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YEAR BOOK 2011
GENERAL AWARENESS SOCIO-ECONOMIC & BANKING AWARENESS

First Edition : 2011 Publisher & Chief Editor D.V. RAGHURAM Executive editor P. SUBHASHINI

LAXMAN KUMAR D

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CONTENTS
AWARDS / PRIZES PERSONS APPOINTMENTS DEATHS PLACES SPORTS SPORTS AND THE TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH THEM TROPHIES ASSOCIATED WITH VARIOUS SPORTS & GAMES SUMMITS / CONFERENCES COMMITTEES SCHEMES VISITS / TOURS FINANCE & ECONOMY CAPSULE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES SPACE RESEARCH DEFENCE NEWS 5-26 27-40 41-46 47-50 51-56 57-76 77-79 80-82 83-90 91-93 94 95-106 107-126 127-133 134-138 139-143

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY POLITICAL AFFAIRS INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS NATIONAL AFFAIRS BOOKS - AUTHORS IMPORTANT DAYS IMPORTANT YEARS ABBREVIATIONS

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144-151 152-154 155-164 165-178 179-188 189-194 194-196 197-212

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A WARDS / P RIZES

Environment award for Indian
Rajesh Shah of Bangalore has been honoured with the prestigious 2010 Intel Environment Award for his efforts to solve global safe drinking water and sanitation crises.

Indira Gandhi Peace Prize, 2010
Outgoing Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva was on 19th November selected for the prestigious Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development for 2010. Lula has been selected by an international jury chaired by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The prestigious prize was given to Lula for his outstanding contribution to the cause of eliminating hunger and promoting inclusive growth in his country, his advocacy for strong ties among the developing countries and for his significant contribution to the cause of India-Brazil partnership, a statement from Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust said. Indira Gandhi Peace Prize: The Indira Gandhi Peace Prize or the Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development is the prestigious award accorded annually by India to individuals or organizations in recognition of creative efforts toward promoting international peace, development and a new international economic order; ensuring that scientific discoveries are used for the larger good of humanity, and enlarging the scope of freedom. The prize carries a cash award of 25 lakh Indian rupees and a citation. A written work, in order to be eligible for consideration, should have been published. The panel constituted by the Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust consists of prominent national and international personalities including previous recipients. The recipients are chosen from a pool of national and international nominees. Recipients of Indira Gandhi Peace Prize Year 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2008 2010 Name of Recipient Year Name of Recipient Jimmy Carter 1998 Muhammad Yunus M S Swaminathan 2000 Mary Robinson Sadako Ogata 2002 Shridath Ramphal Kofi Annan 2004 Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Hamid Karzai 2006 Wangari Maathai Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Mohamed ElBaradei 2009 Sheikh Hasina Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva

Appleby Award
Vice-President Hamid Ansari will give away the prestigious Paul H. Appleby Award for distinguished service to public administration for 2010 to Jaipur-based academician and management expert Ramesh K. Arora at the Indian Institute of Public Administration's annual general meeting in New Delhi.

CNN-IBN Lifetime Achievement Award
Veteran agricultural scientist M. S. Swaminathan has been conferred the CNN-IBN Indian of the Year 2010 Lifetime Achievement Award for his “outstanding leadership in the field of agriculture that has contributed to ensuring food security for millions of Indians.” Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee presented the award to Dr. Swaminathan at a function here. Dr. Swaminathan, a statement from CNN-IBN noted, has “worked consistently towards the actualisation of his dream of a hunger-free world with the help of his innovative concepts of sustainable development, especially with eco-friendly techniques of agriculture, food availability, and biodiversity conservation.”

Man Booker Prize
British writer and journalist Howard Jacobson's novel The Finkler Question, a semi-autobiographical comic take on Jewish identity, is the surprise winner of this year's Man Booker Prize. It was not the unanimous choice of the jury and, in the end, two of the five judges voted against it. Manchester born Mr. Jacobson, who lives in London, beat two of the bookies' favourites — Tom McCarthy's C and Emma Donoghue's Room — to win the £50,000 prize. Critics were disappointed to see Australian writer Peter Carey miss out on Parrot and Olivier in America. Had Mr. Carey won, he would have become the first ever writer to win a Booker three times. Mr. Jacobson's previously longlisted novels are Kalooki Nights and Who's Sorry Now?

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Nobel Prizes, 2010
Physiology or Medicine: Robert G. Edwards "for the development of in vitro fertilization". Physics: Awarded jointly to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov "for ground-breaking experiments regarding the twodimensional material graphene" Chemistry: Awarded jointly to Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki "for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis". Economic Sciences: The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded jointly to Peter A. Diamond, Dale T. Mortensen and Christopher A. Pissarides "for their analysis of markets with search frictions". Literature: Mario Vargas Llosa "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat". Nobel Peace Prize: Awarded to Liu Xiaobo "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China". Nobel Prize Winner - 2010
Winner's Name Konstantin Novoselov Andre Geim Liu Xiaobo Field Physics Peace Country Russia China Work For groundbreaking experi ments regarding the twodimensional material graphene. The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 was awarded to Liu Xiaobo "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China". For his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat. For the development of in vitro fertilization. For palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis. For their analysis of markets with search frictions.

India Science Award
World renowned statistician C.R. Rao received the India Science Prize in recognition of his outstanding work in statistics from Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Singh presented the award to Rao, his friend, at the inaugural ceremony of the 21st general meeting of the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World, formerly known as Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS). India Science Prize, which carries a reward of Rs.25 lakh and a 200-gram gold medal, was presented on behalf of the Indian National Science Academy. It is the highest professional recognition that the country offers to outstanding Indian scientist for the work done in India.

Honorary Doctorate
Bollywood actor Preity Zinta, known for her performances in films like Kal Ho Naa Ho and Veer Zaara, will be conferred a doctorate by a leading U.K. university. Zinta, who has the unique distinction of addressing the Oxford Union on Wednesday, will receive the doctorate from the University of East London. A versatile actor, Zinta has acted in over 30 films in Hindi, Telugu, Punjabi and English. The 35-year-old star made her acting debut with Mani Ratnam’s Dil Se in 1998 followed by a role in Soldier the same year. These performances earned her a Filmfare Best Female Debut Award, and she was later recognised for her role as a teenage single mother in Kya Kehna (2000). Her first International film role was in the Canadian film Heaven on Earth, for which she was awarded the Silver Hugo Award for Best Actress at the 2008 Chicago International Film Festival.

Mario Vargas Llosa Literature

Peru

Leelavathi Award
Well-known physicist-turned author, journalist and television producer of Indian origin Simon Lehna Singh has been selected by the International Mathematical Union for the Leelavathi Award in recognition of his outstanding contribution to public outreach in mathematics. Named after the immortal mathematical treatise of the great Indian mathematician Bhaskaracharya, the award carries a cash prize of Rs.10 lakh and a citation. It will be presented at the closing ceremony of the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM), which will be held in Hyderabad from August 19 to 27. As of

Robert G. Edwards Medicine Richard F. Heck Chemistry Ei-ichi Negishi Akira Suzuki Peter A. Diamond Economics Dale T. Mortensen Christopher A. Pissarides

UK USA USA Japan USA USA UK

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now, the award is a one-time prize. Efforts are under way to make it a regular feature at the future sessions of the ICM. Dr. Singh was selected by a committee of five eminent mathematicians, led by M.S. Narasimhan of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

have made significant contribution in the field of leadership in education and management.

Mercy Ravi award
Delhi Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit has been selected for the first Mercy Ravi award for exemplary contribution to public life by a woman. The award, instituted by the Mercy Ravi Foundation, carries a purse of Rs.1 lakh and citation. Making the declaration at a public function organised on the occasion of the first death anniversary of the former Congress leader here on Sunday, foundation chairman P.V. Chandran said the date for presentation of the award would be finalised in consultation with Ms. Dikshit later.

David Dixon award
Triple Jumper from Jamaica Trecia Kaye Smith was conferred with the prestigious David Dixon award. Bestowed to the best athlete of the Games and named after the former honorary secretary of the Commonwealth Games Federation, the award was introduced in the Manchester 2002 Commonwealth Games. Trecia Kaye Smith is the third winner of the award which in earlier additions went to Natalie Du Toit (RSA) in 2002 and Samresh Jung (IND) in 2006.

Tagore award
Irom Sharmila who has been observing a fast-unto-death since November 4, 2000, demanding the repeal of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act was given the Rabindranath Tagore Award2010 on September 11. The award, instituted by the Indian Institute of Planning and Management (IIPM), carries Rs.51 lakh in cash, a gold medal, a citation and a shawl. The IIPM conferred the award on 16 people at a function in Kolkata on August 30. As the bed-ridden Sharmila could not go there, IIPM chairman M.K. Choudhury, Registrar Ratna Choudhury and Dean Tarun Bose came to the J.N. Hospital here to hand over the award to Ms. Sharmila.

Indira Gandhi Award
Noted music composer A R Rahman and Ramkrishna Mission Ashram Narainpur were on Sunday jointly honoured with the 25th Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration. Congress President Sonia Gandhi and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh gave the award. Swami Vyaptanand received the award on behalf of the Ashram. The award carries a cash prize of Rs. five lakh and a citation. The Ramkrishna Mission Ashram in Narainpur in Bastar region of Chhattisgarh was selected for the award for its work among the Pahadi Madia tribals, while Rahman was honoured for bringing together people of all ages and all lands on the uniform platform of melody, rhythm and song.

Sahitya Akademi awards
Eight books of poetry, four novels, three collections of short stories, four works of criticism, one travelogue, an autobiography and a play were among the literary works in 22 languages that have won the Sahitya Akademi Awards for 2010. The awards announced here on Monday were recommended by jury members representing 22 languages, and approved by the Executive Board of Sahitya Akademi which met under the chairmanship of its president Sunil Gangopadhyay. The poets honoured are Aurobindo Uzir (Bodo), Arun Sakhardande (Konkani), Gopi Narayan Pradhan (Nepali), Vanita (Punjabi), Mangat Badal (Rajasthani), Mithila Prasad Tripathi (Sanskrit), Laxman Dubey (Sindhi) and Sheen Kaaf Nizam (Urdu). The novelists who have won the award are Bani Basu

Bihari Puruskar
Poet Hemant Shesh has been given the award for his collection of poetry ‘Jagah Jaisi Jagah’. The award has been instituted by the K.K. Birla foundation and is given to only Rajasthani writers.

Dewang Mehta Award
Lt-Gen Dr D.D.S. Sandhu, Vice-Chancellor of Kurukshetra University, has been selected for the Dewang Mehta Award for his outstanding contribution to education. The Dewang Mehta Award is conferred upon outstanding educationists and administrators who

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(Bengali), Esther David (English), Dhirendra Mehta (Gujarati) and M. Borkanya (Manipuri). Uday Prakash (Hindi), Nanjil Nadan (Tamil) and Manoj (Dogri) have won the awards for their short story collections. Keshada Mahanta (Assamese), Rahamath Tarikere (Kannada), Basher Bashir (Kashmiri) and Ashok R. Kelkar (Marathi) won the awards for their books of criticism. The other winners are the former Union Minister M.P. Veerendra Kumar (Malayalam) for his travelogue, Pathani Pattnaik (Oriya) for his autobiography and playwright Bhogla Soren (Santhali). Sahitya Akademi secretary Agrahara Krishna Murthy said the awards for Telugu and Maithili would be announced in a few weeks. He said the books were selected on the basis of recommendations made by a three-member jury in the respective languages. The awards, which include a cash prize of Rs.1 lakh, will be presented to the winners on February 15 next year during the Festival of Letters in the capital. The festival will also include a seminar on the works of Rabindranath Tagore. Akademi is instituting the Yuva Sahitya Puraskar for debutant writers in Indian languages under the age of 35 from next year. Earlier this year, the Akademi had instituted the Bala Sahitya Puraskar for writers of children's literature.

outstanding contribution to Indian cinema. The award comprises of a Swarn Kamal, a cash prize of Rs one million and a shawl. The industry veteran, who entered the film world in 1963 with "Anuragam", is listed as the most prolific producer with 110 films by the Guinness Book of Records. He has the distinction of producing movies in Hindi, Bengali, Oriya, Assamese, Malayalam, Tamil, Kannada, Gujarati, Marathi and Bhojpuri. Some of his well-known films are “Premanagar”, “Dildar” and “Bandish” in Hindi, “Srikrishna Tulabharam”, “Preminchu” and “Ramudu Bheemudu” in Telugu and “Asukh” and “Sudhu Ekbar Bolo” in Bengali.

57th National Film Awards
Best feature film: Kutty Srank (Malayalam). Best Director: Rituparno Ghosh for Abohoman (Bengali). Best Actor: Amitabh Bachchan for Paa (Hindi). Best Actress: Ananya Chatterjee for Lahore (Hindi). Best supporting actor: Farooque Sheikh for Lahore (Hindi). Best supporting actress: Arundhati Naag for Paa (Hindi). Indira Gandhi award for best debut film of a director: Lahore (Hindi) by Sanjay Puran Singh Chauhan. Best popular film providing wholesome entertainment: 3 Idiots (Hindi). Nargis Dutt award for best feature film on national integration: Delhi 6 (Hindi). Best film on social issues: Well Done Abba (Hindi). Best Music Director: Amit Trivedi for Anurag Kashyap's “Dev-D”. Best Lyrics: ‘Behti hawa sa tha woh’ from “3 Idiots”, written by Swanand Kirkere. Best playback singer (male): Rupam Islam, for his rendering of ‘Kolakata’ in the Bengali film “Mahanagar”. Best playback singer (female): Nilanjana Sarkar, for Bengali movie “Houseful”. Best children’s film: Shared by “Putaani Party” in Kannada and “Keshu” in Malayalam. Best child actor: Jeeva and Anba Karaus share the award.

Jnanpith Award, 2007 and 2008
Eminent Malayalam litterateur O.N.V. Kurup has been chosen for the 2007 Jnanpith award. Noted Urdu poet Akhlaq Khan Shahryar has been chosen for the 2008 award. Born in 1931 in Kerala’s Kollam district, Kurup is a leading voice among the contemporary Malayalam poets. He has reinvented the narrative transition of Malayalam poetry through his long poems like ‘Ujjayini’ and ‘Swayamvaram’. Born in 1936 in a Muslim Rajput family in Uttar Pradesh’s Bareilly district, Shahryar shaped himself as an “intellectual poet”, whose poetry strongly expresses an “ideological non-commitment”. His roots lie in his desire for self-realisation and his attempt to understand modern problems. Among his famous compositions is: “Seene Mein Jalan, Akhon Mein Toofan Sa Kyon Hai”.

Dada Saheb Phalke Award, 2009
Telugu film actor-producer D. Ramanaidu has been selected for the prestigious Dada Saheb Phalke Award for 2009 for his

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Trophy for Sports
The Punjabi University and Guru Nanak Dev University have been awarded the trophy for academic session 2008-09 and 200910, respectively.

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Gallantry Awards, 2010
Ashok Chakra: Major Laishram Jyotin Singh, an unarmed army doctor serving in Kabul, who took on a suicide bomber and killed him, has been awarded Ashok Chakra (posthumously), the highest peacetime gallantry award. Kirti Chakra: Captain Davinder Singh Juss of the Parachute Regiment and Vinod Kumar Choubey, SP, Chhattisgarh, have been awarded India’s second highest peace time gallantry award. Juss killed a foreign terrorist in February 2010 during an encounter in J&K and Choubey fought against more than 300 naxalites.

Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award, 2009
India's ace shuttler Saina Nehwal has been selected for the prestigious award, for her outstanding achievements on the badminton court. The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna is India’s highest honour given for achievement in sports. The award carries a medal, a scroll of honour and a cash component of Rs. 500,000. The award was instituted in the year 1991-92 to supply the lack of a supreme national accolade in the field of sports.

Dronacharya Awards, 2009
This award is given by the government of India for excellence in sports coaching. The award comprises a bronze statuette of Dronacharya, a scroll of honour and a cash component of Rs.500,000 each. The award was instituted in 1985. As the best sports-person award is named Arjuna Award, it is appropriate that the coaching award is named after Dronacharya, as he was the Guru ofArjuna. Among the winners of 2009 award were: Subhash B. Aggarwal (Billiards & Snooker), L. Ibomcha Singh (Boxing) and Ajay Kumar Bansal (Hockey). Captain Roop Chand (Wrestling) and A.K. Kutty (Athletics) were awarded for lifetime achievement.

Cancer centre chosen for Abu Dhabi forum’s award
Regional Cancer Centre(RCC) here has been selected for the Chirayinkil Ansar Memorial award instituted by Friends Abu Dhabi Malayali Samajam. The award, carrying Rs. 1 lakh, was announced at a press meet here today by the fourm’s office-bearers. A major cancer treatment centre in India, RCC was chosen for the award in recognition of its services and track record in a critical area of medicare, they said. The selection was made by jury comprising Kerala Press Akademy Chairman S R Sakthidharan, senior journalist T N Gopakumar, Gulf-based entreprenuer Thomas John and social worker Kaniyapuram Sainuddeen. The award was instituted in memory of Chirayinkil Ansar, who lived many years in Abu Dhabi and left a mark as writer, journalist and charity organiser.

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize
For the first time three women figure in the list of nine scientists chosen for the prestigious Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize 2010. The awards were announced at a function to mark the foundation day of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research at New Delhi on 2010 September 26th. The award for S&T Innovations for Rural Development 2009 will go to the Indian Oil Corporation's Research and Development Centre in Faridabad. Award carries a cash prize of Rs. 5 lakh, a citation and a plaque and will be presented. The awardees for Biological Sciences are Sanjeev Galande of the National Centre for Cell Science, Pune and Shubha Tole of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. The others are Swapan K. Pati, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore; Sandeep Verma, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur ; G.K. Ananthasuresh, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore; Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata (Engineering Sciences); Mitali Mukerji,

Arjuna Awards, 2009
Indian women’s cricket team captain, Jhulan Goswami, who won the ICC Women's Player of The Year Award in 2007, is among those named for the Arjuna Award for the year 2009 by the committee headed by former track queen P.T. Usha. Other winners are: Joseph Abraham (Athletics), Krishna Poonia (Athletics), Dinesh Kumar(Boxing), Parimrajan Negi (Chess), Deepak Kumar Mandal (Football), Sandeep Singh (Hockey (Men)), Jasjeet Kaur Handa (Hockey (Women)), Dinesh Kumar (Kabaddi), Sanjeev Rajput (Shooting), Rehan Jehangir Poncha (Swimming), Kapil Dev K.J. (Volleyball), Rajeev Tomar (Wrestling), Rajesh Chaudhary (Yachting), Jagseer Singh (Paralympic (Athletics)). Awardees will receive statuettes, citations and cash prize of Rs.5 lakh each.

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Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi , Umesh Vasudeo Waghmare, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore and Kalobaran Maiti, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (Physical Sciences). This year no award is being given in Earth, Atmosphere, Ocean and Planetary Sciences and Mathematical Sciences.

Dan David Prize
Noted Indian author Amitav Ghosh has won the prestigious Dan David Prize for his remarkable reworking of the great tradition of the western novel in transnational terms. The $1 million award is a joint international enterprise endowed by the Dan David Foundation and head-quartered at Tel Aviv University. It is annually awarded in three different fields—archaeology, performing arts and material science—in the three-dimension time framework of past, present and future. Ghosh, 53, is the third Indian to win the award, joining an elite league comprising of chemist C.N.R. Rao and musician Zubin Mehta. The Indian author will be sharing the prize in the present dimension with Dr Gordon E. Moore, whose Moore's Law has become the guiding principle for the semi-conductor industry.

Best Supporting Actor (Female): Divya Dutta for her performance in “Delhi 6”. Best Actor in Negative Role: Boman Irani for his role in “3 Idiots”. Best performance in Comic Role: Sanjay Dutt for performance in “All the Best”. Best Music Director: Pritam for “Love Aaj Kal”. Best Singer (Male): Shaan, for “Behti hawa sa tha woh” (3 Idiots). Best Singer (Female): Kavita Seth for “Iktara’ in “Wake Up, Sid!”. Best Lyrics: Swanand Kirkire for “3 Idiots”. Best Debut (Female): Jacqueline Fernandez and Mahie Gill share the award for their role in “Aladin” and “Dev D”, respectively. Best Debut (Male): Omi Vaidya for his role of Chatur in “3 Idiots” and ackky Bhagnani for “Kal Kissne Dekha”. Lifetime Achievement Award: Veteran filmmaker J. Om Prakash and yesteryear actress Zeenat Aman. Outstanding achievement by an Indian in International Cinema: Anil Kapoor. The awards ceremony was held in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

National Technology Award, 2010
A pioneer in processing rice bran oil, A.R. Sharma, who comes from dusty town of Dhuri in Sangrur district, has been honoured with the national award by the Technology Development Board of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Former President Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam presented the award Rs 10 lakh and a trophy to him. Sharma is the chairman-cum-managing director of the A.P. Organics (P) Ltd, a part of Rs 500-crore A.P. Solvex Group of Companies. The group is the largest producer of refined rice bran oil, a health-friendly cooking oil produced from the outer brown layer of rice. For the past over 50 years, the rice bran oil is being used as a premium cooking oil in countries like Japan, Korea, China and Thailand. In Japan, it is popularly known as “Heart Oil” because of its scientifically proven cholesterol-lowering properties. India is the second largest producer of paddy in the world, having potential to produce over 12 lakh tonnes per annum of this healthy cooking oil. Unfortunately, it is used in India more in producing soaps and detergents than as a nutritious and healthy cooking oil. “Our group enjoys the distinction of being pioneer in development of an eco-friendly and health-friendly cooking oil,” says

Dhyan Chand Award, 2009
Anita Chanu (Weightlifting), Satish Pal (Athletics) and Kuldeep Singh (Wrestling) have been chosen for the award which is India's highest award for lifetime achievement in sports and games. The award is named after the legendary Indian hockey player Dhyan Chand.

IIFA Awards, 2010
Best Film: 3 Idiots. Best Actor: Amitabh Bachchan, for his role as a progeria-afflicted child in “Paa”. Best Actress: Shared jointly by Vidya Balan for “Paa” and Kareena Kapoor for “3 Idiots”. Best Director: Rajkumar Hirani for “3 Idiots Best Screenplay: 3 Idiots. Best Cinematography: 3 Idoits Best Supporting Actor (Male): Sharman Joshi for his role in “3 Idiots”.

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Sharma, holding that the process used by the group for production of refined rice bran oil is economical and scientifically proven process. The patent for the process is registered with the Government of India in my name,” adds Sharma.

Sachin wins Sir Garfield Sobers Award
Sachin Tendulkar capped a fine year with the most coveted cricketing reward in recent times ‘The Sir Garfield Sobers Cricketer of the Year' Award as the maestro glittered bright amidst a galaxy of leading players at the LG ICC Awards night here on 6th October. Tendulkar became the second Indian to win the award after Rahul Dravid bagged it in 2004. After scoring 1,000 Test runs this year besides becoming the first man to score a double hundred in ODI cricket while South Africa wilted against him at Gwalior, Tendulkar scored another double at the awards function as he also won the ‘LG People's Choice Award.' The Indian team had a lot more to cheer about as Virender Sehwag, with 1,282 runs in the game's longer version, was adjudged the ‘Test Cricketer of the Year' and M.S. Dhoni was named the skipper of a World Test XI. Bishan Singh Bedi was inducted into the ‘ICC Hall of Fame' along with Joel Garner, Courtney Walsh and former England women's cricketer Rachael Heyhoe Flint. The night then ebbed away in a medley of tunes as ‘ODI Player of the Year' A.B. de Villiers performed with his band. The awardees: Sir Garfield Sobers Cricketer of the Year: Sachin Tendulkar; LG People's Choice Award: Sachin Tendulkar; Women's Cricketer of the Year: Shelley Nitschke (Australia); Test Player of the Year: Virender Sehwag; ODI Player of the Year: A.B. de Villiers (South Africa); Spirit of Cricket: New Zealand; Umpire of the Year: Aleem Dar (Pakistan); Emerging Player: Steven Finn (England); Associate and Affiliate Player: Ryan ten Doeschate (Netherlands); Twenty20 International Performance of the Year: Brendon McCullum (of New Zealand for his unbeaten 116 against Australia at Christchurch on February 28, 2010). Inductees into the ICC Hall of Fame: Bishan Singh Bedi, Joel Garner, Courtney Walsh and Rachael Heyhoe Flint.

ICC Test World XI: M.S. Dhoni (captain), Virender Sehwag, Simon Katich, Sachin Tendulkar, Hashim Amla, Kumar Sangakkara, Jacques Kallis, Graeme Swann, James Anderson, Dale Steyn and Doug Bollinger. ICC ODI World XI: Ricky Ponting (captain), Sachin Tendulkar, Shane Watson, Michael Hussey, A.B. de Villiers, Paul Collingwood, M.S. Dhoni (wicketkeeper), Daniel Vettori, Stuart Broad, Doug Bollinger and Ryan Harris. PM’s Award for Excellence in Public Administration Gulshan Bamra has been given the award for his initiative to involve community in the Naxal-affected areas of Madhya Pradesh.

Commonwealth Prize, 2010
British-Indian author Rana Dasgupta (38) has won the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize for ‘Best Book’ on for his second book Solo. Rana won a prize of £10,000 (Rs 8.5 lakh). Solo is a story told by a 100-year-old Bulgarian, and includes a cast of riveting characters, among them talking parrots. Though Dasgupta was born in Britain and holds a British passport, he has been based in Delhi for over eight years now. His first novel “Tokyo Cancelled” had also drawn enormous praise. Australian author Glenda Guest’s “Siddon Rock” won in the Best First Book category.

Saraswati Samman, 2009
“Lafzan Di Dargah”, a poetry collection in Punjabi by Surjit Patar, has been awarded the 19th Saraswati Samman for 2009. The award, instituted by the K.K. Birla Foundation in 1991, carries an award of Rs 5 lakh, a citation and a plaque. It is recognised as the most prestigious and the highest literary honour in India and is given every year to an outstanding literary work written in an Indian language and published during the last 10 years. The first recipient of the award was Harivansh Rai Bachchan in 1991 for his autobiography. Other awardees include Marathi playwright Vijay Tendulkar, Oriya writer Manoj Das, Malayalam poetess Balamaniamma, Tamil writer Indira Parthasarathy, Bengali novelist Sunil Gangopadhyay and Urdu literary critic Shamsur Rahman Faruqi.

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Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards
Punjab has for the first time bagged the highest number of awards in the performing arts category for 2009, since the inception of the Sangeet Natak Akademi in 1952. The winners of the coveted honour include Ustad Lachhman Singh Seen (classical music tabla), Ustad Vilayat Khan, Goslan Khanna (ragi/dhadi) and Neeta Mahindra (theatre). Besides Kamal Arora (theatre make-up) from Chandigarh is another recipient. The award carries a citation, a shawl, a memento and a cash prize of Rs 1,00,000.

Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Awards, 2009
Entrepreneur of the year: Anand G. Mahindra, Vice Chairman and MD of Mahindra Group. Lifetime Achievement award: N. Vaghul, Ex-Chairman of ICICI Bank Ltd. Entrepreneur of the year (Start-up): Amit Mittal, Chairman and Managing Director of A2Z Maintenance & Engineering Services Pvt. Ltd. Entrepreneur of the year (Business transformation): Dr Vikram Akula, Chairperson & founder SKS Microfinance Ltd. Entrepreneur of the year (Manager): O.P. Bhatt, Chairman, State Bank of India. Entrepreneur of the year (Manufacturing): Harsh C. Mariwala, Chairman and Managing Director, Marico Ltd. Entrepreneur of the year (Healthcare and Life Sciences): Pankaj R. Patal, Chairman and Managing Director, Zydus Cadila Healthcare Ltd. Entrepreneur of the year (Services): Shashi Kiran Shetty, Chairman and Managing Director, Allcargo Global Logistics Ltd.

SAARC Environment Award, 2010
Environmentalist Baba Balbir Singh Seechewal has been selected for the award for setting new milestones in the field of environment, especially his initiative on cleaning the Kali Bein rivulet passing through Kapurthala, Punjab.

Oscar Awards, 2010
Best Movie: The Hurt Locker. Best Director: Kathyrn Bigelow (The Hurt Locker). She has become the first woman director to win the honour. Best Actor: Jeff Bridges (Crazy Heart). Best Actress: Sandra Bullock (The Blind Side). Best Supporting Actress: Mo’Nique. Best Supporting Actor: Christoph Waltz. Best Animated Movie: Up Best Foreign Film: The Secret in Their Eyes (Argentina).

Sasawaka Prize of UNEP, 2010
A portable light that can be recharged by pedalling for 20 minutes and was developed for use in areas not wired for electricity, has won a Canadian of Indian origin, Sameer Hajee, the prestigious Sasakawa Prize of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The device has been developed by Nuru Design (Nuru means light in Swahili). A pilot project is already in place in Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. The device, called the Nuru light, is essentially a lighting system that can be recharged by a pedal generator—the Nuru POWER Cycle. Nuru Light’s objective is to replace the use of expensive, polluting, unhealthy, and dangerous kerosene as a source of lighting for the two billion people without access to electricity. Of those, nearly 580 million are in India.

Chameli Devi Jain Award, 2009
The award for an outstanding woman media-person has been shared by Shoma Chaudhary, executive editor of Tehelka, Delhi and Monalisa Changkija, Editor of Nagaland Page, Dimapur.

Mother Teresa Award, 2010
UGC chairman Sukhadeo Thorat has been given the prestigious Mother Teresa Lifetime Achievement Award for 2010. Thorat, who has authored 21 publications, has been instrumental in introducing several academic and administrative reforms in higher education during ongoing XIth plan.

Grammy Awards, 2010
Life Time award: Michael Jackson, posthumously. Album of the Year: Taylor Swift, Fearless.

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Song Written for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media: Jai Ho, written by Gulzar, A. R. Rahman and Tanvi Shah, from “Slumdog Millionaire”. Record of the Year: Use Somebody, Kings of Leon. New Artist: Zac Brown Band. Song of the Year: Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It), written by Thaddis Harrell, Beyoncé Knowles, Terius Nash and Christopher Stewart (Beyonce). Female Pop Vocal Performance: Halo, Beyonce. Male Pop Vocal Performance: Make it mine, Jason Mraz. Pop Performance, Duo Or Group: I Gotta Feeling, the Black Eyed Peas. Pop Collaboration: Lucky, Jason Mraz and Colbie Caillat. Pop Instrumental Performance: Throw Down Your Heart, Béla Fleck. Pop Instrumental Album: Potato Hole, Booker T. Jones. Pop Vocal Album: The E.N.D., the Black Eyed Peas. Solo Rock Vocal Performance: Working on a Dream, Bruce Springsteen. Hard Rock Performance: War Machine, AC/DC. Metal Performance: Dissident Aggressor, Judas Priest. Rock Song: Use Somebody, written by Caleb Followill, Jared Followill, Matthew Followill and Nathan Followill. Rock Album: 21st Century Breakdown, Green Day. Alternative Music Album: Wolfgang Amadeus Phoenix, Phoenix. Female R&B Vocal Performance: Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It), Beyonce. Male R&B Vocal Performance: Pretty Wings, Maxwell. Female Country Vocal Performance: White Horse, Taylor Swift. Male Country Vocal Performance: Sweet Thing, Keith Urban. Score Soundtrack Album for Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media: Up.

was selected for this honour for her poetic collection, “Na Thsay Na Aks” (Neither shadow nor reflection). She has become the first women poet from Kashmir to be honoured by the Akademi. This was the second collection of Naseem’s poetry after “Derche Machrith” (open windows) in 1999.

Jeevan Raksha Padaks, 2010
Sarvottam Jeevan Raksha Padak: Braveheart Rukhsana Kauser and Delhi’s Narender Kaushik (posthumously) have been selected for Sarvottam Jeevan Raksha Padak for their conspicuous courage in saving life under circumstances of very great danger to the life of the rescuer. Rukhsana, 22, had killed a top Pakistani militant and injured another at Kalsian village in Rajouri district on the night of September 27 2009. Uttam Jeevan Raksha Padak: The winners include Syed Areef Sujauddin from Andhra Pradesh, Umman Antony from Kerala, Rajan Kamble from Maharashtra (all posthumously), besides Karanbir Singh Kang from Maharashtra and Prachi Santosh Sen from Madhya Pradesh. Kang, who lost his wife and two children in the 26\11 Mumbai attacks, had rescued many from Taj hotel and never dithered from doing his duty. Jeevan Raksha Padak series of awards are meant for meritorious act of humane nature in saving the life of a person in three categories: Sarvottam Jeevan Raksha Padak, Uttam Jeevan Raksha PAdak and Jeevan Raksha Padak.

Golden Globe Awards, 2010
Best Director: James Cameron for Avatar Best Motion Picture (Drama): Avatar Best Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy): The Hangover Best Actor (Motion Picture Drama): Jeff Bridges for Crazy Heart Best Actor (Motion Picture Musical or Comedy): Robert Downey Jr. for Sherlock Holmes Best Actress (Motion Picture Drama): Sandra Bullock for The Blind Side Best Actress (Motion Picture Musical or Comedy): Meryl Streep for Julie & Julia

Tagore Literature Award, 2009
Noted Kashmiri poet Naseem Shafai has been conferred the prestigious “Tagore Literature Award” by the Sahitya Akademi for her outstanding contribution in Kashmiri literature, especially poetry. The award has been instituted by the Akademi at the initiation of the Korean government and the Embassy of Korea in Delhi. Nasem

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Best Supporting Actor (Motion Picture): Christoph Waltz for Inglourious Basterds Best Supporting Actress (Motion Picture): Monique for Precious. Best Screenplay: Jason Reitman, Sheldon Turner for Up In The Air Best Original Score: Michael Giacchino for Up Best Original Song: “The Weary Kind” from Crazy Heart Best Foreign Language Film: The White Ribbon (Das Weisse Band - Eine Deutsche Kindergeschichte) from Germany Best Animated Film: Up

Dada Saheb Phalke Award, 2008
V.K. Murthy, the ace cinematographer of Guru Dutt’s films who is best known for his camera work in Chaudvin ka Chand and Pakeezah, has been honoured with the award. He is the first cinematographer to get the award.

Best Music Direction: Ajay Atul for Jogwa (Marathi) Best Lyrics: Antaheen (Bengali) Best Male Playback Singer: Hariharan for Jogwa (Marathi) Best Female Playback Singer: Shreya Ghoshal for Antaheen (Bengali) Best Choreography: Chinni Prakash and Rekha Prakash for Jodha Akbar Best Audiography: Pramod J. Thomas for Gandha (Marathi) Best Editing: A. Sreekar Prasad for Firaaq (Hindi) Best Special Effects: Govardhan (Tata Elxsi) Mumbai Meri Jaan (Hindi) Special Jury Award/Special Mention (Feature Film): Bioscope

Republic Day Awards, 2010
Padma Vibhushan: Nobel laureate of Indian origin Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Apollo Hospitals chief Pratap Reddy, former RBI Governor Y.V. Reddy, Zohra Segal, Ebrahim Alkazi and noted Mridangam Carnatic artist Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman. Padma Bhushan: Music maestro A.R. Rahman, Music maestro Illaiyaraaja, Bollywood actor Aamir Khan and controversial Indian origin businessman Sant Singh Chatwal, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s cardiac surgeon R.M. Panda, eminent neurosurgeon Satya Paul Agarwal, prominent industrialist from Punjab S.P. Oswal, Manvinder Singh Banga, eminent journalist Fareed Zakaria and real estate czar K.P. Singh were among the 43 winners. Padma Shri: Cricketer Virendra Sehwag, hockey player Ignace Tirkey, Formula One driver Narain Kartikeyan, badminton star Saina Nehwal, boxer Vijender Singh, Sachin Tendulkar's 'guru' Ramakant Achrekar, Yesteryear Bollywood diva Rekha, Oscar winner sound recordist Resul Pokutty and actor Saif Ali Khan were among 83 winners.

56th National Film Awards
Best Film: Antaheen (Bengali) Best Direction: Bala for Naan Kadavul (Tamil) Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment: Oye Lucky! Lucky Oye! Best Children’s Film: Gubbachigalu (Kannada) Best Film on Family Welfare: Little Zizou (English, Gujarati) Best Actor: Upendra Limaye for Jogwa (Marathi) Best Actress: Priyanka Chopra for Fashion (Hindi) Best Supporting Actor: Arjun Rampal for Rock On!! (Hindi) Best Supporting Actress: Kangana Ranaut for Fashion (Hindi) Indira Gandhi Award for Best First Film of a Director:A Wednesday (Hindi) Nargis Dutt Award (for Best Feature Film on National Integration): Aai Kot Nai (Assamese) Best Child Artist: Shams Patel Best Cinematography: Avik Mukhopadhyay for Antaheen (Bengali) Best Screenplay: Sachin Kundalkar for Gandha (Marathi) Best Art Direction: Gautam Sen for Firaaq Best Make-up Artist: V. Moorthy for Naan Kadauul (Tamil) Best Costume Design: Neeta Lulla for Jodhaa Akbar

Bravery Awards, 2010
Kirti Chakra: Rukhsana Kausar and her brother Aijaz Ahmad have been awarded the second highest gallantry award in peacetime, for their act of bravery in killing a Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) commander in their Morha Kalsi village in Jammu and Kashmir in 2009.

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Shakti Bhatt First Book Prize, 2009
Mridula Koshy's If It is Sweet, a collection of short stories, has bagged the award. The New Delhi-based author will get Rs 1 lakh and a citation. In 2008, Pakistani author Mohammed Hanif's A Case of Exploding Mangoes had won the award. The Shakti Bhatt Foundation is a non-profit trust set up by the late writer/editor's family to keep her memory alive.

China-India Friendship Award
Professor Manoranjan Mohanty and Professor Tan Chung and senior Communist Party of India (Marxist) leader Sitaram Yechury, for their “invaluable contributions” towards strengthening cooperation between the two neighbours. Professor Sreemati Chakrabarti, G. Viswanathan, founder-Chancellor of the VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu; Chandrajit Banerjee, Director-General of the Confederation of Indian Industry; V. Bhaskaran, general secretary of the India-China Friendship Association, Karnataka, and Editor of India-China People's View; educationist B.S. Shergill, who is also president of the Friends of China Association, Chandigarh; and Pallavi Aiyar, who worked for two years as The-Hindu's correspondent in Beijing.

Lokmanya Tilak National Journalist Award, 2010
N. Ram, Editor-in-Chief of the Hindu newspaper, has received the prestigious award, which is conferred for excellence in journalism on a personality making important contribution to the field of journalism at national level. Vir Sanghvi of Hindustan Times was the recipient of the Tilak Award in 2009.

Golden Peacock Award
IBM India has been conferred with The Golden Peacock award 2010 for its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives in India on Oct 7. IBM India is the first IT Company to win this award since its incep5on in 2002. The company was also been rated as the first among equals for its CSR practices amongst other recipients of the award 2010.

The Asian Television award
The Asian Television award for the Best Current Affairs Presenter was presented to Karan Thapar of the CNN-IBN. This is the fifth time that Mr. Thapar is winning the Best Current Affairs Presenter Award in the 15-year history of the Asian Television awards. He won the award in 1999, 2003, 2005 and 2007. 2010 year Mr. Thapar won the award for his “Devil's Advocate” interview programme. The winning interview with Ram Jethmalani was conducted in June. The subject was Mr. Jethmalani's controversial decision to rejoin the Bharatiya Janata Party. The interview ended abruptly when Mr. Jethmalani walked out in anger over questions that explored allegations of opportunism surrounding his return to the BJP.

Business India’s Best Bank Award
Bank of Baroda (BOB) was presented the 'Business India Best Bank 2010' award by Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways, Kamal Nath at a function in the Mumbai on Oct 7. M D Mallya, Chairman and Managing Director, Bank of Baroda, accepted the Award on behalf of the bank.

Sarkozy honours two Indians
Remembering two French citizens who lost their lives in the November 26, 2008 terror attack in Mumbai, French President Nicolas Sarkozy honoured two Indians (M. Devendra Bharma, executive vice-president of Hotel Oberoi-Trident and M. Karambir Kang, former director-general of Hotel Taj Mahal ) by conferring ‘d'Officier de l'Ordre national du Merite' on them for being “efficient, attentive, courageous and taking decisions by risking their lives to save hundreds of lives.”

Finance Minister of the Year for Asia award
Finance Minister of India, Pranab Mukherjee has won 2010 Finance Minister of the Year for Asia award, conferred by Emerging Markets, part of Euromoney Institutional Investor Plc.

Green Apple award
Uttarkhand based NGO Himalayan Chipko Foundation has been awarded the Green Apple award at the House of Commons, London, for exposing the Hak Hakook scam in which timber meant for villagers in the State was sold to the timber mafia.

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P ERSONS

Nicole Faria
India's Nicole Faria has been crowned Miss Earth Talent 2010 after beating 17 other contestants at a talent competition in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. Ms. Faria, a 20-year-old girl from Bangalore, won the title at the talent show with a scintillating belly dance that combines Oriental and Middle Eastern style. Vietnam's representative Luu Thi Diem Huong was voted among the top five contestants with her performance of folk dances that are inspired by traditional dances in the northern, central and southern region of the country.

round were from China, USA, Botswana, Venezuela and Ireland. First runner up was Miss Botswana Emma Wareus followed by Miss Venezuela Adriana Vasini. The 18-year-old Mills described herself as a positive, spontaneous, open minded and outgoing person on the official Miss World website. The Miss World contestants spent a month in China, travelling to both Beijing and Shanghai before reaching Sanya on the southern Chinese island of Hainan. It was the fifth time in eight years that the beauty contest was held on the popular holiday island. The final marked 60 years since the first Miss World competition was first held in 1951.

Title Holders
Year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 Miss World Alexandria Mills Kaiane Aldorino Ksenia Sukhinova Zhang Zilin Tat(ána Kuchar(ova Unnur Birna Vilhjalmsdottir María Julia Mantilla Country Location

Title Holders
Year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 Country India Brazil Philippines Canada Chile Miss Earth Nicole Faria Larissa Ramos Karla Henry National title Location Nha Trang, Vietnam Boracay, Philippines Angeles City , Philippines Quezon City, Philippines Manila, Philippines Quezon City, Philippines Quezon City, Philippines Quezon City, Philippines Femina Miss India - Earth Beleza Brasil Miss Philippines Earth Miss Earth Canada Miss Earth Chile Miss Earth Venezuela Beleza Brasil Miss Earth Honduras

Jessica Trisko Hil Hernández

Venezuela Brazil Honduras

E RE S

A DI E M

C

Alexandra Braun Priscilla Meirelles

A DI E Rosanna Davison M Azra Akin Agbani Darego EE Chopra Priyanka SR

UN M M CO
Peru Ireland Turkey Nigeria India

United States Sanya, China Gibraltar Johannesburg, SouthAfrica Russia Johannesburg, SouthAfrica China Sanya, China Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland Iceland Sanya, China Sanya, China Sanya, China London, United Kingdom Sun City, South Africa London, United Kingdom

Jimena Navarrete
Miss Mexico Jimena Navarrete, 22, was crowned Miss Universe 2010 beating off competition from 82 contestants. Navarrete, dressed in a red gown with a flowing train, impressed judges by highlighting the importance of teaching children about family values. She was followed by Miss Jamaica Yendi Philipps while Miss Australia Jenista Campbell was the second runner-up at the 59th annual pageant held in Las Vegas.

Dania Prince

Alexandria Mills
Miss United States of America Alexandria Mills was crowned Miss World 2010 in China’s island province Hainan on October 30, beating more than 100 other contestants in the competition which

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Title Holders
Year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 Country Mexico Venezuela Venezuela Japan Puerto Rico Canada Australia Dominican Republic Miss Universe Location

First woman:
Born and raised in the East Bay, Ms. Harris was elected as the first woman District Attorney in San Francisco's history in December 2003, and as the first African-American woman and South Asian American woman in California to hold the office. She was reelected for a second term in November 2007. Ms. Harris is the daughter of Dr. Shyamala Gopalan, a breast cancer specialist from Tamil Nadu who travelled to the United States from Chennai to pursue her graduate studies at UC Berkeley.

Ximena Navarrete Las Vegas, U.S. Stefania Fernandez Nassau, Bahamas Dayana Mendoza Nha Trang, Vietnam Riyo Mori Mexico City, Mexico Zuleyka Rivera Los Angeles, U.S. Natalie Glebova Bangkok, Thailand Jennifer Hawkins Quito, Ecuador Amelia Vega Panama City, Panama

NS O TI

Hu Jintao
Chinese President Hu Jintao has been named the most powerful person in the world by Forbes, ahead of U.S. President Barack Obama who is ranked second among 68 people “who matter,” a list that also includes Congress President Sonia Gandhi and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Ms. Gandhi ranks 9th on the Forbes 2010 list of the ’World’s Most Powerful People.’ Dr. Manmohan Singh comes in at number 18. India’s business tycoons Reliance Industries Chairman Mukesh Ambani, Tata Sons Chairman Ratan Tata and head of ArcelorMittal, Lakshmi Mittal also make the list. Of the 6.8 billion people on the planet, Forbes’ list comprises “the 68 who matter.” Jintao, occupies the top slot for being the “paramount political leader of more people than anyone else on the planet” and one who “exercises near dictatorial control over 1.3 billion people, one-fifth of world’s population.”

Kyi, Aung San Suu
Myanmar’s iconic opposition leader, she was released on November 13, 2010, after spending 15 years in house arrest. In Myanmar, she is simply known as ‘The Lady’. She was born in Yangon in June, 1945 (known as Rangoon then). Her father, General Aung San, is a national hero who was on the verge of wresting independence from the British rule when he was assassinated in 1947. She was educated in Delhi and Oxford. Her mother was Ambassador to India. She married Michael Aris, an academic, in Oxford and raised two sons. She returned to Myanmar in 1988 to take care of her ailing mother and stayed back. The last elections in 1990 were won by Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy party, but the military refused to hand over power. She refused to leave Myanmar even when her husband died in 1999.

‘Time’ readers choose Assange Person of The Year
WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, who is in custody in London on rape charges, has won an online vote to be Time magazine’s Person of the Year, amid continuous leak of thousands of confidential U.S. diplomatic cables by his whistle-blower website. The 39-year-old Australian secured 382,020 votes, which gave him an easy first place, while U.S. President Barack Obama was in the sixth position with 27,478 votes. Mr. Assange received 148,383 votes more than Recep Tayyip Ergodan, Prime Minister of Turkey, who stood second with a score of 233,638. Pop star Lady Gaga was third with 146,378 votes, according to the magazine, which said that its editors, who choose the actual Person of the Year, reserve the right to disagree with the results of the online poll.

Kamala Harris
Indian-American Kamala Harris won the election for AttorneyGeneral of California. Ms. Harris will be the first woman to hold the office. Daughter of an Indian mother and African-American father, Ms. Harris is the District Attorney for San Francisco. She will replace Democrat Jerry Brown who won the election for Governor of California on November 02. Ms. Harris, who was the only Indian-American candidate publicly endorsed by President Barack Obama, defeated Steve Cooley of the Republican Party in a tough fight.

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Nikki Haley
Having gone from state legislature to Governor of South Carolina in a span of just six years, Nikki Randhawa Haley is being hailed as a rising star on the American political horizon. Daughter of Punjabi Sikh immigrants from Amritsar, Nimrata Nikki Randhawa Haley has become the first Indian-origin woman, and second IndianAmerican after Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal, to become the Governor of a U.S. state. Another Indian-American Kamala Harris won the election for Attorney-General of California. Five other IndianAmericans, all Democrats, bit the dust in the face of an antiestablishment vote.

subversion of State power, a year after being arrested as lead author of Charter 08, a manifesto issued by Chinese intellectuals and activists, calling for free speech and multi-party elections. Liu, a former literature professor, had risen to prominence as a strike leader during the protests at Tiananmen Square in 1989. He was later jailed for 20 months and then spent three years in a “labour reeducation” camp during the 1990s, as well as months under virtual house arrest.

Ed Miliband
Ed Miliband has won the Labour leadership in England after narrowly beating Brother David in a dramatic run-off vote ahead of the party's conference. Ed won by just over 1% from former foreign secretary David after second, third and fourth preference votes came into play. Mr Miliband, replaces acting leader Harriet Harman in the contest triggered by the resignation of Gordon Brown. The former energy secretary appears to have benefited from a last-minute surge of support.

Mario Vargas Llosa
Peruvian Mario Vargas Llosa, one of the most acclaimed writers in the Spanish-speaking world who once ran for President in his homeland, has won the 2010 Nobel Prize in literature. He has written more than 30 novels, plays and essays, including Conversation in the Cathedral and The Green House. In 1995, he was awarded the Cervantes Prize, the Spanish-speaking world’s most distinguished literary honour. His international breakthrough came with the 1960s novel The Time of The Hero, which builds on his experiences from the Peruvian military academy Leoncio Prado. The book was considered controversial in his homeland and a thousand copies were burnt publicly by officers from the academy. Vargas Llosa is the first South American winner of the prestigious prize since it was awarded to Colombian writer Gabriel Garcia Marquez in 1982. Born in Arequipa, Peru, Vargas Llosa grew up with his grandparents in Bolivia after his parents divorced. The family moved back to Peru in 1946 and he later went to military school before studying literature and law in Lima and Madrid. In 1959, he moved to Paris where he worked as a language teacher and as a journalist for Agence France-Presse and the national television service of France. He has lectured and taught at a number of universities in the US, South America and Europe.

Nitish Kumar
Nitish Kumar led NDA alliance has won 206 seats to form the government in Bihar. Nithish's triumph in 2010 Assembly polls was the biggest victory for any political leader in the state. Out of 243 Assembly seats, Janata Dal (United) has bagged 115 seats and its ally Bharatiya Janatha Party (BJP) has won 91 seats. Party JDU BJP RJD LJP CONG OTHERS

RE S

2005 88 55 54 10 9 27

Bihar Assembly Polls 2010 GAIN/LOSS 115 +27 91 +36 22 -32 3 -7 4 -5 8 -19

Liu Xiaobo
Jailed Chinese pro-democracy activist Liu Xiaobo has won the Nobel Peace Prize, 2010, “for decades of non-violent struggle for human rights”. Liu was jailed for 11 years in December 2009, for

Dilip Donde
On May 22, 2010, Commander Dilip Donde of the Indian Navy became the first Indian ever to circumnavigate the globe solo on a sail-boat when he steered into the Mumbai harbour after his arduous effort spanning a little over nine months. Commander Dilip

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Donde, who started the voyage on August 19 2009 on INSV Mhadei, touched base back in India at the Sunk Rock Light House in Mumbai. His boat was ceremonially escorted by a fast attack craft of the Indian Navy, along with speedboats and two tugs operating their water cannons. Vice-President Hamid Ansari, along with Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Nirmal Kumar Verma and Donde’s family members, who were on board INS Delhi, anchored at the finish line, witnessed the historic moment and gave him a rousing reception. The 56-foot-long Mhadei, with 23-tonne displacement, is the first fibre glass yacht constructed entirely in India and boasts of state-of-the-art navigation and communication equipment. The 276day voyage was part of the Navy's daunting Sagar Parikrama project, which aims to revive the old tradition of sea faring. The world record for the fastest solo circumnavigation was set in January 2008 by Frenchman Francis Joyon, at 67 days, 13 hours, 34 minutes and 6 seconds.

Wellington-based Defence Services Staff College as well as the Rangers Course at Fort Benning, USA and the US Army War College, Carlisle. He was commissioned into 2 Rajput Regiment in June 1970 and commanded the same unit when it was positioned along the Line of Control with Pakistan. Experienced in counter insurgency operations, Line of Control and high altitude operations, Gen Singh was awarded the Yudh Sena Medal for his distinguished service during 'Operation Pawan' against the LTTE in Sri Lanka.

Girija Prasad Koirala
Veteran democratic leader of Nepal politics and former Prime Minister of Nepal, he died on March 20, 2010. He was 87. He had the distinction of becoming the Prime Minister of Nepal five times. He had led the peaceful April Uprising in 2006 and abolished the 239-year-old authoritarian royal regime of Nepal.

C.K. Prahalad
Dr C.K. Prahalad, a globally known influential management thinker, died on April 19, 2010. He shook the corporate world in the US and elsewhere during the past two decades with his offbeat but radical strategies for managing corporations. The most notable among them was his “The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid” through which he urged MNCs to evolve a business model that would cater to the huge market of world’s four billion poor. He firmly believed that such an approach would help eradicate the scourge of poverty. He stole the limelight with his best seller book “The Future of Competition”. He stressed that it would not be worthwhile for the companies to foray into unrelated diversifications. The book is widely acknowledged as one of the world's most significant forces in corporate thinking. He was a member of the Blue Ribbon Commission of the United Nations on private sector and development. He was also the first recipient of the Lal Bahadur Shastri Award for contributions to management and public administration, presented by the President of India in 2000.

Sachin is Indian Air Force group captain
Indian sports icon Sachin Tendulkar conferred the honorary rank of group captain by the Indian Air Force (IAF) for services the cricketer has rendered to the nation through the sport. The cricketer was presented his rank by Air Chief Marshal P V Naik.

Mukesh Ambani
Reliance Industries' Chairman and Managing Director Mukesh Ambani has been elected Member to the Board of World Economic Forum. Others elected to the Board are: Alcatel-Lucent's CEO Ben J. Verwaayen and Special Adviser, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and a former Deputy Governor, People's Bank of China, Zhu Min. Mukesh Ambani will bring an extraordinary level of business acumen and his commitment to the ideals of the Forum. He has played a key role, especially related to the integration of India into all our activities.”

V.K. Murthy
V. K. Murthy is the first cinematographer, and second Kannadiga after Kannada movie icon Dr Raj Kumar, to get the Dada Saheb Phalke award for his contribution to the film industry. He is known for his work in most Guru Dutt films like Sahib Biwi Aur Ghulam, Kaagaz Ke Phool and Pyaasa. Besides Guru Dutt, Murthy also worked with Pramod Chakravarthy (Naya Zamana, Jugnu),

Gen. Vijay Kumar Singh
Gen V.K. Singh is the Chief of Indian army. A third generation officer from the Rajput regiment, Gen Singh is a graduate of the

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Kamal Amrohi (Pakeezah) and Shyam Benegal (Bharat Ke Khoj, a television series). He also shot India’s first cinema-scope movies, Kagaz ke Phool and is also one of the pioneers of colour cinematography.

Simon Lehna Singh
Famousphysicist-turned author, journalist and television producer of Indian origin Simon Lehna Singh has been selected by the International Mathematical Union for the Leelavathi Award in recognition of his outstanding contribution to public outreach in mathematics.Named after the mathematical treatise of the great Indian mathematician Bhaskaracharya, the award carries a cash prize of Rs.10 lakh and a citation and will be presented by the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM).

was actively involved in the freedom struggle and the Goa liberation movement. Though he also wrote in Marathi and Hindi, his contributions to the growth of Konkani were immense. Always at the forefront of the Konkani movement, he struggled to seek recognition for the Konkani language.

Mukesh Ambani
RIL Chairman Mukesh Ambani has topped Forbes magazine's list of the 100 richest Indians for the third year in-a-row, pipping billionaires like L N Mittal and Azim Premji with a net worth of USD 27 billion.

O. P. Bhatt
State Bank of India Chairman O. P. Bhatt has been elected the new Chairman of the Indian Banks' Association (IBA) for 201011. Mr. Bhatt will take charge from M. V. Nair, Chairman and Managing Director of Union Bank. HDFC Bank Managing Director Aditya Puri, Bank of Baroda Chairman and Managing Director M. D. Mallya and Canara Bank Chairman and Managing Director A. C. Mahajan were elected deputy chairmen. Yes Bank Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer Rana Kapoor has been elected Honorary Secretary of the association.

Samy Vellu
Samy Vellu until recently president of the Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), will be Malaysia's Special Envoy to India and South Asia for Infrastructure with effect from New Year's Day 2011.

Vinod Sharma
Vinod Sharma, political editor of Hindustan Times, is slated to be appointed member of the National Commission for Minorities. He will be a representative of the majority community. He will succeed veteran journalist Dileep Padgaonkar.

Sachin
Milestones have become so routine in Sachin Tendulkar’s career that it hardly came as a surprise when he touched another one by becoming the first batsman in cricket’s history to notch up an astonishing 50 Test hundreds. The 37-year-old right-hander, who has spent a remarkable over 20 years in international cricket, has perhaps every batting record that is there to be taken under his belt and adding to the countless tally is the historic hundred that he struck against South Africa in the opening Test at Centurion, on December 19, 2010. Much before his debut on November 15, 1989, Tendulkar’s precocious talent was there to be seen when he shared an unbeaten 664-run stand with buddy Vinod Kambli in the Lord Harris Shield inter-school game in 1988. Tendulkar is also the only batsman in the world who has scored a double ton in ODIs, a feat he achieved in Gwalior against South Africa in February. This feat was included in Time magazine’s top 10 sports moments of the year.

Brahma
Brahma assumes charge as Election Commissioner. Sixtyyear-old Harishankar Brahma, a retired IAS officer of 1975 batch from the Andhra Pradesh cadre, assumed charge as Election Commissioner at Nirvachan Sadan. Mr. Brahma, who retired as the Union Power Secretary in April this year, will hold office till April 18, 2015. He is the second person from the North-East to become an Election Commissioner, after J.M. Lyngdoh.

Ravindra Kelekar
Konkani litterateur and Jnanpith Award winner Ravindra R. Kelekar, 85, died. Ravindra Kelekar was born on March 25, 1925 at Cuncolim in south Goa. Influenced by the Gandhian thoughts, he

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Sharad Pawar
Sharad Pawar assumed office as President of the International Cricket Council (ICC) at its annual conference in Singapore. The Union Agriculture Minister and former President of the Board of Control for Cricket in India succeeded David Morgan after serving as the ICC Vice- President since 2008. Mr. Pawar is only the second Indian, after Jagmohan Dalmiya, to have become the highest executive of the world cricket body. Soon after taking over as the seventh President of the ICC for a two-year term.

tucked under his left arm. Sachin appears on the January 2011 page of the calendar with an air superiority fighter Su-30MKI in the background. Sachin is the only person appearing in the calendar, which otherwise carries the pictures of various fighter planes and transport aircraft of the IAF. On September 3, the IAF conferred the honorary rank of Group Captain on Sachin for his cricketing achievements and contribution to the nation. Sachin is the first sportsperson to be conferred a rank by IAF and the first personality with no aviation background to receive the honour.

Prasoon Joshi
Ad-man and lyricist, he has been named as the Chairman of McCann Worldgroup Creative Leadership Council. This is the first time in McCann’s history that an Asian has been appointed to the top global creative position.

Kapil Dev
Legendary all-rounder Kapil Dev, who led India to their only ODI World Cup triumph in 1983, has been inducted into the International Cricket Council’s Hall of Fame. A commemorative cap was presented to Kapil by ICC President David Morgan, in front of fellow Hall of Famer Clive Lloyd, as well as an audience of ICC officials and other invited guests at the governing body’s headquarters in Dubai. The Hall of Fame, run in association with the Federation of International Cricketers' Associations (FICA), recognises some of the legends of the game.

Prasun Chatterjee
An Indian environmental engineering student whose research has contributed to a new way of detecting toxic lead and copper in water, has won one of the highest US research honours. Chatterjee, a research student at the University of Lehigh, Pennsylvania, received the 2010 C. Ellen Gonter Environmental Chemistry Award from the American Chemical Society's (ACS) Environmental Chemistry Division.

UK Sinha
UK Sinha appointed as the new Chairman of Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI). Sinha will replace CB Bhave on Feb. 17, 2011. Sinha is now the Chairman and Managing Director of UTI Asset Management Company.

Shyam Saran Negi
Shyam Saran Negi, resident of the remote Kalpa village in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh, was the first to cast his vote in independent India’s first elections on October 23, 1951. Elections in snow-bound Kinnaur region were held ahead of other places in India, where the elections were held in January and February of 1952.

Yesuratnam
Magistrate, A Yesuratnam of Venkatagiri Court in Sree Potti Sreeramulu Nellore District declared judgements in 300 different cases. This is the first time that number of judgements is announced in one single day in the history of Indian judiciary.

He Pingping
He Pingping of China, at 2 feet 5 inches is the world’s shortest man and Sultan Kosen of Turkey, at 8 feet 1 inches is the tallest man.

Sachin Tendulkar
Sachin Tendulkar can now be seen in IAF fatigues along with the Sukhoi fighter aircraft in the force’s 2011 calendar. The cricket icon, who was recently conferred the honorary rank of Group Captain, features in the calendar wearing a green flying suit with helmet

Rahat Taslim
Rahat Taslim from Giridih, Jharkhand has become the first contestant to win the prize money of Rs.1 crore in the fourth season of game show Kaun Banega Crorepati.

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John Wakefield
John Wakefield, fondly known as ‘Papa,'the torchbearer of Karnataka's first eco-tourism project — the Kabini River Lodge on the banks of the Kabini at Karapur in Mysore district, passed away.

Mazlan Othman
Malaysian astrophysicist, she has been appointed as the head of the UN’s little-known Office for the Outer Space Affairs (UUNOOSA). She is officially the world’s first contact for any aliens that may come visiting.

Chinthakindi Mallesham
Chinthakindi Mallesham of Sharajipet in Nalgonda Dist selected by the Forbes Magazine as one of the 'seven most powerful rural enterpreneurs'. Mallesham who dropped the school in eighth class invented Laxmi Asu Machine to ease the work of handloom weavers.

A. Divya
A. Divya is the first woman cadet in the history of the Officers Training Academy, one of India’s premier defence training institutes, to be decorated with its highest award, the ‘Sword of Honour’.

A.K. Antony
A.K. Antony became the first Defence Minister to land on the Advanced Landing Ground (ALG) of Nyoma in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir.The ALG, activated in September,2009 for fixedwing aircraft, is 23 km from the Line of Actual Control and close to the Sino-Indian border.

Sudarsan Pattnaik
Orissa-based renowned sand artict, he has won the people’s choice award at the 8th International Sand Sculpture Festival in Berlin, for his creation on global warming.

Arjun Bajpayee
16-year-old resident of Uttar Pradesh's Noida city, he has become the youngest Indian to climb the Mount Everest. He broke the record of Krushnaa Patil,18, from Maharashtra who became the youngest Indian to reach the highest peak in 2009.

Shabana Mahmood
Shabana Mahmood, the Labour candidate for Birmingham Ladywood, in central England, and Yasmin Qureshi, Labour candidate for Bolton South East, in the north-west, became Britain's first women Muslim MPs.

Capt Tejdeep Singh Rattan
A 31-year-old Dentist, he has become the first Sikh in over 25 years to be allowed to complete US Army officer basic training without giving up his turban or shaving his full beard.

Atul Khare
U.N. Secretary-general Ban Ki-moon has appointed Atul Khare of India as Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations.

Sanjiv Mehta
Sanjiv Mehta is the new owner of East India Company, the world’s first multinational whose forces once ruled much of the globe, including India.

Sanath Jayasuriya
Sri Lankan cricketer Sanath Jayasuriya made his debut as a lawmaker, with a runaway victory from a parliamentary constituency in Matara district in the south. Jayasuriya won on the ticket of the ruling United People's Freedom Party alliance of the President Mahinda Rajapaksa.

Hardeep Singh Puri
Indian Ambassador to the United Nations Hardeep Singh Puri has been elected Chairman of the all important Security Council Committee on counter-terrorism and two other key committees of this 15-membered body. Elected for a two-year term, Mr. Puri would chair the UN Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee. He replaces Ertugrul Apakan, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Turkey, whose term expired on December 31, 2010.

Vim Kochhar
For the first time, an India-born businessman Vim Kochhar has been nominated to the Canadian Senate by Prime Minister Stephen Harper.

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A PPOINTMENTS

N A K Browne is new Air Force Vice-Chief
Air Marshal NAK Browne, an ace fighter pilot, 2011 January 1, took over as the Vice Chief of Indian Air Force. He succeeds Air Marshal PK Barbora, who retired on 2010 December 31. AIR correspondent reports commissioned into the fighter stream in 1972, Air Marshal Browne has flown aircraft including the vintage Hunter, all variants of MiG-21s, Jaguar and SU-30MKI. An alumnus of the National Defence Academy, Air Marshal Browne is a fighter combat leader and has also served as an instructor at the Tactics and Combat Development Establishment and Defence Services Staff College, Wellington. A graduate of the Air Command and Staff College, USA, the Air Marshal has held many key posts, including Chief Operations Officer and Air Officer Commanding of a SU-30 base and Assistant Chief of Air Staff (Intelligence) at Air Headquarters. He was also responsible for establishing the Indian Defence Wing in Tel Aviv, Israel in April 1997 where he served as the defence attache till July 2000. Air Marshal Browne was previously commanding the Delhi-based Western Air Command.

post independence era. An erudite man with a keen interest in Economics, Public Finance, Theoretical Physics and Hindu and Buddhist philosophies, he would remain at the helm of the judiciary till September 29, 2012. He started his career as a class IV employee and possesses integrity as “the only asset”. Justice Kapadia was part of the Constitution bench that in January 2007 declared that laws placed under the protective umbrella of the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution were open to judicial review.

Marri Sashidhar Reddy
Marri Sashidhar Reddy appointed as Vice Chairman of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). He is an elected member of Legislative Assembly from Andhra Pradesh and a former member of NDMA.

Narsingha Mishra
The Central Government announced the appointment of Narsingha Mishra as another part time member to the 19th Law Commission. He was a senior Advocate in the Orissa High Court. Now the Law Commission has two full-time members and seven part-time members. P Venkatarama Reddy is the Chairman of 19th Law Commission.

Justice K.G. Balakrishnan
The government announced the appointment of the former Chief Justice of India, Justice K.G. Balakrishnan, as the sixth chairperson of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC). Justice Balakrishnan, 65, retired as CJI on May 12. He was appointed a Supreme Court judge in 2000 and sworn in as CJI on January 14, 2007. The post of NHRC chairperson had been lying vacant for the past one year after the retirement of Justice Rajendra Babu. Since then, Justice G. P. Mathur had been acting as the commission's.

Rajapaksa re-elected President
On January 27, 2010, Mahinda Rajapska emerged victorious in the bitterly-fought first post-LTTE era Presidential elections. He won fighting against former army chief Sarath Fonseka, securing nearly 60 per cent of the total votes polled.

Jhumpa Lahiri
Indian - American Pulitzer Prize - winning author Jhumpa Lahiri has been appointed as a member of U.S. President Barak Obama's Committee on the Arts and Humanities, along with five others.

Justice Sarosh Homi Kapadia
Justice S.H. Kapadia has been appointed the Chief Justice of India. He is the 38th CJI and will have a tenure of two years and five months. Justice Kapadia has vast experience in tax, finance and business matters, besides other civil cases and issues relating to crime. Born on September 29, 1947, he is the first CJI born in

Justice M.N. Rao
The former Chief Justice of the Himachal Pradesh High Court, Makani Narayana Rao, assumed charged as Chairperson of the

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National Commission for Backward Classes. Justice Rao (74), who hails from Nellore in Andhra Pradesh, was appointed permanent judge of the Andhra Pradesh High Court in July 1986 and he served as Chief Justice of the Himachal Pradesh High Court from November 1997 to April 1998. After his retirement, he has been practising in the Supreme Court. As a panel lawyer for many State governments, he handled several sensitive issues.

Nehchal Sandhu
Bihar-cadre IPS officer of 1973 batch Nehchal Sandhu appointed as Chief of Intelligence Bureau from January 1, 2011. Nehchal Sandhu will succeed Rajiv Mathur of 1972 batch.

R. K. Medhekar
Senior IPS officer R. K. Medhekar will be the new Director General of elite commando force National Security Guard. Medhekar, a 1975 batch officer of Kerala cadre, currently serving as Special Director General of Border Security Force.

Satyanand Mishra
Satyanand Mishra appointed as Chief Information Commissioner to succeed AN Tiwari. The high-level committee headed by Manmohan Singh including Sushma Swaraj and Veerappa Moily decided in favour of Satyanand Mishar.

S. Ramakrishnan
S. Ramakrishnan, Director (Projects), Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, has been appointed Director of Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

P.J. Thomas
P.J. Thomas, former Telecom Secretary, was sworn in as 14th Central Vigilance Commissioner by the President of India.

S.Y. Quraishi
S.Y. Quraishi has been appointed as the 17th Chief Election Commissioner of India. He is the first Muslim to hold the post. Dr. Quraishi earlier held the position of Election Commissioner. In the management of elections, Dr. Quraishi has brought a special focus on people’s participation, voters’ education and youth involvement in the electoral process through scientific research and interventions. He has been an ardent proponent for lending strength to the grassroots level election functionaries. Born on 11 June 1947, Dr Quraishi completed his Masters degrees from St. Stephen’s College in Delhi before joining the Indian Administrative Service in 1971. He received a Ph.D for his thesis on “Role of Communication and Social Marketing in Development of Women and Children”. Dr Quraishi is known for his special contributions in social sector reforms covering health, education, population, drug abuse, and civil society action. He also has a number of books, articles and talks to his credit on issues related to democracy, elections, HIV AIDS and Family Planning, social marketing, women and child development and Youth. His book ‘Social Marketing for Social Change’ has broken new ground in the field of Development Communication.

P. Venkatarama Reddy
The Centre has appointed Justice P. Venkatarama Reddy, a retired judge of the Supreme Court as chairperson of the 19th Law Commission, which will have tenure up to August 31, 2012.

Dilma Rousseff
Dilma Rousseff has been elected as the first female President of Brazil. 62-year-old economist, Rousseff is a former Marxist guerrilla who was jailed and tortured for three years in early 1970 for fighting against dictatorship in Brazil.

K. Vijay Kumar
K. Vijay Kumar has been appointed as the Director General of Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF).

Ansar Parvez
Ansar Parvez has been name head of IAEA, the UN nuclear watchdog. Head of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Ansar Parvez, will remain Chairman for the next 12 months, taking over from Malaysia.

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Naoto Kan
Naoto Kan has been elected as the Prime Minister of Japan. He has become the fifth Prime Minister of Japan in three years, taking the helm as the country struggles to rein in a huge public debt, engineer growth in an aging society, and manage ties with security ally USA and a rising China.

Sonia Gandhi
UPA chairperson and Congress President, she has been appointed as the head of National Advisory Council (NAC), four years after quitting the post over an office-of-profit controversy. She will hold the rank and status of a Cabinet Minister.

Julia Gillard
Julia Gillard scripted history when she was elected as the first woman Prime Minister of Australia. She succeeded Kevin Rudd, who stepped down following revolt against him within the Labour party. The rebellion had been spearheaded by Ms Gillard, opposing his policies on health, education and climate change.

Salil Shetty
Salil Shetty has been appointed as the Secretary-General of Amnesty International. He is the first Indian to be appointed to the job and will succeed Irene Khan in June 2010.

Michelle Bachelet
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced the appointment of former Chilean President Michelle Bachelet to head a new U.N. body that will seek to improve the lives of women and girls around the world. The body will be known officially as the U.N. Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, but officials say it will be referred to as U.N. Women.

Roza Otunbayeva
Roza Otunbayeva has been elected as the first woman President of Kyrgystan. She claimed victory in a referendum in Kyrgyzstan, making her the interim President till 2011, a vote held to decide the legitimacy of her rule after President Kurmanbek Bakiyev regime was ousted in April 2010.

Nitin Noharia
An Indian-American he has taken over as the Dean of Harvard Business School. He is the first person of Indian origin to occupy the prestigious and high profile post.

Julia Gillard
Julia Gillard was sworn in as Australia's first woman Prime Minister after Kevin Rudd was toppled as the leader of the ruling Labour party.

Kamla Persad
A 58-year-old woman of Indian origin, she has been elected as the first woman Prime Minister of Trinidad & Tobago. Her party, People’s Partnership, won 29 of the 41 parliamentary seats to end the 43-yeaqr-old rule of the ruling party.

Sam Pitroda
Prime Minister has approved the setting up of a National Innovation Council to prepare a road map for the Decade of Innovation 2010-2020. The National Innovation Council would be headed by Sam Pitroda, Adviser to the Prime Minister on Public Information Infrastructure and Innovations. The Council has been given the mandate to evolve an Indian model of innovation focusing on inclusive growth and creating an appropriate eco system conducive to fostedng inclusive innovation. It will delineate appropriate policy initiatives within the government required to spur innovation. It will also promote the setting up of Sectoral Innovation Councils and State Innovation Councils.

Dr Ratan Kumar Sinha
Dr Ratan Kumar Sinha has been appointed as the new Director of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). He is closely associated with the design and development of India’s first Thoriumbased advanced Heavy Water reactor.

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EATHS D EATHS

K.Devi Vara Prasad
Senior Telugu film producer K.Devi Vara Prasad Passed away on Friday at Hyderabad. He was 68 years old. He produced several hit films with the late NTR and Chiranjeevi. His films include 'Naa Desam', 'Tiruguleni Manishi', Kondaveeti Raja',and the hugelypopular 'Gharana Mogudu'.

K.M. Mathew
K.M. Mathew, Chief Editor of the mass-circulation Malayalam newspaper Malayala Manorama, passed away at his residence. He was 93. He had age-related ailments, but was active and at work till a few months ago. Born on January 2, 1917, Mr. Mathew started off as a rubber planter in Chickmagalur in Karnataka. He later went to Bombay to look after another line of the family business. He joined the family-owned Malayala Manorama in 1954 as its General Manager and Managing Editor. Mr. Mathew became the Chief Editor of the newspaper, founded in 1888, in 1973. Mr. Mathew was honoured with the Padma Bhushan in 1998.

Eugenie Blanchard
World's oldest person, named Eugenie Blanchard of French West Indies died at the age of 114.

Jyoti Basu
The CPM patriarch and former Chief Minister of West Bengal, he died on January 17, 2010 at the age of 95. The “colossus of Indian politics” left behind a void that will be hard to fill, not only in the Left but also national politics. He was born on July 8, 1914 in Kolkata. In 1935 he graduated from the Presidency College of Kolkata with honours in English. Then he went to London to study law and it was here that he was influenced by Communism. In 1940 he joined the then undivided Communist Party of India. He was one of the foundermembers of CPM in 1964. In 1977 he became the Chief Minister of West Bengal and continued to hold the office for 23 straight years, making him the longest-serving Chief Minister in India. He quit as Chief Minister in November 2000. His major achievements as Chief Minister of West Bengal were rural land reforms and entrenching of the Panchayati Raj institutions. Jyoti Basu played a major role in formation of coalition governments at the Centre in 1989, 1996, 1997 and 2004. In 1996, he narrowly missed out on becoming Prime Minister of India after his party’s veto.

Homi Sethna
Indian nuclear scientist Homi Sethna has died at the age 86. During his career Sethna held several posts including director of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. During his time with the AEC Sethna presided over India's nuclear experiment at Pokhran in 1974.

M Rajasekhara Murthy
Senior JD(S) leader and Rajya Sabha member M Rajasekhara Murthy died at the age of 88 due to cardiac arrest. Rajasekhara Murthy was a freedom fighter. He was first elected to Rajya Sabha in 1994 and elected to Rajya Sabha recently from Bangalore in 2006.

Narayana Rao Pawar
Narayana Rao Pawar dies at the age of 85 in Hyderabad due to ill health. He was born on 3 March 1926 a freedom fighter in India's struggle for independence and was the first citizen to throw a bomb on the last Nizam of Hyderabad to kill him.

K.N.Raj
K.N.Raj, widely respected development economist, who was the economic adviser to Prime Ministers from Jawaharlal Nehru to P.V.Narasimha Rao and one of the architects of the Indian plan edifice, passed away. He was 85.

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Cherukuri Lenin
The former international Archer, Cherukuri Lenin died in a road accident. Two of the Archers he had coached won silver medals at the recently concluded Common Wealth Games in New Delhi.

Girija Prasad Koirala
Five-time Prime Minister of Nepal and architect of the landmark peace deal with the Maoists that ended a decade-long insurgency in Nepal.

Milon Kumar Banerjee
Milon Kumar Banerjee, the former Attorney-General of India, passed away. Mr. Banerjee, as Attorney-General, had the rare honour of being called upon to address the Parliament regarding the powers of the Election Commission on August 5, 1993, a request that had not been made to the Attorney-General for decades, and the Padma Awards case, where he argued before the Supreme Court that these awards were not titles and as such were not violative of Article 18 of the Constitution.

Nanaji Deshmukh
One of the founder members of Bhartiya Jan Sangh, social worker and former member of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sbha. He was 93.

Kakkadah Nandanath Raj
Leading economist of India who made a significant contribution in preparation of India’s first five-year Plan (1951-56). He was 85.

Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
The former Vice-President and three-time Chief Minister of Rajasthan in the past, Bhairon Singh Shekhawat died in Jaipur following cardiac arrest.

Nirmal Pandey
Hindi films actor. He was 46. A graduate rom National School of Drama, he is best known for his roles in “Bandit Queen”, “Iss raat kee subha nahin” and “Pyar Kiya to darna kya”.

G.P Birla .
Eminent industrialist G.P. Birla passed away. Son of B.M. Birla, who had helped to set up units such as Orient Paper and Industries, Hyderabad Industries and Nigeria Engineering Works. He was also involved in setting up the Birla Institute of Technology in Ranchi, Birla Science and Technological Museum and Birla Archaeological and Cultural Research Institute.

Tahir Hussain
Well-known Hindi film-maker and father of film star Amir Khan. He is known for producing hits like “Hum hain rahi pyar ke”, “Zakhmee”, “Anamika” and “Caravan”.

Erich Segal
Author of the tear-jerking novel Love Story and screenwriter of the Oscar-winning film version. He was 72.

Arjun Sengupta
Eminent economist and Rajya Sabha MP. He leaves behind a policy footprint that changed the way poverty alleviation programmes are discussed in India.

David Warren
A pioneering Australian scientist who invented the ‘black box’ after investigating the world’s first jet airliner crash in 1953. He was 85. The challenges of determining the causes of an air crash led him to the idea of a recording device that could withstand a crash where there were no survivors and no witnesses.

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P LACES

Haiti
The capital of this tiny island nation, Port-au-Prince, was hit by an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale on January 13, 2010. More than three lakh people perished in the tragedy. The earthquake caused major damage to Port-au-Prince, Jacmel and other settlements in the region. Many notable landmark buildings were significantly damaged or destroyed, including the Presidential Palace, the National Assembly building, the Port-au-Prince Cathedral, and the main jail. Among those killed were Archbishop of Port-au-Prince Joseph Serge Miot, and opposition leader Micha Gaillard. The headquarters of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), located in the capital, collapsed, killing many, including the Mission’s Chief, Hédi Annabi.

Chernobyl
Chernobyl now open to tourists. Ukraine announces official tours of the 1986 nuclear disaster site. Visitors would be offered tours inside the 50km exclusion zone set up after reactor four at the plant exploded on April 26, 1986, showering northern Europe in radioactive fallout.

Ocucaje Desert
Buried in Peru's Ocucaje Desert, fossils draw smugglers. Discoveries there include gigantic fossilised teeth from the legendary 50-foot shark called the megalodon, the bones of a huge penguin with surprisingly colourful feathers and the fossils of the Leviathan Melvillei, a whale with teeth longer than those of the Tyrannosaurus rex, making it a contender for the largest predator ever to prowl the oceans.

New Delhi
The Society of Indian Law Firms (SILF) organised the first ever ‘Sports Law Conference’ in New Delhi, on July 24-25, 2010, to deliberate on various issues related to sports and law in India. Among other things, the conference discussed the ‘Right to Information’ (RTI) and accountability of sports federations, and legalities involved in staging major sports events like the Olympics, Asian Games, Commonwealth Games.

St Petersburg
On November 21, 2010, Russia called for global efforts to avert extinction of tigers as wildlife activists and officials from 13 countries, including India, gathered at a summit in St Petersburg to discuss ways to double the population of the endangered animal from the existing 3,200. Due to decades of poaching and habitat destruction, there are currently only 3,200 tigers living in the wild, according to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), as against 1 lakh a century ago.

Bengaluru
The Electronic Warfare India Conference (EWIC) was held in Bengaluru. This was the first international conference on electronic warfare to take place in India.

Jaipur
UNESCO has granted the World Heritage status to Jantar Mantar in Jaipur which is a celebrated astronomical observatory built in 18th century. This is India’s 28th and Rajasthan’s second site (after Keoladev National Park) to be given the World Heritage status.

Davos
Over 2500 global leaders in business and politics gathered in Davos, Switzeraland, for the World Economic Forum. Davos is located on the Landwasser River, in the Swiss Alps, between the Plessur and Albula Range. At 1,560 meters, it is the highest city in Europe.

Tiruchi
V.K. Saraswat, Chairman of Combustion Institute Indian Section (CIIS)and Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister, said that

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ultra super critical thermal technology developed by the BHEL and the NTPC would be used for the first time in the 500-MW Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plant coming up at Tiruchi.

Kasaragod
The Kerala government had adopted a slew of measures to help the victims of Endosulfan by banning the use of such pesticides in Cashew Plantation in Kasaragod and efforts are on to promote organic farming.

motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water) was reported in the Malabar coast extending from Kozhikode to Mangalore, making the stretch abundant in fish and prawn varieties. The whales could have come in search of food. A few dolphins were also spotted during the period.

Haryana
Narnaul, a non-descript village located in the backwaters of Haryana has got India’s first aero sports centre, which was inaugurated by Chief Minister Bhupinder Singh Hooda, at the local airstrip on January 31, 2010. The centre, named after the late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, has been set up by the Department of Civil Aviation, Haryana, in collaboration with the Aero Club of India.

Charminar
Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) to take up repair of Charminar. Three months after it fell, the chunk of lime stucco work on Charminar is in for repair. Charminar meaning "Mosque of the Four Minarets" and "Four Towers" is the most famous mosque and monument in the city of Hyderabad. Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah , the 5th ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty built Charminar in 1591 shortly after he had shifted his capital from Golkonda to what is now known as Hyderabad.

Tembhali
This remote village in tribal-dominated Nandurbar district of Maharashtra is the first place in India whose residents have been issues the Unique Identification Number (UID) or Aadhaar.

Narnaul
Narnaul, a non-descript village located in the backwaters of Haryana has got India’s first aero sports centre, which was inaugurated by Chief Minister Bhupinder Singh Hooda, at the local airstrip on January 31, 2010. The centre, named after the late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, has been set up by the Department of Civil Aviation, Haryana, in collaboration with the Aero Club of India.

Burj Khalifa
On January 4, 2010, blazing fireworks and dazzling lights marked the opening of the world's tallest tower, Burj Khalifa, formerly known as Burj Dubai. The $1.5 billion, 818 metres (2,684 feet) high structure is an “unprecedented” engineering marvel. Burj Khalifa has been designed to be the centrepiece of a large-scale, mixeduse development that will include 30,000 homes, nine hotels, 7.4 acres of parkland, at least 19 residential towers, the Dubai Mall, and the 30-acre man-made Burj Khalifa Lake. With more than 160 stories, Burj Khalifa holds the following records: Tallest building in the world Tallest free-standing structure in the world Highest number of stories in the world Highest occupied floor in the world Highest outdoor observation deck in the world Elevator with the longest travel distance in the world Tallest service elevator in the world Not only is Burj Khalifa the world’s tallest building, it has also

Mangalore coast
Two blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus), the largest mammals on Earth, were recently spotted off the Mangalore coast during a marine survey carried out by the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), Kochi. he blue whales belong to the Rorquals family, which includes the humpback, fin and minke whales. Their skin is greyish blue with light grey mottling on the back. They can grow up to 33 metres in length and weigh up to 200 tonnes. Blue whales are long-distance migrants known to undertake long journeys in search of food and mating grounds. Recently, upwelling (an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven

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broken two other impressive records: tallest structure, previously held by the KVLY-TV mast in Blanchard, North Dakota, and tallest free-standing structure, previously held by Toronto’s CN Tower. The Chicago-based Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) has established three criteria to determine what makes a tall building tall. Burj Khalifa wins by far in all three categories. The building has returned the location of Earth's tallest freestanding structure to the Middle East where the Great Pyramid of Giza claimed this achievement for almost four millennia before being surpassed in 1311 by Lincoln Cathedral in England.

decker train has been introduced between Howrah (West Bengal) and Dhanbad (Jharkhand).

Seethampeta
Seethampeta, located in the north - western part of Srikakulam district in Andhra Pradesh and home to the Konda Savaras has now become part of the Food and Agricultural Organisation's (FAO) Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). GIAHS has begun identifying and then documenting unique agricultural systems across the world to create 'agricultural heritage'.

Vancouver
Vancouver, Canada has been named as the world’s most liveable city. Delhi and Mumbai are placed at 113th and 117th, respectively, in the survey conducted by Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Among the top ten are four Australian cities Sydney, Melbourne, Perth and Adelaide. Zimbabwe’s Harare is lowest ranked.

Palakkad
Palakkad district in kerala is the first fully electrified district in the country.

South Africa
South Africa will host the Champions League Twenty20 cricket tournament in September 2010. In 2009 India had hosted the tournament. The tournament will feature 12 teams, including three from 2010 IPL.

Peace Airport
China is building a new airport near Mount Everest, to be called ‘Peace Airport’ in Xigaze prefecture in Tibet.

Chennai
International Conference on Biodiversity in relation to food and human security was held in Chennai.

Jalandhar
The Rail Coach Factory (RCF) at Jalandhar has developed India’s first air-conditioned, double-decker prototype coach. The Railways has decided to introduce these coaches on the ‘yuva’ trains.

Sivaganga
Moser Baer Clean Energy, a subsidiary of Moser Baer Projects, has commissioned a 5 MW solar farm at Sivaganga in Tamil Nadu. It is India’s largest solar farm. The technical expertise was provided by the EPC (engineering procurement commissioning) arm of Moser Baer Solar. International Finance Corporation and the IDBI bank have provided debt for the project. The solar farm has been commissioned using amorphous silicon thin film technology which is best suited for the Indian climatic conditions and is connected to the 110 kVA local grid. The project was awarded by the Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency (TEDA) and is being implemented under the generation- based incentive scheme of the Union Ministry of New & Renewable Energy.

Khedar
The first 600 MW unit of the prestigious Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power project at Khedar, near Hisar, Haryana became operational on February 10, 2010. The coal handling capacity of the plant, at 2,400 tonnes per hour, is the highest in India.

Kapurthala
The Rail Coach factory, Kapurthala, has rolled out India’s first AC double-decker rake from its premises. The first AC double-

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India’s Biggest medal haul:
After producing their best ever show in the Commonwealth Games, India underlined its rising sporting prowess by bagging the biggest medal haul in the Asian Games. India finished sixth with 14 gold, 17 silver and 33 bronze for a record 64-medal haul. India’s best medal haul in the Asian Games till date was recorded in the 1982 Games in New Delhi when they had won 13 gold, 19 silver and 25 bronze for an overall tally of 57. India had finished 10th in the last edition of the Games in Doha with a tally of 10-17-26. A quarter century ago there was no Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and the rest of the former Soviet bloc to make the competition as stiff as it was in Guangzhou. Out of the 14 gold India won in Guangzhou, the highest number of five came from athletics and two each were won in boxing, kabbadi and tennis and one each from shooting, cue sports and rowing. Just like in many earlier editions of the Asian Games, athletics contributed the lions share in India’s number of gold medals in this addition also. A.C. Ashwini (400m hurdles and women’s 4x400 relay) and tennis star Somdev Devvarman (men’s singles and doubles) won two gold medals while Preeja Sreedharan bagged a gold and a silver in women’s 10,000m and 5,000m, respectively. India got its first gold medal of the 2010 Asiad in Billiards with Pankaj Advani winning the English Singles. Joseph Abraham and Ashwini Chidananda grabbed gold medals in men’s and women’s 400m hurdles, respectively. Teen sensation Vikas Krishan ended Indian Boxing’s 12-year-old gold medal drought in the Asian Games by winning the lightweight (60kg) title. Tarundeep Rai rewrote history in the archery championship by becoming the first Indian individual medal winner, finishing second behind South Korean world record holder Kim Woojin. Somdev Devvarman became the first man in 24 years to win a gold in both single and doubles tennis category in Asian Games. Ronjan Sodhi brought an end to the gold drought in shooting by winning gold in the double trap (shot gun) event. Bajrang Lal Takhar created history by notching up the first rowing gold medal for India in the Asian Games. India opened a new page in its Asian Games history with Ashish Kumar clinching the first-ever medal (bronze medal in men’s floor exercise) in gymnastics. Virdhawal Khade broke the swimming medal drought after 24 years by winning a bronze medal in men’s 50m butterfly event.

XVI Asian Games
The 2010 Asian Games held at Guangzhou, China, has come to an end, after 16 days of fierce competition. Medals were up for grabs across 42 different disciplines, and 45 Asian nations sent in their best athletes to try and win as many medals as possible. China once again showed why they are the powerhouse of sports, not only in Asia but at the Olympics too, with a sweep of medals over most of the disciplines at the games. They ended up winning nearly half the gold medals on offer, showcasing their overall strength as a sporty nation. South Korea finished a credible second, ahead of Japan, who once used to give China a tough fight for the top spot. A point to note is that out of all the medals China won, almost half were gold. This proves that when they competed, it was for the top spot only. Another noteworthy mention is Iran. They have come from no where and taken the 4th spot on the medal tally. With the successful hosting of the Asian Games 2010, China now hands over the responsibility to the Koreans. The next edition of the Asian Games will be held in 2014, in Incheon, South Korea.

XVI Asian Games 2010 Medal Tally
RANK COUNTRY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 China South Korea Japan Iran Kazakhstan India Chinese Taipei Uzbekistan Thailand Malaysia Hong Kong North Korea Saudi Arabia Bahrain Indonesia Singapore Kuwait Qatar Philippines Pakistan Mongolia Myanmar G S B 98 91 94 25 38 33 38 23 32 13 17 20 5 4 13 6 1 7 9 3 9 3 T 416 232 216 59 79 64 67 56 52 40 40 36 13 9 26 17 1 1 16 16 8 16 10 199 119 76 65 48 74 20 14 18 23 14 17 13 16 1 1 22 1 1 9 9 18 8 15 6 10 5 3 5 0 4 9 4 7 4 6 4 5 3 4 3 2 2 5 2 5 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Jordan 2 2 2 Vietnam 1 17 15 Kyrgyzstan 1 2 2 Macau 1 1 5 Bangladesh 1 1 1 Tajikistan 1 0 3 Syria 1 0 1 United Arab Emirates 0 4 1 Afghanistan 0 2 1 Iraq 0 1 2 Lebanon 0 1 2 Laos 0 0 2 Nepal 0 0 1 Oman 0 0 1 Bhutan 0 0 0 Brunei 0 0 0 Cambodia 0 0 0 Maldives 0 0 0 Palestine 0 0 0 Sri Lanka 0 0 0 Timor-Leste 0 0 0 Turmenistan 0 0 0 Yemen 0 0 0 TOTAL 477 479 621 6 33 5 7 3 4 2 5 3 3 3 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1577

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XIX Commonwealth Games
The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. It was the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982. The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, "Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto", was composed by celebrated Indian musician A.R. Rahman. The final medal tally was led by Australia. The host nation India gave its strongest performance yet to emerge second, while England placed third.

India’s performance:
Indian competitors came out with flying colours. A record medal haul of 38 gold, 27 silver and 36 bronze medals, the bestever harvest for the country in the Games history, helped India climb to the record-high second position and end the multi-discipline event on a thumping note. The main haul of these 101 medals came from the shooting range, wrestling mat, boxing ring, archery range and, to everyone's surprise, the track and field events. Rifle-shooting ace Gagan Narang scooped up four gold medals, but could not achieve the feat of overhauling five-gold hero of the 2006 Melbourne Games—Samresh Jung. Teenage woman archer Deepika Kumari, daughter of an auto-rickshaw driver, who held her nerves even as the more seasoned Dola Banerjee wilted, to come up with a golden double in the women's recurve event. The track and field events witnessed India's first gold medal in 52 years when Krishna Poonia led a clean sweep of the women's discus throw, Harwant Kaur and Seema Antil won the silver and bronze. The women's 4x400m relay squad struck an unexpected gold with a superb display that pushed Nigeria and England to second and third places. The women shuttlers, led by Saina Nehwal, brought two gold medals to bring down the curtains on the country's competitive show with a bang. Those two gold medals in badminton were vital to help India push England to the third place by the skin of their teeth. Saina Nehwal created history by becoming the first Indian woman to win the singles gold in badminton at the Commonwealth Games. Legendary Prakash Padukone (1978) and the late Syed Modi (1982) were the two men players to win the singles gold in the Games. Jwala Gutta and Ashiwni Ponnappa scripted history by becoming the first Indian pair to win the gold at Commonwealth Games. The men's hockey team, whose fortunes are followed closely by the sports fans of the country, made history by making it to the final for the first time before coming a cropper against world and defending champions Australia in the summit clash. The 8-0 defeat was huge and one of the biggest suffered by the country. Wrestling contingent also did very well, winning 19 medals in the 21 designated event. Among the 19 medals, there were 10

XIX Commonwealth Games Medal Tally
Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Nation Australia India England Canada South Africa Kenya Malaysia Singapore Nigeria Scotland Gold 74 38 37 26 12 12 12 11 11 9

Mascot

E RE S

A DI E M

CO

Silver 55 27 59 17 11 11 10 11 10 10

Bronze 48 36 46 32 10 9 13 9 14 7

Total 177 101 142 75 33 32 35 31 35 26

The official mascot for the 2010 Commonwealth Games was Shera, an anthropomorphised tiger.

Official song
The official song of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto. It was composed and performed by the A. R. Rahman. The song's title was based on the slogan of the games, "Come out and play". The song was penned by Mehboob in Hindi with a sprinkling of English words.

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gold, five silver and four bronze medals. Sushil Kumar literally walked his way to gold, while the women wrestlers, participating in the Games for the first time, stole the show with a memorable performance. In the six events for women, India won three gold, two silver and a bronze medal to show their supremacy in the freestyle category. The trio of Alka Tomar, Geeta and Anita won their final bouts with ease, while Babita Kumari and Nirmala Devi missed out on gold, losing their final rounds, but their performance drew praise from all. Geeta became the first Indian women wrestler to bag a gold medal in the Commonwealth Games. India achieved unprecedented success in athletics by bagging 12 medals, including two gold. India's 12 medals were two more than the number it won in all the earlier editions. Krishna Poonia created history by breaking India's 52-yearold Commonwealth Games gold medal jinx by winning the gold medal in women's discus throw. Harwant Kaur and Seema Antil bagged silver and bronze, respectively. Poonia also became the first Indian woman to bag a Commonwealth Games gold after 'Flying Sikh' Milkha Singh won the men's 440 yards race in 1958 edition in Cardiff, Wales. The women's 4X400m relay team of Manjeet Kaur, Sini Jose, Ashwini Akkunji and Mandeep Kaur added another gold in a memorable race, beating strong teams like Nigeria and England. Fancied fisticuff exponents Vijender Singh and Akhil Kumar were ousted early but Indian boxers still delivered a historic golden punch to come up with their best-ever campaign in the Games history. With a hat-trick of gold plus four bronze medals, the Indian ring stylists recorded their best medal haul at the quadrennial multidiscipline sports event, bettering the 2006 campaign at Melbourne by two. Ashish Kumar of India created history by winning a bronze medal in Gymnastics, the first ever medal in gymnastics for India in the Commonwealth Games.

Series title triumph with a 15-21 21-16 21-17 win over the third seed Chinese in a gruelling one hour and 11 minutes summit clash at the Queen Elizabeth Stadium. The girl from Hyderabad won backto-back titles - Indian Open Grand Prix, Singapore Open Super Series and defended the Indonesian Super Series - before clinching the gold medal in the Commonwealth Games in October. Saina played a tactical game after she lost the first game and clawed her way back with some fast-paced rallies and powerful smashes to outwit the Chinese world number five.

India-New Zealand Test series
India won the three-Test series 1-0 after winning the third Test in Nagpur by an innings and 198 runs. The first Test, played in Ahmedabad, ended in a draw after VVS Laxman and Harbhajan Singh put in a fight-back after India had been reduced to 15 for 5 at one time. In the second Test played in Hyderabad, Brendon McCullum notched up his best-ever Test score of 225 to ensure a draw. Harbhajan Singh made history by becoming the first number eight Test batsman to hit back-to-back centuries. In the first Test he hit 115 and followed this with 111 not out in the second Test. His 105-run 10th wicket stand with Sreesanth the was best for India.

India-New Zealand One Day series
India won the One Day series 5-0. The rampant India's 5-0 ODI series sweep was set up by the bowlers. Skittled out for 103, the Kiwis were down for the count. This is India's biggest win in terms of balls against New Zealand. And India's only previous 5-0 sweep was against England at home in the 2008/09 season.The left-handed Gambhir was adjudged Player of the Series for 329 runs including two centuries at an average 109.66 in the series.

Sri Lanka-West Indies Test Series
West Indies opener Chris Gayle made the joint 12th highest Test score with a magnificent 333 in the first Test. He became only the fourth man to achieve the feat twice in Test history, after Sir Donald Bradman, Brian Lara and Virender Sehwag.

Saina wins Hong Kong Open Super Series
Ace Indian shuttler Saina Nehwal rallied to register a scintilliating three-game victory over Shixian Wang of China to clinch her third Super Series title of the year at the Hong Kong Open in Wanchai. The 20-year-old Indian capped her career's fourth Super

Australia-Sri Lanka ODI series
Australia snapped a run of seven straight losses in all forms

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of cricket when it beat Sri Lanka by eight wickets in the third and final match. Sri Lanka claimed the series 2-1, after winning the first match by one wicket and the second by 29 runs.

Hero Honda Women’s Indian Open Championship
England’s Laura Davies notched up a thrilling play-off win to lift the trophy. The tournament was held in Gurgaon.

tury with an unbeaten 53 to help India chase down the 207-run target. Earleir, India won the first Test at Mohali by one wicket. A 81run ninth wicket stand between V.V.S. Laxman and Ishant Sharma set up the opening win. Laxman scripted an unbeaten 73 runs and Ishant Sharma chipped with a contribution of 31 runs.

Sachin first to make 14,000 runs in Tests
Sachin Tendulkar has become the only player to make 14,000 runs in Test cricket. At 12,178 runs, Australian skipper Ricky Ponting remains his nearest rival.

ATP World Tour Finals
Roger Federer polished of Rafael Nadal 6-3, 3-6, 6-1 to capture his fifth season-ending finale, the ATP World Tour final. It was for the first time in 24 years that top two players in ATP ranking reached the season finale.

Ryder Cup, 2010
The 38th Ryder Cup matches were held at the Celtic Manor Resort in the city of Newport, Wales. It was the first time the competition was staged in Wales. With the USA as the defending Cup holder the event was played on the newly-constructed Twenty 10 course, specifically designed for the Ryder Cup. Team Europe won the competition.

Body Building World Championship
Bobby Singh of Imphal, a clerk at the North Frontier Railway, scripted history by becoming the world champion at the second WBPF World Bodybuilding Championship, held at Varanasi. India has won a world Bodybuilding Championship after 22 years.

India-Australia One Day Series
India won the three-match series 1-0 after the third and final ODI was abandoned because of rain. The first match also had to be abandoned because of rain. This was the first one-day series victory over Australia in over two decades. India beat Australia by wickets in the second ODI. The highlight of the match was the matchwinning 118 runs by Virat Kohli.

Surjit Hockey Tournament
Indian Oil, Mumbai, have clinched the overall trophy in the 27th Indian Oil Surjit Hockey tournament. They defeated Air India, Mumbai via tie-breaker.

T20 Champions League, 2010
IPL champions Chennai Super Kings, led ably by Mahendra Singh Dhoni, defeated the Warriors of South Africa by eight wickets to win the Airtel Champions League, played in South Africa.

Bangladesh-New Zealand One Day Series
Rubel Hossain grabber four wickets as Bangladesh completed a sweep with a thrilling three-run victory in the fifth and final one day match. The 4-0 series win is Bangladesh’s first sweep against a major team.

Mary Kom wins World Championship
India’s woman boxer MC Mary Kom claimed a historic fifth successive world championship title on September 18, 2010, beating Steluta Duta of Romania 16-6. This mother-of-two from Manipur remains the only boxer to have won a medal in each edition of the world championship.

India-Australia Test Series
Debutant Cheteshwar Pujara struck a sparkling 72 as India defeated Australia by seven wickets in the second and final Test, played at Bangalore, to sweep the series, win the Border-Gavaskar trophy and consolidate their world number one status. Man of the series Sachin Tendulkar followed up his first innings double cen-

India wins gold in fourth leg of World Cup
The Indian men's recurve team of Jayanta Talukdar, Tarundeep Rai and Rahul Banerjee won gold in the fourth leg of the World Cup archery in Shanghai. The trio whipped Japan, who had

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beaten the formidable Koreans in the semi-final. Talukdar won bronze in the individual event defeating Athens Olympic champion Marco Galiazzo of Italy 7-3. Deepika Kumari lost the women’s recurve final, but the silver medal ensured Deepika her maiden place in the grand final in Edinburgh.

Hockey Women’s World Cup
Argentina defeated reigning World and Olympic champions Netherlands 3-1 to win their second field hockey world title. They had earlier won the title in 2002 in Australia. The championship was held at Rosario, Argentina.

Ronjon shoots gold at ISSF World Cup
India’s Ronjon Sodhi clinched a gold at the double trap Shooting in the ISSF World Cup finals in Izmir, Turkey with a stunning score of 195 out of 200.

Sushil becomes first Indian to win World Championship gold

Wrestler Sushil Kumar has become the first Indian to win a gold medal in the World Wrestling Championships, held in Moscow. He defeated Alan Gogaev in the 66-kg freestyle category.

US Open, 2010
Rafael Nadal of Spain defeated Novak Djokovic (Serbia) to win the men’s singles title. The win gave him his first US open title and was his ninth Grand Slam win. Kim Clijsters of Belgium defeated Vera Zvonareva (Russia) to take the women’s singles title. The men’s doubles title was won by Mike and Bob Bryan of USA who defeated Indo-Pak team of Rohan Bopanna and Aisam-ulHaq. The women’s doubles title was won by Vania King (USA) and Yaroslava Shvedova (Kazakhistan) while the mixed doubles title was won by Liezel Huber (USA) and Bob Bryan (USA).

notably in that unforgettable first round men's singles between John Isner of the United States and France's Nicolas Mahut, which smashed every existing record in the sport. The Isner-Mahut first round marathon, which stretched over three days, lasted 11 hours five minutes and totalled 183 games before Isner staggered away the winner 6-4, 3-6, 6-7, 7-6, 70-68. The final set alone lasted just over eight hours. Both men shattered the record for aces in one match, previously held by Ivo Karlovic at 78. Isner delivered 112 and Mahut also cracked the century with 103. An exhausted Isner crashed out to Thiemo De Bakker of Holland in the next round, collecting just five games. In the men’s singles final Rafael Nadal beat Tomas Berdych 6-3, 7-5, 6-4 to win the title. This was the second Wimbledon title for the Spaniard. Berdych became the first Czech since Ivan Lendl in 1987 to reach the Wimbledon final. The women’s singles title was won by defending champion Serena Williams who beat Russia’s Vera Zvonareva 6-3, 6-2. The victory took her to 13 Grand Slam singles titles, past Billie Jean King, and sixth in the all-time list. In the doubles, the men's title went to an unseeded pair, Austria's Jurgen Melzer and Germany's Philipp Petzschner, playing only their seventh tournament as a team. The women's doubles was won by an American-Kazakh combination, Vania King and Yaroslava Shvedova. Also unseeded, they overcame the Russians, Elena Vesnina and Zvonareva, 7-6, 6-2. The mixed double's championship fell to a seeded combination, Leander Paes and Cara Black, the second seeds, who beat Wesley Moodie of South Africa and Lisa Raymond (United States) 6-4. 7-6.

French Open, 2010
Men’s Singles title: Rafael Nadal won the title by defeating Robin Soderling. This was his fifth French Open win. Women’s Singles title: Francesca Schiavone became the first Italian woman to win a Grand Slam singles title when she defeated Australian Samantha Stosur to win the women’s singles title. Men’s Doubles title: Canada’s Daniel Nestor and Serbia’s Nenad Zimonjic won by beating defending champions Leander Paes of India and Lukas Dlouhy of Czech Republic. Women’s Doubles title: Serena and Venus Williams of USA. Serena Williams won her second French Open Women's Doubles

Wimbledon Championship, 2010
The 124th Championships, a Royal tournament thanks to the first visit to the All England Club by Her Majesty the Queen for 33 years, was also a record-breaking occasion in many ways, most

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title, and the twelfth title in that discipline, which this was the fourth win in a row in the women's doubles in the Slams. Venus Williams won her second French Open Women's Doubles title, and the twelfth title in that discipline, which this was the fourth win in a row in the women's doubles in the Slams. Mixed Doubles: Katarina Srebotnik and Nenad Zimonji? were the winners. Srebotnik won her third French Open Mixed Doubles title, and the fourth Slam title in that discipline. Zimonji? won his second French Open Mixed Doubles title, and the fourth Slam title in that discipline.

Santosh Trophy, 2010
Kerala lad Denson Devdas struck twice as Bengal made a spectacular comeback to beat Punjab 2-1, ending their 11 years title drought in the National Football Championship for Santosh Trophy.

Atwal first Indian to win US PGA title
Arjun Atwal has become the first Indian ever to win a US PGA title when he won the Wyndham Golf Championship.

Australian Open, 2010
Serena Williams defeated Belgium’s Justine Henin to win the women’s singles title for the fifth time and her 12th Grand Slam title. With this win she drew level with Billie Jean King’s record of 12 Grand Slam wins. Roger Federer beat Andy Murray to win his fourth Australian open men’s title, taking his own Grand Slam titles record to 16. Leander Paes, with partner Cara Black, won the mixed doubles title. This was his 11th Grand Slam title, equalling Mahesh Bhupathi’s record of most wins by an Indian. Mike and Bob Bryan won the men’s doubles title. The women’s doubles title was won by Serena and Venus Williams.

Tejaswini becomes first Indian woman to win gold at World Championships
Tejaswani Sawant scripted history by becoming the first Indian woman shooter to clinch a gold medal at the World Championships, with a world-record equalling score in 50m Rifle Prone event in Munich, Germany.

Hockey Champions Trophy, 2010
Australia won their third successive Champions Trophy, and 11th in all, with a comprehensive 4-0 win over England. Netherlands secured the third place. The championship was held at Monchengladbach, Germany.

Sri Lanka-New Zealand-India One-Day Tri-series
Sri Lanka rode on Tillakaratne Dilshan’s century to clinch the triseries title with an emphatic 74-run win over India, ending M.S. Dhoni’s sequence of four consecutive series triumphs on Sri Lanka soil.

Hockey Asian Champions Trophy (Women)
Korea beat Japan 2-1 to win the inaugural Asian Women's Hockey Championship, held at Busan South Korea. The first Asian Women Champions Trophy drew the four highest-ranking teams in the region South Korea, China, Japan and India which will also compete for the gold medal in the Asian Games to be held in Guangzhou, China, in November 2010. India beat higher-ranked China 2-1 to win the bronze medal.

Sri Lanka-India Test Series
Veteran V.V.S. Laxman cracked a fighting unbeaten 103 as India pulled off a five-wicket win in the third Test to level the threeTest series 1-1. Laxman was adjudged the man of the match while Virender Sehwag was adjudged man of the series.

Youth Olympic Games
Singapore hosted the first Youth Olympics from August 14 to 26, 2010. A total of 3,531 athletes between 14 and 18 years of age from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) competed in 201 events in 26 sports. The opening ceremony of the Games was held on 14 August at The Float@Marina Bay, a floating stage near downtown Singapore. Approximately 27,000 spectators attended the event, which took place against a backdrop of the city's skyline.

Tendulkar becomes most-capped player
Iconic Indian batsman Sachin Tendulkar has become the most-capped Test cricketer (169 Test matches). This feat was achieved in the third and final Test against Sri Lanka, played in August 2010. Steve Waugh (168 Test matches) of Australia had held the record earlier.

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Lyo and Merly were the official mascots. The duo ere made up of a red male lion and a blue female Merlion. A contest held to name the two mascots was won by two Singaporeans. It took designers from Cubix International about six months to complete designing the mascots. China topped the medals tally with 30 gold medals, followed by Russia (18) and South Korea (11). India was ranked 58 with 6 silver medals and 2 bronze medals in its kitty. It was during the 119th session of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in Guatemala City on the July 5, 2007 when the IOC decided to create Youth Olympic Games (YOG). The vision of the innovative concept for the new sport event is to inspire young people all around the world to participate in sport and adopt and live by the Olympic values (excellence, friendship, respect). Innsbruck and Seefeld will host the first Winter Youth Olympic Games from January 13-22, 2012.

Muralitharan becomes first bowler to take 800 wickets
On July 22, 2010, Sri Lankan off-spinner Muttiah Muralitharan became the first bowler to take 800 Test wickets, reaching the milestone in the last Test of his illustrious cricket career. The 38-year-old spin wizard got Indian tail-ender Pragyan Ojha caught at slip by Mahela Jayawardene to reach the magical figure, which puts him several pedestals above his contemporaries.

11, 2010. In 2004, the international football federation, FIFA, had selected South Africa to become the first African nation to host the tournament. The matches were played in ten stadiums in nine host cities around the country, with the final played at the Soccer City stadium in South Africa’s largest city, Johannesburg. Thirty-two teams were selected for participation via a worldwide qualification tournament that began in August 2007. Golden Ball: Diego Forlan (Uruguay) Golden Boot: Thomas Müller (Germany) Golden Glove: Iker Casillas (Spain) Best Young Player: Thomas Müller (Germany) FIFA Fair Play Trophy: Spain The official mascot for the 2010 World Cup was Zakumi, an anthropomorphised leopard with green hair, presented on 22 September 2008. His name came from “ZA” (the international abbreviation for South Africa) and the term kumi, which means “ten” in various African languages. The mascot's colours reflected those of the host nation's playing strip–yellow and green. The official song of the 2010 World Cup, "Waka Waka", was performed by the Colombian singer Shakira and the band Freshlyground from South Africa. The song was sung in both English and Spanish. The song is based on a traditional African soldiers’ song, Zangalewa. Shakira and Freshlyground performed the song at the opening ceremony and at the closing ceremony.

Foot Ball World Cup, 2010
Spain, the European champions, defeated third-time finalists the Netherlands 1–0 after extra time, with Andrés Iniesta's goal in the 116th minute giving Spain their first world title, the first time that a European nation has won the tournament outside its home continent. Host nation South Africa, 2006 world champions Italy and 2006 runners-up France were eliminated in the first round of the tournament. In the semi-finals, Spain defeated Germany by 1-0 while Netherlands had defeated Uruguay. Germany defeated Uruguay 3– 2 to secure third place. Germany holds the record for most third place finishes in the World Cup (4), while Uruguay holds the record for most fourth place finishes (3). The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup. It took place in South Africa from June 11 to July

Yonex-Sunrise India Open Grand Prix
Saina Nehwal of India beat Malaysia’s Mew Choo Wong to win the title. This was her second international title win at home. She had won the Lucknow Grand Prix in 2009.

Indonesia Open
Saina Nehwal notched up an incredible hat-trick of titles by successfully defending her Indonesian Open Super Series title with s hard-fought win over Japan’s Sayaka Sato. She had earlier won the Indian Open Grand Prix and the Singapore Open Super Series.

Singapore Open
Indian ace Saina Nehwal clinched the second Super Series title of her career by winning the Singapore Open with a straightgame triumph over Chinese Taipie’s Tzu Ying Tai.

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Asia Cup
India defeated Sri Lanka by 81 runs to win the Asia Cup. India had set the Lankans a stiff target of 299 runs. Dinesh Karthik was declared man of the match.

Indian Premier League-3
Chennai Super Kings beat Mumbai Indian by 22 runs to win the third edition of the tournament. Electing to bat first, Chennai posted 168 for 5 and then restricted Mumbai to 146 for 9 to win their maiden title. Suresh Raina was declared the man of the match. Royal Challengers Bangalore routed Deccan Chargers by nine wickets in the third and fourth place play-off match. With this win Royal Challangers qualified for the Champions League Twenty20 tournament. Sachin Tendulkar won the DLF Golden Player award and the Orange cap for hitting the maximum runs in the tournament. Pragyan Ojha won the Purple cap for taking maximum wickets in the tournament. The Kingfisher Fair-play award was won by Chennai Super Kings.

Boxing Asian Women’s Championship
The Asian Women's Championships were held in Astana, Kazakhistan, in May 2010. Kazakhastan topped the medals tally with eight gold medals. China won the most medals in total—10, followed Korea and India amassing eight medals each.

World Chess Title 2010
Viswanathan Anand held his nerve and focus better than his opponent, Veselin Topalov, to win the 12th and final game to retain his World Championships title. The 40-year-old Indian beat the local man from Bulgaria in the closing game with black pieces, to emerge a 6.5-5.5 winner and seal his place as a dominant player of his era. Anand first won the world title in 2000 and held it till 2002 when the chess world was still split. He became the undisputed World champion in 2007 and then retained the title in 2008 when he beat Vladimir Kramnik.

19th Sultan Azlan Shah Cup
India and South Korea were named joint champions after the final match was abandoned following heavy rains in Malaysia. For defending champions India it was their fifth win, matching Australia, while for Asian champions South Korea this was their second title win; they had last won the cup in 1996.

Commonwealth Chess Championship
Grandmaster R.R. Laxman clinched his career best win and bagged the gold after beating GM Pablo Lafuente of Argentina at the Parsvnath Commonwealth Chess Championship. In the open category, Grandmaster Maletin Pavel of Russia signed peace with International Master Lalith Babu on the top board to win the title. Both Pavel and Laxman had nine points after 11 rounds, but the former had the better tie-break record on Bucholz count. The Russian was not in contention in the Commonwealth category. In the women’s category, D. Harika outwitted IM Tania Sachdev on account of superior tie-break.

Sushil, Narshing win gold in Asian Wrestling
Olympic bronze medallist Sushil Kumar lived up to his reputation as he bagged a gold in men's 66kg freestyle in the Senior Asian Wrestling Championships held at New Delhi. Narshing Yadav won a gold in the 74kg freestyle category.

World Cup Kabbadi Punjab Championship, 2010
India outclassed Pakistan 58-24 to win the title. The championship was held in Ludhiana, Punjab.

Badminton Asian Championship, 2010
Men’s Singles: Lin Dan (China). Women’s Singles: Q-Li Xuerui (China) Men’s Doubles: Gun Woo Cho and Yeon Seong Yoo (Korea). Women’s Doubles: Pan Pan and Quing Tian (China) Mixed Doubles: Peng Soon Chan and Liu Ying Goh (Malaysia) The Championship was held in New Delhi.

Cricket T20 World Cup, 2010
Chasing a challenging target of 148 runs, England defeated Australia by seven wickets to win the T20 World Cup. The tournament was held in West Indies. Australia’s women held their nerves in a low-scoring final as they beat New Zealand by three runs to lift the Women’s T20 World cup title.

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Hockey World Cup, 2010
Australia defeated Germany 2-1 to deny Germany a historic hat-trick of titles. Germany had won the title in 2002 and 2006. The Netherlands came back strongly from a 1-3 first half deficit to prevail over England 4-3 and win the bronze medal. India could manage eight spot only. Guus Vogls of The Netherlands was declared the player of the tournament.

Sachin becomes first batsman to hit a double hundred in an ODI
Sachin Tendulkar rewrote the record books on February 24, 2010, hammering the first double century in the history of one-day cricket to add another feather to his well-adorned cap. The capacity crowd at the Captain Roop Singh Stadium, Gwalior witnessed history as Tendulkar, statistically the greatest batsman the game has ever seen, pushed South African bowler Charl Langeveldt’s delivery through the off-side and ran a single to achieve a feat which no other cricketer has achieved. One Day International cricket, since its 1971 inception, had to wait nearly four decades to see a batsman score 200. The previous best mark was shared by Zimbabwean Charles Coventry (194 not out) and Pakistan’s Saeed Anwar (194). Top 10 highest individual knocks in the history of one day cricket are: 200* : Sachin Tendulkar (Ind) vs South Africa in Gwalior on Febru ary 24, 2010. 194* : Charles Coventry (Zim) vs Bangladesh in Bulawayo on Au gust 16, 2009. 194 : Saeed Anwar (Pak) vs India in Chennai on May 21, 1997. 189* : Viv Richards (WI) vs England in Manchester on May 31, 1984. 189 : Sanath Jayasuriya (SL) vs India in Sharjah on October 29, 2000. 188* : Gary Kirsten (SA) vs United Arab Emirates at Rawalpindi on February 16, 1996. 186* : Sachin Tendulkar (Ind) vs New Zealand in Hyderabad on November 8, 1999. 183* : Mahendra Singh Dhoni (Ind) vs Sri Lanka in Jaipur on Octo ber 31, 2005. 183 : Sourav Ganguly (Ind) vs Sri Lanka at Taunton on May 26, 1999. 181* : Matthew Hayden (Aus) vs New Zealand in Hamilton on Feb ruary 20, 2007. 181 : Viv Richards (WI) vs Sri Lanka in Karachi on October 13, 1987.

Sebastian Vettel wins Malaysian GP
Sebastian Vettel led Mark Webber in a 1-2 finish for Red Bull at the Malaysian Grand Prix. Vettel passed pole-sitter Webber in the run to the first corner and held that lead throughout, with Nico Rosberg finishing third for Mercedes as forecast rain stayed away from the Sepang circuit. Renault's Robert Kubica was fourth and Force India's Adrian Sutil took fifth.

Indian Open badminton at Chennai
The Yonex-Sunrise Indian Open badminton Grand Prix Gold will be held at the Nehru Indoor Stadium from June 8 to 13. Nineteen countries are participating in the tournament, carrying a prize money of $1,50,000. After the Chennai event, the players will proceed to Singapore and then to Indonesia, according to a press release from Tamil Nadu Badminton Association.

Cricket can now bid for 2020 Olympics
Cricket’s push to be a part of the Olympic Games received a major boost with International Olympic Council (IOC) granting recognition to International Cricket Council (ICC) on February 12, 2010. This could be seen as a first step towards cricket becoming Olympic sports. Its Twenty20 version can now bid to join the 2020 Olympic Games though ICC has not made it clear which format it will push for. Cricket was granted the status of a recognised Olympic sport in 2007, for sports not in the Olympic programme but which conform to certain criteria, pending a decision for a permanent slot in the Games. Cricket was part of the 1900 Olympics in Paris and has not appeared since then. The game was part of the 1998 Kuala Lumpur Commonwealth Games and its Twenty20 version is set to feature at Asian Games in Guangzhou, China.

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South Asian Games, 2010
The 11th edition of South Asian Games (SAG) opened at the Bangabandhu National Stadium, Dhaka, on January 29, 2010. The aquatic show was the main attraction of the opening ceremony, in which a concert hosted by Pt. Ravi Shankar and Beatles star George Harrison for Bangladesh’s Independence day and the March 7 address of Sheikh Mujibur Rehman were displayed on a water screen. This was the third time that the Bangladeshi capital hosted the Games, thus becoming the first city to hold the games three times. Athletes from eight countries— Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka—competed in 23 different sports. India continued its dominance with 175 medals, including 90 gold medals. Pakistan narrowly beat the host to occupy the second spot with 19 golds, while the host Bangladesh capture 18 golds, including the most popular and prestigious football and cricket titles. Sri Lanka’s Shehan Abeypitiya became the fastest man while Pakistan’s Naseem Hamid was crowned the fastest woman of the region. The logo of the Games was 'Kutumb', a flying doel, known in English as the Oriental Magpie Robin. It is the National Bird of Bangladesh. The mascot also featured a Magpie Robin. Delhi will host the next South Asian Games. India was picked to host the regional sporting event after Bhutan, whose turn it was to host the next SAG, expressed its inability to stage the meet. India has hosted the South Asian Games twice thus far—in 1987 (Kolkata) and in 1995 (Chennai).

Previously, Canada hosted the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Quebec and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta. Canada topped the medals tally with 14 gold, 7 silver and 5 bronze medals. Germany was second, followed by USA. The 2014 Winter Olympics will be held from February 7 to February 23, 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia.

Asian Tour International crown
Gaganjeet Bhullar scripted a sensational come-from-behind victory at Asian tour International crown, played at Bangkok. This was his second Asian tour title.

World Junior Table Tennis Championship
Soumyajit Ghosh becomes the first Indian to win the medal in World Junior Table Tennis Championships. Ghosh won the bronze medal in mixed doubles along with his team mate NG Wing Nam of Hong Kong. Ghosh won the medal against Korean players at Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

Sachin 50 Test Centuries
Sachin Tendulkar has become the first batsman in the world to score Test hundreds for 50 times. The 50th Test century was made against South Africa at Centurion grounds. The first Test century of Tendulkar was arrived in Manchester in 1990.

Winter Olympics, 2010
The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially the 21st Winter Olympics, were a major international multi-sport event held on February 12– 28, 2010, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Approximately 2,600 athletes from 82 nations participated in 86 events in fifteen disciplines. Cayman Islands, Colombia, Ghana, Montenegro, Pakistan, Peru and Serbia made their winter Olympic debuts. Also Jamaica, Mexico and Morocco returned to the Games after missing the Turin Games. The 2010 Winter Olympics were the third Olympics hosted by Canada, and the first by the province of British Columbia.

FIFA world cup 2018 held in Russia
The FIFA (Federation Internationale de Football Association) Executive Committee member Franz Beckenbauer announced that the Soccer World Cup 2018 and 2022 will be held in Russia and Qatar respectively. Qatar will be the first Muslim country to hoast the games. The next 2014 World Cup will be held in Brazil. The bid for 2018 and 2022 were finalised by the 22 FIFA Executive Committee Members .

Commonwealth Athletics gold
Krishna Poonia won India’s first Commonwealth Games athletics gold, in 2010 Games, after Milkha Singh in 1958.

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SPORTS AND THE TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH THEM
Archery: Target, Bull’s Eye Badminton: Angled Drive Serve, Backhand Low Serve, Bird, Deuce, Double Droup, Fault, Flick Serve, Forehand Smash, Let, Lob, Love All, net Shots, Rush, Let, Smash. Baseball: Base, Battery, Bunting, Catcher, Diamond, Hitter, Home Infield, Outfield, Pinch, Pitcher Plate, Pullout, Short Stop, Hitter, Batter, Strike. Basketball: Ball, Basket, Blocking, Dribbling, Free Throw, Held Ball, Holding, Jump Ball, Multiple Throws, Pivot. Billiards: Baulk Line, Break, Bolting, Cannon, Cue, Hazard, In-off, Jigger, Long jenney, Pot, Scratch, Screw Back, short Stop, Strike. Boxing: Ausiliary Point System, Babit Punch, Break, Cut, Defence, Down, Hook, Jab, Lying On, Welter Weight, Knock, Seconds out, Slam, Upper Cut, Weight In, Win by Knock-out. Bridge: Auction, Bid, Chicane, Cut, Declarer, Doubleton, Dummy, Finesse, Grand Slam, Little Slam, Notrumps, Over-trick, Revoke, rubber, Ruff, Shuffle, Suit, Vulnerable. Chess: Bishop, Capture, Castling, Checkmate, En Passant, Gambit, Grand Master, King, Knight, Pawn, Queen, Rook, Stalemate, Sicilian Defense, Under Promoting. Cricket: Ashes, Banana, Boundary, Bowling, Caught, Chinaman, Cover Drive, Crease, Doosra, Duck, Duckworth-Lewis Rule, Fine Leg, Follow On, Full Toss, Gardening, Googly, Gully, Hat-trick, Hit Wicket, Inswinger, l.b.w., Leg-break, Leg-bye, Leg Glance, late Cut, maiden

Over, No Ball, Off Break, On Drive, Out, Outswinger, Over, Mandatory Over, over Pitch, Popping Crease, Rubber, Run Down, Run Out, Short Pitch, Silly Point, Slip, Square Leg, Stone Walling, Straight Drive, Stumped, Short leg, Spin, Swing, Thirdman, Yorker. Croquet: Hoops, Mallet, Peg Out. Cycling: Track Events Draughts: Huff Equestrian: Tent Pegging Football: Advantage Clause, Blind Side, Centre Forward, Corner Kick, Dead Ball, Direct Free Kick, Dribble, Goal kick, Golden Goal, Hat-trick, Marking, OffSide, Penalty Kick, Penalty Shootout, Red Card, Striker, Throw In, Tie-Breaker, Tripping. Golf: Best-ball Foursome, Bogey, Bunker, Caddie, Dormy, Fairway, Fourball, Foursome, Greed Holes, Links, Niblic, Par, Put, Rough, Stymied, Tee, Threesome. Gymnastics: A-bars, Ariel, Blocks, Cone of Swing, Dish, Flairs, Giants, Inlocate, Kip, Planche, Tariff, Tumble, Virtuosity, Wrap. Hockey: Advantage, Back-stick, Bully, Cary, Centre Forward, Centre, Corner, Dribble, Flick, Free-hit, Goal Line, Blue line, Green Card, Halfway Line, Hat-trick, Off-side, Red Car, Roll -in, Scoop, Short Corner, Sixteen-yard hit, Square Pass, Drop pass, Stick, Striking Cirele, Tackle, Tie-breaker, Penalty Corner, Long Corner, Zonal Marking. Horse Racing: Jockey, Punter, Steeplechase, Bookies, Thorough Bred. Judo: Ashi-waza, chui, Dan, Dojo, Gyaku, Hajime, Ippon, Jigotai, Kaeshiwaza, Koka, Makikomi, Nage-waza, O-goshi, Randori, Scarf,

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Tani-Otoshi, Uchi-komvi, Waki-gatame, Yoshi, Yuko. Karate: Age Zuki, Ai-uchi, Aka, Chakugan, Dachi, Encho Sen, Fudotachi, Gedan, Geri, Hajime, Ibuki, Jion, Kakato, Koka, Makiwara, Nidan, Obi, Rei, Sanbon, Shiro, Tobigeri, Ude, Waza-ari, Yoko-geri, Zanshin, Zen-no. Polo: Bunker, Chukker, Mallet. Rowing: Bow, Bucket, Cow, Ergometer, Feather, Paddle, Drop, Regatta. Rugby Football: A Trackle, Lines, Scrum, Touch, Try. Shooting: Bag, Bull’s Eye, Marksmanship, Muzzle, Plug. Skiing: Tobogganing. Swimming: Breast Stroke, Crawl. Table Tennis: Anti Loop, Backspin, Chop, Loop, Penhold Grip, Push, Spin, Twiddle. Tennis: Ace, Backhand Stroke, Deuce, Deep Volley, Deuce, Double Fault, Fault, Ground Stroke, Half Volley, Let, Love, Slice, Smash, Topspin, Volley Volleyball: Ace, Base-line, Blocking, Doubling, Foot Fault, Heave, Holding, Jump Set, Lob Pass, Love All, Point, Quick Smash, Scouting, Service, Spike, Tactical Ball, Volley, Windmill Service. Weight Lifting: Clean and Jerk, Bench Press Wrestling: Half-Nelson, Head Lock, Heave, Freestyle, Hold, Rebouts, Scissor. Yachting: Soling Tempest, Flying Dutchman, Tornado

TROPHIES ASSOCIATED WITH VARIOUS SPORTS & GAMES
Air Racing: Jawaharlal Challenge Trophy, King's Cup, World Cup. Archery: Federation Cup Athletics: Charminar Trophy, Federation Cup, World Cup. Badminton: Agarwal Cup, Amrit Diwan Cup, Asia Cup, Austrelasia Cup, Chadha Cup, European Cup, Harilela Cup, Ibrahim Rahimatollah Challenge Cup, Konica Cup, Narng cup, Sophia Kitiakara Cup, Konica Cup, S. R. Ruia Cup, Thomas Cup, Tunku Abdul Rahman Cup, Uber Cup, World Cup, Yonex Cup. Basketball: Basalat Jha Trophy, B. C. Gupta Trophy, Federation Cup, S. M. Arjuna Raja trophy, Todd Memorial Trophy, William Jones Cup. Billiards: Arthur Walker Trophy, Thomas Cup. Boat Rowing: American Cup (Yacht racing), Wellington Trophy (India). Boxing: Aspy Adjahia Trophy, federation Cup, Val iBaker Trophy. Bridge: Basalat Jha Trophy, Holkar Trophy, Ruia Gold Cup, Singhania Trophy. Chess: Naidu Trophy, Khaitan Trophy, Limca Trophy, Linares City Trophy, World Cup. Cricket: Anthony D'Mellow Trophy, Ashes, Asia Cup, Benson and Hedges Cup, Bose Trophy, Champions Trophy, Charminar Challenge Cup, C. K. Nayudu Trophy, Cooch-Behar Trophy, Deodhar Trophy, Duleep Trophy, Gavaskar-Border Trophy, Duleep Trophy, Gavaskar-Border Trophy, G. D. Birla Trophy, Gillette Cup, Ghulam Ahmad Trophy, hakumat Rai Trophy, ICC World Cup, Interface Cup, Irani Trophy, Jawaharlal Nehru Cup, Lombard World Challenge Cup, McDowells Challenge Cup, Merchant Trophy, Moin-ud-Dowla Cup, NatWest Trophy, Prudential Cup (World Cup), Rani Jhansi Trophy, Ranji Trophy, Rohinton Baria Trophy, Rothmans Cup, Sahara Cup, Sharjah

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Cup, Sheesh Mahal Trophy, Sheffield Shield, Singer Cup, Sir Frank Worrel Trophy, Texaco Cup, Titan Cup, Vijay Hazare Trophy, Vijay Merchant Trophy, Vizzy Trophy, Wisden Trophy, Wills Trophy, World Series Cup. Football: African Natons Cup, Airlines Cup, america Cup, Asia Cup, Asian Women's Cup, Bandodkar Trophy, B. C. Roy Trophy, Begum Hazrat Mahal Cup, Bicentennial Gold Cup, BILT Cup, Bordoloi Trophy, Colombo Cup, Confederations Cup, DCM Cup, Durand Cup, European Cup, FA Cup, Federation Cup, G. V. Raja Memorial Trophy, gold Cup, Governor's Cup, Greek Cup, Great Wall Cup, IFA Shield, Independence Day Cup, Indira Gandhi Trophy, Inter-Continental Cup, Jawaharlal Nehru Gold Cup, Jules Rimet Trophy, Kalinga Cup, Kings Cup, Kirin Cup, Lal Bahadur Shastri Trophy, McDowell Cup, Merdeka Cup, Nagjee Trophy, Naidunia Trophy, Nations Cup, NFL Trophy, Nehru Gold Cup, Nizam Gold Cup, Raghbir Singh Memorial Cup, Rajiv Gandhi Trophy, Rovers Cup, Sanjay Gold Cup, Santosh Trophy, Scissors Cup, Sir Ashutohs Mukherjee Trophy, Stafford Cup, Subroto Cup, Supercup Trophy, Todd Memorial Trophy, UEFA Cup, US Cup, Vittal Trophy, Winner's Cup, World Cup. Golf: Canada Cup, Eisenhower Trophy, Inter-Continental Cup, Maekyung LG Fashion Open Trophy, Muthiah Gold Cup, Nomura Trophy, Paralamdi Trophy, President's Trophy, Prince of Wales Cup, Ryder Cup, Solheim Cup, Topolino Trophy, Walker Cup, Waterford Crystal Trophy, World Cup. Hockey: Agha Khan Cup, Allwyn Asia Cup, Azlan Shah Cup, Beighton Cup, Bhim Sain Trophy, BMW Trophy, Bombay Gold Cup, Champions Trophy, Clarke Trophy, Dhyan Chand Trophy, Esanda Champions Cup, European Nations Cup, Gurmeet Trophy, Guru Nanak Cup, Gyanvati Devi Trophy, Indira Gandhi Gold Cup, Intercontinental Cup, Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan Cup, Kuppuswamy Naidu Cup, Lady Rattan Tata Cup (women), Lal Bahadur Shastri Cup, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Gold Cup, Modi Gold Cup, Murugappa Gold Cup, Nehru Trophy, Obaidullah Gold Cup, Prime Minister's Gold cup, Rangaswami Cup, Ranjit Singh Gold Cup, Rene Frank Trophy, Sanjay Gandhi Trophy, Scindia gold Cup, Shriram Trophy, Tunku Abdul Razak Cup, Wellington Cup, World Cup, Yadavindra Cup. Horse Racing: Beresford Cup, Blue Riband, Derby, Grand Natonal Cup.

Kabaddi: Federation Cup Kho-Kho: Federation Cup Netball: Anantrao Pawar Trophy. Polo: Ezar Cup, Gold Cup, King's Cup, President Cup, Prithi Singh Cup, Radha Mohan Cup, Winchester Cup. Rowing: Beefeather's Gin. Rugby Football: Bledisloe Cup; Calcutta Cup, Webb Ellis Trophy. Shootng: North Wales Cup, Welsh Grand Prix. Snooker: Team Tournament Asean Cup. Table Tennis: Asian Cup, Berna Bellack Cup, Corbillion Cup (women), Electra Gold Cup, Gasper-Giest Prize, Grand Prix, Jayalaxmi Cup (women), Kamala Ramanunjan Cup, Marcel Corbillon Cup, Pithapuram Cup (men), Swaythling Cup (men), Travancore Cup (women), U Thant Cup, World Cup. Tennis: Ambre Solaire Cup, A T&T Cup, Champions Cup, ATP President's Cup, Davis Cup, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Cup, Edgbaston Cup, Evert Cup, Federation Cup, Ghafar Cup, Grand Prix, Grand Slam Cup, Nations' Cup, Watson's Water Trophy, Wightman Cup, Wimbledon Trophy, World Cup, World Team Cup. Volleyball: Centennial Cup, Federation Cup, Indira Pradhan Trophy, Shivanthi Gold Cup, World Cup, World League Cup. Weightlifting: World Cup. Wrestling: Bharat Kesari, Burdwan Shield, World Cup. Yachting: America Cup

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SUMMITS / CONFERENCES
India-EU Summit

the leaders said, would help mitigate the risk of excessive volatility in capital flows facing some emerging market economies.

ASEAN-India Summit
The 8th ASEAN-India Summit was held at Hanoi, Vietnam on October 30, 2010. Addressing the heads of the state of ASEAN countries, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said the conclusion of a “services and investment agreement” between India and ASEAN would be an important step in “our goal of comprehensive economic cooperation”. With an aim to play a more significant role in the growing economies of the region, India has been pushing its case for having a bilateral pact in services and investment at the earliest. Through this pact, India wants to get a foothold in all ASEAN countries for its growing pharmaceutical industry, besides allowing ease in visa regimes for its IT professionals, healthcare workers and teachers in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand (ASEAN nations). With an agreement in place for free trade in services and investment, India can offer a bigger share of the pie to these countries in its infrastructure sector that is poised for a major growth.

India and the European Union will sign their much-delayed free-trade pact on goods, services and investment by early next year, with the respective chief negotiators meeting every month to fast-track the process. European Commission president Jose Manuel Barroso and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced their intention to wrap up the talks next year, during the ongoing India-EU Summit in Brussels on December 10. "Let us sign the deal in 2011," Barroso said after the meeting. Ministers from both sides will meet in March to finalise the agreement which would be signed by spring, according to a joint report tabled at the summit. The 27-member grouping is India's largest trading partner, with bilateral trade touching $75 billion in 2009-10. The pact is expected to increase two-way trade by 30%. India has so far signed bilateral free-trade agreements with Singapore, South Korea, the 10-member Asean and Sri Lanka. Two more with Japan and Malaysia have almost been finalised.

UN Climate Summit
The UN climate conference at Cancun reached a compromise to set up a 100 billion Dollar Green Fund to fight global warming. The fund is intended to assist poorer nations with low carbon development and protective measures against the effects of global warming. Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh said, the major emerging economies -- Brazil, South Africa, India and China - BASIC have welcomed the decision. He said they are very happy with the text and Cancun represents an important step forward. He said that many of India's contributions have been incorporated in the text. The minister pointed out that under the current text, developed countries are subject to stricter scrutiny on their mitigation cuts than developing countries. He also highlighted that no peaking year for carbon emissions has been mentioned in the draft nor a global emission reduction goal set for 2050. Everyone, however, appreciated the efforts of Mexican Foreign Secretary Patricia Espinosa, who worked for two weeks to ensure transparency in the process and help countries work through their differences.

First DRR Industry Meet 2010
The Directorate of Rice Research (DRR) has organized the First DRR Industry Meet -2010 on Display of DRR technologies and Services at its Premises in Rajendranagar. Representatives from more than 30 Private Companies have participated in the meet.

G-20 Summit
The Seoul Action Plan, agreed at the end of the two-day Summit of the G-20 leaders, called for moving towards more marketdetermined exchange rates. An undervalued Yuan or a weak Dollar also has ramifications for India and several other countries in terms of their exports becoming uncompetitive. The G-20 group includes India, the US, China, Germany, France, Brazil, Russia and Japan. In the face of a currency war between the US and China, global leaders, including Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, agreed to refrain from ‘competitive devaluation’ and bring in exchange rate flexibility to ensure that no country gets undue advantage. These measures,

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3rd National seminar on AIDS
3rd National seminar on AIDS was started at Hyderabad October 29, 2010. National Aids control board conducted this seminar.

ASEAN Summit
The 17th ASEAN Summit was held in Hanoi, Vietnam, on October 28-30, 2010. The meeting was considered a success, with all members agreeing to cooperate with one another in solving the region’s economic downturn. The 17th ASEAN Summit focused on the contents of building the community and implementing the ASEAN Charter, external relations and key role of the body, sustainable development and coping with global challenges.

deliberate on various issues related to sports and law in India. Among other things, the conference discussed the ‘Right to Information’ (RTI) and accountability of sports federations, and legalities involved in staging major sports events like the Olympics, Asian Games, Commonwealth Games. It also discussed gender discrimination in sports, intellectual property rights, importance of transparency in corporate structure of professional sports leagues, future of IPL, besides public relation opportunities and challenges which are concomitant with it, issues relating to infrastructure in developing and maintaining stadiums, training facilities etc.

Microfinance India Summit
7th Annual Microfinance India Summit held in New Delhi discussed the need for reforms in microfinance industry. Chairman, Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister, Dr. C. Rangarajan called for reforms in MFI business.

International Tiger Forum
On November 21, 2010, Russia called for global efforts to avert extinction of tigers as wildlife activists and officials from 13 countries, including India, gathered at a summit in St Petersburg to discuss ways to double the population of the endangered animal from the existing 3,200. Due to decades of poaching and habitat destruction, there are currently only 3,200 tigers living in the wild, according to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), as against 1 lakh a century ago. “Three sub-species have already disappeared and none of the other six are secure,” said the declaration that was adopted by the heads of government at the summit. Russia is the only country to have seen its tiger population increase in the past years, from 80-100 in the 1960s to around 500 now, and experts have hailed animal lover Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin for taking an active role in saving the tiger. Along with Russia and India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam—home to wild tigers— took part in the summit. Simultaneously, a Youth Tiger Summit opened in Vladivostok on Russia’s Pacific coast, which adopted an appeal to the leaders of their countries to take active steps in tiger conservation.

Third summit on Global Agenda
The third summit on Global Agenda was held in Dubai in November 2010. The summit gave an opportunity to social, political and business leaders across the world to benchmark key developmental issues against global realities.

16th UN Climate Change Conference
The 16th United Nations Climate Change Conference took place in Cancun, Mexico, from November 29, 2010. India was among the 190 UN members who took part in the 12-day event.

International Renewable Energy Conference
The International Renewable Energy Conference was held in New Delhi in October 2010.

India’s first sports law conference
The Society of Indian Law Firms (SILF) organised the first ever ‘Sports Law Conference’ in New Delhi, on July 24-25, 2010, to

UN Summit
The UN Summit on the Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs, was held in September 2010 at UN Headquarters in New York, USA.

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Mid-East Summit
US President Barack Obama waded into a new round of Middle East diplomacy September 1, 2010, seeking momentum for revived peace talks clouded by a flare-up of West Bank violence and a deadlock over Jewish settlements. Obama met Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu as he launched a series of one-on-one meetings with Middle East leaders attending a US-led peace summit that culminated with the first direct Israeli-Palestinian talks in 20 months. With Obama's peace bid facing broad skepticism and the clock ticking toward the September 26, 2010 expiration of an Israeli settlement construction freeze, Israel's defence minister sounded a conciliatory note about the prospects for sharing Jerusalem, an issue at the heart of the decades-old conflict. But big obstacles remain to Obama's quest for a peace deal that eluded so many of his predecessors. Hamas militants declared war on the talks even before they began, killing four Jewish settlers in the occupied West Bank, vowing more attacks and underscoring the threat hard-liners pose to the fragile peace process. The summit marked Obama's riskiest plunge into Middle East diplomacy, not least because he wants the two sides to forge a deal within 12 months, a target many analysts call a long shot.

signing an agreement on trade in services and expressing their firm resolve to stamp out terrorism from the region. The next summit would be held in the Maldives in 2011. Facing criticism for the slow pace of development in the region, the SAARC leaders reiterated their commitment to implement the South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) in letter and spirit to boost intra-regional economic cooperation for the prosperity of their people. The closing ceremony of the summit was attended by leaders from all the eight SAARC countries—India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Representatives of nine observer countries—Mauritius, South Korea, China, Japan, Iran, the US, the EU, Australia and Myanmar—were also present. The sevenpage ‘Thimphu Silver Jubilee Declaration-Towards a Green and Happy South Asia’’ emphasised the importance of reducing dependence on high-carbon technologies for economic growth and hoped promotion of climate resilience will promote both development and poverty eradication in a sustainable manner.

IBSA Summit
The 2nd India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Summit was held in Brasilia on April 15, 2010. Speaking at the Summit, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said the grouping of leading developing economies must speak against the protectionist policies, “which are only short-sighted and self-defeating in the long run”. IBSA can contribute to the shaping of the global agenda and highlighting the issues of concern to developing countries.

Summit between India-Pak Prime Ministers
On April 29, 2010, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and his Pakistani counterpart Yousaf Raza Gilani held their first bilateral meeting in nine months to end the diplomatic stalemate in ties between their two nations since the 26/11 Mumbai terror attacks. At their hour-long meeting, described as an “exercise in soul searching” by Indian officials, the two leaders decided to upgrade the bilateral dialogue to the political level, something which Islamabad had been insisting upon for months.

Nuclear Security Summit
World leaders, including Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh, attending the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington D.C., on April 12, 2010, set a stiff four-year target to secure all vulnerable nuclear material in the world to prevent terrorists from laying their hands on any of them. In a communiqué issued at the end of the summit, the leaders emphatically stated: “Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security” and agreed that “strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals or other unauthorised actors from acquiring nuclear material.” Another summit would be held in 2012 in South Korea to review the progress.

16th SAARC Summit
The 16th SAARC summit began at Thimpu, Bhutan, on April 28, 2010, with India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and leaders of seven other member nations pledging to combat extremism and terrorism, launch joint initiatives to deal with climate change and boost intra-regional trade. The Summit ended on April 29, 2010, with leaders adopting the ‘Thimphu statement’ on climate change,

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Asian Forum
Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) hosted a conference in Manila, Philippines, in March 2010, on indigenous peoples, climate change and rural poverty.

things, the Speaker’s role as a mediator and administrator of Parliament and use of technology in disseminating information on Parliamentary proceedings.

Partnership Summit 2010
The 16th Edition of the Partnership Summit 2010 was held in Chennai, organised by the confederation of Indian Industry.

Fifth global steel summit
The fifth global steel summit was held in Goa in February 2010 to serve as a forum to strengthen ties between steel makers and miners.

Environment Ministers meeting
The Environment Ministers meeting of the BASIC Countries (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) was held in New Delhi.

International Congress of Mathematicians
President Pratibha Patil inaugurated the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM 2010) at HICC, Hyderabad. For the first time ever, the Union's General Assembly has elected Ingrid Daubechies of the U.S., a woman as its president for the 2011-14 terms.

Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure
The Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure (CCI) approved the establishment of National Knowledge Network (NKN), which seeks to inter-connect all knowledge institutions in the country through high speed data communication network, at an outlay of Rs 5,990 crore to be implemented by NIC over a period of 10 years.

Pravas Bharatiya Divas
President Pratibha Patil delivering the valedictory address at the Pravasi Bhartiya Diwas (Jan, 9) on the day Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in 1915, pointed out that: Overseas Indian's estimated at over 250 lakhs had come to be recognised as the "Knowledge Diaspora". India's remittances from Overseas Indians estimated at over $ 50 billion last year are the highest in the world.Of these about $ 20 billion comes from Overseas Indian workers in the Gulf consisting of temporary contracted skilled and semi-skilled workers.

World Telecom Development Conference
ITU's fifth World Telecommunication Development Conference (WTDC-10), will take place in Hyderabad, India from 24 May to 4 June 2010 (consultation of Member States is underway) with participants to include government delegates, Ministers, Ambassadors and representatives from the private sector, as well as regional and international organizations. It will be an opportunity to review the programmes and activities of ITU-D as well as to set the agenda for the following four-year cycle.

20th Commonwealth Speakers Conference
The 20th Commonwealth Speakers’ Conference was held in New Delhi from January 5, 2010. It was inaugurated by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Describing the growth of regional parties as a challenge for governance and conduct of parliamentary democracy, Mr Manmohan Singh said: “Though the aspirations of smaller parties may often be anchored in narrow considerations, they carry great weight for their constituents. In the end, democracy must respond to everyday concerns of the common man and Parliament should be the forum to address such concerns.” The remark was in obvious reference to the growing influence of subregional parties in coalition politics and Parliament. Presiding officers from 42 Commonwealth nations were present (some in traditional Speaker robes). The Conference discussed, among other

World Classical Tamil Conference
The first World Classical Tamil Conference was held in Coimbatore. President Pratibha Devisingh Patil presented the Kalaignar M. Karunanidhi Classical Tamil Award to Asko Parpola for his work on the Dravidian hypothesis in the interpretation of the Indus script.

Knowledge Millennium Summit
Eight Knowledge Millennium Summit 2010 - 2020: Decade of Innovations was held in New Delhi. Former President, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and ASSOCHAM President, Swati Piramal addressed on the issues of food security, energy and water.

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COMMITTEES

Women's Leadership Summit 2010
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh along with Lok Sabha speaker Meira Kumar inaugurated the Women's Leadership Summit 2010 on Inclusive Growth and Empowering Women of Rural India in New Delhi.

Bimal Jalan committee

The Bimal Jalan committee was set-up to review the ownership and working of capital markets infrastructure institutions (MIIs). One major recommendation of the report is that only banks, insurance companies and domestic financial institutes with a net worth of Rs 1,000 crore be roped in as anchor investors.

National Innovation Council
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh agreed for the setting up of a National Innovation Council headed by Sam Pitroda, Adviser to the Prime Minister on Public Information Infrastructure and Innovations, to give shape to the Government's decision to observe the current decade (2010-2020) as the Decade of Innovation. The Council will have a mandate to evolve an Indian model of innovation that focuses on inclusive growth and creating an appropriate eco-system conducive to fostering inclusive innovation.

N.C. Saxena Committee
The N.C. Saxena Committee was set up by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. It details the manner in which laws were flagrantly flouted to facilitate the Vedanta Alumina Ltd project in Orissa. The project is aggressively opposed by the local tribal groups.

Pharmacopoeia Commission
The government decided to set up a Pharmacopoeia Commission in Ghaziabad at a cost of Rs. 14.08 crore for developing indigenous medicines with the aim of raising the country's share in the $62-billion global herbal drug market.

Parliamentary Inquiry Committee
Parliamentary Inquiry Committee headed by Justice B Sudershan Reddy holds Justice Soumitra Sen guilty of misconduct and misappropriation of funds.

Equal Opportunities Commission
The Minority Affairs Ministry has finalised the contours of the Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) being planned by the government to address the inequalities that persist even 60 years after Independence and evolve/evaluate mechanisms for affirmative action. An expert group was set up last year under the chairmanship of N. R. Madhava Menon to determine the structure and functions of the Commission. Besides the chairman, it will have six members, two of them full-time. The members two have to be women will be selected by a three member committee headed by the Prime Minister and comprising the Minister for Minority Affairs and the Leader of the Opposition. Unlike most other commissions, the EOC will have a five-year term. Its jurisdiction will extend to all deprived groups, which have been denied or which claim to have been denied equal opportunities by the government or private institutions particularly in education and employment. Primarily, the task cut out for the EOC is to create indices for measuring inequality in different sectors of activity and among different sections; collect, evaluate and disseminate data; and intervene on behalf of deprived and discriminated

Justice Srikrishna committee
The Union government has set-up a five-member committee headed by Justice B.N. Srikrishna to look into the modalities of forming the separate State of Telangana. The committee has been given time till December 31, 2010 to consult all sections of the society and submit report.

Three member committee
Rajya Sabha Chairman Hamid Ansari Constituted a three member committee headed by supreme court judge V.S. Sirpurkar, that will investigate the grounds for impeachment of karnataka chief - Justice P.D.Dinakaran whose removal from office has been sought jointly by 75 Opposition members in the Rajya Sabha on corruption and land - grabbing charges. Justice A.R.Dave, cheif Justice of the Andhra Pradesh High court and eminent Jurist P.P.Rao are the other members of the panel.

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groups. The experts found that the EOCs were becoming a norm in leading democracies with social and cultural diversities. The group found the South African and British models of particular value.

SCHEMES

Justice V. Bhaskara Rao commission
The inquiry commission headed by Justice V Bhaskara Rao on police firing on protesters after Macca Masjid blast in Hyderabad submitted his report to the Government of Andhra Pradesh. The Committee was constituted in June 2007 to submit the report in 3 months.

Swavalamban Scheme
Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee launched the Swavalamban Scheme of Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) on September 25, 2010. The scheme seeks to provide pension scheme to the un-organised sector. Under the scheme, the Central government will contribute Rs 1,000 per year to each National Pension Scheme (NPS) account opened in year 2010-11 and for the next three years, till 2013-14.

UN General Assembly Committee
United Nations General Assembly Committee issued resolution for a moratorium on death penalty. A total of 107 countries supported moratorium, along with India 37 other countries opposed and 36 countries abstained.

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna
The Union Cabinet has approved a proposal of the Labour Ministry to amend the Employees State Insurance Act, 1948, to provide medical facilities to unorganised workers in ESIC hospitals and recognised private hospitals under the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojna (RSBY), a cashless health insurance scheme.

Takeover Regulations Advisory Committee
The Takeover Regulations Advisory Committee under the chairmanship of C. Achuthan, in its 139-page report to the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), has proposed sweeping changes on critical issues, including the open offer trigger, offer size, indirect acquisitions, exemptions from open offer obligations, calculating the offer price and competing offers. This comes nearly 16 years after the guidelines were formally notified for the first time and after 23 amendments to the last major review in 1997. The takeover panel, formed by SEBI in September 2009, has recommended an increase in the open offer trigger from 15 per cent to 25 per cent. Further, the open offer has to be made for all the shares of the target company, instead of the current practice of an offer for acquiring an additional 20 per cent. Analysts said the proposed rules would raise the financing required for taking over a firm, but would encourage investors taking strategic stakes in companies.

Rajiv Awas Yojana
The Union government has set up an independent eight member expert committee under the chairmanship of Deepak Parekh to review the draft guidelines of Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY), a housing scheme for slum dwellers and urban poor.

Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Adolescent Girls
Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls, called SABLA, aims to empower adolescent girls between ages 11 to 18 years by providing them nutrition, Iron and Folic Acid (IFA) supplementation, health check-up, nutrition and health education, counselling/guidance on family welfare, vocational training etc. was launched by Union Home Minister P Chidambaram as a pilot project for implementation in 200 districts.

India-Iran joint commission
In their first interaction after the UN imposed the fourth round of sanctions on Tehran in June 2010 over its controversial nuclear programme, India and Iran, on July 8, 2010, signed six pacts, including one on cooperation in new and renewable energy and another on increasing the number of flights between the two countries. The MOUs were signed at the end of the two-day meeting of the India-Iran joint commission.

People's welfare programme
Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister, Mayawati launches people's welfare programme called "Uttar Pradesh Mukhyamantri Mahamaya Garib Arthik Madad Yojna" to disburse Rs.300 per month to the eligible poor in the State.

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VISITS / TOURS

Visit of Russia President Medvedev
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev official two-day visit to India during which he will discuss trade, economic, energy and cultural cooperation as well as international issues. Medvedev is likely to secure a long-awaited contract with India on jointly developing 250-300 fifth generation fighter aircraft over 10 years. The contract amount is unknown, but unofficially said to be around $35 billion. He may have a tough task convincing India to strike more arms deals following delays to the delivery of some Russian projects, including the Admiral Gorshkov heavy aircraft carrying cruiser. Moscow-based defence analysts Cast say Russia has nearly tripled the price, and delayed delivery of the cruiser by four years, since signing the original contract in 2004. Up for negotiation during Medvedev's visit will be a deal for a third site for a Russian-built nuclear power plant. "Energy is one area where Russia will be the most important partner for India both in terms of conventional and non conventional energy.... Russians are one of our main suppliers of nuclear power plants," said Lalit Mansingh, former Indian foreign secretary. Russia is keen to continue supplying technology and expertise to energy-hungry India as it plans to add 63,000 MW of nuclear power by 2032 to support its economic growth. Behind the rhetoric of expanding ties with its fellow BRIC economy -- the term used to group emerging powers Brazil, Russia, India and China -- bilateral trade is eclipsed by Russia's booming economic ties with the European Union and China. The Kremlin said trade with India will total $10 billion this year, while official statistics show Russia's trade with the European Union stood at $246 billion in the first 10 months of 2010, and trade with China was $47.5 billion in the same period. India and Russia hope to boost bilateral trade to $20 billion within five years.

talks with Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh and will call on Smt. Pratibha Patil, President of India. Leaders of the two countries had an in-depth exchange of views on bilateral relations and regional and international issues of mutual interest in a sincere and friendly atmosphere and reached broad consensus. The two sides agreed that as the two largest developing countries in the world, India and China shoulder important and historical responsibilities of ensuring their comprehensive and sustainable economic and social development. They also make a vital contribution to advancing peace and development in Asia and in the world at large. India-China relations go beyond their bilateral scope and have acquired global and strategic significance. The two sides welcome each other's peaceful development and regard it as a mutually reinforcing process. They believe that their growing relationship offers increasing opportunities to advance their cooperation. There is enough space in the world for the development of both India and China and indeed, enough areas for India and China to cooperate. The two sides reviewed with satisfaction the comprehensive and rapid progress of India-China relations in the last ten years, and reaffirmed their commitment to abiding by the basic principles and consensus concerning the development of India-China relations set out in the Declaration of Principles for Relations and Comprehensive Cooperation between India and China in 2003, the Joint Statement of India and China in 2005, the India-China Joint Declaration of 2006 and A Shared Vision for the 21st Century of India and China of 2008. The two sides decided to enhance strategic communication, advance functional cooperation, broaden cultural exchanges, and deepen and enrich the India-China Strategic and Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Prosperity on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence, mutual respect and sensitivity for each other's concerns and aspirations.

Visit of France President Sarkozy
France signed a 9.3-billion-dollar framework agreement to sell two nuclear reactors to India during a trade-centred visit by French President Nicolas Sarkozy to New Delhi. India inked the deal with France's state-run nuclear group Areva for the purchase of two reactors for a new plant in Jaitapur in the western state of Maharashtra. "Negotiations (with Areva) have reached an advanced stage to pave the way for the launching of nuclear power reactors in

Visit of China PM Wen Jiabao
At the invitation of Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of the Republic of India, Mr Wen Jiabao, Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, is on a State visit to the Republic of India from 15 to 17 December 2010. Premier Wen Jiabao held

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Jaitapur in partnership with Indian industry," Prime Minister Manmohan Singh told a joint press conference. The deal is short of a final sale contract, but it means Areva has moved ahead of US and Japanese competitors in the race to sell reactors to India, which aims to tap atomic power for a quarter of its electricity demands by 2050. Deals totalling 15 billion euros (20 billion dollars) have been signed or are about to be signed with Indian companies, Sarkozy's office said, including a leasing agreement for 14 Airbus planes and the modernisation of 51 French-made Mirage fighter jets. Sarkozy came with a delegation of six ministers and around 70 chief executives, including the bosses of aircraft and defence groups Dassault Aviation, aircraft maker EADS, and Areva. The nuclear group hopes to supply six reactors in total for the Maharashtra nuclear plant. The first two are worth 7.0 billion euros, according to the French presidency.

Her visit assumed special significance since this was the first ever visit of by an Indian President to Syria. Several Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs), including those on cultural exchange, were signed during the visit. Her talks with President al-Assad gave a new momentum to the bilateral relations in all fields, particularly on expanding economic and commercial cooperation. The President’s visit was aimed to bolster a political dialogue between the two countries and discussions were held on bilateral, regional and international issues, including West Asia peace process. Syria has already backed India’s demand for a permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council and has always tried to act as a moderator for toning down Pakistani rhetoric in the meetings of Organisation of Islamic Countries.

President Pratibha visit to Laos
India will provide the Lao People’s Democra6c Republic the first tranche worth $72.55million for two power projects as part of a package of monetary and technical assistance in areas ranging from power and irriga6on to culture. The agreements commi7ed to cover several areas. In the field of culture, a cultural exchange programme has been signed for 2011-2013, the centre piece of which is a project for the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) assistance in the restora6on of the 6th century temple complex of Vat Phou in the province of Champassak.

President Patil Visit to Abu Dhabi
Indian President Pratibha Patil made a goodwill visit to Abu Bhabi and Dubai in November 2010. India’s economic aspirations and strong growth make it an ideal destination for foreign investment, President Pratibha Patil told members of the Abu Dhabi Chamber of Commerce. All religions of the world unite was the President’s second message in Abu Dhabi. At an interaction with students of Indian schools from the UAE at the Abu Dhabi Indian School, the President advised them to build friendships and develop the ability to work constructively as a team. She opined that education was not merely necessary to secure a job but an investment into the future and a way to imbibe the concepts of peace, harmony and tolerance. Inaugurating the Indian Islamic Centre, the President said that it was a tribute to the collective efforts of the Indian Diaspora and would serve as a cultural bridge between India and the UAE. The President arrived in Dubai to a grand reception given by the Indian community. She also launched a long-awaited 24-hour helpline for distressed Indian workers facing problems with their employers or contracts.

Visit of President Obama
US President Barack Obama reached India for a three-day official visit on November 6, 2010. He arrived in Mumbai where he paid homage to the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack victims. Later, addressing the Indian and American entrepreneurs he said several landmark deals worth US $ 10 billion have been signed between Indian and American companies shortly before his arrival. These deals, he said, will help in creating more than 50,000 jobs back home in USA. Among the biggest deals announced included Reliance Power’s purchase of 2,400 MW plants from GE and Spicejet’s deal to buy thirty three Boeing 737 aircraft. President Obama landed in Delhi on November 7, 2010. On November 8, President Obama addressed the Indian Parliament. The US President’s speech, which was interspersed with several

President Patil’s visit to Syria
Indian President Pratibha Devisingh Patil arrived on November 26, 2001, on a four-day state visit to the Syrian Arab Republic.

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India-specific references and continuously underlined the fast-improving partnership between New Delhi and Washington, was attended by a packed House, which included Vice-President Hamid Ansari, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Lok Sabha Speaker Meira Kumar, UPA chairperson Sonia Gandhi, Cabinet ministers and members of the two Houses of Parliament. India and the United States pledged to defeat all terrorist networks, including the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), and strengthen international cooperative activities that will reduce the risk of terrorists acquiring nuclear weapons or material. Condemning terrorism in all its forms, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and US President Barack Obama, in a joint statement, issued at the end of the American leader’s official engagements in India, called on Pakistan to bring to justice the perpetrators of the 26/11 Mumbai terror attacks. They reiterated that success in Afghanistan and regional and global security required elimination of safe havens and infrastructure for terrorism and violent extremism in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The two leaders also emphasised the importance of close cooperation in combating terrorist financing and in protecting the international financial system. Deciding to strengthen and expand the Indo-US global strategic partnership, the Indian PM and Obama called for an efficient, credible and legitimate United Nations to ensure a just and sustainable international order. Singh welcomed President Obama’s affirmation that in the years ahead, Washington looked forward to a reformed UN Security Council that included India as a permanent member. On the civil nuclear deal, they reiterated their commitment to build strong bilateral cooperation through the participation of American energy companies in India on the basis of mutually acceptable technical and commercial terms and conditions that enabled a viable tariff regime for the electricity generated. The two leaders also decided to take mutual steps to expand US-India cooperation in civil space, defence and other high-technology sectors commensurate with India’s non-proliferation record and commitment to abide by multilateral export control standards. Key health and Education pacts singed: A promise to help India battle old and emerging infections and another of forging collaborations in higher education were the high points of US President Barack Obama’s India visit, which saw two key pacts being

inked in the sectors. On the health front, President Obama and Prime Minsiter Manmohan Singh announced the setting up of the Global Disease Detection India Centre to come up under the MoU between the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Delhi, and the Centre for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta. On the education front, the two sides committed themselves to a higher education summit in New Delhi in 2011 to develop “collaborations” in the area. Building lab capacity at home for diagnoses of emerging infectious diseases using well characterised reference materials and advanced technology transfer that meets CDC and global standards will be the other major takeaways from health MoU.

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s Japan visit
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited Japan on October 25, 2010. The visit ended with the successful conclusion of negotiations for the Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA). As a first step in realising CEPA, both countries agreed to a “sweeping” liberalisation of their bilateral visa regime. The successful conclusion of CEPA is expected to elevate trade and economic relations between the two countries to the next level. Though the trade between the two nations remained almost stagnant for decades, it has been growing rapidly since past three years. The agreement will foster new business opportunities, enhance competitiveness of private sectors, and encourage closer partnership between the private sectors in India’s teeming SMEs and Japan’s infrastructure and hi-technology enterprises. India is hoping that the CEPA coming into place will also balance out the trade imbalance between the two countries. As of now, trade between the two countries is strongly in favour of Japan.

Visit of PM Manmohan Singh to Malaysia
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited Kaula Lumpur on October 27, 2010. The highlight of the visit was agreement between India and Malaysia to forge new ties on two of the most important issues for their economies—sealing the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) and contain the threat of terrorism through establishment of a Joint Working Group on Counter Terrorism, besides collaboration in defence. The two leaders said that the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) will be signed by January 31, 2011 and this will be implemented by July 1, 2011.

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Visit of President of Mozambique
On September 30, 2010, during a meeting between President of Mozambique Armando Guebuza and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, India and Mozambique inked three pacts and a credit line of $500 million was extended to that country for infrastructure projects, agriculture and energy. The two countries have also decided to create a partnership based on greater political engagement, deepening of economic cooperation, strengthening of defence and security cooperation, specially to secure sea lanes against piracy, and cooperation in capacity building and human resource development.

after talks between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and the 77year-old leader of the military ‘junta’. Simultaneously, the EXIM Bank of India extended a line of credit of $60 million to the Myanmar Foreign Trade Bank.

Visit of British Prime Minister
British Prime Minister David Cameron came visiting India in July 2010. Talking on terrorism affecting the region, he said that Pakistan could not be allowed to harbour militants and promote terror against India, Afghanistan and the rest of the world. On his first visit to India after becoming Prime Minister in May 2010, he laid out the basis for a new “enhanced relationship” with India. Apart from Cameron’s own tough talk on terrorism, his business minister Vince Cable announced the UK was prepared to export civil nuclear technology to India, bringing Britain in line with the stance taken by the United States, Russia and France. Travelling to Bangalore and then to Delhi, Cameron signed a Rs 5,082 crore agreement for the Indian Air Force and Navy to buy an additional 57 Hawk Advanced Jet Trainer aircraft from British Aerospace Systems. India and the UK also made announcements in the field of immigration, education and signed an agreement on cultural cooperation. Cameron welcomed India’s support to Afghanistan, Nepal and Bhutan, its “intellectual leadership” at the G20, and said the time was ripe for India to find a place in the UN Security Council.

Visit of Polish Prime Minister
Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk visited India on September 7, 2010. The Indo-Polish defence cooperation figured prominently during talks between the visiting dignitary and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Since most of the Indian military hardware was acquired in the 1970s from the then Soviet Union, Poland, which was a key ally of former USSR, has the spares and the technology for upgrading the equipment with the Indian forces. Poland is keen to sell tank recovery vehicles to India. The proposal was made during Antony’s visit to Warsaw in April for a meeting of the joint working group (JWG) on defence cooperation between the two countries. A tank recovery vehicle is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to repair battle or mine damaged as well as broken down vehicles during combat operations, or to tow them out of the danger zone for more extensive repairs.

Visit of South African President
On his maiden visit to an Asian country as the President of South Africa, Jacob Zuma was given a rousing reception by the Indian leadership on June 4, 2010, as the two countries signed three key pacts, including one on air services, and agreed to support each other’s candidature for the non-permanent seat at the UN Security Council for the 2011-2012 term. A wide range of bilateral issues as well as global developments, including reforms of the UN Security Council, closer cooperation between the two countries at various international fora, particularly on climate change, and increasing the volume of bilateral trade, came for discussions during the talks. Apart from the pact on enhancing air connectivity, the two countries signed an MoU on agriculture cooperation and another for linkages between the Foreign Service Institute of India and

Visit of Myanmar’s military ruler
Ignoring worldwide concerns over human rights violations in Myanmar, New Delhi rolled out a red carpet welcome for Myanmar military ruler General Than Shwe on July 27, 2010. Top Indian leaders held wide-ranging talks with him on a plethora of issues, including bilateral ties as well as international developments. The increasing Chinese influence in the South East Asian nation is apparently weighing heavily in the mind of the Indian leadership as it seeks to increase its engagement with Myanmar, particularly in the vital energy sector and in fighting Indian insurgents operating along the India-Myanmar border. The two countries signed five accords

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the Diplomatic Academy of South Africa. Both India and South Africa are keen to increase the two-way trade, which currently stands at $7.5 billion annually. Zuma said he wanted that to grow to $10 billion by 2012.

Visit of Sri Lankan President
Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa visited New Delhi on June 9, 2010. During his talks with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, he sought to cool down tempers in India over the plight of Tamils in his island nation by promising to quickly resettle displaced Tamils and expedite a political solution to the ethnic issue. The two countries also signed seven agreements, including a treaty on mutual legal assistance in criminal matters and an MOU on sentenced prisoners, after wide-ranging talks. The two countries announced a major initiative to undertake a programme of construction of 50,000 houses for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka with India’s assistance. India would also be taking up several projects for the reconstruction of the North and the East, including rebuilding of railway infrastructure, rehabilitation of Kankesanthurai harbour and Palaly Airport, construction of a cultural centre in Jaffna and several vocational training centres, renovation of the Duraiappaj stadium and rehabilitation of war widows.

gurated China’s first Indian-style Buddhist temple in Luoyang city in Henan province. Skirting contentious issues, she held discussions with the top Chinese leadership. Controversial issues such as Chinese border incursions, stapled visas for Kashmiris, Indian visas for Chinese telecom companies and Sino-Pak ties did not figure in the discussions. Patil sought Chinese support for New Delhi's permanent membership of the UNSC during talks. The Chinese leaders supported India's aspirations for UNSC permanent seat and assured the Indian leader that Beijing would back India’s bid in 2011’s election for a non-permanent membership of the UNSC.

Visit of Afghan President Karzai
Afghan President Hamid Karzai, during his two-day trip to New Delhi on April 26, 2010, sought to allay India’s concerns over the proposed re-entry of the Taliban in the Afghanistan government. Karzai indicated that his government would enter into a power-sharing arrangement with those elements of Taliban who had accepted the country’s constitution and were not part of the Al Qaida.

Visit of Prime Minister Putin of Russia
Russian Prime Minister Vladmir Putin’s one-day visit New Delhi on March 13, 2010, has gone some distance in adding a strong economic dimension to ties between the two nations. The visit helped in building a roadmap to strengthen economic ties, including in the pharmaceutical sector, getting Russian investments in infrastructure projects and accessing Russian markets for Indian services. Demonstrating the solidity of their strategic relationship to the world, India and Russia sealed multi-billion dollars deals in key areas like defence, nuclear energy, diamond, petroleum and aviation as Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin reaffirmed Moscow’s support to Delhi in its fight against terrorism. The visit is noted for the success in taking this vital strategic partnership forward, giving the much needed economic impetus. A host of steps aimed at scaling up the current $7.5 billion bilateral trade to $20 billion by 2015 were set in motion. Besides agreement on nuclear reactors, an MoU for cooperation in Russia’s satellite navigation system was also agreed upon during the visit. Russia announced its readiness to build 16 nuclear reactors for power stations in India. An important agreement was the

Visit of Nepalese President
President of Nepal Ram Baran Yadav visited New Delhi from February 15, 2010. In an effort to make the visit a truly successful event, India offered a 250-million dollar soft loan through EXIM Bank and signed four major accords with the Himalayan nation. India also offered to supply 50,000 tonne of wheat, 20,000 tonne of rice and 10,000 tonne of yellow peas to its neighbour. An additional 2,000 tonne of wheat would be provided to Nepal, if required.

Visit of President Patil to China
Indian President Pratibha Patil visited Beijing from May 27, 2010. She is the first Indian Head of State to visit China in a decade. She had been invited by her Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao and her trip coincided with the 60th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and China. During her visit, Patil inau-

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umbrella pact between the National Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) and the Atom Stroy for Kudankulam III and Kudankulam IV nuclear reactors as part of the nuclear cooperation accord between the two sides. The agreement on peaceful uses of nuclear energy is expected to open more avenues of nuclear cooperation between the two countries. The two sides also signed a pact on serial construction of Russian designed nuclear reactors. The most significant accords between the two sides were on the Admiral Gorshkov aircraft carrier that was approved by the Union Cabinet for the purchase of the vessel at $ 2.33 billion and the supply of 29 MIG 29K the sea variant of the fighter used by the IAF valued at $ 1.5 billion.

terrorism. Turkey’s position is being seen as a major departure from that of OIC, which is not willing to exclude armed forces from the purview of the convention. On Afghanistan, the Turkish President praised the role being played by India in the reconstruction plan in the embattled nation.

Visit of Bangladesh Prime Minister
On January 11, 2010, India committed one billion dollars line of credit for developmental projects in Bangladesh and transformed its bilateral ties by signing five accords, including three key security pacts to expand counter-terror cooperation, during the visit of Bangladesh Premier Sheikh Hasina. “This visit has opened a new chapter in India-Bangladesh relations, reflecting the unity of minds and hearts,” Manmohan Singh told Sheikh Hasina. The one-billion dollar line of credit is the largest ever one-time bilateral financial assistance India has provided to any country. This will be used for construction of railway bridges and lines, supply of coaches and locomotives and buses, and assistance in dredging, an issue of pressing concern to Dhaka. India also agreed to supply 250 MW of electricity through its central grid. The two sides also took major steps to improve connectivity, including the start of the Akhara-Agartala rail link.

PM Manmohan Singh’s visit to Saudi Arabia
On February 26, 2010, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh became the first Indian Prime Minister in 28 years to visit Saudi Arabia. During the visit, Saudi Arabia expressed concerns over extremism in Pakistan as New Delhi and Riyadh firmed up a strategic partnership. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh unveiled a roadmap for comprehensive economic partnership as he addressed captains of industry from both the countries. Foreign Minister Prince Saud alFaisal, who had a discussion with Singh, later spoke of the “dangerous trend” of extremism in Pakistan and made it clear that Riyadh had nothing to do with the Taliban. Saudi Arabia and Pakistan were among the few countries that had recognised the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

Visit of Korean President
Cooperation in the civilian nuclear energy field was high on the agenda during the meeting between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and South Korean President Lee Myung-bak, on January 25, 2010. Presdent Myung-bak was also the chief guest at the Republic Day. During the visit the two countries signed accords in diverse areas, including IT and civilian space, following the talks between the two leaders. President Lee Myung-bak began his four-day visit to India with a visit to the Hyundai factory near Chennai to meet Korean businessmen living in the city before reaching New Delhi. Regional and global issues, including the intensification of economic ties and cooperation in sphere of civilian nuclear cooperation and space technologies, figured prominently during talks between the two sides. Closer cooperation in combating global financial recession was also discussed in the context of the G-20 summit to be held in Seoul later in 2010.

Visit of President of Turkey
The Turkish President, Abdullah Gul, visited India on February 9, 2010 and held wide-ranging talks with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on all issues of mutual interest, including the international situation. Apart from the declaration on terrorism, the two countries issued a document on cooperation in the field of science and technology. Days after keeping New Delhi out of the Istanbul conference on Afghanistan at the instance of Pakistan, Turkish President Abdullah Gul sought to placate India by strongly endorsing its position on the issue of terrorism. Turkey is the first Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) member to support India’s call for early conclusion of a comprehensive convention on international terrorism, which finds a mention in the joint declaration on

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FINANCE & ECONOMY CAPSULE
India's per capita income

it, India’s obsession with tobacco continues despite laws to tell the users of its lethal consequences. Though 64 per cent of all adults believe tobacco leads to heart attacks, 35 per cent (one-third) continue to consume tobacco in some form or the other.

India's per capita income grew by 10.5 per cent to Rs 44,345 in 2009-10 against Rs 40,141 in the year-ago period, according to government data. The World Bank, however, pegs India's per capita income at a much higher $1,180 per year. India ranks a poor 161st in the world in terms of per capita incomes. The per capita income was slightly higher than Rs 43,749 as calculated by the Central Statistical Organisation in its advance estimates for FY10. However, per capita income grew by 5.6 per cent last fiscal if it is calculated on the basis of 2004-05 prices, which is a better way of comparison and broadly factors inflation. Per capita income (at 2004-05 prices) stood at Rs 33,588 in FY10 against Rs 31,821 in the previous year, according to estimates of national income. Per capital income means income of each Indian if national income is evenly divided among the country's population of 117 crore (Rs 1.17 billion).

RBI raised the repo rate
The Reserve Bank of India raised the repo rate (at which banks borrow from RBI) to 6.25% and reverse repo rate (the rate of interest that banks get with their surplus money being parked with central bank) to 5.25% to control the high inflation in the country.

New WPI series in place
Inflation for the month of August stood at 8.51 per cent, according to the new Wholesale Price Inflation (WPI) series released by the government 2010, 14th September. As per the old series with a base year of 1993-94, WPI inflation stood at 9.5 per cent for the month, according to the Commerce Ministry. Overall inflation in August witnessed a fall of 1.27 percentage points from 9.78 per cent in the month of July, as per the new series, which considers 2004-05 as the base year. As per the new WPI index, inflation was 0.31 per cent in August last year. “It (the new index) will help in informing both the government and people how the prices are moving. This will give a robust picture and reflect actual price movement,” Commerce Minister Anand Sharma told reporters in New Delhi. Consumer items widely used by the middle class, like ice-cream, mineral water, microwave ovens, washing machines, gold and silver are reflected in the new series of WPI inflation. The new WPI series has 241 more items than the old index. With the additional items, the WPI now measures a total of 676 items against 435 earlier.

Mumbai gets world's largest diamond bourse
The Bharat Diamond Bourse (BDB), the world's largest, was inaugurated at Mumbai on 17th October by Union Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma. “As on 17th October, in 2009-2010, the export of diamonds in this industry from Mumbai is Rs. 61,000 crore and I am hopeful that within a year, this bourse will achieve a turnover of over Rs. 1,00,000 crore”. The BDB has been set up to establish infrastructure for promotion of diamond export, including jewellery, and provide all support and service facilities to eventually make India an international trading centre for gems and jewellery. Spread over a 20-acre plot, the complex is designed to house around 2,500 small and large diamond traders in addition to a Custom House, banks and other service providers who will cater for the gem and jewellery trade.

New Direct Tax Code (DTC) 2011 Bill
The New Direct Tax Code (DTC) 2011 Bill or Direct Tax Code India 2011 draft or Direct Tax Code Highlights has been released by finance minister Pranab Mukherjee which would replace current Income Tax structure from 2011- 12. This New Direct Tax Code (DTC) 2011 Bill or Direct Tax Code India 2011 draft will be applicable from Financial Year 2011-12 starting from 1st Day of April 2011 and Direct Tax Code Highlights has been declared. The new Direct Tax Code (DTC) bring relief to the taxpayers, as the tax slabs have been sim-

Tobacco India Report
Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) for India, 2009-10, conducted on 99.9 per cent of India’s population in 29 States, UTs of Chandigarh and Puducherry has submitted its report. According to

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plified further which was approved by Cabinet yesturday on August 26, 2010. The taxpayers can now get more benefits.
Key Features of New Direct Tax Code (DTC) 2011 Bill:

Tax Exemptions for Salaried People – Rs 2 lakh Tax Exemption for Senior Citizens – Rs 2.5 lakh Tax for Income between Rs 2 lakh and Rs 5 lakh – 10% Tax for Income between Rs 5 lakh and Rs 10 lakh – 20% Tax for Income over Rs 10 lakh – 30% Rs 1.5 lakh Tax Incentives on Housing Loans will continue The DTC provides for MAT of 20 per cent of book profits of companies The original draft had promised a whole new paradigm in direct taxation, drastically lowering the tax burden while also doing away with most exemptions. A revised draft released in June this year brought back some of the exemptions like the one available for interest on housing loans that the first draft had proposed to get rid of. The speculation that this might force the finance ministry to make the revision of tax slabs also less ambitious to avoid giving away too much revenue has now proved well-founded. Under the original proposal, the 10% slab would have extended up to Rs 10 lakh and the 20% slab up to Rs 25 lakh, meaning that the 30% rate would have applied only to incomes of over Rs 25 lakh per annum. On the plus side for individual taxpayers, withdrawal from provident funds will not be taxed as the original DTC had proposed to do. Also deductions from taxable income will be available for interest on housing loans up to Rs 1.5 lakh per annum and on payments into PF and similar superannuation schemes up to Rs 1 lakh. Also available will be a deduction of up to Rs 50,000 for life insurance and health insurance premiums or tuition fees.

nine per cent growth trend is maintained, India would become USD two trillion economy in 2013-14 fiscal. In the assessment, the PMEAC, headed by noted economist C Rangarajan, said that it is imperative for India ”to preserve conditions that will enable it to return to the 9 per cent growth trajectory”. After slowing down to 6.7 per cent in 2008-09 and 7.4 per cent in 2009-10, the Indian economy is projected to expand at 8.5 per cent this fiscal and by nine per cent in 2011-12. In the first two months of current fiscal, the industrial production recorded an annual growth of 14 per cent. “The lead indicators of service sector also suggest increased economic activity,” Reserve Bank Governor D Subbarao said in the first quarter credit policy review. If the tax reforms are implemented as planned from next fiscal, the economy would get further push. “The gain from GST will propel the country from one-trillion dollar economy to two trilliondollar economy in a short span of time,”. Before the global economic slowdown since 2008, the Indian economy grew by over nine per cent for three years in a row from 2005-06 to 2007-08 and expansion was maintained by industry and services sectors.

India is largest recipient of World Bank loans
India remained the largest recipient of World Bank loans in 2009-10. The World Bank, through its lending arms IBRD and IDA, committed $9.3 billion in financial assistance to India in 2009-10, more than the aid committed by the US and European Union. Next in line were South Africa ($3.8 billion), Brazil ($3.7 billion) and Turkey ($3.0 billion).

Rupee got Symbol
On July 14, 2010, the Union Cabinet approved a new symbol for the Indian Rupee an amalgam of the Devnagiri ‘Ra’ and the Roman capital ‘R’, minus its stem. With the gaining of the symbol, the Indian rupee joins the elite club of US dollar, British pound, European euro and Japanese yen that currently have their own symbols. 31-year-old IIT-B postgraduate in industrial design, D. Udaya Kumar has designed the new symbol. All individuals and entities within and outside India would use the symbol after its incorporation in Unicode Standard, ISO/IEC 10646 and IS 13194. Encoding of

INDIA TO BECOME USD 2 TRILLION DOLLOR ECONOMY
The Indian economy would grow to USD 1.72 trillion in 201112, moving closer towards the USD 2 trillion mark, according to an assessment by the Prime Minister’s Economic Advisory Council (PMEAC). The country’s gross domestic product (GDP) at the market and current prices was measured at USD 1.31 trillion in 200910 and is estimated to be USD 1.52 trillion in the current fiscal. If the

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the symbol in the Indian Standards is estimated to take about six months while encoding in the Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 will take about 18-24 months. It will be incorporated in software packages and keyboards in use in India. The symbol will standardise the expression for Indian Rupee in different languages, both within and outside the country. It would better distinguish the Indian currency from countries whose currencies are also designated as Rupee or Rupiah, such as Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Indonesia.

Nooyi came in at No 6, while Axis Bank CEO Shikha Sharma and ICICI Bank Managing Director & CEO Chanda Kochhar were ranked 89th and 92nd, respectively. Surprisingly missing from 2010 list is Congress President Sonia Gandhi. She came in at No 13 in 2009.

Unique Identification Authority of India
The Union Cabinet has cleared a new law providing for strict penal action and hefty fines going up to Rs 1 crore to guard against misuse of data collected for allotment of a Unique Identity Card or a Aadhar number to Indian citizens. The proposed legislation, titled the National Identification Authority of India Act, seeks to give statutory powers to the Unique Identification Authority of India (UDAI), created as an attached office under the Planning Commission. The decision to enact a legislation was taken after fears were expressed over the privacy and security of data collected by the UDAI. In addition, several civil rights groups had also pointed out that actions of the UDAI could well be questioned in the absence of a legal framework. This scheme of providing unique identity number to the citizens of the country took off on September 29 when Prime Minister Manmohan Singh presented the first such number at a function in the tribal district of Nandurbar in Maharashtra.

BHEL-NTPS power plant
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh laid the foundation stone for the much-awaited Rs 6,000 crore BHEL-NTPS power plant manufacturing project at Mannavaram, near Tirupati. Once completed by the year 2014-15, the BHEL-NTPC joint venture project will manufacture power plant equipment and would have capabilities to produce equipment required for generation of 5,000 mw power annually.

SBI Amendment Bill
The parliament passed the State Bank of India (Amendment) Bill providing for reduction of government equity to 51 per cent from a minimum of 55 per cent. With the passing of this Bill, the State Bank of India will raise fresh funds from the capital market.

RBI’s mid-term review
The RBI, in its first mid-quarter review of its monetary policy, increased repo and reverse repo rates leaving the cash reserve ratio (CRR) unchanged as it battles to contain inflation. The central bank noted that food inflation has risen to 15.10 per cent for the week ending September 4, thus making it necessary to rein in liquidity. As a result, RBI raised short-term borrowing rate (reverse repo) by 0.50 percentage points to 5 per cent and lending rate (repo) by 0.25 percentage points to 6 per cent. The increased rates aim to make financing costly thus curbing consumption. However, the RBI said that inflation rates have reached a plateau. The apex bank also signalled banks to raise fixed deposit rates and also noted that the government was on target to contain the fiscal deficit.

first global chopper company
Eurocopter, a company owned by European consortium, European Aeronautic Defence & Space Co. NV (EADS), has become the first global chopper company to open an office in India.

SEBI raised application Limit
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has raised the application limit for retail investors to Rs 2 lakh, from Rs one lakh.

Forbes most powerful women
Three Indian women all from the corporate sector find a spot on the Forbes list of 100 most powerful women in the world, topped by US First Lady Michelle Obama. Chennai-born PepsiCo CEO Indra

Best Business Schools Survey
The Business Standard Best Business Schools Survey 2010 shows that India’s top business schools are: Indian Institutes of

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Management in Ahmedabad and Kolkata, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade in New Delhi, Institute of Management Technology at Ghaziabad, Management Development Institute at Gurgaon, National Institute of Industrial Engineering in Mumbai and XLRI Jamshedpur.

and export credit.) While the new model will ensure greater transparency, it need not mean lower lending rates for borrowers.

world's largest gold coin
The world's largest gold coin, "Maple Leaf 2007" has been sold at an auction for $4.03 million. Measuring 53 centimetres in diameter and with a purity of 99.999 per cent, it is listed in the 2010 edition of the Guinness Book of World Records as the world’s biggest gold coin. The front side of the coin displays Queen Elizabeth II and the reverse shows three maple leaves, the national symbol for Canada. There are five Maple Leaf 2007 coins worldwide. One is owned by Queen Elizabeth II, two belong to unidentified investors in Dubai and the whereabouts of the fifth are unknown.

Foreign Direct Investments
India has replaced the US as the second most important Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) destination for trans-national corporations, according to a survey conducted by UNCTAD. Global FDI flows are expected to jump from $1.2 trillion in 2010 to $1.5 trillion in 2011 and $1.6-2.0 trillion in 2012.

India’s first agri-biotechnology institute
India’s first agri-biotechnology institute, the National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI) is being set up in Mohali, near Chandigarh.

Tobin Tax
Tobin Tax is a levy on all spot conversions of one currency into another. It is imposed to prevent fluctuations in the market due to excessive capital inflows.

world’s most valuable brand
Apple Computers has emerged as the world’s most valuable brand in the 50 top valuable brand list of the Forbes magazine. Apple was followed by software major Microsoft, Beverages firm, Coca Cola and technology giant IBM. Search engine Google was fifth in the ranking. McDonald's, General Electric, Marlboro, Intel and Finnish handset maker Nokia featured in the top 10 list.

Survey of slums in Cities
A survey of slums in cities and towns with a population of over one lakh as per the 2001 Census, says there are 189 cities and towns in India with big slums. Andhra tops the list—it has 36 cities and towns with a slum population of 50,000 and above. It is followed by Maharashtra with 26, Uttar Pradesh (25), West Bengal (21) and Madhya Pradesh (15). Other States with a sizable slum population in its cities are Haryana (8), Chhattisgarh (6) and Gujarat and Rajasthan (5 each). Goa and Kerala and north-eastern States, barring Meghalaya, are the only States where slums are non-existent. The Centre has launched two programmes to improve the living conditions of slum-dwellers across the country. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) provides funds to States for creating housing and infrastructural facilities for the urban poor in 65 cities, including Mumbai, under the Basic Services to Urban Poor Programme (BSUP). For the remaining 124 towns, the Integrated Housing and Slum development Programme (IHSDP) has been introduced. The components for assistance include provision of basic services to the slum dwellers, whom the government prefers to call urban poor.

New BPLR
From 2010 July 1, banks will move to a new, more transparent regime of loan pricing. They will jettison the Benchmark Prime Lending Rate (BPLR) and price loans off a ‘base rate’. Unlike the BPLR that was set somewhat arbitrarily by banks, the base rate will follow an explicit formula that factors in a bank’s cost of deposits, operating costs (expenses of running its branches, for instance), the cost of statutory drafts on bank funds imposed by the Reserve Bank of India (the Cash Reserve Ratio and Statutory Liquidity Ratio) and the profit margin. The base rate will help borrowers to compare interest rates offered by various banks and make the process of how banks arrive at interest rates for loans more transparent. RBI has stipulated that banks cannot charge below the base rate for most loans. (There are a couple of exceptions like agricultural loans

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world's first gold vending machine
The world's first gold vending machine has been set-up in a hotel in Abu Dhabi in the UAE. The 'Gold To Go' machine gives out 1, 5 and 10 gram gold bars as well as gold coins.

withdrawal limit for ATMs
The Reserve Bank of India has decided to increase the cash withdrawal limit for ATMs to Rs one lakh in a single day.

FDI on Tobacco banned
On April 8, 2010, the Union government notified the ban on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in cigarette manufacturing. Manufacturing of cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes, of tobacco or of tobacco substitutes have been put under the list of sectors where FDI is prohibited.

cent of the world’s stunted children (whose height is low for their age) live in Asian countries, such as India and Bangladesh, apart from some Africa countries. The highest regional hunger indices suggesting the worst performers are almost the same for South Asian countries, such as India, and Sub-Saharan African nations, such as Congo. India is among countries with “hunger levels considerably higher that their gross national income per capita would suggest”. “It’s kind of ironic,” Ashok Gulati, Asia director of the Washington- based IFPRI said. The IFPRI hunger index complied in partnership with German NGO Welthungerhilfe, and Concern Worldwide ranks countries on three equally weighted indicators: the proportion of undernourished, the proportion of underweight children under five, and the child mortality rate. The UN Food and Agriculture Organisa6on (FAO) defines hunger as the consump6on of fewer than 1,800 kilocalories a day the minimum required to live a healthy and productive life.

Maharatna status for PSUs
The Central Government has granted ‘Maharatna' status to four giant public sector undertakings (PSUs) NTPC, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) and Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL).

National Business Register
The sixth economic census, set to take off in 2011, will provide India with a National Business Register (NBR) for the first time, containing the details of every business establishment in the country. The creation and maintenance of a business register and directory are expected to be an economic data framework for various needed statistical surveys, including the Annual Survey of Industries and others of the National Sample Survey Organisation. Currently, a fairly reasonable database exists for the agricultural sector, while much is lacking for the non-agricultural ones, particularly services. The move to create a directory will particularly benefit the latter. The services sector, contributing 62.5 per cent to the country’s gross domestic product, does not have a comprehensive data bank. The national accounts significantly under-states the sector, even as it is the major contributor. The business register is to keep an account of all business establishments with a workforce of 10 or more people addresses, sectors, turnovers, number employed etc.

Global Hunger Index 2010
India is among 29 countries with the highest levels of hunger, stunted children and poorly fed women, according to the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)’s “Global Hunger Index 2010”. Despite a strong economy that was predicted to overtake China’s within three years by The Economist magazine, India ranked 67th among 85 countries in terms of access to food. The report points to widespread hunger in a country that is the world’s largest producer of milk and edible oils, and the second- largest producer of wheat and sugar. The country has a high “hunger score” of 24.1 and ranks behind all its neighbours, barring Bangladesh. Values between 20 and 29.9 on the index denote an “alarming” hunger situation. Globally, the world is nowhere near mee6ng the target of the UN’s goal of halving the proportion of hungry people. India also runs the world’s largest free-meal programme for school-going children. Yet, the 2010 hunger report reveals that more than 90 per

India’s food security goals in danger
An alarming new report by the World Bank has shown that an increasing number of aquifers in India are reaching unsustainable levels of exploitation, endangering long-term food security goals. If

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current trends continue, in 20 years about 60 per cent of all aquifers in the country will be in a critical condition, putting at risk over a quarter of the harvest, concludes the report “Deep Wells and Prudence: Towards Pragmatic Action for Addressing Groundwater Overexploitation in India”. The report rings alarm bells for policy makers, warning them against status quo. A rainfall deficit in 196366 had decreased India’s food production by 20 per cent, but a similar drought in 1987-88 had very small impact on food production due to widespread prevalence of groundwater, which is now declining. India is the largest groundwater user in the world, exploiting 230 cubic kilometres of groundwater every year over a quarter of the global total. Today, groundwater supports 60 per cent of irrigated agriculture and more than 80 per cent of rural and urban water supplies. Even though there is a major dependence of many sectors on groundwater and it is being overexploited, there is little investment in its management. This inaction has arisen mainly because the solutions often proposed for groundwater management are very controversial, including “command-and-control” regulation of wells and curbing the supply of free or cheap power for groundwater irrigation.

Union Budget was presented at a time when the Indian economy was on the path of revival and almost all demand indicators had turned significantly positive. Investment and consumption demand was also on a revival mode. The buoyancy in the manufacturing sector and up-tick in import and export were also working well for economic growth prospects. In the current economic scenario, what was required from the Budget was a further push for consumption and investment. The Budget announcements tried to do just that.

Highlights:
Additional Rs 1,65,000 cr for bank re-capitalisation Rs 3000 cr for agricultural impetus Farm loan payments to be extended for six months Fertilizer subsidy to be reduced Rs 100 cr woman farmer fund scheme Coal regulatory authority to be set up Clean energy fund to be established Interest subvention of 2% to be extended for handicrafts and SMEs Rs 200 cr for Tamil Nadu textile sector Interest subvention for housing loans up to 1 lacs Allocation to defence raised to Rs 1.47 lakh cr Defence capex raised to Rs 60,000 cr Divestment target of Rs 25,000 cr Rs 1200 cr assistance for drought in Bundelkhand Rs 48000 cr for Bharat Nirman NREGA scheme allocation raised to Rs 41,000 cr Allocation to health Rs 22,300 cr Allocation for school education up from Rs 26,800 cr to Rs 31036 cr Allocation to power sector at Rs 5130 cr Rs 10,000 cr allocated for Indira Awaas Yojna Social Security Fund to have corpus of over Rs 1000 cr Rs 2400 cr for MSMEs Government to contribute Rs 1000 per month for pension security Rs 5400 cr allocated for urban development Rs 66100 cr allocated for rural development Rs 1900 cr allocated for UID project Gross tax receipts Rs 7.46 lakh cr Government to set up National Mission for delivery of justice

Liveability Index 2010
According to the Liveability Index 2010, prepared jointly by the CII and the Institute for Competitiveness, Delhi is the best city to live in, followed by Mumbai. A liveable city, according to the report, is not just an urbanised area in an urbanised region defined by the presence of a municipality. Liveability refers to an urban system that contributes to the physical, social and mental well being and personal developments of all its inhabitants.

CSO Estimates
The per capita income of India in 2009-10 was Rs 43,749 according to the advance estimates of Central Statistical Organistation. It was Rs 40,141 in 2008-09. After taking inflation into account, per capita income is estimated to grow by 5.4 per cent at Rs 33,540 in 2009-10, against Rs 31,821 during 2008-09.

Union Budget, 2010
On February 26, 2010, Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee presented a Budget that broadly focused on fiscal stabilization. The

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15% rise in planned expenditure Fiscal deficit target of 5.5% in FY11 Excise on all non smoking tobacco raised Televisions to be costlier Mobile phones to become cheaper Cement to be costlier Refrigerators to be costlier Jewellery to be more expensive Monorail granted project import status CDs to be cheaper Excise duty on CFL halved to 4% Bank farm loan target: Rs 3.75,lakh crore Nutrient based fertiliser subsidy scheme to come into force from April 1, 2010 To build 20 km of highway every day Income tax on income upto Rs 1.6 lakh: Nil Income tax on income above Rs 1.6 lakh and upto Rs. 5 lakh: 10 per cent Income tax on income above Rs.5 lakh and upto Rs. 8 lakh: 20 per cent Income tax on income above Rs. 8 lakh: 30 per cent

private partnership (PPP) mode or are “subject to sanction by the Finance Ministry and Planning Commission”.

Highlights:
No increase in passenger fares. Rs.100 reduction in freight per wagon for fertilisers and kerosene. Free travel for cancer patients in 3rd AC classes. Cost-sharing in public-private-partnership (PPP) mode in some gauge-conversion projects. Further extension of Kolkata Metro on priority basis; stations to be named after Bahadur Shah Zafar, Tagore family. Karmabhoomi trains to be introduced for migrant labour. New Janmabhoomi train between Ahmedabad and Udhampur. Special 'Bharat Teertha' train to be run around India to commemorate Rabindranath Tagore's 150th birth anniversary. A special train to be run from West Bengal to Bangladesh to commemorate the anniversary. Railway line to be extended from Bilaspur in Himachal Pradesh to Leh in Jammu and Kashmir. Andaman and Nicobar Islands to get railway line from Port Blair to Diglipur. Sikkim capital Gangtok to be connected by rail from Rangpo. Impact of Sixth Pay Commission recommendations placed at Rs.55,000 crore. Gross earnings in 2009-10 estimated at Rs.88,281 crore. Working expenditure in 2009-10 estimated at Rs.83,440 crore. Expenses during 2010-11 estimated at Rs.87,100 crore. Thrust on expansion in 2010-11 with allocation of Rs.4,411 crore. Net profit of Rs.1,328 crore in 2009-10. Ten automobile ancillary hubs to be created. Policy decision to employ one member of family whose land is requisitioned for railway projects. North-south, east-west dedicated freight corridors to be created. Centre for railway research to be established with Indian Institutes of Technology and Defence Research and Development Organisation. Design, development and testing centre for railway wheels at Bangalore.

Railways Budget, 2010
Union Railways Minister Mamata Banerjee presented the Railways Budget, 2010, on February 24. No change in passenger fares was announced Planning Commission was pitching for a hike and the freight rates on select, but significant items such as kerosene and food grains, were cut to keep prices down. 54 new trains, including 10 Durantos, were announced. The Minister also promised to construct over 1,000 km of new rail lines over next one year. The operating ratio, proportion of expenses to earnings, which was a healthy 75 per cent in 2007-08, was up to 94.7 per cent in 2009-10. The Railways hope to bring it down to 92.3 per cent in 2010-11. Though the budget proposes to raise net surplus from Rs 951.03 crore in 2009-10 to Rs 3,173 crore in 2010-11, these figures were called “peanuts” by experts when compared to the figures of some years ago. Only Rs 373.09 crore was provided for new projects. Many projects come with riders: they’re either proposed in the public-

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Five sports academies to be set up; astroturf to be provided for development of hockey; employment opportunities for sports persons. Railways to be lead partner for Commonwealth Games.

Economic Survey 2010
Economy likely to grow by up to 8.75 per cent in 2010-11. Full recovery; return to 9 per cent growth in 2011-12. Broad recovery gives scope for gradual stimulus roll back. High double-digit food inflation in 2009-10 major concern. Signs of food inflation spreading to other sectors. Farm & allied sector production falls 0.2% in 2009-10. Need serious policy initiatives for 4% agriculture growth. Moots direct food subsidy via food coupons to households. Favours making available food in open market. Favours monthly ration coupons usable anywhere for poor. Gross fiscal deficit pegged at 6.5 pc of GDP in 2009-10. India 10th largest gold holding nation at 557.7 tonnes. Exports in April-December 2009 down 20.3 per cent. Imports in April-December 2009 down 23.6 per cent. Trade gap narrowed to USD 76.24 bn in April-December. 32.5% savings & 34.9% investment (of GDP in 2008-09) put India in league of world's fastest growing nations. Government initiates steps to boost private investment in agriculture. Wants credit available at reasonable rates on time for private sector to invest in agriculture. Slowdown in infrastructure that began in 2007, arrested. Domestic oil production to rise 11 per cent in 2009-10. Gas output up 52.8 per cent to 50.2 billion cubic meters with RIL starting production. India world's 2nd largest wireless network with 525.1 million mobile users. Virtually every second Indian has access to phone. Auction for 3G spectrum to provide existing and foreign players to bring in new technology and innovations.

13th Finance Commission
The Union government has accepted most of the recommendations of the Thirteenth Finance Commission headed

by former Finance Secretary Vijay Kelkar. The Commission has told governments at the Centre and States to set their fiscal house in order, even as it raised the share of taxes that the States would be entitled to receive over the next five years by 1.5 percentage points. In addition, the Commission, a Constitutional body that is appointed every five years to recommend a tax-sharing formula between the Centre and States, has suggested a roadmap for the introduction of a single-rate goods and services tax (GST), the key indirect tax reform to create a common market in India. Its stringent new roadmap for fiscal responsibility suggests, among other things, that the overall debt of the Centre and States be capped at 68 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) from the current 82 per cent, and 75 per cent recommended by the Twelfth Finance Commission. The Finance Commission has recommended that the Centre reduce debt to 45 per cent of GDP by March 2015, against 54.2 per cent at present. For States the reduction in debt is recommended at 2 percentage points to 25 per cent. The relatively less stringent condition for States comes with the rider that the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act allows the Centre to borrow on behalf of the States to help them counter macro-economic shocks. During the financial crisis, the Centre had relaxed the cap on the fiscal deficit. The Finance Commission has said the Centre should transfer 32 per cent of the taxes it collects to States, against 30.5 per cent at present. The overall ceiling including transfers to local bodies on transfers from the Centre’s gross revenue has been raised from 38 to 39.5 per cent. Among proposals that provide a thrust to fiscal federalism, the commission has recommended that local bodies receive up to 2.5 per cent of the divisible tax pool. Of this, up to 1 per cent can be incentive-linked. While there is more reason for the States to cheer since the commission proposes an increase in grants, much of it is tied to specific spending programmes such as those for elementary education and environment. There is, however, a performance incentive of Rs 1,500 crore for Assam, Sikkim and Uttarakhand and a grant of Rs 51,800 crore to meet the deficits of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and the north-eastern States (excluding Assam). Like its predecessor, the Thirteenth Finance Commission has recommended a debt relief scheme for the States. The first element is to cap the interest rate on a part of the loans from the

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National Small Savings Fund at 9 per cent from up to 10.5 per cent. This will translate into a benefit of Rs 28,360 crore to the States. In addition, there is a Rs 4,506 crore benefit with the government accepting the suggestion to write off central loans that are not administered by the finance ministry but were outstanding at the end of 2009-10. Including the higher grants-in-aid, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra would be the biggest beneficiaries in terms of share of transfers. Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Jammu and Kashmir would be the top losers. The Finance Commission has projected that tax receipts would see a compounded annual growth rate of over 17 per cent between March 2010 and March 2015, while nominal GDP growth is estimated at 13.2 per cent. Prescribing a zero revenue deficit as the golden rule, the Commission has recommended that the endeavour for all States should be to reach that level by 2014-15.

China overtakes Japan as second-largest Economy
After three decades of spectacular growth, China has passed Japan in the second quarter of 2010 to become the world’s secondlargest economy behind the United States. The milestone, though anticipated for some time, is the most striking evidence yet that China’s ascendancy is for real and that the rest of the world will have to reckon with a new economic superpower. The recognition came on August 16, 2010, when Tokyo said that Japan’s economy was valued at about $1.28 trillion in the second quarter, slightly below China’s $1.33 trillion. Japan’s economy grew 0.4 percent in the quarter, substantially less than forecast. That weakness suggests that China’s economy will race past Japan’s for the full year. Japan has had the world’s second-largest economy for much of the last four decades, according to the World Bank. And during the 1980s, there was even talk about Japan’s economy someday overtaking that of the United States. But, while Japan’s economy is mature and its population quickly aging, China is in the throes of urbanization and is far from developed, meaning it has a much lower standard of living, as well as a lot more room to grow. China is already a major driver of global growth. The country’s leaders have

grown more confident on the international stage and have begun to assert greater influence in Asia, Africa and Latin America, with things like special trade agreements and multi-billion dollar resource deals. Beijing is also beginning to shape global dialogues on a range of issues; for instance, in 2009 it asserted that the dollar must be phased out as the world’s primary reserve currency. While the United States and the European Union are struggling to grow in the wake of the worst economic crisis in decades, China has continued to climb up the economic league tables by investing heavily in infrastructure and backing a $586 billion stimulus plan. There are huge challenges ahead, though. Economists say that China’s economy is too heavily dependent on exports and investment and that it needs to encourage greater domestic consumption something China has struggled to do. The country’s largely state-run banks have recently been criticized for lending far too aggressively in 2009, while shifting some loans off their balance sheet to disguise lending and evade rules meant to curtail lending growth. China is also locked in a fierce debate over its currency policy, with the United States, European Union and others accusing Beijing of keeping the Chinese currency, the renminbi, artificially low to bolster exports leading to huge trade surpluses for China but major bilateral trade deficits for the United States and the European Union. China says that its currency is not substantially undervalued and that it is moving ahead with currency reform.

Top 20 B-schools in the world
The Indian School of Business (ISB) is the only one from India to find a place on the list of top 20 B-schools in the world, published by the Financial Times. ISB has improved its position to bag the 12th spot on the list of top 100 B-Schools across the globe in 2010. The London School of Business topped the list, followed by the University of Pennsylvania and Harvard Business School. Stanford University GSB and Insead have been ranked at the fourth and fifth positions, respectively.

Rural poor estimated at 42%
Agriculture sector in India continues to suffer, save for sharp growth in some years. The expert group to review the methodology for estimation of poverty, chaired by Suresh Tendulkar, has now suggested that the poverty ratio at the all India level was actually 37.2% in 2004-05. Rural poverty was projected at 41.8% and urban

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at 25.7% by the committee, as against official estimates of 28.3% and 25.7% for rural and urban population, respectively. In the past, the poverty line was defined in terms of per capita consumer expenditure at 1973-74 market prices and adjusted over time and across States for changes in prices keeping unchanged the original 1973-74 reference poverty line baskets of goods and services. The all-India rural and urban poverty line baskets were derived separately, assuming per capita daily calorie intake of 2,400 for rural people and 2,100 for urban population. The Tendulkar panel has made four major departures from the past practices. It moved away from the calorie intake criteria for determining poverty line. Instead, it tests for adequacy of actual food expenditure near the poverty line to ensure aggregate nutrition, rather than just calories.

applications, reaching 1000 MW by 2017 and 2000 MW by 2020; (b) to create favourable conditions for solar manufacturing capability for indigenous production and market leadership; (c) to achieve 15 million sq metres solar thermal collector area by 2017 and 20 million by 2022; (d) to deploy 20 million solar lighting systems for rural areas by 2022.

2010 Environmental Performance Index
India and China rank 123rd and 121st in pollution control, respectively, reflecting the strain rapid economic growth imposes on the environment, according to the 2010 Environmental Performance Index (EPI). Iceland leads the world in addressing pollution control and natural resource management challenges, according to the index produced by a team of environmental experts at Yale University and Columbia University. The EPI ranks 163 countries on their performance across 25 metrics aggregated into ten categories including environmental health, air quality, water resource management, biodiversity and habitat, forestry, fisheries, agriculture, and climate change. Occupying the bottom five positions are Togo, Angola, Mauritania, the Central African Republic, and Sierra Leone—countries that lack basic environmental amenities and policy capacity. The US ranks 61st, significantly behind other industrialised nations like Britain (14th), Germany (17th), and Japan (20th).

Nutrient-based subsidy policy
The Union government has approved the Nutrient Based Fertiliser Subsidy (NBS) plan with effect from April 1, 2010. This is likely to have positive sentimental impact on share prices of fertiliser companies. Under the new policy, the companies can fix retail fertiliser prices. However the urea prices will be increased by Rs 483 per tonne or 10 per cent. Fertilisers are sold at governmentfixed prices, which are lower than their costs of production or import. The difference is met through subsidy. The NBS does away with maximum retail price. It proposes to replace the current system of giving subsidy to the industry with direct assistance to farmers.

G-20 raises developing nations’ quota in IMF
The Group of 20 Finance leaders struck a landmark deal on October 22, 2010, to boost developing countries’ power in the International Monetary Fund, even as they failed to set targets for a wide-ranging global economic rebalancing. The IMF deal was hailed by fund MD Dominique Strauss-Kahn as a ‘historical’ moment that will see Europeans give up two seats on its 24-strong board to powerful developing countries and transfer 6 percent of votes to them.

Solar Mission launched
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh launched India’s Solar Energy Mission (named Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission) on January 11, 2010. The main aim of the mission is to help generate 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022. The Prime Minister urged the industry to create ‘Solar Valleys’ on the lines of Silicon Valleys and asked business houses to view the Solar Energy Mission as a business opportunity. He added that the success of the mission had the potential of transforming India’s energy prospects while contributing to national and global efforts to combat climate change. National Solar mission has been set-up to create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20,000 MW of solar power in 2020. The other objectives are: (a) Promote programmes for off-grid

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ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

extinct in the wild and have since been re introduced back to nature: the California condor and the black footed ferret in the US, and Przewalski’s horse in Mongolia.

India to launch mission to cut emissions
India will spare no efforts to contribute to the success of post-Copenhagen process, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh declared on February 6, 2010, as he announced the launch of a National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency, aimed at cutting carbon emissions by 99 million tonnes. Within the ambit of our National Action Plan on Climate Change, India has already unveiled one of the world's most ambitious plans for promoting solar energy, targeting an installed capacity of 20,000 MW by the year 2022. The initiative is expected to lead to avoidance of capacity addition of nearly 20,000 MW and reduce carbon dioxide emissions of almost 99 million tonnes.

Rare snake sighted in West Bengal
A rare species of snake, spotted only twice in the past, was discovered at a home in north Bengal's Jalpaiguri town on September 30th. “This discovery is particularly exciting because this is the first time that a live specimen of the reptile — the Coral Red Kukri snake – has been reported,” said Divisional Forest Officer (Wild Life II) Sumita Ghatak. The snake was orange in colour and 88 cm long. Very little is known about the species or its habitat. It is mildly venomous. The Oligodon Cheriensis, first discovered in 1936, is named after the place in Uttar Pradesh where it was reportedly sighted for the first time. A sighting was also reported near Mahendranagar in Nepal. “The discovery took place on September 13 after a house owner contacted us to capture the snake. When we caught it, we realised it was a species we had not seen before.” Experts and NGOs were consulted to identify the specimen, that was kept under observation for about 10 days. It was released into the wild on September 25. “Tissue samples from the snake have been collected for analysis and we are going to conduct further investigations about the snake. There is no record of the Dooars being a natural habitat for this snake, and its sudden appearance is very interesting. We are now on the lookout for more specimens so that more can be studied about its habitat and behaviour.”

A fifth of world's life at extinction risk
A fifth of the world’s mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fishes are in imminent danger of going extinct, says this year’s edition of the benchmark IUCN Red List. The percentages of threatened invertebrates and plants are similar. Releasing the findings at the Oct. 18-29 UN biodiversity summit, being attended by 192 countries,Nagoya (Japan) on October 27th, Simon Stuart, chair of the Species Survival Commission of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), said their findings on vertebrates showed that “nature’s backbone is at risk”. Around 3,000 scientists from around the world have worked to put this Red List together. They have found that 25 percent of all mammals, 13 percent birds, 41 percent amphibians, 22 percent reptiles and 15 percent fishes risk extinction, mostly due to loss of their habitats and some due to overhunting. IUCN has found 64 species that have improved their status in the Red List, moving from the critically endangered to the endangered category, for example. Stuart said all these were in areas that had been protected, “proving the importance of conservation”. Results show that the status of biodiversity would have declined by at least an additional 20 percent if conservation action had not been taken. The successes include three species that were

India’s first eco-sensitive zone on a major river
The Union government has decided to declare the natural course of the Ganga in 135 km stretch from Gaumukh to Uttarkashi in Uttarakhand as India’s first “eco-sensitive” zone on a major river. This means that part of the river cannot be disturbed for any projects. Following this decision, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh approved a proposal of scrapping three big hydel projects Loharinag Pala, Bhairon Ghati and Pala- Maneri and providing 2,000 MW of free power to Uttarakhand as compensation for the same. The decision is direct fallout of Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh’s assurance to religious gurus, including senior BJP leaders, and environment experts that river Ganga will be allowed to run its natural flow

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in the 135-km stretch. The minister had support of non-official members of the authority, who had been advocating that no dams small or big be allowed on the river.

New species of fishes found in Indian waters
The presence of a shark species new to science and 84 other deep-sea dwellers new to the Indian waters have been brought out by a stock assessment of deep sea fishes of the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone and the central Indian Ocean, according to researchers. Mustelus manglorensis, a new gummy shark species, was discovered from a depth of 500 metres off the Mangalore coast. According to researchers, this is the second gummy shark that has been reported from the Indian Ocean against the 19 known worldwide. Of the 84 species of fishes found in the Indian waters, 15 were shark varieties, including Baloon, Cat, Lantern and Gulpers. Researchers have also confirmed the presence of 10 species of eels belonging to Conger, Cusk and Snipe families from the study region. Most of the species were found inhabiting the sea at a depth beyond 500 metres.

port 2009, published by Forest Survey of India, the mangrove cover in the country stands at 4639 km2 out of which 353 km2 is in Andhra Pradesh. Under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme for Conservation and Management of Mangroves, 100% central assistance is extended to Coastal States/Union Territories, who so request, for implementation of their approved Management Action Plans which comprise components such as Survey and Demarcation, Afforestation and Restoration of Mangroves, Alternate and Supplementary Livelihoods, Protection Measures, Education and Awareness etc. The details of central assistance provided to Coastal States/Union Territories for conservation & management of mangroves during the last three years and the current year.

2010 in the top three warmest years
The year 2010 is almost certain to rank in the top three warmest years since the beginning of instrumental climate records in 1850, according to data compiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) that were released here on Thursday. A WMO statement said the global combined sea surface and land surface air temperature for 2010 (January–October) is now estimated at 0.55 degrees Celsius plus or minus 0.11 degrees Celsius above the 1961–1990 annual average of 14 degrees Celsius. At present, 2010's nominal value is the highest on record, just ahead of 1998 and 2005. The data also indicates that the January-October 2010 temperatures are near record levels. The final ranking of 2010 will not become clear until November and December data are analysed in early 2011. Preliminary operational data from November 1 to 25 indicate that global temperatures from November 2010 are similar to those observed in November 2005, indicating that global temperatures for 2010 are continuing to track near record levels.

183 Elephant Corridors Identified
The Ministry of Environment and Forests has identified 183 corridors for elephants. Out of this 138 are State Elephant Corridors, 28 Inter State Elephant Corridors and 17 are International Elephant Corridors. Every year the Ministry receives proposals in the form of Annual Plan of Operation from States / Union Territory’s for various activities under Project Elephant which includes restoration of Elephant Corridors also. In the last three years Rs. 4.5 crores has been released to Kerala and Rs. 3.25 crores to Tamil Nadu for acquisition of land for Elephant Corridors. The acquisition process are done by respective State Governments.

Nationwide 38 Sites Identified for Plantation
The Ministry has a Centrally Sponsored Scheme for Conservation and Management of Mangroves in the country. On a nationwide basis, 38 sites have been identified as appropriate for planting of mangroves and their conservation and management. The State-wise list is given in Annexure-I. As per the State of Forest Re-

Temperature rise to hit water, forest, health
India is expected to witness a 1.7 to 2 degrees Celsius rise in the annual mean surface air temperature by 2030 due to the change in climate conditions, according to a report commissioned by Ministry of Environment and Forests. The report, 4X4 Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on key sectors and regions of

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India, has been prepared by 220 scientists from 120 research institutions under the Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA). It is the first assessment report on the impact of climate change on agriculture, health, water and forests in four regions of the country: Himalayas, Western Ghats, Coastal zone and the NorthEast in 2030. This is the second major publication on INCCA. In May a report on GHG Emissions 2007 was released, making India first developing country to publish such data. Coastal areas are likely to witness maximum increase in temperature while winters are expected to get warmer. India may endure floods 30 per cent more severe in magnitude and heightened drought conditions by 2030, which may affect crop yields, damage dams and harm infrastructure. In fact, the report says that frequency of droughts is already increasing, especially in the Himalayan region where the degree of severity had increased by more than 20 per cent since the 1970s.

that the developing countries strongly support international legallybinding agreements, as the lack of such agreements hurts developing countries more than developed nations. The ministers said that negotiations should follow a two-pronged approach. One track is on long-term cooperative action to combat climate change. The other is for developed countries to commit to what extent they will reduce their greenhouse gas emissions after 2012, when the current commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol runs out. The next BASIC ministerial meeting will be held at the end of July 2010 in Brazil, followed by one hosted by China at the end of October 2010.

Monitoring of Tigers Report
According to a report titled ‘Monitoring of Tigers and Prey Animals of Kaziranga National Park,' released by Assam government, the Kaziranga National Park, famous for one-horned rhino, has the highest density of tigers in the world.The density of tigers at Kaziranga is 32.64 tigers per 100 sq.km., the highest in any known tiger habitat.

India submits proposed carbon cuts to UN
On January 30, 2010, India submitted its proposed emission intensity cut targets by 20-25 per cent by 2020 to the UN, a day before the world body’s January 31 deadline for submitting the climate change mitigation steps under the Copenhagen Accord. However, it made it clear to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that all its domestic mitigation actions were entirely voluntary in nature and not legally binding, a position India had maintained at Copenhagen Summit in Denmark. Though agriculture sector contributes around 14 per cent of the total GHG emissions, India has kept it out of the purview of the mitigations actions in its blueprint submitted to the UN to ensure food security.

India is world’s third largest carbon emitter
India is now world’s third biggest carbon dioxide emitting nation after China and the US. The new emission data from the United Nations was a cause of worry for India’s climate negotiators at the next round of talks in Tianjin in China, held in October 2010. China, in 2009, moved to the top position while contributing 23 per cent of the total global emissions and India, in 2010, surpassed Russia to take the third position with five percent. The saving grace is that the difference in total carbon emissions between the US (22 per cent) and India is still huge. Russia's emissions have been falling because of economic slowdown. India's per-capita carbon emission is still lowest in the world (about 4.5 tonnes) but the demand for energy is rising, especially among the middle-class. The pressure on India and China to reduce emissions is rising. US chief climate negotiator Todd Stern told a meeting of major economies forum that a legally binding climate treaty was not possible until India and China take “obligation” to reduce emissions.

BASIC countries seek environment treaty
India, China, Brazil and South Africa, jointly called BASIC countries, have said that the legally binding climate treaty on reduction of carbon emission should be finalised latest by 2011 as the “world could not wait indefinitely”. The third meeting of BASIC ministers concluded in Cape Town April 25, 2010. The statement also said

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World mayors sign climate change pact
Mayors from around the world have signed a voluntary pact in Mexico City to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The pact was signed at a meeting meant as a precursor to the UN-sponsored talks in Cancun. Participants from some 135 cities and urban areas signed the pact committing them to adopt a number of measures to stem climate change. Meanwhile, a new study has found that fossilfuel gases edged back less than hoped in 2009, as falls in advanced economies were largely outweighed by rises in China and India. Annual emissions of carbon dioxide from the burning of oil, gas and coal were 30.8 billion tonne, a retreat of only 1.3 per cent in 2009, compared with 2008, a record year.

SPACE RESEARCH

Russia puts European satellite Ka-Sat in orbit
Russia on December 27th put into orbit the European KaSat satellite launched overnight by a Proton-M rocket from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. "The satellite was successfully put into orbit", the Khrunichev space centre said December 27th. This was Proton's first successful launch after a failure on December 5 of three Russian navigation satellites, Glonass, to reach orbit. They fell into the Pacific some 1,500 kilometres (937 miles) from Hawaii. After the incident, Russia has temporarily suspended Proton launches. Some experts have said programming errors caused failures. Ka-Sat will ensure access to broadband Internet for poorly served terrestrial networks in Europe and Mediterranean basin. The satellite was constructed by EADS Astrium for Eutelsat, Europe's leading satellite operator.

Solar-powered LED lanterns to earn carbon credits
The United Nations’ Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) aimed at slowing the warming of the planet has notified governments and companies on how to calculate carbon-emission saved by installing solar-powered Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) instead of ubiquitous, ancient lanterns. This could give India an incentive to replace the lamps that are used in 30 per cent of households, meaning a saving of 50 million tonnes of carbon emissions every year. A tonne of emission saved fetches up to Rs 19,000 in the international carbon market. A poor Indian household can save up to Rs 1,000 per annum on kerosene costs, half the cost of a solar-powered LED lighting system. Once charged, LED bulb works for up to 42 hours, compared with eight to 10 hours that conventional solar lanterns do. LED lamps are about 90 per cent more energy efficient than traditional incandescent lamps and about 20 per cent more than Compact Fluorescent Lamps. The UN estimates its new initiative can change the lives of a quarter of humanity, which still gets light by directly burning fuels, emitting nearly 200 million tonnes of carbon dioxide each year, the equivalent of 60 million cars.

GSLV-F06 launch fails
The launch of Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, GSLV-F06, from Sriharikota ended in failure on December 25, with the rocket bursting to a ball of fire as it ascended into the sky. After a smooth 30-hour countdown, the GSLV-F06 lifted off from its launch pad It ascended into the sky majestically, giving no hint of the disaster that awaited the rocket. As it was climbing into the sky, the rocket lost it trajectory and exploded into a ball of fire. Soon after, the sky was filled with white, reddish-orange and dark-grey smoke. Flaming debris from the rocket came down in a shower over the Bay of Bengal. It is not known whether the range safety officer in the mission control centre pressed the ‘destructive’ button to destroy the rocket, as it was wearing off its path. The rocket GSLV-F06 was to have put into orbit communication satellite GSAT-5P. The previous GSLV flight flown in April 2010 also ended in failure.

Asiatic Lion census 2010
According to the Asiatic Lion census-2010, the population of Asiatic Lions in the Gir forest in Gujarat's Saurashtra region, the only abode of the animals in the world, has grown by 13 percent to 411. The last count, taken in 2005, was 359.

communication satellite HYLAS launched
An advanced communication satellite HYLAS (Highly Adaptable Satellite), built by ISRO on a commercial basis in partnership

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with EADS-Astrium of Europe, was successfully launched November 27, 2010 at 00.09 hours Indian Standard Time (IST) by the European Ariane-5 V198 launch vehicle. The launch took place from the Guyana Space Centre at Kourou in French Guyana. Thirty-five minutes after its lift-off, HYLAS separated from Ariane-5 launch vehicle after reaching its intended Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). ISRO's Master Control Facility (MCF) at Hassan in Karnataka successfully received radio signals transmitted by HYLAS and the satellite's health is normal. HYLAS satellite developed for Avanti Communications, UK consists of ten high power transponders that use eight in Ka and two in Ku band frequencies. The satellite is designed to deliver high-speed broadband services through its spot beams over Europe. The satellite is expected to be operated from 33.5 deg. W longitude for European coverage.

that is sustained by high-energy particles slamming into the moon’s surface and kicking up atoms, molecules and ions. Astronomers have counted 62 moons orbiting Saturn. At 1500 km wide, Rhea is the second largest and is thought to be made almost entirely of ice.

China’s second lunar mission probe successful
Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao unveiled pictures of the ’Bay of Rainbows’, marking the success of China’s ‘Chang’e-2’ lunar probe mission, official media said. The pictures were taken and sent back by ‘Chang’e-2’, China’s second lunar probe, which was launched on October 1. The lunar probe named after a Chinese mythical moon goddess, is currently orbiting 100 km above the moon taking pictures of its surface with a high resolution camera. ’Chang’e-2’, regarded as a trial run to land ’Chang’e-3’ in 2013, is aimed at testing necessary technologies and continuing to transfer data back to earth for further research before eventually landing on the moon as an experiment for future lunar probes. According to the new road map, China also plans to send a probe to Mars by 2013 and to Venus by 2015, besides setting up its own manned space station.

Thirty Meter Telescope Project
On June 25, 2010, India joined as an observer in the ambitious astronomical observatory, Thirty Metre Telescope (TMT), in Hawaii, which will help in unravelling mysteries of black hole, origin of galaxies and formation of planets among others. The status of an observer is first step by India in becoming a full partner in TMT, which will be fully operational in 2018 and will be world’s most advanced astronomical observatory. The telescope will have a 30metre segmented mirror which uses diffraction of light and focuses in much sharper way than smaller telescopes. Such a large size of aperture will help it collecting more light, thus generating much clearer and sharper images of fainter objects, which may not be possible by present day scopes. The images generated by the telescope will be 12 times sharper than the Hubble Space Telescope.

PSLV launches five satellites
On July 12, 2010, five satellites CARTOSAT, STUDSAT and three foreign satellites were launched by the ISRO-built Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). The three foreign satellites Algerian, Canadian and Swiss were launched as part of a commercial operation. Studsat weighs one kg and has been built by 35 students of seven engineering colleges of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. It has a camera that produces high-resolution data. Built at Rs 175 crore and weighing 694 kg, CARTOSAT-2B is an earth observation satellite in a sun-synchronous orbit. Its application will be towards cartography in India. It will generate pictures and data relevant for agriculture and rural development.

First Oxygen sampled outside Earth on Saturn
A spacecraft has tasted oxygen in the atmosphere of another world for the first time, while flying low over Saturn’s icy moon, Rhea. NASA’s Cassini probe scooped oxygen from the thin atmosphere of the planet’s moon while passing overhead at an altitude of 97 km in March 2010. Until now, wisps of oxygen have only been detected on planets and their moons indirectly, using the Hubble space telescope and other major facilities. Instruments aboard Cassini revealed an extremely thin oxygen and carbon dioxide atmosphere

National Mission on Monsoon
The Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) has proposed a National Mission on Monsoon towards developing reliable dynamic models for forecasting the monsoon over the next three to five-year period through a multi-institutional effort. The mission will include aspects of short (up to 3 days) and medium-range (up to a week) predictions as well.

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Space shuttle Atlantis lands for final time
On May 26, 2010, Atlantis and its six-man crew landed at Florida’s Kennedy Space Center marking the end of Atlantis’ 25 years of service. Only two shuttle missions remain, by NASA’s two other spaceships. The space agency would like Atlantis to return to the International Space Station in June 2011. But that’s not in the cards unless the White House grants a reprieve. The space station construction mission boosted Atlantis’ mileage to just over 193 million km, accumulated over 32 flights. The shuttle and its astronauts left the outpost bigger and more powerful, adding a new compartment and fresh batteries.

first mission of the organisation’s Living with a Star Program or LWS one of the NASA’s many missions to study the Sun and space environment.

Chandrayaan-I finds deepest crater on moon
Scientists have discovered moon's biggest and deepest crater, some 2,400 km-long and 9 km deep, using data from a NASA instrument that flew aboard India's maiden unmanned lunar mission Chandrayaan-I. The US space agency's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) detected the enormous crater, the South Pole-Aitken basin, that was created when an asteroid smacked into moon's southern hemisphere shortly after the formation of earth's only natural satellite.

First solar powered spacecraft
Japanese scientists have developed a kite-shaped ‘space yacht’ that uses only solar power for propulsion. The spacecraft IKAROS would be launched into the space for a six-month mission to Venus. It is the first spacecraft to use such technology. Its name is an acronym for Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation of the Sun. It also alludes to the Greek mythic hero Icarus who flew too close to the Sun and fell into the sea. In space, the spacecraft’s short cylindrical pod will be separated from the rocket spinning up to 20 times a minute. This will help it unfold its flexible 46-feet sail, which is thinner than a human hair. The square-shaped sail, equipped with thin-film solar cells, uses resistance created by the Sun’s energy in the same way as wind propels a yacht through water, thus providing the spacecraft with enough thrust to hover and rotate.

Chandrayaan-I finds ice on moon
The success story of Chandrayaan-I, the maiden Indian moon mission, turned a new chapter with the discovery of ice deposits on the moon by an American payload aboard the spacecraft. Analysis of data obtained by the Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (MiniSAR) aboard Chandrayaan-I spacecraft has provided evidence for the presence of ice deposits near the moon’s North Pole. The MiniSAR instrument found more than 40 small craters (two to 15 km in diameter) with sub-surface water ice located at their base.

10 Rohini series indigenous rockets
The Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) launched a total of 10 Rohini series indigenous sounding rockets from the Thumba, Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota to investigate the effects of the longest annular solar eclipse of this millennium.

NASA’s Solar Mission releases pictures of Sun
US space agency NASA has released stunning solar images some of which highlight never-before-seen material streaming out of the Sun while others show extreme close-ups of activity on the Sun’s surface. “These initial images show a dynamic Sun that I had never seen in more than 40 years of solar research,” said Richard Fisher, director of the Heliophysics Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The images were taken by Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO that was recently launched by NASA. It is the

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DEFENCE NEWS

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
The Defence Research and Development Oganisation (DRDO), has successfully flown the indigenously built Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), named Rustom. It is a medium altitude long endurance UAV, developed by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE), a lab of the DRDO. The ADE specialises in UAVs and flight control systems. The subsequent flights of the Rustom will test and demonstrate capabilities like controlling the UAV through GPS satellites. The Rustom has been designed for endurance of 12-15 hour, with a 25,000-ft altitude ceiling and 75 kg payload of cameras and sensors. The data link for this has been developed by DEAL, another DRDO laboratory; a private Indian company has built the airframe.

Chandipur off the Orissa coast. The Brahmos-II, a result of an IndoRussian joint venture, can be potentially used for surgical strikes, including at terror camps, without causing collateral damage. It can carry conventional warheads up to 300 kg and effectively engage ground targets from an altitude of just 10 metres. The missile can travel at three times the speed of sound.

IAF launches AFNET
The Indian Air Force, in a significant development, launched on September 14, 2010, its state-of-the-art digital information system that will provide real time data, voice and images to commanders on the ground, as well as to pilots in the air. It will connect all IAF’s, fighters, choppers, transport planes, satellites and UAV’s with ground and command stations which will in turn have the position of the ground-based air defence guns deployed at airbases. The new system will make the IAF network centric force. The Air Force Network (AFNET) has replaced the IAF’s old communication network set-up using the “tropo-scatter” technology that was first devised in the 1950s.

INS Vagli
The last of India's Foxtrot-class submarines, INS Vagli retired after 36 years of service. The retirement of INS Vagli will leave only 14 more submarines for India now.

First flight of Tejas supersonic fighter plane
The dream of having a supersonic fighter jet of indigenous built came one step closer to realisation on June 2, 2010, when the Limited Series Production Tejas aircraft (LSP-4) took off from the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited airport, Bangaluru, for its first flight. Test pilot, Group Captain Suneet Krishna, flew the aircraft to an altitude of 11 kms and went supersonic, touching 1.1 Mach speed. A fighter plane flies in supersonic speed when it has already accomplished its mission and is being chased by enemy aircraft. For testing, there was a plane chasing the Tejas LSP-4 during its first test flight. The Tejas flew in the configuration that would be finally delivered to the Indian Air Force.

GE Engines for Tejas
GE Aviation of USA has bagged the contract for supplying engines for the Light Combat Aircraft MK-2 (LCA MK-2 or Tejas MK2). The aircraft is being developed by the DRDO with the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) being the implementing agency for the project. Installation of the new engine will pave the way for acquisition of the indigenous multi-role fighter jet by the IAF. The necessity for a new engine arose after the LCA’s present engine, also supplied by GE (GE F404 IN20), failed to meet the IAF requirements. Installation of the new engine will necessitate major modifications to the LCA, especially the fuselage. The ADA expects the Tejas MK2 to fly in 2014.

Navy gets two Warships
Giving a boost to the Navy’s defence capabilities, two stateof-the-art high-speed warships, INS Cankarso and INS Kondul, were commissioned into the naval fleet on June 29, 2010. The indigenously-built ships use water jet propulsion technology and can achieve speeds in excess of 35 knots. Water jet technology has

BrahMos cruise missile
India test-fired the supersonic BrahMos cruise missile, which has a range of 290 kms, from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at

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rapidly gained acceptance as the leading means of propulsion for all types of high-speed marine craft, including ferries, work boats, patrol crafts and pleasure boats. The ships will be based in Goa and tasked with the role of detecting, locating and destroying small, fast-moving enemy surface craft engaged in covert operations. INS Cankarso and INS Kondul are fitted with 30-mm CRN-91 gun built by Ordnance Factory, Medak, and Igla missiles and set of machine guns ranging from light to heavy.

INS Shivalik
On April 29, 2010, India affected a generational shift in its warship-building capability by commissioning INS Shivalik the first indigenously built stealth frigate that is the biggest in its class in the world. The ship, which is 143 metres long, can tactically fire weapons even before the enemy detects it. The hard-to-detect warship will form a crucial component of the Indian Navy. It is equipped with a mix of Indian, Russian, Israeli and western weapons and sensors. Two other such ships INS Satpura and the INS Sahayadari would follow soon. Each ship would carry on board long-range surface-tosurface Klub missiles, area defence missiles Shtil and Barak, antisubmarine torpedoes, 100 mm mounted gun and six-barrelled 30 mm gun. Ships like these would form the core of the India’s battle fleet in the first half of this century. A 250-member crew, including 35 officers, will man INS Shivalik. The new design features give the ship enhanced operational capabilities in terms of survivability, stealth, sea keeping, ship handling and weapons.

New test range of DRDO
The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is building a new test range in Chitradurga district in Karnataka for its aeronautics missions for flight-testing sophisticated unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), air-to-ground weapons, huge parachutes, Light Combat Aircraft Tejas, aerostats and also for testing electronic warfare systems. The DRDO already has an Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur-on-sea, near Balasore, Orissa, from where different missiles are flight-tested.

INS Chennai Missile Destroyer launched
Indian Navy launched INS Chennai, a missile destroyer in the Project-15 alpha class, at the Mazgaon Dock in Mumbai on April 1, 2010. Elizabeth Antony, wife of Defence Minister AK Antony, launched the warship. Project 15 Alpha is code name for Kolkataclass destroyers that are being made in the Mazgaon dock in Mumbai. These are the largest warships ever constructed at Mazgaon, the oldest and the most prolific of all Indian naval dockyards. Aimed at adding a new dimension to the country's naval warfare, India has launched the indigenous warship with enhanced stealth features and land-attack capabilities. The 6800 tonnes Kolkata class (Project 15-A) destroyers incorporate Indian systems including the HUMSA-NG (Hull Mounted Sonar Array New Generation), 16 Brahmos missiles, torpedos and the Nagin active towed array sonar, jointly developed by the DRDO's Naval Science and Technology Laboratory in Visakhapatnam and Bharat Electronics Limited in Bangalore. Russia is assisting Project 15-A with shafts and propellers. The propulsion package consists of four reversible gas turbines in combined gas-and-gas configuration.

Astra
The first night trial of indigenously developed, beyond visual range air-to-air missile ‘Astra' was test-fired from the Integrated Test Range complex at Chandipur.

LCH makes successful first flight
On March 29, 2010, India entered the big boys’ league with the successful first flight of the prototype of its very own attack helicopter Light Combat Helicopter (LCH). The maiden test flight of the 5.5-tonne attack chopper, a derivative version of Banagalorebased Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) flagship product Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Dhruv was termed by pilots who flew it as “very good”. The Shakti engine being used in the LCH has been jointly developed by the HAL and Turbomeca of France with primary focus on high-altitude operations. The rotor system has also been developed indigenously. The helicopter is expected to meet operational requirements like air support, anti-infantry and anti-armour roles. The twin-engine LCH is a pure attack helicopter made by the design experience gained from the Dhruv. Currently around 100 Dhruv helicopters are being used by the Indian armed forces and paramilitary forces like the Coast Guard and the BSF,

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civil operators like Pawan Hans and the ONGC. Dhruv is also being used by foreign countries like Ecuador, Nepal, Mauritius and Male. Though LCH is derived from Dhruv, there are differences in design. While in Dhruv pilots sit side-by-side, in the LCH they sit one behind the other. All flight controls, hydraulics and fuel system have been redesigned for the sleeker, heavily armoured LCH.

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Flower has world’s longest genome
Researchers at London's Kew Gardens say they've discovered the longest genome in the world and that it belongs to a rather ordinary-looking white flower. The scientists say the Paris japonica has a genetic code 50 times longer than that of a human being and edges out its nearest competitor, the marbled lungfish. A genome is the full complement of an organism's DNA, complex molecules that direct the formation and function of all living organisms.

country's first Anti Submarine Warfare Corvette
M.M. Pallam Raju, Union Minister of State for Defence launched the country's first Anti Submarine Warfare Corvette (ASWC) for the Indian Navy at the Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers (GRSE) Limited.

Super Cruiser BrahMos test-fired successfully
On March 21, 2010, India joined the league of select nations to have a ‘manoeuvrable’ supersonic cruise missile when it successfully test-fired the vertical-launch version of 290-km range BrahMos from a warship in the Bay of Bengal off the Orissa coast. After the latest test, India has become the first and only country in the world to have a “manoeuvrable supersonic cruise missile in its inventory”. The test-firing was part of the pre-induction tests by the Navy as moves are afoot to deploy the vertical-launch version of the missile in ships. The weapon system has been designed and developed by the Indo-Russian joint venture company.

Scientists develop ‘e-skin’
Biotech wizards have engineered electronic skin that can sense touch, in a major step towards next-generation robotics and prosthetic limbs. The lab-tested material responds to almost the same pressures as human skin and with the same speed. Important hurdles remain but the exploit is an advance towards replacing today’s clumsy robots and artificial arms with smarter, touch-sensitive upgrades. The “e-skin” comprises a matrix of nano-wires made of germanium and silicon rolled onto a sticky polyimide film. The researchers then laid nano-scale transistors on top, followed by a flexible, pressure-sensitive rubber. The prototype, measuring 49 square centimetres, can detect pressure ranging from 0 to 15 kilopascals, comparable to the force used for such daily activities as typing on a keyboard or holding an object.

India planning to buy C-17 aircraft from USA
India is set to buy 10 C-17 Globemaster-III giant strategic aircraft, each of which comes for about $220 million. The four-engine C-17 is capable of carrying payload of up to 78 tonnes, transport tanks and air-drop more than 100 combat-ready paratroopers directly into a battle-zone. It can cover 2,400 nautical miles at a stretch and with mid-air refuelling it can go even longer distances. The plane has the capability to take off and land on 3,000 feet or less runway, as also on a semi-prepared runway.

Artificial kidney
An artificial kidney implant that would work as well as a natural organ is in the offing. The first prototype of the device unveiled by the US researchers could do away with the need for dialysis or donor organs. The device comprises thousands of microscopic filters to remove toxins from the blood and a bio-reactor to mimic the metabolic and water-balancing roles of a real kidney. The implant is being developed jointly by engineers, biologists and physicians led by Shuvo Roy at the University of California, San Francisco. The treatment has already been proven to work for the sickest patients, using a room-sized external model.

Exercise Milan
“Exercise Milan” was the largest naval war game hosted by India, in February 2010, with the participation of 12 navies of the Asia-Pacific region.

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Wheat genome code
British scientists have decoded the genome of wheat, in a breakthrough research that will prove valuable to crop breeders in countries like India, in increasing the yield of the staple food crop. Wheat production worldwide is under threat from climate change at a time when there is an increase in demand from a growing human population. Scientists at the University of Liverpool, in collaboration with the University of Bristol and the John Innes Centre, have sequenced the entire wheat genome and will make the DNA data available to crop breeders to help them select key agricultural traits for breeding. Scientists have analysed the wheat genome, which is five times larger than the human genome and is the largest genome to be sequenced till date.

Census of the seas
First global count of marine life logs 230,000 species—but scientists warns of mass extinctions. It has been the biggest and most comprehensive attempt ever to answer that age-old question how many fish are there in the sea? A 10-year study of the diversity, distribution and abundance of life in the world’s oceans attempts just that. The Census of Marine Life estimates there are over 230,000 species in our oceans. A team of over 360 scientists around the world surveyed 25 regions, from the Antarctic through the temperate and tropical seas to the Arctic. Over fishing, degraded habitats, pollution and the arrival of invasive species are major threats to the marine life. But more problems are around the corner: rising water temperatures and acidification thanks to climate change and the growth in areas of the ocean that are low in oxygen and, therefore, unable to support life.

India’s first one-megawatt solar plant
On April 7, 2010, solar energy initiative of Reliance Industries, RIL Solar Group, commissioned India's first one-megawatt solar plant to power a stadium to be used in the Commonwealth Games 2010. Thyagaraj Stadium, where the plant has been commissioned, is planned to be a model green stadium. RIL Solar Group has also implemented power plants in the R.K. Khanna Tennis Complex. The solar initiative is one of the major ones to compensate for carbon-dioxide emissions to be released through the game. The solar power generated at the Thyagaraj Stadium is expected to result in emission reduction of more than 1,200 tons of CO2 per year.

Among the major findings are:
A fifth of the world’s marine species are crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters, krill and barnacles. Add in molluscs (squid and octopus) and fish and that accounts for nearly half the species in world’s seas. Species often used in conservation campaigning—whales, sea lions, turtles and sea birds—account for less than 2% of the species in the oceans. Enclosed seas such as the Mediterranean, Gulf of Mexico, China’s shelves, Baltic, and the Caribbean are having the most threatened biodiversity. The most diverse regions are around Australia and south-east Asia. Australian and Japanese waters contain more than 30,000 species each and are among the most biologically diverse in the world. The manylight viperfish (Chauliodus sloani) is the most “cosmopolitan” marine creature with a presence in around a quarter of the world’s seas. The number of marine fish species known to science stood at 16,764, and was growing at around 100 a year. There are believed to be 22,000 fish species in the world.

Brain chip
Scientists have developed a brain chip that will help paralysed patients operate their bionic limbs. The technology employs tiny microchips to sense nerve messages, decode the signals, and turn thought into movement. The scientists hope that, within five years, they will be able to offer robotic devices to patients with damaged spinal cords that will enable them to move their arms or legs at will. A more ambitious idea is not to use robotic devices but to replace the broken connection to the limb with an artificial link. The brain chip would then send signals to an implanted stimulator in the spinal cord. This would generate electrical impulses to make muscles contract and move paralysed limbs.

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India’s first scientific expedition to South Pole
To commemorate the centenary of Norwegian explorer Ronald Amundsen’s December 14, 1911 feat, India will launch its first scientific expedition to the South Pole in November 2010. An eight-member team of scientists would undertake the 3,000-km long treacherous terrain from India’s research station Maitri in the Antarctic region to the South Pole. The route to be taken is a fairly new one and had been charted with the aim to understand climate change over the past years. These studies are expected to add to the knowledge of how the ancient landmass, once fused with other continents in a super-continent before being separated 200 million years ago, has evolved. The challenging effort will be simplified to some extend with the help of navigational equipment and four modern ice-traversing vehicles that the Union government is planning to acquire for the trip.

According to the New Scientist, the new record-holder for the most precise timekeeper, built at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Colorado, USA, could tick off the 13.7-billion-year age of universe to within 4 seconds. The optical clock monitors the oscillation of a trapped atom of aluminium-27 and is more than twice as precise as the earlier version, reported in 2008.

First robot with emotions
A robot that is capable of developing and showing emotions has finally been unveiled. When Nao developed by a European research team is sad, he hunches his shoulders forward and looks down. When he's happy, he raises his arms, angling for a hug. When frightened, Nao cowers, and he stays like that until he is soothed with some gentle strokes on his head.

India’s 18th nuclear plant
India’s 18th nuclear power plant at Rawatbhata in Rajasthan (RAPS-5) began production on February 6, 2010. The plant has been set-up by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India. The indigenously built 220 MW unit uses fuel imported from Russia which has been acquired after India got waiver from Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines in September 2008. The operationalisation of RAPS-5 has increased the capacity of Rawatbhata plant to 96 MW. The project, set-up in September 2002, took six years to complete. It had remained idle for some months because of lack of fuel. With the commissioning of RAPS-5 the total installed nuclear power capacity of India has risen to 4,340 MW.

Anti-influenza vaccine
India launched its first indigenously manufactured antiinfluenza vaccine, Vaxiflu-S manufactured by Zydus-Cadila Healthcare that will protect people against the A (H1N1) flu.

India’s first integrated Waste Management Plant
Infra firm a2z Infrastructure will set up India’s first integrated municipal solid waste management plant in Kanpur. The project, touted to be Asia’s largest, would comprise management of the city’s solid waste in an environment friendly manner and subsequent power generation for captive and merchant use. Majority of the fuel used in the plant will be RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) derived from solid waste, which is considered a better replacement for coal with lesser emissions. The power plant will have the capacity to produce 15 MW power.

Tianhe-1
The 13 computer cabinets containing the Tianhe-1, China's first domestically-made petaflop supercomputer, have been installed and it is scheduled to begin system debugging and testing in September, according to the National Supercomputing Center in Tianjin.

IIT-Kanpur to set up experimental power plant
The Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (IIT-K) has planned to set up a 550 kilowatt (KW) Solar Energy Research Experimental Station (SERES) in its campus. The station would serve the purpose of solar energy development research, apart from being a pilot project for improving the commercial viability of solar energy

World’s most precise clock
Scientists claim to have created the world's most precise clock based on the oscillation of a trapped aluminium-27 atom.

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generation. It would provide uninterrupted free power supply to six neighbouring villages, Nankari, Bara Sirohi, Singhpur, Bakunthpur, Naramau and Kachchar. The villages are electrified, but the present power supply is highly erratic. The Rs 18-crore project has been taken up as a part of the ongoing golden jubilee celebrations at the institute.

of light. Until now, infra-red germanium lasers required expensive cryogenic cooling systems to operate. The new germanium laser operates at room temperature. To create the germanium laser, the scientists take a six-inch, silvery-gray disk of silicon and spray it with a thin film of germanium. These same disks are actually used to produce chips in today's computers.

First life form made by man
Scientists have created the world’s first synthetic life form in a landmark experiment that paves the way for designer organisms that are built rather than evolved. The controversial feat, which has occupied 20 scientists for more than 10 years at an estimated cost of $40 million, was described by one researcher as “a defining moment in biology”. Craig Venter, the pioneering US geneticist behind the experiment, described the converted cell as “the first selfreplicating species we’ve had on the planet whose parent is a computer.” He said the achievement heralds the dawn of a new era in which new life is made to benefit humanity, starting with bacteria that churn out bio-fuels, soak up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and even manufacture vaccines. The new organism is based on an existing bacterium that causes mastitis in goats, but at its core is an entirely synthetic genome that was constructed from chemicals in the laboratory.

Climate expedition to Antarctica
On January 11, 2010, an Indian team set sail on the first Southern Ocean expedition after the Copenhagen meet — the fourth to be taken up by the National Centre for Antarctic & Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa to study, among other things, climate change and its impact on life. It will also be the first time Indian scientists will be crossing the 55 degrees South latitude to go almost up to the polar region on an Indian vessel. Sagar Nidhi, the only Indian vessel that can cut through ice, left Goa with 25 scientists for Mauritius and head farther southwards on a voyage that will last till April 2010. The scientists will take up about 20 studies in the ocean between 35 and 66 degrees South latitudes. Prominent among them would be paleo-climatic studies that involve collecting samples from the ocean bed at a depth of up to six kilometres. Changes in sediment formation, water mass and other parameters would be compared with previous data to ascertain the impact of climate change.

Microsoft launched latest software
Microsoft Corporation launched its latest software Office 2010, SharePoint 2010, Visio 2010 and Project 2010 for business customers, unified productivity experience across computers, web and mobile.

Mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Indian scientists announced the first-ever detailed mapping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The government's Open Source Drug Discovery (OSDD) initiative released the results of its ‘Connect 2 Decode' (C2D) project to re-annotate the biological and genetic information relating to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome.

Browse at the speed of light
Scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have created a new infra-red laser made from germanium that operates at room temperature, which has made light-speed computing come one step closer to reality. The research removes the cryogenic cooling systems previously needed for infra-red lasers and could lead to powerful computer chips that operate at the speed

Fourth discovery by RIL in Cambay Basin
Reliance Industries has announced its fourth oil discovery in exploratory block CB-ONN-2003/1, located on-land in the Cambay basin and named ‘Dhirubhai-47’. The block was awarded under NELP V round of exploration bidding. This block is located at a

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distance of 130 kms from Ahmedabad and covers an area of 635 sq kms. RIL is the operator and has 100 per cent participating interest in the block. The block has 14 exploratory wells and the company is continuing further exploratory drilling efforts in the block. The company says that, based on the acquired 3D seismic data, there are several more prospects with upside potential have been identified in the contract area.

POLITICAL AFFAIRS

Foreign Education Bill
After several years of debate, the Union Cabinet, on March 15, 2010, unanimously approved a Bill that would allow foreign education providers to set up campuses in India and offer degrees. A Bill to this effect was first introduced in the Rajya Sabha in August 1995. The new one is expected to be introduced in Parliament and be voted into law by the monsoon session of 2010. This is a milestone which will enhance choices, increase competition and benchmark quality. A larger revolution than even in the telecom sector awaits us,” said Kapil Sibal, Union Minister for Human Resource Development (MHRD). The Foreign Educational Institutions (Regulation of Entry and Operations, Maintenance of Quality and Prevention of Commercialisation) Bill will allow foreign universities to invest at least 51 per cent of the total capital expenditure needed to establish the institute in India. Such institutes will be granted deemed university status under Section 3 of the Universities Grants Commission (UGC) Act, 1956. The Bill aims to regulate the entry, operation and maintenance of quality assurance and prevention of commercialisation by foreign educational institutions, besides protecting the interest of the student community from sub-standard and ‘fly by night’ operators. The Bill is aimed at not only bringing in investment in the education sector, but also draw in foreign students, besides helping check the flight of Indians to study (then work and settle) abroad.

World’s smallest 3-D map
Scientists claim to have created the world’s smallest three dimensional map a map of the Earth so small that 1,000 of them could fit on one grain of salt. A team at computer giant IBM accomplished this through a new, breakthrough technique which uses a tiny, silicon tip with a sharp apex 1,00,000 times smaller than a sharpened pencil to create patterns and structures as small as 15 nanometre at greatly reduced cost and complexity. According to the scientists, this patterning technique opens new prospects for developing nano-sized objects in fields such as electronics, future chip technology, medicine, life sciences, and opto-electronics. The complete 3D map of the world measuring only 22 by 11 micrometre was “written” on a polymer. It is composed of 5,00,000 pixels, each measuring 20 NM2, and was created in only 2 minutes and 23 seconds.

World's smallest superconductor developed
Scientists have developed the world's smallest superconductor less than one nanometre wide which could be used for making miniature electronic devices. The superconductor, a sheet of four pairs of molecules, provides the first evidence that nano-scale molecular superconducting wires can be fabricated. Superconducting materials have an electrical resistance of zero, and so can carry large electrical currents without power dissipation or heat generation. Superconductivity was first discovered in 1911, and until recently, was considered a macroscopic phenomenon. The current finding suggests, however, that it exists at the molecular scale, which opens up a novel route for studying this phenomenon.

Rajya Sabha passes Women’s Reservation Bill
Fourteen years after it was envisaged, the Rajya Sabha, on March 10, 2010, passed the landmark Women’s Reservation Bill that will pave the way for reserving 33 per cent seats for women in Parliament and State Assemblies. But prior to that, the legislation has to be seen through in the Lok Sabha. Of the 186 members present in the Rajya Sabha, 185 voted in favour of the Bill. Barring the parties from the Hindi-belt Samajwadi Party, Rashtriya Janata Dal and BSP all other parties that included the constituents of Congress-led UPA and BJP-led NDA supported the Bill that was to carry

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out the 108th amendment to the Constitution for enabling reservation. The Congress-led UPA, the BJP-led NDA and also the Left parties were on the same side as the Parliament authored the “historic move”, which could upstage several well ensconced politicians but ensure proper representation of women, which languishes at 11 per cent in Lok Sabha. Main points of the legislation: Seeks to reserve one-third of seats for women in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies. Allocation of reserved seats shall be determined by the authority prescribed by the Parliament. One-third of the total seats reserved for SCs and STs shall be reserved for women from these groups in LS and Assemblies. Reserved seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in the State or Union Territory. Reservation of seats for women shall cease to exist 15 years after the commencement of the Act.

Nuclear Damage Claims Commission, which will have one or more claims commissioners for a specified area. The claims commissioner shall have all the powers of a civil court for the purpose of taking evidence on oath, enforcing attendance of witnesses, compelling the discovery and production of documents and other material objects.

Model rules for RTE Act
On January 30, 2010, the Union government approved model rules for the Right to Education Act 2009, which requires State governments to make free and compulsory elementary education a right of every child between 6 and 14 years of age. The model rules, list priorities for States, which would have to conform to the standards under the Act within three years of its commencement; nonconformation could bring de-recognition. The Act, passed by the Parliament in August 2009, is yet to be officially notified though. To begin with, the rules ask school management committees or the local authorities to identify children, who have never been to school or not managed to complete elementary education, and arrange for their special training in appropriate classes so that they can ultimately be integrated into the system. Any child above 6 years of age will be entitled to free special training either at school or residential facility, before he/she is ready to enter school at a convenient level. Such children would be allowed to complete elementary education even after they have attained 14 years, for the obvious reasons that they enter the school late. At least one primary school (class I to V) must be located within a km of walking distance of the neighbourhood; for schools with classes VI to VIII, this distance would be three km. States need to provide more neighbourhood schools in highly populated areas and ensure safety of students in areas with tough terrains. But before a school comes up, the States would have to undertake a mapping to identify all children in remote areas, including those from disadvantaged groups. This must be done in a year and the data updated every year. For the first time, the law mandates maintenance of records of all children from birth to 14 years of age through a household survey to be updated every year. The rules further prescribe strict norms for non-segregation of students and safe transport for disabled children to ensure that they attend school.

Judicial Standards and Accountability Bill
The proposed Judicial Standards and Accountability Bill, which will replace the four decade-old Judges Inquiry Act, has laid down 14 guidelines for judges. These guidelines will be called judicial standards.

N-liabilities Bill
In an important step towards the implementation of the IndoUS civilian nuclear deal, the Union government is to introduce a Bill to facilitate the entry of American companies in the nuclear sector. The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2009 is commonly known as the nuclear liability Bill. The Bill aims at limiting the liability of a nuclear plant operator to Rs 300 crore in the eventuality of an accident and provides for appointing a claims commissioner with powers of a civil court to arbitrate such cases. It also provides for the penalty to be paid by the operator and not the supplier companies, which would mainly be American in this case. The operator would not be liable for any nuclear damages if the incident is caused by “grave national disaster of exceptional character”, armed conflict or an act of terrorism and is suffered by the person on account of his own negligence. The Bill also provides for the establishment of the

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INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

Afghan-Pakistan gas pipeline
The leaders of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkmenistan on December 11th agreed to move forward with a complicated and risky plan to build a natural gas pipeline across rugged territory plagued by war and terrorism. The pipeline, which would terminate in India, would bring huge amounts of gas to underdeveloped regions and could earn impoverished Afghanistan hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees. The route for the 1,700-kilometer (1,050-mile) TAPI pipeline from gas-rich Turkmenistan would cross Afghanistan’s Kandahar Province, where the Taliban and international forces are locked in battle, as well as some of Pakistan’s unruly tribal areas. Concerns about security for the pipeline itself and for the workers who construct it have cast doubt on the project’s near-term feasibility, but proponents say it would calm the chaotic region.

ballot on October 14th 2010. India's previous spell in the Security Council was way back in 1992. Almost immediately afterwards India's appointment, Indian agent to the United Nations Hardeep Singh Puri put it straight that New Delhi would make use of this couple of year valid span to build assurance and accord a feeling of aplomb to the five non changing associates (famously known as the P-5) - the United States of America, Russia, Britain, France and China. Considering that Brazil, a running affiliate of the United Nation Security Council, and South Africa and Germany, which got appointed with India, on October 14th were as well in contention for a permanent membership, he stated: 'Of course everybody of us will attempt to bring into play the two years we need to render our allies a feeling of aplomb and formulate trust and faith so that they are at ease with our role playing in the United Nation Security Council on a continued period of time'.

Ireland becomes second Euro nation to seek aid
On November 22, 2010, Ireland became the second euro country to seek a rescue as the cost of saving its banks threatened by a re-run of the Greek debt crisis that destabilized the currency.

Junta’s proxy seeps Myanmar poll
Myanmar’s military-backed party captured 77 per cent of the Parliamentary seats contested in the November 7, 2010 elections, following polling widely decried as manipulated and unfair. The results point to an overwhelming victory, but there has never been much doubt about the outcome because the junta-proxy, the Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP), fielded candidates in nearly every district, whereas the largest opposition party was able to contest only 164 of the 1,159 parliamentary seats.

India is world’s third largest carbon emitter
India is now world’s third biggest carbon dioxide emitting nation after China and the US. The new emission data from the United Nations was a cause of worry for India’s climate negotiators at the next round of talks in Tianjin in China, held in October 2010. China, in 2009, moved to the top position while contributing 23 per cent of the total global emissions and India, in 2010, surpassed Russia to take the third position with five percent. India's per-capita carbon emission is still lowest in the world (about 4.5 tonnes) but the demand for energy is rising, especially among the middle-class. The pressure on India and China to reduce emissions is rising. US chief climate negotiator Todd Stern told a meeting of major economies forum that a legally binding climate treaty was not possible until India and China take “obligation” to reduce emissions.

India gets UNSC non-permanent seat
The biggest news on the international front for India has been its inclusion into the UNSC as a non-permanent member after a gap of 19 years. Even as India’s acclamation for a nonpermanent bench on the body that includes fifteen members in total was an inevitable cessation afterwards Kazakhstan back out of the chase for the Asian bench beforehand in early January. India got an unbelievable 187 of the 191 votes in the UN General Assembly

SAARC Folklore and Heritage Festival
The 3rd,three day SAARC Folklore and Heritage Festival was held in Chandigarh from 3rd December. The event was organised

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by Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature (FOSWAL) in association with Ministry of External Affairs (Govt of India) and Chandigarh Administration. FOSWAL, an apex body of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation), is the only organization in eight countries including India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives and Afghanistan, legally authorized to hold cultural programmes under the SAARC banner and logo.

2010 is the top three warmest years
The year 2010 is almost certain to rank in the top three warmest years since the beginning of instrumental climate records in 1850, according to data compiled by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) that were released. A WMO statement said the global combined sea surface and land surface air temperature for 2010 (January–October) is now estimated at 0.55 degrees Celsius plus or minus 0.11 degrees Celsius above the 1961–1990 annual average of 14 degrees Celsius. At present, 2010's nominal value is the highest on record, just ahead of 1998 and 2005. The data also indicates that the January-October 2010 temperatures are near record levels. The final ranking of 2010 will not become clear until November and December data are analysed in early 2011. Preliminary operational data from November 1 to 25 indicate that global temperatures from November 2010 are similar to those observed in November 2005, indicating that global temperatures for 2010 are continuing to track near record levels. From 2001 to 2010, global temperatures have averaged 0.46 degrees Celsius above the 1961-1990 average, 0.03 degrees Celsius above the 2000-09 average and the highest value ever recorded for a 10-year period. Recent warming has been especially strong in Africa, parts of Asia, and parts of the Arctic, the Saharan/ Arabian, East African, Central Asian and Greenland/Arctic. Canada sub-regions have all had 2001-10 temperatures 1.2 to 1.4 degrees Celsius above the long-term average, and 0.7 degrees Celsius to 0.9 degrees Celsius warmer than any previous decade. Surface air temperatures over land were above normal across most parts of the world.

Lanka scraps Tamil version of national anthem
Sri Lanka has scrapped the Tamil version of its national anthem at official and state functions, a move likely to further alienate the ethnic Tamils in the country. The decision was taken at the last cabinet meeting headed by the President Mahinda Rajapksha, who pointed out that no country in the world uses the national anthem in other than one language.

Cablegate Crisis in USA
The United States was catapulted into a worldwide diplomatic crisis on November 29, 2010, with the leaking to various international media of more than 250,000 classified cables from its embassies, many sent as recently as February 2010. At the start of a series of daily extracts from the US embassy cables Arab leaders are privately urging an air strike on Iran and that US officials have been instructed to spy on the UN leadership. The cables include comments on a shift in relations between China and North Korea, high-level concerns over Pakistan’s growing instability, and details of clandestine US efforts to combat al Qaeda in Yemen. The cables also contain specific allegations of corruption, as well as harsh criticism by US embassy staff of their host governments, from Caribbean islands to China and Russia.

Human Development Report 2010
The 2010 HDR Report by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), titled “The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development” celebrates the contributions of the human development approach, which is as relevant as ever to making sense of our changing world and finding ways to improve people’s wellbeing. The Report is also about how the human development approach can adjust to meet the challenges of the new millennium. India is ranked 119 out of 169 countries on the Human Development Index (HDI) of the UNDP’s 2010 Human Development Report. This

Kosovo votes in historic poll
Kosovo headed to the polls on December 12th for its first elections since declaring independence in 2008, which look set to weaken Prime Minister Hashim Thaci's grip on power. Many in the 1.6 million strong electorate are disillusioned with the current leadership as Thaci's reputation was marred by a string of corruption scandals involving his party officials.

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marks an improvement of just one rank between 2005 and 2010 though the report, a special 20th anniversary edition, places India among top 10 performers globally in terms of HDI measured on income growth. The category is led by China. India comes 10th after Botswana, South Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Mauritius. China has improved eight notches (from 2005 to 2010) to secure the 89th position. In South Asia, Nepal has gained five places to reach the 138th rank. Maldives has risen four places to 107; Sri Lanka at 91 too has pipped India in the rankings though Pakistan has lost two ranks to fall to 125, while Bangladesh is up one at 129.

UNESCO representative list of India intangible cultural heritage of humanity
The Aalst Carnival in Belgium, the Peking Opera, Spanish Flamenco, the Wayuu normative system in Colombia, the traditional skills of carpet weaving in Kashan in Iran, and falconry, presented by 11 countries, are among the 46 elements inscribed today on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. A UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee, chaired by Jacob Ole Miaron from Kenya and meeting in Nairobi until 19 November 2010, examined and inscribed 46 of the 47 nominations presented. India - Chhau dance: Chhau dance is a tradition from eastern India that enacts episodes from epics including the Mahabharata and Ramayana, local folklore and abstract themes. Its three distinct styles hail from the regions of Seraikella, Purulia and Mayurbhanj, the first two using masks. Chhau dance is intimately connected to regional festivals, notably the spring festival Chaitra Parva. Its origin is traceable to indigenous forms of dance and martial practices. Its vocabulary of movement includes mock combat techniques, stylized gaits of birds and animals and movements modelled on the chores of village housewives. Chhau is taught to male dancers from families of traditional artists or from local communities. The dance is performed at night in an open space to traditional and folk melodies, played on the reed pipes mohuri and shehnai. The reverberating drumbeats of a variety of drums dominate the accompanying music ensemble. India - Kalbelia folk songs and dances of Rajasthan: Songs and dances are an expression of the Kalbelia community’s traditional way of life. Once professional snake handlers, Kalbelia today

evoke their former occupation in music and dance that is evolving in new and creative ways. Today, women in flowing black skirts dance and swirl, replicating the movements of a serpent, while men accompany them on the khanjari percussion instrument and the poongi, a woodwind instrument traditionally played to capture snakes. The dancers wear traditional tattoo designs, jewellery and garments richly embroidered with small mirrors and silver thread. Kalbelia songs disseminate mythological knowledge through stories, while special traditional dances are performed during Holi, the festival of colours. The songs also demonstrate the poetic acumen of the Kalbelia, who are reputed to compose lyrics spontaneously and improvise songs during performances. Transmitted from generation to generation, the songs and dances form part of an oral tradition for which no texts or training manuals exist. Song and dance are a matter of pride for the Kalbelia community, and a marker of their identity at a time when their traditional travelling lifestyle and role in rural society are diminishing. India - Mudiyettu, ritual theatre and dance drama of Kerala: Mudiyettu is a ritual dance drama from Kerala based on the mythological tale of a battle between the goddess Kali and the demon Darika. It is a community ritual in which the entire village participates. After the summer crops have been harvested, the villagers reach the temple in the early morning on an appointed day. Mudiyettu performers purify themselves through fasting and prayer, then draw a huge image of goddess Kali, called as kalam, on the temple floor with coloured powders, wherein the spirit of the goddess is invoked. This prepares the ground for the lively enactment to follow, in which the divine sage Narada importunes Shiva to contain the demon Darika, who is immune to defeat by mortals. Shiva instead commands that Darika will die at the hand of the goddess Kali. Mudiyettu is performed annually in ‘Bhagavati Kavus’, the temples of the goddess, in different villages along the rivers Chalakkudy Puzha, Periyar and Moovattupuzha. Mutual cooperation and collective participation of each caste in the ritual instils and strengthens common identity and mutual bonding in the community. Mudiyettu serves as an important cultural site for transmission of traditional values, ethics, moral codes and aesthetic norms of the community to the next generation, thereby ensuring its continuity and relevance in present times.

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China-Japan spat
China suspended high-level exchanges with Japan on September 19, 2010, and promised tough counter-measures after a Japanese court extended the detention of a Chinese captain whose trawler collided with two Japanese coastguard ships. The spat between Asia’s two largest economies has flared since Japan arrested the captain, accusing him of deliberately striking a patrol ship and obstructing public officers near uninhabited islets in the East China Sea. Beijing viewed the detention as illegal and invalid.

sures to further bring their people closer, during the visit of Pakistan’s President Asif Ali Zardari to China in July 2010. The two countries pledged to make joint efforts to fight terrorism, and signed six deals of cooperation in the areas of agriculture, healthcare, justice, media, economy and technology.

world’s most valuable brand
Apple Computers has emerged as the world’s most valuable brand in the 50 top valuable brand list of the Forbes magazine. Apple was followed by software major Microsoft, Beverages firm, Coca Cola and technology giant IBM. Search engine Google was fifth in the ranking. McDonald's, General Electric, Marlboro, Intel and Finnish handset maker Nokia featured in the top 10 list.

Kyrgyzstan vote for parliamentary democracy
In a development that could have far reaching political impact in the region, Kyrgyzstan is all set to become Central Asia’s first parliamentary democracy, with an overwhelming 90.55 per cent voters backing a new constitution which strips the President’s wide ranging powers. After publishing the official results of the June 27 referendum, the Kyrgyz Central Election Commission (CEC), on July 1, 2010, declared Roza Otunbayeva as the transitional President till December 31, 2011.

US Financial Reform Bill
On July 1, 2010, the US House of Representatives approved a landmark overhaul of financial regulations. The Bill would impose tighter regulations on financial firms and reduce their profits. It would boost consumer protections, force banks to reduce risky trading and investing activities and set up a new government process for liquidating troubled financial firms. However, the Republicans say the Bill would hurt the economy by burdening businesses with a thicket of new regulations. They also point out that it ducks the question of how to handle troubled mortgage finance giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which Democrats plan to tackle in 2011.

Nelson Mandela Day
The United Nations decided to observe the first “Nelson Mandela Day” on July 18, 2010, in honour of the Nobel laureate who is regarded as the father of the new South Africa.

UNSC slaps sanctions on Iran
On June 9, 2010, the UN Security Council slapped sanctions on Iran over its controversial nuclear programme, targeting the powerful Revolutionary Guard, ballistic missiles, and nuclear-related investments, despite opposition from Brazil and Turkey. In the 15member Council, 12 countries, including the US and Britain, voted in favour of the resolution, with Lebanon abstaining and Brazil and Turkey voting against.

Hung in Britain
On May 7, 2010, Britain woke up to a hung Parliament, an election outcome that this country last experienced in 1974 when the then Prime Minister Edward Heath tried and failed to persuade the Liberal Party to join him in a coalition. The Conservatives under David Cameron emerged as the single largest party with 306 seats in the 650-member House of Commons, while Labour bagged 258 and Lib Dems 57. Eight NRIs won elections, four each from the Labour Party and the Conservatives. Likewise four Pakistani-origin MPs, Sadik Khan, Khalid Mahmood, Anas Sarwar and a woman lawyer Shabana Mahmood, were successful on behalf of the Labour Party. The LibDems play an extremely important role in the formation of the next government, although they have not been able to

Pakistan, China signs for six pacts
Pakistan and China reiterated their resolve to further strengthen strategic relationship between the two countries, increase the level of economic cooperation and take concrete mea-

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attract as many votes as they hoped for. They were expecting to win more than 100 seats, but they had to be satisfied with less than 60. However, despite the poor show, they still hold the trump card and are destined to play the role of king-makers. On May 11, Conservative leader David Cameron, who favours a ‘new special relationship’ with India, took charge as Britain’s youngest Prime Minister in nearly 200 years, heading a coalition with the support of centrist LibDems, and vowed to put aside party differences and provide a strong and decisive government. He made Liberal Democrats leader Nick Clegg Deputy Prime Minister.

pencil to create patterns and structures as small as 15 nanometre at greatly reduced cost and complexity. According to the scientists, this patterning technique opens new prospects for developing nanosized objects in fields such as electronics, future chip technology, medicine, life sciences, and opto-electronics. The complete 3D map of the world measuring only 22 by 11 micrometre was “written” on a polymer. It is composed of 5,00,000 pixels, each measuring 20 NM2, and was created in only 2 minutes and 23 seconds.

World’s longest tunnel completed
A giant drilling machine punched its way through a final section of Alpine rock on October 15, 2010 to complete the world’s longest tunnel, after 15 years of construction. In a stage-managed breakthrough, attended by some 200 dignitaries 30 km inside the tunnel and broadcast live on Swiss television, engineers from both sides shook hands after the bore had pummelled through the final 1.5 metres of rock. The 57 km high-speed rail link, which will open in 2017, will form the lynch-pin of a new rail network between northern and south-eastern Europe and help ease congestion and pollution in the Swiss Alps. It is the third tunnel to be built through the snowbound St Gotthard area and is 3 km longer than a rail link between two Japanese islands, the current record holder at 53.8 km.

Icelandic Volcano causes air travel mess in Europe
Europe saw air traffic chaos in April 2010 as a plume of ash from the Icelandic volcano that erupted under the Eyjafjallajokull glacier, made northern Europe a no-fly zone. An estimated 63,000 flights were cancelled, effecting more than five million passengers who were trying to get in and out of major cities of Europe. The eruption of the volcano caused the greatest air travel chaos since the Second World War II.

world’s fourth biggest weapons importer
The UAE has become the world’s fourth biggest weapons importer. China, India and South Korea are the top three arms importers, in that order.

South Asian University becomes operational
With the visa issue concerning Pakistani students having been settled, the South Asian University (SAU), a dream project of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, has finally taken off. The university launched its first academic session on August 26, 2010, starting two courses MA in Development Economics and Masters of Computer Applications. There are 25 students in each course. Of the total 50 students, 36 were from India and 14 from five other SAARC countries Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. As of now, there is no student from the rest of the two SAARC nations, the war-affected Afghanistan and the Maldives. The present faculty includes Bangladeshi nationals as well as Australian nationals of Indian origin. The faculty would be gradually increased when courses in other disciplines are launched from the next academic year beginning in July 2011. Though the university, the first of its kind in the region, has been allotted land in the capital for its campus, classes for the first session are being held at the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU).

Russia has 11 times zones
Indian Standard Time (IST) is set in accordance with the 82.5 degree East longitude. While India has just one time zone, Russia has 11 times zones, USA 10, Australia 9, and Canada 6. France and its dominions have 12 time zones and UK and its overseas territories use 8 time zones.

World’s smallest 3-D map
Scientists claim to have created the world’s smallest three dimensional map of the Earth so small that 1,000 of them could fit on one grain of salt. A team at computer giant IBM accomplished this through a new, breakthrough technique which uses a tiny, silicon tip with a sharp apex 1,00,000 times smaller than a sharpened

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NATIONAL AFFAIRS

National Green Tribunal
The National Green Tribunal (NGT) was officially notified on October 19, 2010 with its Chairperson, Justice Lokeshwar Singh Panta taking charge of his office. The tribunal is exclusively dedicated to environmental issues. Established by an Act of Parliament (the National Green Tribunal Act of 2010), it will have circuit benches across the country to try all matters related to and arising out of environmental issues. The tribunal, which shall also consist of other members, who are experts in the field of environmental and related sciences, has been empowered to issue directions for the compensation and restitution of damage caused from actions of environmental negligence. This is the first body of its kind that is required by its parent statute to apply the “polluter pays” principle and the principle of sustainable development. The erstwhile National Environment Appellate Authority had ceased to exist with the launch of the NGT.

Haryana High Court and a former judge of Andhra Pradesh High Court, Justice P.S. Narayana, have been appointed as members. The Tribunal has been constituted on a request sent by Goa in July 2002, for adjudication of the water disputes with Karnataka relating to Mahadayi River. Maharashtra also stands to benefit from its adjudication. The need for setting up the three-member tribunal was being felt since the Union Ministry of Water Resources had tried to resolve the dispute, but was not successful.

CWG Corruption probe
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has appointed a high-level committee headed by a former Comptroller and Auditor General, V.K. Shunglu, to go into allegations of corruption related to the Commonwealth Games held in New Delhi in October 2010. The developments came as opposition parties, which had held their fire during the 12-day event, stepped up their demand for thorough probe into corruption charges so that those guilty can be brought to book.

Foreign tourist arrival goes up
India has registered a growth rate of more than 10 per cent in foreign tourist arrivals and more than 27 per cent in foreign exchange earnings during the first 11 months of current year. Tourism Minister Kumari Selja said this while speaking at a conference organised by World Travel and Tourism Council in New Delhi yesterday. The Minister said that the growth is in comparison to the corresponding period of last year. She said that after having hosted Commonwealth Games successfully, the country is ready to play host for Cricket World Cup 2011. India is gearing up to organise its first Formula 1 Race in October 2011 in Uttar Pradesh and debating upon the idea to hold first ever National Tourism Mart in the year 2012.

National Innovation Council
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has approved the setting up of a National Innovation Council to prepare a road map for the 'Decade of Innovation 2011-2020'. Sam Pitroda, adviser to the Prime Minister on public information infrastructure and innovations, will head the National Innovation Council. The Council has been given the mandate to evolve an Indian model of innovation focussing on inclusive growth and creating an appropriate eco-system conducive to fostering inclusive innovation. It will delineate appropriate policy initiatives within the government required to spur innovation. It will also promote the setting up of sectoral innovation councils and state innovation councils.

Parliament hiked the salary of MPs
The Indian Parliament has hiked the salary of Members of Parliament to Rs 50,000 per month. Two key allowances (constituency and office expenses) have also been increased to Rs 45,000 each.

Mahadayi Water Disputes Tribunal
The Union government has constituted the Mahadayi Water Disputes Tribunal with a sitting Supreme Court judge, Justice J.M. Panchal as its Chairman. Justice Viney Mittal of the Punjab and

Taj Falaknuma Palace
Taj Falaknuma Palace in Hyderabad is India’s most expensive hotel. The palace was once the exclusive preserve of the rulers

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of Hyderabad. The grand presidential suite at the hotel costs Rs 5 lakh per night.

Nuclear Deal with South Korea
India and South Korea have struck a deal to finalise an agreement on civil uses of nuclear energy. This was a major success for India during the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s Asia tour. The issue came up for discussion during the bilateral meeting of the Prime Minister with the President of the Republic of Korea, Lee Myung-bak, at Hanoi, on the sidelines of the 17th ASEAN Summit. The Korean President has invited the Prime Minister to Korea in 2011 and the deal is likely to be signed then.

the third place in terms of clean power project investments worldwide. It is likely to attract 169 billion dollar in wind, solar, small hydro, geothermal and marine energy projects in the next decade. Enhanced clean energy policies would increase private investments in India by 48 per cent, tied with the U.K.

Independence Day speech of Manmohan
With his Independence Day speech on August 15, 2010 the seventh Manmohan Singh edged past Atal Behari Vajpayee to become the Prime Minister of India who has addressed the nation on Independence Day the third-highest number of times. Jawaharlal Nehru addressed the nation 17 times and Mrs Indira Gandhi 16 times.

IIT-B, IISc develop device to detect RDX
The Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay along with Indian Institute of Science here have come out with a prototype device that could be developed to detect RDX and other explosives, replacing sniffer dogs. The prototype, developed at the Rs 100-crore Nano Technology facility set up jointly by the two leading institutions, was a bio-sensor array using polymers for detection heart attack. The device could detect all cardiac markers in blood within seven minutes. The same device could be developed for detecting RDX or other explosives, Professor V Ramgopal Rao of the Department of Electrical Engineering in IIT-Bombay.

India elected for UN General Assembly
The UN General Assembly has elected India, Germany, South Africa and Columbia to two-year seats on UN Security Council. The term will begin in January 2011. The four countries will be the nonveto-holding members of the 15-nation body.

Backward districts not covered by RSVY
Most of the districts identified as backward by the Planning Commission were not covered under a scheme meant to remove regional disparities, as CAPART failed to reach out to the unserved areas, a CAG report has said. "CAPART (Council for Advancement of People's Action and Rural Technology) could not reach out to the unserved areas of the country as most of the districts identified as backward by the Planning Commission under the Rashtriya Sam Vikas Yojna (RSVY) were not covered," a latest report of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India said. It also observed that the geographical distribution of the projects was uneven with 51 per cent of funds released during 2003-09 going to only six states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh, while north-eastern states getting less than five per cent.

India strengthens ties with Vietnam
India has enlarged its scope of cooperation and relations with Vietnam another “not-so-happy” neighbour of China. Defence Minister A.K. Antony, during his visit to Vietnam, announced a slew of measures to expand cooperation as part of the nation’s “look east policy” aimed at engaging key countries situated east of India.

Clean energy investments
India is all set to emerge among the top five nations in G-20 group in terms of clean energy investments. In a report brought out by the US based Pew Charitable Trust, the annual clean energy investment in India is expected to grow phenomenally over the next 10 years. Within the G-20, India is on tract to climb from the tenth to

NRI Remittance To India
As per information received from Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs the amount remitted to India in the last financial year (200910) from the NRIs working abroad was 40810 USD million (Approx.)

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Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs has informed that no data is available for remittance from the Gulf Countries. This information was given by the Minister of State for Finance, Shri Namo Narain Meena in written reply to a question raised in Rajya Sabha.

shops / trainings etc. Moreover, for making the scheme more farmer friendly, Government has recently, modified the scheme and the Modified NAIS has been approved for implementation on pilot basis in 50 districts from Rabi 2010- 11.

Bill to provide women equal guardianship rights
A Bill paving way for the women to get equal rights in guardianship and adoption of children has been passed by the Rajya Sabha. The Personal Laws Amendment Bill seeks to amend the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890 and the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956. It also seeks to allow the mother, along with the father, to be appointed as a guardian, making the process genderneutral. Besides, it aims at removing hurdles in the way of a married woman to adopt. She can give a son or daughter for adoption. For adoption and guardianship, under the existing Act, only the father is considered to be the natural guardian of the child in a Hindu family and only unmarried, divorced women and widows are allowed to adopt a child. Women separated from their husbands and engaged in lengthy divorce battles cannot adopt a child.

Crucial highway link to Kolkata
In major development, Bangladesh has finally agreed to start the construction of a highway that will not only provide transit facilities, ensuring easy movement of goods, but also drastically shorten the circuitous route crucial from the military point of view between north-eastern States and the port city of Kolkata. The first route will enter from Bengal into Bangladesh at the existing Benapole land port on the border and run across eastwards via Jessore and Dhaka; passing through Sylhet, located on the north-eastern edge of Bangladesh, it will enter Assam/Meghalaya. The second axis will start from North Bengal and enter Bangladesh at Panchgarh and run southwards via Srirajganj to Dhaka and further southeast to Cox Bazar and Chittagong before entering into Myanmar. India will be able to use both routes.

MCD record
Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) has become the first municipal body of India to cash in on cutting down carbon emissions warming the planet. A municipal compost plant in south Delhi, run by the private sector ILFS group, generated a first modest cheque of Rs 5 lakh in carbon emission reduction (CER) credits for its plan to keep more than 9,000 tonnes of carbon over the next 10 years by stopping methane leaks from garbage.

India to get its first AC double-decker train
India's first air-conditioned double-decker train is expected to be launched on the Howrah-Dhanbad sector. Developed at the Rail Coach Factory in Kapurthala, eight double-decker coaches were recently brought to Howrah for conducting trial runs before the official flagging-off ceremony. The coaches with a height of 4,366 mm will be higher than the conventional LHB coaches whose height is around 3,950 mm.

NAIS Coverage
548 districts have so far been covered under National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS). Continued efforts are made to create awareness about ongoing NAIS by the implementing agency i.e. Agriculture Insurance Company (AIC) in coordination with implementing States since its inception. The salient activities for campaign involve the publicity of features and benefits of the scheme through advertisements in leading national/local newspapers, telecast through audio-visual media, distribution of pamphlets, participation in agriculture fairs / mela / gosthi and organization of work-

Allahabad High Court Verdict on Babri MasjidRam Janambhoomi dispute
On September 30, 2010, the much-awaited judgement of the Lucknow Bench of the Allahabad High Court unanimously ruled that the idols of ‘Ram Lalla’ in the makeshift temple at the disputed site in Ayodhya cannot be removed. The three-judge Bench of Justices S.U. Khan, Sudhir Agarwal and Dharamveer Sharma separately delivered the historic verdict. In a 2-1 majority verdict, Justices Khan and Agarwal decreed that the 2.7-acre land comprising the disputed site should be divided into three equal parts and be given

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to Sunni Waqf Board, Nirmohi Akhara and the party representing ‘Ram Lala Virajman’. However, the third judge Justice D.V. Sharma ruled that that the disputed site is the birth place of Lord Ram and that the disputed building constructed by Mughal emperor Babur was built against the tenets of Islam and did not have the character of the mosque. The Bench directed maintenance of status quo at the site for three months and invited suggestions from all the parties for demarcation of the land. The judges also dismissed the claims of the Sunni Central Waqf Board over the Babri Mosque due to limitation or becoming time barred as well as the claim of the Nirmohi Akhara. With a 2-1 majority, the Bench held that all the three parties, namely Muslims, Hindus and Nirmohi Akhara were joint titleholders of the property in dispute. Both Justices Sudhir Aggarwal and SU Khan made it clear that the share of the Muslim parties shall not be less than one third of the total area of the premises. “...If while allotting exact portions some minor adjustment in the share is to be made then the same will be made and the adversely affected party may be compensated by allotting some portion of the adjoining land,” observed Justice Khan.

India, Canada sign civil nuclear pact
On June 28, 2001, India and Canada signed a civil nuclear cooperation agreement. The pact was signed during Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s visit to Canada. The deal, the ninth signed by New Delhi, significantly alters Canada’s stance towards India. The North American nation had led the world in pushing for nuclear isolation after the 1974 tests in Pokhran.

Quashing opposition from the Left Bloc and other critics, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh denied that the Bill was railroaded through the House to serve US interests. “This Bill is a completion of a journey to end the nuclear apartheid, which the world had imposed on India in the year 1974,” he said.” The government managed to bring the BJP on board in return for accepting amendments to the controversial Clause 17(b) and dropping the word “intent”. The new formulation of 17(b), now states that suppliers would be liable where “the accident has resulted as a consequence of an act of a supplier or his employees, done to cause nuclear damage, and such act includes supply of equipment or material with patent or latent defects or sub-standard services”. The key points of the Bill are: Controversial Clause 17(b) amended by dropping the word ‘intent’. Compensation cap to be paid by the operator at Rs 1500 crore provided in the Bill is not the ‘limit’. Compensation will be decided by the Claims Commissioner and the operator will have to pay. Government assumes full liability for even a plant not operated by it. The Bill is necessary for full implementation of civil nuclear deal signed with the USA in 2006.

Bhopal Gas Tragedy verdict
On June 7, 2010, nearly 26 years after the world's worst industrial disaster left more than 15,000 dead in the Bhopal gas tragedy, former Union Carbide India Chairman Keshub Mahindra and seven others were convicted and sentenced to two years imprisonment. Chief Judicial Magistrate Mohan P. Tiwari held the 85-year-old non-executive chairman of the Indian subsidiary of the US-based company and gave them punishment under less stringent provisions of the Indian Penal Code for causing death by negligence.

Navodaya Vidyalayas celebrated 25 years
Navodaya Vidyalayas celebrated 25 years of existence in 2010. A befitting match to costly private schools, the Navodayas have shown in last 25 years how gifted children with humble means can rise to life.

Nuclear Liability Bill
On August 25, 2001, the UPA government successfully shepherded the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010, through the Lok Sabha, with active support from the BJP and strategic absence of some fence-sitters such as the Samajwadi Party.

First Defence University
More than 40 years after it was mooted, the Union Cabinet, on May 13, 2010, gave its approval to set up the nation’s first defence university at Binola, around 20 km from Gurgaon. It would aim at imparting education on strategic challenges to armed forces offi-

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cials, bureaucrats, academicians, parliamentarians and trainees at military academies. To be established at an estimated Rs 300 crore, the institute would come up on an area of about 200 acres. A sum of Rs 100 crore has been earmarked for land acquisition. The existing defence educational institutions like the National Defence College, New Delhi, College of Defence Management, Secunderabad, National Staff College, Wellington, and National Defence Academy, Pune, would also be affiliated to the INDU. At present, these institutions are attached to various universities across the country.

citizens, local bodies and State governments for focused action on water conservation and augmentation. Water Mission is one of the eight missions in the National Action Plan on Climate Change launched by the Prime Minister in 2009 to tackle the threats of global warming. The government has already launched Energy Efficient and Solar Mission while a draft of Green Mission has been prepared for public consultation.

Mizoram Guinness World Record
The north-eastern state of Mizoram recently set a Guinness World Record for the “largest and longest dance”. A 10-minute performance of its colourful traditional bamboo dance, Cheraw, saw an astounding 10,736 dancers in 671 groups set a record in the heart of Aizawl.

Scientists slam study behind Bt Brinjal ban
A vital study cited by Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh to justify his decision to disallow the commercial cultivation of Bt brinjal in India is flawed, claim top European scientists. Mr Ramesh had referred to the findings of France-based Caen University professor Gilles-Eric Séralini and his team, which had branded Bt brinjal India’s first genetically modified (GM) food crop “unsafe”. Experts claim that Séralini was unduly influenced by the renowned international NGO Greenpeace with its aggressive green agenda which sponsored the study, and never carried out a peer-reviewed laboratory study on GM crops he called hazardous, including Bt maize and Bt brinjal, its gene or seeds. The European Food Safety Association, a risk assessment body, has trashed Séralini’s findings on Monsanto’s MON 863, a variety of Bt maize. On February 9, 2010, the Union government decided to freeze the introduction of Bt Brinjal in India till independent scientific studies established health and environment safety of the product to the satisfaction of both public and experts.

India’s first PG course in Golf Management
Golf, as a sport, is one of the fastest emerging sectors in India, with an estimated growth of 30 per cent in the next five years. However, there is a huge gap for good quality management professionals to join the golfing industry in India. To bridge this gap, International School of Corporate Management (ISCOM) has partnered with the prestigious Elmwood College, St. Andrews, Scotland, to introduce the first ever Postgraduate Programme in Golf Management.

Andaman and Nicobar as a major port
The Union Cabinet has approved the proposal to declare Andaman and Nicobar set of Ports as a major port and establish the Andaman and Nicobar Port Trust with its HQ at Port Blair.

National Water Mission
The Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change has approved the National Water Mission, focusing on making water conservation a peoples' movement in the country. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, who chaired the meeting of the Council, highlighted the need to create a general consciousness of the need to use water in the most sustainable manner in view of its scarcity and assess the impact of climate change on water. The Council felt that to make the Mission a peoples' movement it was essential to make available all data on water in the public domain, to be able to mobilise

Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power project
The first 600 MW unit of the prestigious Rajiv Gandhi Thermal Power project at Khedar, near Hisar, Haryana became operational on February 10, 2010. The coal handling capacity of the plant, at 2,400 tonnes per hour, is the highest in India.

Project Saraswati
Under Project Saraswati, which is the first of its kind in India, ONGC proposes to dig deep more than half a kilometre—into

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aquifers along the path the ancient Saraswati river is once believed to have taken.

Nationzl Census 2010
The 15th national census exercise, the biggest census ever to be attempted in human history to cover India's 1.2 billion population, began on April 1, 2010 with President Pratibha Patil being the first to be enumerated in the decennial exercise. The census is the most credible source of information on demography (population characteristics), economic activity, literacy and education, housing and household amenities, urbanisation, fertility and mortality, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, language, religion, migration, disability and many other socio-cultural and demographic data since 1872. Census is the only source of primary data at village, town and ward level. It provides valuable information for planning and formulation of polices for Central and State governments and is widely used by national and international agencies, scholars, business people, industrialists, and many more. The delimitation / reservation of constituencies— Parliamentary / Assembly / Panchayats and other local bodies is also done on the basis of the demographic data thrown up by the census. The census is the basis for reviewing the country's progress in the past decade, monitoring the on-going schemes of the government and most importantly, plan for the future. The slogan of Census 2011 is 'Our Census, Our Future'.

districts where adult female literacy rate is 50 per cent less as per the 2001 census. The final goal, however, is to take national literacy level from 64 per cent to 80 per cent by 2017, and reduce the gender gap from 21 to 10 per cent. In the first phase, Rajasthan has clinched the maximum number of projects for 31 districts. Close behind is Uttar Pradesh with projects for 26 districts, Andhra Pradesh 18, Gujarat 13 and Uttarakhand five.

Unique Identification (UID) number christened Aadhaar
Aadhaar, or the 12-digit unique identification (UID) number that will identify the 1.2 billion residents of India on the basis of their biometrics, will have an additional four digits that will be hidden from the common man. As far as people are concerned, there would only be a 12-digit number that would be relevant for their identification and use. However, a provision of extra four digits would be a post-fix for this 12-digit number for pin-based identification. So, UID will become a 16-digit number for use and the database that will maintain be maintained by UIDAI. These four digits, which the authority terms a ‘virtual number’, will change as and when the resident changes his pin number or residence. The user, however, will only use the 12-digit number allotted to him. The first set of Aadhaars will be issued between August 2010 and February 2011. The authority plans to issue 600 million UIDs over the next five years. UIDAI, which is being headed by Nandan Nilekani, has been allocated Rs 1,900 crore for the financial year 2010-11. Of this, Rs 1,300 crore will be used to enable the registrars to enrol people in the system and the remaining Rs 600 crore will be spent for setting up the information technology infrastructure. UIDAI estimates total annual revenue of Rs 288 crore from authentication services in the initial stages.

New adult literacy mission
The Union government has chosen 19 States to start adult literacy classes under the all-new Sakshar Bharat Mission, which the Prime Minister launched in September 2009. The mission, with a whopping budgetary support of $1 billion, seeks to educate 70 million illiterates by 2012; 60 million being women. Its first phase began on January 15, 2010 in 167 districts of 19 States, which have, in the past, displayed commitment to adult literacy. The selected States are the ones that continued to stress adult literacy even after the old National Literacy Mission (NLM) was disbanded. Some States like Punjab and Himachal neglected the sector, with none having any ongoing adult literacy component or programme. The mission aims to achieve 100 per cent literacy in 365 low literacy

Social Situation Report
With over 40 per cent of people in India still living on less than $1.25 (around Rs 60) a day, India now stands third in terms of the highest proportion of extremely poor people in South Asia, next only to Nepal and Bangladesh, with corresponding percentages at 54.7 and 50.5, respectively. The latest UN Report on the World Social Situation 2010, places India below Pakistan, Myanmar and Sri Lanka

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in terms of extreme poverty. Pakistan is the only nation in the sector to have achieved the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of cutting poverty by half between 1990 and 2015. It had 73 per cent of the people in ‘extreme poverty’ 15 years ago; it now has 22.6 per cent as against its MDG target of 29.3 per cent. India is lagging on the front, and must have an annual poverty reduction rate of 4.7 per cent (between 2005 and 2015) against 1.4 between 1990 and 2005 if it wants to meet the MDG target of 27 per cent; so far it has touched only 41.6 per cent. Rural India has 43.8 per cent of the people in extreme poverty as against 36.2 per cent in urban areas.

National Knowledge Network
The Union government has approved the setting up of a National Knowledge Network (NKN) that will connect all major educational institutions like the IITs, the IIMs and top universities for exchange of information and research. One of the important recommendations of the National Knowledge Commission (NKC) is to inter-connect all knowledge institutions through high speed data communication network. This would encourage sharing of knowledge, specialised resources and collaborative research. The government’s decision to set up such a network was announced in 2008-09 and an initial amount of Rs.100 crore was allocated to the Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communications and IT for this. The architecture of the NKN will be scalable and the network will consist of an ultra-high speed core (multiples of 10Gbps and upwards) to provide a nationwide ultra high-speed data-network highway. The IT mesh will connect around 1,500 institutions and the setting up of core network is expected to be completed in a span of two years.

participation in politics and decision-making, their representation in Parliament and legislatures and their control over economic resources. Gendering Human Development Index in India, released by Women and Child Development Ministry, claims GEM score of 0.497 in 2006 against 0.416 in 1996. Delhi has the highest GEM score and Nagaland the lowest. The highest GEM scorers in India are Andaman and Nicobar, Puducherry, Goa, Andhra and Himachal. The best performers on political participation of women are Punjab, Andaman and Nicobar, Himachal and Haryana. On economic empowerment of women, Chandigarh, Goa, Delhi and Punjab are the best, but in terms of control of economic resources, Meghalaya stands on top.

India’s first aero sports centre
Narnaul, a non-descript village located in the backwaters of Haryana has got India’s first aero sports centre, which was inaugurated by Chief Minister Bhupinder Singh Hooda, at the local airstrip on January 31, 2010. The centre, named after the late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, has been set up by the Department of Civil Aviation, Haryana, in collaboration with the Aero Club of India.

97th Indian Science Congress
97th Indian Science Congress (ISC 2010) hosted by the Indian Space Research Organisation, a national science event held in Thiruvananthapuram and 98th Indian Science Congress (ISC 2011) held at Chennai.

human and gender development report
India’s human and gender development record is improving, with the latest government report showing a significant increase in country’s position on human (HDI) and gender related development indices. India’s HDI, which was 0.530 in 1996, rose to 0.605 in 2006, while GDI score improved from 0.514 in 1996 to 0.590 a decade later. A concern, however, is the country’s Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) score, which judges women’s

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As I Lay Dying As You Like It Ashtadhyayi Asian Drama Aspects of the Novel Assignment Colombo Assignment India Atoms of Hope August 1914 August Coup Author’s Farce Autumn Leaves Avanti Sundari Babbit Baburnama Baby and Child Back to Methuselah Bandicoot Run Bang-i-Dara Jawaharlal Nehru David Selbourne Norman Mailer Willem Doevenduin George Orwell Count Leo Tolstoy Derek Walcott Aldous Huxley Aldous Huxley George Bernad Shaw Sir Richard Burton V.S. Naipaul Vikram Seth Elia Kazan Arthur Koestler Arthur Koestler Joseph Conrad Sinclair Lewis Kautilya Banyan Tree Beach Boy Beast and Man Beating the Street Beloved Ben Hur Bermuda Triangle Between the Lines Beyond Peace Bhagwat Gita Bharal Aur Europe Bharat Bharati Big Fisherman Big Money Bill the Conqueror Billy Birth of Europe Bisarjan Athenian Constitution Ascent of the Everest William Faulkner William Shakespeare Sir John Hunt Panini Gunnar Myrdal E.M. Forster J.N. Dixit Aristotle Bitter Sweet Black Arrow Black Diaspora Black Sheep Black Tulip Bleak House Blind Ambitions Blind Beauty Bloodline Blood Sport Blue Bird Bone People Book of the Sword Born Free Bostaan Breaking the Silence Breakthrough Brif History of Time Britain’s True History Broken Wings Bubble Buddha Charitam Bunch of Old Letters Bureaucrazy Butterfield 8 By God’s Decree Byzantium Caesar and Cleopatra Call the Briefing Cancer Ward Canterbury Tales Canvass of Life Caravans Cardinal Castle Catch-22 Catcher in the Rye Centennial Chance Chandalika Noel Coward Robert Louis Stevenson Ronald Segal Honore de Balzac Alexander Dumas Charles Dickens John Dean Boris Pasternak Sidney Sheldon James Stewart Maurice Macterlink Keri Hulme Sir Richard Burton Joy Adamson Sheikh Saadi Anees Jung Gen.Moshe Dayan Stephen Hawking Prem Bhatia Sarojini Naidu Mulk Raj Anand Ashvaghosha Jawaharlal Nehru M.K. Kaw John O’Hara Kapil Dev W.B. Yeats G.B. Shaw Martin Fitzwater Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn G.Chaucer Sheila Gujral James A. Michener Henry M. Robinson Franz Kafka Joseph Heller J.D. Salinger James Michener Joseph Conrad Rabindranath Tagore

BOOKS - AUTHORS
Authors V.S. Naipaul Satish Gujral I.K. Gujral Tiziano Terzani Alien Nation All for Love

Books A Bend in the river A Brush with Life A Foreign Policy for India A Fortune Teller Told Me A Peep into the Past A Possible India A Reveolutionary Life A Secular Agenda A Simple Path A Suitable Boy A Tale of Two Gardens A Tryst With Destiny Abbot Absalom, Absalom Absalom and Achitophel Acoession to Extinction Adam Bede Adhe Adhure Adonis Adventures of Tom Sawyer Adversary in the House Advice and Consent Aeneid Affluent Society After All These Years After the Dark Night Against the Grain Age of Reason Agni Pariksha Agni Veena Agony and the Ecstasy Airport Ajatshatru Alaska Unbound Alchemist

Alexander Quartet Alexander the Great Alice in Wonderland

Lawrence Durrel John Gunther Lewis Carroll Peter Brimelow John Dryden Pearl S.Buck Aldous Huxley Anita Brookner Amar Singh J.K. Galbraith Chester Bowles Henry Fielding J.K. Galbraith Gunnar Myrdal Robert Louis

Christopher Thomas Mohan Sundara Rajan

Vasant Navrekar Partha Chatterjee Laxmi Sehgal Arun Shourie Lucinda Vardey Vikram Seth Octavio Paz Stanley Wolfer Walter Scott William Faulkner John Dryden D.R. Mankekar George Eliot Mohan Rakesh P.B. Shelley Mark Twain lrving Stone Allen Drury Virgil J.K.Galbraith Susan Issacs S.M. Ali Boris Yeltsin Jean Paul Sartre Acharya Tulsi Kazi Nazrul Islam Irving Stone Arthur Hailey Jai Shankar Prasad James Michener Ben Johnson

All Under Heaven Along the Road Altered States Amar Kosh Ambassador’s Journal Ambassador’s Report Amelia American Capitalism An American Dilemma An Apology for Idlers Stevenson An Autobiography An Eye to China Ancient Evenings Angry Letters Animal Farm Anna Karenina Another Life Antic Hay Ape and Essence Apple Cart Arabian Nights Area of Darkness Arion and the Dolphin Arrangement Arrival and Departure Arrow in the Blue Arrow of Good Arrowsmith Arthashastra

Alexander Solzhenitsyn Mikhali S. Gorbachev Henry Fielding O.Pulla Reddi Dandin Sinclair Lewis Babur Penelope Leach G.B. Shaw Manohar Malgonkar Mohammad lqbal Hugh Tinker Ardesher Vakil Murry Midgley Peter Lynch Toni Morrison Lewis Wallace Charles Berlitz Bill Clinton Kuldip Nayar Richard Nixon Veda Vyas Nirmal Verma Maithili Sharan Gupta Lloyd C. Douglas P.G. Wodehouse P.G. Wodehouse Albert French Robert, S. Lopez R.N. Tagore

An American Tragedy Theodore Dreiser

Between Hope and History

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Cherry Orchard Anton Chekhov Chidambara Sumitranandan Pant Child Who Never Grew Pearl S. Buck Childhood Maxim Gorky Children of Gabelawi Naquib Mahfouz Children of the Sun Maxim Gorky China Passage J.K. Galbraith China-Past and Present Pearl S. Buck China’s Watergate Leo Goodstadt Chinese Betrayal B.N. Mullick Chitra Rabindranath Tagore Choma’s Drum K. Shivaram Karanath Christabel Samuel Taylor Coleridge Christmas Tales Charles Dickens Chithirappaavai P.V. Akilandam City of Joy Dominique Lapierre City of Saints Sir Richard Burton Class Erich Segal Climate of Treason Andrew Boyle Clockwork Orange Anthony Burgess Clown Heinrich Boll Cocktail Party T.S. Eliot Colonel Sun Kingsley Amis Common Sense Thomas Paine Communist Manifesto Karl Marx Confessions J.J.Rousseau Confessions of a Lover Mulk Raj Anand Comus John Milton Confidential Clerk T.S. Eliot Conquest of Self Mahatma Gandhi Conservationist Nadine Gordimer Continent of Circle Nirad C.Chaudhuri Coolie Mulk Raj Anand Coup John Updike Court Dancer Rabindranath Tagore Coverly Papers Joseph Addison Cranford Mrs. Gaskell Creation Gore Vidal Crescent Moon Rabindranath Tagore Crescent Over Kashmir Anil Maheshwari Cricket on the Hearth Charles Dickens Crisis in India Ronald Segal Critical Mass William E. Burrows Critique of Pure Reason Immanuel Kant Crossing in River Caryl Phillips Crown and the Loincloth Chaman Nahal Crown of Wild Olive John Ruskin Cry, My Beloved Country Alan Patan Cuckold Kiran Nagar Kar Culture and Anarchy Matthew Arnold Curtain Raisers K. Natwar Singh Damsel in Distress P.G. Wodehouse Dancing with the Devil Rod Barker Dangling Man Saul Bellow Daniel Deronda Geroge Eliot Dark Room R.K. Narayan Dark Debts Karen Hall Dark Home Coming Eric Lustbader Dark Side of Camelot Seymour Hersh Darkness at Noon Arthur Koestler Das Kapital Karl Marx Dashkumar Charitam Dandi Daughter of the East Benazir Bhutto David Copperfield Charles Dickens Day in Shadow Nayantara Sehgal Day of the Jackal Frederick Forsyth Days of his Grace Eyvind Johnson Days of My Yers H.P. Nanda De Profundis Oscar Wilde Dean’s December Saul Bellow Death and After Annie Besant Death Be Not Proud John Gunther Death in the Castle Pearl S. Buck Death in Venice Thomas Mann Death of a City Amrita Pritam Death of a Patriot R.E. Harrington Death on the Nile Agatha Christie Death of a Salesman Arthur Miller Death Under sail C.P. Snow Debacle Emile Zola Decameron Giovannie Boccaccio Decline of the West O’ Spengler Democracy Redeemed V.K. Narsimhan Descent of Man Charles Darwin Deserted Village Oliver Goldsmith Desperate Remedies Thomas Hardy Detective Arthur Hailey Dharmashastra Manu Dialogue with Death Arthur Koestler Diana-The Story So Far Julia Donelli Diana-The True Story Andrew Morton Diana Versus Charles James Whitaker Die Blendung Elias Canetti Diplomacy Henry Kissinger Disappearing Acts Terry McMillan Discovery of India Jawaharlal Nehru Distant Drums Manohar Malgonkar Distant Neighbours Kuldip Nayar Divine Comedy A.Dante Divine Life Swami Sivananda Doctor Faustus Christopher Marlowe Doctor’s Dilemma G.B.Shaw Doll’s House lbsen Dolly-The Birth of a Clone Jina Kolata Don Juan George Byron Don Quixote Cervantes Double Betrayal Paula R. Newburg Double Helix J.D. Watson Double Tongue William Golding Double Teeth U.B. Sinclair Earth Emile Zola Earth Mother Pupul Jayakar East of Eden B.N. Mullick East West Salman Rushdie East Wind Pearl S. Buck Edwina and Nehru Catherine Clement Egmont J.W. Von Goethe Eight Lives Rajmohan Gandhi Emile J.J. Rousseau Eminent Churchillians Andrew Roberts Emma Jane Austen Ends and Means Aldous Huxley End of an Era C.S. Pandit End of the Chapter John Forsyte Enemies Maxim Gorky Envoy to Nehru Escott Reid

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Erewhon Samuel Butler Escape John Forsyte Eassay on Life Samuel Butler Essays in Criticism Matthew Arnold Essays On Gita Aurobindo Ghosh Essays of Elia Charles Lamb Eternal India Indira Gandhi Eternity Anwar Shaikh Ethics Aristotle Europa Time Parks Eugenie Grandet Honore de Balzac Everlasting Man G.K. Chesterton Executioner’s Song Norman Mailer Exile and the Kingdom Albert Camus Eye of the Storm Patrick White Eyeless in Gaza Aldous Huxley Fairie Queene Edmund Spencer Fall of a Sparrow Salim Ali Family Reunion T.S.Eliot Famished Road Ben Okri Far Pavilions M.M.Kaye Faraway Music Svetlana Allilueva Farewell to the Trumpets James Morris Farewell to a Ghost Manoj Das Farewell to Arms Ernest Hemingway Farm House George Orwell Fasana-i-Azad Ratan Nath Sarkar Fathers and Sons lvan Turgenev Faust J.W. Von Goethe Faustus Chirstopher Marlow Fidelio L.Beethoven Fiesta Ernest Hemingway Fifth Column Ernest Hemingway Final Passage Caryl Phillips Fine Balance Rohinton Mistry Fire Next Time James Baldwin First Circle Alexander Solzhenitsyn Flags in the Dust William Faulkner Flames from the Ashes P.D. Tandon Flounder Gunder Grass Follywood Flashback Bunny Reuben Forbidden Sea Tara Ali Baig

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Forsyte Saga John Galsworthy Fortynine Days Amrita Pritam Franklin’s Tale Geoffrey Chaucer Fraternity John Forsyte Free Man’s Worship Bertrand Russell French Revolution Thomas Carlyle Freedom from Fear Aung San Suu Kyi French Leave P.G. Wodehouse Friends, Not Masters Ayub Khan From Hero to Eternity James Jones Frozen Assets P.G. Wodehouse Full Moon P.G.Wodehouse Future of NPT Savita Pande Gambler Fyodor Dostoevsky Gandhi and Stalin Louis Fisher Gardener Rabindra Nath Tagore Garrick Year Margaret Drabble Gathering Storm Winston Churchill Geeta Govind Jaya Dev Ghasiram Kotwal Vijay Tendulkar Ghosts in the Machine Arthur Koestler Girl in Blue P.G. Wodehouse Girl On the Boat P.G. Wodehouse Gita Rahasya Bal Gangadhar Tilak Gitanjali Rabindra Nath Tagore Gladiators Arthur Koestler Go Down Moses William Faulkner Goa Asif Currimbhoy God and the Bible Mattew Arnold Godan Munshi Prem Chand Godfather Mario Puzo Gold Bat P.G. Wodehouse Golden Borough James Frazer Golden Gate Vikram Seth Golden Threshold Sarojini Naidu Gone Away Dom Moraes Gone with the Wind Margaret Mitchell Good Earth Pearl S.Buck Goodbye, Mr Chips James Hilton Gora Rabindra Nath Tagore Grace Notes Bernard Mac Lavarto Grapes of Wrath John Steinbeck Grapes and the Wind Pablo Neruda Great Challenge Louis Fischer Great Depression of 1990 Ravi Batra Great Gatsby F. Scott Fitzgerald Great lllusion Norman Angell Great Tragedy Z.A. Bhutto Grey Eminence Aldous Huxley Grub Street Henry Fielding Guide R.K. Narayan Gulistan Boston Sheikh Saadi Gulliver’s Travels Jonathan Swift Gurusagaram O.V. Vijayan Gypsy(poem) Pushkin Hamlet William Shakespeare Hard Times Charles Dickens Harsha Charita Bana Bhatt Hamsters C.P. Snow Handful of Dust Evelyn Waugh Happy Death Albert Camus Harlot High and Low Honore de Balzac Harvest Majula Padmanabhan Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad Heat and Dust Ruth Prawer Jhabwala Heavy Weather P.G. Wodehouse Henderson the Rain King Saul Bellow Heritage Anthony West Hero of Our Times Richard Hough Heroes and Hero worship Thomas Carlyle Henry Esmond Thackeray Heir Apparent Dr. Karan Singh Higher than Hope Fatima Meer Himalayan Blunder Brig J.P. Dalvi Hindu View of Life Dr. S.Radhakrishnan Hitopadesh R.K.Narayan Hind Swaraj M.K.Gandhi Hindu Civilisation J.M. Barrie Hinduism Nirad C.Choudhury His Excellency Emile Zola Home Comings C.P. Snow Hornet’s Nest Patricia Cornwell Hot Water P.G. Wodehouse House for Mr. Biswas V.S. Naipaul

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House of Spirits Isabel Allende House Divided Pearl S. Buck Human Factor Graham Greene Human Knowledge Bertrand Russell Humboldt’s Gift Saul Bellow Humour Ben Johnson Hungry Stones Rabindra Nath Tagore I am not an Island K.A Abbas I Dare Parmesh Dangwal I follow the Mahatma K.M. Munshi Idylls of the King Tennyson Idiot Fyodor Dostoevsky Idols Sunil Gavaskar If I am Assassinated Z.A. Bhutto Imperial Woman Pearl S. Buck In Confidence Anatolyu Dobrynin In Evil Hour Gabriel Garcia Marquez In Search of Identity Anwar el-Sadat In the Bluest Eye Toni Morrison In the Shadow of Pines Mandeep Rai India discovered John Keay India is for Sale Chitra Subramaniam India of Our Dreams M.V. Kamath India Today Rajni Palme Dutt India We Left Hymphry Trevelyan Indian Home Rule M.K. Gandhi Indian Philosophy Dr.S.Radhakrishnan India’s China War Neville Maxwell Century & Beyond Sandy Gordon Indian Mansions Sarah Tiloston India Changes Taya Zinkin India Divided Rajendra Prasad Indian Muslims Prof. Mohd.Mujeeb India, the Critial Years Kuldip Nayar Indo-Pakistan Conflict Russen Brines Indica Megasthenes Indira’s India S.Nihal Singh Inferno Alighieri Dante Inner Circle Jonathan First Inside the CBI Joginder Singh Inside the Third Reich Albert Spencer Insider P.V. Narasimha Rao In Memoriam Tennyson Inside Asia John Gunther Inside Europe John Gunther Inside Africa John Gun ther Interpreters Wole Soyinka Intimacy Jean Paul Sartre Intruder in the Dust William Faulkner Invisible Man H.G. Wells Iron in the Soul Jean Paul Sartre Ironhand J.W. Von Goethe Isabella John Keats It is Always Possible Kiran Bedi Ivanov Anton Chekhov Ivanhoe Sir Walter Scott Marriage Chirstopher Anderson Jai Somnath K.M. Munshi Jaguar Smile Salman Rushdie Jajar, Churashir Maa Mahashweta Devi Jane Eyre Charlotte Bronte Jankijeevanam Prof. Rajendra Mishra Jazz Toni Morrison Jean Christopher Romain Rolland Jewel Danielle Steel Jhoota Sach Yashpal Jobs for Millions V.V. Giri Joke Milan Kundra Judge’s Miscellany M. Hidayatullah Julius Caesar William Shakespeare Jurassic Park Michael Crichton Jungle Book Rudyard Kipling Junglee Girl Ginu Kamani Kadambari Bana Bhatt Kamadhenu Kubernath Ray Kamasutra Vatsyayan Kagaz Te Kanwas Amrita Pritam Kamayani Jai Shankar Pandit Kaleidoscope of India Tomoji Muto Kali Aandhi Kamleshwar Kanthapura Raja Rao Kanyadaan Vijay Tendulkar Katghare Main Ram Sharan Joshi Kayakalp Munshi Prem Chand

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Kayar Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai Keepers of the Keys Milan Kundera Kenilworth Sir Walter Scott Killer Angels Michael Shaara Kissinger Years T.N. Kaul Kidnapped R.L. Stevenson Kiratarjuniya Bharavi Kim Rudyard Kipling King Lear Shakespeare Kipps H.G.Wells Koraner Nari Taslima Nasreen Kore Kagaz Amrita Pritam Kubla Khan S.T. Coleridge Kulliyat Ghalib Kumar Sambhava Kalidas La Divine Comedia A. Dante La Peste Albert Camus Lady of the Lake Sir Walter Scott Lady with the Lapdog Anton Chekhov Lady Chatterly’s Lover D.H.Lawrence Lajja Taslima Nasreen Lal Bahadur Shastri C.P. Srivastava Last Analysis Saul Bellow Last Orders Graham Swift Last Phase Pyare Lal Last Things C.P. Snow Laws Versus Justice V.R. Krishna lyer Leaders Richard Nixon Leaves of Grass Walt Whitman Lead Kindly Light Cardinal Newman Les Miserables Victor Hugo Latter from Peking Peral S. Buck Letters From the Field Margaret Mead Leviathan Thomas Hobbes Liberty or Death Patrick French Light That Failed Rudyard Kipling Life Divine Aurobindo Ghosh Life is Elsewhere Milan Kundera Lines of Fate Mark Kharitonov Lipika Rabindranath Tagore Living Room Graham Greene Long Walk to Freedom Nelson Mandela Look Back in Anger John Osborne Lord Jim Joseph Conrad Lord of the Files William Golding Lost Child Mulk Raj Anand Lost Honour John Dean Lost lllusion Honore de Balzac Lotus Eaters A.Tennyson Love in A Blue Time Hanif Khureshi Lolita V.Nabokov Lycidas John Milton Macbeth William Shakespeare Magic Mountain Thomas Mann Mahabharata Vyasa Malati Madhav Bhavabhuti Magic Fishbone Charles Dickens Magnificent Maharaja K.Natwar Singh Mahatma Gandhi Girija Kumar Mathur Major Barbara George Bernard Shaw Malavikagnimitra Kalidas Main Street Sinclair Lewis Man, The Unknown Lewis Carroll Man and Superman G.B. Shaw Man for Moscow G.Lynne Man of Property John Galsworthy Man, Beast and Virtue Luigi Pirandello Man eaters of Kumaon Jim Corbett Marriage and Morals Bertrand Russell Mama Terry McMillan Man for All Seasons Robert Bolt Mandarin Simon de Beauvoir Mansfield Park Jane Austen Many Worlds K.P.S. Menon Masters C.P. Snow Mati Matal Gopinath Mohanty Maurice E.M. Forster Mayor of Casterbridge Thomas Hardy Meghdoot Kalidas Mein Kampf Adolf Hitler Momories of Hope Charles de Gaulle Meri Rehen Meri Manzil Krishna Puri Middle March George Eliot Middle Ground Margaret Drabble Midnight’s Children Salman Rushdie Mill on the Floss George Eliot Million Mutinies Now V.S. Naipaul Mirror of the Sea Joseph Conrad Miser Moliere Mistaken identity Nayantara Sehgal Moby Dick Herman Melville Modern Painters John Ruskin Mother India Katherine Mayo Mod Classics Joseph Conrad Moonlight Sonata L.Beethoven Moonwalk Michael Jackson Moor’s Last Sigh Salman Rushdie Mother Maxim Gorky Mritunjaya Shivaji Sawant Mrs. De Winter Susah Hill

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Much Ado About Nothing Shakespeare Mudra rakshasa Vishakhadatta Murder in the Cathedral T.S. Eliot Murky Business Honore de Balzac Murder of Aziz Khan Zulfikar Ghose My Days R.K. Narayan My Early Life M.K. Gandhi My Experiment With Truth M.K. Gandhi My Life and Times V.V.Giri My Own Boswell M.Hidayatullah My Father, Deng Xiaoping Xiao Rong My India S. Nihal Singh My Music, My Love Ravi Shankar My Presidential Years R.Venkataraman My Truth Indira Gandhi Mysterious Universe James Jeans My Several Worlds Pearl S. Buck My Son’s Father Dom Moraes My South Block Years J.N. Dixit My Struggles E.K. Nayanar Myths of sisyphus Albert Camus My Prison Diary J.P Narayan Naari Humayun Azad Nana Emile Zola Naganandan Harsha Vardhana Naku Thanthi D.R. Bendre Nacked Face Sydney Sheldon Naked Triangle Balwant Gargi Nehru Family and Sikhs Harbans Singh Netaji-Dead or Alive Samar Guha Never At Home Dom Moraes Nice Guys Finish Second B.K. Nehru Nicholas Nickelby Charles Dickens Night Manager John le Carre Nile Basin Sir Richard Burton Nine Days Wonder John Mansfield Nisheeth Uma Shankar Joshi Niti-Sataka Bhartrihari Nineteen Eighty-Four George Orwell 1999-Victory Without War Richard Nixon Nirbashita Narir Kabita Taslima Nasreen North Seamus Heanev Northanger Abbey Jane Austen Nothing Like The Sun Anthony Burgess No Full stops in India Mark Tully Nursery Alice Lewis Carroll Occasion for Loving Nadine Gordimer Odessa File Frederick Forsyth Odakkuzal G.Shankara Kurup Odyssey Homer Oh, Le Beaux Jours Samuel Beckett Old Curiosity Shop Charles Dickens Old Goriot Honore de Balzac Old Man and the Sea Ernest Hemingway Old Path: white Clouds Thich Nht Hanh Oliver’s Story Erich Segal Oliver Twist Erich Segal Oliver Twist Charles Dickens Omeros Derek Walcott On History Eric Hobswan One-eyed Uncle Laxmikant Mahapatra One World to Share Sridath Ramphal One Upmanship Stephen Potter One World and India Arnold Toynbee One World Wendell Wilkie Only One Year Svetlana Operation Shylock Philip Roth Origin of Species Charles Darwin Oru Desathinte Katha S.K. Pottekatt Other Side of Midnight Sydney Sheldon Othello Shakespeare Our Films, Their Films Satyajit Ray Our India Minoo Masani Out of Dust F.D. Karaka Padmavati Malik Mohammed Jayasi Painted Veil W. Somerset Maugham Painter of Signs R.K. Narayan Pair of Blue Eyes Thomas Hardy Pakistan Crisis David Loshak Pakistan Papers Mani Shankar Aiyer Panchtantra Vishnu Sharma Paradise Lost John Milton Pakistan Cut to Size D.R. Mankekar Paradiso Alighieri Dante Paradise Regained John Milton Passage to England Nirad C.Chaudhuri Passage to India E.M. Forster Past and Present Thomas Carlyle Past Forward G.R. Narayanan Path to Power Margaret Thatcher Patriot Pearl S. Buck Pavilion of Women Pearl S. Buck Peculiar Music Emily Bronte Peter Pan J.M. Barrie Persuasion Jane Austen Pickwick Papers Charles Dickens Pilgrim’s Progress John Bunyan Pinjar Amrita Pritam Plague Albert Camus Plans for Departure Nayantara Sehgal

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Pleading Guilty Scott Turow Poison Belt Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Politics Aristotle Portrait of India Ved Mehta Possessed Albert Camus Post Office Rabindranath Tagore Power and Glory Graham Greene Power That Be David Halberstan Prathama Pratishruti Ashapurna Devi Prem Pachisi Prem Chand Prelude William Wordsworth Premonitions P.N. Haksar Princess in Love Ann Pasternak Prison Diary Jayaprakash Narayan Prisoner of Zenda Anthony Hope Prisoner’s Scrapbook L.K. Advani Primary Colors Anonymous Prince Machiavelli Prithviraj Raso Chand Bardai Pride and Prejudice Jane Austen Principia Isaac Newton Professor Charlotte Bronte Profiles & Letters K. Natwar Singh Promises to Keep Chester Bowles Purgatory Alighieri Dante Pyramids of Sacrifice Peter L.Berger Pygmation G.B. Shaw Quarantene Jim Crass Rabbit, Run John Updike Rage of Angels Sydney Sheldon Ragtime E.L. Doctorow Raghuvamsa Kalidas Rajtarangini Kalhana Ram Charit Manas Tulsidas Rangbhoomi Prem Chand Rains Came Louis Bromefield Rain King Saul Bellow Rainbow Pearl S. Buck Rape of the Lock Alexander Pope Ratnavali Harsha Vardhan Razor’s Edge Somerset Maugham Rebel Albert Camus Rebirth Leonid Brezhnev Red and Black Stendhal Red Star Over China Edgar Snow Rediscovering Gandhi Yogesh Chadha Red Badge of Courage Stephen Crane Remembering Babylon David Malouf Reminiscences Thomas Carlyle Reminiscences Thomas Carlyle Reprieve Jean Paul Sartre Republic Plato Rescue Joseph Conrad Resurrection Leo Tolstoy Return of the Native Thomas Hardy Revenue Stamp Amrita Pritam Rich Like Us Nayantara Sehgal Riding the Storm Harold MacMillan Rights the Man Thomas Paina Ritu Ka Pehla Phool Vijendra Ritu Samhara Kalidas Rivals R.B. Sheridan River Sutra Gita Mehta Road to Folly Leslie Ford Road to Freedom K.K. Khullar Robe Lloyd C. Douglas Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe Romeo and Juliet William Shakespeare Room at the Top John Braine Roots Rukh Te Rishi Harbhajan Singh Sader-i-Riyasat Karan Singh Sakharam Binder Vijay Tendulkar Saket Maithili Sharan Gupta Satyartha Prakash Swami Dayanand Smaler’s Planet Saul Bellow Sanctuary William Faulkner Sands of Time Sidney Sheldon Santa Evita Tomas Eloymartinez Satanic Verses Salman Rushdie Savitri Aurobindo Ghosh Scarlet Letter Nathaniel Hawthorne Scarlet Pimpernel Baroness Orczy Schindlr’s List Thomas Keneally School for Scandal R.B. Sheridan Search for Home Sasthi Brata Second World War Winston Churchill Secret Agent Joseph Conrad Sense of Time S.H. Vatsyayan Sesame and Lilies John Ruskin Seven Summers Mulk Raj Anand

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Tale of a Tub Jonathan Swift Tale of Two Cities Charles Dickens Tales from Shakespeare Charles Lamb Talisman Sir Walter Scott Tamas Bhisham Sahni Tar Baby Toni Morrison Tarkash Javed Akhtar Temple Tiger Jim Corbett Tess of D’Urbervilles Thomas Hardy Thank You, Jeeves P.G. Wodehouse The Age of Extremes Eric Holsbawm The Assassination K. Mohandas The Agony and Ecstasy Irving Stone The Beach Tree Pearl S. Buck The Commitments Roddy Doyle The Cardinal Henry Morton Robinson The Chinese Betrayal B.N. Mullick The Congress Splits R.P. Rao The Diplomatic Bag John Ure Ugly Duckling H.C. Anderson Ulysses James Joyce Uncle Tom’s Cabin Mrs.Hariet Stowe Unconsoled Kazuo Ishiguro Under Western Eye Joseph Conrad Unhappy India Lala Lajpat Rai Universe Around Us James Jeans Until Darkness Parvin Ghaffari Utouchable Mulk Raj Anand Upturned Soil Mikhail Sholokov Uttar Ramcharita Bhava Bhuti Utopia Thomas More Unto This Last John Ruskin Untold Story Gen.B.M.Kaul Valley of Dolls Jacqueline Susanne Vanity Fair Thackeray Vendor of Sweets R.K.Narayan Venisamhara Narayana Bhatt Very Old Bones William Kennedy Victim Saul Bellow Victory Joseph Conrad View from Delhi Chester Bowles View from the UN U Thant Village by the Sea Anita Desai Village Mulk Raj Anand Vinay Patrika Tulsidas Maithili Sharan Gupta Virangana Virginians William Thackeray Voice of Conscience V.V. Giri Voice of Freedom Nayantara Sehgal Voice of the Voiceless Rutsh Harring Waiting for Godot Samuel Becket Waiting to Exhale Terry McMillan Wake up India Annie Besant Walls of Glass K.A. Abbas War and Peace Tolstoy War of the Worlds H.G.Wells Waste Land T.S. Eliot Way of the World William Congreve We, Indians Khushwant Singh We, the People N.A. Palkhivala Wealth of Nations Adam Smith Week with Gandhi Louis Fischer West Wind Pearl S. Buck Westward Ho Charles Kingsley While England Sleeps David Leavitt Whispers of the Desert Fatima Bhutto White House Years Henry Kissinger Widening Divide Rafiq Zakaria Wild Ass’s Skin Honore de Balzac Winston Churchill Clive Ponting Witness to History Prem Bhatia Witness to an Era Frank Moraes Woman’s Life Guy de Maupassant World Within Words Stephen Spender Worthy it is Odysseus Elytis Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte Yajnaseni Dr. Pratibha Roy Yama Mahadevi Verma Yashodhara Maithili Sharan Gupta Yayati V.S. Khandekar Year of the Upheaval Henry Kissinger Year of the Vulture Amita Malik Years of Pilgrimage Dr.Raja Ramanna Yesterday and Today K.P.S. Menon Zulfi, My Friend Piloo Mody

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IMPORTANT DAYS

March 23 March 24 March 25 March 27 April 2 April 4 April 7 April 14 April 16 April 17 April 21 April 22 April 23 April 24 April 25 April 26 April 28 April 29 May 1 May 2 May 3 May 4 May 5 May 6 May 7 May 8 May 12 May 15 May 17 May 18 May 19 May 21 May 22 May 23

January January January January

1 1 4 6

-

January 24 January 27 January 28 January 29 February 2 February 4 February 6 February 11 February 12 February 14 February 20 February 21 February 22 March 4 March 6 March 8 March 8 March 14 March 15 March 15 March 20 March 20 March 21 March 21 March 22

Global Family Day World Day of Peace World Hypnotism Day World day for War orphans 3rd Sunday of January - World Religion Day National girl child day of India International Holocaust Remembrance Day Data Protection Day World Leprosy Day World Wetlands Day World Cancer Day International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation World Day of the Sick Darwin Day Valentines Day World Day of Social Justice International Mother Language Day International Scouts Day World Kamau's Day Dentist's Day United Nations Day for Women's Rights and International Peace International Women's Day International Day of Action for Rivers World Day of Muslim Culture, Peace, Dialogue and Film World Consumer Rights Day International Day of the Francophonie World Day of Theatre for Children and Young People International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination World Poetry Day World Day for Water

- World Meteorological Day - International Day for Achievers, World Tuberculosis Day - International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade - World Theatre Day - World Autism Awareness Day - International Day for Mine Awareness - World Health Day - Cultural Unity Day, recognized by India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bangladesh and Nepal. - World Entrepreneurship Day (WED) site - World Hemophilia Day - World Creativity and Innovation Day - Earth Day - World Book and Copyright Day - World Day for Laboratory Animals - World Malaria Day - World Intellectual Property Day - International Workers' Memorial Day - World Dance Day - May Day - Labour Day - International Day of Deliberately Unemployed - World Press Freedom Day - International Firefighters' Day - International Midwives Day - International Awareness Day for Osteogenesis Imperfecta - Rabindranath Tagore's Anniversary Day - World Red Cross & Red Crescent Day - International Nurses Day - International Day of Families - World Information Society Day - International Museum Day - World Hepatitis Day - World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development - International Day for Biological Diversity - World Turtle Day

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May 29 - International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers May 31 - World No Tobacco Day 1st Tuesday of May - World Asthma Day 2nd Saturday of May - World Fair Trade Day 2nd Sunday of May - International Mothers' Day June 1 - International Children's Day June 4 - International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression June 5 - World Environment Day June 8 - World Brain Tumour Day June 8 - World Ocean Day June 12 - World Day Against Child Labour June 14 - World Blood Donor Day June 17 - World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought June 18 - International Picnic Day June 19 - World Sickle Cell Day June 20 - World Refugee Day June 21 - World Music Day June 23 - United Nations Public Service Day June 26 - International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking June 26 - International Day in Support of Victims of Torture 3rd Sunday of June - International Fathers' Day July 1 - Doctor's Day, Bidhan Chandra Roy Birth Day 1st Saturday of July - International Day of Cooperatives July 1 - International Reggae Day - Jamaica July 7 - International Cooperative Day July 8 - Writer's Day July 11 - World Population Day July 23 - World Stress Down Day August 9 - International Day of the World's Indigenous People August 12 - International Youth Day August 13 - International Lefthanders Day August 19 - World Humanitarian Day August 23 - International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition September 8 - International Literacy Day

September September September September

10 - World Suicide Prevention Day 11 - World First Aid Day 15 - International Day of Democracy 16 - International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer September 19 - International Talk Like a Pirate Day September 21 - International Day of Peace, recognized by the UN September 21 - World Alzheimer's Day September 26 - European Day of Languages September 27 - World Tourism Day September 28 - Right to Know Day September 28 - World Rabies Day First Monday of October - World Habitat Day October 1 - International Day of Older Persons October 1 - World Vegetarian Day October 2 - International Day of Non-Violence October 3 - World Smile Day October 4 - World Animal Day October 5 - World Teachers' Day Second Wednesday of October - International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction October 9 - World Hospice and Palliative Care Day October 8 - World Humanitarian Action Day October 8 - World Egg Day - 2nd Friday of October every year October 9 - World Post Day October 9 - Global Jamie Day October 10 - World Mental Health Day October 10 - World Day Against Death Penalty October 14 - World Standards Day October 15 - World Blind Day / World Sight Day October 15 - International Day of Rural Women October 15 - Global Handwashing Day October 16 - National Boss Day (Boss's Day) October 16 - World Food Day, recognized by the UN October 17 - International Day for the Eradication of Poverty

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October 20 - International Day of the Air Traffic Controller October 20 - World Statistics Day October 24 - United Nations Day, recognized by the UN October 24 - World Development Information Day October 27 - World Day for Audiovisual Heritage Third Sunday of November - World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims November 1 - World Vegan Day November 6 - International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the Environment in War and Armed Conflict November 8 - Paul S Day November 9 - World Freedom Day November 10 - World Immunization Day November 14 - World Diabetes Day November 16 - International Day for Tolerance November 17 - International Students Day November 19 - International Men's Day November 19 - World Toilet Day November 20 - Africa Industrialization Day November 20 - Universal Children's Day November 21 - World Hello Day November 21 - World Television Day November 25 - International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women November 25 - International Meatless Day November 30 - Computer Security Day December 1 - World Aids Day December 2 - International Day for the Abolition of Slavery December 3 - International Day of Persons with Disabilities December 5 - International Volunteer Day for Economic and Social Development December 7 - International Civil Aviation Day December 9 - The International Day against Corruption December 10 - Human Rights Day December 11 - International Mountain Day

December December December December December

16 - International Hug a Recovered Invalid Day 17 - International Rabbit's Day 18 - International Migrants Day, recognized by the UN 19 - United Nations Day for South-South Cooperation 20 - International Human Solidarity Day

Important Weeks
March 21–27 - Week of Solidarity with the Peoples Struggling against Racism and Racial Discrimination May 25–31 - Week of Solidarity with the Peoples of Non-SelfGoverning Territories 4th week of September - International Peace Week October 4–10 - World Space Week October 24–30 - Disarmament Week

Important Years
1961 1965 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1974 1975 1979 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 International Health and Medical Research Year International Cooperation Year International Tourist Year International Year for Human Rights International Year of Love International Education Year International Year for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination World Population Year International Women's Year International Year of the Child International Year of Disabled Persons International Year of Mobilization for Sanctions against South Africa World Communications Year Year of Women in South Africa Year of the United Nations

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1985 1986 1987 1990 1992 1993 1994 1994 1995

International Youth Year International Year of Peace International Year of Shelter for the Homeless International Literacy Year International Space Year International Year of the World's Indigenous People International Year of Sport and the Olympic Ideal International Year of the Family World Year of Peoples' Commemoration of Victims of the Second World War 1995 - United Nations Year for Tolerance 1996 - International Year for the Eradication of Poverty 1998 - International Year of the Ocean 1999 - International Year of Older Persons 2000 - International Year of Thanksgiving 2000 - International Year for the Culture of Peace 2000 - World Mathematical Year 2001 - International Year of Mobilization against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance 2001 - International Year of Volunteers 2001 - United Nations Year of Dialogue among Civilizations 2002 - International Year of Ecotourism 2002 - International Year of Mountains 2002 - United Nations Year for Cultural Heritage 2003 - International Year of Freshwater 2003 - European Disability Year 2004 - International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition 2004 - International Year of Rice 2005 - International Year for Sport and Physical Education 2005 - International Year of Microcredit 2005 - World Year of Physics 2006 - International Year of Deserts and Desertification 2007 - Year of the Dolphin (extended to 2008) 2007 - International Year of the Scout 2007-2008 - International Heliophysical Year 2008 - International Year of Languages 2008 - International Year of the Potato

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2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 2011

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International Year of Sanitation International Year of the Frog International Year of Astronomy International Year of Natural Fibres International Year of Reconciliation Year of the Gorilla International Year of the Shark International Year of Communications International Year of Biodiversity International Year of Youth International Year of Forests International Year of Chemistry International Year for People of African descent World Veterinary Year 2011

Important Decades
1976–1985 1990s 1994–2004 1997–2006 2000–2010 2000-2010 2001–2010 2001-2010 2003–2012 2005–2014 2005–2014 2005–2015 - United Nations Decade for Women - International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduc tion - First International Decade of the World's Indigenous People - First United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty - Second International Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism - Bone and Joint Decade - International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence for the Children of the World - Decade to Roll Back Malaria in Developing Countries, Particularly in Africa (2001-2010) - United Nations Literacy Decade - United Nations Decade on Education for Sustainable Development - Second International Decade of the World's Indigenous People - Water for Life Decade

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ASCI : Administrative Staff College of India ASCON : Army Static Switched Communication Network ASEAN : Association of South East Asian Nations ASEM : Asia Europe Meeting ASI : Archaeological Survey of India ASK : Aaykar Sampark Kendra ASLV : Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle ASSOCHAM : Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry ATC : Air Traffic Control ATGM : Anti-Tank Guided Missile ATM : Automatic Teller Machine ATR : Action Taken Report ATS : Anti Tetanus Serum AU : African Union AVARD : Association of Voluntary Agencies for Rural Development AVC : Army Veterinary Corps AVSM : Ati Vishisht Seva Medal AVTAR : Army Vocational Training and Rehabilitation AWACS : Airborne Warning and Control System AWWA : Army Wives’ Welfare Association BITS : Birla Institute of Technology & Sciences BJP : Bharatiya Janata Party BKKP : Bhartiya Kisan Kamgar Party B2B : Business to Business B2C : Business to Consumer BAC : Business Advisory Committee BAI : Badminton Association of India BALCO : Bharat Aluminium Company ltd BARC : Bhabha Atomic Research Centre BBC : British Broadcasting Corporation BCCI : Board of Control for Cricket in India BCG : Bacillus Calmette-Guerin BCL : Bachelor of Civil law BDO : Block Development Officer BEL : Bharat Electronics Limited BGA : Blue Green Algae BHEL : Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. BHU : Banaras Hindu University : Bureau of Industrial Costs and Prices BIFR : Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction BIMSTEC : Bangladesh, India, Myanmar. Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation. BIPPA : Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement BIS : Bureau of Indian Standards BKU : Bharatiya Kisan Union BLOB : Binary Large Objects BMW : Bayerische Motoren Warke AG BOAC : British Overseas Airways Corporation BOLT : Build-Own-Lease-Transfer BPE : Bureau of Public Enterprises BPO : Business Process Outsourcing BRAI : Broadcast Regulatory Authorities of India BRIC : Brazil. Russia, India and China BRO : Border Roads Organisation BSE : Bombay Stock Exchange BSF : Border Security Force BSI : Botanical Survey of India BSNL : Bharat Sanchar Nigam BSP : Bahujan Samaj Party CAB : Civil Aeronautics Board CABE : Central Advisory Board for education CACCI : Confederation of Asia-Pacific Chambers of Commerce & Industry CACP : Commission on Agricultural Costs and Prices CADA : Command Area Development Agency CAG : Comptroller and AuditorGeneral CAN : Calcium Ammonium Nitrate CAPART : Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology CAPD : Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis CAPES : Computer-Aided Paperless Examination System CARD : Centre for Astronomical Research and Development CARE : Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere BICP

ABBREVIATIONS

AA

: Anti-Aircraft; Author’s Alterations AAAS : American Association of Ad vancement of Science AAFI : Amateur Athletics Federation of Afro-Asian Games AAI : Airport Authority of India AAOU : Asian Association for Open Uni versities APSO : Afro-Asian Peoples Solidarity Organisation AASU : All-Assam Students’ Union ABC : Audit Bureau of Circulations ABM : Anti-Ballistic Missiles ABSU : All Bodo Students’ Union ABU : Asian Broadcasting Union AC : Alternating Current ACAS : Airborne Collision Avoidance System ACC : Auxiliary Cadet Corps; Air Coordinating Committee ACD : Asian Co-operation Dialogue ACL : Access Control List ACU : Asian Clearing Union ADB : Asian Development Bank ADBS : Advanced Data Broadcast System ADF : Asian Development Fund ADRs : American Depository Receipts AEC : Atomic Energy Commission AERB : Atomic Energy Regulation Board AF : Audio Frequency AFC : Asian Football Confederation AFNET : Air Force Network AFP : Agence France-Presse AIIMS : All India Institute of Medical Sciences AILTA : All India Lawn Tennis Association AIMA : All India Management Association AIMO : All India Manufacturers Organisation AIMPLB : All India Muslim Personal Law Board AINEC : All India Newspaper Editors’ Conference

AIR : All India Radio AISNEC : All India Small Newspaper Editors’ Conference AISSF : All India Sikh Students’ Federation AITUC : All India Trade Union Congress AIWHA : All India Women Hockey Association AJT : Advance Jet Trainer ALGOL : Algorithmic Language ALH : Advanced Light Helicopter AMC : Army Medical Corps AMICE : Associate Member of the Institute of Civil Engineers AMU : Asian Monetary Union ANANDI : Area Networking Development Initiative ANC : African National Congress ANCA : Alternative Nuclear Command Authority ANERT : Agency for Non-Conventional Energy and Rural Technology ANN : Asian News Network AOC : Air Officer Commanding AP : Associated Press APASL : Asia Pacific Association for Study of Liver APCTT : Asia and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology APEC : Asia Pacific Economic Community APHLC : All Parties Hill Leaders Conference APM : Administered Price Mechanism APPLE : Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment APPU : Asian Pacific Postal Union APT : Asia Pacific Tele community ARC : Administrative Reforms Commission ARDC : Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation ARF : ASEAN Regional Forum ARP : Air Raid Precaution ARPANET: Advanced Research Project Agency Network ARTRAC : Army Training Command

199
CAS CASE : Conditional Access System : Commission on Alternative Sources of Energy CASI : Centre for the Advanced Study of India CAT : Computerised Axial Tomogra phy CAZRI : Central Arid Zone Research Institute Ltd. CBDT : Central Board of Direct Taxes CBEC : Central Board of Excise and British Customs CBFC : Central Board of Film Certification CBI : Central Bureau of investigation CBM : Confidence Building Measures Central CBR : Central Board of Revenue CBRI : Central Building Research Institute CBSE : Central Board of Secondary Education CBT : Children’s Book Trust CCEA : Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs CCI : Cement Corporation of India CCP : Cabinet Committee on Prices CCS : Cash Compensatory Support C-DAC : Centre for Development of Advanced Computing CDMA : Code Division Multiple Access C-DOT : Centre for Development of Telematics CDRI : Central Drug Research Institute CDROM : Compact Disc-Read Only Memory CDS : Compulsory Deposit Scheme CEC : Chief Election Commissioner CECRI : Central Electro Chemical Research institute CEERI : Central Electronic Engineering Research Institute CENTO : Central Treaty Organisation CENVAT : Central Value Added Tax CEO : Chief Executive Officer CERC : Consumer Education and Research Centre CFC : Chloro Fluoro Carbon CFSL : Central Forensic Science Laboratory CGA : Central Ganga Authority CGF : Commonwealth Games Federation CGHS : Central Government Health Scheme CGI : Common Gateway Interface CGIAR : Consultative Group on Interna tional Agricultural Research CHOGM : Commonwealth Heads of Gov ernment Meeting CHOGRM: Commonwealth Heads of Government Regional Meeting CIA : Central Intelligence Agency CIB : Credit information Bureau CICA : Conference on Interaction and confidence-building Measures in Asia CID : Criminal Investigation Department CIET : Central Institute of Educational Technology CII : Confederation of Indian Industry CIIL : Central Institute of Indian Languages CISF : Central Industrial Security Force CITES : Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species CITU : Centre of Indian Trade Unions CIWTC : Central Inland Water Transport Corporation CKD : Completely Knocked Down CLASP : Child Labour Action and Support Project CLAWS : Centre for Land Warfare Studies CLB : Company Law Board CM : Common Market CMA : Coal Mines Authority CMAG : Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group CMC : Computer Maintenance Corporation CMEA : Council for Mutual Economic Assistance CMERI : Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute CMIE : Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy CMP : Common Minimum Programme CNC : Computerised Numerical Control CNG : Compressed Natural Gas CNN : Cable News Network CNS : Chief of Naval Staff

200
CO : Commanding Officer COAS : Chief of Army Staff COL : Commonwealth of Learning COMECON: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance COMESA: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa COMEX : Commonwealth Expedition COMPS : Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction Centre CONCORD: Council of North Indian States for Cooperation and Regional Development COPO : Citizens Organisation for Public Opinion COPRA : Consumer Protection Act COPU : Committee on Public Undertakings CPC : Civil Procedure Code CPCB : Central Pollution Control Board CPF : Contributory Provident Fund CPHERI : Central Public health Engineering Research Institute CPI(ML) : Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) CPI : Communist Party of India CPI-IW : Consumer Price Index for industrial Workers CPMT : Combined Pre-Medical Tests CPR : Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation CPSU : Communist Party of the Soviet Union CPU : Committee on Public Undertakings CPWD : Central Public Works Department CRIDA : Central Research Institute for Dry-land Agriculture CRISIL : Credit Rating Information Services of India CRPF : Central Reserve Police Force CRR : Cash Reserve Ratio CRRI : Central Road Research Institute CRRID : Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development CRY : Child Relief and You CSAT : Civil Services Aptitude Test CSCAP : Council for Security Cooperation in Asia Pacific CSCE : Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe CSIO : Central Scientific Instruments Organisation : Council of Scientific and Industrial Research CSIRO : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSO : Central Statistical Organisation CSP : Concentrated Solar Power CSSRI : Central Soil Salinity Research I n stitute CST : Central Sales lax CT : Computerised Tomography CTBT : Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty CTO : Central Telegraph Office CTV : Colour Television CV : Curriculum Vitae CVC : Central Vigilance Commission CVR : Cockpit Voice Recorder CVRDE : Combat Vehicles Research Development Establishment CWC : Central Warehousing Corporation CWF : Consumer Welfare Fund CWPC : Central Water and Power Commission CWPRS : Central Water and Power Research Station DA : Dearness Allowance DAE : Department of Atomic Energy DAP : Di-Ammonium Phosphate DAVP : Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity DCL : Doctor of Civil Law DDT : Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane DEAL : Defence Electronics Applications Laboratory DEG : German Investment and Development Company DFDR : Digital Flight Data Recorder DGCA : Director General of Civil Aviation DGCEI : Directorate General of Central Excise Intelligence DGMS : Directorate General of Mines Safety CSIR

201
DGTD DHSD DIA DIG DIR DMA DMK DMRC DMRTS DOD DOE DOTS DPBS DPI DPSA DRDO DRES DRF DRI DSB DSC DSIDC DSL DST DTAA DTH DTS DVC DVD DVM DWT EAC EARC EAS ECA ECAFE : Directorate General of Technical Development : Duplex-High Speed Data Service : Defence Intelligence Agency : Deputy Inspector General : Defence of India Rules : Direct Memory Access : Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam : Delhi Metro Rail Corporation : Delhi Metro Rapid Transport System : Department of Ocean Development : Department of Electronics : Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course : Developmental Press Bulletin Service : Director of Public Instruction : Deep Penetration Strike Air craft : Defence Research and Development Organisation : Department of Renewable Energy Sources : Depreciation Reserve Fund : Differential Rate of Interest : Digital Satellite Broadcasting : Distinguished Service Cross : Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre : Digital Subscriber Line : Department of Science and Technology : Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement : Direct-to-Home : Digital Theatre System : Damodar Valley Corporation : Digital Versatile/Video Disc : Doctor of Veterinary Medicine : Dead Weight Tonnes : Employment Assistance Centre : Economic Administrative Reforms Commission : Employment Assurance Scheme : Essential Commodities Act : Economic Commission for Asia and Far East : Economic Commission for Europe ECG : Electrocardiogram ECGC : Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation ECHR : European Commission on Human Rights ECM : European Common Market ECOSOC: Economic and Social Council ECS : Electronic Clearance Service EDBI : Educational Development Bank of India EDCIL : Educational Consultants India Ltd. EDI : Electronic Data Interchange EDMS : Electronic Document Management System EEC : European Economic Community EEC : Electro Encephalogram EEZ : Exclusive Economic Zone EFA : Education For All EFF : Extended Fund Facility EGP : Exterior Gateway Protocol EIL : Engineers India Limited EIS : Executive Information System ELJSA : Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay ELSS : Equity Linked Saving Scheme E-mail : Electronic Mailing EMF : Electro Motive Force EMG : Electro Myograni EMS : European Monetary System EMU : European Monetary Union ENS : Eastern Newspapers Society EOU : Export Oriented Units EPCG : Export Promotion Capital Goods EPCH : Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts EPCJ : Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative EPF : Employees Provident Fund EPO : Earth Parking Orbit EPZ : Export Processing Zone ERM : Exchange Rate Mechanism ERNET : Educational and Research Network ERS : European Remote Sensing ESA : European Space Agency ECE ESC ESIC ESMA ESP EST Est ETT ETV EVM EVR FACT FAO FBI FBTR FBW FCI FCRA FDI FEDEX FEMA FERA FICCI FIEO FIFA FIH FII FIPB FIPC FIR FIRE FLAG FM FMCT FORE FRCP FRCS FRGS FRN FRS

202
: Electronics and Computer Software Export Promotion Council : Employees’ State Insurance Corporation : Essential Services Maintenance Act : Extra Sensory Perception : Eastern Standard Time : Established : Embryo Transfer Technology : Educational Television : Electronic Voting Machine : Electro video Recording : Fertilizers & Chemicals Travancore limited : Food and Agriculture Organisation : Federal Bureau of Investigation : Fast Breeder Test Reactor : Fly-By-Wire : Food Corporation of India : Foreign Contribution Regulation Act : Foreign Direct Investment : Federal Express : Foreign Exchange Management : Foreign Exchange Regulation Act : Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry : Federation of Indian Exports Organisations : International Football Federation : International Hockey Federation : Foreign Institutional Investors : Foreign Investment Promotion Board : Foreign Investment Promotion Council : First Information Report : Fully Integrated Robotised Engine : Fibre-optic Link Around the Globe : Field Marshal : Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty : Foundation for Organisational Research and Education : Fellow of Royal College of Physicians : Fellow of Royal College of Surgeons : Fellow of Royal Geographical Society : Floating Rate Note : Fellow of Royal Society FTP FTS FTU FTZ GAAP GAEL GAIL GAP GATE GATT GB GCC GCF GCM GDI GDP GEF GEM GHQ GIAS GIC GIEC GIS GIST GLOBE GM GMAT : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : File Transfer Protocol Foreign Travel Scheme Free Trade Union Free Trade Zone Generally Accepted Accounting Practices Global Alliance for The Elimination of Leprosy Gas Authority of India Limited Ganga Action Plan Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering General Agreement on Tariff and Trade Great Britain Gulf Cooperation Council Greatest Common Factor Greatest Common Measure Gender-related Development Index Gross Domestic Product Global Environment Facility Gender Empowerment Measure General Headquarters Gateway Internet Access Services General Insurance Corporation Global Indian Entrepreneurs Conference Global Information System Graphics and Intelligencebased Script Technology Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment General Motors Graduate Management Admission Test Global Maritime Distress and Safety System Global Mobile Personnel Communications System Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Greenwich Mean Time Gorkha National Liberation Front Gross National Product

GMDSS : GMPS GMRT GMT GNLF GNP : : : : :

203
GOC GOI GOP Govt GPF GPO GPRS GRAM GRE GRT GSI GSLV GSM GSP GSTP GTICL HAI HAL HCF HDI HDML HEMRL HESSI HF HHEC HITEC HIV HMI HMT HP HRD HSD HSL HSTS HTCG HTML HTR : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : General Officer Commanding Government of India Grand Old Party Government General Provident Fund General Post Office General Pocket Radio System Geo Reference ‘ Area Management Graduate Record Examination Gross Rated Tonnage Geological Survey of India Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Global System for Mobile Communication Generalised System of Preferences Global System of Trade Practices Gas Transportation & infrastructure Co. Ltd. Health Action International Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Highest Common Factor Human Development Index Hyper Devices Markup Language High Energy Materials Research Laboratory High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager High Frequency Handicrafts and Handloom Exports Corporation Hyderabad Information Technology Engineering Consultancy Human Immunodeficiency Virus Himalayan Mountaineering Institute Hindustan Machine Tools Harmonic Progression Human Resource Development High Speed Diesel Hindustan Steel Limited High Speed Tram System High Technology Cooperation Group Hyper Text Markup Language High Temperature Reactor HTTP : Hypertext Transfer Protocol HUDCO : Housing and Urban Development Corporation HVNET : High Speed VSAF Network HZL : Hindustan Zinc Limited I&B : Information and Broadcasting IAAF : International Amateur Athletic Federation IAAS : Indian Audit and Accounts Service IAC : Indian Airlines Corporation IAEA : International Atomic Energy Agency IAF : Indian Air Force IAMC : Indian Army Medical Corps IAMR : Institute of Applied Manpower Research IARI : Indian Agricultural Research Institute IAS : Indian Administrative Service IASRI : Indian Agricultural Statistical Research Institute IATA : International Air Transport Association IATP : Income Adjusted to Total Population IBEF : India Brand Equity Fund IBM : International Business Machines IBRD : International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ICAA : International Civil Airports Association ICAAN : Internet Corporation for Assigned Names & Numbers ICADR : The International Centre for Alternate Dispute Resolution ICAI : Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ICAO : International Civil Aviation Organisation ICAR : Indian Council of Agricultural Research ICBL : International Campaign to Ban Landmines ICBM : Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile ICC : International Cricket Council ICCR : Indian Council for Cultural Relations ICCS : International Commission of Control and Supervision ICCW ICDS

204
: Indian Council of Child Welfare : Integrated Child Development Scheme ICE : InfoTech Communications And Entertainment ICFTU : International Confederation of Free Trade Unions ICHR : Indian Council of Historical Research ICJ : International Court of Justice ICMR : Indian Council of Medical Research ICOR : International Capital Output Ratio ICPD : International Conference on Population and Development ICRA : Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India ICRC : International Committee of Red Cross ICRIER : Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations ICRISAT : International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics ICS : Indian Civil Service ICSI : Institute of Company Secretaries of India ICSSR : Indian Council of social Sciences Research ICSW : Indian Council of Social Welfare ICW : International Council of Women ICWA : Indian Council of World Affairs IDA : International Development Agencies IDBI : Industrial Development Bank of India IDC : Industrial Development Corporation IDD : International Direct Dialing IDE : Integrated deice Electronics IDN : Internationalised Domain Names IDPL : Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuti cals Limited IDRC : International Development Research Centre IDSA : Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis IELTS : International English Language Testing System IES : Indian Economic Service IFA : Indian Football Association IFAD : International Fund for Agricultural Development IFCI IFFCO IFFI IFRI IFRS IFS IFTU IFWJ IGCAR IGIA IGMDP IGNCA IGNFA IGNOU IGNP IHF IIAS IIFT IIIT IIMC IIP IIPA IIPA IIRS IISS IIT ILA ILO : Industrial Finance Corporation of India : Indian Farmers Fertilisers Corporation Limited : International Film Festival of India : Indian Forest Research Institute : International Financial Reporting standards : Indian Foreign Service; Indian Forest Service : International Federation of Trade Unions : Indian Federation of Working Journalists : Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research : Indira Gandhi International Airport : Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme. : Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts : Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy : Indira Gandhi National Open University : Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana : Indian Hockey Federation : Indian institute of Advanced Studies : Indian Institute of Foreign Trade : Indian Institute of Information Technology : Indian Institute of Mass Communications : Indian Institute of Petroleum : Indian Institute of Public Administration : International Intellectual Property Alliance : Indian Institute of Remote Sensing : International Institute of Strategic Studies : Indian Institute of Technology : International Law Association : International Labour Organisation

205
ILS IMAP IMC IMDT Instrument Landing System Internet Mail Access Protocol Indian Medical Council Illegal Migrants Determination by Tribunal Act IMF : International Monetary Fund IMS : Indian Medical Service IMY : Indira Mahila Yojana INA : Indian National Army INL : Indian National League INPEX : Indian National Philatelic Exhibition INS : Indian Navy Ship INSA : Indian National Science Academy INSAT : Indian National Satellite INTACFI : Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage INTELEX : International Teleprinter Exchange INTELSAT: International Telecommunica tion Satellite Consortium INTERPOL: International Criminal Police Organisation INTUC : Indian National Trade Union Congress IOA : Indian Olympic Association IOC : International Olympic Committee IOCOM : Indian Ocean Commonwealth IOR-ARC : Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation IOSCO : International Organisation of Securities Commission IP : Internet Protocol IPBA : Inter-Pacific Bar Association IPC : Indian Penal Code IPCL : Indian Petro-chemicals Corporation Limited IPKF : Indian Peace Keeping Force IPO : Initial Public Offering IPR : Intellectual Property Rights IPS : Indian Police Service IPSA : International Peace & Security Advancement IPU : International Parliamentary Union IQ : Intelligence Quotient IRBM : Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile IRC : International Red Cross IRCI : International Reconstruction Corporation of India : : : : : Indian Railway Construction Company IRCS : International Red Cross Society IRDA : Insurance Regulatory Development Authority IRDP : Integrated Rural Development Programme IREDA : Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency IRNA : Iranian News Agency IRRI : International Rice Research Institute IRS : Indian Remote Sensing IRSE : Indian Railway Service of Engineers ISAF : International Security Assistance Force ISB : Indian School of Business ISBA : International Sea-Bed Authority ISBN : International Standard book Number ISC : Indian Science Congress ISCON : Indian Steel Construction Company ISD : International Subscriber Dialing ISDN : Integrated Services Digital Net work ISI : Indian Standards Institute ISP : Internet Service Provider ISRO : Indian Space Research Organisation IST : Indian Standard Time ISTRAC : ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Centre ITBP : Indo-Tibetan Border Police ITDC : India Tourism Development Corporation ITES : Infotech Enabled Services ITI : Industrial Training Institute ITIR : Information Technology Investment Region ITO : International Trade Organisation ITPO : Indian Trade Promotion Oganisation ITR : Interim Test Range ITU : International Telecommunica tion Union IUCD : Intra-Uterine contraceptive device IUML : Indian Union Muslim League IUPEP : Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme IRCON IVF IWAI TWDP IWRS IYC J&K JAAC JBRI JCC JCO JKLF JMM JNU JPC JRC JRY JVM JVP KBE KMBY KRC KVA KVIC KVS Kw LAC LAN LASER LCA LCD LCH LCM LDC LED LERMS LES LIC LIPS LMG LNG LOAC LPG

206
: In-Vitro Fertilisation : Inland Waterways Authority of India : Integrated Watershed Development Programme : Isolated Word Re-organisation System : Indian Youth Congress : Jammu and Kashmir : Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council : Japanese Bond Research Institute : Junior Chamber of Commerce : Junior Commissioned Officer : Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front : Jhatkund Mukthi Morcha : Jawaharlal Nehru University : Joint Parliamentary Committee : Junior Red Cross : Jawahar Rozgar Yojana : Janata Vidyarthi Morcha : Janata Vimukthi Peramuna : Knight of British Empire : Khetihar Mazdoor Bima Yojana : Konkan Railway Corporation : Kilo-Volt-Ampere : Khadi and Village Industries Commission : Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan : Kilowatt : Line of Actual Control : Local Area Network : Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation : Light combat Aircraft : Liquid Crystal Display : Light Combat Helicopter : Lowest Common Multiple. : Least Developed Countries; Lower Division Clerk : Light Emitting Diode : Liberalised Exchange Rate Management Scheme : Lunar Escape System : Life Insurance Corporation : Language Independent Programme Sub-titles : Light Machine Gun : Liquefied Natural Gas : Line of Actual Control : Liquefied Petroleum Gas LPT : Licentiate in Printing technology Lt. Col : Lieutenant Colonel LTC : Leave Travel Concession LTTE : Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. MAD : Mutual Assured Destruction MAT : Management Aptitude Test MBFC : Mutual Benefit Financial Company MBRS : Multi-Barrel Rocket System MBT : Main Battle Tank MCA : Monetary Compensatory Account MCC : Missile Control Centre MCD : Municipal Corporation of Delhi MCI : Medical Council of India MCOCA : Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act MDA : Market Development Assistance MDMA : Multi Disciplinary Monitoring Agency MDS : Master of Dental Surgery MEA : Ministry of External Affairs MES : Military Engineering Service MFA : Multi-Fibre Agreement MFN : Most Favoured Nation MI : Military Intelligence MIBOR : Mumbai Inter-Bank Offered Rate MIC : Methyle isocyanate MIGA : Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency MISA : Maintenance of Internal Security Act MLA : Member of Legislative Assembly MLC : Member of Legislative Council MMDS : Multi-Channel Microwave Distribution System MMMF : Money Market Mutual Fund MMS : Multimedia Messaging Service MMT : Million Metric Tonnes MMTC : Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation MNAMS : Member of the National Academy of Medical Sciences MNC : Multinational Corporation MNP : Mobile Number Portability

207
MODEM MODVAT MONEX MOU MOX MPA MPF : : : : : : : Modulator demodulator Modified Value Added Tax Monsoon Experiment Memorandum of Understanding Mixed Oxide Fuel Master of Public Administration Multinational Protection. Force Multiple Fuel Infection System Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission Mass Rapid Transit System Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation Manuscripts Master of Social Work Mahila Sainriddhi Yojna Missile Technology Control Regime Music Television : Narmada Bachao Andolan : National Building Construction Corporation NBDB : National Book Development Board NBFC : Non-banking Finance Company NBS : National Business Register NBT : National Book Trust NCA : National Commission on Agriculture NCAER : National Council of Applied Economic Research NCB : Narcotics Control Board NCBC : National Commission for Backward Classes NCBE : National Confederation of Bank Employees NCC : National Cadet Corps NCDC : National Coal Development Corporation NCERT : National Council of Educational Research and Training NCL : National Centre for Labour NCNA : New China News Agency NCO : Non-Commissioned Officer NCRB : National Capital Region Board NCTE : National Council for Teachers Education NCW : National Commission on Women NDA : National Defence Academy; National Democratic Alliance NDC : National Development Council NDDB : National Dairy Development Board NDMA : National Disaster Management Authority NDRI : National Dairy Research institute NDTF : National Democratic Teachers Front NEC : North-Eastern Council NEDC : National Economic Development Council NEEM : National Elementary Education Mission NEERI : National Environmental Engineering Research Institute NEFA : North East Frontier Agency NEHU : North-Eastern Hill University NEP : New Education Policy NER : North Eastern Railway NES : National Extension Service NEW : Net Economic Welfare NBA NBCC NFAI NFC NFDC

208
: National Film Archives of India : Nuclear Fuel Complex : National Film Development Corporation NFR : Northeast Frontier Railway NGO : Non-Governmental Organisation NGRI : National Geophysical Research Institute NHAI : National Highway Authority of India NHB : National Housing Bank NHPC : National Hydro-electric Power Corporation NHRC : National Human Rights Commission NIB : National investment Bank NIC : National Informatics Centre NICD : National Institute of Communicable Diseases NID : National Institute of Designs NIDC : National Industrial Development Corporation NIDS : National Immunisation Days NIFT : National Institute of Fashion Technology NII : National Institute of Immunology; National Information infrastructure NIIT : National Institute of Information Technology NIM : Nehru Institute of Mountaineering NIMHANS : National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences NIO : National Institute of Oceanography NIPFP : National institute of Public Finance and Policy NIS : Netaji Subhash Institute of Sports NIV : National Institute of Virology NKN : National Knowledge Network NLM : National literacy Mission NLTA : National Lawn Tennis Association NMD : National Missile Defence NMDC : National Mineral Development Corporation NMEP : National Malaria Eradication Programme NMNH : National Museum of Natural History NMR : Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NNP : National Nutrition Policy NOC : No Objection Certificate NPC : National Productivity Council NPCC : National Projects Construction Corporation NPCL : Nuclear Power Corporation of India NPP : National Perspective Plan NPR : National Population Register NPT : Non-Proliferation Treaty NRDC : National Research Development Corporation NREGA : National Rural Employment Guarantee Act NREGP : National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme NRF : National Renewable Fund NRHM : National Rural Health Mission NRI : Non-Resident Indian NRSA : National Remote Sensing Agency NRT : Net Registered Tonnes NRY : Nehru Rozgar Yojana NSAP : National Social Assistance Programme NSC : National Security Council National Saving Certificate NSCI : National Sports Club of India NSD : National School of Drama NSEI : National Stock Exchange of India NSG : National Security Guards NSIC : National Small Industries Corporation NSS : National Service Scheme NSSO : National Sample Survey Organisation NSUI : National Students Union of India NTC : National Textile Corporation NTP : National Temperature and Pressure NTPC : National Thermal Power Corporation NTS : National Testing Service NUJ : National Union of Journalists NVF : National Volunteer Force NWDA : National Water Development Agency NWGP : National Working Group on Power NWRC : National Water Resources Council OAS : Organisation of American States OBC : Other Backward Classes

MPFI : MPLADS : MRTPC MRTS MRVC MSS MSW MSY MTCR MTV NAAI : : : : : : : :

: National Airport Authority of India NABARD : National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development NAC : National Advisory Council NAECL : National Authority on Elimination of Child Labour NAFTA : North America Free Trade Agreement NALCO : National Aluminium Company Limited NAM : Non-Aligned Movement NAMS : National Academy of Medical Science NAPP : Narora Atomic Power Plant NARO : National Amnesty and Redemption Organisation NASA : National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASDAQ : National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation NASSCOM : National Association of Software and Service Companies NATO : North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NAV : Net Asset Value NAWO : National Alliance for Women NAYE : National Alliance of Young Entrepreneurs

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OCS ODA OECD OECF OEEC OGL OIC OIL ONGC OPEC OPF OPV ORT OTCEI OTS P&T PAC PAL PAN PATA PBS PCC PCI PCM PCRA PCS PDA PDPA PBS PEC PERT PESB PETA PFC PFRDA PGA PHC PIA : Overseas Communication Service : Official Development Assistance : Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development : Overseas Economic Cooperative Fund : Organisation for European Economic Cooperation : Open General Licence : Organisation of Islamic Conference : Oil India Limited : Oil and Natural Gas Corporation : Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries : Ordnance Parachute Factory : Oral Polio Vaccine : Oral Rehydration Therapy : Over the Counter Exchange of India : Officers’ Training School : Posts & Telegraphs : Public Accounts Committee : Phase Alternative Line : Permanent Account Number : Pacific Asia Travel Association : Public Broadcasting Service : Pradesh Congress Committee : Press Council of India : Public Code Modulation : Petroleum Conservation Research Association : Provincial Civil Service : Personal Digital Assistant Preventive Detention Act : People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan : Public Distribution System : Projects and Equipment Corporation : Project Evaluation and Review Technique : Public Enterprises Selection Board : People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals : Power Finance Corporation : Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority : Parliamentarians for Global Action : Primary Health Centre : Pakistan International Airways PIB PIL PIM : Press Information Bureau : Public Interest Litigation : Personal Information Management PIN-Code: Postal Index Number Code PIO : Persons of Indian Origin PLO : Palestine Liberation Organisation PLR : Prime Lending Rates PM : Prime Minister PMG : Post Master General PML : Pakistan Muslim League. POTA : Prevention of Terrorism Act POW : Prisoner of War PPF : Planet Protection Fund PRCL : Pipavav Railway Corporation Ltd. PRO : Public Relations Officer PROLOG: Programming Logic PSC : Public Service Commission PSLV : Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PTBT : Partial Test Ban Treaty PTI : Press Trust of India PTO : Please Turn Over PUCL : People’s Union of Civil Liberties PVC : Param Vir Chakra; Poly Vinyl Chloride PVSM : Param Vishisht Seva Medal PWD : Public Works Department PWG : People’s War Group QCT : Quality Council of India QMG : Quarter Master General QMT : Quantitative Management Technique QR : Quantitative Restriction R&D : Research and Development RABMN : Remote Area Business Message Network RAD : Research And Development RADAR : Radio Detecting and Ranging RAF : Rapid Action Force RAM : Random Access Memory RAW : Research and Analysis Wing RAX : Random Access Exchange RBI : Reserve Bank of India RBS : Risk Based Supervision RCC : Reinforced Cement Concrete RCI : Rehabilitation Council of India RDA : Rural Development Agency REC : Rural Electrification Corporation REM : Rapid Eye Movement REP : Replenishment Export Permit RI RIA RIMC RITA RITES RMO RMS RNA RNO ROM ROO RPF RPM RPV RRB RRC RSE RSP RSS RTA RTC RTG RTIA SAARC SAC : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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Rigorous Imprisonment Radio Immuno Assay Rashtriya Indian Military College Regional Trade & Investment Agreement Rail India Technical and Economic Services Resident Medical Officer Railway Mail Service Ribonucleic Acid Resident Naval Officer Read Only Memory Rules of Origin Railway Protection Force Revolutions Per Minute Remote-controlled Pilotless Vehicle Rural Regional Bank Regional Reactor Centre Renewable Source of Energy Rourkela Steel Plant Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh Railway Territorial Army Round Table Conference Radio-isotope Thermo-electric Generator Regional Trade & Investment Area South Asian Association fir Regional Cooperation Space Application Centre Science Advisory Council South African Development Coordination Council South Asian Development Fund South Asian Economic Community South Asia Free Media Association South-Asian Free Trade Agreement South Asians Human Rights Forum Sports Authority of India Steel Authority of India Limited Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Surface-to-Air Missile South Asian Preferential Trading Arrangement South Asia Regional Fund Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome South Asian Sub-regional Economic Co-operation SAT SATTE SAVE SCBA SCI SCOPE SDI SDO SDR SEATO SEBC SEBI SEPUR SER SEWA SEZ SFC SGAI SHAR SHCIL SIAM SIDBI SIDC SIEMA SIF SIMI SIPRI SIT SITA SITE SLBM SLFP SLR SLV SMS SMTP SPCA : Scholastic Aptitude Test : South Asia Travel and Tourism Exchange : SAARC Audio Visual Exchange : Supreme Court Bar Association : Shipping Corporation of India : Standing Committee of Public Enterprises : Strategic Defence Initiative : Sub-Divisional Officer : Special Drawing Rights : South Fast Asia Treaty Organisation : Socially and Educationally Backward : Securities Exchange Board of India : Self-Employment Programme for the Urban Poor : South Eastern Railway : Self-Employed Women’s Association : Special Economic Zone : State Financial Corporation Strategic Forces Command : Students Global Aptitude Index : Sriharikota Tracking Station : Stock Holding Corporation of India Ltd. : Society’ for Indian Automobile Manufacturers : Small Industries Development Bank of India : State Industrial Development Corporation : Southern India Engineering Manufacturers Association : Stock Index Futures : Students Islamic Movement of India : Stockholm International Peace Research Institute : Special Investigation Team : Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act : Satellite Instructional Television Experiment : Sea-Launch Ballistic Missile : Sri Lanka Freedom Party : Statutory Liquidity Ratio : Satellite Launch Vehicle : Short Messaging Service : Simple Mail Transfer Protocol : Society for the Prevention of to Animals

SADCC : SADF SAEC SAFMA SAFTA SAHR SAI SAIL SALT SAM SAPTA SARF SARS SASEC : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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SPE SPG SRAM SRI SRO SSA SSB SSC SSI SSM START STC STD STEP STF STPI : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Special Police Establishment Special Protection Group Short Range Attack Missile Systems Research Institute Statutory Rules and Orders Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Service Selection Board Staff Selection Commission Supplemental Security Income Small Scale Industry Surface to Surface Missile Strategic Arms Reduction Talks State Trading Corporation Subscriber Trunk Dialing Satellite Telecommunication Experiment Project Special Task Force Software Technology Parks of India Sports Utility Vehicle Saturated Vapour Pressure South-West Africa People Organisation Society for World-wide International Financial Transactions, Technical Advisory Committee Tactics and Aircraft Development Establishment Technical and Further Education Trans-Atlantic Free Travel Agreement Tarapur Atomic Power Station Trunk Automatic Exchange Tactical Collision Avoidance System Telecommunication Consultants India Limited Trade Development Authority Time Division Multiple Access Telugu Desam Party Tax-Deduction at Source Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company Teleprinter Exchange Tata Energy Research Institute Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station Trade Fair Authority of India Thin Film Transistor Trade Guarantee Scheme Tehri Hydro Development Project Temperature Humidity Index TIFR TISCO TMC TMO TNC TNT TNV TOEFL TPDS TRACT TRAI TRIFED TRIMS TRIPS TRP TRYSEM TTCI TTD TTE TULF UAE UAPA UAR UAV UDC UDF UDI UFO UGC UHF UID ULF ULFA UN UNAEC UNCED : Tata Institute of Fundamental Research : Tata Iron and Steel Company : Tamil Maanila Congress : Telegraph Money Order : Transnational Corporation : Tri nitro toluene : Tripura National Volunteers : Test of English as a Foreign language : Targeted Public Distribution System : Transportable Remote Area Communications Terminal : Telecom Regulatory Authority of India : Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India Ltd. : Trade Related Investment Measures : Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights : Television Rating Points : National Scheme of Training for Rural Youth for SelfEmployment : Tea Trading Corporation of India : Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam : Travelling Ticket Examiner : Tamil United Liberation Front : United Arab Emirates : Unlawful Activities : United Arab Republic : Unmanned Aerial Vehicle : Upper Division Clerk : United Democratic Front : Unilateral Declaration Independence : Unidentified Flying Object : University Grants Commission : Ultra High Frequency : Unique Identification : United Legislature Front : United Liberation Front of Assam : United Nations : United Nations Atomic Energy Commission : United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

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UNCLOS : United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea UNCOD : United Nations Conference on Desertification UNCSTD : United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development UNCTAD : United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDC : United Nations Disarmament Commission UNDOF : United Nations Disengagement Observer Force UNDP : United Nations Development Programme UNESCO : United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation UNFCC : United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFPA : United Nations Fund for Population Activities UNHCR : United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNI : United News of India UNIC : United Nations information Centre UNICEF : United Nations Children’s Fund UNIDO : United Nations Industrial Development Organisation UNSC : United Nations Security Council UNSCOM: UN Special Commission UNTAG : United Nations Transition Assistance Group UPA : United Progressive Alliance UPC : Under Postal Certificate UPS : Uninterrupted Power Supply UPSC : Union Public Service Commission UPU : Universal Postal Union UTI : Unit Trust of India VAM : Virtual Area Network VAT : Value-Added Tax VCR : Video Cassette Recorder VCRC : Vector Control Research Centre VDIS : Voluntary Disclosure Income Scheme VECC : Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre VHF : Very High Frequency VHP : Vishwa Hindu Parishad VHRR : Very High Resolution Radiometre VHS VIP VIRUS : Video Home System : Very Important Person : Vital Information Resources Under Siege VOA : Voice of America VPP : Value Payable Post VRDE : Vehicles Research and Development Establishment VRS : Voluntary Retirement Scheme VSAT : Very Small Aperture Terminal VSNL : Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited VSP : Visakhapatnam Steel Plant VSSC : Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre WADA : World Anti-Doping Agency WAP : Wireless Application Protocol WASME : World Assembly of Small and Medium Enterprises WAY : World Assembly of Youth WCAR : World Conference Against WCD : World Commission of Dams WCO : World Customs Organisation WEF : World Economic Forum World Environment Forum WFP : World Food Programme WFS : World Food Summit WFTU : World Federation of Trade Unions WHO : World Health Organisation WILL : Wireless in Local Loop WIFO : World Intellectual Property Organisation WMD : Weapons of Mass Destruction WMO : World Meteorological Organisation WPI : Wholesale Price Index WSIS : World Summit on Information Society WTO : World Trade Organisation WWF : World Wildlife Fund WWW : World Wide Web YMCA : Young Men’s Christian Association YWCA : Young Women’s Christian Association ZBB : Zero-Based Budgeting ZETA : Zero Energy Thermonuclear Assembly ZPG : Zero Population Growth ZS : Zoological Society ZSI : Zoological Survey of India

SUV : SVP : SWAPO : SWIFT TAC TACDE TAFE TAFTA TAPS T AX TCAS TCIL TDA TDMA TDP TDS TELCO TELEX TERI TERLS TFAI TFT TGS THDP THI : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

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