A general view of the Sarmatian stage from the Republic of Moldova The Sarmatian is a stratigraphical unit of Neogene from

Cenral and South-East Europe. The deposits of the Sarmatian have been accumulated during the period of 12.7 – 9 Ma. The term was introduced in geological literature in 1865 by Eduard Suess, a famous geologist from Vienna, who followed the suggestion of Russian colleague N. Barbot-de-Marny to designate by this term marinebrackish water deposits from Vienna Area and Southern Russia. The Sarmatian level is divided into three sublevels named after the regions or localities in which were described: the Volhinian (Lower Sarmatian) for deposits with Ervilia described in Volhynia; the Bessarabien (Middle Sarmatian) for middle beds with Nubecularia described from Bessarabia; and the Hersonian (Upper Sarmatian) for upper beds with Mactra caspia. These terms where introduced by I. Simionescu (1903). The Sarmarian deposits from the Republic of Moldova are represented by all three above mentioned sublevels. The Lower Sarmatian (Volhinian) are recorded on the all territory of the Republic of Moldova with exception of South-West part. They are mainly composed of various limestone and partly of marl, clays, sands, and sandstone. The thickness of these deposits usually ranges from 20 to 50 meters, attaining in some parts up to 100 m. The Lower Sarmatian formations in natural outcrops are scattered from North to the latitude of Orhei, while to the south the deposits are below the river erosion level. The Middle Sarmatian deposits (Bessarabian) are widespread throughout the Republic of Moldova. They are represented by different limestones (predominantly organogenous), diatomospongolitice rocks, clays, and sands. Unlike the Lower Sarmatian, the Middle Sarmatian beds are predominated by terrigenous deposits. The outcrops of these deposits are recorded in the North and Center parts of the country, while South of Bender they are below the level of river erosion. The Middle Sarmatian average thickness increases from east to west and peaks of 340 meters around Corneşti village (the Precarpathian depression). The Upper Sarmatian deposits (Hersonian) are spread over an area much smaller than that of the Middle Sarmatian deposits. The Upper Sarmatian is represented by marine-brackish, avandeltic, and continental (alluvial, lagoon, and lake) facies. The total thickness of the Upper Sarmatian in southwestern part of the country reaches 200 meters.

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