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Active Directory Architecture

Active Directory Architecture

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Published by Suman Mondal

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Published by: Suman Mondal on Apr 26, 2012
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Implementing and administering a network are tangible activities. To understand how Active Directory fits
into the picture at the practical level, the first thing you need to know is that installing Active Directory in a
computer running the Windows 2000 Server operating system is the act that transforms the server into a
domain controller. A domain controller can host exactly one domain.

Specifically, a domain controller is a computer running Windows 2000 Server that has been configured
using the Active Directory Installation wizard, which installs and configures components that provide
Active Directory directory services to network users and computers. Domain controllers store domain-
wide directory data (such as system security policies and user authentication data) and manage user-
domain interactions, including user logon processes, authentication, and directory searches.

Promoting a server to a domain controller using the Active Directory Installation wizard also either creates
a Windows 2000 domain or adds additional domain controllers to an existing domain.

This section describes what an Active Directory domain controller is and some of the major roles it plays
in your network.

With the introduction of Active Directory, Windows 2000 domain controllers function as peers. This is a
change from the superior/subordinate roles played by Windows NT Server Primary Domain Controllers
(PDCs) and Backup Domain Controllers (BDCs). Peer domain controllers support multimaster replication,
replicating Active Directory information among all domain controllers. The introduction of multimaster
replication means that administrators can make updates to Active Directory on any Windows 2000
domain controller in the domain. In the Windows NT Server operating system, only the PDC has a read-
and-write copy of the directory; the PDC replicates a read-only copy of directory information to the BDCs.
(For more about multimaster replication, see the section "Multimaster Replication.")

If you are upgrading to the Windows 2000 operating system from an existing domain, you can perform the
upgrade in stages and at your convenience. If you are creating the first domain controller for a new
installation, several entities come into being automatically at the same time that Active Directory is
loaded. The next two subsections explain the following aspects of installing an Active Directory domain
controller in a new network:

First domain controller is a Global Catalog server.

First domain controller holds the operations master roles.

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