchantes. mingling with his votaries. goat-legged.
174 Greek and Roman Mythology mother was frightened when she saw him. for there Pan chooses to sleep while the big all else is still. and goes into the midst. With him breathing sweet strains on the reeds. They were all delighted with him. just as they did in the old days before died. . and sing at the side of the dark water of the well. and the god leaps hither and thither.) . But it is not safe to see him. and his heart rejoices with shrill songs in the soft meadow. ever he ranges over the high white hills. and at evening returns piping from the chase. Indeed it is best to avoid certain shady spots by springs at noon-day. and sometimes faring through the lofty crags he climbs the highest peak whence the flocks are seen below. Hither and thither he goes through the thick copses. the god with keen eye. and they called him Pan. especially Dionysus. then the mountain nymphs. and if one spies upon him when he is sleeping or at play. where crocus and fragrant hyacinth bloom all mingled amidst the grass. On his back he wears the tawny hide of a lynx. . one may have good cause to repent. but Hermes was glad and wrapped him in the skins of hares and carried him off to Olympus to show him to the gods. with many a step of the dance. So one can almost in the hills to the see him to-day as one listens Greek shepherds piping to their sheep. for he Pan is a shy god and a mischievous. (Homeric Hymn to Pan. and ever among the knolls he chases and slays the wild beasts. while the echo moans along the mountain crest. sometimes being drawn to the still waters. the shrill singers. go wandering with light feet. flies buzz in the sun-light and and he does .
Pan and a Nymph. 51. .Fig.
is of the Earth At night he 177 lives in not like to be disturbed. and alwere set tars to Christian saints up near by. but forms the Acropolis. cliff There that and those places are sacred to one of these sacred caves in the of Athens. and so the shephills herds in the lonely loves as can pipe to their lady- Pan pipes to the nymphs. is known as Panic terror. is But Pan to those he favors not always dangerous or ill-natured The he sends increase of their flocks . their own destruction. although they are a afraid of . him. right in the city Pan deserted it long ago.Persians was met on the road by Pan. and then the story goes that just before the battle of Marathon a runner sent to Sparta to ask for help against the. and keeps their herds safe from harm. Sometimes it mysteriously comes upon men in the woods often it seizes a flock of sheep and without cause they rush upon . and they taught others. For Pan loves little the nymphs. though so much fewer in number. Some shepherds whom he loved he taught to play on the pipes. syrinx. who told him that he wished well to the Athenians and would help them in the battle.The Gods caves in the hills. And after the battle they remembered the unreasoning fear that had fallen upon the Persians and how they had fled before the Greeks. and they set Such fear as this apart this cave as his shrine. He had no worship in Athens until the time of the Persian Wars. although they had hitherto paid him no honor.
but she fled from him. a musical instrument of that form." sulted. He was told that when they came to a certain place off the coast of Epirus. all on board heard a " voice calling. who was of the ship's company. or a kid from their flocks. very and so throughout Greece his oracles were con- As he "Great pan is dead. he was to announce. So. Thamus." fell. is the mysterious soul of nature. answered. his goat's legs and sometimes run away from him. his hand closed on a bunch of reeds. is dead. But "Great Pan is dead. As it passed by a certain island. and so made the syrinx. fastened them together with wax. he wished to press his love on the nymph Syrinx. as if an unseen multi- . and when he had followed her to the bank of a stream and thought he was just seizing her. was repeated and at the last an Egyptian of that name. From his windy sighs a sweet.178 Greek and Roman Mythology and his queer goat-like face. plaintive sound rose among the hollow reeds. they say." Three times the call by Plutarch. Pan is wise and knows even what the future holds. so he broke off a few of unequal length. The worship of Pan." The story is told * In the time of the emperor Tiberius a ship was sailing from Greece to Italy. When this place. and to Pan and the nymphs people prayed and brought offerings of milk and cheese and honey. " Great Pan told. a calm and Thamus the ship reached did as he had been Immediately a sound of lamentation answered from the shore.
sometimes his form is entirely human except for the slightest indication of horns In this he is almost to mark his animal nature. and that the mysterious voice announced the end of the gods of Greece/ who withdrew lamenting v before the cross of Christ. . Pan legs is not always represented with the goat's HIS . and beard . in Not only in appearance but nature and origin satyrs. Votive Offering to Pan and the Nymphs. indistinguishable from the Satyrs. ap- pearance.The Gods of the Earth 179 The Christian tradition tude were mourning. 52. Fig. told vthat this was about the time of Christ's death.
flat noses. Faunus was an herds. in which the chorus was composed of men dressed as Satyrs.180 Greek and Roman Mythology Pan's companions. holding a Funus. In later times Satyrs appear in art as younger. The country people feared them. popular kind of drama. playful animals. half timid. 53. flute in his hand. and are always hankering after wine and women. are wild spirits of the woods and hills. These dramas were given in honor of Fig. little They have pointed tails. they dance with Pan and Dionysus. but they imitated their rough. old Roman god of flocks and who through his his pastoral character power of prophecy and became identified with Pan. the Satyrs. and goats' sometimes. ears. and half human. gentler. short. who leans pensively against a tree. They follow legs. or and the play nymphs. called satyric drama. bear a close resemblance to him. lively and their noisy and so developed a songs. too. for they sometimes stole away the herds and killed the goats and sheep. They. and more innocent. . too. Dancing - dances Satyr Dionysus. . just as one may see in the graceful young Satyr or Faun of Praxiteles.
first There were many Minor. Another of the company of Dionysus was his * tutor Silemis. The rural Sileni. covery of the but Faun of Fig.The Gods Finally of the Earth 181 many Fauns were conceived of and confounded with the Satyrs. who became use that he im- pudently challenged Apollo to a musical contest When the prize of victory. na is To Athedis- attributed the flute. other were musicians. It its distorit use required. deities. aside in when she saw what tion of face disgust. to King Midas. That same King wine to Midas in a by mixing is fountain said have caught a Silenus tell and forced him to the like him future. he who was brought in an intoxicated Marsyas and Midas. she threw so skilful in its was picked up by the Silenus. condition Sileni. Marsyas paid a terrible penalty. as was right. 54. and they were where they were heard of in Asia with horses' represented ears and tails and were connected with fountains and running water and were credited with the gift of prophecy. Mar'- sy as. had been adjudged to Apollo and his lyre. for Apollo had him flayed and . Praxiteles.
.18. that this indigfor his decision in favor of tells ass's ears. Ovid. however. unable to contain the seturban. empty skin hung on a tree as a warning to Some say that Midas was present at this contest and that in punishment for his foolish judgment in favor of the Silenus he was given Fig. nity came upon him in Pan a musical contest with Apollo.2 his Greek and Roman Mythology all. The king tried to hide his deformity by wearing a large but his barber. Athena and Marsyas. 55.
and ugly.The Gods cret. 56. Fig. XI. bloated bodies. On they rustled in has ass's ears. Midas in the 24 The Sileni usually appear as the most repulsive and ludicrous of Dionysus' company. 24 Ovid. ever repeated. 146 ff. . of the Earth 183 dug a hole the earth. drunken faces. they are rarely separated from their cherished wine-skins. Apollo and Marsyas. simply as the eldest of the Satyrs and was reprein when sented accordingly." ground and whispered it to that place reeds grew up and. They have short. as " the wind. The original and higher type is re- tained Silenus appears as the nurse of DiGreece he was sometimes regarded onysus. Metamorphoses.
or. a raven three times as long as a deer. nymph sighing passed out of her body and vanished.184 The nymphs. that were con- ceived under maiden form. The Greek writer Hesiod says that a crow lives nine times as long as a man. a phoenix nine times as long as a . or played and quarreled by to see with the mischievous Satyrs. and died. a nymph was not imwhen the hour came and the tree too. and many of the heroes they had nymphs for mothers or for brides. There were different kinds of nymphs. Sometimes. aside with a murmured prayer as it fell. or she grew tired of human restraints tal. the Oreads were the mountain spirits. spinning and weaving. woods and hills. when no one was them. but it was an uncertain relationship. bathing in the clear springs. followed Dionysus' noisy throng. In their groves and brooks they lived. the Dryads and Hamadryads lived in the trees. deserted his nymph. loved mortal men. They accompanied Artemis in the chase. the Unlike a god. mortal. a deer four times as long as a crow. singing and dancing in the meadows. and returned to her wilds. too. Greek and Roman Mythology The name nymph in Greek simply means young W0 man. Dryad died When some woodshe turned for then man the felled a great tree in the forest. it is used of all those nature-spirits of trees and brooks. for often the morlonging for his own people. The Naiads were the bright elusive spirits of the springs and brooks.
and wine were brought to their groves and grottoes. and offerings of lambs. too. and ever gazing into his withered away with vain passion. she He did loved the beautiful youth Nar cis'sus. lives The . pined from disappointed love until she was nothing but a disembodied voice that on among the rocks and hills. loved that. milk. as others say. oil. own eyes. nymphs were worshiped throughout Greece. not return her love. but seeing his own reflexion in a stream. or. and a of the Earth 185 nymph ten times as long as a phoenix. Echo was a nymph whom Pan loved and pur- sued.The Gods raven. Then Echo. but she loved a Satyr.
They believed. than bear sway among all the dead ! that be departed. but it was a shadowy and unthis real one.CHAPTER X THE WORLD OF THE DEAD The Greek view of death. earnestly declared : Nay. with a landless man that hath no hireling great livelihood. in a life after death. beautiful. who found in this world so much heroic. XI. indeed. where in eternal darkness . beyond the setting of the sun. In the Odyssey Homer tells of a land far to the west. not to be compared to the most hum- drum existence on the sun-lit earth.. and dreaded the coming of death to take them from very real present life and plunge them into an unknown future.) The realm the dead. of J T us t where the realm of the dead was is un- certain. O great Rather would I live upon the earth as the Odysseus of another. and mist lived the souls of the departed but generally people thought of this gloomy land as being far 186 . THE that Greeks. when his shade appeared before Odysseus on his visit to the world of the dead. utterly was interesting. (Odyssey. The great hero Achilles. by the river Ocean. 488 ff. speak not comfortably to me of death.
Though the body of the dead might lie upon his bed in his own home. and permitted occasional intercourse between the dead and the departing soul to its living. hot springs. where volcanic vapors. it left the body. wherever it The was. thought of as a tiny winged creature in form like the living man. To when this gloomy land. the soul. For all cut off Hades was from approach by its rivers. and A ver'nus.The World of the Dead 187 beneath the earth. . the soul. in the vicinity of Naples. a lake whence rose to* deadly vapors. journeyed under the guidance of the god Hermes. of journey the soul after death. and strange upheavals of the ground suggest the nearness of mysterious powers below the earth. a cave with unexplored depths offered entrance to the land of the dead. in the darkness of the lower world. was thought flow of the rivers of Hades. Near Cumse. Only then would old Charon. the terrible ferry- man and set of the dead. Here he must wait his in the friends he had left behind uneasy expectation until him should give body due burial with sacrifice and provide him with a small coin. be but the overlocalities in Other Greece and the islands afforded passage for the long home. for his passage money. but insubstantial and shadowy. joined the grea f throng of pale shades that were always unhappily waiting on the shores of the river Ach'e ron. receive him into his leaky skiff him across the hated stream. or upon the battle-field. an obol.
. 57- riiaron in his Skiff. and Phleg'e thon. River of Fire. The fourth river of Hades was the Styx. Fig. Co cy'tus. as the Greeks grimly said. Then he entered through the wide gates of Hades into that immense home of the dead. Woe.i88 Greek and Roman Mythology River of and its branches. Cer'ber us. River of Wailing. Once across the Acheron the soul Acheron. open in hospitality to all men. by which the gods swore their unbreakable oaths. must pass by the three-headed watch-dog. . to appease whom he was provided with a little cake made of seed and honey.
his brother Rhad aman'thus. or Pluto reigned. or yet lower than Hades and buried in threefold night. Only twice do we hear of the infernal king leaving his kingdom to appear in the light of the sun. the righteous If the soul was grandfather of the hero Achilles. the Furies. terrible with their snaky locks. once when he came to carry off Persephone. 283). . Eu men'i des. the dark and hateful brother of Zeus. avengers of crime. and beside him the stolen Persephone (Proserpina). Pluto had deputed judges to weigh each dead man's good and evil deeds and assign each to his proper place Minos (see p.The World of the Dead 189 Here Hades. 23 25 This conception of a judgment with punishment and reward was not developed its consequent until long after the time of Homer. When the Cyclopes gave to Zeus the thunderbolts and to Poseidon the trident as the symbols of their power. while the righteous were led to the place of the Blessed. 230) the former just king of Crete. and y'a cus (see p. drove the criminal before them to a place of punishment condemned. but stern and cruel on the throne beside her black lord. he visit when the hero was forced to Olympus to get the help of the divine physi- cian. and again Heracles had wounded him. no longer young and happy as when she played with the nymphs in the bright fields of Sicily. they gave to Pluto the helmet of darkness that made its wearer invisible.
) shrieks. tions. the rebellious and wicked men who here paid the penalty Impious Ix- In the place of torment. but afterwards men thought of too. e ly8ian Fie idf them as peopled by others in the Mysteries of this sons of the gods. From this comes our word Dan'a tantalize. through their noble lives or perhaps glorious through participation Demeter. "^ e Elysian Fields were originally regarded as the last home only of a few favored heroes. 281). tried vainly to reach fruits hung just above his head. those who. (See hopelessly fetched water in leaky vessels. stone.190 Tartarus. who abused the hospitality of the gods. Greek and Roman Mythology whom Zeus had overthrown. These fortunate in calm happiness in the Elysian Fields or Island of the Blest. were those Titans giants. All the air sounded with groans and p. must forever roll up-hill a heavy Tantalus (see p. us. which ever rolled down. 199. The forty-nine who had murdered their daughters of husbands. Tar'tar us. and the Furies drove the victims who would escape back to their endless torture. ones lived . for their crimes against the gods. were admitted to companionship. i'on for his inhuman cruelties was bound to a fiery wheel and racked and torn by its swift revoluphus (see p. Sis'y . 236) who tried to cheat even Death. ever tortured by hunger and consuming thirst. or stooped to drink the water which always eluded his parched lips.
The World Far from gods and men. nor yet great storm. The hero Odysseus (Ulysses) came Though the lower world to the living. in the deep-flowing ocean. Here the heroes feasted or through the flowery fields. No where the earth bears Works and Days. was generally closed some few heroes visited it in life. but always ocean sendeth forth the breeze of the shrill west to blow cool on men. Heracles carrying off Cerberus. Odyssey. not possible to give a simple and consistent aclife after death that will accord with the descriptions in the Greek poetry of different . thrice of the Dead 191 at the farthest end of the earth. a year. yet Bt0 the lower world - 2(5 It is count of the various periods. Heracles came to carry off the watch-dog Cerberus. 197 ff. IV. 566 ff. contended in wandered together games Fig. and enjoyed a repetition of the pleasures of the 26 upper world. snow is there. 58. nor any rain . in Hesiod.
on condition that he would not look back at her until he should reach the upper world. Or'pheus. pp. the violence of some frenzied Bacchantes. fell Charmed by his music. Then . 343. When his ryd'i ce died from the sting of a snake. and he turned and looked Then Hermes gently took Eurydice by the hand and led her back to the home of the dead. 311. ^Eneas. the delet sire to see his beloved wife overpowered Orpheus. so marvelously that at his song wild beasts bethe earth to wife Eu the very stones obeyed his will. But just as they were about to come to the light of earth. the stones they threw feet. (See These Orpheus and Eurydice.192 Greek and Roman Mythology Circe. by his music persuading even grim Charon and the dog Cerberus to him pass in. too. through his divine gift of and safe departure This was music. came for the same purpose. who had learned from his father to play the lyre came tame. the Trojan ancestor of the Romans. yielded to his song and allowed him to carry away Eurydice. stories will be told in detail later on. to ask about by the advice of the sorceress his future course. Pluto. he met his death by other women. 223. until harmless at his the mad shouts of the women drowned the strains of his lyre. he followed her to Hades. son of Apollo and the Muse Calliope. serpents came out of listen.) One man won his entrance . Orpheus refused to be comforted and rejected the advances of all In the end. at her.
Fig.59- Parting of Orpheus and Eurydice. .
is sweeter than any- . and above his grave the song of the nightingale where else in the world. floating down gave forth melodious sounds. The Muses buried the fragments of his body.The World His head and of the Dead the river. still they killed him and tore him limb from lyre. 195 limb.
PART II THE HEROES .
but yEgyptus and his sons followed them and pressed the marriage. Lynceus. and when they wished to marry his daughters. Some of her descendants remained in Egypt and ruled there as kings. she came to Egypt. the daughter of the river-god In'a chus. whom Zeus had loved. About the Eorty-nine of the fifty obeyed. of whom the former was the father of fifty sons and the latter of as many Danaus had cause to fear his daughters. Danaus ordered his daughters to carry concealed daggers and each to murder her husband on the wedding night. nephews. spared her husband. Some say that Danaus found suitors so scarce after this that he was compelled 199 .) Still hei f er. While pretending to yield. fate of the forty-nine there is some difference of opinion. JE gyp'tus and Danaus. he fled to Argolis. but the fiftieth.CHAPTER XI STORIES OF ARGOS THE family of Dan'a us and his famous deJ scendant Perseus sprang from that lo. One of these Egyptian kings had two sons. (See p. Hy perm nes'tra. Danatis ana his fifty daughters. in the form of a where she was restored to her human form and gave birth to a son. 24.
Danae. Perseus. and pe?s eus Hypermnestra and Lynceus had a grandson named A cris'i us. and here he imprisoned his daughter with her nurse. and that it was he who was the father of her child. had the mother and child shut up in a great chest and set adrift on the . by no means believing this story and determined to be rid of his dangerous grandson. killed Others say that brothers. oracle at Delphi to know whether he might hope for a male child. Acrisius. he Hoping had a great bronze chamber constructed in the earth. them all to avenge his Lynceus and that they were punished in Hades in by being compelled eternally to carry water leaky sent the springs of Argolis. when he was one day passing near the opening of this strong prison. to avoid this danger. he received the answer that he was fated to have no son and that he should meet death at the hands of a son of Danae. he was astonished Summoning his daughter before him he inquired who was the father of her child.2OO to give Greek and Roman Mythology them to the contestants in a race. She answered him to hear the voice of a little child at play. to whom was born one daughWhen he sent to the ter. soil a vessels. and no son. Perhaps these Da na'i des repre- whose waters quickly run away and are absorbed by the dry and porous of that country. that through the opening in the roof of her prison Zeus had come to her in the form of a golden shower. After some years.
Carpentei making the chest for Danae and Perseus. And said O child. Her arms of love round Perseus set. not with cheeks unwet.Stories of Arsros 201 Fig. poet Simonides and despair of the young mother sea. The winds that blew and waves in wild unrest Smote her with fear. what grief is mine : ! . she. 60. in the carven chest. The Greek tells : of the love When.
It happened that a brother of the fisherman. but guided the chest to the island of Se ri'phus. Therefore I cry. drew net. He therefore formed a plan to get him out of his 27 Translation by John Addington Svmonds. even against her But by this time Perseus had grown into a particularly strong and brave young man. and sea be And slumber our unmeasured ill. love with cruel who was king of the island. Nor the shrill winds that sweep. wished to make her accept his love will. and Polydectes was afraid of him. it where a fisherman. lend thy listening ear to Then wouldst thou me. as he was an unjust and man. Oh may some change of Descend. our woes to end ! fate.202 Is Greek and Roman Mythology in rest. Nor dost thou heed the scudding brine Of waves that wash above thy curls so deep. Tossed amid starless night and pitchy dark. he was a kindly man and he cared for the unThe quest of fortunate castaways in his own home. and thy baby breast sunk Here in the cheerless brass-bound bark. . Pol y dec'tes. from thee But if this prayer. too overbold. ashore in his Unlike the other inhabitants of the island. yet be merciful to me -7 ! Zeus did not fail to hear her cry. sire ! Zeus. little face ! But if this dread were dreadful too to thee. fell in Danae and. Sleep. But thou dost slumber. Dictys by name. offend Thy justice. Lapped Fair in thy purple robe's embrace. still. babe.
203 to number of young men he asked them each to bring him some Inviting a a valu- Perseus impulsively declared that he was ready to attempt anything. the most imable gift. feast. and its huge mouth with protruding tongue. even to getting the head of the gorgon Me du'sa. and while he demanded caught only a horse as a gift from each of the other young men. the goddess avenged the insult by turning her hair into snakes and her face into so terrible a sight. that any one who looked upon it was turned to stone. Polydectes at Perseus' offer. with its great glaring eyes. and especially of her glorious hair.Stories of Argos way. Head of Medusa. Now Medusa had once been a beautiful maiden. When she dared to compare herself to Athena. Fig. he insisted that nothing but this hor- . possible feat imaginable. who was over-proud of her beauty. 61.
and no one could tell him where these nymphs were who had among them except the Grae'ae. the winged sandals. But when Perseus came to them. by the . which made its wearer invisible. three extraordinary old women just one tooth and one great Hermes. and it was only when he adroitly seized the eye. still under the guidance of Hermes and Athena the young hero flew far away to the west. As he wandered along the shore. that he compelled them to tell him what he wanted upon pain of being forever deprived of sight. the helmet of Hades. however.204 rible Greek and Roman Mythology head would be acceptable from him. urged him not to lose hope. as the old women passed it from one to another. the Grseae refused to tell him where the nymphs lived. and the magic wallet. and the magic wallet. where the stream of Ocean encircles the world. Hermes met him. One cannot wonder that Perseus was thrown into the depths of despair at the thought of this hopeless adventure. and instructed him how he should accomplish the task. sent Perseus off bright eye. For his success three things were necessary. These were in the care of the nymphs. therefore. women. to find these old The Grseae. Having thus found the nymphs and having received from them the helmet of Hades. the winged sandals. under the guidance of Athena. Here.
Now the wise Athena had warned Perseus that The gorgon Medusa slain. Fig. but must fly down from above. 62. Perseus killing Medusa. Medusa and her and immortal sisters. he must not look directly at the gorgons.Stories of Argos shore. 205 two terrible were sleeping the gorgons. guiding himself by .
2o6 the Greek and Roman Mythology reflection in his brightly polished shield. On his return journey. drew from the wallet Atlas was changed beard and hair became trees. Perseus came to the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea. Atlas in his bones. his . and as the hero flew away on the winged sandals. they pursued him and would certainly have caught him had not the helmet of Hades made him invisible. When. rich in flocks and herds and proud of his Garden of the Hes per'i des. Perseus was no match for the giant in strength. announcing himself as the son of Zeus and demanding rest and a hospitable welcome. and with one blow of his sharp sword severed Medusa's head turned to stone. into a mountain . where grew trees of golden apples. rocks his Africa that still guards the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. and the sky with all its stars rested upon his shoulders. Perseus came. Now Atlas had learned from an oracle that one day a son of Zeus would come who would rob him of the cherlet. from her body. . but he the terrible gorgon's head. Perseus did exactly as he was told. where the giant Atlas ruled. and head towered high among the clouds. Atlas not only refused him but tried violently to drive him from his land. therefore. This is the Mt. rising opposite Gibraltar. and thrust it into the magic walBut the two sisters were awakened by the hissing of the snakes. ished golden fruit.
anger had sent a terrible sea-monster to devastate the coast.Stories of Argos 207 Next the hero came to the land of Ethiopia. 63. when Perseus came flying by on his winged santhe sacrifice . Because the queen had boasted that she was more beautiful than the ocean nymphs. So. where Cepheus and his wife Cas si o pe'a ruled. Poseidon in Fig. Atlas supporting the Heavens. and the oracle had pronounced that only of the princess An drom'e da by could the land be freed from this terror.
208 dais. dusa's head But while they were celebrating the weddingfeast. the king refused to believe that head. hero returned in triumph to Seriphus. and Phineus and his company were turned to stone. and the grateful parents received the conqueror as a worthy son-in-law. Phineus. Polydectes was seated in the midst of his wicked court. and secured from Cepheus the promise that if he should kill the monster and free the maiden. Greek and Roman Mythology he saw a lovely maiden chained to a rock and raising tearful eyes to heaven. before them and showed the wallet. to whom Andromeda's hand had been promised. rushed in with a strong band of followers and attempted to claim his bride and slay his courageous rival. and . . he should have her The sword that had severed Meas his wife. During Perseus' absence Polydectes had be\ come more violent and tyrannical than ever. from her body now put an end to Poseidon's monster. Again Medusa's head was drawn out. poiydectes turned to stone. assembled foolish to witness the discomfiture of the young man who had gone out on such an Even when Perseus came impossible adventure. but who had held back while the terrible sea-serpent threatened. He stopped. and Dictys and Danae had been compelled to take Here they were when the refuge at a shrine. learned of the cruel sacrifice. instantly Poly- the hero drew forth the head. it contained the dreadful As the company looked scornfully on him.
bounding foot. aside. succeed to the throne of his grandfather. . wishing to persuade test him to return. accompanied by mother and his bride. innocent of any evil intention.Stories of Argos dectes and his whole court 209 became stone images. the gorgon's Dictys head was presented to Athena. The hero's grandfather. In an athletic con- Perseus threw a discus. returned to his native land of Argos. hit Acrisius on the death and bringing the which. it ever after appeared. was made king of Seriphus. or aegis. followed him. had heard that his grandson was coming and had fled to an- other town to avoid his fate. and Perhis seus. he therefore effected an exchange with his cousin and became king of My cense and Tiryns. on whose breastplate. Acrisius. but Perseus. thus causing his fulfilment of the old After this Perseus felt unwilling to prophecy.
On was the Now just before Heracles' birth Zeus had de- clared in the assembly of the gods that a descendant of Perseus would soon be born who should rule mightily over Mycense. Her'cu daughter of Elec'tryon. always jealous of Zeus's children by other wives. sons were born to her. and the stories of his deeds of prowess are many. known bv was by far the most widely honored and the greatest. phi'tryon by name. Zeus visited Alcmena in the form of her husband. king of Mycenae. and a all OF the heroes. father-in-law and flee to Her Am- who by accident killed his was forced with his wife to one occasion when Amphitryon was away fighting. Hera's enuiity. Heracles. His mother was Ale me'na. promise that the child first born on a certain day foil his axo . while the other son of Amphitryon. and later. when twin Thebes. his Roman name. a grandchild of Perseus. father married her to a famous warrior. Hera. better les.CHAPTER XII HERACLES (HERCULES) birth. Her'a cles. was declared to be Zeus's son. the one. plotted to She extracted from him a purpose.
Fig. . 64. Heracles.
brothers twain. but Her- acles gripped the poisonous serpents by the throats and strangled them with his baby hands. this. my babes. she retarded the of Having secured Heracles and brought his cousin Eu rys'theus first to the light. sulted a seer as to told that their son what it might mean. light . Calling on his slaves to follow. the curved shield. There was Heracles capering with joy and holding out the strangled serpents for his father to His parents.twin his brother were ten months old. sleep. Alcmena heard the cry and called upon her hus- band to make haste and see what was wrong. goodly Heaven prosper your slumbering now and your awakening to-morrow. who." At midnight Hera sent two terrible serpents with evil gleaming eyes and poisonous fangs to kill Heracles. and were was to be a mighty hero. for throughout his life Heracles suffered labors and great unhappiness at her hands. Nor did her jealous hatred end there. Amphitryon sprang from his bed and rushed to the cradle. sleep sweetly and children. appalled at the evil omen. consee. their mother had laid them side by side in their father's great i : Heracles Bangles serpents. . and rocking the shining cradle had " hushed them to sleep Sleep. His troubles and dangers began in his babyT? u* u j ror one night when TT Heracles and u. Then the babies awoke. and the mortal's son cried aloud and tried to slip from the cradle.Heracles (Hercules) birth 213 should be the ruler in that land. t- J hood.
he learned to drive a chariot. as Amphitryhis father on's son. from a son of Hermes all kinds of athletic games. and from a son of Apollo he learned music. Idyl XXIV. should go to share the life of the immortals. tunate tutor for in a This unfor- was the moment to feel his pupil's power. as Then Amphitryon sent him Theocritus. . 65. grew strong and from Fig.214 after Greek and Roman Mythology many labors. Heracles strangling the Serpents. commonly known active . of rage the boy killed him with first a blow of his lyre. 28 c educa uon ^ Heracles.
Heracles married the daughter of the king of Thebes. The Twelve Labors. It is told met two women. Notwithstanding the enthat once at cross-roads Heracles ticing offers Pleasure made him. serve his cousin Eurystheus and so make atone- Thus. sent a cursed madness upon him so that he threw his own children into still Seeking purification from his crime. at whose bidment. Zeus's son became the servant of Eurystheus. Duty and Pleasure. the hero chose Duty and followed her through life. the fire. But Hera. he left his country and his wife and journeyed to The god commanded that he should Delphi.Heracles to be brought (Hercules) 215 up among the shepherds. and that each asked him to take her as his guide. Five of Heracles' Labors. who Fig. 66. ding he performed twelve great labors. The . hated Alcmena's son. as Hera had planned. When he was grown.
The Hydra seems <3j The ryman represent the malaria coming from a marsh. But Eurystheus was so terrified by the sight of the dead lion that he ordered the hero never thereafter to enter the city. One head was immortal. Heracles always afterwards wore. Finding that his arrows did not even pierce the beast's hide. then he bore him back to Mycenae. to burn each neck the had severed the head. A ferocious lion. Heracles finally caught him in his cave and strangled him. (2) The In the marsh of Lerna. the Hydra. The but to display his spoils outside the walls. also in Argolis. but finding that as he cut off one head two grew in its place. lived Lernean Hydra. and so poisonous that its touch or its foul breath caused This beast Heracles attacked with his death. and the labors follow the course of the sun through the months. skin of the lion. beginning near at hand in Argolis and ending in the lower world. of this Eurystheus ordered Heracles to rid him terror. until it is dried up by the sun. number was twelve because Heracles is a sun-god. a Heracles caught a it fierce wild boar in a net and brought alive to Eurystheus. whose lair was a cave in the mountains of Argolis. impervious to all weapons.216 Greek and Roman Mythology (1) The Nemean i-ion. who . The scene of the next three labors was Arto First. was ravaging the country round. sword. a serpent with nine heads. this he buried under a stone. he ordered his nephew and faithful instant he companion lo la'us.
where which (e> The had not been cleaned in thirty years. This he ac- . in the Hydra's His next task carried the hero to he was sent to clean the stables of Elis. a golden-horned doe. hoofs never knew fatigue. had to be caught. who Fig. and carry them Heracles aroused away. and it led Heracles a chase for a whole year before it was caught and (4) The Doe. unlike most does Its brazen very dangerous. brought to Mycenae. Next. Au ge'as. 67. Near the Stvm * pha'li an Lake lived huge birds Stymphaliau Birds. Heracles killing the Hydra. suggestion. (p) The with arrow-like feathers and mighty talons. these birds with cymbals and then shot them with used to snatch beasts men and At Athena's arrows which he had dipped poison.Heracles (Hercules) 217 jar was so fearful of it that he jumped into a large and only peeped out at it over the rim.
. and later. (7> The King Minos of Crete had been presented with a beautiful bull by Poseidon. at the same time. established in Elis the Olympic Games in honor of his father Zeus. Heracles tamed the brute and rode it across the sea back Later the bull escaped and went to to Greece. Heracles took vengeance upon him and.218 Greek and Roman Mythology complished by turning the course of the river Al phe'us so that it flowed through the stables. as he refused to offer it in sacrifice. 68. Heracles carrying the Boar. it had been driven mad and was a menace to the whole island. Fig. King Augeas cheated him of the reward he had promised. but. when he was free.
had not Hera. and asked for the girdle. rystheus' daughter coveted it. When to Heracles capture attempted these fierce beasts. Hip this pol'y ta was at (9) The time the queen of the Amazons. marvelous horses whom in The the He had he fed on the flesh of men. a warlike tribe Girdle of Hippolyta. roused the other Amazons to at- . off so easily. When Heracles arrived at her court Fig. unwilling that he should get 69. but he and lolaiis drove them off and bore the horses back to Eurys- theus. of women that lived near the Etixine Ares had given her a girdle. Amazon. and EuSea. Di o me'des was a son of Ares and ruled as king savage land of Thrace. the Thracians in great num- bers attacked him. where the hero Theseus finally killed it.Heracles (Hercules) 219 (8) Marathon. Hippolyta was so struck by his strength and beauty that she would have given it him.
an extraordinary being with three bodies. using his lion's skin as a sail. too. should be offered to the The maiden was waiting to be demonster. him the walls of his city. killed her. where the sun sinks into the stream of Ocean. and thousands of glorious red cattle fed on his land under the guard of an ever watchful dog and a Heracles sailed thither in a strong herdsman. six legs and six arms. As he passed through the straits that separate Europe from Africa. ster to Poseidon had. incorrigible king cheated Heracles. golden bowl. voured when Heracles came and agreed to kill the serpent in return for the gift of some wonderful horses that Laomedon had received from Zeus in payment for his stolen son. Then Heracles. which the sun had given him. and nothing would free the city from this terror but that He si'o ne. Gan'y mede. he landed and set up the Pillars of Hercules as a . sent a dreadful sea-monravage the coast. Here lived Ge'ry on. he had had built for failed to give them the reward he had promised. and later paid for his dishonesty with his life. The do) The His tenth labor called Heracles to the far west. when he had come to Troy. He was very rich. therefore. and a pair of monstrous wings.22O tack Greek and Roman Mythology him. On his way home from this adventure. Laomedon's daughter. he found the king La om'e don in For when Poseidon and Apollo great trouble. thinking that the queen had played him false.
70. On arriving at the coun- Geryon he was attacked first by the dog and then by the herdsman. but he killed them both. Just Fig.Heracles monument try of (Hercules) 221 of his feat. what route he took on difficult to say. his homeward way it is all but he seems to have visited Europe and to have had many adventures and done many marvelous deeds. later a part of Rome. and finally. On the Aventine Hill. Heracles in the bowl of the Sun. he met and killed the giant Cacus. who had stolen the lands of western . crushed Geryon himself and drove off the cattle. after a terrific struggle.
Approaching Greece from the north. But whether he became a raging lion or a flame fire Man of and at length or flowing water. at last he brought the an Tho Apples of the Hesperides. like Proteus. away from his mother Earth. While the hero was sleeping after this combat. she had presented him with some golden apples. until he crushed in his ribs. who was accustomed to challenge all comers to wrestle with every time he fell to earth he rose with redoubled strength. As and a temple near by was adorned with Heracles conquered the skulls of his victims. To learn where to find them Heracles must catch and just hold Nereus. had the power of changing his form. who. which were cattle to Eurystheus. the Pygmies swarmed about him and tried to bury him alive in the sand. and the captives answered them. some of dragging them off to his cave by the tails so that their tracks might mislead Heracles. the Old of the Sea. Heracles held him fast had his question answered.222 Greek and Roman Mythology his cattle. who sacrificed them to Hera. for in Libya he met the giant Antaeus. Zeus had married Hera. On his way he had various adventures. victor. thus betraying the hiding-place. him by holding him up in his arms. When kept up in the north near the land of the Hyper- boreans and were guarded by a dragon. a son of Earth. he had always been the him. But the other cattle lowed as they passed the cave. but he awoke and amused himself by picking them up and bundling .
p. 10. for for ages had been who (This would make it seem that the garden was in the west. the lower world. as he all strangers. 207. to Zeus. the story of Perseus turning Atlas to stone. In the Caucasus Mountains he found and freed bound there Zeus and given fire to having disobeyed men. Heracles. ) den where the apples grew and there found Atlas Prometheus. pretending to agree. preferring to be the bearer of the apples to Eurystheus. Heracles went on his burden. of course. but mythological geography is sometimes hard to follow. persuaded Atlas to get the apples for him.) holding up the heavens. 29 way leaving Atlas to his old His twelfth and last labor took Heracles to o?> berus. and with their help safely passed by the dangers of the way and 2a Cf. such inconsistencies are due to the independent development of the separate stories. moment while he put The stupid giant was a cushion on taken in. At last he came to the gar(See p.Heracles them did (Hercules) 223 him. taking the giant's burden while he was gone. asked him to take the heavens He only for one his shoulder. Here he was guided and assisted by Athena and Hermes. once the transfer had been made. Atlas returned with the apples but refused to take up his burden again. and. . but Heracles burst his bonds and dashed out the brains of his captors. into his lion's skin to carry home with In Egypt the king tried to sacrifice him.
he killed his host's son. he served her faithfully for the allotted term. Part of the time he was fighting his mistress' enemies and keeping her country from harm. The king agreed to let him take the three-headed watch- dog. Queen of Libya. bought him. He might expiate his crime by having himself sold as a slave at public auction and giving the price to the family of the slain man. were now ended. having from Zeus. Cer- berus was afterwards returned to the lower world. When he went to Delphi to ask how he might escape this trouble. and because of this violation of hospitality he suffered from a painful illness. to do. The service Although him. still Heracles had no rest Hera's hate pursued certain king. weaving . if he could get him without using This his great strength enabled him a weapon. and the combatants were parted only by a thunderbolt They thereupon swore loyal friendwith one another. whereupon Heracles stole the tripod and was about to set up an oracle of his own. employed in spinning and and other feminine tasks.224 came Greek and Roman Mythology to the presence of King Pluto. Cerberus. but most of the time he sat at her feet in womanish clothes. his twelve labors . out of resentment for an While he was staying with a imagined injury. and Apollo gave the hero ship an answer to his question. and he took the dog to Mycenae. Apollo refused to answer. Om'pha le. Apollo hastened to defend his sacred shrine.
telling her that if fail her husband's love ever seemed to clip she should a robe in the blood and his love would be restored. . On his return to Greece he married De jan i'ra. he left the country. with his wife. after carrying Dejanira over on his back. . and starting again on his wanderings. 7. putting to the sword the king and all his sons except Priam. death once refused to give him his king daughter in. marriage. He took the city and carish a 30 Some say that the horn of plenty was the horn of the goat Amalthea. Him he made king in his father's place. see p. .Heracles At (Hercules) 225 The destructiom of Troy. after this the hero undertook to pun. Assembling a force of men and ships he attacked Troy and took it. . who had . attempted to run away with her. and the horn which Heracles broke off was afterwards used as the horn of plenty or cornucopia.The . after righting ra and 5essus come lover. When Nessus. Anchelous took the form of a bull. . and conquering her former unwelthe river-god Ach e lo'us. Heracles drew one of his poisoned arrows and shot him. came to a river where the centaur Nessus acted as ferry- man. the end of his term of service he turned his attention to avenging himself on the faithless Laomedon. of Heracles. Not long . vial filled with his Before he died he gave Dejanira a own blood. in the struggle Self -exiled. . 30 After this victory again he was attacked by his madness and killed a boy at his father-in-law's court.
fearing that his love had turned from her to the captive lole. he sent a messenger to get him a suitable garment to wear Fig. Nessus running off with Dejanira. When . at the sacrifice. 71. remembered the centaur's advice and sent him a robe that she had dipped in the blood. Then Dejanira. Stopping on his way home to sacrifice to Zeus.226 Greek and Roman Mythology ried off the princess To le as his captive.
and was called upon especially in the palestra . it into his flesh like fire. clung to his body and ate In his agony he threw the messenger that had brought the garment into the sea. preferring death to such torture. as Hercules. Thereafter he was taken into Olympus bow and Amid columns of and made a god. All re- fused to be responsible for the hero's death. He is represented as a gigantic man is lion's skin His of remarkable muscular development. partly from pity and partly because of Heracles' offer of his famous the torch. in grief and remorse. and Hera. wife her own daughter Hebe. Heracles was worshiped both as a hero and as The worship of . to relenting. a god. gave him His earthly wife Dejanira. Heracles. . In Athens a temple was built in honor of Her- acles. he laid himself upon it and begged his friends to set fire to it. applied smoke. and thunder and lightning sent by Zeus to glorify the end of his son. until at length Phil oc te'tes. the Warder off of Evil. over his shoulder and his club hangs in his hand. killed herself. having ordered a great funeral-pyre to be raised on a mountain-top. he was worshiped as the Unconquered and the Defender.Heracles Heracles put it (Hercules) 227 on. and in Rome. . Young men regarded him as their special friend and helper. and in all athletic contests. arrows. the hero's spirit left the earth. in memory of his many good deeds to men. . and then.
31 Following Moschus.CHAPTER AND XIII STORIES OF CRETE. . SPARTA. the daughter of the Phoenician king. gathering flowers in the meadows by the seashore merrily they were filling their baskets with . Idyl II. 72. Europa on the Bull. STORIES OF CRETE I. with her friends and companions was one day Fig. CORINTH. Europa.3i n RQ'PA.
dear com: panions. let us ride on this bull's back. white a beautiful bull that had never felt the yoke nor drawn the plow. and still to her But already the bull rushed on. crying aloud for help. Then Europa stretched out her hands companions. . but suddenly the bull. To see her was to desire her for his own. just as Aphrodite is preeminent among the Graces. not at all like other bulls. Zeus marked the princess Europa in the midst. they had reached the shore.Stories of Crete daffodils 229 contending and lilies. stood up and in all haste made for the sea. and so like a man's is his understanding that he lacks only the down power of speech. She spoke to " her playmates and said Come. for he looks kind and mild. among her companions. having gained what he wanted. right over the waves with hoofs unThe Nereids rose from the waters and wet. the flowery meadow. violets and roses." So she sat smiling upon his back. so he laid aside his scepter and his thunderbolt and put on the form of a bull. preeminent who could gather the most. and the maidens did not fear So he came into him but gathered around him and began to stroke his snowy sides. At Europa's touch he lowed and beseechingly and kneeling down looked gently back at her with gentle. Looking down from his high heaven on the pretty group. and the others would have followed her. loving eyes as if to invite her to his broad white back.
and by his just and enlightened rule brought civilization and prosperity to his country and extended whom its power over neighboring lands. he and his brother Rhadamanthus were made judges of the dead in the lower world. Alas! why did I ever leave my father's house to O follow you and to journey alone on such a strange " " Take And the bull answered sea-voyage ! : heart." In Crete. the grandson of this Minos. After his death. dear maiden. in consideration of his righteousness and wisdom. ( See p. Europa. 189. godlike bull? god. became king of the island. for I am Zeus himself. trumpeting on long shells. and the Tritons.) Minos II. anii of Europa bore to Zeus three sons. sounded the marriage-hymn. and there you shall bear me famous sons that shall rule as kings. for none but a god could do this thing.230 Greek and Roman Mythology about them. spoke to the bull " : Whither are you bearing It is clear that you are a me. riding on the dolphins. guided them on frolicked their their watery path. Soon Crete shall receive you. Minos i. and fear not the salt sea- waves. Poseidon. holding with one hand to the horn of the bull and with the other holding up her long robe that it might not be wet with the waves. and the island that nourished me as an infant shall be your wedding-place. one. Minos. calming the waves. . and it is love of you that has driven me to journey over the sea in the form of a bull. then.
.Fig.73- Daedalus and Icarus.
Daedalus himself . and was himself. During the reign of Minos there had arrived on his shores an exile from Athens. Icarus forgot the injunction. and before he could be recalled the wax had melted. Dae'da lus. the part of the ygean between the Cyclades and Asia Minor. half man. Poseidon had sent him from the sea a splendid white bull for sacrifice. In punish- ment. From union sprang the Minotaur. so that she left her home and followed the beast their all over the island. who was the most skilful artist and engineer of his time. though Daedalus had warned his son not to fly too near the sun. however. put the bull he offered to the gods an inferior animal and among his own herds. with his son. in answer to prayer. Poseidon inspired in his wife an unholy passion for the bull. imprisoned in the Labyrinth he had designed. When a safe place in which to confine the Minotaur rinth. he constructed for himself and his son Ic'a rus wings and fastened them on with wax. Unfortunately. Daedalus built the Labywinding and complicated a structure or beast once shut inside could ever that find no man Notwithstanding this and other services the artist fell under the king's displeasure the exit. seems to have been of very different character for when. and the boy fell into the sea that from him was called the Icarian Sea.Stories of Crete 233 . Knowing no way of escape to be possible. half bull and Daedalus. sc was needed.
taking upon himself . But Zeus made love to Leda. were the local heroes of Fig. Cly tem nes'tra. II. became the wife of King who of Mycenae. Their mother Leda.arne. Pollux. Castor and his brother Pol y- deu'ces. 74. whose mortal husband was the king Tyn da're us. STORIES OF SPARTA Castor and Polydeuces. the latter better known by his Roman Sparta. and Castor. The Di r.234 his Greek and Roman Mythology his escape to Italy made good wings and there dedicated in a temple of Apollo. os cu'ri. The Dioscuri (Ancient statues now set up be- fore the king's palace in Rome). Agamem'non had by him two children.
giving promise of clear weather after a storm. . they appeared in the Forum as two glorious youths on white horses and an- nounced to the armies. whose divine beauty brought about the Trojan War. 32 Among the Romans they received worship. it the spot where they had appeared. and Polydeuces. Polydeuces. 33 32 This may St. and to him she bore two other children. while Polydeuces was the greatest of all boxers. Helen. Therefore on alternate days after their death the two were among the dead in Hades. Castor. Romans the victory of their In their honor a temple was built on perhaps be Elmo's Fire. was killed. or the Twins. Castor and Pollux. identified with the phenomenon known as 33 Some say that was Castor alone who appeared. and after the battle of Lake Regillus. Between the two brothers there was so great a love that when the mortal's son. immortal by virtue of his divine father. They were patrons of sailors.Stories of Sparta 235 when he visited her the form of a swan. Castor was famous as a trainer of horses. fought between the Romans and the exiled Tarquins. and among the gods in heaven. obtained permission to divide his immortality with his brother. to whom they appear as balls of fire upon the masts. where they are still visible as the bright stars. in the constellation Gemini.
236 Greek and Roman Mythology III. was from the becity. Sis'yphus. in return for which he was to give the river-god information about his In punishment for this daughter. feigning righteous indignation. Corinth. Permission was given. on the citadel of Corinth. was caught. however. STORIES OF CORINTH Sisyphus. and Ares succeeded in freeing Death and even in givBefore he was haled ing Sisyphus over to him. and its were known as clever business men able people This reputation began with to outwit all comers. through its situation on the isthmus holding command of two seas. Death himself. who began his career by bargaining with the river-god A so'pus for the never. ginning an important commercial the founder of the city. offered to see that his wife did the proper thing. outwitted by the shrewd Corinthian.failing spring Pi re'ne. if for the purpose he was allowed to return to the upper air. offer no funeral When Pluto com- plained bitterly of this neglect. no one on earth could die. and while he was kept in chains. off to the in secret a lower world. the king exacted promise from his wife that she would sacrifices. Zeus sent Death to take Sisyphus. This state of things could not be allowed. stolen by Zeus. Sisyphus. and once outside the gates of Hades the wily king refused to return. interference with his plans. But . lived to a ripe old age and at last died a natural death.
Stories of Corinth
no one may cheat the gods and escape punishment, however clever he may be. In Hades Sisyphus was condemned eternally to roll a weighty stone up a hill, which ever, as it reached the top, rolled
was of very In his youth he was forced into exile because he had unintentionally killed a man.
Sisyphus' grandson Bel ler'o phon
the wife of
to be purified he went to Tiryns, and here King Proe'tus fell in love with him,
and when he would not respond to her
him to her husband. Fearing dihe himself killed a guest, Prcetus vine anger sent him to the king of Lycia, and with him a
message asking to have him
first treated Bellerophon with generous hospitality, but when he had read the message he sent him off on the dangerous ad-
king of Lycia at
Greek and Roman Mythology
venture of killing the Chi mae'ra. This beast had fore part of a lion, the hinder part of a
dragon, and in the middle the head of a goat, and breathed out fire from her nostrils. A seer consulted by Bellerophon told him that his success depended upon his catching and taming the / winged horse Peg a sus, and advised him to pass
a night beside Athena's altar that he might secure the goddess' help. Pegasus was the offspring of
Poseidon by Medusa, from whose neck he had sprung when Perseus cut off her head. Athena
had given him to the Muses, and he had opened for them by a blow of his hoof the sacred spring of Hip po cre'ne on Mt. Hel'i con. While Bellerophon slept by her altar, Athena appeared to him and put into his hand a golden bridle, with which he easily caught Pegasus while he was Mounted on drinking at the spring of Pirene. the winged horse he flew down from above and
the terrible Chirmera.
The Lycian king
him on other dangerous adventures and at an ambush to kill him. But when Bellerophon came out safe and victorious from all, the king, seeing that he was favored by the gods, gave him his daughter in marriage and half his
In time Bellerophon became
so elated by his achievements that he challenged the immortal gods themselves, for he attempted
Zeus's very dwelling on the winged Zeus hurled a thunderbolt, and Bellero-
Bellerophon and Pegasus.
Stories of ^Etolia
an exphon fell to earth maimed and blinded ample to the proud not to attempt flying too high. Pegasus came to the dwelling of Zeus and was given the honor of drawing the thunder-chariot.
THE CALYDONIAN BOAR HUNT
During the time when the god-descended heroes lived in Greece, several joint expeditions were undertaken by them. One of these was the Calydonian boar hunt. Calydon was a town of yEtolia ruled over by (Eneus, who was the first man
of that part of Greece to learn of Dionysus the culture of the vine. He was married to Al the'a, bore to him a son Mel e a'ger. When the was seven days old, the Fates told Althea boy that he would die when the log that was then
Althea quenched the brand and put
Meleager had grown to be a young man,
one harvest time his father (Eneus, offering sacrifice of the first-fruits to all the other gods, passed
over Artemis alone.
In anger at this neglect the goddess sent into his country a great and ferocious boar, which laid waste all the country
Meleager summoned the heroes from
parts of Greece, promising to him the boar its hide as a gift of honor.
very distinguished company that assembled for the hunt: Castor and Polydeuces, from Lacedae-
Greek and Roman Mythology
Pi rith'o us, Jason, later the leader of the Argophi a ra'us of Argos, and many other
daughter of the king of Arcadia, joined their number, many were indignant that they should be expected to share the danger and glory of the
any woman, however strong, but
Stories of ^Etolia
Meleager loved Atalanta and insisted upon her
(Eneus entertained the company for nine days, and on the tenth they started the hunt. Three
of the number lost their lives before any one had
even wounded the beast, and Atalanta was the first to strike him, shooting an arrow into his
Then Amphiaraiis shot him in the eye, was Meleager who finally despatched him,
piercing between his ribs.
longed right, he gave to Atalanta. This mightily enraged some of the hunters, for they thought it unworthy that a woman should
honor for which so many men had striven therefore the two uncles of Meleager lay in wait for the maiden and took away the hide, declaring that it belonged to them if
off with the prize of
killed his uncles
Meleager did not choose to keep it. Meleager and restored the hide to Atalanta.
news of her brothers' murder at the hands of her son came to Althea's ears, she seized the brand from its box and threw it on the fire. As it consumed the vital strength left Meleager's body, and as it fell in ashes the spark of his life went out. Althea too late repented of her act of vengeance and took her own life. The weeping
about her were changed into birds.
STORIES OF ATTICA
Athenians were proud in their belief that their early kings were not, as were those of other
states, foreigners who had come to their shores, but true sons of Attica, born of its soil.
Cecrops, who had been witness to Athena's victory in her contest with Poseidon
for the city, was born, half man, half serpent, from the earth.
Another earthborn king was E rec'theus, 34 whose form was wholly that of a serpent. At his birth Athena took him under her protection,
and gave him
in a basket into the care of the
three daughters of Cecrops, enjoining them, under pain of her displeasure, not to seek to know what the basket contained. Curiosity was too strong for them, and when they saw the serpent
lying in the basket, they were driven mad and leaped to death off the rock of the Acropolis.
Athena then brought Erectheus up in her own It was temple and made him king of Athens.
he that set up the sacred wooden image of the
his grandson, Erectheus.
goddess in her temple and instituted the PanAt his death he was buried in the temple precinct and was afterwards worshiped with Athena in the Erectheum. and was wooed by Bo're the northeast wind. served the Greeks when well at the time of the battle of Thermopylae. receiving from his wife the won- derful dog and javelin. onthyia Boreas. goddess of the dawn. Boreas still conscious of his kinship to the Athenians. from that never whom she received a dog grew mark.Stories of Attica 245 athenaic Festival in her honor. who answered ing the Persian ships at Artemisium. Unfortunately Procris. young hunter named Aurora. O ri thy'ia. the Persian fleet was threatening the whole coast. who was married Ceph'a lus. as. one of the daughters of Erectheus. Another daughter of Erectheus was Procris. stole him away. whereupon by shattercephaius and Procris. leaving Procris In her loneliness she took to hunt- ing with Artemis. and he joyfully returned to his life as a hunter. they prayed to Boreas. but One day he rejected his advances. tired missed its and a javelin that never As Aurora could not make Cephaius forget his love for his wife. The Delphic upon oracle ordered the Athenians to call their son-in-law for help. loved to a Cephaius and inconsolable. her as she was carrying sacrifices for came upon Athena on the Acropolis and bore her off to his wild northern kingdom of Thrace. of a jealous disposition and suspecting her being . she finally sent him back.
Cephalus and the Dawn-Goddess. and killed his wife. hurled his unerring javelin. one to spy day concealed herself with Aura. To conceal this deed from his . 78. Fig. but afterwards he fell in love with the sister. the morning in the bushes on them.246 Greek and Roman Mythology affair husband of a love breeze. Cephalus. Procne and Phil o me'la were the daughters of another early king of Athens. and persuaded her to marry him by telling her that Procne was dead. hearing a rustling in thought it some wild beast. The Thracian king Tereus had married Procne. irocne and Philomela. the underbrush. Philomela.
returned with the ring and a golden crown given him by Amphi35 Some identify Procne with Philomela with the swallow. threw a ring into the sea. Tereus into a tufted hoo-poe. to try the hero's divine birth. diving in after it. fered by the celebration of the festival of Dionysus. who freed all the country around from danger. grieving 35 over the slaying of the boy Theseus. Procne visited the lonely hut and brought Philomela in disguise to her palace. Procne into a swallow. was some said that was Poseidon. It'y lus notes. a question about his birth. the gods transformed the three into birds.Stories of Attica 247 wife he cut out Philomela's tongue and imprisoned her in a hut in the woods. As Heracles was the great hero of the Peloponnesus. But she wove her story into the web of a robe and contrived At an opportunity ofto send it to her sister. the nightingale and . The two then wreaked on the faithless Tereus a for sisters Procne killed her son and served him up to his father at a feast. who cleared the roads of giants and robbers and gave There liberty and unity to the city of Athens. so Theseus was the hero of Attica. his father Theseus. Itylus. and Philomela into the nightingale who still pours out her mournful horrible vengeance. and alleged as a proof of this that once when King Minos. When Tereus pursued the murderesses and was about to kill them.
after placing his sword and sandals under a great rock with the instructions that the boy. wishing to emulate Heracles. ygeus left Trcezen. Theseus overcame him and took his club.248 trite. This fate Theseus inflicted on the giant himself. Next he met Sinis. daughter of the king of Before his son was born. fastening the unfortunate by the head to the top of the tree. Theseus grew up clever and courageous. who compelled every passer-by to help him bend down a tall pine tree and then. where the cliff falls This . was ^Egeus. a son of Hephaestus. who brained all travelers with his iron club. First he came upon the giant Per i pha'tes. but. the king of Athens. His mother and grandfather urged him to go by sea. so that at sixteen he easily lifted the stone and joyfully set out for Athens. he preferred the perilous journey by land. He killed a great sow was that ravaged the country. a giant who His fourtl ^venture was with kept watch on a narrow pass abruptly into the sea. and his mother yEthra. however. On his way he met with six great adventures. so soon as he was strong enough to lift the stone and get them from under it. Sciron. for it was a short and comparatively safe voyage. some say this sow really a woman whose foul manners earned her this name. let it go suddenly. Greek and Roman Mythology It that his father was more generally supposed. Theseus frees the roads of *iants. ^Ethra at Troezen. and tall and strong as well. should be sent to Athens.
however. and when they knelt down to do so he gave them a kick that sent them into the waters below. Theand recognizing the weapon. he stretched them out to fit the bed. pressed upon strangers the hospitality of his iron bed. recognized him and plotted his death. close At his the palace. where Theseus gave the turtle a final feast on the giant himself. he overcame Pro crus'tes. instantly hate. father. he en- Theseus meet* ] His long hair and his foreign ers. dashed the poisoned cup to the floor and sprang In a rage of disappointed to embrace his son. although he did not disidentity. Last of all and if they were too short. Medea called her flew away. but if they were too long. he cut them match. his heir.Stories of Attica 249 giant forced all travelers to wash his feet. dragon-drawn chariot and ^geus now proclaimed Theseus as . his father's new wife. She persuaded /Egeus to invite him to a feast and offer him a cup of sorceress Me de'a poisoned wine. seus his As they sword feasted. appearance exciting the laughter of some buildhe took a cart that contained huge building blocks and tossed it lightly over the roof of a house. an enormous turtle swallowed them. When himself in the river of tered the city. drew his to cut a piece of meat. The next giant he met he overthrew in a wrestling who off. the (see p. he had reached Athens and had purified all this slaughter. 279).
250 Theseus kills Greek and Roman Mythology tbe Minotaur. Theseus set sail for home. . King Minos' daughter the hero at ball first A ri ad'ne fell in love with of string to sight and secretly gave him a enable him to thread the mazes ' of the Labyrinth. and a sword to kill the Minotaur. thirsting for glory and advenJ went to Marathon. where he captured the bull that Heracles had brought from Crete. King Minos' son had been killed by the Athenians. 233). when the time came around for seven young men and seven maidens to be sent as a tribute from Athens to King Minos of Crete (see p. sail. Theseus and the thirteen other vicship bearing tims started out. Having succeeded by this means in his difficult adventure. and Minos had betnre. and then. out against him and his army. come about in this way. first The Athenians might have stood sieged the city. hoping to win their return. year seven boys and seven girls should be sent When the to Crete to be given to the Minotaur. he offered himself as one of their numThe tribute had ber. but the gods sent a famine and pestilence upon them. it was equipped with a black but Theseus promised his father that should he succeed in his adventure and kill the Minotaur. and the oracle declared that the divine displeasure would not be appeased until they should accept whatever He demanded that every terms Minos offered. But the hero. on the return voyage he would change the black On their arrival in Crete sail for a white one.
that his son was dead. and immeHe gave diately set about instituting reforms. thinking. because he was warned the wife of Dionysus. Theseus was recognized as king.Stories of Attica 251 carrying with him on his ship his benefactress On the island of Naxos. he Ariadne. others. some say deserted his bride while she slept. leave her there to become Perhaps it was in requital of his faithlessness to Fig. having watched long from a high rock for the returning ship. 79. Ariadne that the gods made him forget his promise to raise a white sail if he returned successful. Theseus killing the Minotaur. however. when he saw the black sail. because he loved some one else and wanted to to get rid of her. threw himself from the rock and was killed. For ^geus. e8eus as j"L Ath < 8- .
To recover her the Amazons besieged Athens. After he started out again on a career of advena free self-governing Fig. 80. Like Heracles he went to the Amazon?' An country and from there carried off their queei: ti'o pe.252 up in Greek and Roman Mythology state all the divisions of Attica. though Antiope herself had fallen . and after uniting he made of this commonwealth. ture. Theseus and the rescued Athenians. his absolute royal one it power.
Theseus of him. battle of Pi rith'o us. attempted guests. but the queen was killed. king of the Lapiths. this Pirithous celebrated his wedding and invited The Centaurs. becoming In the battle that followed to steal the bride. drove off some of his cattle. having heard The the the fame of Theseus and. Theseus to attend.Stories of Attica 253 so in love with Theseus that she fought by his The Amazons were side against her own people. another. Theseus fought bravely by the side of his friend Pirithous and the Centaurs were driven off. Soon after ing and swore an oath of friendship. 81. each was so filled with admiration of thought of fight- the other's noble bearing and courage that by mutual consent they gave up all Fig. driven off. Centaur and Lapith. wishing to make trial and Lapiths centaurs. who were also inflamed with wine. but when they had come near to one pursued him. .
On his people return to Athens he found that had turned against him and accepted his He therefore retired to the another as king. for he induced Theseus to him carry off Pluto's wife. carried out this Scyros and given honorable The Athenian leader Cimon the hero's remains interred command. there- of Zeus and Leda. appeared amongst them in full armor and led them on to victory. Pirithoiis' attempt more daring. Persephone. her two brothers. Theseus' adventures might have ended here had not the mighty Heracles. and there met his death by beThe Theseum. The Athenians said that at the battle of Mara- thon a glorious hero. middle of the city and erected them in the . help Not even Theseus was strong enough for this adventure. island of Scyros. ing thrown from a cliff.254 The theft of Helen and prsephone. f riends bition each to were now fired by the amhave a divine wife. found and freed him. and the two heroes were caught and was yet chained in the lower world. in his quest for Cerberus. rescued her and took her back to Sparta. and before he returned to claim her. and having brought home amid great rejoicings. and after the war the oracle commanded that Theseus' bones should be brought from burial at Athens. Theseus. The two fore. carried off Helen. whom they recognized as Theseus. Castor and Polydeuces. the beautiful daughter As she was not yet of mar- riageable age. he left her under the care of his mother.
Stories of Attica a temple in his honor. 255 served temple in The wonderfully preAthens called the Theseum is. probably misnamed. and the true shrine of Theseus has disappeared. . unfortunately.
one of the sons. Apollo him that the search was quite vain and com- manded him to follow a cow who would lead him to the spot where he was destined to found a new city. therefore. her father A ge'nor had ordered his sons to go out in search of their sister and not to return in the WHEN unless they found her. himself a son of Ares. of Ares. until at last. to fetch water for the The spring was guarded by a ter- rible dragon. for many told he came to Delphi to consult the oracle. Wishing to dess Athena. zled at the long delay. Cadmus went 256 himself to . Hardly had Cadmus left the oracle when the cow appeared and going before him into Bceotia lay down near the place where later stood the citadel of Thebes. out from Phoenicia and wandered years through the islands and coasts of the sea. despairing of success. close at hand. The founding of Tbebes. by Zeus Europa had been carried off to Crete form of a beautiful white bull. set Cadmus. make a Cadmus sacrifice to his patron god- sent his men to the spring purification. and no one Puzof Cadmus' men returned to tell the tale.CHAPTER XV STORIES OF THEBES Cadmus' search for Europa.
and over them threat- ened the huge triple jaws and three-forked Fig. 82.Stories of Thebes 257 the spring. There lay the bloody and mangled bodies of his companions. Cadmus and dragon. its the Dragon. from which sprang up a crop of armed men of more than . tongues of the Athena Cadmus sowed in the ground bidding of killed the beast with a stone and the At huge teeth.
258 human Greek and Roman Mythology size and strength. quite discouraged. Harmonia shared The . came down from Olympus and the Muses. led by Apollo. daughter of Ares and Aphrodite. whereupon they turned their weapons upon one another and fought on fiercely until only five were left. to whom it had been given by Zeus. the by his hand. since a serpent was so cherished and so faithfully avenged by the gods. he declared in bitterness that. withstanding the splendor of his marriage. sang the marriage hymn. Still at Athena's bidding. All the gods to honor the wedding. he left his city and settled in Illyria. Cadmus threw a stone into their midst. These five made peace with one another and with Cadmus and became under him the founders of the five great Theban families. he wished that he might be one. and others that he received it from Europa. To slain atone for the blood of Ares' sacred dragon Cadmus had to serve the god for eight years. At the end of this time Athena made him king of the new city he had founded. At last. some say it was made for him by Hephaestus. Cadmus gave to his bride a marvelous necklace. Harmonia's necklace always brought disaster to its owner indeed. but even there the resentment of Ares pursued him. Hoping to avoid his destiny. an ill fate pursued Cadmus. and Zeus gave him as wife Harmo'nia. not. granted and Immediately his wish was his fate. Whatever was its origin.
The curse laid upon the family of Cadmus passed over his one son and that son's son. as was told in the account of that god (see p. 165). evil fate of Cadmus pursued his descend- The des- cendants of was Sem'e le. her for taking care of Semele's child Bacchus. was burned to Anashes by the brightness of her lover Zeus. The ants. who. however. The duty was entrusted to a shepherd.) in her madness tore to pieces her own son Pentheus. In order to avoid this danger he commanded that the baby born to his wife should at once be put to death. but fell with redoubled force in the next generation <Edipus. but after piercing his feet and .Stories of Thebes 259 tombs of the hero and his wife were set up in the land of their exile and were guarded by their Cadmus is geniuses in the forms of serpents. credited with having introduced the alphabet into Greece from Phoenicia. It was in defiance of the warning of the gods that Lams married his cousin Jo cas'ta. could not bear to take the infant's life. the mother of Bacchus. who. A third became a votary of Bacchus and 85. for an oracle had pronounced that he was destined to meet his death at the hands of a son born of that union. 168. upon the family of La'i us. being tender-hearted. The fourth inflicted and (See p. ( See p.) suffered terrible woes through Hera's anger at his four daughters One of cadmus. other was the mother of that unfortunate Actaeon who was torn to pieces by his own dogs.
Fulfilment of his mother. Cithseron. who was pasturing his flocks on the mountains. but told that he was destined to kill his father and marry Horrified by this prophhe turned his back on Corinth. gladly adopted him and brought him up as their own The prophecy.out of the way. grew up in the belief that he was the real son and rightful heir of the king of Corinth. As he somewhat arrogantly ordered him. The old man was King Laius. a shepherd of the<king of Corinth. intended to leave him It happened that to his fate on Mt. boy. but a certain The insulting hint that he regard to his birth troubled once received with him enough to send him He was ecy. and CEdipus. resolved never to return while his supposed parents lived. On his arrival . received the poor maimed infant and took him to his king and As they were childless. he met a chariot comThe charioteer ing from the direction of Thebes. sword In a passion of rage CEdipus drew his and killed both master and charioteer. hurried along the steep mountain path leading away from Delphi. son. called CEdipus or Swollen-Foot. to Apollo's oracle at Delphi to ask the truth. the royal couple queen. besides. deeply troubled over the tragic prophecy.260 Greek and Roman Mythology binding them with thongs. received no direct answer to his question. violently resented the order and provoked a blow from the master of the chariot. accustomed to being treated as a prince and being.
" What is it that. and a great pile of whitening bones lay about her. 83. had seated herself above the road and asked all passers-by the following riddle: Fig. is fourtwo-footed. the wings of a bird.Stories of at Thebes 261 Thebes QEdipus found the city in great tribu- lation over the destruction caused woman. and being with the body of a lion. Those who could not answer the riddle the Sphinx killed. CEdipus and the Sphinx. But CEdipus was not daunted by the fate of those others who had gone before. the Sphinx. by a mysterious the head of a This creature. and three-footed?" though it . and footed. and when the question was put to him he answered : has one voice.
CEdipus had never suspected that the old man he had killed on the road from Delphi was the Theban king. But at last the day of retribution came. two sons and two daughters." herself over the cliff. Jocasta bore to him four children. -i i ambassadors sent to Delphi to learn the cause the answer was returned that not until the city was purged of the murderer of died. proclaimed that whothe men who had done it. had come to their relief in every way. A . and when old supports himself with a In chagrin at being answered the Sphinx cane.262 " It is Greek and Roman Mythology man. and for a long time he lived in peace and prosperity. in his manhood he walks upright. deed should declare and that the guilty ones should be put to death or driven into banblind seer who was brought to tesishment. To the King Lams would the curse be removed. The Thebans honored the stranger who The prophecy made clear. soever this knew anything of (Edipus. and even made him their king and gave him as wife the widowed queen. loved and honored by all his grateful people. therefore. and r a blight and pestilence fell upon the city. and thus the city was threw freed. since in his babyhood he goes on hands and knees. and the truth was the less likely to come to him since the sole attendant of the murdered king who had escaped had told a big story of a robber band that had attacked them on the road. so that the fields yielded no grain. and men and beasts ' .
he de- clared. With the pin of her brooch her wretched husband put out both his eyes. was he convinced of his viction own guilt. and when. he sought the sacred grove of the daughter tig'o ne. under the noble king Theseus. An was mysterious. Only when he learned the time and place of the murder and the age and appearance of the murdered man. the testimony of the Theban and Corinthrough thian shepherds who had been concerned in his exposure and his adoption as an infant he learned that he was the son of Lai'us whom he had killed came a yet more and the husband of his own mother. Furies at Co lo'nus. "Thou upon art the this land ! man who " pollution has brought CEdipus turned upon him in furious disbelief. and she had gone into the private chambers of the palace and hung herself. Jocasta's brother Creon took the throne. and with this con- For bitter discovery. goaded by a charge of treachery. but with prophetic knowledge of what his fate was to be. close to Athens.Stories of tify before the Thebes 263 king at first refused to speak. led by his heroic and faithful osdipus went into exile. His end At Athens. that he might never look upon the holy sun again. and blind CEdipus. The terrible truth had already broken upon Jocasta. and there amid thunder and strange portents he disappeared from the sight of men. he found refuge and protection. .
Am phi a ra'us went unwillingly. his wife E ri'phy le should be the judge. An army was gathered. The Antigone's sacrifice. who had deserted their father in his old age and blindness and by him had been cursed for this faithlessness. But when he married it had been agreed that if any difference should arise between him and his Adrastus. and seven great chiefs were found to undertake the The seer expedition against seven-gated Thebes. quarreled about the throne. His two sons. Eteocles Of the seven alive. An- . went to Argos and persuaded the king A dras'tus. to champion his cause. as that of a traitor. therefore. meeting in sindied at one another's hands. E te'oand Pol y ni'ces. heroes Adrastus alone returned brothers. Polynices. and Eteocles drove his brother from the kingdom. bribed her with Harmonia's necklace. therefore. Polynices. fulfilling the curse with which CEdipus had cursed them when they had deserted him in his day of trouble and exile.264 The seven against Greek and Roman Mythology curse that rested on the family The lifted cles was not Thebes. and that from it he should never return alive. for he knew that the war was contrary to the will of the gods. and she treacherbrother-in-law ously sent her husband to the war. by CEdipus' death. and Polynices. should be left for the dogs and vultures to devour. but it was decreed that the body of Polynices. Eteocles was buried by Creon and the Thebans * with all due honor. thus gle combat.
next generation the city of Thebes The ^_ finally fell before the seven sons of the original Seven. lover.Stories of Thebes 265 tigone. With Antigone's act of self-sacrifice and dreadful death the long tragedy of the family of Cadmus came to an end. . gave body the last rites of burial. killed himself upon her tomb. Creon's son. at the risk of her life and in spite of the dissuasion of her the weaker sister Is me'ne. loyal to her brother as she had been to her father. This war is known as the war of In the the Ep ig'o ni or descendants. and the son of Polynices was established on the throne. and her In punishment she was buried alive. without which the shade must wander hopeless on the banks of Acheron.
This sec- ond wife. he wife and married again. 84. and the sacrifice was about to be accomplished when Hermes sent a ram with golden fleece which carried off the 30 Apollonius Rhodius. a king in northern two children. persuaded Athamas to sacrifice Phrixus to Zeus. Phrixus and the Ram. ing to get rid of the children. had left his first Ath'a mas. ALTHOUGH Greece. Argonautica 266 . like the traditional step-mother wish- Fig. Phrixtis and Helle.CHAPTER XVI THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION The Golden Fleece.
now known As they passed over as the Dardanelles. As the old woman happened to be Hera in disguise. Fearing for the life of his son Jason. once when he found a feeble old woman waiting for some one torrent. Jason had taken part in the Calydonian boar-hunt when he was hardly learned from Chiron more than a boy. ship of a sleepless dragon. after this. her hold and this fell off That how strait in ancient times came to be called the Hellespont. set to help her across a raging mountain he cheerfully took her on his back and her over. He had kindness and courtesy as well as courage. king of I ol'- Jason. on the Euxine (now the Black) Sea. Phrixus kept on to Col- chis. who. rifice in when honor a great sacof Poseidon. who hung it on a tree in the sacred grove of Ares. Jason determined to Pelias was holding . Helle into the water. cus. he was rewarded for his Soon courtesy by securing a powerful friend. unlike most of the centaurs. seized the power and possessions that belonged to his half-brother yEson. the king. The nephew of Athamus. ^Eson sent him as a baby to be brought up by the centaur Chiron. a violent and unjust man. where he offered up the ram to Zeus and gave the golden fleece to IE e'tes. was wonderfully wise and just and was famous both as a physician and as the tutor of many of the heroes. under the guardianPe'li as.The Argonautic Expedition two children on the strait lost is 267 his back.
Now Pelias had been warned by an oracle to beware of a Centaur. he determined to put him out of his way. man who should come to him wearing one sandal.268 attend. in the Greek and Roman Mythology mud and went In crossing a river he lost one sandal on without it. when. Jason appeared before him. therefore. So when the young man quite simply and frankly .
. the son or grandson of a god. but at that time a prisoner in Hades.The Argonautic Expedition demanded of him the kingdom 269 that of right be- longed to him. . Argo. Orpheus was there. Theseus would surely have been he was among the company. In its prow Athena had set a beam from the sacred oak of Dodona. musician. Chief of all was Heracles. All the city came . and was named from its still A builder. Thus he thought he should make sure of his death. came from Thrace on their dark. Argus. possessed of a voice and prophetic power like that of the trunk from which it was cut. Greece to gather comrades for this dangerous enWhen assembled they were fifty in all terprise. each one a famous hero. the twin- were to be great heroes of the Trojan War. the north wind. their black hair streaming behind them as they flew. cloudy wings scaled with gold. the two sons of Orithyia and Boreas. Meleager of Calydon. whose sons. Achilles and Ajax. brothers of Helen. Pelias answered cautiously that he would willingly give it up but it seemed only right that Jason should first prove his courage by bringing back from Colchis the famous golden fleece. Peleus and Telamon. who had just returned from his adventure with the Ery- manthian boar. the divine Castor and Polydeuces. Without delay Jason sent messengers all over The Argonauts. with the help of Athena herself. ship was built by a son of Phrixus.
offering them a share of their Once they were pursued by a tribe of six-handed giants. . sometimes the strangers among whom they ship. they lost the of their company. the fishes frolicked about the ship. 37 From the wooded shore across the bay Chiron waved farewell to his pupil and held out for his father to see Pe- leus' son. Heracles had gone into the woods to cut a new oar in place of one that he had broken. on the shore of an island to rest. The young men dipped long oars to the music of Orpheus' lyre. and the appeal of the dangerous and unknown is the same. who had recently murdered husbands and fathers. tried to keep the Argonauts with them. the baby Achilles. The same courage and resourcefulness are required. and two strongest others with him. landed were hostile and they were compelled to fight for their lives. and his young friend and follower Hylas had gone to get water from the spring. Heracles.270 Greek and Roman Mythology out to see the heroes depart. who had been given their into his charge. and the gods looked down from high heaven The in admiration at the glorious band of heroes. Finally when they had landed island. At the island of Lemnos their the women. 3T all This assembling of hardy and adventurous men from quarters for a hazardous enterprise suggests the enlistment for a polar expedition. Many were the adventures on this famous voySometimes the sea threatened to sink the age.
put out their long white partner arms and drew the boy down into their fountain. In return for this good deed the fore Phineus told the voyagers of all that lay bethem and especially of the perilous Sym- pleg'a des. set These dreadful of storm and death snatched away or de- whatever food was before their victim. at last When Jason and his companions had S passed through the Bosphorus they came to the ?he c Eocks home of Phineus. they flew. set sail So when they had and saw the waves breaking and again . because by his prophecy he told men all the future. or Clashing Rocks. This Phineus. calling to Heracles as he ran. Supposing that robbers had stolen him the two scoured the country and were gone so long that the other heroes sailed away leaving them behind. 150) to deities filed torment him. the Argonauts brought relief to the blind old man. for when the Harpies starving. One of the company heard his last despair- ing cry and started to the rescue.The Argonautic Expedition The nymphs. but Iris came between them and forbade it. thinking stranger would be a in 271 young that this charming delightful playfellow and the dance. swooped down upon the banquet set for the hero The coming of two sons of Boreas drew their swords with a Far over the sea great shout and pursued them. Zeus had cursed with blindness and had sent the Hargift of pies (see p. and they would in the end have caught and killed the Harpies.
no longer affording that dangerous passage. About his head his hair fell in golden curls. saw him.. . but the heroes raised over the ship a covering of their shields. and under his feet the island The heroes were amazed when they quaked. but Athena on and held back the rocks with her that From time those rocks have re- mained rooted Further adventures.272 the Greek and Roman Mythology foam tossed high from these terrible rocks. in his hand was his silver bow. just before dawn. the coast of the Amazons and the island of Ares. . Yet even so the ship it pushed hand. Then they sailed on by many strange lands and peoples. on a small island. and so passed by in safety. they landed . Further on they saw the Caucasus Mountains . they dashed in as the rocks rebounded and forced the ship through. might not have escaped. made sacrifice to him and sang the psean and called that island sacred to Apollo of the Dawn. and there Apollo met them as he passed on his way to the Hyperboreans. . set close together. rowing with all their might. and when she had passed safely through with only the loss of her tail feathers. fast together. before the rocks could close a second time. and feared to look into the shining So when he passed on they eyes of the god. The next day. they loosed a dove as the seer had bidden them. Here there flew out a flock of birds who of rained down upon the rowers' heads a rain feathers. sharp as arrows.
adorned with the work of Hephrestus. or Cupid. heaven held a council together to plan how they might aid Jason in his adventure. and a great vulture. (See pp. and by the promise of a golden ball she won him to do what she asked.) Now Athena as the ship in neared Colchis. 223. to daughter Ale de'a to cause her to take Jason's part. There King yEetes entertained the travelers royally. the king that he had come to get the golden fleece. one with oil. and one with water. as proof of his skill and courage. let him . Meanwhile the heroes had landed and had gone up to the great palace of yEetes. They called Aphrodite and persuaded her to send her yEe'tes' son Eros. and from the cliff above sounded cries of agony as Pro- metheus suffered once more his age-long torture for Heracles had not yet come to free that much-enduring friend of man. the boy Ganymede. one with milk. But first. with wide-spread wings. Zeus's four fountains always flowing. . 10. for Eros' Then Jason told sharp arrow had pierced deep. flew over the ship. The goddess of love found her little son playing dice with young cup-bearer. one with wine. saying that he would freely give it when he had tried Jason and found that he was worthy to receive it. her heart filled with love and pain as she looked at Jason. while Medea sat by. Hera and Jason and Medea. and yEe'tes answered craftily.The Argonautic Expedition rising before 273 them.
Jason came to meet her the gods made him of nobler bearing and more glorious than before. and gathered and treated in magic ways. She told him. Then. Though he looked upon it as an task.was done. Jason could do no better than impossible accept the king's conditions. let him plant the dragon's teeth that Athena had given. but he returned to his ship and his comrades in utter discouragement. how to propitiate Hecate formed the at midnight. As for Medea. Jason promised her in return his undying love and gratitude and that he would . he had smeared his by mysterious sacrifice perand how afterwards. Love got the upper hand. too. and she took powerful herbs and ointments and went to meet Jason at As the shrine of Hecate beyond the walls. she was in an agony of doubt as to whether to drive this love from her heart and allow Jason to perish or to be disloyal to her father and help with her magic arts. and he talked to the maiden Medea with winning words. when body and his weapons with magic ointment. So she gave him a charm made of a flower that grew from the blood drawn from Prometheus by the vulture. if all this was accomplished between dawn and sunset. he could safely sow the dragon's teeth.274 Greek and Roman Mythology harness to a plow the bronze-hoofed bulls that breathed out fire from their nostrils and plow with them the field of Ares. When this . he should receive the golden fleece.
So he plowed the field of Ares and then he sowed the dragon's teeth. and she gave him a sleeping slept.The Argonautic Expedition carry her wife. assembled. leader. and others Jason himself slew with his sword until none were left. and he plotted to burn the ship Argo while the heroes . and herself lulled him by a magic song. and he grappled with them and forced them to their knees and put the yoke upon their necks. as they had from the dragon's teeth sowed by Cadmus at the founding of Thebes. for she him where to find the tree on which the fleece was hung. and immediately they fell upon one another. 275 his home with him and make her was time for the trial. all When it the people Jason harnesses e bniis. and that they had taken not only the famous fleece but his undutiful daughter as well. and the Argonauts looked on with dread as the fire-breathing bulls rushed upon their But the ointment made him invulnerable to fire. he started out in hot pursuit. . So in that night they secured the fleece and secretly boardWhen the king knew of ing the ship set sail. Then Medea did their flight . But ^e'tes had no intention of fulfilling his agreement and giving up the golden fleece. told potion to pour over the dragon's eyes. Jason secures the golden fleec - Once more Medea saved Jason. Jason remembered Medea's warning and threw into their midst a great stone. Thereupon a crop of armed men sprang up.
in gathering them up cast from for burial. they landed on their native shores and were on their return Fig. howUlysses) ever. whom she had taken with her. At last.276 Greek and Roman Mythology a horrible thing. so that re r co ichis. isfaction by Pelias. Years and Nine nights under the took to satisfy his wish. but they seem to have met with many of the monsters and strange beings that Odysseus (or afterwards encountered. 86. Medea preparing the magic brew. and cut up his limbs and waters. and his son longed to Medea undersee him young and strong again. About the course followed by the Argonauts voyage there is much uncertainty. might be delayed in his pursuit. received with joy by ^Eson and with feigned sat- anxiety had greatly enfeebled ^Eson. them behind her on the her father. the earth in her dragonfull moon she scoured . for she slaughtered her own brother.
And his white hairs grew dark again. and where the liquid spat- on the earth fresh grass sprang up. She stirred it all together with a stick of dry olive-wood. the liver of a stag. The old man she purified three times. with water. and his feeble form grew When Pelias' daughters strong and straight. nounced passionate and mysterious wife and anhis intention of marrying a princess of . of the wings and flesh of bats. and the beak and head of a long-lived crow. and having made a powerless brew of herbs and water. they begged to have the same tered treatment given to their father as well. Then she concocted a brew of magic herbs.The Argonautic Expedition drawn chariot in search of rare herbs 277 and other Then she things of use in the sorcerer's art. and as the blood flowed out. Because of this murder of Pelias. Medea pretended to consent. Hecate and the goddess of youth. Then the sorceress opened the veins of her patient. and sacrificing to the gods of the under world built altars to she called upon them by name. saw this marvel. of frost got by moonlight. Jason and The tragedy of Medea. of the vitals of a wolf. gave the signal for the credulous daughters to slaughter their father. Medea were uge his in obliged to leave lolcus and take refIn time Jason grew tired of Corinth. she poured into his mouth and veins her magic liquid. the stick grew green and put forth leaves. the color came into his sunken cheeks. and with sulphur. with fire.
ment with as a show of submission. father in trying to help her perished with her. 87. That the perfidious Jason might not have sons to care for his old age and to perpetuate his . covering up her a bitter resent- Corinth. This was not enough to satisfy Medea's hatred.278 Greek and Roman Mythology Medea. and her Fig. sent the bride wedding gift a beautiful robe. but when she put it on it consumed her flesh like fire. Medea preparing to kill her Children.
(See p. When ^geus' sudden recognition of his son thwarted this plot.) Jason passed thereafter a forlorn and useless life. killed 279 she conquered her maternal feelings and her two children.The Argonautic Expedition race. Theseus' father ^geus and almost to brought about the hero's death by persuading his offer him a poisoned cup. 249. the outward symbol of his only great achievement. . His only comfort was to go and sit in Jason's end. the sorceress flew away and disappeared from story. the shade of the old ship Argo. One day its rotting timbers fell on him and crushed him. Then in her dragon- drawn married father In Athens she chariot she flew away.
of tragedy turned to some or to the history of one or other of the families All the great writers phase of the struggle engaged Alexander the Great set Achilles before him as his ideal hero and turned aside in it. _ THE story of the Trojan ' '. from tomb. determined to devote the rest of his life 280 . and not fifty years ago a Gerings of settled in Italy man business man. Homer's Iliad but the greatest of many epics written about the siege of Troy.CHAPTER XVII THE TROJAN WAR The legend of Troy. and the Odyssey is concerned with the adventures of one of the heroes of that is war on his return voyage. having acquired a sufficient fortune. and the deeds of the heroes engaged in it inspired the imagination of the Greeks in all ages. For more than two thousand years scholars have discussed the historical basis for the legend. and the poet Vergil took as the subject of his national epic the wander- he Trojan ^Eneas from burning Troy until and became the ancestor of the Roman race. War was the sub- ject of a great cycle of legends. his march of conquest to visit his reputed The fame and influence of the story de- scended upon Rome.
For what crime he lost his exalted position and in what way he was punished is a matter of disSome say that he stole nectar and ampute. and many of the warriors engaged before Troy were the sons of the ilies earlier heroes. and the voyage of the Argonauts. were descended from Tan'ta who was the son of Zeus. the Trojan the thought and poetry of our world. as part of our heritage from the past. tion. and the actors in that drama are pictured on the walls of our libraries and public buildings along with Columbus and the Pilgrim Fathers. the Seven The against Thebes.The Trojan War neath a site 281 and a large part of his money to excavating belittle Turkish village on the legendary of Troy. some. ruined Whether history. that he . Agamem'non and Men the Greek hosts. the leaders of lus. brosia and shared it with his friends some. partook of their nectar and ambrosia. siege took place in the generation succeeding that of the Calydonian Boar Hunt. he divulged the secrets of Zeus. cities. This Tantalus was remarkably favored by the gods. and shared their secrets. There. for he was invited to their banquets. left its legend. War has mark deep on or myth. buried beneath three other were unearthed the remains of a walled town of the time of which Homer tells. that . Three fam- are of especial importance in this connece la'us.
There are also differing accounts of the punishment he received: that he stood in Hades below a rock that seemed ever about to fall and crush him. the former. Though had been served up in this cannibal fashPelops by Hermes and came out of the ordeal whole and strong except for one shoulder. in the presence of drink he was always unable to reach it food and and ap- pease his torturing hunger and thirst. in the absentmindedness induced by her grief for her daughion. stituted a shoulder of ivory. while appearing avenged himself by serving up his son to him at dinner. and some say that it was his violence to the charioteer Myrtilus that brought on his family the curse that pur- sued their it through three generations. from his kingdom. 190). Because of murder of their brother. The sons of Atreus were Agamemnon and Menelaiis. he had been restored to life ter. Pelops drove his sons A'treus and Thyes'tes.282 Greek and Roman Mythology became so presumptuous that to test the gods he served up to them at a feast the flesh of his own son Pelops. or that. For it she subIt was Pelops who won Hippodamia by contending with her father in a chariot race (see p. Atreus caught Thyestes his an attempt to deprive him of to forgive him. power and. 147). and they came to Mycenae where they succeeded to the power after Eurystheus' in death. as was told in an earlier chapter (see p. king of Mycenae and . had unfortunately his wife eaten. which Demeter.
The family . who was lf noted for his uprightness and justice. who in his loneliness called upon his father to give him a people. Hera. Zeus answered his prayer by turning a tribe of ants into men. yEacus after death was made a judge in the lower world. whom Zeus in the . riage The issue of this mar- was Achilles. she held him had been unwet by the waters and . migrated to a part of Thessaly called Phthia. in anger at the island for affording hospitality to a rival. He was the son of Zeus by yE gi'na. . form of an eagle had stolen from her father. Thetis had tried to make him invulnerable by dipping him as a baby in the The heel by which potent waters of the Styx. and had carried off to the island near Athens that still bears her name. ^Eacus' son Peleus. a river-god. . 189.) midons.ffiacus. Because of a prophecy that her son would die in war. the latter. Because of his righteousness. .The Trojan War 283 overlord of a large part of the Peloponnesus and surrounding islands. of . As a young man he took part in the (See Calydonian boar hunt and the quest of the golden fleece. Achilles was descended from yE'a cus. . with the Myrp. called from the Greek word Myr'mi dons. ruler of Sparta and husband of Zeus's beautiful daughter Helen. . whom Zeus himself had been deterred from marrying only by the prophecy that she would bear a son greater than his father. His wife was the Nereid Thetis. the in- sent upon it a plague that destroyed all habitants except ^Eacus.
was who transferred the seat of his power to Ilium or Troy. daughters and fifty sons. the rule fell to Laomedon's only living son. Zeus took to be his cup-bearer. it alive. of whom the noblest was Hector. in the northwestern corner of Asia Minor. a new city built between new Mt.284 Greek and Roman Mythology hence was the one vulnerable spot. He grew caught The royai family of Troy. The family earliest was mortal ancestor of the Trojan royal . the faithless Laomedon. After the destruction of the city and the death of Laomedon at Heracles' hands (see p. a son of Zeus. who founded a city on the slopes of Mt. 225). and Achilles was given to the centaur Chiron up strong and beautiful. Ida and the Hellespont. One whom other was the beautiful boy Ganymede. a just and god-fearing man. Another of his sons was the ill-omened Paris. the curse of Troy. Priam. and so swift of foot that he needed no dog nor spear in hunting but overtook his game and to be educated. by whom the city was splendidly Priam became the father of fifty restored." . Dar da nus. and anIlus. their Ida. The walls of the city were built by Poseidon and Apollo for Ilus's son. 38 After this Thetis left her husband and child and returned to her father Nereus in the depths of the sea. From his grandson Tros the Trojans took of Tros's sons name. 38 Anatomists still call the tendon attached to the heel "Achilles' tendon.
The golden apple that the goddess had thrown in among the gods assembled as guests at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis (see p. ended of Troy and the death .The Trojan War 285 The causes of the war. but it was the cause of the war between Greeks and Trojans. after lasting for ten years. in) had not only brought discord between Zeus's wife and his Fig. The persuasion of Helen. Athena and Aphrodite. in the utter destruction which. 88. first daughters.
thing for while Then Paris did a treacherous Menelaus was away from home. much blame in the matter to Helen as we might expect. whom Zeus had made judge in the matter. Now the most beautiful woman in the world was Helen. 235). they would all unite in aveng- . because such divine beauty as hers seemed to them to cover a multitude of sins. and putting her and much treasure on board his ship. ise. When the Greek chiefs had been contending for the hand of Helen. had the princes been given by her step-father to all Menelaiis. Aphrodite who. it would seem. accordance with the gracious custom that required hospitable treatment of strangers as a in law of Zeus. received him kindly and entertained him at his palace. the daughter of Leda and Zeus (see p. of hundreds of heroes. who. Fulfilling her promled Paris to the court of Menelaiis. they had agreed that if violence should be done to her or to the man whom she married.286 Greek and Roman Mythology For the Trojan prince and shepherd Paris. after being sought in marriage by of Greece. . he sailed away to Troy. but partly. he induced Helen to desert her husband. But Paris' action was unreservedly condemned. Greek poets seem not to have attached so The caii to arms. partly. no doubt. because she had yielded to Aphrodite's persuasions. king of Sparta. had given the prize of beauty to Aphrodite because she had promised him as wife the most beautiful woman in the world.
called upon them to take arms against the Trojans. Agamemnon. madness. whose reputation for courage and endurance was equaled by his reputation for cunning devices and persua- But Odysseus was living happily with his wife Pe nel'o pe and his little son Te lem'a chus and wished to avoid going to the war. son of Tydeus. and laid the baby Telemachus before the it when Odysseus turned aside. ambassadors plow. son of Telemon. 287 And so when Menelaiis and his brother Agamemnon. amounted to more than twelve hundred. was chosen leader of the armies. except only Achilles. they hastened to fulfil their pledge. these were all rowed with great oars and carried fifty to one hundred and twenty men All the heroes were anxious to secure the each. led his forces from Salamis and " earned for himself the title of great bulwark of the Achaeans. king of Mycenae. he feigned sive talk. they . So when an embassy came to summon him. sowed his field with salt. Di o me'des.The Trojan War ing it. as Homer gives it. and harnessing an ass and a bull to his But the clever plow. came from Argos. whose long reminiscences of the glories of his youth and the mighty deeds of the heroes of his generation met with unfailing from the courteous princes. prince of Ithaca. His most trusted counselor was the aged Nestor. he was the respect bravest of Greeks. as the most powerful prince of Greece. help of Odysseus." The catalogue of ships. Ajax.
gerly tried off his disguise and easily persuaded Achilles to He was the strongest and bravest join the army. the sea-goddess Thetis. Then Odysseus threw a sword. bringing among the feminine silks and trinkets While the princess and her maids eaon the ear-rings and veils. in beauty.288 Greek and Roman Mythology proved his sanity and induced him to join the Once forced to throw in his forexpedition. to serve among the attendants of the princess of Scyros. les With Achil- came his friend Pat ro'clus.. having prophetic knowledge that her son was not destined to return alive from the war. Odysseus was more than ready to help in securing the company of young Achilles. refused them favorable winds and would not allow them to sail. of all the princes. in punishment for the killing of a sacred hind. and so close was that their friend- the affection between the ship takes The its two place beside that between David and Jonathan. had sent him. on the eastern coast of Central Greece. For Achilles' mother. sacrifice The armies of the Greek leaders assembled at of Iphigenia at Auiis. tune with theirs. disguised as a girl. strength and noble nature the ideal hero of the Greeks. Odysseus came to the court in the disguise of a peddler. . Achilles with sparkling eyes seized upon the sword and brandished it above his head. Auhs. i summoning his young daughter Iph ge ni'a on the plea of giving her in marriage to Achilles. until Agamemnon. There Artemis.
the knife 289 was about to descend At the moment when upon her.The Trojan War offered her as a sacrifice. Sacrifice of Iphigenia. putting in her place a hind. as Euripides tells There is it. and nothing more noble than her final willing it submission when she knew that without her people could never be victorious. Ar- temis snatched her away to serve as priestess in her temple at Taurus. Then favorable winds brought the fleet to Troy. fig. . nothing more moving in all tragedy than Iphigenia's appeal to her father.
290 The early years of the war. protecting and inspiring their sons and favorites among the heroes and in some cases even entering the battle in person. Athena (Minerva). coming to ransom his daughter. His devoted wife offering his life for the cause. Pro tes i la'us. On the Tro- jan side were Aphrodite (Venus). leaped from the ship. now of that. Chry se'is. on the Greek side. was . whose father was a priest of Apollo. but keeping his eyes fixed on the fate that required the ultimate over- For nine years the siege continued with varying fortune. La od a mi'a prayed to the gods that he might her for one day. yielding to the persuasion now of this god. struggle. The prayer was and when he died the second time she granted. threw herself upon his funeral pyre and so acreturn to now companied him to Hades. Zeus (Jupiter) held victory in the balance. since they had throw of Troy. advantage lay with the Greeks. The siege of the city The gods took an active part in the began. and Poseidon (Neptune). Greek and Roman Mythology second act of self-sacrifice A marked the land- ing of the Greeks. Hera (June). The priest. yet. for Greeks or Trojans. and Apollo. driven the Trojans within their walled city and had ravaged the neighboring country. knowing the prophecy that the man who first touched Trojan soil should meet his death. Ares (Mars). on the whole. After one of these raids Agamemnon had received as his share of the booty a maiden named The quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles.
and called upon the god And Phoebus Apollo heard him and came the peaks of shoulders his down from wroth at heart. First did he assail the mules and fleet dogs. and he descended like to night. (Iliad. So began the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles. but afterward. And the ar- rows clanged upon his shoulders in his wrath. truth. as the god moved. in wrath at the loss of Briseis and in indignation at the insolent invasion of his rights. 42 ff. When the prophet made known the Agamemnon was furiously angry against Achilles for protecting him. bearing on his Olympus bow and covered quiver. which. as Homer says. . he smote and the pyres of the dead burnt continually in multitude. I.The Trojan War for vengeance. aiming at the men his swift dart. 291 driven off with insults. inspired by Hera. called the Greeks to an assembly and urged the prophet Calchas to tell what had aroused the anger of the god. retired to his tent and refused to lead his Myrmidons to battle. " hurled down into Hades many strong souls of heroes. and there was heard a great clanging of the silver bow. and let an arrow fly. More- over he complained of his ungrateful treatment . and him and against declared that if Chryseis was taken from him he would take in return Achilles' slave maiden Bri se'is. Then he sate him aloof from the ships.) On lo's the tenth day of the plague brought by Apolarrows Achilles." For Achilles.
calling her listen in the depths of plaints. disobeying Zeus's command. but at the last he was disabled by a wound. of this quarrel between the heroes and sults its re- which Homer tells in the Iliad. For a time Agamemnon took the lead and seemed invincible. put him" as a self at their head and cast down the wall Fire was scatters the sand beside the sea. and many others of the chiefs. promising that the Greeks should before the Trojans until Agamemnon should It is the story bitterly repent of his insolence. the Trojans the ships. and all the plain was strewn with dead and wounded.292 to his Greek and Roman Mythology mother Thetis. and he laid his stern in its all command upon ther rallied interference in the gods to refrain from furThen Hector the battle. and Menelaiis was wounded. Zeus not forget his promise. So Hector led his people against the wall that the Greeks had built about their camp. and Apollo. go to and clasped head flee his knees. now that." and caressed her son and promised to And she Father Zeus and demand Agamemnon's So when Thetis came to Olympus punishment. and drove the Greeks back and the battle swayed now this way. ocean to " up from her home to his angry com- rose from the gray sea like a mist. Though he delayed <\id accomplishment. . Zeus bowed his ambrosial in assent." boy thrown on one of the Greek ships and the whole fleet might have been destroyed and the Greeks the Trojans to their ships. and Odysseus.
from return home death of Patroclus. forgot and pursued even to the city and would have scaled the wall at the head of his victorious Myrmidons if Apollo had not appeared on the ramparts and forced them back. So. unarmed by the god. until Apollo. to lead For he hoped that the Trojans seeing Achilles' well known arms would think that the hero himself had come Half against them and so would lose confidence. grieving for The . clad in his armor. the sufferings of his friends. the Myrmidons to the rescue. Patroclus held his ground beneath the walls of the city.The Trojan War cut off 293 if great Ajax had not held the Trojans at bay. Patroclus was overthrown and killed by Hector. his chief's orders Although the Trojans rallied. he would permit him. Then Patroclus. went to Achilles and begged that if he was unwilling himself to forget his resentment and return to the conflict. clus in Achilles' On armor the appearance of Patrothe tide of the battle was turned. coming behind him. unwillingly Achilles gave his consent. struck him and cast off his helmet and broke his spear. in the fury of the fight. stubbornly At this desperate crisis Patroclus. at the same time earnestly warning Patroclus that when he had driven the Trojans back and saved the ships he should refrain from pursuing to the walls of the city. and the Greeks drove back the Trojans. prophesying as the breath left his body the approaching death of his victorious foe at .
even unarmed as he tried to was. so abode they immovably with beautiful chariot. Hera sent Iris. fell. When he heard the " news a black cloud of grief enwrapped Achilles. standing over the body of their fallen fierce comrade. sitting beside him. hot tears flowed from their eyes to the ground as they mourned (Iliad. Homer says of those immortal horses : a As a pillar abideth firm that standeth on the tomb of man or woman dead. 434." and on his fragrant doublet black ashes Thetis heard her son's moans and rose from the sea and came and. Achilles returns to ihe war. with grim determination beat back the But Achilles' attacks of the Trojans. And XVII. sorrow for their charioteer. and with both hands he took dark dust and poured it over his head and defiled his comely face. armor fell into Hector's hands.294 Greek and Roman Mythology Menelaiis the hands of the vengeful Achilles. . waiting anxiously for 1-111- battle came to Achilles i r the return of his friend. She promised to go to Hephaestus and persuade him to make for the hero arms greater and more glorious than those he had lost. so that he might return to the batAfter Thetis tle and avenge his dead friend. had left him.) A messenger from the as he sat beside the ships. the abasing their heads unto in the earth. though the horses and chariot were saved and driven out of the field. comfort him. bidding him show himself to the Trojans. and Ajax.
crown of a golden cloud. and the gods mingling in the the middle of fight. fields other circles of the shield he pictured plowed and harvested. fulfilling her promise. and flocks of sheep besides these.The Trojan War Around his strong shoulders his 295 Athena cast her tasseled head the bright goddess set a regis. All around the edge of the shield he wrought the river of Ocean. one at peace. Meanwhile Thetis. and stars. but first he went to the assembly of the Greeks and became reconciled with Agamemnon. worthy of a god. and On herds of cattle attacked by lions. found Hephaestus working at his forge and made her shield request. a dancing-place where boys . the sun. was wrought it. the earth and heavens. So when Achilles shouted aloud. And in the lame god made for Achilles marvelous armor. in moon. When Achilles had received the glorious armor from his mother. and kindled therefrom a blazand around ing flame. the Trojans were dismayed and drew back. The other heroes were . were and there were two cities. and girls were dancing to music. and the Greeks drew the body of Patroclus from under the heap of slain that had fallen on him and carried him to Achilles' tent. the other under siege. The wonderful designs. where people were being married and dancing and holding their law-courts. and a vineyard. he was filled with a furious eagerness to join battle with the Trojans and avenge himself on Hector.
296 Greek and Roman Mythology glad of his return. This might have been the signal for the destruction of Troy. The deeds Achilles. last the river Xanthus. All that met him fell beAt fore him. rose in his might against the hero and pursued him across the plain. if Hera had not roused her son Hephaestus to meet and check the oncoming flood of the river with a flood of fire. who acknowledged the wrong he had done and So reparation in his power. seemingly invincible. helping whatever heroes The most terrible battle of the war now began. Then. choked with the bodies of the sons of Troy. and now. From his on the walls Priam saw the danger of his people and ordered the gates to be thrown open to afford them a refuge. Achilles returned to the pursuit of his enemies and drove them before him to the post city. but most of all. with his vengeance unaccomplished. among them two sons of Priam. and Achilles raged across the plain like a god. Achilles might well have died there. threatening to overwhelm him in his great waves. when Achilles would have . when one of the fugitives to stand and Apollo inspired meet him. Zeus's promise to Thetis had been fulfilled. Freed from the pursuit of the river-god. calling the gods to assembly. for Achilles was so close on their heels that he had almost entered the gates behind them. Agamemnon. he bade them offered all the go and enter the they would. of conflict.
But when the fourth time they had reached the springs. and fell to the house of Hades. armor and brandishing his great a panic seized Hector and he turned and spear. and Phoebus Apollo left him. 208.) Then Athena. only for a moment. and held them by the midst and poised. So when Achilles returned from his vain pursuit The death of Hector. and he was deceived and obeyed. the enemy of Troy. But when. then the Father hung his golden balances. the 297 god snatched him away.The Trojan War killed the rash mortal. But brave Hector still stood outside the gates of the city and would not hear the prayers of his father and mother that he should follow his comrades into safety. fled. one of Achilles. and set therein two lots of dreary death. came in the form of his brother and urged Hector to stand and wait for Achilles' onset. he turned to receive a second spear from his brother and saw . for when he saw him near. (Iliad. Three times around the walls of Troy Hecin his blazing tor fled and Achilles pursued. Hector boldly stood to meet him. drew Achilles in pursuit away from the open gates. having thrown his spear against Achilles and missed him. and assuming his form. XXII. for he dreaded the reproach of his people that he had led them on to battle and had brought many to death and had feared himself to stand against Achilles. Then Hector's fated day sank down. then of the god. one of horse-taming Hector.
he knew that the gods had dehim and drew his sword for the last desThe end had been determined by chance. with a feast and a great sacrifice and a triumphal procession about his funeral pyre. for he bound enemy to his chariot by the feet and him in the dust about the walls of Troy. games chariot-racing. and his people could scarcely prevent the old man from rushing his fallen out to his own death. ine redemption of Hector's body. a golden urn and buried them and raised over them a mound. home for her lord's hearing rushed in terror to the walls. and noble Hector fell before Achilles. from the battle and he held a splendid funeral for Patroclus. and his soul flew forth of his limbs and was gone to the house of Hades. Then followed the funeral So Achilles returned victorious with all his purpose accomplished. leaving her Then Achilles took a savage vigor and youth." vengeance for his friend's death. spear- . wailing her fate. as she waited return. as " Patroclus had fallen before him. dragged This last insult to the noblest of their sons Priam and Hecuba saw from the walls. and seeing that terrible sight joined her despairing grief with moans and laments theirs. wrestling. perate fate. And the Hector's noble wife at An drom'a che. And when the body had been he gathered the ashes and put them in burned.298 ceived Greek and Roman Mythology no one near. boxing.
The Trojan War 299 throwing. He had the body washed and anointed and laid over it a rich robe and set it on the wagon. and other contests. and Achilles offered splendid prizes. Then he had a feast spread and he and his enemy's father ate and drank together. When Priam to bid Achilles' tent. \varned by Thetis that this who had been was Zeus's will. far away in Greece. and Priam gave a great ramson. re- Fig. and all the heroes entered the this was over. So Priam brought Hector's body back to the city. and all Troy came . spoke kindly to him and granted his request. And Achilles. ceived the old his own courteously. whom he man should never see again. Zeus sent Iris to him go to Achilles' tent to ransom the body of his son. 90. through the sleeping guards and brought him to lists. Priam ransoming Hector's Body. As Priam went in his charHermes met him and guided him safely iot. and thinking of father.
son of the goddess of dawn. TheiMtincidents of the war. she fell in a fierce encounter with Achilles. guided by Apollo. he too came from Ethiopia with a great following. sinking cause of Troy. as the Fates decreed. the hero repented of his success.!? Achilles. and he met his death. I Trojans might perform their funeral rites. But the hero's great career was run. but of the war. his heel." His spirit the name of the joined Fields. the other great heroes in the Elysian After this a contest arose between Ajax and Odysseus as to which of them should receive the . Near the shore of the Dardanelles at this day there is a hill that bears " Tomb of Achilles. queen of the Amazons. When the Greeks had rescued his body. and fell before Achilles. of 6 11 * . though it was said that when her helmet fell off and dis- closed her noble beauty. raised over it a great mound. by the arrow of Paris. The first of these was Pen thes i le'a. and Achilles granted a truce of eleven days that the T he . who came with her band of warrior women and brought momentary success to the After many great deeds. from other sources we learn of the later events Twice the hopes of the Trojans were raised by the coming of powerful allies. to pierce him in the only vulnerable spot. they burned it. With the funeral of Hector the Iliad ends.300 Greek and Roman Mythology out to meet him with weeping and laments. and putting his ashes in a golden urn with the ashes of his friend Patroclus. Memnon.
must be taken. medes. Being cured of his wound he met Paris and killed him with one of his poisoned Even then two things were still necesbefore the gods would give Troy over to sary her enemies. A was planned with the help hollow structure in the form huge . and when the decision was given Ajax.The Trojan War arms of in 301 Achilles. Odysseus' favor. crazed with anger. and his followers. made an onslaught on an innocent imagining them to be Odysseus When he came to his senses. flock of sheep. entering the city by night. and the Pal la'di um. or sacred image of Athena. who. into the The wooden horse. Achilles' son Ne op tol'e mus had to be summoned from Greece to take his father's place. and on the possession of which the safety of the This extraordicity depended. abstracted the image from the shrine and carried device by which besiegers it to the Greek camp. who was the possessor of Heracles' bow and pois- Then 227) should be brought from the island of Lesbos. he killed himself. which had fallen from heaven long ago. difficulty Philoctetes was induced to forego his resentment and come to the Greek camp. cruelly left him With some suffering from a horrible wound. feat was performed by Odysseus and Dionary in battle arrows. hands of of Athena. where his comrades had most oned arrows (see p. the gods made it known to the Greeks that they could never take Troy until Phil oc te'tes. The final its Troy * fell .
ready to return at a given . Laocoon and his Sons. and in the belly armed men. the bravest of the Greeks.302 Greek and Roman Mythology of a horse was set up near the walls. pretending to be returning to Greece. they concealed themselves behind the island of Tenedos. Fig. Then the hosts sailed off. while. were placed in ambush. 91. in reality.
the gates fire. and the Greeks fell upon the sleeping city. ble serpents upon the priest for his impious doubts.The Trojan War signal. taken unawares in the blackness of night. caught Laocoon and his two sons and strangled them with their coils. who. suspecting the wiles of the Greeks. meant and what should be done with it was decided by the testimony of a clever Greek named it Sinon. The brave resistance offered by the Trojans. re- The Trojans poured out of joicing in the unexpected freedom and wondering The question as to what at the wooden horse. The prophetic . the Greek spy VJ Sinon unloosed the bolts and let out the heroes retribution The destinetion of Troy. would certainly protect them from harm. was useless. oc'o on. explained the horse as a final tribute to Athena. having gained the confidence of the Trojans. the fleet returned were opened from within. and glided with appeared their slimy lengths over the water. a piece of the wall was thrown down and the horse brought in amid great rejoicing. if taken within the city by the people of Troy. urged that it be thrown into the sea and raised his weapon to La Immediately two horrion the sea. which. That night while all Troy slept. Then all believed that the gods had sent strike the wood a blow. and resolved to draw the horse within the walls As it was too high to go under the gates. At the signal given by from Tenedos. 303 the city. concealed in the horse. the priest of Apollo.
Andromache. . the same fate overtook Hector's wife Fig. after she had seen her infant son dashed from the wall that his father had so long defended. 92. and cut all down before the altar the city sank in ashes. Cas san'dra. Priam slain on the Altar. in his own Priam was palace.304 Greek and Roman Mythology daughter of Priam. was dragged from the sanctuary of Athena and carried into slavery.
moreover. tells his story in the Odyssey. and returned " home to his faithful wife Penelope after an absence of twenty years. Homer and . Odysseus made a fairly prosperous voyage as far as the southern point of Greece and was within a few days' sail of Ithaca. The much enduring met their death Odysseus (more familiarly known by his Latin name. his 305 . he had . followers sailed for home. . But in those days even the comparatively short voyage from Asia the fall AFTER of with danger. one returned only " to be foully murdered. many of both nations by drowning or by the violence of savage men and monsters. ships. cut off altoCertain of gether or delayed their return home.CHAPTER XVIII THE WANDERINGS OF ODYSSEUS of Troy the chiefs with their The return the heroes. set sail When . the Trojans after long wanderings founded cities new on strange shores. some of the heroes in the course of that long war had incurred the enmity of one or anto Greece filled Minor was other of the gods. from Troy with r i his men Odysseus cornea to the Lotus-eaters. therefore. who. Ulysses) added ten years of wanderings and of marvelous adventures to the ten years of the war.
great eye. who had tasted the lotus could be therefore. Odysseus shore of the Cyclopes. forced to continue on their voyage only by being in the ships until the effect of the food had the voyagers was very different. from him who ate of it all remembrance of ing the past and all ambition for the future and making him desire only to live on in a dreamy and Those of Odysseus' men. and the men were kindly entertained and given to eat of the This plant had the strange power of taklotus. the Cyclops Pol y phe'mus returned. a rough and rocky island inhabited by a tribe of savage giants. he and his Leaving the rest of his men disembarked and trustfully wandered about the island until they chanced upon a great cave where a plentiful supply of milk and cheese tempted their appetites. effortless present. called Cy clo'pes. bound The cyciops. worn off.306 Greek and Roman Mythology home. in the middle of his companions on another beached his own ship on the island. driving and coming into the cave closed its entrance with a huge rock. After nine days the ships came to land in the Lotus-eaters' country. . Though his natural craftiness and caution led Odysseus his sheep before him. and as none of the terrible inhabitants was about at the time. The next land reached by whose peculiarity set it was that each had but one forehead. when a great wind arose and drove him from his course. While they were eating.
But Zeus and his law of hospitality were not recognized by this savage giant. Polyphemus sprang up. drove it deep into the Cyclops' one eye. with apparent confidence he requested of his monstrous host hospitality and the gifts that Greek courtesy usually gave a guest as his due. when Polyphemus returned with his flocks. sheep's milk Then Odysseus and his men seized a great long pole which. during the day. they had sharpened to a point and hardened in the fire. In high good humor Polyphemus washed down his dinner of two Greeks with this drink a pleasant change to one accustomed only to and stretched himself out to sleep. the wily hero talked pleasantly with him and offered him some particularly fine and strong wine that he happened to have with him. left Odysseus and those of his company who remained uneaten to sit and wait for their fiendish host to return for his next meal. the fall of evening. he drove his sheep out of the cave. after breakfasting on two more of the men. and rolling the stone against the opening. and answer was to seize two of his guests and devour them raw. At clops. when asked.The Wanderings to conceal his true of Odysseus 307 the name and give. name Noman. But was not the man to sit and expect his Odysseus fate at the hands of a stupid and barbarous CyHe planned escape and vengeance. sleep. bellowing with . and using all their strength. Then he lay down to his only In the morning.
the stone from the door and sat down by stretching out his hands to feel if any man passed out. the ship would surely have been sunk. they asked him who was troubling him. they were a second time endangered by his rashness. Then he himself clung firmly to the under side of the great thick-fleeced ram. hurrying to the mouth of for help. for when they were once afloat could not resist calling back to his enemy. men tened them three together. hurled immense rocks after Odysseus the departing ship. if no man was killing him. it must be by the will of the gods. that he should be behind his flock. rolled away Cyclops. Odysseus took the sheep and fasit. he ordered one of his to stretch himself flat on the middle one of each group. since. If his aim had not been poor because of his blindness. nor at all by force. So the men escaped to their Although they had been saved by their leader's wits. groaning with pain. whom no one can resist.308 pain. telling him to pray to his father Poseidon. " he could only answer Noman is slaying me by guile. Greek and Roman Mythology and madly called on his brother Cyclopes But when." So they went : away. and so all but he passed out safely. Polyphemus . the cave. It was now morning and time so the still to let the sheep out. failed to detect the hero. though he felt over the ram's back and wondered boat. Failing in this. and the blind Cyclops. and the Cyclops. dashing tauntingly down to the shore.
refusing to give him any more help. and supposing that the bag contained In an precious treasure they eagerly opened it. with Odysseus on sent In great grief over board. Only the twelfth. But yEolus. lay down conspired to rob him. got off in safety. the remnant of . and Odysseus. Some time came the winds. thinkinstant all in the boat to rest. the king of Here Odysseus was kindly received and entertained. So after nine days' fair sailing they had actually come so near to Ithaca that they could see men moving on first the rocks.The Wanderings called aloud of Odysseus 309 upon Poseidon for vengeance. and on his departure was presented by ^olus with a huge bag in which were imprisoned all the winds except the favorable west wind. who fell upon the strangers and destroyed eleven of the ships with their companies. for the time feeling free from his anxieties. Next they came to the land of a people named Laes try go'ni ans. after this adventure the heroes to the floating island of /'o lus. the contrary winds rushed out together and drove the ships far off their course straight back to the island of yolus. him angrily away. and from that time on the sea-god turned against the heroes and relentlessly kept them wandering over the waters. Then the men ing that one so unfortunate as Odysseus must for his sins be under the disfavor of the gods. the loss of their companions.
At their prolonged absence he became uneasy and returned in haste to the ship to tell what he feared. their proachfully. The scouting party. The peacefulness of the place and the reassuring sound of a woman singing emboldened the adventurers to enter. to the sties. Having learned discretion from his previous misfortunes. as they went through the woods. all Odys- seus did not risk half. As he went. leader. raised . his men at once. The thirsty men did not see the magic drops their hostess mingled with their wine. Circe received spells. Circe turned from her weavto greet the strangers and hastened to set being fore them food and drink. When. to explore the country while the other half remained by the shore. they took heart and continued on their way until they came to a palace. were alarmed by meeting great num- bers of lions and wolves. but sent under a trustworthy leader. Hermes met him and warned him of the danger that lay before him and gave him an herb to protect him against Circe's therefore. lowers. had not gone into the house with them. and after him as she had his folgiving him the potion. At a touch of her wand the lordly Greeks dropped down and trotted. grunting reBut one man. but as these beasts instead of attacking them came and fawned upon them appealingly.310 Greek and Roman Mythology Odysseus' company sailed on until they came to the island of the sorceress Circe. So Odysseus set out alone to rescue his men.
the river of wailing. of a terrible ordeal that lay before him before He. for the sun never rises upon it. a land always shrouded in mist and darkness. when they all began to for the return home. must re'si as. Recognizing in this successful resistance to her her magic the hand of a god. as Circe had directed Then him. From there he proceeded along the shore of the Ocean until he came to the grove of Persephone. And the shades of the dead . the sorceress yielded to all his demands and sending for the rest of the company from the ship en- new tertained at the them all royally for a whole year. flow into gloomy Ach'e ron. fiery Phleg'e thon. the hero grappled with her and threatened to kill her unless she at once restored his men to their proper forms. where was the entrance to Hades.The Wanderings her of Odysseus 311 wand and ordered him to the sties. he sacrificed black sheep and let their blood run into the trench. go to the realm of the dead to consult the seer Ti With dread at his heart i- Odysseus followed out i The visit to the sorceress directions and sailed on to the very edge of the world. and charmed by guest's cleverness and strength. he dug a trench. where the stream of Ocean rolls i Hades. By the place rivers of the lower world. where the and Co cy'tus. Circe told Odysseus long he could reach Ithaca. But end of that time. a living man. by the land of the Cim mer'i ans. and poured a libation to the dead.
Heracles' mother Ariadne. caused by and of his old father. eager to drink of the blood. and that yet for many years he would keep Odysseus away from Ithaca. anger at the mutilation of his son Polyphemus. and she had drunk of the blood she knew her finished. own death.312 Greek and Roman Mythology crowded around with ghostly cries. if seer had when Odysseus' mother came. and warriors that had fallen in battle. too. and many others. and his little son Telem'a chus. there came about him many of the women famous in story Leda. and prophesied to the hero his safe home-coming and how he should find violent men wasting his substance and should kill them all and so live to an old age in peace and plenty among a happy peoBut then he told him. Alcmena. the mother of Helen and of Castor and Polydeuces. But Odysseus kept them off with his sword that the shade of the seer Tiresias might first drink and tell him what he wished to know. and he warned him especially that destruction would overtake them all they should injure the cattle of the sun when When the they came to the island of Trinacria. But when he tried to embrace her. whom Theseus had deserted on Naxos. and of his wife Pe nel'o pe. Then like a shadow or a dream she faded away. of Poseidon's ple. So Tiresias came and drank. . He saw and talked with the heroes who had fought with him at son and told him of her grief at his long absence. boys and maidens. .
for he himself was now a god Olympus. preeminent here as in the world above. even the shade of great Heracles the shade only. Sisyphus. and Achilles. Odysseus and the Sirens. There he saw Minos sitting as judge. There they were en- tertained for a day while Circe told Odysseus of the dangers that next confronted him and how he . once more at Circe's island. who him of his treach- erous murder. and others. There were the heroes of ancient times.The Wanderings Troy of Odysseus told 313 Agamemnon. sirens. the company stopped Fig. The Returning safely from that land that so few living men have ever visited. and those who had sinned against the gods in suffering eternal punishment. 93. Tantalus.
told him. who three times a day sucked in the water and cast it out again. rising one on either side of the course between Italy and Sicily. to leap from the deck the and come to them. in the one crouched Scylla. . as Circe had told them. her twelve feet dangling down from the cave. as Circe had their songs. So he tried to break away and go to them. squirming like fishes caught on a hook. the ship passed through. Soon two cliffs appeared. but they pulled steadily on and so escaped that danger. well away from Charybdis. for they had knowledge of past and future and could give him happiness. cried out in anguish to Odysseus. On the every direction in search of ships. Scylla stretched her long necks forward and seized a As man in each of her terrible jaws. and he made signs to the others to loose him. As they were drawn up. was a lower cliff with a fig tree at and below it Char yb'dis. who bewitch men by But Odysseus stuffed his ears with wax and had himself companions' bound hand and foot to the mast. From there they sailed on until they saw on the shore at a distance the meadow of the Sirens. and all they that were left of that company shuddered as they passed on.314 Greek and Roman Mythology might win safely through them. and her six heads turning in other side the top. And when him Sirens called to the ship came near. keeping.
The next morning unfavorable month. remembering the warnings But they were exhausted with hard rowing and the strain of the terrible meeting with Scylla and insisted upon landing his men to row on. for the empty hides crept mysteriously. and he ordered of the Sun. Odysseus escaped only by graspwhen the water cast him There he hung suspended until Charybdis heaved up the wreckage of the ship again.The Wanderings Towards nightfall e f of Odysseus 315 The cattle Odysseus saw before them J the island of the Sun. Then . killed some of the sacred cattle that grazed on that island and made a feast. of the loss of his threatening that if his wrong were not avenged he would leave the world in darkness and go to shine among the dead. and they put out to sea. Trinacria. Then while Odysseus was sleeping. of Tiresias and Circe. When Odysseus awoke and saw it. he knew that destruction had come upon them. and only Odysseus clung to the boat. for the night. But the sun-god had complained to Zeus cattle. At' favorable winds blew. So Zeus sent a storm to overtake the ship. and all the men were swept into the sea and drowned. and continued for a whole all the food and wine was exhausted. until winds were blowing. shattered and then swallowed down up. He was carried straight back to Charybdis. as she threw out the water. his companions preferring any other form of death to starvation. who. last and the flesh on the spits bellowed. ing hold of the fig tree the ship.
) at the complaint of Athena that her was kept too long away from home. but sat day after day by the sea eating out his heart with homethe charming sickness. even though he dwell far off in a rich house. was washed ashore on the island of Ca 1 yp'so. calypso's island. in a strange land. far from them own country and that begat him. For. she gave him the tools go. sent a furious sailed prosperously storm against him. There he best lived for eight years in the company of nymph. and when it was ready. (Odyssey. the daughter of Atlas. now quite without companions. and material to construct a raft and a sail. At last. After this hairbreadth escape the hero. IX. as he himself said: there is Surely naught sweeter than a man's his parents. Yet he did not forget his home and his wife. Zeus sent Hermes to command Calypso to let him Yielding unwillingly. and still brooding over the injury to Polyphemus. eating and drinking of the and living the most peaceful and luxurious of lives on that beautiful island.316 Greek and Roman Mythology he dropped upon one of its timbers and rowed with his hands until he was out of reach of the whirlpool. 34 ff. favorite along on his raft before Poseidon caught sight of him. The sail was carried away . she stocked it with food and wine and gave him clothes and rich gifts and For eighteen days he had so sent him away.
Among fell the into the The shore on which Odysseus had landed was that of the Phae a'ci ans. came at last in for two days and two But the sight of land. and rising in the foam beside him held out to him her filmy Borne scarf and spoke wisely and reassuringly. At one point a back current offered possible landing. bushes on the bank he lay down and sleep of exhaustion. waves were breaking high on the rocky coast.The Wanderings and the raft waves. But a sea-goddess saw and pitied him. there he managed to come to land and drew his bruised and soaked limbs up on the shore. and swimming continuously nights. not yet even decided upon any one of her suitors . a good and prosperous people at peace with all favor with the gods. deserted itself of Odysseus 317 was swept and torn by the To wide waters the solitary adventurer out on those it seemed that his own gods had that death upon him. Odysseus struck bravely out when the raft finally parted. up by the new courage she inspired and by the close him and was mysterious power of the scarf. and the exhausted swimmer was beaten against the rocks and again sucked back by the undertow until it seemed he must go under. the world and in great On the night of the hero's perilous landing the king's daughter Nau sic'a a had been bidden by Athena to the shore to for her in a dream to go down wash her coming wedding clothes in preparation As her father had day.
they sat down on the Fig. 94. and when the hero approached and begged for help looking man and hospitable treatment. she modestly asked for the ox-cart that she and her maidens might carry down her sea. the queen packed a basket with bread and honey and wine. tucking up their skirts. Odysseus appearing before Nausicaa. When the clothes had all been washed and spread out in the sun to bleach. The brothers' clothes to cart wash them in the was brought around. It happened that the spot they had chosen for their noisy fun was close to the place where Odysseus had all this time been lying of asleep. grass to eat the food the queen had provided. and the young girls drove off for the shore. they joined in a game ball. What was the astonishment and terror a strange and wild- of the girls when suddenly in their midst! Only appeared Nausicaa stood her ground with dignity. she showed him every . and then. but not wishing to displease the goddess.318 Greek and Roman Mythology as her husband. the princess felt shy about suggesting wedding preparations.
dancing and athletic sports. he wondered at the great wharves thronged with ships and at the beautiful city with its fine streets and JJ houses and its busy and prosperous people.The Wanderings of Odysseus 319 She gave him oil to anoint his lame kindness. the proper time them all his had come. Odysseus' appearance). did they so forget the courtesy of hosts as ever to show curiosity about who the stranger was or on what business he was bent. she best not to take him with her in the fine As Odysseus. and he ended with earnest entreaties that his hosts would provide him with a ship and oarsmen to . nor not undeserved. however. and bade him follow her to the city. and battered limbs and some of her brothers' newly washed clothes to put on. Being a prudent girl and fearing gossip if she appeared in company with a hand- some stranger had restored it ( for the oil and the fresh clothes thought ox-cart. When. and his more than ever a longing came over him for own well-ordered land. where her father would entertain him. so long an exile from civilized human life. The considerate and gentle treatment he received when he presented himself as a stranger before the king and queen proved that the reputation of the Phaeacians was For they provided him with warm baths and entertained him royally with a feast and music. approached the king's palace. Odysseus told story since the day that Troy fell.
Island of Ulysses. for as the ship reit turned. Penelope's The twenty long years of the hero's absence had brought anxiety and distress to his people and to his wife and son. While slept. For after the news of the fall of Troy had reached Ithaca. put against hope them all off from day to day with a device that hospitality. Poseidon rooted to stone. he was set ashore on the island of Ithaca. more valuable than all the booty he had gathered he Troy and then lost in his wanderings. and a great number of suitors from Ithaca and elsewhere began to demand Penelope in marTelemachus w as still too young successto defend his mother from their insolent fully insistence or his house from their greedy violence. and the other Greek princes who were still alive had returned to Greece. and year after year saw them living riotously and extravagantly on their absent host's r riage. faithful Penelope." witnesses to the truth of the story. for he was still overcome with weariness. The . still hoping for her noble husband's return. Then those generous Phseacians received a poor at reward for their turned lies it hospitality.320 Greek and Roman Mythology So they gave set him across the sea to Ithaca. it came to be commonly believed that he was dead. to a fast in the sea and still little rocky island that " The there off the island of Corfu and by its name. and still no word came of Odysseus. him all that he asked and added splendid gifts.
she unraveled all that she had done the day For three years the suitors had been dehad learned of the trick and were now pressing more insistently than ever before. that Odysseus was held captive on an island by the nymph Calypso. however. the prophetic old man of the sea. the goddess Athena.The Wanderings of Odysseus 321 was worthy of her crafty husband. Menelaiis. With court the goddess as guide he of Nestor came and afterwards first to the to that of Both heroes received the son of their comrade with cordial kindness. but the aged Nestor could tell him nothing of his father. yet he their his father - was unable either to turn out of his house or to protect his before persistency. ceived. Promising that she would make a decision so soon as she had completed a shroud she was weaving for her old father against his death. she spent her days in the chambers among her maidens. had heard from Proteus. however. weaving her great web. and at night when no one was by to see. extending to his son the favor she had always shown to Odysseus. roused him to brave the anger of the suitors and go in search of his father. more and more he chafed at the wasting of his inheritance and the arrogant behavior of the suitors. Meanwhile. as Telemachus grew to be a young man. Shortly them mother from Odysseus' landing at^^fftaca. Menelaiis. old Strengthened in his resistance to the suitors by . but at last they for a decision.
95. Odysseus makes himself known to Telemachus. To secure him further she changed his appearance to that It was in this disof an old and ragged beggar. Telemachus started on his return voyage. the life. man had disand venturing across planned to catch him on his return and take his Odysseus in swineherd's hut. the swineherd received the old stranger with kindness. that he presented himself at the hut of the guise faithful old swineherd Eu mae'us and asked for Fig. When island. But the suitors. shelter. speaking always of his lord Odys- . Odysseus awoke on the shore of his own Athena appeared to him and warned him of the dangers that still awaited him. entertained him with an account of the sorry state of affairs on the island. food and True to the hospitable custom of his absent master. and while he set before him the best he could provide. made anxious by the increased cour- age and determination the young played in equipping a ship the seas.322 Greek and Roman Mythology the knowledge that his father was still living.
though she had him brought to her to ask him for any news of her husband he might have learned on his travels. as an honored hero returning from the war did Odysseus reenter his home after his twenty Odysseus suitors. The second friend who knew him was not his wife.The Wanderings of Odysseus 323 As they landed and happily estalked. did he reveal himself to Telemachus. ly- ing neglected in the dirt outside the door. Telemachus. appeared at the hut. gave him only that attention she gave It was his old nurse Eu ryto every stranger. cle'a who. who. but as an old and wretched beggar asking for charity. and not until Eumaeus was called away. But he restrained his feelings. leaving father and son alone toSo gether. His father's heart rejoiced to see the and confident. and before the swineherd returned Odysseus had resumed his disguise. and with one last ging of his tail. as at Penelope's command she washed the old stranger's feet. Not years of absence. Yet even so two faithful friends knew him. saw a scar he had had . just seus with loyal and affectionate regret. knew his master as he passed by means of that strange dog's sense that humans cannot understand. pricking of the ears and feeble wagdied happy. caped from the ambush set for him. His old hunting-dog. and to receive at his hands the fine courtesy and respect for age that distinguished noble Greeks. the two planned together the destruction of the boy grown so strong troublesome suitors.
In the great hall where the arrogant suitors sat all day and feasted none knew that despised old man. that Odysseus was saved from violence. the old beggar rose allowed to make the and demanded that he be Amid the jeers and trial. Then his disguise fell from him. now that. and all failed even to bend the bow. arrow whizzing from the string pierced through the nine axes. since he and with one accord joined in scornful and ungenerous treatment of him. bow from bent. the disgusted protests of the princes he received the The tough wood Penelope's hand. supported by the less shameless of the princes. boastfully and hopeherself as wife. Penelope's mind to At last Athena put the it into with the great bow appear among her lord had left behind him. but that to him who was man enough to bend that bow and shoot through the holes in nine ax-heads set up before them she would give All tried.324 Greek and Roman Mythology was a boy and at once knew him. For how could all Zeus's law of hospitality bind men who so dis- honored an absent hero's house and so persecuted the unprotected? It was only by the spirited interference of Telemachus. upon those wretched suitors. By order of Telemachus all the weapons had been removed from the hall the night before. and standing revealed the hero turned his arrows now this way. and the faithful swineherd and an . suitors and announce that she would keep them waiting no longer. Then fully.
at the exits.
equally faithful keeper of cattle had been posted So the men were slaughtered like
and Odysseus and his son would have met with no resistance had not a disloyal slave smuggled in some swords and shields for those who had not yet fallen. Even against these odds
Odysseus avenging himself upon the Suitors.
aided by their protectress were victorious, and not one of the suitAthena,
father and son,
ors or their followers lived to leave that hall of
At the end of this bloody act Odysseus made himself known to his wife; the house was
its murderous stains, and a period of and prosperity followed the hardships of peace
those twenty years.
THE TRAGEDY OF AGAMEMNON
went to lead the armies of
Greece against Troy in vengeance for the wrong his brother Menelaiis, he left both the
care of his children and the rule of his wide kingdom to his wife Cly tern nes'tra. Though no pro-
wanderings doubled for him, as for Ulysses, the time of his absence, the avenging fates had prepared for his home-coming a tragtracted
edy so black as to be the
the course of crime and horror that
JE gis'thus, Agamemnon's history of his race. who was at once the guilty lover and the cousin,
power of Ciytemnestra, was a son of that Thyestes who, ignorant of what he did, had been forced by his brother Atreus to eat of
the flesh of his
own son, served to him at a feast. The hatred engendered by this had been handed down from father
to son, and -^gisthus only waited an opportunity to avenge his father's wrong on Atreus' son Aga-
secret passion for ^gisthus,
Ciytemnestra, too, in addition to her had other causes to
wish her husband's death.
when, under pretense of giving his daughter in marriage to Achilles, Agamemnon had summoned his wife to bring Iphigenia to Aulis and had then
offered the maiden in sacrifice to Artemis, Cly-
temnestra had nourished fierce resentment to-
planned his ruin.
watchman, who from his high tower had watched and waited for nine long years for
The murder of Agamem>n.
the beacon light that was to tell the fall of Troy and the return of his conquering lord, announced that the fiery signal had been passed along and
for his honorable reception, and the citiHe came zens joyfully gathered to greet him.
accompanied by those of his followers who still survived, and bringing with him as a slave,
Priam's daughter Cassandra, to whom Apollo, because he loved her, had given the gift of prophecy, and because she rejected his love, had added
the curse that her prophecies should never be As the king in his chariot drew up be-
fore the palace,
Clytemnestra her lord and with feigned honor and affection led him within. The palace doors closed behind
doors opened, and came out to greet
Then Cassandra, who had refused
the chariot, raised her prophetic voice in lamentation
unintelligible warning of coming tragAll the bloody and unnatural crimes of
Greek and Roman Mythology
that house rose before her, and she
about to be crowned by another yet more terrible. But none could understand her warnings;
only when a great cry of agony rose from within those closed doors and was repeated again and
Insolent again did her meaning become plain. in her vengeance, Clytemnestra threw wide the
doors and displayed the body of her husband bleeding from the wounds she had inflicted as he
stepped into the bath prepared to make him ready for the feast of his home-coming. Cas-
sandra too met death at the hand of jealous Clytemnestra.
law of retribution
required of a son to avenge his father, and Clytemnestra and /Egisthus, knowing this, would
have slaughtered Agamemnon's
his older sister
of the country for safe-keeping. That Electra herself might never be in a position of influence
to arouse a revolt against the murderers, she was compelled to become the wife of a humble servant.
She could only pray that the distant brother would return when the time came to fulfil his duty of vengeance. And when the time came and Orestes with his faithful friend Py'la des arrived, the brother and sister, meeting before their father's tomb were in full agreement about the duty before them. Egisthus and Clytemnestra were celebrating a religious feast when Ores-
The Tragedy of Agamemnon
came upon them, and taking them unawares, them both. This revolting murder of a mother by her son,
accordance with the law of vengedefilement and the anger of the ance, brought The Eu men'i des, or Furies, the divine gods.
avengers of crime, pursued Orestes and drove him mad. He wandered from land to land, al-
ways accompanied by
until at the god's
his faithful friend Pylades,
command he came
to the land
of the Taurians to obtain the sacred image of the goddess Artemis. It was to this land that Iphigenia had been carried by Artemis when she was saved by her at Aulis, and here she had lived
ever since, serving as Artemis' priestess in her In accordance with the barbarous custemple.
in sacrifice to the
to Iphigenia that the duty of
When Orestes and Pylades sacrifice fell. were about to be offered up, however, they became known to the priestess, and through her extraordinary power and influence they were enabled to secure the sacred image of Artemis and
escape unharmed, carrying Iphigenia with them. Even then, before Orestes could be purified of his crime, he was compelled to appear before the
A re o'pa gus,
the great Athenian court of jushis accusers,
Here the Eumenides acted as
and though he pleaded in defense Apollo's ap-
Greek and Roman Mythology
proval of his
on the question.
for acquittal, the
court was equally divided Athena cast the deciding vote
him, and the
curse on the family of Pelops had run
THE LEGENDARY ORIGIN OF ROME
tracing the history of their raq back beyond the times when events were recordec in history into the realm of tradition and myth,
goddess Venus, as the founder of their race. Throughout the Trojan War yEneas had proved himself one of the bravest and ablest leaders of
the Trojan forces, standing next, perhaps, to Hector in general esteem. On the occasion of
combat with Diomedes mother had intervened to save his
joined in the contest over Patroclus' body and had even stood to meet the invincible Achilles. So
from Homer, but
narrates the full story of ^Eneas' poet Vergil deeds and wanderings, making him the central fig-
ure in his great Roman national epic, the JEneid. On the night when, neglecting the wise counsels of Laocoon, the Trojans had drawn the
wooden horse within
their walls, the
relieved of immediate anxiety by the apparent departure of the Greeks, had given themselves
up to much needed
Greek and Roman Mythology
the vision of his dead cousin
was disturbed by
Hector appearing before him,
wounds he had received
at Achilles' hands,
bloody from the and
bidding him arouse himself and see the destruction that
come upon Troy.
ing up, the hero rushed to the roof of his house
and from that point could
see that the city
and drawing aside the veil that dims mortal sight. or I u'lus. Bid- ding his father Anchises take up the images of the Penates or family gods. the city gate did he discover that his wife was In his distracted and hopeless following. Rome 333 Reckless of personal danger and caring little for his own life if he might yet bring some support to his falling city. he led a band of Trojans in one last desperDriven from one point to another ate struggle. he took the old man upon u'sa his back.The Legendary Origin already in the hands of its of foes. seized his little son As ca'ni us. he made way through the flames and confusion to a place of Not until he had passed safety outside the walls. /Eneas should not perish in burning Troy. but should live to found a new and greater city on the banks of Tiber. by the hand. he came at last to Priam's palace and saw the old last king lying slain before his household altar. and bidding close his wife Crehis follow behind." showed him the gods directing the destruction city. " Venus appeared to her son. of the at once to his Then yneas yielded and hurried home to save his own family. his son lying near him and his women huddled But the fates decreed that together in despair. Other Trojans who had escaped in the course of a few days joined . search for her he met only her shade which came not to tell him shores and that that the gods detained her on those it was their will that he should go on his way without her.
to They sailed to Delos consult Apollo. and here they built and fitted out twelve ships on which the next spring little they set wanderings. the diminished band started 39 on their western voyage. whence. but a terrible During the war Priam had sent Polydorus. when uprooted. the king murdered his charge and seized the treasure that Priam had sent with him. . and grief. tradition held. seafaring. whence. Then began a period of wandering almost 3 full as of adventure as the nine years of Ulysses' First the company landed in Thrace. but the strange portent of a bush which. as legend told. Dardanus. their fore- had gone to Troy. where ^Eneas hoped to found a new city. the ancestor In pain of the Trojans. had originally come. blighting the Then the Pegrain and killing men and beasts. only a boy with the king of Thrace. they made their way thither. to seek protection but when the news of the Troy came to him. nates warned /Eneas in a dream that the ancestral fathers land Apollo prophesied was Hesperia.334 the Greek and Roman Mythology group in their place of hiding between the mountains and the sea. sail. of rail at the time. but still hopeful. and understanding a reference of the oracle to an ancestral home as mean- ing Crete. While they were building the new city. or Italy. a terrible pestilence fell upon them. dripped blood and spoke in the voice of Priam's murdered son Pol y dor'us 39 drove them to seek a more propitious land.
would force the wanderers to eat their own tables.The Legendary Origin of Rome 335 storm drove the ships out of their course to the island of the Strophades. up the a new city Here they were overjoyed to find modeled on Troy and ruled over by Priam's prophetic son Hel'enus. Leaving the Strophades the Trojans sailed northward along the coast of Epirus. they behind them. of the Trojans' landing she was occupied in offering a sacrifice at the empty tomb of her noble first husband. While the exhausted sailors were feasting. Sailing westward they sighted Italy. Hector's wife Andromache. passing Odysseus' rocky island of Ithaca and the coast of the Phseacians. but knowing that the towns of this . who at the fall of Troy had been given to Achilles' son Neoptolemus. and that finally the day should come when hunger food off the left tables. and landing finally in a harbor further coast. they loaded him with gifts. and after Helenus had warned him of the dangers that lay before him. and when ^Eneas felt that they must continue on their divinely guided way. haunted by those dreadful Harpies which the Argonauts had met. these horrible bird-women swooped down and seized the Driven off by the men. for their leader yet despair prophesied a long and destructive voyage. they unwillingly let him go. She and Helenus received their wandering countrymen with enthusiastic hospitality. was now liv- At the moment ing with Helenus as his wife.
savage. however. and emaciated. . stood there towering up like great trees and threatening the ship with destruction. had no need Not knowing the risk they ran. but. He was a a companion of Ulysses. for Polyphemus. As they neared Sicily they saw the cave of dreadful Scylla and the waters thrown high from the whirlpool of Charybdis. left behind when those whom Ulysses' craft had saved from being devoured had made their hasty escape. to pass between. heard the sound of their oars and bellowed aloud. At dawn a man. the sailors beached their ships on the south coast of Sicily near the cave of the Cyclops Polyphemus and came on shore to spend the night. hairy. and hurrying to the shore. But ^Etna belching forth flames and thundering in tion drove sleep full erup- away and kept the men in terrified suspense.336 Greek and Roman Mythology part of south Italy were Greek they gave the coast a wide berth. but in the face of the savagery of the in- human Cyclops race-enmity was forgotten and the wretched Greek found refuge on the Trojan ships. The other Cyclopes heard him. On the further shore of Sicily a grief of which had not been forewarned awaited him. who had been Greek. came to them pitifully begging to be taken from this terrible island. coming down to the without water to bathe his bloody eye-socket. more fortunate than Ulysses. They did not get away from the island seeing Polyphemus and his brothers.
the winds. still cherishing resentment against the hated Trojan race. Indeed . who with a large following had secretly departed from her native land after the murder of her husband by her wicked brother. Dido.The Legendary Origin his old of Rome 339 nobly borne with him the hardships of these years of wandering. who had age to the destined home in Italy. so she welcomed the unfortunate strangers cordially and generously. Though on the coast of Africa. persuaded ^Eolus. shelter in Driven directly south. tained by a Phoenician founded by a Phoenician king's daughter. but when the ships had been launched and were well out at Juno. father Anchises. they finally sought an inlet on the coast of Africa where city of the Carthage was building. setting out with his faithful comrade new yEneas. She was well acquainted with the story of Troy. to let out conflicting blasts against the ships. and the name of ^Eneas was familiar to her. was met by his mother Venus disguised as a huntress and by her was directed to the city. A cha'tes to explore the neighborhood. died and had to be given a grave in this forFrom Sicily it was but a short voyeign soil. Carthage was city. and even urged them to share her new city and happy prospects. for she sent her powerful boy Cupid to take the form of little Ascanius and inspire in the wid- owed queen love for the noble stranger. king of sea. Venus had a hand in this extreme good-will shown her son.
who. and by the god-fearing yEneas deserted while her passion still burned at its hottest. all thought of gratitude and honor towards his generous hostess and wife. As the Trojans sailed away towards their unknown future home. where kind J * A ces'tes. from the human standpoint. on her lips curses against her betrayer. pitably. and fixing his eyes only on the command of the fates. the righteous tineas put behind him his personal feelings and also. not unresponsive to the queen's advances. and mounting to the top. the sea behind The burning of the ships. . killed herself with the sword her faithless lover had left behind him. might have been tempted to remain in Carthage. But the ships came safely to Sicily. had not Jupiter sent Mercury to warn him against such an alliance and to remind him of his great destiny as founder of that Roman race that was to hold the world under its rule. them was lighted by the red flames of that tragic pyre. hastened to launch his ships and Then the unfortunate Dido.340 Greek and Roman Mythology ^Eneas. obedient to the gods' will. So. trayed by the goddess into a passionate and unwise love. had a great pyre erected in the court of her palace. While the men were thus employed. the king of Trojan descent who ruled over that part of the island. thus besail away. received them hos- Here they stayed to offer sacrifices in and honor of hold the postponed funeral games Anchises. had united with her in a secret marriage.
and too few were left to transport fate. fell backward and was lost A point of land on the west coast of Italy. yet one man was demanded final For the as a sacrifice skilful pilot. his future course. already left regretting their behind with Acestes. where his body came ashore. were voyage Venus secured from Neptune favorable seas. was near Avernus. for his favor Pal i nu'rus. still retains his name. now others were destroyed by fire. its hundred dark mouths. ^neas This cave with sought the cave of the Sibyl. all the company to the land decreed by Therefore the older and weaker men and rash act. The friendly seer Helenus had told ^neas that before he could reach his future home and found a city he must visit the Sibyl of Cumse and into the sea The siby. the women. through the help of the prophetess descend to the lower world and obtain his father's advice on Leaving his men on the shore a few miles from where Naples stands. a lake mysteriously formed from the waters of the lower world and not far from the cave that . and with his diminished following /Eneas started on once more. the overcome with sleep. settle- ment they longed for Some ships had been previously lost in the storm.The Legendary Origin of Rome 341 unrelenting Juno sent her messenger Iris down to tempt the Trojan women to burn the ships and thus thwart the fates and secure for themselves an end of their wanderings and the in Sicily.
In the thick wood where the strange tree grew that one golden bough could hardly have been found had not Venus sent two doves to lead the way for her find son. uttered her prophecies when for help. but go boldly forward. VI. penetrating. The- and Orpheus.342 Greek and Roman Mythology Within it sat the Sibyl and the god Apollo inAfter the spired and took possession of her. day and night the lie open. . 126 Yet it might be done if the hero could first and pluck the golden branch that Proserpina claimed as her due offering. Hercules. dismiss this anxious care from your heart. . Yet yield not to misfortune. . rid wars. but to retrace your air. ^Eneas only asked that the Sibyl should open to him the way to the lower world that he might go to see his father. as those other sons of the gods. sacrifice had been offered and ^neas had prayed opened into Hades. toil. but they will wish that they had not come. Undaunted. is gates of black Dis (Pluto) that is the descent to Avernus. hor- and the Tiber flowing with blood. the Sibyl poured forth her prophetic warnings and promises The Trojans shall : come to the kingdom of Lavinium (Italy).) and escape once more to the upper the difficult task. the fearful places of the deado The Sibyl answered: seus. the (JEneid. Wars. had done. Easy steps. . I see. that is ff.
the Sibyl warned Bethe hero. Here were the iron chambers of the Furies. Gorgons. when he returned to the upper air. Here before the gates sat Grief and avenging Cares. Centaurs. and here was mad Discord. and about were many other monstrous forms. Scyllas. her snaky locks bound with bloody fillets.The Legendary Origin of Rome 343 world. and Death's twin brother Sleep. After JEneas had offered the proper sacrifice of The r lower black sheep to the infernal deities. and death-dealing War on the threshold. pale Disease and sad Old Age. Fear and evil Famine. where the foul ferryman Charon waited with his frail skiff. the Sibyl led him through a black cavern upon the gloomy road that led to the kingdom of Pluto. and Harpies. and shameful Want. In the middle of the open space was a huge elm beneath whose leaves clung deceiving Dreams. his sword could have no effect. to seek his body on the woods in But the them away . Acheron. About the bank crowded the shades of the dead low this place seethed black whose funeral rites had been fall left undone. flaming Chimaera. Yet these were only un- bodied shades against which. then they win a passage to the sunless shore beyond." ferryman refused them all and sent to wander vainly about the shore until a hundred years should pass. the " as many as the leaves that at the first in autumn touch of frost. Here Palinurus greeted ^neas and begged him.
but his friends and countrymen stayed to speak with him and ask of the world they had left.344 Greek and Roman Mythology shore and give him proper burial. He would have stopped to talk with her and excuse to the shade tions. and he turned out his ghostly passengers to make room for the hero. guarded by the Furies. Then his guide led A the places of the dead. next his desertion of the living lently turned woman. First they passed those who had died in infancy and those who had suffered death on false accusa- ^neas through were those who had taken their own and the Fields of Mourning inhabited by lives. Then they came to the fiery river Phlegethon. From here arose groans and the sound of blows and the clank of iron chains. but the word of the Sibyl and the sight of the golden bough overcame his unwillingness. Charon at first refused to accept a living man in his little boat. fied honey-cake thrown by the Sibyl pacithree-headed Cerberus. In the pit below writhed the Titans and the rebellious giants and those who had sinned against the gods or had . but she sifrom him and glided away. and among these the hero recognized unfortunate Dido. unhappy lovers. Proceeding they came to where thronged the great warriors. and so set him across the stream. to rejoin her first husband. fresh from the funeral pyre she herself had built. encircling the adamantine walls of Tartarus. The Greeks fled before the Trojan hero.
were ready to return in other bodies to the upper air as the descendants of ^Eneas. he brought him to the Gates Dreams. but the Sibyl told him of it as they passed by. children of the and choral dance. and bathed in a generous air and rosy tortures of light. gods. contended in games. reviewing the long of souls who. the From hence ^neas proceeded above. and warned him of the hardships that yet lay before him. Ilus. of ivory. Romulus who was to found Rome. and the great governors and generals who should make of Rome a world empire. in whose time Vergil wrote his great poem. In contrast to the Tartarus the Elysian Fields fiery spread before them. Through the gate of horn pass dreams that are to be fulfilled through that of . lighted by their own sun and stars.The Legendary Origin of Rome 345 been guilty of unnatural crimes. those sent to deceive to mortals. and others. all up to Augustus. When Anchises had shown his son all the future glories of their race. having stayed the allotted time in the lower world and having drunk forgetful- ness from the stream of Lethe. world . all the seven Roman kings. or joined in the song Here were the great founders of the Trojan race. Dardanus. Here the great heroes. Into this deep hell yEneas could not look. Afar off in a green secluded valley of this realm at last line ^neas met Anchises. the glorious Roman race.
Seeing this. therefore. young Ascanius cried: "See. Greek and Roman Mythology ' Sailing up the west coast of Italy. yellow with the sand it washes down. whose daughter La vin'i a was sought as wife by the king of a neighborThough the parents ing tribe. Turnus by name. implacable towards /Eneas. land the Harpy was fulfilled prophecy and that the at last of granted them by fate had been reached. country was La ti'nus. empties into the sea. and readily formed an alliance and offered him his daughter in marriage. But Juno. the king recognized his destined son-in-law in the stranger. When. their hunger led them to devour not only the food intended for them but the flat cakes of bread on which the food had been laid out. since a hero from over the sea was to have her as wife and by her raise up a race that should rule the world. the Trojans. we are eating our tables!" recognizing thus harmlessly that So the /Eneas. .346 The landing in Italy. /Eneas sent messengers to Latinus. When they had landed and prepared a hasty meal. gave thanks and worshiped the diviniThe king of this part of the ties of the place. of the girl would have been glad to have this prince as a son-in-law. the TroJ jans finally beached their ships near where the Tiber. sent one of the Furies to rouse Turnus and Latinus' queen against still Moreover she made trouble between the newcomers and some Latin herdsmen. the gods had warned them against the marriage.
bade him proceed up the river to where the good king Evan'der had dience YEneas at his palace. and speaking to the sleeping yEneas.The Legendary Origin of Rome 347 and finally threw open the gates of Janus' temple and roused all the country in war. founded Alba of beginnings. and Remu 40 Janus was the Roman god closed. /Eneas formed a compact of mutual help with the king. Fitly entertained by Evander on the spot later to be made glorious by his descendants. In time of war the gates of his temple were opened in time of peace. and Turnus allies. or lulus. but we know that Lavinia became /Eneas' wife and that in her honor he named the town that he founded Lavinium. superior numbers of the by the Tiber to find Notwithstanding the the brave enemy and deeds of Turnus and his victorious. the river-god. . yEneas re- turned at last to his camp a fierce battle in progress. and on his new ally's advice proceeded thence northward to Etruria to draw into his alliance an Etruscan king who was already a bitter enof Turnus. its humble roofs clustered among the seven hills that later bore the massive buildings of imperial Rome. the Trojans were died at yEneas' hand. At this point Vergil's story closes. . yEneas' son Ascanius. emy Thus reinforced. 40 By night Father Tiber. his made way willing obethe stream until up With noon he came to Evanders settlement. rose from his stream.
the trough that held them was carried down the stream into the Tiber. a bird sacred to Mars. called by their foster-parents Romulus and Remus. It is said that a wood-pecker. the twins. persisting in his wicked designs. wandering that way. and to preserve his power. became the acknowledged leaders of all the many young shepherds about and fought against wild beasts and robbers. ordered the babies to be drowned in the river. was attracted by the babies' cries. and adopting them as her own whelps. When Amulius. his daughter own and consecrated Rhea Silvia to the service of the goddess Vesta as a Vestal Virgin. put to death Numitor's only son. also brought the babies food in her beak. But the virgin was loved by the war-god Mars and by him became the mother of twin sons.348 Greek and Roman Mythology the slope of the Longa on Alban Mount. nourished them with her milk. to his hut on the Palatine Hill. After a quarrel with some herdsmen of Numitor Remus was taken before his grandfather and was recognized by him . After some time a kindly shepherd came upon the little savages and took them home As they grew. The last of the line to hold the 'throne was Nu'mi'tor. A she-wolf. and by the guidance of the gods was washed high up on the bank and left by the retreating waters under a fig tree on the Palatine Hill. and here his descendants continued to rule after his death. whose younger brother A mu'li us wickedly supplanted him.
The Legendary Origin as his of Rome 349 at daughter's child. . Disappointed in his hopes and wishing to show his contempt for his successful brother's plans. having a particular affecwhere they had lived as boys. looking appeared six vultures. The wolf with Romulus and Remus. but when he would have claimed the decision in his favor. A dispute arising between the two tion for the hills Fig. But Romulus and Remus. 99. they agreed to leave by the gods. Amulius met the young men's hands the death he deserved. for the divine sanction on the Aventine. To Remus. Romulus on the Palatine reported the flight of twelve vultures. and Numitor was restored to his kingdom. put themselves at the head of a band of young men and set out to found a new city on the banks of the Tiber. as to whether the Palatine or the Aventine Hill was the more favorable the matter to be decided site.
and a bloody battle was fought in what was afterwards the Roman Forum. ing. a settlement on the Capitoline and Quirinal Hills. who were gladly afforded refuge there from enemies and a hospitable reception. the Latins and Sabines. but who were anxious for the safety of their relatives. the valley be- tween their respective settlements. whose affections had won by their violent young captors. rushed between the combatants and effected The Sabines were now given a reconciliation. To supply this deficiency. Through the wise and strong rule of Romulus the new city grew rapidly. Romulus Under adopted a somewhat treacherous device. Only wives were lack- when he had vainly tried more peaceful methods. The new settlement was soon enlarged the spot. he invited his neighbors. After some time the Sa- bines returned in force to recover their women. and successful wars were carried on against hostile neighbors. pretense of celebrating sacred games.350 was Greek and Roman Mythology Romulus leaped over the wall Romulus in a rage killed him on Remus mockingly building. In the midst of the fight the Sabine women. to visit with their wives and daughters. by the people from the country around. and when the visitors were off their guard. and the two races united in one state with a combeen still mon meeting-place in the Forum. the young Romans seized the Sabine women and drove the men his city away with violence. One day when the .
Mars descended in a fiery chariot and carried his son Romulus off to heaven. accompanied by a terrific storm. religiously preserved the little straw hut he had occupied as a shep- herd.The Legendary Origin of Rome 351 king was reviewing his army in the Campus Martius. belong rather to the legendary history of than to mythology. The stories of full Romulus's six successors in the kingship. darkened the heavens and threw the assemblage into a panic. ple After this his peo- worshiped the deified ri'nus. Rome . Romulus under by the name of Qui ples and side side with the tem- of their other gods. or Field of Mars. As the men dispersed. an eclipse of the sun. outside the city walls. of interest and adventure.
(2) The next to the last syllable (penult) is accented when it contains a long vowel or a diphthong or when its vowel is followed by two or more consonants or by x or z. (3) are pronounced like e. Consonants. e. Ni'o be. a. III. (1) (2) The vowel e is long in the terminations c and es. The vowel e is long before the terminations a The diphthongs a and ce and us.g. the accent falls on the from the end (antepenult).APPENDICES APPENDIX A Notes on the Pronunciation of Greek and Latin Proper Names. He phaes'tus. A the'na. Vowels. third syllable (3) If the penult is not long. e. ce. . Min er'va. (1) The last syllable (ultima) is never accented. I. like k. Ju'pi ter. i. II.. C is soft y.. elsewhere it is hard.g. Accent. (1) (2) Ch is pronounced before e.
Prometheus Bound in Everyman's Library) Mrs. Longfellow. Libraries'). E. D. Chaucer. Works. Landor. Dean Swift. Prometheus. Thomas Moore. Baucis and Philemon. Pandora. J. Paradise Lost I. R. Prometheus and Epimetheus. Prometheus. John Ruskin. ^Eschylus.356 Appendices APPENDIX B A Brief List of Poems and Dramas Based on Myths. Prometheus Bound. VI. Ovid. . Shelley. II. Rossetti. B. in the Scott-Saintsbury I. Hera. R. Browning. Hymn of Apollo. 740 ff. I. Hyperion. Ovid. edition of Swift's ff. 89-415 (translation in Bohn's (translation . Chapter III. ff. W. Robert Bridges. Prolog of . H. 410 VIII. Apollo. i ff. Chapter II.. the Chapter Keats. Lowell. Apollo and Artemis. J. Prometheus Unbound. C. The World of the Myths. Metamorphoses 583 ff. A. The Fall of Hebe. G. S. Homer's Oracle. Prometheus. Account of the Four Ages and the Flood in Ovid's Metamorphoses I. The Queen of the Air Milton. Metamorphoses (a burlesque). Metamorphoses (translation in Bohn's Libraries'). Keats. imitated from the Eighth Book of Ovid. Hymn to the Sun.. The Gods of Olympus: Zeus. (lectures) . Hebe. Niobe. Hymn to Apollo. Athena. Stephen Phillips. H. Swinburne. Delphic Hymn to W. Longfellow's Masque of Pandora. Chapter IV. Lowell. Shelley. 620 (translation in Bohn's Libraries}. The Last Marpessa. Byron. Hephaestus. W.
Metamor- phoses X. Bohn's Libraries . Chapter VI. Venus Vicirix.Appendices 357 the Legend of Good Women.. Lowell. C. 577 ff. Poem written after of swimming from Sestos to Abydos. to Homer's Hymn Mercury. Hero and Leander. Endymion. Tom Hood. Apollo and the Fates. Keats. W. Arethnsa. Endymion. Metamorphoses V. Alcestis (translation in Everyman's Library) X. Chapter V. Shakespeare. Homer's to the Moon. Morris. S. Balaust ion's Adventure. H. : Hippomenes and Atalanta. H. Landor. R. Longfellow. Endymion. Ovid. Sonnet On Leander. Chaucer. Hero and Leander. Psyche. 55 Chapter VII. W. R. B. J. Thomas Moore. Hymn to Venus. Legend of Thisbe (in The Legend of Good Women). Pygmalion and the Image. 560 IV. Paraphrases on Apuleius. Sir Edwin Arnold. 138 ff. The Loeb ff. Hero and Leander. Idyl I. The Compleynt of Mars. Ares and Aphrodite. Shelley. Keats. A. Ovid. Byron. Homer's a Picture Rossetti. . I. (translations in Classical Library) ff... 748 ff. Euripides. Midsummer Night's Dream. Occupation of Orion. A. E. Mrs. . D. Hero to Leander.. III. G. and in Bion. Keats. Action. Morris. Tennyson. Idyl XV. Eros. W. Shelley. Clough. Hymn John Lyly. 162 ff. The Love of Alcestis. Endymion. Atalanta's Race (in The Earthly Paradise} Andrew Lang. Hero's Lamp (in Venus Verticordia. VI. The House of Life) W. The New Pygmalion: Theocritus. to Ode Browning.. Browning. Swinburne. W. Hermes and Hestia. The Lesser Deities of Olympus. Metamorphoses I. Venus' and Adonis. 146 ff. .. Shelley. Hero and Leander. Ovid. 452 ff.. Leigh Hunt. Sonnets.
. At Eleusis. Eurydice. Lowell. Echo. Ovid. Ixion. Browning. R. Orpheus. Browning. C. The Power of Music. Chapter XI. The Divine Comedy. Cupid and Psyche (in The Earthly Paradise) Spenser.358 Appendices . Islands. R. W. The Earthly Paradise. Tennyson. Bacchus. 6ioff. Song of Pan. to the Earth. Mrs. Swinburne. The Tears of the Muses. Chapter VIII. Landor. . Cupid and Pan. Mirror for Magistrates. Chapter X. A. Pan and Luna. The Gods of the Earth. Shelley. The Sirens. Ovid. tunate The Epic of Hades. Proserpine. G. The ForSackville. Eurydice. W. C. The Gods of the Sea. Induction to the Morris. Proserpine. Stories of Argos. Chapter IX. Bacchus and Ariadne (paraphrase on Nonnus). Morris. J. B. Rossetti. R. D. Morris. A. W. The Doom of D. Lowell. Aspecta Medusa. Hymn to Proserpine. Browning. Pan and Thalasslus. J. Homer's Hymn Hymn of D. G. 341 ff. Emerson. Dante. R. Paradise Lost. Metamorphoses V. Eurydice to Orpheus. L. King Acrisius (in The Earthly Paradise) Rossetti. Metamorphoses IV. The Dead Pan. A. E. R. Swinburne. A Sea-Spell. S. The Legend of Hypermnestra (in The Legend of Good Women") W. . G. Shelley. The World of the Dead. Pan. Wordsworth. The Garden of Proserpine. and t'~e Satyr. Rossetti. Lang. Chaucer. Milton. Morris. Demeter and Persephone.
Arnold. Morris. Swinburne. Cephalus and Procris. Antigone (translations in Shelley. Macaulay. XV. Sophocles. Argonautica . Moschus. Metamorphoses Chapter XIV. Idyl X. the Tyrant. 183 ff. The Golden Apples (in The Earthly Paradise) Theocritus. 833 ff. Bcllerophon. Chapter XVI. Corinth. . W. The Legend of Philomela. H. Erectheus. Chaucer. Stories of Thebes. Stories of Attica. C. Stories of Crete. and The Legend of Ariadne (in The Legend of Good Women). and Shelley. The Argonautic Expedition. . The Legend of Hypsipyle and Medea (in The Legend of Good Women) W.. . Heracles. The Life and Death of Jason.. C. Idyl II (translations in Bohn's Libraries and in The Loeb Classical Library) Ovid. Thomas Moore. W. (translation in Bohn's Libraries and in The Locb Classical Library). Itylus. Morris. Chapter A. Philomela. Szvellfoot Everyman's Library). The . Bcllerophon in G. Homer's Hymn to Castor and Pollux. Atalanta in Calydon. Swinburne. 359 W. 260 ff.Appendices Chapter XII. M. . Chapter XIII. The Battle of Lake Regillus. Tiresias. Knight's Tale (in The Canterbury Tales) A. VIII. Morris. Tennyson. Apollonius Rhodius. Sparta. Tiresias. Swinburne. II. Longfellow. Chaucer. CEdipus Tyrannus. C. CEdipus Coloneus. VIII. Pegasus in Pound. Argos and Lycia (in The Earthly Paradise) Meredith. A.
B. W. Rossetti. Keats. Schiller. Arnold. The Cyclops (translation from Euripides) . Ulysses. Euripides. Lang. Idyl Classical Library). Shelley. M. A. of Paris The Earthly Paradise) Cassandra Iphigenia in . J.. The Shade of Helen. Hector and Andromache (a para- phrase of (in Homer) . Milton. Troilus and Criseyde. S. Chapter XVIII. Andromache. Shakespeare. . Id\l Appendices in The Loeb Classical Classical Library') . Lowell. Translation of Theocritus. Helen of Troy. Laodamia. Shades of Iphigenic and Agamemnon. Pope. hts Chaucer. Trojan Women. The Wanderings of Odysseus. Mrs. Hecuba. Iphigenia at Aulis. The Odys* The Sirens. Tennyson. XI (translation in The Loeb A. R. Comns (inspired by the story of Circe) . Menelaiis and Helen. S. The Last of Ulysses. In Ithaca. Arnold. Iphigenia Among the Taurians. Euripides. E. Iphigenia and Agamemnon. The Death of Paris and (Enone. . Tauris (translation Bohn's Libraries) Sophocles. Theo- XIII. D. W. Medea (translation in Everyman's Library). Hesperothen. Landor. W. Philoctetes. Theocritus. Browning. The Trojan War. Landor. The Death Rossetti. (translation by Lord Lytton) in Goethe. (Enone. G.360 (translation critus. The Strayed Reveller. The Lotns-Eaters. Aja-x. Ulysses. (translation in Bohn's Libraries and in The Loeb Library) . Wordsworth. . Morris. Argus. Chapter XVII. Dream of Fair Women. G. D. Sonnet on Chapman's Homer. Stephen Phillips. Tennyson. Cassandra. Lang. Troiand Cressida. Palladium. Idyl XVIII. Penelope. The Sirens. sey. M. The Wine of Circe.
Dido. The Tragedy of Agamemnon. reading and retain remarkably well the spirit of the Charles Kingsley. FOR GENERAL READING: lation by Lang. in Electra. The Tragedy . (translation in translations of the tragedies of JEschylus. Metamorphoses (translations in Bohn's Libraries and in The Loeb Classical Library}. of of Chaucer. (translation Electro. Stories from the Greek Tragedians. The Heroes. . The Legend of Dido (in The Legend Good Women} Christopher Marlowe. These are excellent originals. Iphigenia in Tauris brary). yEschylus. The Iliad (transThe Odyssey The Homeric The Loeb Classical Li. .Appendices Chapter XIX. Church. FOR YOUNGER STUDENTS Stories : A. Ovid. Euripides. 361 Enmenides. Leaf and Myers) (translation by Butcher and Lang) . Agamemnon Choephori. Sophocles. Orestes. from Homer. Stories from Virgil. Hymns brary} Sophocles and Euripides in Everyman's Library. C. Everyman's Li- Chapter XX. The Legendary Origin of Rome.
12 A glai'a. 300 Alba Longa. 248 he had a famous shrine in an oasis of the Libyan desert. an Egyptian with deity : yE'son. 340 A cha'tes. 364 Anti'a. 148. 144. 283 /Ee'tes. yEgyp'tus. 294. Zeus Agamem'non. daughter of Cad- mus and mother of Pen- Am phi a ra'us. 264 /E'acus. 7. 5 yE'thra. 347 Alqes'tis. 311. father of Otus and Ephialtes. Ad me'tus. A'cheron. 252. name of king gin'o us. 267. of the Phaeacians. 283. Ale mae'on. A dras'tus. 222 Antig'one. A ga've. pursued by the Furies. 345 247 A ge'nor.INDEX Ages'tes. 288f A cris'i us. 26f. 348 Anchi'ses. 283 /E'gis. 339 225 187. who. 339 yEs cu la'pi us. who . 309. 210 A lec'to. A 343 chil'les. 326f . 186. 199 /Ene'as. Al Al phe'us.. 241 7 219. yE'olus. 273 /E'geus. 200. See Asclepius Am al the'a. tion. An drom'a che. 287f. killed Ado'nis. Ale me'na. Ach e lo'us. 287. 363. Al Al cj'des. . 267. identified IQ Am'mon. 363 Proetus' 304. 218 thae'a. 339. 256 Ages. 142. 85 f. 189. Am phit'ry on. 280. 280. Heracles. 242. 84. 248. 331!. one of the Epigoni. 276 yE'ther. H3f. theus.f. one of the Furies Aloe'us. the Four. 7/f. 210 A mul'i us. one of the Graces. 279 /Egi'na. 331. An drom'eda. 44 and who was. following his father's injunchis mother. 207 An tae'us. A'jax. 209 Actae'on. Am'a zons. /E gis'thus. Am phi tri'te. therefore. son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle. 335 wife. 298. 300 Am bro'sia. 264 Am phi'on. 281.
323 Ariad'ne. Apol'lo. 242 At a lan'ta's race. 282 A tri'des. 285 A rach'ne. 203. Berecynthus in Phrygia Ber'oe. 192 Bac'chus. 236 As sar'a cus. from Mt. He bees. 241. 223 A'treus. 224. taught men to keep Rome Ar'temis. 271 Bos'pho rus. whereupon bees Bac'cha na'li a. 288 Au'ra. 165 Bona Dea. 206. 36. 237 Bel lo'na. Ar'cas. 24 Bel ler'o phon.364 falsely Index accused Bellero- As ty'a nax. 269 Agamemnon and Mene329 256 157 laus A'res. 71. 252 106. 144. in. It was when he was pursuing Eurydice that she stepped upon the serpent from whose sting she In punishment. 142. 4of. 217 Au'lis. 167. 25 of the (builder Ar'gus Argo). king of Troy. 69. Cybele. Aphrodi'te. An tin'o us. son of Tros. logf.. On the advice of Proteus he offered animals in sacrifice to the shades of Orpheus and Eurydice. bees were destroyed by the nymphs. see Dionysus Bau'qis. A re o'pa gus. 297 At'las. 341 and father of Actaeon. At'ropus. 55. 266 Athe'na.. Arethu'sa. 173. 291 Bronze Age. 171 Bacchan'tes. 109. 108. 245. 238. 333. ssf. 74 A so'pus.. son. 109 Be re cyn'thi a. 92. his died. Bear. 347 Ascle'pius. 269f. 13 . An ti'o pe.. Ath'a mas. the Great. 246 Argonautic expedition. 22 46f. Penel- ope's suitors.. 8of-. 269 Ar'gus (Odysseus' dog). H5f. 245 Au to'me don. 291. one of 26f . Hector's infant phon. Ar'gus (hundred-eyed). sons of Atreus. iosf. 296 Apple of Discord. 187. Bo'reas. charioteer Achilles of Aver'nus. 26 Bri a're us. 83f. Ar'go. At a lan'ta in Caledon. 272.. 250 Ar is tse'us. 286 181. 9. 171. son of Apollo Au ro'ra. divinity worshiped in secret by women in swarmed in the carcasses. a hundred-handed giant who aided Zeus [against the rebellious gods Bri se'is. 28f. 288 Asca'nius. 141 Auge'as.
the girdle of 336 Venus with power to enhance beauty See Halcyone C. 188. 5 Char'ites. 241. 153 5. Cy'ane. Co Co qy'tus.im me'ri ans. 139. era. 245 C. 199 Daph'ne.e'yx. C.e'crops. 200 199 ids. 114 314. Charyb'dis. ro'nis. 234. 267. 139 Cha'ron. Cynthus in Delos. a water-nymph who loved Apollo and was changed into a sun-flower. 7 117. Cad'mus. 141 who was made . 244 Co Ce C. Cha'os. 256 Ca du'ge us. who was turned into a swan. 273 lo'nus. 234. 188. 139 Daph'nis. 6.Index Ca'cus. name of Artemis derived from Mt. 311 Cir'ge. 207 Cas 'tor. 154 Cre'on. 46. by Apollo. 311 Col'chis. 189. a Roman god of who assisted Turnus agriculture. 254.estus.yclo'pes. mother of Asclepius. 310 Cli'o. 157 Cer'ber us. 233 Odysseus fought early his wanderings. 223. 304. 12 Cu'mse. Apollo. i se'is. 221 365 . 207 Cu re'tes. 218 against ^Eneas Cas san'dra. 284 Cyth er dite. 333 Cro'nus. Dan'a Dan'a Dan'a e. 263 Con'sus. 241 f. 6f. a princess of Italy Clym'e ne. Cybele. Ceph'alus. 238 Chi'ron. or Ares. 123. 263 Cretan bull. where she was born- Cypris.e'le us. See also Eros. 97 Cal'chas. also 165. 70 Cly tern nes'tra. 22f. 187. 291 Cal li'o pe. 343 Qyc'nus. 217 C. Cal y do'ni an boar. 62f. name of Aphroderived from Cythan island near the Peloponnese. 269 C. Ca lyp'so. one of the Harpies king of Eleusis and father of Triptolemus lae'no. 315. 151. e'a. 254 C. 187 Cupid. Cor y ban'tes. with Chry C. 326f Cly'ti e. C.. C. 327 Cas si o pe'a.en'taurs. See C.e'pheus. Demeter. us. 190. 253 Creu'sa. 192 Cal lis'to. men whom in Dae'dalus. 316 Ca mil'la.yn'thi a. a son of Hermes blind by Clo'tho.e'res. 290 co'ni ans. 336 Chi mae'ra. 7.eryne'an doe. C. 306. son of Poseidon.
the goddess in ryd'i ce. 4 Eu mae'us. threw herself on his funeral pyre. 234 Di'rae. 12 Er'a to. 345 En gel'a dus. one of E lec'try on. go. 264 E thi o'pi ans. the a jealous naiad. 140 Eleusin'ian Mysteries. E'os.. companion child-birth. name of Pluto or Odysseus. 26f. one of the giants who piled Pelion on Ossa in order to reach the gods. 210 Eleu'sis. of a name of the Furies. De jan i'ra. 184 E'cho. 328 of Odysseus Eu ryn'o me. iS4f. 228f. I22f. \<\i . 109 Di on y'si a. 202. 225 56. 216 E te'o cles. 269 of. 301 Di o me'des. 140 Er'e bus. Ei lei thy'ia. Eph i al'tes. Dar'danus. an'a. Dreams. 60 Del'phi. Deu Di ca'li on. dawn Epe'us. the Furies Di'do. of builder the wooden horse. horses of. Dir'ge. 287. 158 Graces Eu Eu 15*8 rys'theus. mother of the the Pleiads E lec'tra. swineherd 189. 3. Thebes. E'ris. 244 Er ich tho'ni us. 171 Di on y'sus. Ely'sian Fields. See also Ar- Dic'tys. in 5. 224. . 87! giants. 213 ter'pe. goddess. i6sf.366 Index E ny'o. one of the Do do'na. 215. goddess of war. son of Priam who married Helen at Paris' death. 334 Day. 190. Eu men'i des. E vad'ne. gates Dry'ads. He was the ideal shepherd and musician. 112. 284. 329 Hades Euphros'yne. one of the gor323 192 a gons ry cle'a. 5 E rech'theus. when her husband was killed in the siege of hundred-handed En d/mi on. Di os cu'ri. E'ros. 262 Ep Ep Ep i dau'rus. 208 i me'theus. 98. 273 Er y man'thi an boar. who aided women ryl'o chus. De'los. ry'a le . 6. Graces. who. 34. 244 E rin'ys. 264 Diome'des. Elec'tra. 344 E ri'phy le. 106. 74 ig'o ni. 185 345 Eu Eu Eu Eu Eu ro'pa. companion of Ares. 62. temis. 219 Di o'ne. 339. one of the wife of Capaneus. Dis. 5 De iph'o bus. 21. 265 Deme'ter.
274. 78f. 277 Hec'tor. 266 Gaea. 13 367 He'be. 149 Galate'a (wife of Pygmalion). 180 Flood. 8 Glau'cus. 361. in. 204. 335 Hel'icon. 5. drowned her- of plenty. 284. 238 Hip po da mi'a. us. 269 Her'cu les. 91 f. father of the Hesperides Hes per'i des. son of Theseus by Antiope Hip pom'e nes. 266 Golden bough. Hellespont. 150. 64f seven Hy'a des. Horn husband self. 25. Gan'y mede. 154.. 19. 187. 8. nsf. son of Deucalion Galate'a (the Nereid). 344. See Heracles Her'mes. 139. ni. sometimes symbolized as a snake. were changed into Ham a dry'ads. 119. See p. 89. Ha'des. 139 Grae'se. 264 Harpies. 36. 220. He si'o ne. 265. 153 Hel'len. 238 He'lios.. 147 Hip pol'y ta. 235. 2iof. 59 Hy a cin'thus. 184 Har mo'ni a. See also Bu- rn enides Hel'enus. 6. 36. 206. Hours. 295 He'ra. 6. when her Hip po cre'ne. Hes'per 220 evening star. 206 36. a prophetic deity sea He'ro. n. 220 Giants.. 204 Her mi'o ne. 332 Hec'u ba. 225 16. Day. See p. 235 Genius. 118 and mythical ancestor of all the Hellenes or Greeks. Hephaes'tus. the guardian spirit of each man. the Hes'tia. 981. 347 Fates. 203 Graces. 5. 5. 20. Hse'mon. 258. son of Creon of Thebes. 297. 271. Hal gy'o ne. 49f-. . 204 6. 106. 7. 144. 267 Hem'er a. 8. daughter of Menelaus and Helen Ge'ry on. 284 Garden of the Hes Gem'i per'i des. 227 Hec'ate. 112. 55 Hel'le. 335 placed by Zeus in heaven as a constellation because of their care of the infant Dionysus. 222 144. nymphs The two birds. 118 Golden Age. 298 Helen. 254. See Lerncean . Hy'dra.. 292. 90 Gorgons. 219 Hip pol'y tus.Index Evan'der. 12 Golden fleece. of daughter ^Eolus who. 286 Furies. 140 Fau'nus.. 210 Her'acles. :87f. perished in a shipwreck.
294 Iron Age. 40. father of Odysseus Laes try go'ni ans. son of Amphitryon and Alcmena Iph i ge ni'a. 290 Laom'edon. acles attendant of Her- who brought him Ix i'on. 190 the poisoned garment. 66 (Troy). . Li'ber. Odysseus It'ylus. 271. same as Itylus I u'lus. 24f. wife of Athamas.368 Hyge'a. 284 La oc'o on. 216 I'o le. 144. Epimetheus. 216 Le'the. 13 Islands of the Blest. Ino. Muse See also Zeus Hy per bo're ans. a Titan. father of Laius of Thebes Hyp'nos. later identified with Bacchus home of Li'ber a. 226 I o'ni an Sea. 303 La od a mi'a. um I'lus. clepius health Index daughter of Asand goddess of Ja'nus. Hy perm nes'tra. 265 island Ith'a ca. became a sea nymph under this name. See Jupiter See Ju'no.. 24. 60. a Titan. 346 Le an'der. 234 Ler nae an hydra. In'a chus. 346 Lat'mos. 345 Le'to. 270 Hy'men. king Lycia who sent Bellerophon after the Chimaera I o la'us. 141 La er'tes. father of Prometheus. name of Persephone 199 Lab'da cus. 233 Ida. Hera Ju'pi ter. in I 'das. 39. of Lati'nus. 67f. 267f. 259 also Hy'las. 101 220. 199 I'o. 284 Lap'iths. 339. 118 Le'da. 34. 87 La to'na. and Atlas Ic'a rus. 288. 225. 253 La'res. Italian divinity. 190 Is me'ne.. 309 Lai'us. Mt. 233. 329 I'ris. 242. god of marriage. 284f. See Le to La vin'i a. Iac'cus( a sus I father of Helios and Selene Ko're. 199 I o'ba tes. 4 Hy pe'ri on. son of Apollo and a Jove. Jo cas'ta. Il'i Mt.. 347 Ja'son. 259 ap'e tus. the god of sleep name of Diony- Lab'y rinth. See Ascanius later identified with Pros- erpina Li'chas. 247 I'tys. 26 Iph'i cles. Italian divinity. 250 Lach'e sis. Leu coth'ea.
Myr'ti lus. 148. Lake. 300 Men e la'us." Zeus's wife whom he swallowed before Athena's birth. 139 Mu sa'ge tes. 321 Night. 216 141 301. 321 Men'tor. 150. 30. Neme'an Ne'me sis. Ocean. 269 Mel pom'e ne. 22. Nu'mi tor. 66 Mars. Me du'sa. 5 Mede'a. 204 See Night Mer'cu ry. 250 Marpes'sa. 173 Mag'na Ma'ter. the moon-goddess Mi ner'va. See Cybele 184 Mai'a. Poseidon Ne're ids. a song of lamentation personified as a son 369 is name given 48. 225 Nes'tor. Athena See Ly ae'us. souls of the dead. 90 Ne op tol'e mus. 139 281. Mi'das. 170. 199 Mi'nos. 97f . 219. pe. 222 Nes'sus. 259! CE'neus. 91 Nar cis'sus. See also Hermes Mer'o Metis. 293 Muses. 203. 139. 282 Mysteries. 294. 143 O dys'seus. 325 Ne'mi. i84f. 26 Lyn'ceus. the physician in the Iliad Mae'nads. worshiped in Rome Mar'a thon. friend and adviser of Odysseus Ni'ke. 151. Ma'nes. 147. 158. 109. CEd'ipus. 147 287. mother of Phrixus and Helle See also Nep'tune. Mem'non. 19 lion.Index Li'nus. er of the Apollo as lead- Muses 238 283. 4 " wife of Sisyphus insight. 286. battle of. 241 CEn o ma'us. 01 0f. 148 Ne'reus. 233. 250 Min'o taur. 317 Nectar. 241. 287. 230. See also Ares Mar'syas. 305 Luna. a name of Bacchus Ly cur'gus. . 22. 181 Ma'ter Ma tu'ta. 273f. 238 Mel e a'ger. 249. Neph'e le. 152'. 189. son of Asclepius. Myr'mi dons. Italian goddess identified with Leucothea or Aurora. Ma cha'on. 148. king of Thrace who was killed for persecuting Bacchus Ly'cus. sometimes this O ce'a nus. 66f. 59. 190 Nai'ads. 250 Mne mos'y ne. 348 Nymphs. 185 Nau sic' a a. 181 Mi lan'i on. 144. to the also suitor of Atalanta of Apollo Lotus-eaters.. See Victory Ni'o be. Nyx. 254 Marathonian bull. 301. 300.
son of Athamas and Ino. Mt. 189. 267. Pal a me'des. li'des. 184 O res'tes. father of Procne Phleg'ethon. son of Om'pha le. phi. 300 Pen'theus." Or'pheus.. a Heracles centaur whom accidentally the Fates killed. i6f. Mt. 21. 324 ne'us. father of Gorgons and Graeat . one of the giants Pte an. Mt-. 276 son of Peleus. 44 Par then o pae'us. 14. See Del- Or'cus. 62 Pe Pe nel'o pe. one of the Seven against Thebes. 227. 271 Pan. wife of Par nas'sus. 208. 293 Peg'a sus. 288. 283 88f. Pan di'on. 334 gods. the god of death and the place of the dead. daughter of Minos and wife of Theseus Pha'e thon. Paris Olympic games. a daughter of Cecrops Par'c. 101. See Athena Greek Phae a'ci ans. 341. one Per i pha'tes. in. 301 Pal'las. Or i 269. 7of. 286. " O ri'on. Pe'li as. Meleager and Atalanta. Achilles Pe'li on. 320. 301 Phil o me'la. See Apollo Pho'lus. 246 Phi'neus.ae. a river-god.. 238 Pe'leus.Index CE no'ne. 59. of the heroes who was driven to death by the enmity of Odysseus. 32f. a sea deity. 168 Pa lae'mon. i73f. wife of Minos and mother of the Minotaur See Hades O're ads. Pa siph'a e. in. 188. 192. 317 Phae'dra. nf. 311. who was turned into a sea deity. 2Oof. 245 in Pe Thessaly. 218 Olympic Council. Pa'les. father of Daphne thes i Pen le'a. 19. 282 Pena'tes. 122 Olympus. 269 Os'sa.. 254 Per'seus. 248 Per seph'o ne. 300. i54f. 147. thy'ia. 343 Pal la'di um. Pan'dro sus. O'tus. Roman god of flocks Pal i nu'rus. 224 Oracle at Delphi. 284. 344 and Philomela Pando'ra. Phil oc te'tes. 301 Phor'cys. 28f. 287. Mt. 7. Phoe'be. 328 Pa tro'clus. a nymph. 139 Par'the non. 56. name of Artemis Phre'bus. Phi le'mon. Par'is. See Ossa giants tried to pile Pelion on Ossa in their attempt to overthrow the The Pe'lops.
ugf. 225. 233 Pri'am. god of fruitfulness Proc'ne. 266 Pi er'i a. 249 Proe'tus. souls. 259 165. I43f. 371 a. 290 Sea man'der. gi 223. Pro tes i la'us. a Roman divinity Sib'yl.. 347 the people of Tur- nus Sabines. 80 Sem'e le. 166. 341 Sile'nus. See Neoptolemus of woods and Silver Age. tomb 6. 345. 298f. Silva'nus. 328 Pyr'a mus. 149. 284. 189. 350 Sal mo'neus. Pro'teus. 242. 230 Polydec'tes. one of the rivers by Troy Sci'ron. 336 of Pol yx'e na. 273 Pro ser'pi na. Pol'lux. Pro crus'tes. 151 Rom'u Rut'u lus. I23f." title of Hermes " Se le'ne.Index Phrix'us. 104. i8if. 347 Rhad a man'thus. 264 Polyphe'mus. 202. Rhe'a. an ally of the Trojans 12 Sat ur na'li a. 6f. 14 Pyr'rhus. fields. Pyth'i at priestess of Apollo Delphi Py'thon. 35*1 Plu'tus. 173. 165. feast of Saturn. 241. leader of Psy'cho pom'pus. 140 Pol y ni'ces.. 45. daughter Priam. god of wealth See battle of Lake.. sacrificed on Achilles' 153 Rhe'a Sil'vi a. Pyg ma'li on. 222 Py'lades. 306. 254. 348 River-gods. king of Corinth who adopted CEdipus 235 Re'mus. 303 . 334 Po lym'ni a. 89 See Hades Plu'to. 173. occurring about the time of our Christmas. Pyr'rha. Sat'urn. 248 Sgyl'la. 149. 236 Pi rith'o us. 304 Pri a'pus. I79f. 253 Ple'ia des. 321 314 Psy'che. 36 Sarpe'don. Polydeuces Pol'ybus. 118 Pyg'mies. 62 Quiri'nus. 208 Polydeu'ces. li. 4. 245 Sa'mos. Regil'lus. 237 .. 248 Si'non. a son of ^Eolus who was punished in the lower world for trying to equal Zeus. 8. 234. 151. 80. Po sei'don. 13 Si'nis. 139 Pi re'ne. 246 Pro'cris. 269 Pol y do'rus. Pro me'theus. See Persephone Sat'yrs.
242. 283 Sun. 281 Athena Tri'tons. 347 Thy es'tes. Te'thys. 210. 287. 315 Sychae'us. 301 148. one Furies Zeph'yr. cattle of the. 190. This'be. Wooden 282 Thyr'sus. See also Hcstia Vestal Virgins. 344 Tau'ri ans. 140 5. Aphrodite Ves'ta. Zeus.372 Si'rens. 269 Te lem'a chus. 246 Troi'lus. 236 Sphinx. 178 271 Trip tol'e mus. 261 Stroph'a des. son of Priam Trojan War. Winds. 45 Vul'can. Greek jan War. 28of. phccstus The'seus. 52. 247f. Tros. 329 Tel'a mon. X an'thus. husband of Dido 5. 26f. 168 Ti'ber. 144 Tar'ta rus. brother of Priam. beloved by the Dawn. through whom he gained perpetual life but not per- petual youth. 142 Ze'thus. a giant who was cast into Tartarus for offering violence to a goddess. See also He- Hours and Fates. 190. 100 Victor}'. 200. a name of Ta'lus. 346 Tyn da'reus. 89 Sis'y phus. 284 Tur'nus. 234 Terp sich'o re. 313 Ti'tans. 335 Stym pha'H an birds. igf. The'tis.. 188. 161 Tritogeni'a. in. Sym pleg'a des. Tha li'a. 217 Styx. 7f. one of the Graces 139 one of the Titans (i) First king of one of the (2) heroes in the Tro- Ty'phon. Teu'cer Troy. See Odysseus Underworld. 8 U lys'ses. 125. 1191. Sir'i us. zoo. of the 296 Ti re'si as. See Hades U ra'ni a. 124. Ti'ty us. 283. U'ranus. . 115. 311 Ti si'pho ne. 320 Te'reus. by Zeus she was the mother of the Ve'nus. 190. 20. Index 150. Syr'inx. 7. 8 See also Tha li'a. goddess of order and justice.. a deformed and impudent Greek at the siege of Troy. Ther si'tes. a bronze giant Tan'ta lus. origin unknown. 7 Titho'nus. 139 The'mis. 292 See horse. 229 .
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