P. 1
Cur So Aspen

Cur So Aspen

|Views: 647|Likes:
Published by jrz85

More info:

Published by: jrz85 on Apr 26, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/17/2013

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • Flowsheet Simulation
  • Advantages of Simulation
  • General Simulation Problem
  • Approaches to Flowsheet Simulation
  • Good Flowsheeting Practice
  • Important Features of Aspen Plus
  • Cumene Flowsheet Definition
  • Using the Mouse
  • Graphic Flowsheet Operations
  • Automatic Naming of Streams and Blocks
  • Benzene Flowsheet Definition Workshop
  • The Data Browser
  • Help
  • Functionality of Forms
  • Status Indicators
  • Cumene Production Conditions
  • Setup
  • Setup Specifications Form
  • Stream Report Options
  • Setup Run Types
  • Setup Units
  • Components
  • Components Specifications Form
  • Entering Components
  • Find
  • Pure Component Databanks
  • Properties
  • Properties Specifications Form
  • Streams
  • Streams Input Form
  • Blocks
  • Block Form
  • Starting the Run
  • Control Panel
  • Reviewing Results
  • Unit Operation Model Types
  • Mixers/Splitters
  • Separators
  • Columns -Shortcut
  • Columns -Rigorous
  • Reactors
  • Pressure Changers
  • Manipulators
  • Solids
  • User Models
  • RadFrac: Rigorous Multistage Separation
  • RadFrac Flowsheet Connectivity
  • RadFrac Setup Configuration Sheet
  • RadFrac Setup Streams Sheet
  • Feed Convention
  • RadFrac Setup Pressure Sheet
  • Methanol-Water RadFrac Column
  • RadFrac Options
  • Plot Wizard
  • Plot Wizard Demonstration
  • RadFrac DesignSpecs and Vary
  • RadFrac Convergence Problems
  • RadFrac Convergence Problems (Continued)
  • RadFrac Workshop
  • Reactor Overview
  • Balanced Based Reactors
  • Balanced Based Reactors (Continued)
  • Equilibrium Based Reactors
  • Equilibrium Based Reactors (Continued)
  • Kinetic Reactors
  • Using a Reaction ID
  • Power-law Rate Expression
  • Heats of Reaction
  • Reactor Workshop
  • Reactor Workshop (Continued)
  • Case Study -Acetone Recovery
  • Property Methods
  • Physical Property Models
  • Ideal vs. Non-Ideal Behavior
  • Comparison of EOS and Activity Models
  • Common Property Methods
  • Henry's Law
  • Choosing a Property Method -Review
  • Choosing a Property Method -Example
  • How to Establish Physical Properties
  • Pure Component Parameters
  • Binary Parameters
  • Displaying Property Parameters
  • Reporting Parameters
  • Reporting Physical Property Parameters
  • Property Analysis
  • Property Analysis -Common Plots
  • Establishing Physical Properties -Review
  • Property Sets
  • Properties included in Prop-Sets
  • Specifying Property Sets
  • Predefined Property Sets
  • Stream Results Options
  • Definition of Terms
  • Aspen Properties
  • Physical Properties Workshop
  • Why Access Variables?
  • Variable Categories
  • Variable Definition Dialog Box
  • Notes
  • Sensitivity Analysis Example
  • Sensitivity Analysis Results
  • Uses of Sensitivity Analysis
  • Steps for Using Sensitivity Analysis
  • Plotting
  • Sensitivity Analysis Workshop
  • Cyclohexane Production Workshop
  • Design Specification Example
  • Steps for Using Design Specifications
  • Design Specification Workshop
  • Calculator Block Example
  • Calculator Block Example (Continued)
  • Steps for Using Calculator Blocks
  • Uses of Calculator Blocks
  • Increasing Diagnostics
  • Excel
  • Excel (Continued)
  • Excel Aspen Plus Toolbar
  • Excel Aspen Plus Toolbar (Continued)
  • Windows Interoperability -Examples
  • Benefits of Windows Interoperability
  • Steps for Using Copy and Paste
  • OLE -Object Linking and Embedding
  • OLE (Continued)
  • Embedding Objects in the Flowsheet
  • Copy and Paste Workshop 2
  • Creating Active Links
  • Steps for Creating Active Links
  • Paste Link Demonstration
  • Paste Link Workshop
  • Saving Files with Active Links
  • Running Files with Active Links
  • Heat Exchanger Blocks
  • Working with the Heater Model
  • Heater Input Specifications
  • Heater Input Specifications (Continued)
  • Heat Streams
  • Working with the HeatX Model
  • HeatX Input Specifications
  • Working with the MHeatX Model
  • HeatX versus Heater
  • Two Heaters versus One HeatX
  • Working with Hetran and Aerotran
  • Working with HTRI-IST
  • Heat Curves
  • Heat Curves Tabular Results
  • Heat Curve Plot
  • HeatX Workshop
  • Pressure Changer Blocks
  • Working with the Pump Model
  • Pump Performance Curves
  • Working with the Compr Model
  • Working with the MCompr Model
  • Compressor Performance Curves
  • Work Streams
  • Working with the Valve Model
  • Working with the Valve Model (Continued)
  • Working with the Pipe Model
  • Pressure Changers Block Example
  • Pressure Changers Workshop
  • Pressure Changers Workshop (Continued)
  • Convergence Blocks
  • Convergence Block Types
  • Flowsheet Sequence
  • Tear Streams
  • Tear Streams (Continued)
  • Reconciling Streams
  • Convergence Workshop
  • General Guidelines
  • Part 1: Front-End Section
  • Part 1: Front-End Section Check
  • Part 2: Heat Recovery Section
  • Part 2: Heat Recovery Section (Continued)
  • Part 2: Heat Recovery Section Check
  • Part 3: Methanol Synthesis Section
  • Part 3: Methanol Synthesis Section Check
  • Part 4: Distillation Section
  • Part 4: Distillation Section Check
  • Part 5: Furnace Section
  • Part 5: Furnace Section (Continued)
  • File Formats in Aspen Plus
  • File Type Characteristics
  • How to Store a Simulation
  • Template Files
  • How to Create a Personal Template
  • Maintaining Your Computer
  • Maintaining Your Hard Disk
  • Customizing the Process Flow Diagram
  • Viewing
  • Adding Annotation
  • Example of a Stream Table
  • Adding Global Data
  • Using PFD Mode
  • Examples of When to Use PFD Mode
  • Annotation Workshop
  • What is Property Estimation?
  • Using Property Estimation
  • Estimation Methods and Requirements
  • Defining Molecular Structure
  • Steps For Defining General Structure
  • Atom Types
  • Bond Types
  • Steps For Using Property Estimation
  • Steps For Using Property Estimation
  • Activating Property Estimation
  • Property Estimation Notes
  • Property Estimation Workshop
  • Property Estimation Workshop (Continued)
  • Electrolytes Examples
  • Characteristics of an Electrolyte System
  • Types of Components
  • Types of Components (Continued)
  • Apparent and True Components
  • Apparent and True Components Example
  • Electrolyte Wizard
  • Electrolyte Wizard (Continued)
  • Simplifying the Chemistry
  • Limitations of Electrolytes
  • Limitations of Electrolytes (Continued)
  • Electrolyte Demonstration
  • Steps for Using Electrolytes
  • Electrolyte Workshop
  • Electrolyte Workshop (Continued)
  • Sour Water Stripper Workshop
  • Classes of Components
  • Specifying Component Type
  • Conventional Components
  • Conventional Inert Solids (CI Solids)
  • Nonconventional Solids (NC Solids)
  • Component Attributes
  • Component Attribute Descriptions
  • Solid Properties
  • Solids Properties -Nonconventional Solids
  • Solids Properties -Special Models for Coal
  • Built-in Material Stream Classes
  • Solids Workshop 1
  • Solids Workshop 1 (Continued)
  • Solids Workshop 2
  • Optimization Example
  • Optimization Example (Continued)
  • Steps for Using Optimization
  • Steps for Using Optimization (Continued)
  • Notes (Continued)
  • Optimization Workshop
  • Optimization Workshop (Continued)
  • RadFrac Convergence Methods
  • Convergence Methods (Continued)
  • RadFrac Convergence Algorithms
  • Standard Algorithm
  • Standard Algorithm (Continued)
  • Sum-Rates Algorithm
  • Nonideal Algorithm
  • Newton Algorithm
  • Vapor-Liquid-Liquid Calculations
  • Convergence Method Selection
  • Convergence Method Selection (Continued)
  • RadFrac Initialization Method
  • Specialized Initialization Methods
  • Estimates
  • Composition Estimates
  • RadFrac Convergence Workshop
  • Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) Workshop

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Flowsheet Simulation
Objective:
Introduce general flowsheet simulation concepts
and Aspen Plus features
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Flowsheet Simulation
• What is flowsheet simulation?
Use of a computer program to quantitatively model the
characteristic equations of a chemical process
• Uses underlying physical relationships
– Mass and energy balance
– Equilibrium relationships
– Rate correlations (reaction and mass/heat transfer)
• Predicts
– Stream flowrates, compositions, and properties
– Operating conditions
– Equipment sizes
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Advantages of Simulation
• Reduces plant design time
– Allows designer to quickly test various plant configurations
• Helps improve current process
– Answers “what if” questions
– Determines optimal process conditions within given constraints
– Assists in locating the constraining parts of a process
(debottlenecking)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• What is the composition of stream PRODUCT?
• To solve this problem, we need:
– Material balances
– Energy balances
REACTOR
FEED
RECYCLE
REAC-OUT
COOL
COOL-OUT
SEP
PRODUCT
General Simulation Problem
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Approaches to Flowsheet Simulation
• Sequential Modular
– Aspen Plus is a sequential modular simulation program.
– Each unit operation block is solved in a certain sequence.
• Equation Oriented
– Aspen Custom Modeler (formerly SPEEDUP) is an equation oriented
simulation program.
– All equations are solved simultaneously.
• Combination
– Aspen Dynamics (formerly DynaPLUS) uses the Aspen Plus
sequential modular approach to initialize the steady state simulation
and the Aspen Custom Modeler (formerly SPEEDUP) equation
oriented approach to solve the dynamic simulation.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Good Flowsheeting Practice
• Build large flowsheets a few blocks at a time.
– This facilitates troubleshooting if errors occur.
• Ensure flowsheet inputs are reasonable.
• Check that results are consistent and realistic.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Important Features of Aspen Plus
• Rigorous Electrolyte Simulation
• Solids Handling
• Petroleum Handling
• Data Regression
• Data Fit
• Optimization
• User Routines
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 1, The User Interface
User Guide, Chapter 2, Creating a Simulation Model
User Guide, Chapter 4, Defining the Flowsheet
The User Interface
Objective:
Become comfortable and familiar with the Aspen
Plus graphical user interface
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Run ID
Tool Bar
Title Bar
Menu Bar
Select Mode
button
Model
Library
Model Menu
Tabs
Process
Flowsheet
Window
Next Button
Status Area
The User Interface
Reference: Aspen Plus User Guide, Chapter 1, The User Interface
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RStoic
Model
Heater
Model
Flash2
Model
Filename: CUMENE.BKP
REACTOR
FEED
RECYCLE
REAC-OUT
COOL
COOL-OUT
SEP
PRODUCT
Cumene Flowsheet Definition
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Using the Mouse
• Left button click - Select object/field
• Right button click - Bring up menu for selected
object/field, or inlet/outlet
- Cancel placement of streams or
blocks on the flowsheet
• Double left click - Open Data Browser object sheet
Reference: Aspen Plus User Guide, Chapter 1, The User Interface
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Graphic Flowsheet Operations
• To place a block on the flowsheet:
1. Click on a model category tab in the Model Library.
2. Select a unit operation model. Click the drop-down arrow to
select an icon for the model.
3. Click on the model and then click on the flowsheet to place
the block. You can also click on the model icon and drag it
onto the flowsheet.
4. Click the right mouse button to stop placing blocks.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Graphic Flowsheet Operations (Continued)
• To place a stream on the flowsheet:
1. Click on the STREAMS icon in the Model Library.
2. If you want to select a different stream type (Material, Heat or
Work), click the down arrow next to the icon and choose a
different type.
3. Click a highlighted port to make the connection.
4. Repeat step 3 to connect the other end of the stream.
5. To place one end of the stream as either a process flowsheet
feed or product, click a blank part of the Process Flowsheet
window.
6. Click the right mouse button to stop creating streams.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Graphic Flowsheet Operations (Continued)
• To display an Input form for a Block or a Stream in the
Data Browser:
1. Double click the left mouse button on the object of interest.
• To Rename, Delete, Change the icon, provide input or
view results for a block or stream:
1. Select object (Block or Stream) by clicking on it with the left
mouse button.
2. Click the right mouse button while the pointer is over the
selected object icon to bring up the menu for that object.
3. Choose appropriate menu item.
Reference: Aspen Plus User Guide, Chapter 4, Defining the Flowsheet
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Automatic Naming of Streams and Blocks
• Stream and block names can be automatically assigned
by Aspen Plus or entered by the user when the object is
created.
• Stream and block names can be displayed or hidden.
• To modify the naming options:
– Select Options from the Tools menu.
– Click the Flowsheet tab.
– Check or uncheck the naming options desired.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
When finished, save in backup
format (Run-ID.BKP).
filename: BENZENE.BKP
FL1
Heater
Model
Flash2
Model
Flash2
Model
COOL
FEED COOL
VAP1
LIQ1
FL2
VAP2
LIQ2
Benzene Flowsheet Definition Workshop
• Objective - Create a graphical flowsheet
– Start with the General with English Units Template.
– Choose the appropriate icons for the blocks.
– Rename the blocks and streams.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 3, Using Aspen Plus Help
User Guide, Chapter 5, Global Information for Calculations
User Guide, Chapter 6, Specifying Components
User Guide, Chapter 7, Physical Property Methods
User Guide, Chapter 9, Specifying Streams
User Guide, Chapter 10, Unit Operation Models
User Guide, Chapter 11, Running Your Simulation
Basic Input
Objective:
Introduce the basic input required to run an Aspen
Plus simulation
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
The User Interface
• Menus
– Used to specify program options and commands
• Toolbar
– Allows direct access to certain popular functions
– Can be moved
– Can be hidden or revealed using the Toolbars dialog box from
the View menu
• Data Browser
– Can be moved, resized, minimized, maximized or closed
– Used to navigate the folders, forms, and sheets
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
The User Interface (Continued)
• Folders
– Refers to the root items in the Data Browser
– Contain forms
• Forms
– Used to enter data and view results for the simulation
– Can be comprised of a number of sheets
– Are located in folders
• Sheets
– Make up forms
– Are selected using tabs at the top of each sheet
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Object Manager
– Allows manipulation of discrete objects of information
– Can be created, edited, renamed, deleted, hidden, and
revealed
• Next Button
– Checks if the current form is complete and skips to the next
form which requires input
The User Interface (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
The Data Browser
Menu tree
Previous sheet
Next sheet
Status area
Parent button Units
Go back
Go forward
Comments
Next
Description area
Status
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Help
• Help Topics
– Contents - Used to browse through the documentation. The
User Guides and Reference Manuals are all included in the
help.
• All of the information in the User Guides is found under the “Using
Aspen Plus” book.
– Index - Used to search for help on a topic using the index
entries
– Find - Used to search for a help on a topic that includes any
word or words
• “What’s This?” Help
– Select “What’s This?” from the Help menu and then click on
any area to get help for that item.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Functionality of Forms
• When you select a field on a form (click left mouse
button in the field), the prompt area at the bottom of the
window gives you information about that field.
• Click the drop-down arrow in a field to bring up a list of
possible input values for that field.
– Typing a letter will bring up the next selection on the list that
begins with that letter.
• The Tab key will take you to the next field on a form.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Basic Input
• The minimum required inputs (in addition to the graphical flowsheet)
to run a simulation are:
– Setup
– Components
– Properties
– Streams
– Blocks
• Data can be entered on input forms in the above order by clicking
the Next button.
• These inputs are all found in folders within the Data Browser.
• These input folders can be located quickly using the Data menu or
the Data Browser buttons on the toolbar.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Status Indicators
Input for the form is incomplete
Input for the form is complete
No input for the form has been entered. It is optional.
Results for the form exist.
Results for the form exist, but there were calculation
errors.
Results for the form exist, but there were calculation
warnings.
Results for the form exist, but input has changed since
the results were generated.
Symbol Status
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Cumene Production Conditions
Q = 0 Btu/hr
Pdrop = 0 psi
C6H6 + C3H6 = C9H12
Benzene Propylene Cumene (Isopropylbenzene)
90% Conversion of Propylene
T = 130 F
Pdrop = 0.1 psi
P = 1 atm
Q = 0 Btu/hr
Benzene: 40 lbmol/hr
Propylene: 40 lbmol/hr
T = 220 F
P = 36 psia
Use the RK-SOAVE Property Method
Filename: CUMENE.BKP
REACTOR
FEED
RECYCLE
REAC-OUT
COOL
COOL-OUT
SEP
PRODUCT
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Setup
• Most of the commonly used Setup information is entered
on the Setup Specifications Global sheet:
– Flowsheet title to be used on reports
– Run type
– Input and output units
– Valid phases (e.g. vapor-liquid or vapor-liquid-liquid)
– Ambient pressure
• Stream report options are located on the Setup Report
Options Stream sheet.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Setup Specifications Form
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Stream Report Options
• Stream report options are located on the Setup Report
Options Stream sheet.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Setup Run Types
Run Type
Flowsheet
Standard Aspen Plus flowsheet run including sensitivity studies and optimization.
Flowsheet runs can contain property estimation, assay data analysis, and/or property analysis
calculations.
Assay Data
Analysis
A standalone Assay Data Analysis and pseudocomponent generation run
Use Assay Data Analysis to analyze assay data when you do not want to perform a flowsheet
simulation in the same run.
Data
Regression
A standalone Data Regression run
Use Data Regression to fit physical property model parameters required by ASPEN PLUS to
measured pure component, VLE, LLE, and other mixture data. Data Regression can contain
property estimation and property analysis calculations. ASPEN PLUS cannot perform data
regression in a Flowsheet run.
PROPERTIES
PLUS
PROPERTIES PLUS setup run
Use PROPERTIES PLUS to prepare a property package for use with Aspen Custom Modeler
(formerly SPEEDUP) or Aspen Pinch (formerly ADVENT), with third-party commercial
engineering programs, or with your company's in-house programs. You must be licensed to use
PROPERTIES PLUS.
Property
Analysis
A standalone Property Analysis run
Use Property Analysis to generate property tables, PT-envelopes, residue curve maps, and other
property reports when you do not want to perform a flowsheet simulation in the same run.
Property Analysis can contain property estimation and assay data analysis calculations.
Property
Estimation
Standalone Property Constant Estimation run
Use Property Estimation to estimate property parameters when you do not want to perform a
flowsheet simulation in the same run.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Setup Units
• Units in Aspen Plus can be defined at 3 different levels:
1. Global Level (“Input Data” & “Output Results” fields on the
Setup Specifications Global sheet)
2. Object level (“Units” field in the top of any input form of an
object such as a block or stream
3. Field Level
• Users can create their own units sets using the Setup
Units Sets Object Manager. Units can be copied from an
existing set and then modified.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Components
• Use the Components Specifications form to specify all
the components required for the simulation.
• If available, physical property parameters for each
component are retrieved from databanks.
• Pure component databanks contain parameters such as
molecular weight, critical properties, etc. The databank
search order is specified on the Databanks sheet.
• The Find button can be used to search for components.
• The Electrolyte Wizard can be used to set up an
electrolyte simulation.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Components Specifications Form
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Entering Components
• The Component ID is used to identify the component in simulation
inputs and results.
• Each Component ID can be associated with a databank component
as either:
– Formula: Chemical formula of component (e.g., C6H6)
(Note that a suffix is added to formulas when there are isomers, e.g.
C2H6O-2)
– Component Name: Full name of component (e.g., BENZENE)
• Databank components can be searched for using the Find button.
– Search using component name, formula, component class, molecular
weight, boiling point, or CAS number.
– All components containing specified items will be listed.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Find
• Find performs an AND search when more than one
criterion is specified.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Parameters missing from the first selected databank will be
searched for in subsequent selected databanks.
Databank Contents Use
PURE10 Data from the Design Institute for Physical
Property Data (DIPPR) and AspenTech
Primary component databank in
Aspen Plus
AQUEOUS Pure component parameters for ionic and
molecular species in aqueous solution
Simulations containing
electrolytes
SOLIDS Pure component parameters for strong
electrolytes, salts, and other solids
Simulations containing
electrolytes and solids
INORGANIC Thermochemical properties for inorganic
components in vapor, liquid and solid states
Solids, electrolytes, and
metallurgy applications
PURE93 Data from the Design Institute for Physical
Property Data (DIPPR) and AspenTech
delivered with Aspen Plus 9.3
For upward compatibility
PURE856 Data from the Design Institute for Physical
Property Data (DIPPR) and AspenTech
delivered with Aspen Plus 8.5-6
For upward compatibility
ASPENPCD Databank delivered with Aspen Plus 8.5-6 For upward compatibility
Pure Component Databanks
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Properties
• Use the Properties Specifications form to specify the
physical property methods to be used in the simulation.
• Property methods are a collection of models and
methods used to describe pure component and mixture
behavior.
• Choosing the right physical properties is critical for
obtaining reliable simulation results.
• Selecting a Process Type will narrow the number of
methods available.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Properties Specifications Form
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Streams
• Use Stream Input forms to specify the feed stream
conditions and composition.
• To specify stream conditions enter two of the following:
– Temperature
– Pressure
– Vapor Fraction
• To specify stream composition enter either:
– Total stream flow and component fractions
– Individual component flows
• Specifications for streams that are not feeds to the
flowsheet are used as estimates.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Streams Input Form
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Blocks
• Each Block Input or Block Setup form specifies operating
conditions and equipment specifications for the unit
operation model.
• Some unit operation models require additional
specification forms
• All unit operation models have optional information forms
(e.g. BlockOptions form).
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Block Form
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Starting the Run
• Select Control Panel from the View menu or press the
Next button to be prompted.
– The simulation can be executed when all required forms are
complete.
– The Next button will take you to any incomplete forms.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Run Start or continue calculations
Step Step through the flowsheet one
block at a time
Stop Pause simulation calculations
Reinitialize Purge simulation results
Results Check simulation results
Control Panel
• The Control Panel consists of:
– A message window showing the progress of the simulation by
displaying the most recent messages from the calculations
– A status area showing the hierarchy and order of simulation
blocks and convergence loops executed
– A toolbar which you can use to control the simulation
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Reviewing Results
• History file or Control Panel Messages
– Contains any generated errors or warnings
– Select History or Control Panel on the View menu to display
the History file or the Control Panel
• Stream Results
– Contains stream conditions and compositions
• For all streams (/Data/Results Summary/Streams)
• For individual streams (bring up the stream folder in the Data Browser
and select the Results form)
• Block Results
– Contains calculated block operating conditions (bring up the
block folder in the Data Browser and select the Results form)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Benzene Flowsheet Conditions Workshop
• Objective: Add the process and feed stream conditions to a
flowsheet.
– Starting with the flowsheet created in the Benzene Flowsheet
Definition Workshop (saved as BENZENE.BKP), add the process and
feed stream conditions as shown on the next page.
• Questions:
1. What is the heat duty of the block “COOL”? _________
2. What is the temperature in the second flash block “FL2”? _________
Note: Answers for all of the workshops are located in the very back of
the course notes in Appendix C.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Feed
T = 1000 F
P = 550 psia
Hydrogen: 405 lbmol/hr
Methane: 95 lbmol/hr
Benzene: 95 lbmol/hr
Toluene: 5 lbmol/hr
T = 200 F
Pdrop = 0
T = 100 F
P = 500 psia
P = 1 atm
Q = 0
Use the PENG-ROB Property Method
When finished, save as
filename: BENZENE.BKP
FL1
COOL
FEED COOL
VAP1
LIQ1
FL2
VAP2
LIQ2
Benzene Flowsheet Conditions Workshop
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Unit Operation Models
Objective:
Review major types of unit operation models
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 10, Unit Operation Models
Unit Operation Models Reference Manual
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Unit Operation Model Types
• Mixers/Splitters
• Separators
• Heat Exchangers
• Columns
• Reactors
• Pressure Changers
• Manipulators
• Solids
• User Models
Reference: The use of specific models is best described by on-line help and the
documentation. Aspen Plus Unit Operation Models Reference Manual
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Model Description Purpose Use
Mixer Stream mixer Combine multiple
streams into one
stream
Mixing tees, stream mixing
operations, adding heat
streams, adding work streams
FSplit Stream splitter Split stream flows Stream splitters, bleed valves
SSplit Substream splitter Split substream flows Solid stream splitters, bleed
valves
Mixers/Splitters
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Model Description Purpose Use
Flash2 Two-outlet flash Determine thermal
and phase conditions
Flashes, evaporators, knockout
drums, single stage separators,
free water separations
Flash3 Three-outlet
flash
Determine thermal
and phase conditions
Decanters, single stage separators
with two liquid phases
Decanter Liquid-liquid
decanter
Determine thermal
and phase conditions
Decanters, single stage separators
with two liquid phases and no vapor
phase
Sep Multi-outlet
component
separator
Separate inlet stream
components into any
number of outlet
streams
Component separation operations
such as distillation and absorption,
when the details of the separation are
unknown or unimportant
Sep2 Two-outlet
component
separator
Separate inlet stream
components into two
outlet streams
Component separation operations
such as distillation and absorption,
when the details of the separation are
unknown or unimportant
Separators
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Heat Exchangers
* Requires separate license
Model Description Purpose Use
Heater Heater or cooler Determines thermal and
phase conditions
Heaters, coolers, valves. Pumps and
compressors when work-related results are not
needed.
HeatX Two-stream heat
exchanger
Exchange heat between two
streams
Two-stream heat exchangers. Rating shell and
tube heat exchangers when geometry is known.
MHeatX Multistream heat
exchanger
Exchange heat between any
number of streams
Multiple hot and cold stream heat exchangers.
Two-stream heat exchangers. LNG
exchangers.
Hetran* Interface to B-JAC
Hetran program
Design and simulate shell and
tube heat exchangers
Shell and tube heat exchangers with a wide
variety of configurations.
Aerotran* Interface to B-JAC
Aerotran program
Design and simulate air-
cooled heat exchangers
Air-cooled heat exchangers with a wide variety
of configurations. Model economizers and the
convection section of fired heaters.
HXFlux Heat transfer
calculation model
Models convective heat
transfer between a heat sink
and a heat source.
Determines the log-mean temperature
difference, using either the rigorous or the
approximate method.
HTRIIST* Interface to the IST
heat exchanger
program from HTRI.
Design and simulate shell and
tube heat exchangers
Shell and tube heat exchangers with a wide
variety of configurations, including kettle
boilers.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Columns - Shortcut
Model Description Purpose Use
DSTWU Shortcut distillation
design
Determine minimum RR,
minimum stages, and either
actual RR or actual stages
by Winn-Underwood-
Gilliland method.
Columns with one feed and
two product streams
Distl Shortcut distillation
rating
Determine separation
based on RR, stages, and
D:F ratio using Edmister
method.
Columns with one feed and
two product streams
SCFrac Shortcut distillation
for petroleum
fractionation
Determine product
composition and flow,
stages per section, duty
using fractionation indices.
Complex columns, such as
crude units and vacuum
towers
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Columns - Rigorous
Model Description Purpose Use
RadFrac Rigorous
fractionation
Rigorous rating and design for single
columns
Distillation, absorbers, strippers,
extractive and azeotropic distillation,
reactive distillation
MultiFrac Rigorous
fractionation for
complex columns
Rigorous rating and design for
multiple columns of any complexity
Heat integrated columns, air separators,
absorber/stripper combinations, ethylene
primary fractionator/quench tower
combinations, petroleum refining
PetroFrac Petroleum refining
fractionation
Rigorous rating and design for
petroleum refining applications
Preflash tower, atmospheric crude unit,
vacuum unit, catalytic cracker or coker
fractionator, vacuum lube fractionator,
ethylene fractionator and quench towers
BatchFrac*
+
Rigorous batch
distillation
Rigorous rating calculations for
single batch columns
Ordinary azeotropic batch distillation,
3-phase, and reactive batch distillation
RateFrac* Rate-based
distillation
Rigorous rating and design for single
and multiple columns. Based on
nonequilibrium calculations
Distillation columns, absorbers, strippers,
reactive systems, heat integrated units,
petroleum applications
Extract Liquid-liquid
extraction
Rigorous rating for liquid-liquid
extraction columns
Liquid-liquid extraction
* Requires separate license
+ Input language only in Version 10.0
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Model Description Purpose Use
RStoic Stoichiometric
reactor
Stoichiometric reactor with
specified reaction extent or
conversion
Reactors where the kinetics are unknown or
unimportant but stoichiometry and extent are
known
RYield Yield reactor Reactor with specified yield Reactors where the stoichiometry and kinetics
are unknown or unimportant but yield
distribution is known
REquil Equilibrium reactor Chemical and phase
equilibrium by
stoichiometric calculations
Single- and two-phase chemical equilibrium
and simultaneous phase equilibrium
RGibbs Equilibrium reactor Chemical and phase
equilibrium by Gibbs
energy minimization
Chemical and/or simultaneous phase and
chemical equilibrium. Includes solid phase
equilibrium.
RCSTR Continuous stirred
tank reactor
Continuous stirred tank
reactor
One, two, or three-phase stirred tank reactors
with kinetics reactions in the vapor or liquid
RPlug Plug flow reactor Plug flow reactor One, two, or three-phase plug flow reactors with
kinetic reactions in any phase. Plug flow
reactions with external coolant.
RBatch Batch reactor Batch or semi-batch
reactor
Batch and semi-batch reactors where the
reaction kinetics are known
Reactors
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Pressure Changers
Model Description Purpose Use
Pump Pump or
hydraulic
turbine
Change stream pressure when
the pressure, power requirement
or performance curve is known
Pumps and hydraulic turbines
Compr Compressor or
turbine
Change stream pressure when
the pressure, power requirement
or performance curve is known
Polytropic compressors, polytropic
positive displacement
compressors, isentropic
compressors, isentropic turbines.
MCompr Multi-stage
compressor or
turbine
Change stream pressure across
multiple stages with intercoolers.
Allows for liquid knockout
streams from intercoolers
Multistage polytropic compressors,
polytropic positive compressors,
isentropic compressors, isentropic
turbines.
Valve Control valve Determine pressure drop or
valve coefficient (CV)
Multi-phase, adiabatic flow in ball,
globe and butterfly valves
Pipe Single-segment
pipe
Determine pressure drop and
heat transfer in single-segment
pipe or annular space
Multi-phase, one dimensional,
steady-state and fully developed
pipeline flow with fittings
Pipeline Multi-segment
pipe
Determine pressure drop and
heat transfer in multi-segment
pipe or annular space
Multi-phase, one dimensional,
steady-state and fully developed
pipeline flow
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Manipulators
Model Description Purpose Use
Mult Stream multiplier Multiply stream flows by
a user supplied factor
Multiply streams for scale-up or
scale-down
Dupl Stream
duplicator
Copy a stream to any
number of outlets
Duplicate streams to look at
different scenarios in the same
flowsheet
ClChng Stream class
changer
Change stream class Link sections or blocks that use
different stream classes
Selector Stream selector Switch between different
inlet streams.
Test different flowsheet senarios
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Model Description Uses
Crystallizer Continuous Crystallizer Mixed suspension, mixed product removal (MSMPR)
crystallizeer used for the production of a single solid product
Crusher Crushers Gyratory/jaw crusher, cage mill breaker, and single or
multiple roll crushers
Screen Screens Solids-solids separation using screens
FabFl Fabric filters Gas-solids separation using fabric filters
Cyclone Cyclones Gas-solids separation using cyclones
VScrub Venturi scrubbers Gas-solids separation using venturi scrubbers
ESP Dry electrostatic precipitators Gas-solids separation using dry electrostatic precipitators
HyCyc Hydrocyclones Liquid-solids separation using hydrocyclones
CFuge Centrifuge filters Liquid-solids separation using centrifuge filters
Filter Rotary vacuum filters Liquid-solids separation using continuous rotary vacuum
filters
SWash Single-stage solids washer Single-stage solids washer
CCD Counter-current decanter Multistage washer or a counter-current decanter
Solids
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
User Models
• Proprietary models or 3-rd party software can be
included in an Aspen Plus flowsheet using a User2 unit
operation block.
• Excel Workbooks or Fortran code can be used to define
the User2 unit operation model.
• User-defined names can be associated with variables.
• Variables can be dimensioned based on other input
specifications (for example, number of components).
• Aspen Plus helper functions eliminate the need to know
the internal data structure to retrieve variables.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Aspen Plus References:
Unit Operation Models Reference Manual, Chapter 4, Columns
RadFrac
Objective:
Discuss the minimum input required for the
RadFrac fractionation model, and the use of
design specifications and stage efficiencies
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac: Rigorous Multistage Separation
• Vapor-Liquid or Vapor-Liquid-Liquid phase simulation of:
– Ordinary distillation
– Absorption, reboiled absorption
– Stripping, reboiled stripping
– Azeotropic distillation
– Reactive distillation
• Configuration options:
– Any number of feeds
– Any number of side draws
– Total liquid draw off and pumparounds
– Any number of heaters
– Any number of decanters
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Flowsheet Connectivity
Vapor Distillate
Top-Stage or
1
Condenser Heat Duty Heat (optional)
Liquid Distillate
Water Distillate (optional)
Feeds
Reflux
Products (optional)
Heat (optional)
Pumparound
Decanters
Heat (optional)
Product
Heat (optional)
Return
Boil-up
Bottom Stage or
Nstage
Reboiler Heat Duty
Heat (optional)
Bottoms
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Setup Configuration Sheet
• Specify:
– Number of stages
– Condenser and reboiler
configuration
– Two column operating
specifications
– Valid phases
– Convergence
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Setup Streams Sheet
• Specify:
– Feed stage location
– Feed stream convention
(see Help)
ABOVE-STAGE:
Vapor from feed goes to
stage above feed stage
– Liquid goes to feed stage
ON-STAGE:
Vapor & Liquid from feed
go to specified feed stage
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Feed Convention
On-stage
n
Above-stage
(default)
n-1
n
Vapor
Feed
n-1
Liquid
Feed
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Setup Pressure Sheet
• Specify one of:
– Column pressure profile
– Top/Bottom pressure
– Section pressure drop
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Kettle Reboiler
T = 65 C
P = 1 bar
Water: 100 kmol/hr
Methanol: 100 kmol/hr
9 Stages
Reflux Ratio = 1
Distillate to feed ratio = 0.5
Column pressure = 1 bar
Feed stage = 6
RadFrac specifications
Filename: RAD-EX.BKP
Methanol-Water RadFrac Column
Use the NRTL-RK Property Method
COLUMN
FEED
OVHD
BTMS
Total Condenser
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Options
• To set up an absorber with no condenser or reboiler, set
condenser and reboiler to none on the RadFrac Setup
Configuration sheet.
• Either Vaporization or Murphree efficiencies on either a
stage or component basis can be specified on the
RadFrac Efficiencies form.
• Tray and packed column design and rating is possible.
• A Second liquid phase may be modeled if the user
selects Vapor-liquid-liquid as Valid phases.
• Reboiler and condenser heat curves can be generated.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Plot Wizard
• Use Plot Wizard (on the Plot menu) to quickly generate plots of
results of a simulation. You can use Plot Wizard for displaying
results for the following operations:
– Physical property analysis
– Data regression analysis
– Profiles for all separation models RadFrac, MultiFrac, PetroFrac and
RateFrac
• Click the object of interest in the Data Browser to generate plots for
that particular object.
• The wizard guides you in the basic operations for generating a plot.
• Click on the Next button to continue. Click on the Finish button to
generate a plot with default settings.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Block COLUMN: Vapor Composition Profiles
Stage
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Y


(
m
o
l
e

f
r
a
c
)
0
.
2
5
0
.
5
0
.
7
5
1
WATER
METHANOL
Plot Wizard Demonstration
• Use the plot wizard on the column to create a plot of the
vapor phase compositions throughout the column.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac DesignSpecs and Vary
• Design specifications can be specified and executed inside the
RadFrac block using the DesignSpecs and Vary forms.
• One or more RadFrac inputs can be manipulated to achieve
specifications on one or more RadFrac performance parameters.
• The number of specs should, in general, be equal to the number of
varies.
• The DesignSpecs and Varys in a RadFrac are solved in a “Middle
loop.” If you get an error message saying that the middle loop was
not converged, check the DesignSpecs and Varys you have
entered.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Convergence Problems
• If a RadFrac column fails to converge, doing one or more
of the following could help:
1. Check that physical property issues (choice of Property
Method, parameter availability, etc.) are properly addressed.
2. Ensure that column operating conditions are feasible.
3. If the column err/tol is decreasing fairly consistently, increase
the maximum iterations on the RadFrac Convergence Basic
sheet.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Convergence Problems (Continued)
4. Provide temperature estimates for some stages in the
column using the RadFrac Estimates Temperature
sheet (useful for absorbers).
5. Provide composition estimates for some stages in the
column using the RadFrac Estimates Liquid
Composition and Vapor Composition sheet (useful for
highly non-ideal systems).
6. Experiment with different convergence methods on the
RadFrac Setup Configuration sheet.
Note: When a column does not converge, it is usually
beneficial to Reinitialize after making changes.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Filename: RADFRAC.BKP Use the NRTL-RK Property Method
COLUMN
FEED
DIST
BTMS
Feed:
63.2 wt% Water
36.8 wt% Methanol
Total flow = 120,000 lb/hr
Pressure 18 psia
Saturated liquid
Column specification:
38 trays (40 stages)
Feed tray = 23 (stage 24)
Total condenser
Top stage pressure = 16.1 psia
Pressure drop per stage = 0.1 psi
Distillate flowrate = 1245 lbmol/hr
Molar reflux ratio = 1.3
RadFrac Workshop
Part A
• Perform a rating calculation of a Methanol tower using
the following data:

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Workshop (Continued)
Part B
• Set up design specifications within the column so the following two
objectives are met:
– 99.95 wt% methanol in the distillate
– 99.90 wt% water in the bottoms
• To achieve these specifications, you can vary the distillate rate (800-
1700 lbmol/hr) and the reflux ratio (0.8-2). Make sure stream
compositions are reported as mass fractions before running the
problem. Note the condenser and reboiler duties:
Condenser Duty :_________
Reboiler Duty :_________
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Workshop (Continued)
Part C
• Perform the same design calculation after specifying a
65% Murphree efficiency for each tray. Assume the
condenser and reboiler have stage efficiencies of 90%.
• How do these efficiencies affect the condenser and
reboiler duties of the column?
Part D
• Perform a tray sizing calculation for the entire column,
given that Bubble Cap trays are used.
(When finished, save as filename: RADFRAC.BKP)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Reactor Models
Objective:
Introduce the various classes of reactor models
available, and examine in some detail at least one
reactor from each class
Aspen Plus References
Unit Operation Models Reference Manual, Chapter 5, Reactors
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Reactor Overview
Reactors
Balance Based
RYield
RStoic
Equilibrium Based
REquil
RGibbs
Kinetics Based
RCSTR
RPlug
RBatch
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
70 lb/hr H
2
O
20 lb/hr CO
2
60 lb/hr CO
250 lb/hr tar
600 lb/hr char
1000 lb/hr Coal
IN
OUT
RYield
Balanced Based Reactors
• RYield
– Requires a mass balance only, not an atom balance
– Is used to simulate reactors in which inlets to the reactor are
not completely known but outlets are known (e.g. to simulate a
furnace)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
2 CO + O2
--
> 2 CO2
C + O2
--
> CO2
2 C + O2
--
> 2 CO
C, O2
IN
OUT
RStoic
C, O2, CO, CO2
Balanced Based Reactors (Continued)
• RStoic
– Requires both an atom and a mass balance
– Used in situations where both the equilibrium data and the
kinetics are either unknown or unimportant
– Can specify or calculate heat of reaction at a reference
temperature and pressure
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Equilibrium Based Reactors
• GENERAL
– Do not take reaction kinetics into account
– Solve similar problems, but problem specifications are different
– Individual reactions can be at a restricted equilibrium
• REquil
– Computes combined chemical and phase equilibrium by
solving reaction equilibrium equations
– Cannot do a 3-phase flash
– Useful when there are many components, a few known
reactions, and when relatively few components take part in the
reactions
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Equilibrium Based Reactors (Continued)
• RGibbs
– Unknown Reactions - This feature is quite useful when
reactions occurring are not known or are high in number due to
many components participating in the reactions.
– Gibbs Energy Minimization - A Gibbs free energy
minimization is done to determine the product composition at
which the Gibbs free energy of the products is at a minimum.
– Solid Equilibrium - RGibbs is the only Aspen Plus block that
will deal with solid-liquid-gas phase equilibrium.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Kinetic Reactors
• Kinetic reactors are RCSTR, RPlug and RBatch.
• Reaction kinetics are taken into account, and hence must be
specified.
• Kinetics can be specified using one of the built-in models, or with a
user subroutine. The current built-in models are
– Power Law
– Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW)
• A catalyst for a reaction can have a reaction coefficient of zero.
• Reactions are specified using a Reaction ID.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Using a Reaction ID
• Reaction IDs are setup as objects, separate from the
reactor, and then referenced within the reactor(s).
• A single Reaction ID can be referenced in any number of
kinetic reactors (RCSTR, RPlug and RBatch.)
• To set up a Reaction ID, go to the Reactions Reactions
Object Manager
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Power-law Rate Expression
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
0
n
0
1 1 Energy Activation
exp Factor) l exponentia Pre (
T T R T
T
k
rate k concentration
i
i
=
[
* [ ]
exponent
i
Example: 2 3 2
1
2
A B C D
k
k
+
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
+
Forward reaction: (Assuming the reaction is 2nd order in A)
coefficients: A: B: C: D:
exponents: A: B: C: D:
-2 -3 1 2
2 0 0 0
Reverse reaction: (Assuming the reaction is 1st order in C and D)
coefficients: C: D: A: B:
exponents: C: D: A: B:
-1 -2 2 3
1 1 0 0
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Heats of Reaction
• Heats of reaction need not be provided for reactions.
• Heats of reaction are typically calculated as the
difference between inlet and outlet enthalpies for the
reactor (see Appendix A).
• If you have a heat of reaction value that does not match
the value calculated by Aspen Plus, you can adjust the
heats of formation (DHFORM) of one or more
components to make the heats of reaction match.
• Heats of reaction can also be calculated or specified at a
reference temperature and pressure in an RStoic
reactor.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Reactor Workshop
• Objective - Compare the use of different reactor types to model
one reaction.
• Reactor Conditions:
Temperature = 70 C
Pressure = 1 atm
• Stoichiometry:
Ethanol + Acetic Acid <--> Ethyl Acetate + Water
• Kinetic Parameters:
– Forward Reaction: Pre-exp. Factor = 1.9 x 108, Act. Energy = 5.95 x 107 J/kmol
– Reverse Reaction: Pre-exp. Factor = 5.0 x 107, Act. Energy = 5.95 x 107 J/kmol
– Reactions are first order with respect to each of the reactants in the reaction (second
order overall).
– Reactions occur in the liquid phase.
– Composition basis is Molarity.
Hint: Check that each reactor is considering both Vapor and Liquid as Valid
phases.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Temp = 70 C
Pres = 1 atm
Feed:
Water: 8.892 kmol/hr
Ethanol: 186.59 kmol/hr
Acetic Acid: 192.6 kmol/hr
Length = 2 meters
Diameter = 0.3 meters
Volume = 0.14 Cu. M.
70 % conversion of ethanol
When finished, save as
filename: REACTORS.BKP
Use the NRTL-RK
property method
RSTOIC
F-STOIC
P-STOIC
RGIBBS
F-GIBBS P-GIBBS
RPLUG
F-PLUG P-PLUG
DUPL
FEED
F-CSTR
RCSTR
P-CSTR
Reactor Workshop (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Cyclohexane Production Workshop
• Objective - Create a flowsheet to model a cyclohexane production
process
• Cyclohexane can be produced by the hydrogenation of benzene in the
following reaction:
C6H6 + 3 H2 = C6H12
Benzene Hydrogen Cyclohexane
• The benzene and hydrogen feeds are combined with recycle hydrogen and
cyclohexane before entering a fixed bed catalytic reactor. Assume a
benzene conversion of 99.8%.
• The reactor effluent is cooled and the light gases separated from the
product stream. Part of the light gas stream is fed back to the reactor as
recycle hydrogen.
• The liquid product stream from the separator is fed to a distillation column to
further remove any dissolved light gases and to stabilize the end product. A
portion of the cyclohexane product is recycled to the reactor to aid in
temperature control.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
C
6
H
6
+ 3 H
2
= C
6
H
12
Benzene Hydrogen Cyclohexane
Use the RK-SOAVE property method
When finished, save as
filename: CYCLOHEX.BKP
Bottoms rate = 99 kmol/hr
P = 25 bar
T = 50 C
Molefrac H2 = 0.975
N2 = 0.005
CH4 = 0.02
Total flow = 330 kmol/hr
T = 40 C
P = 1 bar
Benzene flow = 100 kmol/hr
T = 150C
P = 23 bar
T = 200 C
Pdrop = 1 bar
Benzene conv =
0.998
T = 50 C
Pdrop = 0.5 bar
92% flow to stream H2RCY
30% flow to stream CHRCY
Specify cyclohexane mole
recovery in PRODUCT stream
equal to 0.9999 by varying
Bottoms rate from 97 to 101 kmol/hr
Theoretical Stages = 12
Reflux ratio = 1.2
Partial Condenser with
vapor distillate only
Column Pressure = 15 bar
Feed stage = 8
REACT
FEED-MIX
H2IN
BZIN
H2RCY
CHRCY
RXIN
RXOUT
HP-SEP
VAP
COLUMN
COLFD
LTENDS
PRODUCT
VFLOW
PURGE
LFLOW
LIQ
Cyclohexane Production Workshop
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Physical Properties
Objectives:
Introduce the ideas of property methods and physical property parameters
Identify issues involved in the choice of a property method
Cover the use of Property Analysis for reporting physical properties
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 7, Physical Property Methods
User Guide, Chapter 8, Physical Property Parameters and Data
User Guide, Chapter 29, Analyzing Properties
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Correct choice of physical property models and accurate physical
property parameters are essential for obtaining accurate simulation
results.
FEED
OVHD
BTMS
COLUMN
5000 lbmol/hr
10 mole % acetone
90 mole % water
Specification: 99.5 mole % acetone recovery
Case Study - Acetone Recovery
Ideal
Approach
Equation of
State Approach
Activity Coefficient
Model Approach
Predicted number of
stages required
Approximate cost in dollars
11
520, 000
7
390, 000
42
880, 000
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
How to Establish Physical Properties
Choose a Property Method
Check Parameters/Obtain
Additional Parameters
Confirm Results
Create the Flowsheet
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Property Methods
• A Property Method is a collection of models and methods
used to calculate physical properties.
• Property Methods containing commonly used
thermodynamic models are provided in Aspen Plus.
• Users can modify existing Property Methods or create
new ones.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Approaches to representing physical properties of
components
• Choice of model types depends on degree of non-ideal
behavior and operating conditions.
Physical Property Models
Ideal Equation of State
(EOS)
Models
Activity
Coefficient
Models
Special
Models
Physical Property Models
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
x
y
x
y
x
y
Ideal vs. Non-Ideal Behavior
• What do we mean by ideal behavior?
– Ideal Gas law and Raoult’s law
• Which systems behave as ideal?
– Non-polar components of similar size and shape
• What controls degree of non-ideality?
– Molecular interactions
e.g. Polarity, size and shape of the molecules
• How can we study the degree of non-ideality of a
system?
– Property plots (e.g. TXY & XY)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
EOS Models Activity Coefficient Models
Limited in ability to represent
non-ideal liquids
Can represent highly non-ideal liquids
Fewer binary parameters
required
Many binary parameters required
Parameters extrapolate
reasonably with temperature
Binary parameters are highly
temperature dependent
Consistent in critical region Inconsistent in critical region
Comparison of EOS and Activity Models
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Common Property Methods
• Equation of State Property Methods
– PENG-ROB
– RK-SOAVE
• Activity Coefficient Property Methods
– NRTL
– UNIFAC
– UNIQUAC
– WILSON
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Henry's Law
• Henry's Law is only used with ideal and activity
coefficient models.
• It is used to determine the amount of a supercritical
component or light gas in the liquid phase.
• Any supercritical components or light gases (CO2, N2,
etc.) should be declared as Henry's components
(Components Henry Comps Selection sheet).
• The Henry's components list ID should be entered on
Properties Specifications Global sheet in the Henry
Components field.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Do you have any polar
components in your system?
Are the operating conditions
near the critical region of the
mixture?
Use activity
coefficient model
with Henry’s Law
Use activity
coefficient
model
Use EOS Model
N
N
N Y
Y
Y
References:
Aspen Plus User Guide, Chapter 7, Physical Property Methods,
gives similar, more detailed guidelines for choosing a
property Method.
Choosing a Property Method - Review
Do you have light gases or
supercritical components
in your system?
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
System Model Type Property Method
Propane, Ethane, Butane EOS RK-SOAVE, PENG-ROB
Benzene, Water Activity Coefficient NRTL-RK, UNIQUAC
Acetone, Water Activity Coefficient NRTL-RK, WILSON
System Property Method
Ethanol, Water
Benzene, Toluene
Acetone, Water, Carbon Dioxide
Water, Cyclohexane
Ethane and Propanol
Choosing a Property Method - Example
• Choose an appropriate Property Method for the following
systems of components at ambient conditions.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
How to Establish Physical Properties
Choose a Property Method
Check Parameters/Obtain
Additional Parameters
Confirm Results
Create the Flowsheet
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Pure Component Parameters
• Represent attributes of a single component
• Input in the Properties Parameters Pure Component folder.
• Stored in databanks such as PURE10, ASPENPCD, SOLIDS, etc.
(The selected databanks are listed on the Components
Specifications Databanks sheet.)
• Parameters retrieved into the Graphical User Interface by selecting
Retrieve Parameter Results from the tools menu.
• Examples
– Scalar: MW for molecular weight
– Temperature-Dependent: PLXANT for parameters in the extended
Antoine vapor pressure model
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Binary Parameters
• Used to describe interactions between two components
• Input in the Properties Parameters Binary Interaction folder
• Stored in binary databanks such as VLE-IG, LLE-ASPEN
• Parameter values from the databanks can be viewed on the input
forms in the Graphical User Interface.
• Parameter forms that include data from the databanks must be
viewed before the flowsheet is complete.
• Examples
– Scalar: RKTKIJ for the Rackett model
– Temperature-Dependent: NRTL for parameters in the NRTL model
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Displaying Property Parameters
• Aspen Plus does not display all databank parameters on
the parameter input forms.
• Select Retrieve Parameter Results from the Tools menu
to retrieve all parameters for the components and
property methods defined in the simulation.
• All results that are currently loaded will be lost. They can
be regenerated by running the simulation again.
• The parameters are viewed on the Properties
Parameters Results forms.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES SECTION
PROPERTY PARAMETERS
-------------------
PARAMETERS ACTUALLY USED IN THE SIMULATION
PURE COMPONENT PARAMETERS
-------------------------
COMPONENT ID: BENZENE
FORMULA: C6H6 NAME: C6H6
SCALAR PARAMETERS
-----------------
PARAM SET DESCRIPTIONS VALUE UNITS SOURCE
NAME NO.
API 1 STANDARD API GRAVITY 28.500 PURE10
CHARGE 1 IONIC CHARGE 0.00000E+00 AQUEOUS
CHI 1 STIEL POLAR FACTOR 0.00000E+00 DEFAULT
DCPLS 1 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIQUID AND 0.31942 CAL/MOL-K PURE10
SOLID CP AT TRIPLE POINT
DGFORM 1 IDEAL GAS GIBBS ENERGY 30.954 KCAL/MOL PURE10
OF FORMATION
Reporting Parameters
• To get a Report of the retrieved parameters in a text file.
– Select Retrieve Parameter Results from the Tools menu,
– Select Report from the View menu.
– Select display report for Simulation and click Ok.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Reporting Physical Property Parameters
• Follow this procedure to obtain a report file containing
values of ALL pure component and binary parameters
for ALL components used in a simulation:
1. On the Setup Report Options Property sheet,
select All physical property parameters used (in SI units) or
select Property parameters’ descriptions, equations, and
sources of data.
2. After running the simulation, export a report (*.rep) file (Select
Export from the File menu).
3. Edit the .rep file using any text editor. (From the Graphical
User Interface, you can choose Report from the View menu.)
The parameters are listed under the heading PARAMETER
VALUES in the physical properties section of the report file.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
How to Establish Physical Properties
Choose a Property Method
Check Parameters/Obtain
Additional Parameters
Confirm Results
Create the Flowsheet
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Property Analysis
• Used to generate simple property diagrams to validate physical property
models and data
• Diagram Types:
– Pure component, e.g. Vapor pressure vs. temperature
– Binary, e.g. TXY, PXY
– Ternary residue maps
• Select Analysis from the Tools menu to start Analysis.
• Additional binary plots are available under the Plot Wizard button on result
form containing raw data.
• When using a binary analysis to check for liquid-liquid phase separation,
remember to choose Vapor-Liquid-Liquid as Valid phases.
• Property analysis input and results can be saved as a form for later
reference and use.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Property Analysis - Common Plots
y-x diagram for METHANOL / PROPANOL
LIQUID MOLEFRAC METHANOL
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
(PRES = 14.7 PSI)
y-x diagram for ETHANOL / TOLUENE
LIQUID MOLEFRAC ETHANOL
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
(PRES = 14.7 PSI)
y-x diagram for TOLUENE / WATER
LIQUID MOLEFRAC TOLUENE
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
(PRES = 14.7 PSI)
XY Plot Showing 2 liquid phases:
Ideal XY Plot: XY Plot Showing Azeotrope:
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
How to Establish Physical Properties
Choose a Property Method
Check Parameters/Obtain
Additional Parameters
Confirm Results
Create the Flowsheet
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Establishing Physical Properties - Review
1. Choose Property Method - Select a Property Method based on
– Components present in simulation
– Operating conditions in simulation
– Available data or parameters for the components
2. Check Parameters - Determine parameters available in Aspen Plus
databanks
3. Obtain Additional Parameters (if necessary) - Parameters that are needed
can be obtained from
– Literature searches (DETHERM, etc.)
– Regression of experimental data (Data Regression)
– Property Constant Estimation (Property Estimation)
4. Confirm Results - Verify choice of Property Method and physical property
data using
– Physical Property Analysis
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Property Sets
• A property set (Prop-Set) is a way of accessing a collection, or set,
of properties as an object with a user-given name. Only the name of
the property set is referenced when using the properties in an
application.
• Use property sets to report thermodynamic, transport, and other
property values.
• Current property set applications include:
– Design specifications, Fortran blocks, sensitivity
– Stream reports
– Physical property tables (Property Analysis)
– Tray properties (RadFrac, MultiFrac, etc.)
– Heating/cooling curves (Flash2, MHeatX, etc.)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Properties included in Prop-Sets
• Properties commonly included in property sets include:
– VFRAC - Molar vapor fraction of a stream
– BETA - Fraction of liquid in a second liquid phase
– CPMX - Constant pressure heat capacity for a mixture
– MUMX - Viscosity for a mixture
• Available properties include:
– Thermodynamic properties of components in a mixture
– Pure component thermodynamic properties
– Transport properties
– Electrolyte properties
– Petroleum-related properties
Reference: Aspen Plus Physical Property Data Reference Manual, Chapter 4, Property Sets, has a
complete list of properties that can be included in a property set.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Use the Properties Prop-Sets form to specify properties in a property set.
• The Search button can be used to search for a property.
• All specified qualifiers apply to each property specified, where
applicable.
• Users can define new properties on the Properties Advanced User-
Properties form by providing a Fortran subroutine.
Specifying Property Sets
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Predefined Property Set Types of Properties
HXDESIGN Heat exchanger design
THERMAL Mixture thermal (HMX, CPMX,
KMX)
TXPORT Transport
VLE Vapor-liquid equilibrium
(PHIMX, GAMMA, PL)
VLLE Vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium
Predefined Property Sets
• Some simulation Templates contain predefined property
sets.
• The following table lists predefined property sets and the
types of properties they contain for the General
Template:
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Stream Results Options
• On the Setup Report Options Stream sheet, use:
– Flow Basis and Fraction Basis check-boxes to specify how
stream composition is reported
– Property Sets button to specify names of property sets
containing additional properties to be reported for each stream
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Definition of Terms
• Property Method - Set of property models and methods
used to calculate the properties required for a simulation
• Property - Calculated physical property value such as
mixture enthalpy
• Property Model - Equation or equations used to
calculate a physical property
• Property Parameter - Constant used in a property
model
• Property Set (Prop-Set) - A method of accessing
properties so that they can be used or tabulated
elsewhere
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Aspen Properties
• Aspen Properties is now a stand-alone product.
• In addition to the standard property features available in
Aspen Plus, Aspen Properties includes:
– Excel Interface
– Web Interface
• Excel Interface is an Excel Add-In that has Excel
functions to do property calculations such as:
– Flash at a given set of conditions
– Calculate a property such as density or viscosity
• Web Interface is currently only available for pure
components.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Physical Properties Workshop
• Objective: Simulate a two-liquid phase settling tank and
investigate the physical properties of the system.
• A refinery has a settling tank that they use to decant off the water
from a mixture of water and a heavy oil. The inlet stream to the tank
also contains some carbon-dioxide and nitrogen. The tank and feed
are at ambient temperature and pressure (70
o
F, 1atm), and have
the following flow rates of the various components:
Water 515 lb/hr
Oil 4322 lb/hr
CO2 751 lb/hr
N2 43 lb/hr
• Use the compound n-decane to represent the oil. It is known that
water and oil form two liquid phases under the conditions in the tank.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Physical Properties Workshop (Continued)
1. Choose an appropriate Property Method to represent this system.
Check to see that the required binary physical property parameters
are available.
2. Retrieve the physical property parameters used in the simulation and
determine the critical temperature for carbon dioxide and water.
TC(carbon dioxide) = _______; TC(water) = _______
3. Using the property analysis feature, verify that the chosen physical
property model and the available parameters predict the formation of
2 liquid phases.
4. Set up a simulation to model the settling tank. Use a Flash3 block to
represent the tank.
5. Modify the stream report to include the constant pressure heat
capacity (CPMX) for each phase (Vapor, 1st Liquid and 2nd Liquid),
and the fraction of liquid in a second liquid phase (BETA), for all
streams.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Physical Properties Workshop (Continued)
This Portion is Optional
• Objective: Generate a table of compositions for each liquid
phase (1st Liquid and 2nd Liquid) at different temperatures for
a mixture of water and oil. Tabulate the vapor pressure of the
components in the same table.
• In addition to the interactive Analysis commands under the Tools
menu, you also can create a Property Analysis manually, using
forms.
• Manually generated Generic Property Analysis is similar to the
interactive Analysis commands, however it is more flexible regarding
input and reporting.
Detailed instructions are on the following slide.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Physical Properties Workshop (Continued)
• Problem Specifications:
1. Create a Generic type property analysis from the Properties/Analysis
Object manager.
2. Generate points along a flash curve.
3. Define component flows of 50 mole water and 50 mole oil.
4. Set Valid phases to Vapor-liquid-liquid.
5. Click on the Range/List button, and vary temperature from 50 to 400 F.
6. Use a vapor fraction of zero.
7. Tabulate a new property set that includes:
a. Mole fraction of water and oil in the 1st and 2nd liquid phases (MOLEFRAC)
b. Mole flow of water and oil in the 1st and 2nd liquid phases (MOLEFLOW)
c. Beta - the fraction of the 1st liquid to the total liquid (BETA)
d. Pure component vapor pressures of water and oil (PL)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Accessing Variables
Objective:
Become familiar with referencing flowsheet
variables
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 18, Accessing Flowsheet Variables
Related Topics:
User Guide, Chapter 20, Sensitivity
User Guide, Chapter 21, Design Specifications
User Guide, Chapter 19, Calculator Blocks and In-Line Fortran
User Guide, Chapter 22, Optimization
User Guide, Chapter 23, Fitting a Simulation Model to Data
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
COLUMN
FEED
OVHD
BTMS
Why Access Variables?
• What is the effect of the reflux ratio of the column on the purity (mole
fraction of component B) of the distillate?
• To perform this analysis, references must be made to 2 flowsheet
quantities, i.e. 2 flowsheet variables must be accessed:
1. The reflux ratio of the column
2. The mole fraction of component B in the stream OVHD
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Accessing Variables
• An accessed variable is a reference to a particular
flowsheet quantity, e.g. temperature of a stream or duty
of a block.
• Accessed variables can be input, results, or both.
• Flowsheet result variables (calculated quantities) should
not be overwritten or varied.
• The concept of accessing variables is used in sensitivity
analyses, design specifications, calculator blocks,
optimization, etc.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Variable Categories
Variable Category Type of Variable
Blocks Block variables and vectors
Streams Stream variables and vectors.
Both non-component variables and
component dependent flow and composition
variables can be accessed.
Model Utility Parameters, balance block and pressure
relief variables
Property Property parameters
Reactions Reactions and chemistry variables
Costing Costing variables
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Variable Definition Dialog Box
• When completing a Define sheet, such as on a Calculator, Design
specification or Sensitivity form, specify the variables on the Variable
Definition dialog box.
• You cannot modify the variables on the Define sheet itself.
• On the Variable Definition dialog box, select the variable category
and Aspen Plus will display the other fields necessary to complete
the variable definition.
• If you are editing an existing variable and want to change the
variable name, click the right mouse button on the Variable Name
field. On the popup menu, click Rename.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Notes
1. If the Mass-Frac, Mole-Frac or StdVol-Frac of a component in a
stream is accessed, it should not be modified. To modify the
composition of a stream, access and modify the Mass-Flow, Mole-
Flow or StdVol-Flow of the desired component.
2. If duty is specified for a block, that duty can be read and written
using the variable DUTY for that block. If the duty for a block is
calculated during simulation, it should be read using the variable
QCALC.
3. PRES is the specified pressure or pressure drop, and PDROP is
pressure drop used in calculating pressure profile in heating or
cooling curves.
4. Only streams that are feeds to the flowsheet should be varied or
modified directly.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Sensitivity Analysis
Objective:
Introduce the use of sensitivity analysis to study
relationships between process variables
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 20, Sensitivity
Related Topics:
User Guide, Chapter 18, Accessing Flowsheet Variables
User Guide, Chapter 19, Calculator Blocks and In-Line Fortran
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Sensitivity Analysis
• Allows user to study the effect of changes in input
variables on process outputs.
• Results can be viewed by looking at the Results form in
the folder for the Sensitivity block.
• Results may be graphed to easily visualize relationships
between different variables.
• Changes made to a flowsheet input quantity in a
sensitivity block do not affect the simulation. The
sensitivity study is run independently of the base-case
simulation.
• Located under /Data/Model Analysis Tools/Sensitivity
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• What is the effect of cooler outlet temperature on the purity of the
product stream?
• What is the manipulated (varied) variable?
• What is the measured (sampled) variable?
Filename: CUMENE-S.BKP
» Cooler outlet temperature
» Purity (mole fraction) of cumene in product stream
REACTOR
FEED
RECYCLE
REAC-OUT
COOL
COOL-OUT
SEP
PRODUCT
Sensitivity Analysis Example
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Sensitivity S-1 Results Summary
VARY 1 COOL PARAM TEMP F
50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350
C
U
M
E
N
E

P
R
O
D
U
C
T

P
U
R
I
T
Y
0
.
8
5
0
.
9
0
.
9
5
1
Sensitivity Analysis Results
• What is happening below 75 F and above 300 F?
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Uses of Sensitivity Analysis
• Studying the effect of changes in input variables on
process (model) outputs
• Graphically representing the effects of input variables
• Verifying that a solution to a design specification is
feasible
• Rudimentary optimization
• Studying time varying variables using a quasi-steady-
state approach
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Sensitivity Analysis
1. Specify measured (sampled) variable(s)
– These are quantities calculated during the simulation to be used in
step 4 (Sensitivity Input Define sheet).
2. Specify manipulated (varied) variable(s)
– These are the flowsheet variables to be varied (Sensitivity Input
Vary sheet).
3. Specify range(s) for manipulated (varied) variable(s)
– Variation for manipulated variable can be specified either as
equidistant points within an interval or as a list of values for the
variable (Sensitivity Input Vary sheet).
4. Specify quantities to calculate and tabulate
– Tabulated quantities can be any valid Fortran expression containing
variables defined in step 1 (Sensitivity Input Tabulate sheet).
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Plotting
1. Select the column containing the X-axis variable and
then select X-Axis Variable from the Plot menu.
2. Select the column containing the Y-axis variable and
then select Y-Axis Variable from the Plot menu.
3. (Optional) Select the column containing the parametric
variable and then select Parametric Variable from the
Plot menu.
4. Select Display Plot from the Plot menu.
Note: To select a column, click on the heading of the
column with the left mouse button.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Notes
1. Only quantities that have been input to the flowsheet
should be varied or manipulated.
2. Multiple inputs can be varied.
3. The simulation is run for every combination of
manipulated (varied) variables.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Sensitivity Analysis Workshop
• Objective: Use a sensitivity analysis to study the effect of the recycle
flowrate on the reactor duty in the cyclohexane flowsheet
• Part A
– Using the cyclohexane production flowsheet Workshop (saved as
CYCLOHEX.BKP), plot the variation of reactor duty (block REACT) as the
recycle split fraction in LFLOW is varied from 0.1 to 0.4.
• Optional Part B
– In addition to the fraction split off as recycle (Part A), vary the conversion of
benzene in the reactor from 0.9 to 1.0. Tabulate the reactor duty and
construct a parametric plot showing the dependence of reactor duty on the
fraction split off as recycle and conversion of benzene.
Note: Both of these studies (parts A and B) should be set up within the same
sensitivity analysis block.
• When finished, save as filename: SENS.BKP.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Cyclohexane Production Workshop
C
6
H
6
+ 3 H
2
= C
6
H
12
Benzene Hydrogen Cyclohexane
Use the RK-SOAVE property method
Bottoms rate = 99 kmol/hr
P = 25 bar
T = 50 C
Molefrac H2 = 0.975
N2 = 0.005
CH4 = 0.02
Total flow = 330 kmol/hr
T = 40 C
P = 1 bar
Benzene flow = 100 kmol/hr
T = 150C
P = 23 bar
T = 200 C
Pdrop = 1 bar
Benzene conv =
0.998
T = 50 C
Pdrop = 0.5 bar
92% flow to stream H2RCY
30% flow to stream CHRCY
Specify cyclohexane mole
recovery of 0.9999 by varying
Bottoms rate from 97 to 101 kmol/hr
Theoretical Stages = 12
Reflux ratio = 1.2
Partial Condenser with
vapor distillate only
Column Pressure = 15 bar
Feed stage = 8
REACT
FEED-MIX
H2IN
BZIN
H2RCY
CHRCY
RXIN
RXOUT
HP-SEP
VAP
COLUMN
COLFD
LTENDS
PRODUCT
VFLOW
PURGE
LFLOW
LIQ
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Design Specifications
Objective:
Introduce the use of design specifications to meet
process design requirements
Aspen Plus References
User Guide, Chapter 21, Design Specifications
Related Topics
User Guide, Chapter 18, Accessing Flowsheet Variables
User Guide, Chapter 19, Calculator Blocks and In-Line Fortran
User Guide, Chapter 17, Convergence
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Design Specifications
• Similar to a feedback controller
• Allows user to set the value of a calculated flowsheet
quantity to a particular value
• Objective is achieved by manipulating a specified input
variable
• No results associated directly with a design specification
• Located under /Data/Flowsheeting Options/Design
Specs
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• What should the cooler outlet temperature be to achieve a cumene
product purity of 98 mole percent?
• What is the manipulated (varied) variable?
• What is the measured (sampled) variable?
• What is the specification (target) to be achieved?
Filename: CUMENE-D.BKP
» Cooler outlet temperature
» Mole fraction of cumene in stream PRODUCT
» Mole fraction of cumene in stream PRODUCT = 0.98
REACTOR
FEED
RECYCLE
REAC-OUT
COOL
COOL-OUT
SEP
PRODUCT
Design Specification Example
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Design Specifications
1. Identify measured (sampled) variables
– These are flowsheet quantities, usually calculated quantities, to be
included in the objective function (Design Spec Define sheet).
2. Specify objective function (Spec) and goal (Target)
– This is the equation that the specification attempts to satisfy
(Design Spec Spec sheet). The units of the variable used in the
objective function are the units for that type of variable as specified
by the Units Set declared for the design specification.
3. Set tolerance for objective function
– The specification is said to be converged if the objective function
equation is satisfied to within this tolerance (Design Spec Spec
sheet).
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Design Specifications (Continued)
4. Specify manipulated (varied) variable
– This is the variable whose value the specification changes in
order to satisfy the objective function equation (Design Spec
Vary sheet).
5. Specify range of manipulated (varied) variable
– These are the lower and upper bounds of the interval within
which Aspen Plus will vary the manipulated variable (Design
Spec Vary sheet). The units of the limits for the varied
variable are the units for that type of variable as specified by
the Units Set declared for the design specification.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Notes
1. Only quantities that have been input to the flowsheet should be
manipulated.
2. The calculations performed by a design specification are iterative.
Providing a good estimate for the manipulated variable will help the
design specification converge in fewer iterations. This is especially
important for large flowsheets with several interrelated design
specifications.
3. The results of a design specification can be found under
Data/Convergence/Convergence, by opening the appropriate
solver block, and choosing the Results form. Alternatively, the final
values of the manipulated and/or sampled variables can be viewed
directly on the appropriate Stream/Block results forms.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Notes (Continued)
4. If a design-spec does not converge:
a. Check to see that the manipulated variable is not at its lower
or upper bound.
b. Verify that a solution exists within the bounds specified for
the manipulated variable, perhaps by performing a
sensitivity analysis.
c. Check to ensure that the manipulated variable does indeed
affect the value of the sampled variables.
d. Try providing a better starting estimate for the value of the
manipulated variable.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Notes (Continued)
e. Try narrowing the bounds of the manipulated variable or
loosening the tolerance on the objective function to help
convergence.
f. Make sure that the objective function does not have a flat
region within the range of the manipulated variable.
g. Try changing the characteristics of the convergence block
associated with the design-spec (step size, number of
iterations, algorithm, etc.)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Design Specification Workshop
• Objective: Use a design specification in the cyclohexane
flowsheet to fix the heat load on the reactor by varying the
recycle flowrate.
• The cyclohexane production flowsheet workshop (saved as
CYCLOHEX.BKP) is a model of an existing plant. The cooling
system around the reactor can handle a maximum operating load of
4.7 MMkcal/hr. Determine the amount of cyclohexane recycle
necessary to keep the cooling load on the reactor to this amount.
Note: The heat convention used in Aspen Plus is that heat input to a
block is positive, and heat removed from a block is negative.
• When finished, save as filename: DES-SPEC.BKP
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Cyclohexane Production Workshop
C
6
H
6
+ 3 H
2
= C
6
H
12
Benzene Hydrogen Cyclohexane
Use the RK-SOAVE property method
Bottoms rate = 99 kmol/hr
P = 25 bar
T = 50 C
Molefrac H2 = 0.975
N2 = 0.005
CH4 = 0.02
Total flow = 330 kmol/hr
T = 40 C
P = 1 bar
Benzene flow = 100 kmol/hr
T = 150C
P = 23 bar
T = 200 C
Pdrop = 1 bar
Benzene conv =
0.998
T = 50 C
Pdrop = 0.5 bar
92% flow to stream H2RCY
30% flow to stream CHRCY
Specify cyclohexane mole
recovery of 0.9999 by varying
Bottoms rate from 97 to 101 kmol/hr
Theoretical Stages = 12
Reflux ratio = 1.2
Partial Condenser with
vapor distillate only
Column Pressure = 15 bar
Feed stage = 8
REACT
FEED-MIX
H2IN
BZIN
H2RCY
CHRCY
RXIN
RXOUT
HP-SEP
VAP
COLUMN
COLFD
LTENDS
PRODUCT
VFLOW
PURGE
LFLOW
LIQ
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Calculator Blocks
Objective:
Introduce usage of Excel and Fortran Calculator blocks
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 19, Calculator Blocks and In-Line Fortran
Related Topics:
User Guide, Chapter 20, Sensitivity
User Guide, Chapter 21, Design Specifications
User Guide, Chapter 18, Accessing Flowsheet Variables
User Guide, Chapter 22, Optimization
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Calculator Blocks
• Allows user to write equations in an Excel spreadsheet
or in Fortran to be executed by Aspen Plus
• Results of the execution of a Calculator block must be
viewed by directly examining the values of the variables
modified by the Calculator block.
• Increasing the diagnostics for the Calculator block will
print the value of all input and result variables in the
Control Panel.
• Located under /Data/Flowsheeting Options/Calculator
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Use of a Calculator block to set the pressure drop across
a Heater block.
• Pressure drop across heater is proportional to square of
volumetric flow into heater.
Calculator Block
DELTA-P = -10
-9
* V
2
V
Filename: CUMENE-F.BKP
or CUMENE-EXCEL.BKP
DELTA-P
REACTOR
FEED
RECYCLE
REAC-OUT
COOL
COOL-OUT
SEP
PRODUCT
Calculator Block Example
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Which flowsheet variables must be accessed?
• When should the Calculator block be executed?
• Which variables are imported and which are exported?
» Volumetric flow of stream REAC-OUT
This can be accessed in two different ways:
1. Mass flow and mass density of stream REAC-OUT
2. A prop-set containing volumetric flow of a mixture
» Pressure drop across block COOL
» Before block COOL
» Volumetric flow is imported
» Pressure drop is exported
Calculator Block Example (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Import Variables
Export Variable
=(-10^-9)*B6^2
=FLOW/DENS
Connect Current Cell
to a Defined Variable
Aspen Plus toolbar in Excel
Excel
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Calculator Blocks
1. Access flowsheet variables to be used within Calculator
– All flowsheet quantities that must be either read from or written
to, must be identified (Calculator Input Define sheet).
2. Write Fortran or Excel
– Fortran includes both non-executable (COMMON,
EQUIVALENCE, etc) Fortran (click on the Fortran Declarations
button) and executable Fortran (Calculator Input Calculate
sheet) to achieve desired result.
3. Specify location of Calculator block in execution
sequence (Calculator Input Sequence sheet)
– Specify directly, or
– Specify with import and export variables
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Uses of Calculator Blocks
• Feed-forward control (setting flowsheet inputs based on
upstream calculated values)
• Calling external subroutines
• Input / output to and from external files
• Writing to an external file, or the Control Panel, History
File, or Report File
• Custom reports
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Increasing Diagnostics
Calculator Block F-1
VALUES OF ACCESSED VARIABLES
VARIABLE VALUE
======== =====
DP -2.032782930000
FLOW 5428.501858128
DENS 0.1204020367004
RETURNED VALUES OF VARIABLES
VARIABLE VALUE
======== =====
DP -2.032790410000
Increase Calculator defined
variables Diagnostics message level
in Control Panel or History file to 8.
In the Control Panel
or History File
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Excel
• Excel workbook is embedded into simulation for each
Calculator block.
• When saving as a backup (.bkp file), a .apmbd file is
created. This file needs to be in the working directory.
• Full functionality of Excel is available including VBA and
Macros.
• Cells that contain Import variables have a green border.
Cells that contain Export variables have a blue border.
Cells that contain Tear variables have an orange border.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Excel (Continued)
• Variables can be defined in Aspen Plus on the Define
sheet or in Excel using the Aspen Plus toolbar. (It is
generally faster to add variables inside Aspen Plus.)
• No Fortran compiler is needed.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Excel Aspen Plus Toolbar
• Connect Cell Combo Box
– Use this Combo Box to attach the current cell on the Excel spreadsheet to
a Defined Variable. If the Defined Variable chosen is already connected
to another cell, the link between that cell and the Defined Variable is
broken.
• Define Button
– Click the Define Button to create a new Defined Variable or to edit an
existing one. If this cell is already connected to a Defined Variable,
clicking on this button will allow you to edit it. If this cell is not connected
to a Defined Variable, clicking on this button will create a new Defined
Variable.
• Unlink Button
– Click the Unlink Button to remove the link between a cell and a Defined
Variable. Clicking on this button does not delete the Defined Variable.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Excel Aspen Plus Toolbar (Continued)
• Delete Button
– Click the Delete Button to remove the link between a cell and a
Defined variable and delete the Defined Variable.
• Refresh Button
– Click the Refresh Button to refresh the list of Defined Variables in the
Connect Cell Combo Box. You should click this button if you have
changed the list of Defined Variables by making changes on the
Calculator Define sheet.
• Changed Button
– Click the Changed Button to set the "Input Changed" flag of this
Calculator block. This will cause the Calculator to be re-executed the
next time you run the simulation. You should click this button if, after
the calculator block is executed, you make changes to the Excel
spreadsheet without making any changes on the Calculator block
forms.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Windows Interoperability
Objective:
Introduce the use of windows interoperability to transfer
data easily to and from other Windows programs.
Aspen Plus References
User Guide, Chapter 37, Working with Other Windows Programs
User Guide, Chapter 38, Using the Aspen Plus ActiveX Automation Server
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Windows Interoperability
• Copying and pasting simulation data into spreadsheets
or reports
• Copying and pasting flowsheet graphics and plots into
reports
• Creating active links between Aspen Plus and other
Windows applications
• OLE - Object Linking and Embedding
• ActiveX automation
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Windows Interoperability - Examples
• Copy simulation results such as column profiles and stream results
into
– Spreadsheet for further analysis
– Word processor for reports and documentation
– Design program
– Database for case storage and management
• Copy flowsheet graphics and plots into
– Word processor for reports
– Slide making program for presentations
• Copy tabular data from spreadsheets into Aspen Plus for Data
Regression, Data-Fit, etc.
• Copy plots or tables into the Process Flowsheet Window.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Benefits of Windows Interoperability
• Benefits of Copy/Paste/Paste Link
– Live data links can be established that update these
applications as the process model is changed to automatically
propagate results of engineering changes.
– The benefits to the engineer are quick and error-free data
transfer and consistent engineering results throughout the
engineering work process.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Copy and Paste
1. Select
– Select the data fields or the graphical objects.
• Multiple fields of data or objects can be selected by holding down
the CTRL key while clicking the mouse on the fields.
• Columns of data can be selected by clicking the column heading, or
an entire grid can be selected by clicking on the top left cell.
2. Copy
– Choose Copy from the Edit menu or type CTRL-C.
3. Paste
– Click the mouse in the input field where you want the
information and choose Paste from the Edit menu or click
CTRL-V.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
OLE - Object Linking and Embedding
• What is OLE?
– Applications can be used within applications.
• Uses of OLE
– Aspen Plus as the OLE server: Aspen Plus flowsheet graphics
can be embedded into a report document, or stream data into a
CAD drawing. The simulation model is actually contained in
the document, and could be delivered directly with that
document.
– Aspen Plus as the OLE container: Other windows applications
can be embedded within the Aspen Plus simulation.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
OLE (Continued)
• Examples of OLE
– OLE server: If the recipient of an engineering report, for
example, wanted to review the model assumptions, he could
access and run the embedded Aspen Plus model directly from
the report document.
– OLE container: For example, Excel spreadsheets and plots
could be used to enhance Aspen Plus flowsheet graphics.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Embedding Objects in the Flowsheet
• You can embed other applications as objects into the
Process Flowsheet window.
• You can do this in two ways:
– Using Copy and Paste
– Using the Insert dialog box
• You can edit the object embedded in the flowsheet by
double clicking on the object to edit it inside Aspen Plus.
• You can also move, resize or attach the object to a block
or stream in the flowsheet.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Copy and Paste Workshop 1
Objectives:
Use copy and paste to copy and paste the stage temperatures into a
spreadsheet.
Use the Cyclohexane flowsheet workshop (saved as CYCLOHEX.BKP)
Copy the temperature profile from COLUMN into a spreadsheet.
Generate a plot of the temperature using the plot wizard and copy and paste
the plot into the spreadsheet.
Save the spreadsheet as CYCLOHEX-result.xls
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Copy and Paste Workshop 2
• Objective: Use copy and paste to copy the stream
results to a stream input form.
• Use the Cyclohexane flowsheet workshop (saved as
CYCLOHEX.BKP)
• Copy the stream results from stream RXIN into the input
form.
– Copy the compositions, the temperature and the pressure
separately.
Note: Reinitialize before running the simulation in order to
see how many iterations are needed before and
after the estimate is added.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Creating Active Links
• When copying and pasting information, you can create
active links between input or results fields in Aspen Plus
and other applications such as Word and Excel.
• The links update these applications as the process
model is modified to automatically propagate results of
engineering changes.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Creating Active Links
1. Open both applications.
2. Select the data (or object) that you want to paste and
link.
3. Choose Copy from the Edit menu.
4. In the location where you want to paste the link, choose
Paste Special from the Edit menu.
5. In the Paste Special dialog box, click the Paste Link
radio button.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Paste Link Demonstration
• Objective: Create an active link from Aspen Plus Results into a
spreadsheet.
• Start with the cumene flowsheet demonstration.
• Open a spreadsheet and create a cell with the temperature for the
cooler in it.
• Copy and paste the link into the Aspen Plus flowsheet.
• Copy and paste a link with the flow and composition of cumene in
the product stream into the spreadsheet.
• Change the temperature in the spreadsheet and then rerun the
flowsheet. Notice the changes.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Paste Link Workshop
• Objective: Create an active link from Aspen Plus results into a
spreadsheet
• Use the Cyclohexane flowsheet workshop (saved as
CYCLOHEX.BKP)
• Copy the Condenser and Reboiler duty results from the RadFrac
COLUMN Summary sheet. Use Copy with Format and copy the
value, the label and the units.
• Paste the results into the CYCLOHEX-results.xls spreadsheet as a
link. Use Paste Special and choose Link.
• Change the Reflux ratio in the column to 2 and rerun the flowsheet.
Check the spreadsheet to see that the results have changed there
also. Notice that the temperature profile results have not changed
since they were not pasted as a link.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Saving Files with Active Links
• Be sure to save both the link source file and the link
container file.
• If you save the link source with a different name, you
must save the link container after saving the link source.
• If you have active links in both directions between the
two applications and you change the name of both files,
you must do three Save operations:
– Save the first application with a new name.
– Save the second application with a new name.
– Save the first application again.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Running Files with Active Links
• When you open the link source file, there is nothing
special that you need to do.
• When you open the link container file, you will usually
see a dialog box asking you if you want to re-establish
the links. You can select Yes or No.
• To make a link source application visible:
– Select Links, from the Edit menu in Aspen Plus.
– In the Links dialog box, select the source file and click Open
Source.
Note: The Process Flowsheet must be the active window.
Links is not an option on the Edit menu if the Data
Browser is active.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Heat Exchangers
Objective:
Introduce the unit operation models used for heat
exchangers and heaters.
Aspen Plus References:
Unit Operation Models Reference Manual, Chapter 3, Heat Exchangers
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Heat Exchanger Blocks
• Heater - Heater or cooler
• HeatX - Two stream heat exchanger
• MHeatX - Multi-stream heat exchanger
• Hetran - Interface to B-JAC Hetran block
• Aerotran - Interface to B-JAC Aerotran block
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with the Heater Model
• The Heater block mixes multiple inlet streams to produce
a single outlet stream at a specified thermodynamic
state.
• Heater can be used to represent:
– Heaters
– Coolers
– Valves
– Pumps (when work-related results are not needed)
– Compressors (when work-related results are not needed)
• Heater can also be used to set the thermodynamic
conditions of a stream.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Heater Input Specifications
• Allowed combinations:
– Pressure (or Pressure drop) and one of:
• Outlet temperature
• Heat duty or inlet heat stream
• Vapor fraction
• Temperature change
• Degrees of subcooling or superheating
– Outlet Temperature or Temperature change and one of:
• Pressure
• Heat Duty
• Vapor fraction
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Heater Input Specifications (Continued)
• For single phase use Pressure (drop) and one of:
– Outlet temperature
– Heat duty or inlet heat stream
– Temperature change
• Vapor fraction of 1 means dew point condition,
0 means bubble point
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Heat Streams
• Any number of inlet heat streams can be specified for a
Heater.
• One outlet heat stream can be specified for the net heat
load from a Heater.
• The net heat load is the sum of the inlet heat streams
minus the actual (calculated) heat duty.
• If you give only one specification (temperature or
pressure), Heater uses the sum of the inlet heat streams
as a duty specification.
• If you give two specifications, Heater uses the heat
streams only to calculate the net heat duty.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with the HeatX Model
• HeatX can perform simplified or rigorous rating
calculations.
• Simplified rating calculations (heat and material balance
calculations) can be performed if exchanger geometry is
unknown or unimportant.
• For rigorous heat transfer and pressure drop
calculations, the heat exchanger geometry must be
specified.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with the HeatX Model (Continued)
• HeatX can model shell-and-tube exchanger types:
– Counter-current and co-current
– Segmental baffle TEMA E, F, G, H, J and X shells
– Rod baffle TEMA E and F shells
– Bare and low-finned tubes
• HeatX performs:
– Full zone analysis
– Heat transfer and pressure drop calculations
– Sensible heat, nucleate boiling, condensation
film coefficient calculations
– Built-in or user specified correlations
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with the HeatX Model (Continued)
• HeatX cannot:
– Perform design calculations
– Perform mechanical vibration analysis
– Estimate fouling factors
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
HeatX Input Specifications
• Select one of the following specifications:
– Heat transfer area or Geometry
– Exchanger duty
– For hot or cold outlet stream:
• Temperature
• Temperature change
• Temperature approach
• Degrees of superheating / subcooling
• Vapor fraction
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with the MHeatX Model
• MHeatX can be used to represent heat transfer between
multiple hot and cold streams.
• Detailed, rigorous internal zone analysis can be
performed to determine pinch points.
• MHeatX uses multiple Heater blocks and heat streams to
enhance flowsheet convergence.
• Two-stream heat exchangers can also be modeled using
MHeatX.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
HeatX versus Heater
• Consider the following:
– Use HeatX when both sides are important.
– Use Heater when one side (e.g. the utility) is not important.
– Use two Heaters (coupled by heat stream, Calculator block or
design spec) or an MHeatX to avoid flowsheet complexity
created by HeatX.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Two Heaters versus One HeatX
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with Hetran and Aerotran
• The Hetran block is the interface to the B-JAC Hetran
program for designing and simulating shell and tube heat
exchangers.
• The Aerotran block is the interface to the B-JAC Aerotran
program for designing and simulating air-cooled heat
exchangers.
• Information related to the heat exchanger configuration
and geometry is entered through the Hetran or Aerotran
standalone program interface.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with HTRI-IST
• The HTRIIST block called HTRI IST as a subroutine for
licensed IST users only.
• Aspen Plus properties are used.
• Users can create a new IST model or access an existing
model.
• Key IST results are retrieved and reported inside Aspen
Plus.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Heat Curves
• All of the heat exchanger models are able to calculate
Heat Curves (Hcurves).
• Tables can be generated for various independent
variables (typically duty or temperature) for any property
that Aspen Plus can generate.
• These tables can be printed, plotted, or exported for use
with other heat exchanger design software.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Heat Curves Tabular Results
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Heat Curve Plot
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
HeatX Workshop
• Objective: Compare the simulation of a heat exchanger that uses
water to cool a hydrocarbon mixture using three methods: a shortcut
HeatX, a rigorous HeatX and two Heaters connected with a Heat
stream.
• Hydrocarbon stream
– Temperature: 200 C
– Pressure: 4 bar
– Flowrate: 10000 kg/hr
– Composition: 50 wt% benzene, 20% styrene,
20% ethylbenzene and 10% water
• Cooling water
– Temperature: 20 C
– Pressure: 10 bar
– Flow rate: 60000 kg/hr
– Composition: 100% water
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RHEATX
RHOT-IN
RCLD-IN RCLD-OUT
RHOT-OUT
SHEATX
SHOT-IN
SCLD-IN SCLD-OUT
SHOT-OUT
HEATER-1
HCLD-IN
Q-TRANS
HCLD-OUT
HEATER-2
HHOT-IN HHOT-OUT
Start with the General with Metric Units Template.
Use the NRTL-RK Property Method for the hydrocarbon streams.
Specify that the valid phases for the hydrocarbon stream is Vapor-Liquid-Liquid.
Specify that the Steam Tables are used to calculate the properties for the cooling water
streams on the Block BlockOptions Properties sheet.
When finished, save as filename: HEATX.BKP
HeatX Workshop (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
HeatX Workshop (Continued)
• Shortcut HeatX simulation:
– Hydrocarbon stream exit has a vapor fraction of 0
– No pressure drop in either stream
• Two Heaters simulation:
– Use the same specifications as the shortcut HeatX simulation
• Rigorous HeatX simulation:
– Hydrocarbons in shell leave with a vapor fraction of 0
– Shell diameter 1 m, 1 tube pass
– 300 bare tubes, 3 m length, pitch 31 mm, 21 mm ID, 25 mm OD
– All nozzles 100 mm
– 5 baffles, 15% cut
– Create heat curves containing all info required for thermal design.
– Change the heat exchanger specification to Geometry and re-run.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Pressure Changers
Objective:
Introduce the unit operation models used to change pressure:
pumps, compressors, and models for calculating pressure
change through pipes and valves.
Aspen Plus References:
Unit Operation Models Reference Manual, Chapter 6, Pressure Changers
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Pressure Changer Blocks
• Pump - Pump or hydraulic turbine
• Compr - Compressor or turbine
• MCompr - Multi-stage compressor or turbine
• Valve - Control valve
• Pipe - Single-segment pipe
• Pipeline - Multi-segment pipe
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with the Pump Model
• The Pump block can be used to simulate:
– Pumps
– Hydraulic turbines
• Power requirement is calculated or input.
• A Heater model can be used for pressure change
calculations only.
• Pump is designed to handle a single liquid phase.
• Vapor-liquid or vapor-liquid-liquid calculations can be
specified to check outlet stream phases.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Pump Performance Curves
• Rating can be done by specifying scalar parameters or a
pump performance curve.
• Specify:
– Dimensional curves
• Head versus flow
• Power versus flow
– Dimensionless curves:
• Head coefficient versus flow coefficient
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with the Compr Model
• The Compr block can be used to simulate:
– Polytropic centrifugal compressor
– Polytropic positive displacement compressor
– Isentropic compressor
– Isentropic turbine
• MCompr is used for multi-stage compressors.
• Power requirement is calculated or input.
• A Heater model can be used for pressure change calculations only.
• Compr is designed to handle both single and multiple phase
calculations.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with the MCompr Model
• The MCompr block can be used to simulate:
– Multi-stage polytropic centrifugal compressor
– Multi-stage polytropic positive displacement compressor
– Multi-stage isentropic compressor
– Multi-stage isentropic turbine
• MCompr can have an intercooler between each stage,
and an aftercooler after the last stage.
– You can perform one-, two-, or three- phase flash calculations
in the intercoolers.
– Each cooler can have a liquid knockout stream, except the
cooler after the last stage.
– Intercooler specifications apply to all subsequent coolers.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Compressor Performance Curves
• Rating can be done by specifying a compressor
performance curve.
• Specify:
– Dimensional curves
• Head versus flow
• Power versus flow
– Dimensionless curves:
• Head coefficient versus flow coefficient
• Compr cannot handle performance curves for a turbine.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Work Streams
• Any number of inlet work streams can be specified for
pumps and compressors.
• One outlet work stream can be specified for the net work
load from pumps or compressors.
• The net work load is the sum of the inlet work streams
minus the actual (calculated) work.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with the Valve Model
• The Valve block can be used to simulate:
– Control valves
– Pressure drop
• The pressure drop across a valve is related to the valve
flow coefficient.
• Flow is assumed to be adiabatic.
• Valve can perform single or multiple phase calculations.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with the Valve Model (Continued)
• The effect of head loss from pipe fittings can be included.
• There are three types of calculations:
– Adiabatic flash for specified outlet pressure (pressure changer)
– Calculate valve flow coefficient for specified outlet pressure
(design)
– Calculate outlet pressure for specified valve (rating)
• Valve can check for choked flow.
• Cavitation index can be calculated.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Working with the Pipe Model
• The Pipe block calculates the pressure drop and heat transfer in a
single pipe segment.
• The Pipeline block can be used for a multiple-segment pipe.
• Pipe can perform single or multiple phase calculations.
• If the inlet pressure is known, Pipe calculates the outlet pressure.
• If the outlet pressure is known, Pipe calculates the inlet pressure
and updates the state variables of the inlet stream.
• Entrance effects are not modeled.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Filename: CUMENE-P.BKP
REACTOR
FEED
RECYCLE
REAC-OUT
COOL
COOL-OUT
SEP
PRODUCT
COMPR
RECYCLE2
VALVE
RECYCLE3
Outlet Pressure = 3 psig
Polytropic compressor model
using GPSA method
Discharge pressure = 5 psig
Pressure Changers Block Example
• Add a Compressor and a Valve to the cumene flowsheet.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Pressure Changers Workshop
• Objective: Add pressure changer unit operations to
the Cyclohexane flowsheet.
• Start with the Cyclohexane Workshop flowsheet
(CYCLOHEX.BKP)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
FEED-MIX
H2IN
CHRCY3
H2RCY2
BZIN2
RXIN
REACT
RXOUT
HP-SEP
LIQ
VAP
COLUMN
COLFD
LTENDS
PRODUCT
VFLOW
H2RCY
PURGE
LFLOW
CHRCY
PUMP
CHRCY2
PIPE
COMP
FEEDPUMP
BZIN
VALVE
PURGE2
When finished, save as
filename: PRESCHNG.BKP
Pump efficiency = 0.6
Driver efficiency = 0.9
Performance Curve
Head Flow
[m] [cum/hr]
40 20
250 10
300 5
400 3
Carbon Steel
Schedule 40
1-in diameter
25-m length
26 bar outlet pressure
20 bar outlet pressure
Globe valve
V810 equal percent flow
1.5-in size
Isentropic
4 bar pressure change
Pressure Changers Workshop (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Flowsheet Convergence
Objective:
Introduce the idea of convergence blocks, tear
streams and flowsheet sequences
Aspen Plus References
User Guide, Chapter 17, Convergence
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Convergence Blocks
• Every design specification and tear stream has an associated
convergence block.
• Convergence blocks determine how guesses for a tear stream or
design specification manipulated variable are updated from iteration
to iteration.
• Aspen Plus-defined convergence block names begin with the
character “$.”
– User defined convergence block names must not begin with the
character “$.”
• To determine the convergence blocks defined by Aspen Plus, look
under the “Flowsheet Analysis” section in the Control Panel
messages.
• User convergence blocks can be specified under
/Data/Convergence/Convergence...
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Convergence Block Types
• Different types of convergence blocks are used for different purposes:
– To converge tear streams:
• WEGSTEIN
• DIRECT
• BROYDEN
• NEWTON
– To converge design specifications:
• SECANT
• BROYDEN
• NEWTON
– To converge design specifications and tear streams:
• BROYDEN
• NEWTON
– For optimization:
• SQP
• COMPLEX
• Global convergence options can be specified on the Convergence
ConvOptions Defaults form.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Flowsheet Sequence
• To determine the flowsheet sequence calculated by
Aspen Plus, look under the “COMPUTATION ORDER
FOR THE FLOWSHEET” section in the Control Panel, or
on the left-hand pane of the Control Panel window.
• User-determined sequences can be specified on the
Convergence Sequence form.
• User-specified sequences can be either full or partial.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Which are the recycle streams?
• Which are the possible tear streams?
• A tear stream is one for which Aspen Plus makes an
initial guess, and iteratively updates the guess until two
consecutive guesses are within a specified tolerance.
• Tear streams are related to, but not the same as recycle
streams.
S1 S2 S3
S6
S4
S7
S5
MIXER
B1
MIXER
B2
FSPLIT
B3
FSPLIT
B4
Tear Streams
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Tear Streams (Continued)
• To determine the tear streams chosen by Aspen Plus,
look under the “Flowsheet Analysis” section in the
Control Panel.
• User-determined tear streams can be specified on the
Convergence Tear form.
• Providing estimates for tear streams can facilitate or
speed up flowsheet convergence (highly recommended,
otherwise the default is zero).
• If you enter information for a stream that is in a “loop,”
Aspen Plus will automatically try to choose that stream to
be a tear stream.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Reconciling Streams
• Simulation results for a stream can be copied onto the its
input form.
• Select a stream on the flowsheet, click the right mouse
button and select “Reconcile” from the list to copy stream
results to the input form.
– Two state variables must be selected for the stream flash
calculation.
– Component flows, or component fractions and total flow can be
copied.
– Mole, mass, or standard liquid volume basis can be selected.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Objective
– Converge this flowsheet.
– Start with the file CONVERGE.BKP.
LIQ
VAPOR
FEED-HT
FEED
BOT
DIST
BOT-COOL
GLYCOL
COLUMN
PREHEATR
PREFLASH
T=165 F
P=15 psia
100 lbmol/hr
XH20 = 0.4
XMethanol = 0.3
XEthanol = 0.3
Area = 65 sqft
DP=0
Q=0
Theoretical Stages = 10
Reflux Ratio = 5
Distillate to Feed Ratio = 0.2
Feed Stage = 5
Column Pressure = 1 atm
Total Condenser
Use NRTL-RK Property Method
T=70 F
P=35 psia
50 lbmol/hr Ethylene Glycol
When finished, save as
filename: CONV-R.BKP
Convergence Workshop
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Convergence Workshop (Continued)
• Hints for Convergence Workshop
– Questions to ask yourself:
• What messages are displayed in the control panel?
• Why do some of the blocks show zero flow?
• What is the Aspen Plus-generated execution sequence for the
flowsheet?
• Which stream does Aspen Plus choose as a tear stream?
• What are other possible tear streams?
– Recommendation
• Give initial estimates for a tear stream.
• Of the three possible tear streams you could choose, which do you
know the most about? (Note: If you enter information for a stream that
is in a “loop,” Aspen Plus will automatically choose that stream to be a
tear stream and set up a convergence block for it.)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Convergence Workshop (Continued)
• Questions to ask yourself:
– Does the flowsheet converge after entering initial estimates for the tear
stream?
– If not, why not? (see control panel)
– How is the err/tol value behaving, and what is its value at the end of the run?
– Does it appear that increasing the number of convergence iterations will help?
– What else can be tried to improve this convergence?
• Recommendation
– Try a different convergence algorithm (e.g. Direct, Broyden, or Newton).
Note: You can either manually create a convergence block to converge the
tear stream of your choice, or you can change the default convergence
method for all tear streams on the Convergence
Conv Options Defaults Default Methods sheet.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Full-Scale Plant Modeling Workshop
• Objective: Practice and apply many of the
techniques used in this course and learn how to best
approach modeling projects
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Full-Scale Plant Modeling Workshop
• Objective: Model a methanol plant.
• The process being modeled is a methanol plant. The
basic feed streams to the plant are Natural Gas, Carbon
Dioxide (assumed to be taken from a nearby Ammonia
Plant) and Water. The aim is to achieve the methanol
production rate of approximately 62,000 kg/hr, at a purity
of at least 99.95 % wt.
• This is a large flowsheet that would take an experienced
engineer more than an afternoon to complete. Start
building the flowsheet and think about how you would
work to complete the project.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
General Guidelines
• Build the flowsheet one section at a time.
• Simplify whenever possible. Complexity can always be
added later.
• Investigate the physical properties.
– Use Analysis.
– Check if binary parameters are available.
– Check for two liquid phases.
– Use an appropriate equation of state for the portions of the
flowsheet involving gases and use an activity coefficient model
for the sections where non-ideal liquids may be present.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
FURNACE
Fuel
Air
MEOHRXR
SPLIT1
MIX2
E121
COOL4
FL3
SYNCOMP
FL1
FL2
COOL1
COOL3
COOL2
BOILER
E122
CIRC
E124
E223
FL4
SPLIT2
FL5
M4
MKWATER
TOPPING
REFINING
M2
SATURATE
FEEDHTR
REFORMER
NATGAS
H2OCIRC
MKUPST
CH4COMP
CO2
CO2COMP
M1
Full-Scale Plant Modeling Workshop
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
M2
SATURATE
FEEDHTR
REFORMER
NATGAS
H2OCIRC
MKUPST
CH4COMP
CO2
CO2COMP
From Furnace
To BOILER
M1
Part 1: Front-End Section
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Part 1: Front-End Section (Continued)
• Carbon Dioxide Stream – CO2
– Temperature = 43 C
– Pressure = 1.4 bar
– Flow = 24823 kg/hr
– Mole Fraction
• CO2 - 0.9253
• H2 - 0.0094
• H2O - 0.0606
• CH4 - 0.0019
• N2 - 0.0028
• Natural Gas Stream - NATGAS
– Temperature = 26 C
– Pressure = 21.7 bar
– Flow = 29952 kg/hr
– Mole Fraction
• CO2 - 0.0059
• CH4 - 0.9539
• N2 - 0.0008
• C2H6 - 0.0391
• C3H8 - 0.0003
• Circulation Water - H2OCIRC
– Pure water stream
– Flow = 410000 kg/hr
– Temperature = 195 C
– Pressure = 26 bar
• Makeup Steam - MKUPST
– Stream of pure steam
– Flow = 40000 kg/hr
– Pressure = 26 bar
– Vapor Fraction = 1
– Adjust the makeup steam flow to
achieve a desired steam to methane
molar ratio of 2.8 in the Reformer feed
REFFEED.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Part 1: Front-End Section (Continued)
• Carbon Dioxide Compressor - CO2COMP
– Discharge Pressure = 27.5 bar
– Compressor Type = 2 stage
• Natural Gas Compressor - CH4COMP
– Discharge Pressure = 27.5 bar
– Compressor Type = single stage
• Reformer Process Side Feed Stream Pre-Heater - FEEDHTR
– Exit Temperature = 560 C
– Pressure drop = 0
• Saturation Column - SATURATE
– 1.5 inch metal pall ring packing.
– Estimated HETP = 10 x 1.5 inches = 381 mm
– Height of Packing = 15 meters
– No condenser and no reboiler.
• Reformer Reactor - REFORMER
– Consists of two parts: the Furnace portion and the Steam Reforming portion
– Exit Temperature of the Steam Reforming portion = 860 C
– Pressure = 18 bar
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Part 1: Front-End Section Check
Reformer Product
Temperature C 860
Pressure bar 18
Vapor Frac 1
Mole Flow kmol/hr 10266.6541
Mass Flow kg/hr 139696.964
Volume Flow cum/hr 53937.9538
Enthalpy MMkcal/hr -213.933793
Mole Flow kmol/hr
CO 1381.68394
CO2 751.335833
H2 4882.77068
WATER 2989.25863
METHANOL 0.000686384
METHANE 258.513276
NITROGEN 3.08402321
BUTANOL 0
DME (DIMETHYLETHER) 2.06E-10
ACETONE 2.18E-08
OXYGEN 1.80E-15
ETHANE 0.007007476
PROPANE 6.74097E-07
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
COOL4
FL3
SYNCOMP
FL1
FL2
COOL1
COOL3
COOL2
BOILER
To TOPPING
To REFINING
To Methanol Loop
From Reformer
Part 2: Heat Recovery Section
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
FL1
Pressure Drop = 0 bar
Heat Duty = 0 MMkcal/hr
FL2
Exit Pressure = 17.7 bar
Heat Duty = 0 MMkcal/hr
FL3
Exit Pressure = 17.4 bar
Heat Duty = 0 MMkcal/hr
SYNCOM
Two Stage Polytropic compressor
Discharge Pressure = 82.5 bar
Intercooler Exit Temperature = 40 C
Part 2: Heat Recovery Section (Continued)
• This section consists of a series of heat exchangers and flash vessels used to recover the
available energy and water in the Reformed Gas stream.
BOILER
Exit temperature = 166 C
Exit Pressure = 18 bar
COOL1
Exit temperature = 136 C
Exit Pressure = 18 bar
COOL2
Exit temperature = 104 C
Exit Pressure = 17.9 bar
COOL3
Exit temperature = 85 C
Pressure Drop = 0.1 bar
COOL4
Exit temperature = 40 C
Exit Pressure = 17.6 bar
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
To Methanol Loop
Temperature C 40.0
Pressure bar 82.50
Vapor Frac 0.997465769
Mole Flow kmol/hr 7302.28917
Part 2: Heat Recovery Section Check
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
MEOHRXR
SPLIT1
MIX2
E121
From SYNCOMP
E122
CIRC
E124
E223
FL4
SPLIT2
To Furnace
To FL5
Part 3: Methanol Synthesis Section
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Part 3: Methanol Synthesis Section (Continued)
• Methanol Reactor - MEOHRXR
– Tube cooled reactor
– Exit Temperature from the tubes = 240 C
– No pressure drop across the reactor
– Reactions
• CO + H2O <-> CO2 + H2 (Equilibrium)
• CO2 + 3H2 <-> CH3OH + H2O (+15 C Temperature Approach)
• 2CH3OH <-> DIMETHYLETHER + H2O (Molar extent 0.2kmol/hr)
• 4CO + 8H2 <-> N-BUTANOL + 3H2O (Molar extent 0.8kmol/hr)
• 3CO + 5H2 <-> ACETONE + 2H2O (Molar extent 0.3kmol/hr)
• E121
– Exit Temperature - 150 C
– Exit Pressure - 81 bar
• E122
– Cold Side Exit Temperature - 120 C
• E223
– Exit Temperature - 60 C
– Exit Pressure - 77.3 bar
• E124
– Exit Temperature - 45 C
– Exit Pressure - 75.6 bar
• FL4
– Exit Pressure = 75.6 bar
– Heat Duty = 0 MMkcal/hr
• CIRC
– Single stage compressor
– Discharge Pressure = 83 bar
– Discharge Temperature = 55 C
• SPLIT1
– Split Fraction = 0.8 to stream to E121
• SPLIT2
– Stream PURGE = 9000 kg/hr
– Stream RECYCLE = 326800 kg/hr
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Part 3: Methanol Synthesis Section Check
To FL5
Temperature C 45.0
Pressure bar 75.60
Vapor Frac 0.000
Mole Flow kmol/hr 2673.354
MEOHRXR Product
Temperature C 249.7
Pressure bar 83.00
Vapor Frac 1.000
Mole Flow kmol/hr 29091.739
Mass Flow kg/hr 413083.791
Volume Flow cum/hr 15637.807
Enthalpy MMkcal/hr -559.129
Mole Flow kmol/hr
CO 799.563
CO2 3137.144
H2 13379.353
WATER 644.301
METHANOL 2140.046
METHANE 8896.430
NITROGEN 91.428
BUTANOL 0.845
DME 1.864
ACETONE 0.588
OXYGEN 0.000
ETHANE 0.177
PROPANE 0.000
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
FL5
M4
MKWATER
TOPPING
REFINING
From COOL2
To Furnace
From COOL1
From FL4
Part 4: Distillation Section
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Part 4: Distillation Section (Continued)
• Makeup Steam - MKWATER
– Stream of pure water
– Flow = 10000 kg/hr
– Pressure = 5 bar
– Temperature = 40 C
– Adjust the make-up water flow (stream MKWATER) to the CRUDE stream to achieve a stream composition of
23 wt.% of water in the stream feeding the Topping column (stream TOPFEED) to achieve 100 ppm methanol
in the Refining column BTMS stream.
• Topping Column - TOPPING
– Number of Stages = 51 (including condenser and reboiler)
– Condenser Type = Partial Vapor/Liquid
– Feed stage = 14
– Distillate has both liquid and vapor streams
– Distillate rate = 1400 kg/hr
– Pressure profile: stage 1 = 1.5 bar and stage 51 = 1.8 bar
– Distillate vapor fraction = 99 mol%
– Stage 2 heat duty = -7 Mmkcal/hr
– Stage 51 heat duty Specified by the heat stream
– Reboiler heat duty is provided via a heat stream from block COOL2
– Boil-up Ratio is approximately 0.52
– Valve trays
– The column has two condensers. To represent the liquid flow connections a pumparound can be used between
stage 1 and 3.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Part 4: Distillation Section (Continued)
• Refining Column - REFINING
– Number of Stages = 95 (including condenser and reboiler)
– Condenser Type = Total
– Distillate Rate = 1 kg/hr
– Feed stage = 60
– Liquid Product sidedraw from Stage 4 @ 62000 kg/hr (Stream name – PRODUCT)
– Liquid Product sidedraw from Stage 83 @ 550 kg/hr (Stream name – FUSELOIL)
– Reflux rate = 188765 kg/hr
– Pressure profile: stage 1= 1.5bar and stage 95=2bar
– Reboiler heat duty is provided via a conventional reboiler supplemented by a heat stream from a
heater block to stage 95
– Boil-up Ratio is approximately 4.8
– Valve trays
– To meet environmental regulations, the bottoms stream must contain no more than 100ppm by weight
of methanol as this stream is to be dumped to a nearby river.
• FL5
– Exit Pressure 5 bar
– Heat Duty 0 MMkcal/hr
• M4
– For water addition to the crude methanol
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Part 4: Distillation Section Check
TOPFEED LTENDS SECPURGE REFINE PRODUCT BTMS LIQPURGE FUSELOIL
Temperature C 43.8 33.1 33.1 85.8 75.1 120.1 74.8 90.4
Pressure bar 5.00 1.50 1.50 1.80 1.52 2.00 1.50 1.95
Vapor Frac 0.001 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Mole Flow kmol/hr 3029.767 33.807 0.341 2995.618 1928.736 1047.117 0.031 19.733
Mass Flow kg/hr 82623.475 1388.896 11.104 81223.475 61800.974 18871.500 1.000 550.000
Volume Flow cum/hr 111.175 573.782 0.014 107.201 83.975 21.058 0.001 0.722
Enthalpy MMkcal/hr -186.388 -2.802 -0.020 -178.587 -107.391 -69.633 -0.002 -1.199
Mole Flow kmol/hr
CO 0.004 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
CO2 26.537 26.535 0.002 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
H2 0.014 0.014 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
WATER 1054.851 0.000 0.000 1054.851 0.000 1046.942 0.000 7.910
METHANOL 1945.891 5.591 0.334 1939.966 1928.733 0.059 0.031 11.143
METHANE 1.267 1.267 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
NITROGEN 0.003 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
BUTANOL 0.798 0.000 0.000 0.798 0.000 0.117 0.000 0.681
DME 0.116 0.116 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
ACETONE 0.285 0.276 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000
OXYGEN 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
ETHANE 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
PROPANE 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
FURNACE
Fuel
Air
From FL5
From SPLIT2
To REFORMER
Part 5: Furnace Section
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Part 5: Furnace Section (Continued)
• Air to Furnace - AIR
– Temperature = 366 C
– Pressure = 1 atm
– Flow = 281946 kg/hr
– Adjust the air flow to achieve 2%(vol.) of oxygen in the
FLUEGAS stream.
• Fuel to Furnace - FUEL
– Flow = 9436 kg/hr
– Conditions and composition are the same as for the natural gas
stream
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Maintaining Aspen Plus Simulations
Objective:
Introduce how to store simulations and retrieve
them from your computer environment
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 15, Managing Your Files
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
File Formats in Aspen Plus
File Type Extension Format Description
Document *.apw Binary
File containing simulation input and results and
intermediate convergence information
Backup *.bkp ASCII Archive file containing simulation input and
results
Template *.apt ASCII Template containing default inputs
Input *.inp Text Simulation input
Run Message *.cpm Text Calculation history shown in the Control Panel
History *.his Text Detailed calculation history and diagnostic
messages
Summary *.sum ASCII Simulation results
Problem
Definition
*.appdf Binary File containing arrays and intermediate
convergence information used in the simulation
calculations
Report *.rep Text Simulation report
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
File Type Characteristics
• Binary files
– Operating system and version specific
– Not readable, not printable
• ASCII files
– Transferable between operating systems
– Upwardly compatible
– Contain no control characters, “readable”
– Not intended to be printed
• Text files
– Transferable between operating systems
– Upwardly compatible
– Readable, can be edited
– Intended to be printed
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
How to Store a Simulation
Three ways to store simulations:
Document Backup Input
(*.apw) (*.bkp) (*.inp)
Simulation definition Yes Yes Yes
Convergence info Yes No No
Results Yes Yes No
Flowsheet Graphics Yes Yes Yes/No
User readable No No Yes
Open/save speed High Low Lowest
Space requirements High Low Lowest
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Template Files
• Template files are used to set your personal preferences:
– Units of measurement
– Property sets for stream reports
– Composition basis
– Stream report format
– Global flow basis for input specifications
– Setting Free-Water option
– Selection for Stream-Class
– Property Method
– (Required) Component list
– Other application-specific defaults
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
How to Create a Personal Template
• Any flowsheet (complete or incomplete) can be saved as
a template file.
• In order to have a personal template appear on the
Personal sheet of the New dialog box, put the template
file into the Aspen Plus GUI\Templates\Personal folder.
• The text on the Setup Specifications Description sheet
will appear in the Preview window when the template file
is selected in the New dialog box.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Aspen Plus 10 runs best on a healthy computer.
• Minimum RAM
• Having more is better -- if near minimum, avoid running
too many other programs along with Aspen Plus.
• Active links increase needed RAM.
GUI only GUI and
Engine
Win 95 and
Win 98
32 MB 64 MB
Windows NT 64 MB 96 MB
Maintaining Your Computer
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Maintaining Your Hard Disk
• Keep plenty of free space on disk used for:
– Your Aspen working directory
– Windows swap files
• Delete unneeded files:
– Old .appdf, .his, etc.
– Aspen document files (*.apw) that aren’t active
– Aspen temporary files (_4404ydj.appdf, for example)
• Defragment regularly (once a week), even if Windows
says you don’t need to -- make the free space
contiguous.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Customizing the Look of Your
Flowsheet
Objective:
Introduce several ways of annotating your flowsheet
to create informative Process Flow Diagrams
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 14, Annotating Process Flowsheets
Related Topics:
User Guide, Chapter 37, Working with Other Windows Programs
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Customizing the Process Flow Diagram
• Add annotations
– Text
– Graphics
– Tables
• Add OLE objects
– Add a titlebox
– Add plots or diagrams
• Display global data
– Stream flowrate, pressure and
temperature
– Heat stream duty
– Work stream power
– Block duty and power
• Use PFD mode
– Change flowsheet connectivity
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Viewing
• Use the View menu to select the elements that you wish
to view:
– PFD Mode
– Global Data
– Annotation
– OLE Objects
• All of the elements can be turned on and off
independently.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Adding Annotation
• Use the Draw Toolbar to add text and graphics. (Select
Toolbar… from the View menu to select the Draw
Toolbar if it is not visible.)
• To create a stream table, click on the Stream Table
button on the Results Summary Streams Material sheet.
• Annotation objects can be attached to flowsheet
elements such as streams or blocks.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Heat and Material Balance Table
Stream ID COOL-OUT FEED PRODUCT REAC-OUT RECYCLE
Temperature F 130.0 220.0 130.1 854.7 130.1
Pressure PSI 14.60 36.00 14.70 14.70 14.70
Vapor Frac 0.054 1.000 0.000 1.000 1.000
Mole Flow LBMOL/HR 44.342 80.000 41.983 44.342 2.359
Mass Flow LB/HR 4914.202 4807.771 4807.772 4914.202 106.431
Volume Flow CUFT/HR 1110.521 15648.095 93.470 42338.408 1003.782
Enthalpy MMBTU/HR -0.490 1.980 -0.513 2.003 0.023
Mole Flow LBMOL/HR
BENZENE 2.033 40.000 1.983 2.033 0.050
PROPYLEN 4.224 40.000 1.983 4.224 2.241
CUMENE 38.085 38.017 38.085 0.069
Mole Frac
BENZENE 0.046 0.500 0.047 0.046 0.021
PROPYLEN 0.095 0.500 0.047 0.095 0.950
CUMENE 0.859 0.906 0.859 0.029
Example of a Stream Table
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Temperature (F)
Pressure (psi)
Flow Rate (lb/hr)
Q Duty (Btu/hr)
REACTOR
Q=0
220
36
4808
FEED
130
15
106
RECYCLE
855
15
4914
REAC-OUT
COOL
Q=-2492499
130
15
4914
COOL-OUT
SEP
Q=0
130
15
4808
PRODUCT
Adding Global Data
• On the Results View sheet when selecting Options from the Tools
menu, choose the block and stream results that you want displayed
as Global Data.
• Check Global Data on the View menu to display the data on the
flowsheet.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Using PFD Mode
• In this mode, you can add or delete unit operation icons
to the flowsheet for graphical purposes only.
• Using PFD mode means that you can change flowsheet
connectivity to match that of your plant.
• PFD-style drawing is completely separate from the
graphical simulation flowsheet. You must return to
simulation mode if you want to make a change to the
actual simulation flowsheet.
• PFD Mode is indicated by the Aqua border around the
flowsheet.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Examples of When to Use PFD Mode
• In the simulation flowsheet, it may be necessary to use
more than one unit operation block to model a single
piece of equipment in a plant.
– For example, a reactor with a liquid product and a vent may
need to be modeled using an RStoic reactor and a Flash2
block. In the report, only one unit operation icon is needed to
represent the unit in the plant.
• On the other hand, some pieces of equipment may not
need to be explicitly modeled in the simulation flowsheet.
– For example, pumps are frequently not modeled in the
simulation flowsheet; the pressure change can be neglected or
included in another unit operation block.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Annotation Workshop
• Objective: Use annotation to create a process flow diagram for
the cyclohexane flowsheet
• Part A
– Using the cyclohexane production Workshop (saved as
CYCLOHEX.BKP), display all stream and block global data.
• Part B
– Add a title to the flowsheet diagram.
• Part C
– Add a stream table to the flowsheet diagram.
• Part D
– Using PFD Mode, add a pump for the BZIN stream for graphical
purposes only.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Estimation of Physical Properties
Objective:
Provide an overview of estimating physical
property parameters in Aspen Plus
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 30, Estimating Property Parameters
Physical Property Methods and Models Reference Manual,
Chapter 8, Property Parameter Estimation
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
What is Property Estimation?
• Property Estimation is a system to estimate parameters
required by physical property models. It can be used to
estimate:
– Pure component physical property constants
– Parameters for temperature-dependent models
– Binary interaction parameters for Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC
– Group parameters for UNIFAC
• Estimations are based on group-contribution methods
and corresponding-states correlations.
• Experimental data can be incorporated into estimation.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Using Property Estimation
• Property Estimation can be used in two ways:
– On a stand-alone basis: Property Estimation Run Type
– Within another Run Type: Flowsheet, Property Analysis, Data
Regression, PROPERTIES PLUS or Assay Data Analysis
• You can use Property Estimation to estimate properties
for both databank and non-databank components.
• Property Estimation information is accessed in the
Properties Estimation folder.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Estimation Methods and Requirements
• User Guide, Chapter 30, Estimating Property
Parameters, has a complete list of properties that can be
estimated, as well as the available estimation methods
and their respective requirements.
• This same information is also available under the on-line
help in the estimation forms.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps For Using Property Estimation
1. Define molecular structure on the Properties Molecular
Structure form.
2. Enter any experimental data using Parameters or Data
forms.
– Experimental data such as normal boiling point (TB) is very
important for many estimation methods. It should be
entered whenever possible.
3. Activate Property Estimation and choose property
estimation options on the Properties Estimation Input
form.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Defining Molecular Structure
• Molecular structure is required for all group-contribution
methods used in Property Estimation. You can:
– Define molecular structure in the general format and allow
Aspen Plus to determine functional groups,
or
– Define molecular structure in terms of functional groups for
particular methods
• Reference: For a list of available group-contribution
method functional groups, see Aspen Plus Physical
Property Data Reference Manual, Chapter 3, Group
Contribution Method Functional Groups.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps For Defining General Structure
1. Sketch the structure of the molecule on paper.
2. Assign a number to each atom, omitting hydrogen. (The numbers
must be consecutive starting with 1.)
3. Go to the Properties Molecular Structure Object Manager, choose
the component, and select Edit.
4. On the Molecular Structure General sheet, define the molecule by
its connectivity. Describe two atoms at a time:
– Specify the types of atoms (C, O, S, …)
– Specify the type of bond that connects the two atoms (single,
double, …)
Note: If the molecule is a non-databank component, on the
Components Specifications form, enter a Component ID, but
do not enter a Component name or Formula.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
C
2
C
1
C
4
C
3
O
5
Example of Defining Molecular Structure
• Example of defining molecular structure for isobutyl
alcohol using the general method
– Sketch the structure of the molecule, and assign a number to
each atom, omitting hydrogen.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Example of Defining Molecular Structure
• Go to the Properties Molecular Structure Object Manager, choose
the component, and select Edit.
• On Properties Molecular Structure General sheet, describe molecule
by its connectivity, two atoms at a time.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Atom Types
Current available atom types:
Atom Type Description Atom Type Description
C Carbon P Phosphorous
O Oxygen Zn Zinc
N Nitrogen Ga Gallium
S Sulfur Ge Germanium
B Boron As Arsenic
Si Silicon Cd Cadmium
F Fluorine Sn Tin
CL Chlorine Sb Antimony
Br Bromine Hg Mercury
I Iodine Pb Lead
Al Aluminum Bi Bismuth
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Bond Types
• Current available bond types:
– Single bond
– Double bond
– Triple bond
– Benzene ring
– Saturated 5-membered ring
– Saturated 6-membered ring
– Saturated 7-membered ring
– Saturated hydrocarbon chain
Note: You must assign consecutive atom numbers to Benzene ring,
Saturated 5-membered ring, Saturated 6-membered ring,
Saturated 7-membered ring, and Saturated hydrocarbon chain
bonds.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus

Steps For Using Property Estimation
1. Define molecular structure on the Properties Molecular
Structure form.
2. Enter any experimental data using Parameters or Data
forms.
– Experimental data such as normal boiling point (TB) is very
important for many estimation methods. It should be
entered whenever possible.
3. Activate Property Estimation and choose property
estimation options on the Properties Estimation Input
form.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Example of Entering Additional Data
• Enter following data for isobutyl alcohol into the
simulation to improve the estimated values.
– Normal boiling point (TB) = 107.6 C
– Critical temperature (TC) = 274.6 C
– Critical pressure (PC) = 43 bar
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Example of Entering Additional Data
• Go to the Properties Parameters Pure Component Object Manager
and create a new Scalar parameter form.
• Enter the parameters, the components, and the values.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus


Steps For Using Property Estimation
1. Define molecular structure on the Properties Molecular
Structure form.
2. Enter any experimental data using Parameters or Data
forms.
– Experimental data such as normal boiling point (TB) is very
important for many estimation methods. It should be
entered whenever possible.
3. Activate Property Estimation and choose property
estimation options on the Properties Estimation
Input form.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Activating Property Estimation
• To turn on Property Estimation, go to the Properties
Estimation Input Setup sheet, and select one of the
following:
– Estimate all missing parameters
• Estimates all missing required parameters and any parameters you
may request in the optional Pure Component, T-Dependent, Binary,
and UNIFAC-Group sheets
– Estimate only the selected parameters
• Estimates on the parameter types you select on this sheet (and then
specify on the appropriate additional sheets)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Property Estimation Notes
• You can save your property data specifications,
structures, and estimates as backup files, and import
them into other simulations (Flowsheet, Data
Regression, Property Analysis, or Assay Data Analysis
Run-Types.)
• You can change the Run type on the Setup
Specifications Global sheet to continue the simulation in
the same file.
• If you want to change the Run type back to Property
Estimation from another Run type, no flowsheet
information is lost even though it may not be visible in
the Property Estimation mode.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
When finished, save as
filename: PCES.BKP
Property Estimation Workshop
• Objective: Estimate the properties of a dimer,
ethycellosolve.
• Ethylcellosolve is not in any of the Aspen Plus
databanks.
• Use a Run Type of Property Estimation, and estimate the
properties for the new component.
• The formula for the component is shown below, along
with the normal boiling point obtained from literature.
Formula: CH3 - CH2 - O - CH2 - CH2 - O - CH2 - CH2 - OH TB = 195 C
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Property Estimation Workshop (Continued)
1. Use a Run Type of Property Estimation and enter the
structure and data for the Dimer.
2. Run the estimation, and examine the results.
– Note that the results of the estimation are automatically
written to parameters forms, for use in other simulations.
3. Change the Run Type back to Flowsheet.
4. Go to the Properties Estimation Input Setup sheet, and
choose Do not estimate any parameters.
5. Optionally, add a flowsheet and use this component.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Electrolytes
Objective:
Introduce the electrolyte capabilities in Aspen Plus
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 6, Specifying Components
Physical Property Methods and Models Reference Manual, Chapter 5, Electrolyte Simulation
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Electrolytes Examples
• Solutions with acids, bases or salts
• Sour water solutions
• Aqueous amines or hot carbonate for gas sweetening
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Characteristics of an Electrolyte System
• Some molecular species dissociate partially or
completely into ions in a liquid solvent
• Liquid phase reactions are always at chemical
equilibrium
• Presence of ions in the liquid phase requires non-ideal
solution thermodynamics
• Possible salt precipitation
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Types of Components
• Solvents - Standard molecular species
– Water
– Methanol
– Acetic Acid
• Soluble Gases - Henry’s Law components
– Nitrogen
– Oxygen
– Carbon Dioxide
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Types of Components (Continued)
• Ions - Species with a charge
– H3O+
– OH-
– Na+
– Cl-
– Fe(CN)63-
• Salts - Each precipitated salt is a new pure component.
– NaCl(s)
– CaCO3(s)
– CaSO4•2H2O (gypsum)
– Na2CO3•NaHCO3 •2H2O (trona)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Apparent and True Components
• True component approach
– Result reported in terms of the ions, salts and molecular
species present after considering solution chemistry
• Apparent component approach
– Results reported in terms of base components present before
considering solution chemistry
– Ions and precipitated salts cannot be apparent components
– Specifications must be made in terms of apparent components
and not in terms of ions or solid salts
• Results are equivalent.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Apparent and True Components Example
• NaCl in water
– Solution chemistry
• NaCl --> Na+ + Cl-
• Na+ + Cl- <--> NaCl(s)
– Apparent components
• H2O, NaCl
– True components:
• H2O, Na+, Cl-, NaCl(s)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Electrolyte Wizard
• Generates new components (ions and solid salts)
• Revises the Pure component databank search order so that the first
databank searched is now ASPENPCD.
• Generates reactions among components
• Sets the Property method to ELECNRTL
• Creates a Henry’s Component list
• Retrieves parameters for
– Reaction equilibrium constant values
– Salt solubility parameters
– ELECNRTL interaction parameters
– Henry’s constant correlation parameters
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Electrolyte Wizard (Continued)
• Generated chemistry can be modified. Simplifying the
Chemistry can make the simulation more robust and
decrease execution time.
Note: It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the
Chemistry is representative of the actual chemical
system.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Simplifying the Chemistry
• Typical modifications include:
– Adding to the list of Henry’s components
– Eliminating irrelevant salt precipitation reactions
– Eliminating irrelevant species
– Adding species and/or reactions that are not in the electrolytes
expert system database
– Eliminating irrelevant equilibrium reactions
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Limitations of Electrolytes
• Restrictions using the True component approach:
– Liquid-liquid equilibrium cannot be calculated.
– The following models may not be used:
• Equilibrium reactors: RGibbs and REquil
• Kinetic reactors: RPlug, RCSTR, and RBatch
• Shortcut distillation: Distl, DSTWU and SCFrac
• Rigorous distillation: MultiFrac and PetroFrac
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Limitations of Electrolytes (Continued)
• Restrictions using the Apparent component approach:
– Chemistry may not contain any volatile species on the right
side of the reactions.
– Chemistry for liquid-liquid equilibrium may not contain
dissociation reactions.
– Input specification cannot be in terms of ions or solid salts.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
FLASH2
FLASH
MIXED
VAPOR
LIQUID
MIXER
MIX
NAOH
HCL
Temp = 25 C
Pres = 1 bar
10 kmol/hr H2O
1 kmol/hr HCl
P-drop = 0
Adiabatic
Isobaric
Molar vapor fraction = 0.75
Filename: ELEC1.BKP
Temp = 25 C
Pres = 1 bar
10 kmol/hr H2O
1.1 kmol/hr NaOH
Electrolyte Demonstration
• Objective: Create a flowsheet using electrolytes.
• Create a simple flowsheet to mix and flash two feed streams
containing aqueous electrolytes. Use the Electrolyte Wizard to
generate the Chemistry.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Electrolytes
1. Specify the possible apparent components on the
Components Specifications Selection sheet.
2. Click on the Elec Wizard button to generate
components and reactions for electrolyte systems.
There are 4 steps:
Step 1: Define base components and select reaction
generation options.
Step 2: Remove any undesired species or reactions from the
generated list.
Step 3: Select simulation approach for electrolyte
calculations.
Step 4: Review physical properties specifications and modify
the generated Henry components list and reactions.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Electrolytes (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Electrolytes (Continued)
Step 1: Define base components and select reaction
generation options.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Electrolytes (Continued)
Step 2: Remove any undesired species or reactions from
the generated list.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Electrolytes (Continued)
Step 3: Select simulation approach for electrolyte
calculations.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Electrolytes (Continued)
Step 4: Review physical properties specifications and modify the
generated Henry components list and reactions.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
B1
WASTEWAT
LIME
LIQUID
Temperature = 25C
Pressure = 1 bar
Flowrate = 10 kmol/hr
5 mole% lime (calcium hydroxide) solution
Temperature = 25C
Pressure = 1 bar
Flowrate = 10 kmol/hr
5 mole% sulfuric acid solution
Temperature = 25C
P-drop = 0
Note: Remove from the chemistry:
CaSO
4
(s)
CaSO
4
•1:2W:A(s)
When finished, save as
filename: ELEC.BKP
Electrolyte Workshop
• Objective: Create a flowsheet using electrolytes.
• Create a simple flowsheet to model the treatment of a sulfuric acid
waste water stream using lime (Calcium Hydroxide). Use the
Electrolyte Wizard to generate the Chemistry. Use the true
component approach.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Electrolyte Workshop (Continued)
1. Open a new Electrolytes with Metric units flowsheet.
2. Draw the flowsheet.
3. Enter the necessary components and generate the
electrolytes using the Electrolytes Wizard. Select the
true approach and remove the solid salts not needed
from the generated reactions.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
On stage 10
P = 15 psia
Vapor frac = 1
2,000 lbs/hr
Above stage 3
P = 15 psia
10,000 lbs/hr
Mass fractions:
H2O 0.997
NH3 0.001
H2S 0.001
CO2 0.001
Saturated vapor
Theoretical trays: 9
(does not include condenser)
Partial condenser
Reflux Ratio (Molar): 25
No reboiler
B1
SOURWAT
STEAM
BOTTOMS
VAPOR
Sour Water Stripper Workshop
• Objective: Model a sour water stripper using electrolytes.
• Create a simple flowsheet to model a sour water stripper. Use the
Electrolyte Wizard to generate the Chemistry. Use the apparent component
approach.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Sour Water Stripper Workshop (Continued)
1. Open a new Electrolytes with English units flowsheet.
2. Draw the flowsheet.
3. Enter the necessary components and generate the
electrolytes using the Electrolytes Wizard. Select the
apparent approach and remove all solid salts used in
the generated reactions.
Questions: Why aren’t the ionic species’ compositions
displayed on the results forms? How can they be
added?
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Save as: SOURWAT.BKP
Sour Water Stripper Workshop (Continued)
3. Add a sensitivity analysis
a) Vary the steam flow rate from 1000-3000 lb/hr and tabulate
the ammonia concentration in the bottoms stream. The
target is 50 ppm.
b) Vary the column reflux ratio from 10-50 and observe the
condenser temperature. The target is 190 F.
4. Create design specifications
a) After hiding the sensitivity blocks, solve the column with two
design specifications. Use the targets and variables from
part 3.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Solids Handling
Objective:
Provide an overview of the solid handling
capabilities
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 6, Specifying Components
Physical Property Methods and Models Reference Manual, Chapter 3, Property Model Descriptions
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Classes of Components
• Conventional Components
– Vapor and liquid components
– Solid salts in solution chemistry
• Conventional Inert Solids (CI Solids)
– Solids that are inert to phase equilibrium and salt
precipitation/solubility
• Nonconventional Solids (NC Solids)
– Heterogeneous substances inert to phase, salt, and chemical
equilibrium that cannot be represented with a molecular
structure
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Specifying Component Type
• When specifying components on the Components
Specifications Selection sheet, choose the appropriate
component type in the Type column.
– Conventional - Conventional Components
– Solid - Conventional Inert Solids
– Nonconventional - Nonconventional Solids
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Conventional Components
• Components participate in vapor and liquid equilibrium
along with salt and chemical equilibrium.
• Components have a molecular weight.
– e.g. water, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium chloride, sodium ions,
chloride ions
– Located in the MIXED substream
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Conventional Inert Solids (CI Solids)
• Components are inert to phase equilibrium and salt
precipitation/solubility.
• Chemical equilibrium and reaction with conventional
components is possible.
• Components have a molecular weight.
– e.g. carbon, sulfur
– Located in the CISOLID substream
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Nonconventional Solids (NC Solids)
• Components are inert to phase, salt or chemical
equilibrium.
• Chemical reaction with conventional and CI Solid
components is possible.
• Components are heterogeneous substances and do not
have a molecular weight.
– e.g. coal, char, ash, wood pulp
– Located in the NC Solid substream
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Component Attributes
• Component attributes typically represent the composition
of a component in terms of some set of identifiable
constituents
• Component attributes can be
– Assigned by the user
– Initialized in streams
– Modified in unit operation models
• Component attributes are carried in the material stream.
• Properties of nonconventional components are
calculated by the physical property system using
component attributes.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Component Attribute Descriptions
Attribute Type Elements Description
PROXANAL 1. Moisture
2. Fixed Carbon
3. Volatile Matter
4. Ash
Proximate analysis, weight %dry
basis
ULTANAL 1. Ash
2. Carbon
3. Hydrogen
4. Nitrogen
5. Chlorine
6. Sulfur
7. Oxygen
Ultimate analysis, weight % dry
basis
SULFANAL 1. Pyritic
2. Sulfate
3. Organic
Forms of sulfur analysis, weight %
of original coal, dry basis
GENANAL 1. Constituent 1
2. Constituent 2
:
20. Constituent 20
General constituent analysis, weight
or volume %
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Solid Properties
• For conventional components and conventional solids
– Enthalpy, entropy, free energy and molar volume are
computed.
– Property models in the Property Method specified on the
Properties Specification Global sheet are used.
• For nonconventional solids
– Enthalpy and mass density are computed.
– Property models are specified on the Properties Advanced NC-
Props form.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Solids Properties - Conventional Solids
For Enthalpy, Free Energy, Entropy and Heat Capacity
• Barin Equations
– Single parameter set for all properties
– Multiple parameter sets may be available for selected
temperature ranges
– List INORGANIC databank before SOLIDS
• Conventional Equations
– Combines heat of formation and free energies of formation with
heat capacity models
– Aspen Plus and DIPPR model parameters
– List SOLIDS databank before INORGANIC
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Solid Heat Capacity
– Heat capacity polynomial model
– Used to calculate enthalpy, entropy and free energy
– Parameter name: CPSP01
• Solid Molar Volume
– Volume polynomial model
– Used to calculate density
– Parameter name: VSPOLY
C C C T C T
C
T
C
T
C
T
p
oS
= + + + + +
1 2 3
2 4 5
2
6
3
V C C T C T C T C T
S
= + + + +
1 2 3
2
4
3
5
4
Solids Properties - Conventional Solids
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Solids Properties - Nonconventional Solids
• Enthalpy
– General heat capacity polynomial model: ENTHGEN
– Uses a mass fraction weighted average
– Based on the GENANAL attribute
– Parameter name: HCGEN
• Density
– General density polynomial model: DNSTYGEN
– Uses a mass fraction weighted average
– Based on the GENANAL attribute
– Parameter name: DENGEN
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Solids Properties - Special Models for Coal
• Enthalpy
– Coal enthalpy model: HCOALGEN
– Based on the ULTANAL, PROXANAL and SULFANAL
attributes
• Density
– Coal density model: DCOALIGT
– Based on the ULTANAL and SULFANAL attributes
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Built-in Material Stream Classes
Stream Class Description
CONVEN* Conventional components only
MIXNC Conventional and nonconventional solids
MIXCISLD Conventional components and inert solids
MIXNCPSD Conventional components and nonconventional
solids with particle size distribution
MIXCIPSD Conventional components and inert solids with
particle size distribution
MIXCINC Conventional components and inert solids and
nonconventional solids
MIXCINCPSD Conventional components and nonconventional
solids with particle size distribution
* system default
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Unit Operation Models
• General Principles
– Material streams of any class are accepted.
– The same stream class should be used for inlet and outlet
streams (exceptions: Mixer and ClChng).
– Attributes (components or substream) not recognized are
passed unaltered through the block.
– Some models allow specifications for each substream present
(examples: Sep, RStoic).
– In vapor-liquid separation, solids leave with the liquid.
– Unless otherwise specified, outlet solid substreams are in
thermal equilibrium with the MIXED substream.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Solids Workshop 1
• Objective: Model a conventional solids dryer.
• Dry SiO
2
from a water content of 0.5% to 0.1% using air.
• Notes
– Change the Stream class type to: MIXCISLD.
– Put the SiO
2
in the CISOLID substream.
– The pressure and temperature has to be the same in all the
sub-streams of a stream.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
When finished, save as
filename: SOLIDWK1.BKP
Temp = 70 F
Pres = 14.7 psia
995 lb/hr SiO
2
5 lb/hr H
2
O
FLASH2
DRYER
AIR
WET
DRY
AIR-OUT
Pressure Drop = 0
Adiabatic
Temp = 190 F
Pres = 14.7 psia
Flow = 1 lbmol/hr
0.79 mole% N
2
0.21 mole% O
2
Design specification:
Vary the air flow rate
from 1 to 10 lbmol/hr to
achieve 99.9 wt.% SiO
2
[SiO
2
/(SiO
2
+Mixed)]
Use the SOLIDS Property Method
Solids Workshop 1 (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Solids Workshop 2
• Objective: Use the solids unit operations to model the
particulate removal from a feed of gasifier off gases.
• The processing of gases containing small quantities of particulate
materials is rendered difficult by the tendency of the particulates to
interfere with most operations (e.g., surface erosion, fouling,
plugging of orifices and packing). It is therefore necessary to
remove most of the particulate materials from the gaseous stream.
Various options are available for this purpose (Cyclone, Bag-filter,
Venturi-scrubber, and an Electrostatic precipitator) and their
particulate separation efficiency can be changed by varying their
design and operating conditions. The final choice of equipment is a
balance between the technical performance and the cost associated
with using a particular unit.
• In this workshop, various options for removing particulates from the
syngas obtained by coal gasification are compared.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
When finished, save as
filename: SOLIDWK2.BKP
Temp = 650 C
Pres = 1 bar
Gas Flowrate = 1000 kmol/hr
Ash Flowrate = 200 kg/hr
Composition (mole-frac)
CO 0.19
CO2 0.20
H2 0.05
H2S 0.02
O2 0.03
CH4 0.01
H2O 0.05
N2 0.35
SO2 0.10
Particle size distribution (PSD)
Size limit wt. %
[mu]
0- 44 30
44- 63 10
63-90 20
90-130 15
130-200 10
200-280 15
DUPL
CYC
FAB-
FILT
ESP
V-SCRUB
FEED
F-CYC
F-SCRUB
F-ESP
F-BF
S-BF
G-CYC
S-CYC
G-SCRUB
S-SCRUB
LIQ
G-ESP
S-ESP
G-BF
Temp = 40 C
Pres = 1 bar
Water Flowrate = 700 kg/hr
Design Mode
Max. Pres. Drop = 0.048 bar
Design Mode
High Efficiency
Separation Efficiency = 0.9
Design Mode
Separation Efficiency = 0.9
Dielectric constant = 1.5
Design Mode
Separation Efficiency = 0.9
Solids Workshop 2 (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Solids Workshop 2 (Continued)
• Coal ash is mainly clay and heavy metal oxides and can be
considered a non-conventional component.
• HCOALGEN and DCOALIGT can be used to calculate the enthalpy
and material density of ash using the ultimate, proximate, and sulfur
analyses (ULTANAL, PROXANAL, SULFANAL). These are
specified on the Properties Advanced NC-Props form.
• Component attributes (ULTANAL, PROXANAL, SULFANAL) are
specified on the Stream Input form. For ash, zero all non-ash
attributes.
• The PSD limits can be changed on the Setup Substreams PSD
form.
• Use the IDEAL Property Method.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
Optimization
Objective:
Introduce the optimization capability in Aspen Plus
Aspen Plus References:
User Guide, Chapter 22, Optimization
Related Topics:
User Guide, Chapter 17, Convergence
User Guide, Chapter 18, Accessing Flowsheet Variables
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Optimization
• Used to maximize/minimize an objective function
• Objective function is expressed in terms of flowsheet
variables and In-Line Fortran.
• Optimization can have zero or more constraints.
• Constraints can be equalities or inequalities.
• Optimization is located under /Data/Model Analysis
Tools/Optimization
• Constraint specification is under /Data/Model Analysis
Tools/Constraint
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Desired Product C $ 1.30 / lb
By-product D $ 0.11 / lb
Waste Product E $
-
0.20 /lb
FEED
PRODUCT
REACTOR
A, B
A + B
--
> C + D + E
A, B, C, D, E
Optimization Example
• For an existing reactor, find the reactor temperature and
inlet amount of reactant A that maximizes the profit from
this reactor. The reactor can only handle a maximum
cooling load of Q.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Optimization Example (Continued)
• What are the measured (sampled) variables?
– Outlet flowrates of components C, D, E
• What is the objective function to be maximized?
– Maximize 1.30*(lb/hr C) + 0.11*(lb/hr D) - 0.20*(lb/hr E)
• What is the constraint?
– The calculated duty of the reactor can not exceed Q.
• What are the manipulated (varied) variables?
– Reactor temperature
– Inlet amount of reactant A
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Optimization
1. Identify measured (sampled) variables.
– These are the flowsheet variables used to calculate the
objective function (Optimization Define sheet).
2. Specify objective function (expression).
– This is the Fortran expression that will be maximized or
minimized (Optimization Objective & Constraints sheet).
3. Specify maximization or minimization of objective
function (Optimization Objective & Constraints sheet).
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Steps for Using Optimization (Continued)
4. Specify constraints (optional).
– These are the constraints used during the optimization
(Optimization Objective & Constraints sheet).
5. Specify manipulated (varied) variables.
– These are the variables that the optimization block will
change to maximize/minimize the objective function
(Optimization Vary sheet).
6. Specify bounds for manipulated (varied) variables.
– These are the lower and upper bounds within which to vary
the manipulated variable (Optimization Vary sheet).
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Notes
1. The convergence of the optimization can be sensitive
to the initial values of the manipulated variables.
2. It is best if the objective, the constraints, and the
manipulated variables are in the range of 1 to 100.
This can be accomplished by simply multiplying or
dividing the function.
3. The optimization algorithm only finds local maxima and
minima in the objective function. It is theoretically
possible to obtain a different maximum/minimum in the
objective function, in some cases, by starting at a
different point in the solution space.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Notes (Continued)
4. Equality constraints within an optimization are similar to
design specifications.
5. If an optimization does not converge, run sensitivity
studies with the same manipulated variables as the
optimization, to ensure that the objective function is not
discontinuous with respect to any of the manipulated
variables.
6. Optimization blocks also have convergence blocks
associated with them. Any general techniques used
with convergence blocks can be used if the optimization
does not converge.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Optimization Workshop
• Objective: Optimize steam usage for a process.
• The flowsheet shown below is part of a Dichloro-Methane solvent
recovery system. The two flashes, TOWER1 and TOWER2, are run
adiabatically at 19.7 and 18.7 psia respectively. The stream FEED
contains 1400 lb/hr of Dichloro-Methane and 98600 lb/hr of water at
100oF and 24 psia. Set up the simulation as shown below, and
minimize the total usage of steam in streams STEAM1 and
STEAM2, both of which contain saturated steam at 200 psia. The
maximum allowable concentration of Dichloro-Methane in the
stream EFFLUENT from TOWER2 is 150 ppm (mass) to within a
tolerance of a tenth of a ppm. Use the NRTL Property Method. Use
bounds of 1000 lb/hr to 20,000 lb/hr for the flowrate of the two steam
streams. Make sure stream flows are reported in mass flow and
mass fraction units before running. Refer to the Notes slides for
some hints on the previous page if there are problems converging
the optimization.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
When finished, save as
filename: OPT.BKP
STEAM1
FEED
TOP1
BOT1
TOP2
EFFLUENT
STEAM2
TOWER1
TOWER2
Optimization Workshop (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.
RadFrac Convergence
Objective:
Introduce the convergence algorithms and
initialization strategies available in RadFrac
Aspen Plus References:
Unit Operation Models Reference Manual, Chapter 4, Columns
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Convergence Methods
• RadFrac provides a variety of convergence methods for
solving separation problems. Each convergence method
represents a convergence algorithm and an initialization
method. The following convergence methods are
available:
– Standard (default)
– Petroleum / Wide-Boiling
– Strongly non-ideal liquid
– Azeotropic
– Cryogenic
– Custom
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Method Algorithm Initialization
Standard Standard Standard
Petroleum / Wide-boiling Sum-Rates Standard
Strongly non-ideal liquid Nonideal Standard
Azeotropic Newton Azeotropic
Cryogenic Standard Cryogenic
Custom select any select any
Convergence Methods (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Convergence Algorithms
• RadFrac provides four convergence algorithms:
– Standard (with Absorber=Yes or No)
– Sum-Rates
– Nonideal
– Newton
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Standard Algorithm
• The Standard (default, Absorber=No) algorithm:
– Uses the original inside-out formulation
– Is effective and fast for most problems
– Solves design specifications in a middle loop
– May have difficulties with extremely wide-boiling or highly non-
ideal mixtures
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Standard Algorithm (Continued)
• The Standard algorithm with Absorber=Yes:
– Uses a modified formulation similar to the classical sum-rates
algorithm
– Applies to absorbers and strippers only
– Has fast convergence
– Solves design specifications in a middle loop
– May have difficulties with highly non-ideal mixtures
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Sum-Rates Algorithm
• The Sum-Rates algorithm:
– Uses a modified formulation similar to the classical sum-rates
algorithm
– Solves design specifications simultaneously with the column-
describing equations
– Is effective and fast for wide boiling mixtures and problems with
many design specifications
– May have difficulties with highly non-ideal mixtures
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Nonideal Algorithm
• The Nonideal algorithm:
– Includes a composition dependency in the local physical
property models
– Uses the continuation convergence method
– Solves design specifications in a middle loop
– Is effective for non-ideal problems
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Newton Algorithm
• The Newton algorithm:
– Is a classic implementation of the Newton method
– Solves all column-describing equations simultaneously
– Uses the dogleg strategy of Powell to stabilize convergence
– Can solve design specifications simultaneously or in an outer
loop
– Handles non-ideality well, with excellent convergence in the
vicinity of the solution
– Is recommended for azeotropic distillation columns
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Vapor-Liquid-Liquid Calculations
• You can use the Standard, Newton and Nonideal
algorithms for 3-phase Vapor-Liquid-Liquid systems. On
the RadFrac Setup Configuration sheet, select Vapor-
Liquid-Liquid in the Valid Phases field.
• Vapor-Liquid-Liquid calculations:
– Handle column calculations involving two liquid phases
rigorously
– Handle decanters
– Solve design specifications using:
• Either the simultaneous (default) loop or the middle loop approach for
the Newton algorithm
• The middle loop approach for all other algorithms
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Convergence Method Selection
• For Vapor-Liquid systems, start with the Standard
convergence method. If the Standard method fails:
– Use the Petroleum / Wide Boiling method if the mixture is very
wide-boiling.
– Use the Custom method and change Absorber to Yes on the
RadFrac Convergence Algorithm sheet, if the column is an
absorber or a stripper.
– Use the Strongly non-ideal liquid method if the mixture is highly
non-ideal.
– Use the Azeotropic method for azeotropic distillation problems
with multiple solutions possible. The Azeotropic algorithm is
also another alternative for highly non-ideal systems.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Convergence Method Selection (Continued)
• For Vapor-Liquid-Liquid systems:
– Start by selecting Vapor-Liquid-Liquid in the Valid Phases field
of the RadFrac Setup Configuration sheet and use the
Standard convergence method.
– If the Standard method fails, try the Custom method with the
Nonideal or the Newton algorithm.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Initialization Method
• Standard is the default Initialization method for RadFrac.
• This method:
– Performs flash calculations on composite feed to obtain
average vapor and liquid compositions
– Assumes a constant composition profile
– Estimates temperature profiles based on bubble and dew point
temperatures of composite feed
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Specialized Initialization Methods
• Four specialized Initialization methods are available.
Use: For:
Crude Wide boiling systems with
multi-draw columns
Chemical Narrow boiling chemical systems
Azeotropic Azeotropic distillation columns
Cryogenic Cryogenic applications
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Estimates
• RadFrac does not usually require estimates for
temperature, flow and composition profiles.
• RadFrac may require:
– Temperature estimates as a first trial in case of convergence
problems
– Liquid and/or vapor flow estimates for the separation of wide
boiling mixtures.
– Composition estimates for highly non-ideal, extremely wide-
boiling (for example, hydrogen-rich), azeotropic distillation or
vapor-liquid-liquid systems.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
Composition Estimates
• The following example illustrates the need for
composition estimates in an extremely wide-boiling point
system:
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Convergence Workshop
• Objective: Apply the convergence hints explained in this
section.
• HCl column in a VCM production plant
• Feed
– 130000 kg/hr at 50C, 18 bar
– 19.5%wt HCl, 33.5%wt VCM, 47%wt EDC
– (VCM : vinyl-chloride, EDC : 1,2-dichloroethane)
• Column
– 33 theoretical stages
– partial condenser (vapor distillate)
– kettle reboiler
– pressure : top 17.88 bar, bottom 18.24 bar
– feed on stage 17
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Convergence Workshop (Continued)
• First Step:
– Specify the column.
• Set the distillate flow rate to be equal to the mass flow rate of HCl in the
feed.
• Specify that the mass reflux ratio is 0.7.
• Use Peng-Robinson equation of state (PENG-ROB).
– Question: How should these specifications be implemented?
• Note: Look at the results.
– Temperature profile
– Composition profile
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
RadFrac Convergence Workshop (Continued)
• Second step:
– VCM in distillate and HCl in bottom are much too high!
– Allow only 5 ppm of HCl in the residue and 10 ppm VCM in the
distillate.
– Question: How should these specifications be implemented?
• Note: You may have some convergence difficulties.
– Apply the guidelines presented in this section
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
COL
FEED
DIST
BOT
feed on stage 17
130000 kg/h
50 C, 18 bar,
HCl 19.5%wt
VCM 33.5%wt
EDC 47.0%wt
mass reflux ratio:0.7
flow : HCl in feed
max 10 ppm VCM
max 5 ppm HCl
17.88 bar
18.24 bar
When finished, save as filename: VCMHCL1.BKP (step 1) and VCMHCL2.BKP (step 2)
Use the PENG-ROB Property method
RadFrac Convergence Workshop (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
• Objective: Set up a flowsheet of a VCM process using the tools
learned in the course.
• Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is produced through a high pressure, non-
catalytic process involving the pyrolysis of 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC)
according to the following reaction:
CH
2
Cl-CH
2
Cl HCl + CHCl=CH
2
• The cracking of EDC occurs at 500 C and 30 bar in a direct fired furnace.
1000 kmol/hr of pure EDC feed enters the reactor at 20 C and 30 bar. EDC
conversion in the reactor is maintained at 55%. The hot gases from the
reactor are subcooled by 10 degrees before fractionation.
• Two distillation columns are used for the purification of the VCM product. In
the first column, anhydrous HCl is removed overhead and sent to the oxy
chlorination unit. In the second column, VCM product is removed overhead
and the bottoms stream containing unreacted EDC is recycled back to the
furnace. Overheads from both columns are removed as saturated liquids.
The HCL column is run at 25 bar and the VCM column is run at 8 bar. Use
the RK-SOAVE Property Method.
Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) Workshop
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
1000 kmol/hr EDC
20C
30 bar
CRACK
FEED
RECYCIN
REACTOUT
PUMP
RECYCLE
QUENCH
COOLOUT COL1
HCLOUT
VCMIN
COL2
VCMOUT
RStoic Model
Heater Model
Pump Model
RadFrac Model
RadFrac Model
30 bar outlet pressure
500 C
30 bar
EDC Conv. = 55%
10 deg C subcooling
0.5 bar pressure drop
10 stages
Reflux ratio = 0.969
Distillate to feed ratio = 0.550
Feed enters above stage 7
Column pressure = 8 bar
15 stages
Reflux ratio = 1.082
Distillate to feed ratio = 0.354
Feed enters above stage 8
Column pressure = 25 bar
When finished, save as
filename: VCM.BKP
Use RK-SOAVE property method
CH
2
Cl-CH
2
Cl HCl + CHCl=CH
2
EDC HCl VCM
VCM Workshop (Continued)
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus
VCM Workshop (Continued)
Part A:
• With the help of the process flow diagram on the previous page, set
up a flowsheet to simulate the VCM process. What are the values of
the following quantities?
1. Furnace heat duty ________
2. Quench cooling duty ________
3. Quench outlet temperature ________
4. Condenser and Reboiler duties for COL2 ________________
5. Concentration of VCM in the product stream ________
Part B:
• The conversion of EDC to VCM in the furnace varies between 50%
and 55%. Use the sensitivity analysis capability to generate plots of
the furnace heat duty and quench cooling duty as a function of EDC
conversion.

Flowsheet Simulation
• What is flowsheet simulation? Use of a computer program to quantitatively model the characteristic equations of a chemical process • Uses underlying physical relationships
– Mass and energy balance – Equilibrium relationships – Rate correlations (reaction and mass/heat transfer)

• Predicts
– Stream flowrates, compositions, and properties – Operating conditions – Equipment sizes

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Advantages of Simulation
• Reduces plant design time
– Allows designer to quickly test various plant configurations

• Helps improve current process
– Answers “what if” questions – Determines optimal process conditions within given constraints – Assists in locating the constraining parts of a process

(debottlenecking)

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

General Simulation Problem
• What is the composition of stream PRODUCT?
RECYCLE REACTOR COOL FEED REAC-OUT COOL-OUT SEP

• To solve this problem, we need:
– Material balances – Energy balances

PRODUCT

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Approaches to Flowsheet Simulation
• Sequential Modular
– Aspen Plus is a sequential modular simulation program. – Each unit operation block is solved in a certain sequence.

• Equation Oriented
– Aspen Custom Modeler (formerly SPEEDUP) is an equation oriented

simulation program. – All equations are solved simultaneously.

• Combination
– Aspen Dynamics (formerly DynaPLUS) uses the Aspen Plus

sequential modular approach to initialize the steady state simulation and the Aspen Custom Modeler (formerly SPEEDUP) equation oriented approach to solve the dynamic simulation.

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Good Flowsheeting Practice
• Build large flowsheets a few blocks at a time.
– This facilitates troubleshooting if errors occur.

• Ensure flowsheet inputs are reasonable. • Check that results are consistent and realistic.

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Important Features of Aspen Plus
• Rigorous Electrolyte Simulation • Solids Handling • Petroleum Handling • Data Regression • Data Fit • Optimization • User Routines

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Creating a Simulation Model User Guide. Chapter 2. Chapter 1. Defining the Flowsheet ©2000 AspenTech. The User Interface User Guide. Chapter 4. All Rights Reserved.The User Interface Objective: Become comfortable and familiar with the Aspen Plus graphical user interface Aspen Plus References: User Guide. .

The User Interface ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Chapter 1.The User Interface Run ID Title Bar Menu Bar Next Button Tool Bar Select Mode button Model Library Model Menu Tabs Status Area Process Flowsheet Window Reference: Aspen Plus User Guide. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus .BKP ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Cumene Flowsheet Definition RECYCLE REACTOR COOL FEED REAC-OUT COOL-OUT SEP Flash2 Model PRODUCT RStoic Model Heater Model Filename: CUMENE.

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Using the Mouse • Left button click • Right button click • Double left click Select object/field Bring up menu for selected object/field. or inlet/outlet Cancel placement of streams or blocks on the flowsheet Open Data Browser object sheet Reference: Aspen Plus User Guide. The User Interface ©2000 AspenTech. Chapter 1.

Click the right mouse button to stop placing blocks. All Rights Reserved. You can also click on the model icon and drag it onto the flowsheet. 4. Click the drop-down arrow to select an icon for the model.Graphic Flowsheet Operations • To place a block on the flowsheet: 1. Introduction to Aspen Plus . 3. 2. ©2000 AspenTech. Click on a model category tab in the Model Library. Click on the model and then click on the flowsheet to place the block. Select a unit operation model.

5. If you want to select a different stream type (Material.Graphic Flowsheet Operations (Continued) • To place a stream on the flowsheet: 1. click a blank part of the Process Flowsheet window. Heat or Work). All Rights Reserved. Click a highlighted port to make the connection. 6. 3. Repeat step 3 to connect the other end of the stream. click the down arrow next to the icon and choose a different type. Click on the STREAMS icon in the Model Library. Click the right mouse button to stop creating streams. Introduction to Aspen Plus . 4. ©2000 AspenTech. 2. To place one end of the stream as either a process flowsheet feed or product.

Chapter 4. Choose appropriate menu item. 2.Graphic Flowsheet Operations (Continued) • To display an Input form for a Block or a Stream in the Data Browser: 1. Reference: Aspen Plus User Guide. All Rights Reserved. Defining the Flowsheet ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Delete. provide input or view results for a block or stream: 1. Select object (Block or Stream) by clicking on it with the left mouse button. Click the right mouse button while the pointer is over the selected object icon to bring up the menu for that object. Double click the left mouse button on the object of interest. 3. Change the icon. • To Rename.

– Click the Flowsheet tab. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Stream and block names can be displayed or hidden.Automatic Naming of Streams and Blocks • Stream and block names can be automatically assigned by Aspen Plus or entered by the user when the object is created. All Rights Reserved. • To modify the naming options: – Select Options from the Tools menu. – Check or uncheck the naming options desired. ©2000 AspenTech.

VAP1 COOL FL1 FEED COOL VAP2 Flash2 Model Heater Model When finished. filename: BENZENE.BKP).BKP FL2 LIQ1 Flash2 Model LIQ2 ©2000 AspenTech.Create a graphical flowsheet – Start with the General with English Units Template. – Choose the appropriate icons for the blocks.Benzene Flowsheet Definition Workshop • Objective . All Rights Reserved. – Rename the blocks and streams. Introduction to Aspen Plus . save in backup format (Run-ID.

Basic Input Objective: Introduce the basic input required to run an Aspen Plus simulation Aspen Plus References: User Guide. Chapter 7. Chapter 3. Global Information for Calculations User Guide. Chapter 6. Chapter 11. Specifying Components User Guide. Specifying Streams User Guide. Chapter 9. Unit Operation Models User Guide. Physical Property Methods User Guide. Chapter 10. Running Your Simulation ©2000 AspenTech. . Using Aspen Plus Help User Guide. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 5.

and sheets ©2000 AspenTech. maximized or closed – Used to navigate the folders. resized. forms. Introduction to Aspen Plus . minimized.The User Interface • Menus – Used to specify program options and commands • Toolbar – Allows direct access to certain popular functions – Can be moved – Can be hidden or revealed using the Toolbars dialog box from the View menu • Data Browser – Can be moved. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.The User Interface (Continued) • Folders – Refers to the root items in the Data Browser – Contain forms • Forms – Used to enter data and view results for the simulation – Can be comprised of a number of sheets – Are located in folders • Sheets – Make up forms – Are selected using tabs at the top of each sheet ©2000 AspenTech.

hidden. Introduction to Aspen Plus .The User Interface (Continued) • Object Manager – Allows manipulation of discrete objects of information – Can be created. renamed. All Rights Reserved. and revealed • Next Button – Checks if the current form is complete and skips to the next form which requires input ©2000 AspenTech. edited. deleted.

Introduction to Aspen Plus .The Data Browser Go back Parent button Units Go forward Previous sheet Next sheet Comments Status Next Menu tree Status area Description area ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

• All of the information in the User Guides is found under the “Using Aspen Plus” book.Used to search for a help on a topic that includes any word or words • “What’s This?” Help – Select “What’s This?” from the Help menu and then click on any area to get help for that item. – Index . ©2000 AspenTech.Used to search for help on a topic using the index entries – Find . Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Used to browse through the documentation. The User Guides and Reference Manuals are all included in the help.Help • Help Topics – Contents .

– Typing a letter will bring up the next selection on the list that begins with that letter. ©2000 AspenTech.Functionality of Forms • When you select a field on a form (click left mouse button in the field). • Click the drop-down arrow in a field to bring up a list of possible input values for that field. • The Tab key will take you to the next field on a form. the prompt area at the bottom of the window gives you information about that field. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech.Basic Input • The minimum required inputs (in addition to the graphical flowsheet) to run a simulation are: – Setup – Components – Properties – Streams – Blocks • Data can be entered on input forms in the above order by clicking the Next button. • These input folders can be located quickly using the Data menu or the Data Browser buttons on the toolbar. All Rights Reserved. • These inputs are all found in folders within the Data Browser.

Status Indicators Symbol Status Input for the form is incomplete Input for the form is complete No input for the form has been entered. but input has changed since the results were generated. Results for the form exist. Results for the form exist. Results for the form exist. Results for the form exist. ©2000 AspenTech. but there were calculation warnings. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . but there were calculation errors. It is optional.

All Rights Reserved.1 psi PRODUCT C6H6 + C3H6 = C9H12 Benzene Propylene Cumene (Isopropylbenzene) 90% Conversion of Propylene Use the RK-SOAVE Property Method Filename: CUMENE.BKP ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Cumene Production Conditions RECYCLE REACTOR COOL FEED T = 220 F P = 36 psia Benzene: 40 lbmol/hr Propylene: 40 lbmol/hr REAC-OUT COOL-OUT SEP P = 1 atm Q = 0 Btu/hr Q = 0 Btu/hr Pdrop = 0 psi T = 130 F Pdrop = 0.

g. vapor-liquid or vapor-liquid-liquid) – Ambient pressure • Stream report options are located on the Setup Report Options Stream sheet. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Setup • Most of the commonly used Setup information is entered on the Setup Specifications Global sheet: – Flowsheet title to be used on reports – Run type – Input and output units – Valid phases (e. All Rights Reserved. ©2000 AspenTech.

Setup Specifications Form ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

All Rights Reserved.Stream Report Options • Stream report options are located on the Setup Report Options Stream sheet. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

PROPERTIES PLUS setup run Use PROPERTIES PLUS to prepare a property package for use with Aspen Custom Modeler (formerly SPEEDUP) or Aspen Pinch (formerly ADVENT). Assay Data Analysis Data Regression A standalone Assay Data Analysis and pseudocomponent generation run Use Assay Data Analysis to analyze assay data when you do not want to perform a flowsheet simulation in the same run. Standalone Property Constant Estimation run Use Property Estimation to estimate property parameters when you do not want to perform a flowsheet simulation in the same run. and other property reports when you do not want to perform a flowsheet simulation in the same run. assay data analysis. ASPEN PLUS cannot perform data regression in a Flowsheet run.Setup Run Types Run Type Flowsheet Standard Aspen Plus flowsheet run including sensitivity studies and optimization. LLE. You must be licensed to use PROPERTIES PLUS. residue curve maps. and other mixture data. All Rights Reserved. Flowsheet runs can contain property estimation. and/or property analysis calculations. Property Analysis can contain property estimation and assay data analysis calculations. A standalone Data Regression run Use Data Regression to fit physical property model parameters required by ASPEN PLUS to measured pure component. PROPERTIES PLUS Property Analysis Property Estimation ©2000 AspenTech. or with your company's in-house programs. Data Regression can contain property estimation and property analysis calculations. PT-envelopes. VLE. A standalone Property Analysis run Use Property Analysis to generate property tables. Introduction to Aspen Plus . with third-party commercial engineering programs.

©2000 AspenTech. Units can be copied from an existing set and then modified. All Rights Reserved.Setup Units • Units in Aspen Plus can be defined at 3 different levels: 1. Object level (“Units” field in the top of any input form of an object such as a block or stream 3. Field Level • Users can create their own units sets using the Setup Units Sets Object Manager. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Global Level (“Input Data” & “Output Results” fields on the Setup Specifications Global sheet) 2.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . etc. • The Find button can be used to search for components. ©2000 AspenTech. The databank search order is specified on the Databanks sheet. physical property parameters for each component are retrieved from databanks.Components • Use the Components Specifications form to specify all the components required for the simulation. • If available. critical properties. All Rights Reserved. • The Electrolyte Wizard can be used to set up an electrolyte simulation. • Pure component databanks contain parameters such as molecular weight.

Components Specifications Form ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.

C2H6O-2) – Component Name: Full name of component (e. ©2000 AspenTech. molecular weight. component class. All Rights Reserved. e. BENZENE) • Databank components can be searched for using the Find button. formula. – Search using component name. – All components containing specified items will be listed.. C6H6) (Note that a suffix is added to formulas when there are isomers. • Each Component ID can be associated with a databank component as either: – Formula: Chemical formula of component (e.g..g.g.Entering Components • The Component ID is used to identify the component in simulation inputs and results. Introduction to Aspen Plus . or CAS number. boiling point.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Find • Find performs an AND search when more than one criterion is specified. ©2000 AspenTech.

5-6 PURE856 For upward compatibility ASPENPCD ©2000 AspenTech. salts. and other solids Use Primary component databank in Aspen Plus Simulations containing electrolytes Simulations containing electrolytes and solids Solids. and metallurgy applications For upward compatibility INORGANIC Thermochemical properties for inorganic components in vapor. electrolytes.Pure Component Databanks • Parameters missing from the first selected databank will be searched for in subsequent selected databanks. For upward compatibility Introduction to Aspen Plus . Databank Contents PURE10 AQUEOUS SOLIDS Data from the Design Institute for Physical Property Data (DIPPR) and AspenTech Pure component parameters for ionic and molecular species in aqueous solution Pure component parameters for strong electrolytes. All Rights Reserved.3 Data from the Design Institute for Physical Property Data (DIPPR) and AspenTech delivered with Aspen Plus 8. liquid and solid states PURE93 Data from the Design Institute for Physical Property Data (DIPPR) and AspenTech delivered with Aspen Plus 9.5-6 Databank delivered with Aspen Plus 8.

All Rights Reserved.Properties • Use the Properties Specifications form to specify the physical property methods to be used in the simulation. • Property methods are a collection of models and methods used to describe pure component and mixture behavior. • Choosing the right physical properties is critical for obtaining reliable simulation results. ©2000 AspenTech. • Selecting a Process Type will narrow the number of methods available. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Properties Specifications Form ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Streams • Use Stream Input forms to specify the feed stream conditions and composition. All Rights Reserved. • To specify stream conditions enter two of the following: – Temperature – Pressure – Vapor Fraction • To specify stream composition enter either: – Total stream flow and component fractions – Individual component flows • Specifications for streams that are not feeds to the flowsheet are used as estimates.

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Streams Input Form ©2000 AspenTech.

Introduction to Aspen Plus .g.Blocks • Each Block Input or Block Setup form specifies operating conditions and equipment specifications for the unit operation model. All Rights Reserved. ©2000 AspenTech. • Some unit operation models require additional specification forms • All unit operation models have optional information forms (e. BlockOptions form).

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Block Form ©2000 AspenTech.

All Rights Reserved.Starting the Run • Select Control Panel from the View menu or press the Next button to be prompted. ©2000 AspenTech. – The simulation can be executed when all required forms are complete. – The Next button will take you to any incomplete forms. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Control Panel • The Control Panel consists of: – A message window showing the progress of the simulation by displaying the most recent messages from the calculations – A status area showing the hierarchy and order of simulation blocks and convergence loops executed – A toolbar which you can use to control the simulation Run Step Stop Reinitialize Results ©2000 AspenTech. Start or continue calculations Step through the flowsheet one block at a time Pause simulation calculations Purge simulation results Check simulation results Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus .Reviewing Results • History file or Control Panel Messages – Contains any generated errors or warnings – Select History or Control Panel on the View menu to display the History file or the Control Panel • Stream Results – Contains stream conditions and compositions For all streams (/Data/Results Summary/Streams) • For individual streams (bring up the stream folder in the Data Browser and select the Results form) • • Block Results – Contains calculated block operating conditions (bring up the block folder in the Data Browser and select the Results form) ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

What is the heat duty of the block “COOL”? _________ 2.BKP). What is the temperature in the second flash block “FL2”? _________ Note: Answers for all of the workshops are located in the very back of the course notes in Appendix C. add the process and feed stream conditions as shown on the next page. • Questions: 1. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Benzene Flowsheet Conditions Workshop • Objective: Add the process and feed stream conditions to a flowsheet. ©2000 AspenTech. – Starting with the flowsheet created in the Benzene Flowsheet Definition Workshop (saved as BENZENE.

save as filename: BENZENE.Benzene Flowsheet Conditions Workshop VAP1 COOL FL1 FEED COOL T = 100 F P = 500 psia FL2 LIQ1 VAP2 Feed T = 1000 F P = 550 psia T = 200 F Pdrop = 0 P = 1 atm Q=0 Hydrogen: 405 lbmol/hr Methane: 95 lbmol/hr Benzene: 95 lbmol/hr Toluene: 5 lbmol/hr LIQ2 Use the PENG-ROB Property Method When finished. . All Rights Reserved.BKP Introduction to Aspen Plus ©2000 AspenTech.

Chapter 10. .Unit Operation Models Objective: Review major types of unit operation models Aspen Plus References: User Guide. All Rights Reserved. Unit Operation Models Unit Operation Models Reference Manual ©2000 AspenTech.

Aspen Plus Unit Operation Models Reference Manual Introduction to Aspen Plus ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. .Unit Operation Model Types • Mixers/Splitters • Separators • Heat Exchangers • Columns • Reactors • Pressure Changers • Manipulators • Solids • User Models Reference: The use of specific models is best described by on-line help and the documentation.

bleed valves Solid stream splitters. Introduction to Aspen Plus . bleed valves FSplit SSplit Stream splitter Substream splitter ©2000 AspenTech. adding work streams Stream splitters. All Rights Reserved. adding heat streams.Mixers/Splitters Model Mixer Description Stream mixer Purpose Combine multiple streams into one stream Split stream flows Split substream flows Use Mixing tees. stream mixing operations.

when the details of the separation are unknown or unimportant Introduction to Aspen Plus Flash3 Decanter Sep Sep2 ©2000 AspenTech.Separators Model Flash2 Description Purpose Two-outlet flash Determine thermal and phase conditions Three-outlet flash Liquid-liquid decanter Multi-outlet component separator Two-outlet component separator Determine thermal and phase conditions Determine thermal and phase conditions Separate inlet stream components into any number of outlet streams Separate inlet stream components into two outlet streams Use Flashes. when the details of the separation are unknown or unimportant Component separation operations such as distillation and absorption. . All Rights Reserved. single stage separators with two liquid phases Decanters. evaporators. knockout drums. free water separations Decanters. single stage separators. single stage separators with two liquid phases and no vapor phase Component separation operations such as distillation and absorption.

Determines the log-mean temperature difference. Shell and tube heat exchangers with a wide variety of configurations. Pumps and compressors when work-related results are not needed. HeatX MHeatX Two-stream heat exchanger Multistream heat exchanger Interface to B-JAC Hetran program Interface to B-JAC Aerotran program Heat transfer calculation model Interface to the IST heat exchanger program from HTRI. Shell and tube heat exchangers with a wide variety of configurations. valves. using either the rigorous or the approximate method. Air-cooled heat exchangers with a wide variety of configurations. Model economizers and the convection section of fired heaters. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Multiple hot and cold stream heat exchangers. coolers. Two-stream heat exchangers.Heat Exchangers Model Heater Description Heater or cooler Purpose Determines thermal and phase conditions Exchange heat between two streams Exchange heat between any number of streams Design and simulate shell and tube heat exchangers Design and simulate aircooled heat exchangers Models convective heat transfer between a heat sink and a heat source. Rating shell and tube heat exchangers when geometry is known. Design and simulate shell and tube heat exchangers Use Heaters. Two-stream heat exchangers. including kettle boilers. LNG exchangers. All Rights Reserved. Hetran* Aerotran* HXFlux HTRIIST* * Requires separate license ©2000 AspenTech.

such as crude units and vacuum towers ©2000 AspenTech. and D:F ratio using Edmister method. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Columns . and either two product streams actual RR or actual stages by Winn-UnderwoodGilliland method.Shortcut Model DSTWU Description Purpose Use Shortcut distillation Determine minimum RR. stages. Shortcut distillation Determine separation rating based on RR. Columns with one feed and design minimum stages. fractionation stages per section. All Rights Reserved. Shortcut distillation Determine product for petroleum composition and flow. Columns with one feed and two product streams Distl SCFrac Complex columns. duty using fractionation indices.

ethylene fractionator and quench towers Ordinary azeotropic batch distillation. strippers. air separators. absorber/stripper combinations. absorbers. 3-phase.Rigorous Model RadFrac Description Purpose Rigorous fractionation Rigorous fractionation for complex columns Use Rigorous rating and design for single Distillation. nonequilibrium calculations petroleum applications Rigorous rating for liquid-liquid extraction columns Liquid-liquid extraction Extract * Requires separate license + Input language only in Version 10. strippers. ethylene primary fractionator/quench tower combinations. and reactive batch distillation MultiFrac PetroFrac Petroleum refining Rigorous rating and design for fractionation petroleum refining applications BatchFrac*+ RateFrac* Rigorous batch distillation Rate-based distillation Liquid-liquid extraction Rigorous rating calculations for single batch columns Rigorous rating and design for single Distillation columns. Introduction to Aspen Plus . petroleum refining Preflash tower. All Rights Reserved.0 ©2000 AspenTech. vacuum lube fractionator. atmospheric crude unit. vacuum unit. Based on reactive systems. catalytic cracker or coker fractionator. reactive distillation Rigorous rating and design for multiple columns of any complexity Heat integrated columns.Columns . heat integrated units. columns extractive and azeotropic distillation. and multiple columns. absorbers.

two. or three-phase stirred tank reactors with kinetics reactions in the vapor or liquid One. Includes solid phase equilibrium. two. One. Plug flow reactions with external coolant.Reactors Model RStoic Description Stoichiometric reactor Yield reactor Purpose Stoichiometric reactor with specified reaction extent or conversion Use Reactors where the kinetics are unknown or unimportant but stoichiometry and extent are known RYield Reactor with specified yield Reactors where the stoichiometry and kinetics are unknown or unimportant but yield distribution is known Chemical and phase equilibrium by stoichiometric calculations Chemical and phase equilibrium by Gibbs energy minimization Continuous stirred tank reactor Plug flow reactor Single. or three-phase plug flow reactors with kinetic reactions in any phase.and two-phase chemical equilibrium and simultaneous phase equilibrium Chemical and/or simultaneous phase and chemical equilibrium. All Rights Reserved. . Batch and semi-batch reactors where the reaction kinetics are known Introduction to Aspen Plus REquil Equilibrium reactor RGibbs Equilibrium reactor RCSTR RPlug Continuous stirred tank reactor Plug flow reactor RBatch Batch reactor Batch or semi-batch reactor ©2000 AspenTech.

one dimensional. Allows for liquid knockout streams from intercoolers Determine pressure drop or valve coefficient (CV) Use Pumps and hydraulic turbines Compr Polytropic compressors. globe and butterfly valves Multi-phase.Pressure Changers Model Description Purpose Pump Pump or hydraulic turbine Compressor or turbine Change stream pressure when the pressure. one dimensional. steady-state and fully developed pipeline flow with fittings Multi-phase. isentropic turbines. polytropic positive compressors. steady-state and fully developed pipeline flow Introduction to Aspen Plus MCompr Multi-stage compressor or turbine Control valve Valve Pipe Single-segment Determine pressure drop and pipe heat transfer in single-segment pipe or annular space Multi-segment pipe Determine pressure drop and heat transfer in multi-segment pipe or annular space Pipeline ©2000 AspenTech. Multi-phase. isentropic compressors. power requirement or performance curve is known Change stream pressure across multiple stages with intercoolers. . adiabatic flow in ball. isentropic turbines. isentropic compressors. power requirement or performance curve is known Change stream pressure when the pressure. Multistage polytropic compressors. polytropic positive displacement compressors. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . Use Multiply streams for scale-up or scale-down Duplicate streams to look at different scenarios in the same flowsheet Link sections or blocks that use different stream classes Test different flowsheet senarios ClChng Selector ©2000 AspenTech.Manipulators Model Mult Dupl Description Stream multiplier Stream duplicator Stream class changer Stream selector Purpose Multiply stream flows by a user supplied factor Copy a stream to any number of outlets Change stream class Switch between different inlet streams. All Rights Reserved.

cage mill breaker. All Rights Reserved. mixed product removal (MSMPR) crystallizeer used for the production of a single solid product Gyratory/jaw crusher. Description Continuous Crystallizer Crushers Screens Fabric filters Cyclones Venturi scrubbers Dry electrostatic precipitators Hydrocyclones Centrifuge filters Rotary vacuum filters Single-stage solids washer Counter-current decanter Uses Mixed suspension.Solids Model Crystallizer Crusher Screen FabFl Cyclone VScrub ESP HyCyc CFuge Filter SWash CCD ©2000 AspenTech. and single or multiple roll crushers Solids-solids separation using screens Gas-solids separation using fabric filters Gas-solids separation using cyclones Gas-solids separation using venturi scrubbers Gas-solids separation using dry electrostatic precipitators Liquid-solids separation using hydrocyclones Liquid-solids separation using centrifuge filters Liquid-solids separation using continuous rotary vacuum filters Single-stage solids washer Multistage washer or a counter-current decanter Introduction to Aspen Plus .

User Models
• Proprietary models or 3-rd party software can be included in an Aspen Plus flowsheet using a User2 unit operation block. • Excel Workbooks or Fortran code can be used to define the User2 unit operation model. • User-defined names can be associated with variables. • Variables can be dimensioned based on other input specifications (for example, number of components). • Aspen Plus helper functions eliminate the need to know the internal data structure to retrieve variables.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

RadFrac
Objective:
Discuss the minimum input required for the RadFrac fractionation model, and the use of design specifications and stage efficiencies

Aspen Plus References: Unit Operation Models Reference Manual, Chapter 4, Columns
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

RadFrac: Rigorous Multistage Separation
• Vapor-Liquid or Vapor-Liquid-Liquid phase simulation of:
– Ordinary distillation – Absorption, reboiled absorption – Stripping, reboiled stripping – Azeotropic distillation – Reactive distillation

• Configuration options:
– Any number of feeds – Any number of side draws – Total liquid draw off and pumparounds – Any number of heaters – Any number of decanters

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

RadFrac Flowsheet Connectivity
Vapor Distillate

Top-Stage or Condenser Heat Duty

1

Heat (optional) Liquid Distillate Water Distillate (optional)

Feeds Reflux Heat (optional) Pumparound Heat (optional) Heat (optional) Boil-up Nstage Decanters Product Return Products (optional)

Bottom Stage or Reboiler Heat Duty

Heat (optional)

Bottoms

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

RadFrac Setup Configuration Sheet
• Specify:
– Number of stages – Condenser and reboiler

configuration – Two column operating specifications – Valid phases – Convergence

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

RadFrac Setup Streams Sheet
• Specify:
– Feed stage location – Feed stream convention

(see Help) ABOVE-STAGE: Vapor from feed goes to stage above feed stage – Liquid goes to feed stage ON-STAGE: Vapor & Liquid from feed go to specified feed stage

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Feed Convention
Above-stage (default)
n-1 Vapor Liquid n Feed n Feed

On-stage

n-1

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Introduction to Aspen Plus .RadFrac Setup Pressure Sheet • Specify one of: – Column pressure profile – Top/Bottom pressure – Section pressure drop ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved.5 Column pressure = 1 bar Feed stage = 6 FEED T = 65 C P = 1 bar COLUMN BTMS Water: 100 kmol/hr Methanol: 100 kmol/hr Use the NRTL-RK Property Method Filename: RAD-EX.Methanol-Water RadFrac Column OVHD RadFrac specifications Total Condenser Kettle Reboiler 9 Stages Reflux Ratio = 1 Distillate to feed ratio = 0.BKP ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

• Either Vaporization or Murphree efficiencies on either a stage or component basis can be specified on the RadFrac Efficiencies form. ©2000 AspenTech.RadFrac Options • To set up an absorber with no condenser or reboiler. set condenser and reboiler to none on the RadFrac Setup Configuration sheet. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. • Tray and packed column design and rating is possible. • A Second liquid phase may be modeled if the user selects Vapor-liquid-liquid as Valid phases. • Reboiler and condenser heat curves can be generated.

All Rights Reserved. • Click on the Next button to continue. Introduction to Aspen Plus . MultiFrac. ©2000 AspenTech.Plot Wizard • Use Plot Wizard (on the Plot menu) to quickly generate plots of results of a simulation. You can use Plot Wizard for displaying results for the following operations: – Physical property analysis – Data regression analysis – Profiles for all separation models RadFrac. PetroFrac and RateFrac • Click the object of interest in the Data Browser to generate plots for that particular object. • The wizard guides you in the basic operations for generating a plot. Click on the Finish button to generate a plot with default settings.

All Rights Reserved.75 1 ©2000 AspenTech.Plot Wizard Demonstration • Use the plot wizard on the column to create a plot of the vapor phase compositions throughout the column.25 0. 2 3 4 5 6 Stage 7 8 9 Introduction to Aspen Plus .5 0. 1 Block COLUMN: Vapor Composition Profiles WATER METHANOL Y (mole frac) 0.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. • The DesignSpecs and Varys in a RadFrac are solved in a “Middle loop.” If you get an error message saying that the middle loop was not converged. • One or more RadFrac inputs can be manipulated to achieve specifications on one or more RadFrac performance parameters. check the DesignSpecs and Varys you have entered. in general.RadFrac DesignSpecs and Vary • Design specifications can be specified and executed inside the RadFrac block using the DesignSpecs and Vary forms. be equal to the number of varies. All Rights Reserved. • The number of specs should.

All Rights Reserved. doing one or more of the following could help: 1. Introduction to Aspen Plus . increase the maximum iterations on the RadFrac Convergence Basic sheet. ©2000 AspenTech. If the column err/tol is decreasing fairly consistently.) are properly addressed. etc.RadFrac Convergence Problems • If a RadFrac column fails to converge. 3. Ensure that column operating conditions are feasible. Check that physical property issues (choice of Property Method. 2. parameter availability.

it is usually beneficial to Reinitialize after making changes. Provide temperature estimates for some stages in the column using the RadFrac Estimates Temperature sheet (useful for absorbers). Introduction to Aspen Plus . Note: When a column does not converge.RadFrac Convergence Problems (Continued) 4. Experiment with different convergence methods on the RadFrac Setup Configuration sheet. Provide composition estimates for some stages in the column using the RadFrac Estimates Liquid Composition and Vapor Composition sheet (useful for highly non-ideal systems). 5. 6. ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

000 lb/hr Pressure 18 psia Saturated liquid Use the NRTL-RK Property Method ©2000 AspenTech.3 BTMS Filename: RADFRAC.BKP Introduction to Aspen Plus .RadFrac Workshop Part A • Perform a rating calculation of a Methanol tower using the following data: • DIST FEED COLUMN Feed: 63. Column specification: 38 trays (40 stages) Feed tray = 23 (stage 24) Total condenser Top stage pressure = 16.1 psi Distillate flowrate = 1245 lbmol/hr Molar reflux ratio = 1. All Rights Reserved.8 wt% Methanol Total flow = 120.1 psia Pressure drop per stage = 0.2 wt% Water 36.

you can vary the distillate rate (8001700 lbmol/hr) and the reflux ratio (0.90 wt% water in the bottoms • To achieve these specifications.95 wt% methanol in the distillate – 99. Make sure stream compositions are reported as mass fractions before running the problem.RadFrac Workshop (Continued) Part B • Set up design specifications within the column so the following two objectives are met: – 99.8-2). All Rights Reserved. Note the condenser and reboiler duties: Condenser Duty :_________ Reboiler Duty :_________ ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

BKP) ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . (When finished. Assume the condenser and reboiler have stage efficiencies of 90%. All Rights Reserved.RadFrac Workshop (Continued) Part C • Perform the same design calculation after specifying a 65% Murphree efficiency for each tray. • How do these efficiencies affect the condenser and reboiler duties of the column? Part D • Perform a tray sizing calculation for the entire column. save as filename: RADFRAC. given that Bubble Cap trays are used.

Chapter 5. . and examine in some detail at least one reactor from each class Aspen Plus References Unit Operation Models Reference Manual. Reactors ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Reactor Models Objective: Introduce the various classes of reactor models available.

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Reactor Overview Reactors Balance Based RYield RStoic Equilibrium Based REquil RGibbs Kinetics Based RCSTR RPlug RBatch ©2000 AspenTech.

to simulate a furnace) 1000 lb/hr Coal IN RYield 70 lb/hr H2O 20 lb/hr CO2 60 lb/hr CO 250 lb/hr tar 600 lb/hr char OUT ©2000 AspenTech. not an atom balance – Is used to simulate reactors in which inlets to the reactor are not completely known but outlets are known (e.Balanced Based Reactors • RYield – Requires a mass balance only. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .g.

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . CO. O2. CO2 OUT ©2000 AspenTech.Balanced Based Reactors (Continued) • RStoic – Requires both an atom and a mass balance – Used in situations where both the equilibrium data and the kinetics are either unknown or unimportant – Can specify or calculate heat of reaction at a reference temperature and pressure C. O2 IN RStoic 2 CO + O2 --> 2 CO2 C + O2 --> CO2 2 C + O2 --> 2 CO C.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . and when relatively few components take part in the reactions ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Equilibrium Based Reactors • GENERAL – Do not take reaction kinetics into account – Solve similar problems. but problem specifications are different – Individual reactions can be at a restricted equilibrium • REquil – Computes combined chemical and phase equilibrium by solving reaction equilibrium equations – Cannot do a 3-phase flash – Useful when there are many components. a few known reactions.

All Rights Reserved.RGibbs is the only Aspen Plus block that will deal with solid-liquid-gas phase equilibrium.This feature is quite useful when reactions occurring are not known or are high in number due to many components participating in the reactions. – Gibbs Energy Minimization . – Solid Equilibrium . ©2000 AspenTech.Equilibrium Based Reactors (Continued) • RGibbs – Unknown Reactions .A Gibbs free energy minimization is done to determine the product composition at which the Gibbs free energy of the products is at a minimum. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

or with a user subroutine. • Reaction kinetics are taken into account. Introduction to Aspen Plus . and hence must be specified. • Reactions are specified using a Reaction ID. All Rights Reserved. ©2000 AspenTech. RPlug and RBatch. The current built-in models are – Power Law – Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) • A catalyst for a reaction can have a reaction coefficient of zero.Kinetic Reactors • Kinetic reactors are RCSTR. • Kinetics can be specified using one of the built-in models.

and then referenced within the reactor(s). RPlug and RBatch. • A single Reaction ID can be referenced in any number of kinetic reactors (RCSTR. go to the Reactions Reactions Object Manager ©2000 AspenTech. separate from the reactor.Using a Reaction ID • Reaction IDs are setup as objects. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .) • To set up a Reaction ID.

All Rights Reserved.Power-law Rate Expression rate  k *  [concentrationi ]exponent i  Activation Energy  1 1   T  k  (Pre  exponentia l Factor)   exp      T    R  0  T T0    n i Example:    2 A  3B   C  2 D  k2 k1 Forward reaction: (Assuming the reaction is 2nd order in A) coefficients: exponents: A: -2 A: 2 B: -3 B: 0 C: 1 C: 0 D: 2 D: 0 Reverse reaction: (Assuming the reaction is 1st order in C and D) coefficients: C: -1 D: -2 A: 2 B: 3 exponents: C: 1 D: 1 A: 0 B: 0 ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. • Heats of reaction are typically calculated as the difference between inlet and outlet enthalpies for the reactor (see Appendix A). you can adjust the heats of formation (DHFORM) of one or more components to make the heats of reaction match. • Heats of reaction can also be calculated or specified at a reference temperature and pressure in an RStoic reactor. • If you have a heat of reaction value that does not match the value calculated by Aspen Plus.Heats of Reaction • Heats of reaction need not be provided for reactions. All Rights Reserved.

95 x 107 J/kmol – Reverse Reaction: Pre-exp. Hint: Check that each reactor is considering both Vapor and Liquid as Valid phases. Act. Factor = 1. – Composition basis is Molarity. – Reactions occur in the liquid phase. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Factor = 5.9 x 108.0 x 107. • Reactor Conditions: Temperature = 70 C Pressure = 1 atm • Stoichiometry: Ethanol + Acetic Acid <--> Ethyl Acetate + Water • Kinetic Parameters: – Forward Reaction: Pre-exp.Compare the use of different reactor types to model one reaction. All Rights Reserved.Reactor Workshop • Objective . Act. Energy = 5. Energy = 5.95 x 107 J/kmol – Reactions are first order with respect to each of the reactants in the reaction (second order overall). ©2000 AspenTech.

Volume = 0.6 kmol/hr F-GIBBS P-GIBBS RGIBBS F-PLUG RPLUG F-CSTR P-PLUG Length = 2 meters Diameter = 0.59 kmol/hr Acetic Acid: 192.BKP RCSTR ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Reactor Workshop (Continued) Use the NRTL-RK property method F-STOIC RSTOIC P-STOIC 70 % conversion of ethanol FEED Feed: Temp = 70 C DUPL Pres = 1 atm Water: 8.14 Cu. save as filename: REACTORS. M.892 kmol/hr Ethanol: 186. Introduction to Aspen Plus .3 meters P-CSTR When finished.

Cyclohexane Production Workshop • Objective . All Rights Reserved. • The reactor effluent is cooled and the light gases separated from the product stream. • The liquid product stream from the separator is fed to a distillation column to further remove any dissolved light gases and to stabilize the end product. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Assume a benzene conversion of 99. ©2000 AspenTech. Part of the light gas stream is fed back to the reactor as recycle hydrogen.Create a flowsheet to model a cyclohexane production process • Cyclohexane can be produced by the hydrogenation of benzene in the following reaction: C6H6 Benzene + 3 H2 = Hydrogen C6H12 Cyclohexane • The benzene and hydrogen feeds are combined with recycle hydrogen and cyclohexane before entering a fixed bed catalytic reactor. A portion of the cyclohexane product is recycled to the reactor to aid in temperature control.8%.

02 92% flow to stream H2RCY PURGE H2RCY VFLOW H2IN VAP FEED-MIX RXIN T = 150C P = 23 bar REACT HP-SEP RXOUT T = 200 C Pdrop = 1 bar Benzene conv = 0.9999 by varying Bottoms rate from 97 to 101 kmol/hr Introduction to Aspen Plus .5 bar LTENDS Theoretical Stages = 12 Reflux ratio = 1.Cyclohexane Production Workshop C6H6 + 3 H2 = C6H12 Benzene Hydrogen Cyclohexane Total flow = 330 kmol/hr T = 50 C P = 25 bar Molefrac H2 = 0.998 T = 50 C Pdrop = 0.005 CH4 = 0. All Rights Reserved. PRODUCT COLUMN Specify cyclohexane mole recovery in PRODUCT stream equal to 0.2 Bottoms rate = 99 kmol/hr Partial Condenser with vapor distillate only Column Pressure = 15 bar Feed stage = 8 BZIN T = 40 C P = 1 bar Benzene flow = 100 kmol/hr LIQ COLFD LFLOW CHRCY 30% flow to stream CHRCY Use the RK-SOAVE property method When finished. save as filename: CYCLOHEX.BKP ©2000 AspenTech.975 N2 = 0.

. Chapter 29. All Rights Reserved.Physical Properties Objectives: Introduce the ideas of property methods and physical property parameters Identify issues involved in the choice of a property method Cover the use of Property Analysis for reporting physical properties Aspen Plus References: User Guide. Physical Property Methods User Guide. Chapter 8. Physical Property Parameters and Data User Guide. Chapter 7. Analyzing Properties ©2000 AspenTech.

All Rights Reserved.5 mole % acetone recovery Ideal Approach Predicted number of stages required Approximate cost in dollars ©2000 AspenTech. Equation of State Approach 7 390. 000 Activity Coefficient Model Approach 42 880.Case Study . 000 Introduction to Aspen Plus 11 520. 000 .Acetone Recovery • Correct choice of physical property models and accurate physical property parameters are essential for obtaining accurate simulation results. OVHD FEED COLUMN 5000 lbmol/hr 10 mole % acetone 90 mole % water BTMS Specification: 99.

How to Establish Physical Properties Choose a Property Method Check Parameters/Obtain Additional Parameters Confirm Results Create the Flowsheet ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

• Users can modify existing Property Methods or create new ones. • Property Methods containing commonly used thermodynamic models are provided in Aspen Plus. ©2000 AspenTech.Property Methods • A Property Method is a collection of models and methods used to calculate physical properties. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

All Rights Reserved.Physical Property Models • Approaches to representing physical properties of components Physical Property Models Ideal Equation of State (EOS) Models Activity Coefficient Models Special Models • Choice of model types depends on degree of non-ideal behavior and operating conditions. Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech.

g. . TXY & XY) y x y x Introduction to Aspen Plus ©2000 AspenTech. Non-Ideal Behavior • What do we mean by ideal behavior? – Ideal Gas law and Raoult’s law y x • Which systems behave as ideal? – Non-polar components of similar size and shape • What controls degree of non-ideality? – Molecular interactions e.g.Ideal vs. size and shape of the molecules • How can we study the degree of non-ideality of a system? – Property plots (e. All Rights Reserved. Polarity.

All Rights Reserved.Comparison of EOS and Activity Models EOS Models Limited in ability to represent non-ideal liquids Fewer binary parameters required Parameters extrapolate reasonably with temperature Consistent in critical region Activity Coefficient Models Can represent highly non-ideal liquids Many binary parameters required Binary parameters are highly temperature dependent Inconsistent in critical region ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

All Rights Reserved.Common Property Methods • Equation of State Property Methods – PENG-ROB – RK-SOAVE • Activity Coefficient Property Methods – NRTL – UNIFAC – UNIQUAC – WILSON ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Henry's Law • Henry's Law is only used with ideal and activity coefficient models. Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. N2. • It is used to determine the amount of a supercritical component or light gas in the liquid phase. • Any supercritical components or light gases (CO2. etc. • The Henry's components list ID should be entered on Properties Specifications Global sheet in the Henry Components field.) should be declared as Henry's components (Components Henry Comps Selection sheet). All Rights Reserved.

Choosing a Property Method . Chapter 7.Review Do you have any polar components in your system? N Y Use EOS Model Y Are the operating conditions near the critical region of the mixture? N Do you have light gases or supercritical components in your system? Y References: Aspen Plus User Guide. N Use activity coefficient model Introduction to Aspen Plus Use activity coefficient model with Henry’s Law . more detailed guidelines for choosing a property Method. ©2000 AspenTech. Physical Property Methods. All Rights Reserved. gives similar.

Water Model Type EOS Activity Coefficient Activity Coefficient Property Method RK-SOAVE. Water.Example System Propane. All Rights Reserved. System Ethanol. PENG-ROB NRTL-RK. Ethane. Cyclohexane Ethane and Propanol ©2000 AspenTech. Butane Benzene. WILSON • Choose an appropriate Property Method for the following systems of components at ambient conditions. Carbon Dioxide Water. UNIQUAC NRTL-RK.Choosing a Property Method . Water Acetone. Toluene Acetone. Property Method Introduction to Aspen Plus . Water Benzene.

Introduction to Aspen Plus .How to Establish Physical Properties Choose a Property Method Check Parameters/Obtain Additional Parameters Confirm Results Create the Flowsheet ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Examples – Scalar: MW for molecular weight – Temperature-Dependent: PLXANT for parameters in the extended Antoine vapor pressure model ©2000 AspenTech. • Stored in databanks such as PURE10. ASPENPCD. etc. (The selected databanks are listed on the Components Specifications Databanks sheet.) • Parameters retrieved into the Graphical User Interface by selecting Retrieve Parameter Results from the tools menu.Pure Component Parameters • Represent attributes of a single component • Input in the Properties Parameters Pure Component folder. All Rights Reserved. SOLIDS.

LLE-ASPEN • Parameter values from the databanks can be viewed on the input forms in the Graphical User Interface.Binary Parameters • Used to describe interactions between two components • Input in the Properties Parameters Binary Interaction folder • Stored in binary databanks such as VLE-IG. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Parameter forms that include data from the databanks must be viewed before the flowsheet is complete. • Examples – Scalar: RKTKIJ for the Rackett model – Temperature-Dependent: NRTL for parameters in the NRTL model ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

They can be regenerated by running the simulation again. ©2000 AspenTech. • Select Retrieve Parameter Results from the Tools menu to retrieve all parameters for the components and property methods defined in the simulation. • All results that are currently loaded will be lost.Displaying Property Parameters • Aspen Plus does not display all databank parameters on the parameter input forms. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. • The parameters are viewed on the Properties Parameters Results forms.

– Select Retrieve Parameter Results from the Tools menu.500 0. – Select Report from the View menu.00000E+00 0. All Rights Reserved.00000E+00 0.31942 30. Introduction to Aspen Plus . PHYSICAL PROPERTIES SECTION PROPERTY PARAMETERS ------------------PARAMETERS ACTUALLY USED IN THE SIMULATION PURE COMPONENT PARAMETERS ------------------------COMPONENT ID: BENZENE FORMULA: C6H6 SCALAR PARAMETERS ----------------PARAM NAME API CHARGE CHI DCPLS DGFORM SET DESCRIPTIONS NO. 1 1 1 1 1 STANDARD API GRAVITY IONIC CHARGE STIEL POLAR FACTOR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIQUID AND SOLID CP AT TRIPLE POINT IDEAL GAS GIBBS ENERGY OF FORMATION VALUE 28.954 CAL/MOL-K KCAL/MOL UNITS SOURCE PURE10 AQUEOUS DEFAULT PURE10 PURE10 NAME: C6H6 ©2000 AspenTech. – Select display report for Simulation and click Ok.Reporting Parameters • To get a Report of the retrieved parameters in a text file.

2.Reporting Physical Property Parameters • Follow this procedure to obtain a report file containing values of ALL pure component and binary parameters for ALL components used in a simulation: 1. ©2000 AspenTech. On the Setup Report Options Property sheet. 3.rep) file (Select Export from the File menu). Introduction to Aspen Plus . equations.rep file using any text editor. Edit the . and sources of data. All Rights Reserved. After running the simulation.) The parameters are listed under the heading PARAMETER VALUES in the physical properties section of the report file. (From the Graphical User Interface. export a report (*. you can choose Report from the View menu. select All physical property parameters used (in SI units) or select Property parameters’ descriptions.

Introduction to Aspen Plus .How to Establish Physical Properties Choose a Property Method Check Parameters/Obtain Additional Parameters Confirm Results Create the Flowsheet ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

g. • Property analysis input and results can be saved as a form for later reference and use. All Rights Reserved. e. • When using a binary analysis to check for liquid-liquid phase separation.Property Analysis • Used to generate simple property diagrams to validate physical property models and data • Diagram Types: – Pure component. e. ©2000 AspenTech.g. remember to choose Vapor-Liquid-Liquid as Valid phases. PXY – Ternary residue maps • Select Analysis from the Tools menu to start Analysis. TXY. • Additional binary plots are available under the Plot Wizard button on result form containing raw data. temperature – Binary. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Vapor pressure vs.

4 0.Property Analysis .7 PSI) (PRES = 14.6 0.7 PSI) ©2000 AspenTech. 0 0.4 0.2 0.Common Plots Ideal XY Plot: y-x diagram for METHANOL / PROPANOL XY Plot Showing Azeotrope: y-x diagram for ETHANOL / TOLUENE (PRES = 14.6 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.8 1 LIQUID MOLEFRAC ETHANOL XY Plot Showing 2 liquid phases: y-x diagram for TOLUENE / WATER (PRES = 14.8 1 LIQUID MOLEFRAC TOLUENE Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.8 1 LIQUID MOLEFRAC METHANOL 0 0.7 PSI) 0 0.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.How to Establish Physical Properties Choose a Property Method Check Parameters/Obtain Additional Parameters Confirm Results Create the Flowsheet ©2000 AspenTech.

Parameters that are needed can be obtained from – Literature searches (DETHERM.Select a Property Method based on – Components present in simulation – Operating conditions in simulation – Available data or parameters for the components 2. Choose Property Method . Confirm Results . Check Parameters . Obtain Additional Parameters (if necessary) .Verify choice of Property Method and physical property data using – Physical Property Analysis ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Establishing Physical Properties .Determine parameters available in Aspen Plus databanks 3. All Rights Reserved.) – Regression of experimental data (Data Regression) – Property Constant Estimation (Property Estimation) 4.Review 1. etc.

Introduction to Aspen Plus .Property Sets • A property set (Prop-Set) is a way of accessing a collection.) ©2000 AspenTech. MHeatX. • Current property set applications include: – Design specifications. etc. and other property values. Fortran blocks. etc. transport.) – Heating/cooling curves (Flash2. or set. Only the name of the property set is referenced when using the properties in an application. of properties as an object with a user-given name. • Use property sets to report thermodynamic. sensitivity – Stream reports – Physical property tables (Property Analysis) – Tray properties (RadFrac. All Rights Reserved. MultiFrac.

Properties included in Prop-Sets • Properties commonly included in property sets include: – – – – VFRAC BETA CPMX MUMX - Molar vapor fraction of a stream Fraction of liquid in a second liquid phase Constant pressure heat capacity for a mixture Viscosity for a mixture • Available properties include: – Thermodynamic properties of components in a mixture – Pure component thermodynamic properties – Transport properties – Electrolyte properties – Petroleum-related properties Reference: Aspen Plus Physical Property Data Reference Manual. ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . has a complete list of properties that can be included in a property set. Chapter 4. Property Sets.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Users can define new properties on the Properties Advanced UserProperties form by providing a Fortran subroutine. ©2000 AspenTech.Specifying Property Sets • Use the Properties Prop-Sets form to specify properties in a property set. All Rights Reserved. • The Search button can be used to search for a property. where applicable. • All specified qualifiers apply to each property specified.

GAMMA.Predefined Property Sets • Some simulation Templates contain predefined property sets. KMX) Transport Vapor-liquid equilibrium (PHIMX. • The following table lists predefined property sets and the types of properties they contain for the General Template: Predefined Property Set HXDESIGN THERMAL TXPORT VLE VLLE ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. CPMX. PL) Vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium Introduction to Aspen Plus . Types of Properties Heat exchanger design Mixture thermal (HMX.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . use: – Flow Basis and Fraction Basis check-boxes to specify how stream composition is reported – Property Sets button to specify names of property sets containing additional properties to be reported for each stream ©2000 AspenTech.Stream Results Options • On the Setup Report Options Stream sheet. All Rights Reserved.

Equation or equations used to calculate a physical property • Property Parameter .Definition of Terms • Property Method .Constant used in a property model • Property Set (Prop-Set) .A method of accessing properties so that they can be used or tabulated elsewhere ©2000 AspenTech.Set of property models and methods used to calculate the properties required for a simulation • Property . Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Calculated physical property value such as mixture enthalpy • Property Model .

Aspen Properties • Aspen Properties is now a stand-alone product. All Rights Reserved. Aspen Properties includes: – Excel Interface – Web Interface • Excel Interface is an Excel Add-In that has Excel functions to do property calculations such as: – Flash at a given set of conditions – Calculate a property such as density or viscosity • Web Interface is currently only available for pure components. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • In addition to the standard property features available in Aspen Plus.

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • A refinery has a settling tank that they use to decant off the water from a mixture of water and a heavy oil. and have the following flow rates of the various components: Water Oil CO2 N2 515 lb/hr 4322 lb/hr 751 lb/hr 43 lb/hr • Use the compound n-decane to represent the oil.Physical Properties Workshop • Objective: Simulate a two-liquid phase settling tank and investigate the physical properties of the system. ©2000 AspenTech. The tank and feed are at ambient temperature and pressure (70o F. It is known that water and oil form two liquid phases under the conditions in the tank. The inlet stream to the tank also contains some carbon-dioxide and nitrogen. 1atm).

Retrieve the physical property parameters used in the simulation and determine the critical temperature for carbon dioxide and water. 5. 4. verify that the chosen physical property model and the available parameters predict the formation of 2 liquid phases. Check to see that the required binary physical property parameters are available. 1st Liquid and 2nd Liquid).Physical Properties Workshop (Continued) 1. TC(water) = _______ 3. Use a Flash3 block to represent the tank. Modify the stream report to include the constant pressure heat capacity (CPMX) for each phase (Vapor. ©2000 AspenTech. TC(carbon dioxide) = _______. All Rights Reserved. Choose an appropriate Property Method to represent this system. Introduction to Aspen Plus . 2. for all streams. Set up a simulation to model the settling tank. Using the property analysis feature. and the fraction of liquid in a second liquid phase (BETA).

using forms.Physical Properties Workshop (Continued) This Portion is Optional • Objective: Generate a table of compositions for each liquid phase (1st Liquid and 2nd Liquid) at different temperatures for a mixture of water and oil. Introduction to Aspen Plus . you also can create a Property Analysis manually. however it is more flexible regarding input and reporting. ©2000 AspenTech. • Manually generated Generic Property Analysis is similar to the interactive Analysis commands. Tabulate the vapor pressure of the components in the same table. • In addition to the interactive Analysis commands under the Tools menu. Detailed instructions are on the following slide. All Rights Reserved.

7. 4. d. c. Tabulate a new property set that includes: a. 2. Generate points along a flash curve. Use a vapor fraction of zero. 3. 6. Set Valid phases to Vapor-liquid-liquid. Create a Generic type property analysis from the Properties/Analysis Object manager. Define component flows of 50 mole water and 50 mole oil. 5. Click on the Range/List button. b.the fraction of the 1st liquid to the total liquid (BETA) Pure component vapor pressures of water and oil (PL) ©2000 AspenTech.Physical Properties Workshop (Continued) • Problem Specifications: 1. and vary temperature from 50 to 400 F. All Rights Reserved. Mole fraction of water and oil in the 1st and 2nd liquid phases (MOLEFRAC) Mole flow of water and oil in the 1st and 2nd liquid phases (MOLEFLOW) Beta . Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Optimization User Guide. Sensitivity User Guide. Fitting a Simulation Model to Data ©2000 AspenTech. Accessing Flowsheet Variables Related Topics: User Guide. Chapter 18. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 19. Chapter 23. . Calculator Blocks and In-Line Fortran User Guide.Accessing Variables Objective: Become familiar with referencing flowsheet variables Aspen Plus References: User Guide. Chapter 20. Design Specifications User Guide. Chapter 21. Chapter 22.

references must be made to 2 flowsheet quantities. Introduction to Aspen Plus .e. i. The reflux ratio of the column 2. The mole fraction of component B in the stream OVHD ©2000 AspenTech. 2 flowsheet variables must be accessed: 1. All Rights Reserved.Why Access Variables? OVHD FEED COLUMN BTMS • What is the effect of the reflux ratio of the column on the purity (mole fraction of component B) of the distillate? • To perform this analysis.

or both. design specifications. calculator blocks.Accessing Variables • An accessed variable is a reference to a particular flowsheet quantity. • Flowsheet result variables (calculated quantities) should not be overwritten or varied. temperature of a stream or duty of a block. • Accessed variables can be input. optimization. e. ©2000 AspenTech. etc. • The concept of accessing variables is used in sensitivity analyses. Introduction to Aspen Plus . results. All Rights Reserved.g.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . Both non-component variables and component dependent flow and composition variables can be accessed. Parameters. All Rights Reserved. balance block and pressure relief variables Property parameters Reactions and chemistry variables Costing variables Model Utility Property Reactions Costing ©2000 AspenTech.Variable Categories Variable Category Blocks Streams Type of Variable Block variables and vectors Stream variables and vectors.

On the popup menu. click the right mouse button on the Variable Name field. Design specification or Sensitivity form. All Rights Reserved. such as on a Calculator.Variable Definition Dialog Box • When completing a Define sheet. • If you are editing an existing variable and want to change the variable name. click Rename. • On the Variable Definition dialog box. • You cannot modify the variables on the Define sheet itself. specify the variables on the Variable Definition dialog box. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . select the variable category and Aspen Plus will display the other fields necessary to complete the variable definition.

4. Only streams that are feeds to the flowsheet should be varied or modified directly. and PDROP is pressure drop used in calculating pressure profile in heating or cooling curves. MoleFlow or StdVol-Flow of the desired component. To modify the composition of a stream. If duty is specified for a block. it should be read using the variable QCALC. 2. that duty can be read and written using the variable DUTY for that block. Introduction to Aspen Plus ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. PRES is the specified pressure or pressure drop. If the Mass-Frac.Notes 1. it should not be modified. Mole-Frac or StdVol-Frac of a component in a stream is accessed. 3. access and modify the Mass-Flow. If the duty for a block is calculated during simulation. .

. Calculator Blocks and In-Line Fortran ©2000 AspenTech. Accessing Flowsheet Variables User Guide.Sensitivity Analysis Objective: Introduce the use of sensitivity analysis to study relationships between process variables Aspen Plus References: User Guide. Chapter 18. Sensitivity Related Topics: User Guide. Chapter 20. Chapter 19. All Rights Reserved.

• Results can be viewed by looking at the Results form in the folder for the Sensitivity block. • Located under /Data/Model Analysis Tools/Sensitivity ©2000 AspenTech.Sensitivity Analysis • Allows user to study the effect of changes in input variables on process outputs. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Changes made to a flowsheet input quantity in a sensitivity block do not affect the simulation. • Results may be graphed to easily visualize relationships between different variables. All Rights Reserved. The sensitivity study is run independently of the base-case simulation.

All Rights Reserved.BKP PRODUCT • What is the effect of cooler outlet temperature on the purity of the product stream? » Cooler outlet temperature • What is the manipulated (varied) variable? » Purity (mole fraction) of cumene in product stream • What is the measured (sampled) variable? ©2000 AspenTech.Sensitivity Analysis Example RECYCLE REACTOR COOL FEED REAC-OUT COOL-OUT SEP Filename: CUMENE-S. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Sensitivity Analysis Results • What is happening below 75 F and above 300 F? CUMENE PRODUCT PURITY 0.95 1 Sensitivity S-1 Results Summary 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 VARY 1 COOL PARAM TEMP F ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .9 0.85 0. All Rights Reserved.

Uses of Sensitivity Analysis • Studying the effect of changes in input variables on process (model) outputs • Graphically representing the effects of input variables • Verifying that a solution to a design specification is feasible • Rudimentary optimization • Studying time varying variables using a quasi-steadystate approach ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

4. 2.Steps for Using Sensitivity Analysis 1. Specify quantities to calculate and tabulate – Tabulated quantities can be any valid Fortran expression containing variables defined in step 1 (Sensitivity Input Tabulate sheet). All Rights Reserved. Specify range(s) for manipulated (varied) variable(s) – Variation for manipulated variable can be specified either as equidistant points within an interval or as a list of values for the variable (Sensitivity Input Vary sheet). ©2000 AspenTech. 3. Specify measured (sampled) variable(s) – These are quantities calculated during the simulation to be used in step 4 (Sensitivity Input Define sheet). Specify manipulated (varied) variable(s) – These are the flowsheet variables to be varied (Sensitivity Input Vary sheet). Introduction to Aspen Plus .

(Optional) Select the column containing the parametric variable and then select Parametric Variable from the Plot menu. Select the column containing the Y-axis variable and then select Y-Axis Variable from the Plot menu. Select the column containing the X-axis variable and then select X-Axis Variable from the Plot menu. click on the heading of the column with the left mouse button.Plotting 1. 2. Select Display Plot from the Plot menu. All Rights Reserved. ©2000 AspenTech. 4. Note: To select a column. Introduction to Aspen Plus . 3.

Multiple inputs can be varied. Only quantities that have been input to the flowsheet should be varied or manipulated. The simulation is run for every combination of manipulated (varied) variables. ©2000 AspenTech.Notes 1. All Rights Reserved. 2. Introduction to Aspen Plus . 3.

Sensitivity Analysis Workshop
• Objective: Use a sensitivity analysis to study the effect of the recycle flowrate on the reactor duty in the cyclohexane flowsheet • Part A
– Using the cyclohexane production flowsheet Workshop (saved as

CYCLOHEX.BKP), plot the variation of reactor duty (block REACT) as the recycle split fraction in LFLOW is varied from 0.1 to 0.4.

• Optional Part B
– In addition to the fraction split off as recycle (Part A), vary the conversion of

benzene in the reactor from 0.9 to 1.0. Tabulate the reactor duty and construct a parametric plot showing the dependence of reactor duty on the fraction split off as recycle and conversion of benzene.

Note: Both of these studies (parts A and B) should be set up within the same sensitivity analysis block. • When finished, save as filename: SENS.BKP.
Introduction to Aspen Plus

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Cyclohexane Production Workshop
C6H6 + 3 H2 = C6H12 Benzene Hydrogen Cyclohexane
PURGE
Total flow = 330 kmol/hr T = 50 C P = 25 bar Molefrac H2 = 0.975 N2 = 0.005 CH4 = 0.02 92% flow to stream H2RCY

H2RCY

VFLOW

H2IN

VAP FEED-MIX RXIN
T = 150C P = 23 bar

REACT HP-SEP RXOUT
T = 200 C Pdrop = 1 bar Benzene conv = 0.998 T = 50 C Pdrop = 0.5 bar

LTENDS
Theoretical Stages = 12 Reflux ratio = 1.2 Bottoms rate = 99 kmol/hr Partial Condenser with vapor distillate only Column Pressure = 15 bar Feed stage = 8

BZIN
T = 40 C P = 1 bar Benzene flow = 100 kmol/hr

LIQ COLFD LFLOW

CHRCY

30% flow to stream CHRCY

Use the RK-SOAVE property method

PRODUCT COLUMN
Specify cyclohexane mole recovery of 0.9999 by varying Bottoms rate from 97 to 101 kmol/hr

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Design Specifications
Objective:
Introduce the use of design specifications to meet process design requirements

Aspen Plus References User Guide, Chapter 21, Design Specifications Related Topics User Guide, Chapter 18, Accessing Flowsheet Variables User Guide, Chapter 19, Calculator Blocks and In-Line Fortran User Guide, Chapter 17, Convergence

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Design Specifications
• Similar to a feedback controller • Allows user to set the value of a calculated flowsheet quantity to a particular value • Objective is achieved by manipulating a specified input variable • No results associated directly with a design specification • Located under /Data/Flowsheeting Options/Design Specs

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Design Specification Example
RECYCLE REACTOR COOL FEED REAC-OUT COOL-OUT SEP

Filename: CUMENE-D.BKP
PRODUCT

• What should the cooler outlet temperature be to achieve a cumene product purity of 98 mole percent?

» Cooler outlet temperature
• • • What is the manipulated (varied) variable?

» Mole fraction of cumene in stream PRODUCT
What is the measured (sampled) variable?

» Mole fraction of cumene in stream PRODUCT = 0.98
What is the specification (target) to be achieved?
Introduction to Aspen Plus
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Steps for Using Design Specifications
1. Identify measured (sampled) variables
– These are flowsheet quantities, usually calculated quantities, to be

included in the objective function (Design Spec Define sheet).

2. Specify objective function (Spec) and goal (Target)
– This is the equation that the specification attempts to satisfy

(Design Spec Spec sheet). The units of the variable used in the objective function are the units for that type of variable as specified by the Units Set declared for the design specification.

3. Set tolerance for objective function
– The specification is said to be converged if the objective function

equation is satisfied to within this tolerance (Design Spec Spec sheet).

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Steps for Using Design Specifications (Continued)
4. Specify manipulated (varied) variable
– This is the variable whose value the specification changes in

order to satisfy the objective function equation (Design Spec Vary sheet).

5. Specify range of manipulated (varied) variable
– These are the lower and upper bounds of the interval within

which Aspen Plus will vary the manipulated variable (Design Spec Vary sheet). The units of the limits for the varied variable are the units for that type of variable as specified by the Units Set declared for the design specification.

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

3. Only quantities that have been input to the flowsheet should be manipulated. This is especially important for large flowsheets with several interrelated design specifications. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. Alternatively. The results of a design specification can be found under Data/Convergence/Convergence. and choosing the Results form. the final values of the manipulated and/or sampled variables can be viewed directly on the appropriate Stream/Block results forms.Notes 1. 2. by opening the appropriate solver block. Providing a good estimate for the manipulated variable will help the design specification converge in fewer iterations. ©2000 AspenTech. The calculations performed by a design specification are iterative.

Try providing a better starting estimate for the value of the manipulated variable. b. Check to see that the manipulated variable is not at its lower or upper bound. If a design-spec does not converge: a. Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. c. Verify that a solution exists within the bounds specified for the manipulated variable. perhaps by performing a sensitivity analysis.Notes (Continued) 4. All Rights Reserved. Check to ensure that the manipulated variable does indeed affect the value of the sampled variables. d.

Try narrowing the bounds of the manipulated variable or loosening the tolerance on the objective function to help convergence. All Rights Reserved. etc. algorithm. Try changing the characteristics of the convergence block associated with the design-spec (step size. Introduction to Aspen Plus .) ©2000 AspenTech. number of iterations. f. Make sure that the objective function does not have a flat region within the range of the manipulated variable.Notes (Continued) e. g.

• The cyclohexane production flowsheet workshop (saved as CYCLOHEX.BKP) is a model of an existing plant. save as filename: DES-SPEC.Design Specification Workshop • Objective: Use a design specification in the cyclohexane flowsheet to fix the heat load on the reactor by varying the recycle flowrate. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. Note: The heat convention used in Aspen Plus is that heat input to a block is positive. and heat removed from a block is negative. The cooling system around the reactor can handle a maximum operating load of 4.BKP ©2000 AspenTech. • When finished.7 MMkcal/hr. Determine the amount of cyclohexane recycle necessary to keep the cooling load on the reactor to this amount.

9999 by varying Bottoms rate from 97 to 101 kmol/hr ©2000 AspenTech.998 T = 50 C Pdrop = 0.2 Bottoms rate = 99 kmol/hr Partial Condenser with vapor distillate only Column Pressure = 15 bar Feed stage = 8 Use the RK-SOAVE property method PRODUCT COLUMN Specify cyclohexane mole recovery of 0.02 92% flow to stream H2RCY H2RCY VFLOW H2IN VAP FEED-MIX RXIN T = 150C P = 23 bar REACT HP-SEP LTENDS RXOUT T = 200 C Pdrop = 1 bar Benzene conv = 0.Cyclohexane Production Workshop C6H6 + 3 H2 = C6H12 Benzene Hydrogen Cyclohexane PURGE Total flow = 330 kmol/hr T = 50 C P = 25 bar Molefrac H2 = 0.975 N2 = 0.005 CH4 = 0. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.5 bar BZIN T = 40 C P = 1 bar Benzene flow = 100 kmol/hr LIQ COLFD LFLOW CHRCY 30% flow to stream CHRCY Theoretical Stages = 12 Reflux ratio = 1.

Calculator Blocks and In-Line Fortran Related Topics: User Guide. Optimization ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. . Accessing Flowsheet Variables User Guide. Sensitivity User Guide. Chapter 21. Chapter 19. Chapter 18. Chapter 22.Calculator Blocks Objective: Introduce usage of Excel and Fortran Calculator blocks Aspen Plus References: User Guide. Chapter 20. Design Specifications User Guide.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. • Increasing the diagnostics for the Calculator block will print the value of all input and result variables in the Control Panel.Calculator Blocks • Allows user to write equations in an Excel spreadsheet or in Fortran to be executed by Aspen Plus • Results of the execution of a Calculator block must be viewed by directly examining the values of the variables modified by the Calculator block. • Located under /Data/Flowsheeting Options/Calculator ©2000 AspenTech.

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .BKP or CUMENE-EXCEL. ©2000 AspenTech. RECYCLE REACTOR COOL FEED REAC-OUT COOL-OUT SEP V DELTA-P PRODUCT Calculator Block DELTA-P = -10-9 * V2 Filename: CUMENE-F.Calculator Block Example • Use of a Calculator block to set the pressure drop across a Heater block.BKP • Pressure drop across heater is proportional to square of volumetric flow into heater.

A prop-set containing volumetric flow of a mixture » Pressure drop across block COOL • When should the Calculator block be executed? » Before block COOL • Which variables are imported and which are exported? » Volumetric flow is imported » Pressure drop is exported ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. Mass flow and mass density of stream REAC-OUT 2.Calculator Block Example (Continued) • Which flowsheet variables must be accessed? » Volumetric flow of stream REAC-OUT This can be accessed in two different ways: 1.

Introduction to Aspen Plus .Excel Aspen Plus toolbar in Excel Connect Current Cell to a Defined Variable Import Variables =FLOW/DENS =(-10^-9)*B6^2 Export Variable ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

must be identified (Calculator Input Define sheet).Steps for Using Calculator Blocks 1. All Rights Reserved. EQUIVALENCE. Access flowsheet variables to be used within Calculator – All flowsheet quantities that must be either read from or written to. 2. Introduction to Aspen Plus . or – Specify with import and export variables ©2000 AspenTech. Specify location of Calculator block in execution sequence (Calculator Input Sequence sheet) – Specify directly. Write Fortran or Excel – Fortran includes both non-executable (COMMON. etc) Fortran (click on the Fortran Declarations button) and executable Fortran (Calculator Input Calculate sheet) to achieve desired result. 3.

or Report File • Custom reports ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. or the Control Panel.Uses of Calculator Blocks • Feed-forward control (setting flowsheet inputs based on upstream calculated values) • Calling external subroutines • Input / output to and from external files • Writing to an external file. Introduction to Aspen Plus . History File.

Calculator Block F-1 VALUES OF ACCESSED VARIABLES VARIABLE VALUE ======== ===== DP -2.Increasing Diagnostics Increase Calculator defined variables Diagnostics message level in Control Panel or History file to 8.032782930000 FLOW 5428.032790410000 ©2000 AspenTech.501858128 DENS 0.1204020367004 RETURNED VALUES OF VARIABLES VARIABLE VALUE ======== ===== DP -2. In the Control Panel or History File Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved.bkp file). Cells that contain Export variables have a blue border.apmbd file is created. • Full functionality of Excel is available including VBA and Macros. This file needs to be in the working directory. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Cells that contain Import variables have a green border. • When saving as a backup (.Excel • Excel workbook is embedded into simulation for each Calculator block. a . Cells that contain Tear variables have an orange border.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. (It is generally faster to add variables inside Aspen Plus. All Rights Reserved.) • No Fortran compiler is needed.Excel (Continued) • Variables can be defined in Aspen Plus on the Define sheet or in Excel using the Aspen Plus toolbar.

If this cell is not connected to a Defined Variable. If this cell is already connected to a Defined Variable. the link between that cell and the Defined Variable is broken. • Define Button – Click the Define Button to create a new Defined Variable or to edit an existing one. clicking on this button will create a new Defined Variable. clicking on this button will allow you to edit it. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Unlink Button – Click the Unlink Button to remove the link between a cell and a Defined Variable. Clicking on this button does not delete the Defined Variable.Excel Aspen Plus Toolbar • Connect Cell Combo Box – Use this Combo Box to attach the current cell on the Excel spreadsheet to a Defined Variable. If the Defined Variable chosen is already connected to another cell. All Rights Reserved.

You should click this button if. • Refresh Button – Click the Refresh Button to refresh the list of Defined Variables in the Connect Cell Combo Box. you make changes to the Excel spreadsheet without making any changes on the Calculator block forms. All Rights Reserved. You should click this button if you have changed the list of Defined Variables by making changes on the Calculator Define sheet. This will cause the Calculator to be re-executed the next time you run the simulation. after the calculator block is executed. ©2000 AspenTech.Excel Aspen Plus Toolbar (Continued) • Delete Button – Click the Delete Button to remove the link between a cell and a Defined variable and delete the Defined Variable. • Changed Button – Click the Changed Button to set the "Input Changed" flag of this Calculator block. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Aspen Plus References User Guide. .Windows Interoperability Objective: Introduce the use of windows interoperability to transfer data easily to and from other Windows programs. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 37. Using the Aspen Plus ActiveX Automation Server ©2000 AspenTech. Chapter 38. Working with Other Windows Programs User Guide.

All Rights Reserved.Object Linking and Embedding • ActiveX automation ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Windows Interoperability • Copying and pasting simulation data into spreadsheets or reports • Copying and pasting flowsheet graphics and plots into reports • Creating active links between Aspen Plus and other Windows applications • OLE .

Windows Interoperability . • Copy plots or tables into the Process Flowsheet Window. etc. ©2000 AspenTech. Data-Fit.Examples • Copy simulation results such as column profiles and stream results into – Spreadsheet for further analysis – Word processor for reports and documentation – Design program – Database for case storage and management • Copy flowsheet graphics and plots into – Word processor for reports – Slide making program for presentations • Copy tabular data from spreadsheets into Aspen Plus for Data Regression. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

All Rights Reserved. – The benefits to the engineer are quick and error-free data transfer and consistent engineering results throughout the engineering work process. Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech.Benefits of Windows Interoperability • Benefits of Copy/Paste/Paste Link – Live data links can be established that update these applications as the process model is changed to automatically propagate results of engineering changes.

• 2. or an entire grid can be selected by clicking on the top left cell.Steps for Using Copy and Paste 1. Paste – Click the mouse in the input field where you want the information and choose Paste from the Edit menu or click CTRL-V. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Multiple fields of data or objects can be selected by holding down the CTRL key while clicking the mouse on the fields. All Rights Reserved. Copy – Choose Copy from the Edit menu or type CTRL-C. 3. • Columns of data can be selected by clicking the column heading. ©2000 AspenTech. Select – Select the data fields or the graphical objects.

or stream data into a CAD drawing. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . The simulation model is actually contained in the document. • Uses of OLE – Aspen Plus as the OLE server: Aspen Plus flowsheet graphics can be embedded into a report document.OLE .Object Linking and Embedding • What is OLE? – Applications can be used within applications. – Aspen Plus as the OLE container: Other windows applications can be embedded within the Aspen Plus simulation. and could be delivered directly with that document. ©2000 AspenTech.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . – OLE container: For example. he could access and run the embedded Aspen Plus model directly from the report document. for example. Excel spreadsheets and plots could be used to enhance Aspen Plus flowsheet graphics. wanted to review the model assumptions.OLE (Continued) • Examples of OLE – OLE server: If the recipient of an engineering report. ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • You can do this in two ways: – Using Copy and Paste – Using the Insert dialog box • You can edit the object embedded in the flowsheet by double clicking on the object to edit it inside Aspen Plus.Embedding Objects in the Flowsheet • You can embed other applications as objects into the Process Flowsheet window. • You can also move. resize or attach the object to a block or stream in the flowsheet. All Rights Reserved.

xls ©2000 AspenTech. Use the Cyclohexane flowsheet workshop (saved as CYCLOHEX. Generate a plot of the temperature using the plot wizard and copy and paste the plot into the spreadsheet. Save the spreadsheet as CYCLOHEX-result.BKP) Copy the temperature profile from COLUMN into a spreadsheet. All Rights Reserved.Copy and Paste Workshop 1 Objectives: Use copy and paste to copy and paste the stage temperatures into a spreadsheet. .

• Use the Cyclohexane flowsheet workshop (saved as CYCLOHEX. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. – Copy the compositions.BKP) • Copy the stream results from stream RXIN into the input form. Note: Reinitialize before running the simulation in order to see how many iterations are needed before and after the estimate is added. the temperature and the pressure separately.Copy and Paste Workshop 2 • Objective: Use copy and paste to copy the stream results to a stream input form.

©2000 AspenTech. you can create active links between input or results fields in Aspen Plus and other applications such as Word and Excel.Creating Active Links • When copying and pasting information. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. • The links update these applications as the process model is modified to automatically propagate results of engineering changes.

Select the data (or object) that you want to paste and link. Open both applications. click the Paste Link radio button. 5. In the location where you want to paste the link. In the Paste Special dialog box. choose Paste Special from the Edit menu.Steps for Creating Active Links 1. ©2000 AspenTech. Choose Copy from the Edit menu. All Rights Reserved. 2. 3. 4. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Paste Link Demonstration • Objective: Create an active link from Aspen Plus Results into a spreadsheet. • Copy and paste the link into the Aspen Plus flowsheet. • Open a spreadsheet and create a cell with the temperature for the cooler in it. ©2000 AspenTech. Notice the changes. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Copy and paste a link with the flow and composition of cumene in the product stream into the spreadsheet. • Change the temperature in the spreadsheet and then rerun the flowsheet. All Rights Reserved. • Start with the cumene flowsheet demonstration.

xls spreadsheet as a link. Check the spreadsheet to see that the results have changed there also. Use Paste Special and choose Link.Paste Link Workshop • Objective: Create an active link from Aspen Plus results into a spreadsheet • Use the Cyclohexane flowsheet workshop (saved as CYCLOHEX. • Change the Reflux ratio in the column to 2 and rerun the flowsheet. Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. Use Copy with Format and copy the value. • Paste the results into the CYCLOHEX-results. Notice that the temperature profile results have not changed since they were not pasted as a link.BKP) • Copy the Condenser and Reboiler duty results from the RadFrac COLUMN Summary sheet. the label and the units. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . – Save the first application again.Saving Files with Active Links • Be sure to save both the link source file and the link container file. ©2000 AspenTech. you must do three Save operations: – Save the first application with a new name. – Save the second application with a new name. • If you save the link source with a different name. you must save the link container after saving the link source. • If you have active links in both directions between the two applications and you change the name of both files.

Note: The Process Flowsheet must be the active window. – In the Links dialog box. All Rights Reserved. ©2000 AspenTech.Running Files with Active Links • When you open the link source file. there is nothing special that you need to do. select the source file and click Open Source. You can select Yes or No. you will usually see a dialog box asking you if you want to re-establish the links. • When you open the link container file. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • To make a link source application visible: – Select Links. Links is not an option on the Edit menu if the Data Browser is active. from the Edit menu in Aspen Plus.

Aspen Plus References: Unit Operation Models Reference Manual. Chapter 3. All Rights Reserved. . Heat Exchangers ©2000 AspenTech.Heat Exchangers Objective: Introduce the unit operation models used for heat exchangers and heaters.

Interface to B-JAC Hetran block • Aerotran .Interface to B-JAC Aerotran block ©2000 AspenTech.Heater or cooler • HeatX .Multi-stream heat exchanger • Hetran .Two stream heat exchanger • MHeatX . All Rights Reserved.Heat Exchanger Blocks • Heater . Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Working with the Heater Model • The Heater block mixes multiple inlet streams to produce a single outlet stream at a specified thermodynamic state. • Heater can be used to represent: – Heaters – Coolers – Valves – Pumps (when work-related results are not needed) – Compressors (when work-related results are not needed) • Heater can also be used to set the thermodynamic conditions of a stream. All Rights Reserved. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Introduction to Aspen Plus .Heater Input Specifications • Allowed combinations: – Pressure (or Pressure drop) and one of: • • • • • Outlet temperature Heat duty or inlet heat stream Vapor fraction Temperature change Degrees of subcooling or superheating – Outlet Temperature or Temperature change and one of: Pressure • Heat Duty • Vapor fraction • ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved. 0 means bubble point ©2000 AspenTech.Heater Input Specifications (Continued) • For single phase use Pressure (drop) and one of: – Outlet temperature – Heat duty or inlet heat stream – Temperature change • Vapor fraction of 1 means dew point condition. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

• One outlet heat stream can be specified for the net heat load from a Heater. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Heat Streams • Any number of inlet heat streams can be specified for a Heater. All Rights Reserved. Heater uses the heat streams only to calculate the net heat duty. Heater uses the sum of the inlet heat streams as a duty specification. • If you give two specifications. ©2000 AspenTech. • The net heat load is the sum of the inlet heat streams minus the actual (calculated) heat duty. • If you give only one specification (temperature or pressure).

©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Simplified rating calculations (heat and material balance calculations) can be performed if exchanger geometry is unknown or unimportant.Working with the HeatX Model • HeatX can perform simplified or rigorous rating calculations. the heat exchanger geometry must be specified. All Rights Reserved. • For rigorous heat transfer and pressure drop calculations.

Working with the HeatX Model (Continued) • HeatX can model shell-and-tube exchanger types: – Counter-current and co-current – Segmental baffle TEMA E. F. H. J and X shells – Rod baffle TEMA E and F shells – Bare and low-finned tubes • HeatX performs: – Full zone analysis – Heat transfer and pressure drop calculations – Sensible heat. G. Introduction to Aspen Plus . condensation film coefficient calculations – Built-in or user specified correlations ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. nucleate boiling.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Working with the HeatX Model (Continued) • HeatX cannot: – Perform design calculations – Perform mechanical vibration analysis – Estimate fouling factors ©2000 AspenTech.

HeatX Input Specifications • Select one of the following specifications: – Heat transfer area or Geometry – Exchanger duty – For hot or cold outlet stream: • • • • • Temperature Temperature change Temperature approach Degrees of superheating / subcooling Vapor fraction ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.

• Two-stream heat exchangers can also be modeled using MHeatX. All Rights Reserved. ©2000 AspenTech. • MHeatX uses multiple Heater blocks and heat streams to enhance flowsheet convergence.Working with the MHeatX Model • MHeatX can be used to represent heat transfer between multiple hot and cold streams. Introduction to Aspen Plus . rigorous internal zone analysis can be performed to determine pinch points. • Detailed.

All Rights Reserved. – Use two Heaters (coupled by heat stream. the utility) is not important. Introduction to Aspen Plus .HeatX versus Heater • Consider the following: – Use HeatX when both sides are important. ©2000 AspenTech.g. Calculator block or design spec) or an MHeatX to avoid flowsheet complexity created by HeatX. – Use Heater when one side (e.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Two Heaters versus One HeatX ©2000 AspenTech.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . • The Aerotran block is the interface to the B-JAC Aerotran program for designing and simulating air-cooled heat exchangers.Working with Hetran and Aerotran • The Hetran block is the interface to the B-JAC Hetran program for designing and simulating shell and tube heat exchangers. • Information related to the heat exchanger configuration and geometry is entered through the Hetran or Aerotran standalone program interface. ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

• Aspen Plus properties are used. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Working with HTRI-IST • The HTRIIST block called HTRI IST as a subroutine for licensed IST users only. All Rights Reserved. ©2000 AspenTech. • Key IST results are retrieved and reported inside Aspen Plus. • Users can create a new IST model or access an existing model.

All Rights Reserved. • Tables can be generated for various independent variables (typically duty or temperature) for any property that Aspen Plus can generate. plotted. • These tables can be printed. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Heat Curves • All of the heat exchanger models are able to calculate Heat Curves (Hcurves). or exported for use with other heat exchanger design software.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Heat Curves Tabular Results ©2000 AspenTech.

Introduction to Aspen Plus .Heat Curve Plot ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

20% styrene. 20% ethylbenzene and 10% water • Cooling water – Temperature: 20 C – Pressure: 10 bar – Flow rate: 60000 kg/hr – Composition: 100% water ©2000 AspenTech. • Hydrocarbon stream – Temperature: 200 C – Pressure: 4 bar – Flowrate: 10000 kg/hr – Composition: 50 wt% benzene. All Rights Reserved.HeatX Workshop • Objective: Compare the simulation of a heat exchanger that uses water to cool a hydrocarbon mixture using three methods: a shortcut HeatX. a rigorous HeatX and two Heaters connected with a Heat stream. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

BKP HEATER-1 HCLD-IN HCLD-OUT SHOT-OUT RHOT-OUT SHEATX SCLD-IN Q-TRANS SCLD-OUT RCLD-IN RHEATX RCLD-OUT HEATER-2 HHOT-IN HHOT-OUT SHOT-IN RHOT-IN Start with the General with Metric Units Template. save as filename: HEATX. All Rights Reserved. Specify that the valid phases for the hydrocarbon stream is Vapor-Liquid-Liquid. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Use the NRTL-RK Property Method for the hydrocarbon streams. Specify that the Steam Tables are used to calculate the properties for the cooling water streams on the Block BlockOptions Properties sheet.HeatX Workshop (Continued) When finished. ©2000 AspenTech.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. 21 mm ID. 1 tube pass – 300 bare tubes. 15% cut – Create heat curves containing all info required for thermal design. pitch 31 mm. – Change the heat exchanger specification to Geometry and re-run. All Rights Reserved. 3 m length. 25 mm OD – All nozzles 100 mm – 5 baffles.HeatX Workshop (Continued) • Shortcut HeatX simulation: – Hydrocarbon stream exit has a vapor fraction of 0 – No pressure drop in either stream • Two Heaters simulation: – Use the same specifications as the shortcut HeatX simulation • Rigorous HeatX simulation: – Hydrocarbons in shell leave with a vapor fraction of 0 – Shell diameter 1 m.

Pressure Changers ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. . and models for calculating pressure change through pipes and valves. Chapter 6.Pressure Changers Objective: Introduce the unit operation models used to change pressure: pumps. compressors. Aspen Plus References: Unit Operation Models Reference Manual.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Compressor or turbine • MCompr .Control valve • Pipe .Multi-stage compressor or turbine • Valve .Pump or hydraulic turbine • Compr .Multi-segment pipe ©2000 AspenTech.Single-segment pipe • Pipeline .Pressure Changer Blocks • Pump .

• Vapor-liquid or vapor-liquid-liquid calculations can be specified to check outlet stream phases. All Rights Reserved. • Pump is designed to handle a single liquid phase. ©2000 AspenTech.Working with the Pump Model • The Pump block can be used to simulate: – Pumps – Hydraulic turbines • Power requirement is calculated or input. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • A Heater model can be used for pressure change calculations only.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. • Specify: – Dimensional curves Head versus flow • Power versus flow • – Dimensionless curves: • Head coefficient versus flow coefficient ©2000 AspenTech.Pump Performance Curves • Rating can be done by specifying scalar parameters or a pump performance curve.

Working with the Compr Model • The Compr block can be used to simulate: – Polytropic centrifugal compressor – Polytropic positive displacement compressor – Isentropic compressor – Isentropic turbine • MCompr is used for multi-stage compressors. • Compr is designed to handle both single and multiple phase calculations. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. ©2000 AspenTech. • A Heater model can be used for pressure change calculations only. • Power requirement is calculated or input.

Working with the MCompr Model • The MCompr block can be used to simulate: – Multi-stage polytropic centrifugal compressor – Multi-stage polytropic positive displacement compressor – Multi-stage isentropic compressor – Multi-stage isentropic turbine • MCompr can have an intercooler between each stage. – Intercooler specifications apply to all subsequent coolers. – Each cooler can have a liquid knockout stream.phase flash calculations in the intercoolers. All Rights Reserved. and an aftercooler after the last stage. except the cooler after the last stage. two-. – You can perform one-. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . or three.

Compressor Performance Curves • Rating can be done by specifying a compressor performance curve. ©2000 AspenTech. • Specify: – Dimensional curves Head versus flow • Power versus flow • – Dimensionless curves: • Head coefficient versus flow coefficient • Compr cannot handle performance curves for a turbine. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Work Streams • Any number of inlet work streams can be specified for pumps and compressors. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • One outlet work stream can be specified for the net work load from pumps or compressors. • The net work load is the sum of the inlet work streams minus the actual (calculated) work. ©2000 AspenTech.

Working with the Valve Model • The Valve block can be used to simulate: – Control valves – Pressure drop • The pressure drop across a valve is related to the valve flow coefficient. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Flow is assumed to be adiabatic. All Rights Reserved. • Valve can perform single or multiple phase calculations.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. • There are three types of calculations: – Adiabatic flash for specified outlet pressure (pressure changer) – Calculate valve flow coefficient for specified outlet pressure (design) – Calculate outlet pressure for specified valve (rating) • Valve can check for choked flow.Working with the Valve Model (Continued) • The effect of head loss from pipe fittings can be included. All Rights Reserved. • Cavitation index can be calculated.

Working with the Pipe Model • The Pipe block calculates the pressure drop and heat transfer in a single pipe segment. • If the outlet pressure is known. Pipe calculates the outlet pressure. • Entrance effects are not modeled. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Pipe can perform single or multiple phase calculations. All Rights Reserved. • If the inlet pressure is known. ©2000 AspenTech. • The Pipeline block can be used for a multiple-segment pipe. Pipe calculates the inlet pressure and updates the state variables of the inlet stream.

COMPR RECYCLE VALVE RECYCLE2 RECYCLE3 Outlet Pressure = 3 psig Polytropic compressor model using GPSA method Discharge pressure = 5 psig FEED REAC-OUT REACTOR COOL COOL-OUT SEP PRODUCT Filename: CUMENE-P.Pressure Changers Block Example • Add a Compressor and a Valve to the cumene flowsheet. Introduction to Aspen Plus .BKP ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Start with the Cyclohexane Workshop flowsheet (CYCLOHEX. All Rights Reserved.Pressure Changers Workshop • Objective: Add pressure changer unit operations to the Cyclohexane flowsheet.BKP) ©2000 AspenTech.

Pressure Changers Workshop (Continued) Isentropic 4 bar pressure change COMP H2RCY VALVE PURGE VFLOW PURGE2 H2IN H2RCY2 FEED-MIX REACT VAP 20 bar outlet pressure Globe valve V810 equal percent flow 1. PIPE Carbon Steel Schedule 40 1-in diameter 25-m length 26 bar outlet pressure When finished.BKP Introduction to Aspen Plus . save as filename: PRESCHNG. All Rights Reserved.6 Driver efficiency = 0.9 Performance Curve Head Flow [m] [cum/hr] 40 20 250 10 300 5 400 3 ©2000 AspenTech.5-in size FEEDPUMP BZIN BZIN2 CHRCY3 RXIN RXOUT HP-SEP LTENDS LIQ PUMP CHRCY2 CHRCY LFLOW COLFD PRODUCT COLUMN Pump efficiency = 0.

Chapter 17. tear streams and flowsheet sequences Aspen Plus References User Guide.Flowsheet Convergence Objective: Introduce the idea of convergence blocks. . All Rights Reserved. Convergence ©2000 AspenTech.

©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .” – User defined convergence block names must not begin with the character “$. • Convergence blocks determine how guesses for a tear stream or design specification manipulated variable are updated from iteration to iteration.Convergence Blocks • Every design specification and tear stream has an associated convergence block..” • To determine the convergence blocks defined by Aspen Plus. • Aspen Plus-defined convergence block names begin with the character “$.. • User convergence blocks can be specified under /Data/Convergence/Convergence. look under the “Flowsheet Analysis” section in the Control Panel messages. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Convergence Block Types • Different types of convergence blocks are used for different purposes: – To converge tear streams: WEGSTEIN • DIRECT • BROYDEN • NEWTON • – To converge design specifications: SECANT • BROYDEN • NEWTON • – To converge design specifications and tear streams: BROYDEN • NEWTON • – For optimization: SQP • COMPLEX • • Global convergence options can be specified on the Convergence ConvOptions Defaults form. ©2000 AspenTech.

or on the left-hand pane of the Control Panel window. look under the “COMPUTATION ORDER FOR THE FLOWSHEET” section in the Control Panel. ©2000 AspenTech. • User-specified sequences can be either full or partial.Flowsheet Sequence • To determine the flowsheet sequence calculated by Aspen Plus. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • User-determined sequences can be specified on the Convergence Sequence form.

• Tear streams are related to. and iteratively updates the guess until two consecutive guesses are within a specified tolerance. but not the same as recycle streams. ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Tear Streams • Which are the recycle streams? • Which are the possible tear streams? S7 S1 B1 MIXER S2 B2 MIXER S3 B3 FSPLIT S4 B4 FSPLIT S5 S6 • A tear stream is one for which Aspen Plus makes an initial guess. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

• If you enter information for a stream that is in a “loop. Introduction to Aspen Plus . otherwise the default is zero). look under the “Flowsheet Analysis” section in the Control Panel. ©2000 AspenTech.” Aspen Plus will automatically try to choose that stream to be a tear stream.Tear Streams (Continued) • To determine the tear streams chosen by Aspen Plus. • Providing estimates for tear streams can facilitate or speed up flowsheet convergence (highly recommended. All Rights Reserved. • User-determined tear streams can be specified on the Convergence Tear form.

Reconciling Streams • Simulation results for a stream can be copied onto the its input form. or standard liquid volume basis can be selected. or component fractions and total flow can be copied. click the right mouse button and select “Reconcile” from the list to copy stream results to the input form. ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Select a stream on the flowsheet. – Two state variables must be selected for the stream flash calculation. – Mole. – Component flows. mass.

100 lbmol/hr T=165 F P=15 psia FEED XH20 = 0.2 Column Pressure = 1 atm Feed Stage = 5 Total Condenser BOT Use NRTL-RK Property Method ©2000 AspenTech. save as filename: CONV-R.BKP Introduction to Aspen Plus .3 XEthanol = 0.4 XMethanol = 0. – Start with the file CONVERGE. All Rights Reserved. When finished.3 T=70 F P=35 psia 50 lbmol/hr Ethylene Glycol GLYCOL DIST COLUMN PREHEATR BOT-COOL Area = 65 sqft FEED-HT VAPOR PREFLASH DP=0 Q=0 LIQ Theoretical Stages = 10 Reflux Ratio = 5 Distillate to Feed Ratio = 0.Convergence Workshop • Objective – Converge this flowsheet.BKP.

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .” Aspen Plus will automatically choose that stream to be a tear stream and set up a convergence block for it. • Of the three possible tear streams you could choose.) • ©2000 AspenTech. which do you know the most about? (Note: If you enter information for a stream that is in a “loop.Convergence Workshop (Continued) • Hints for Convergence Workshop – Questions to ask yourself: • • • • • What messages are displayed in the control panel? Why do some of the blocks show zero flow? What is the Aspen Plus-generated execution sequence for the flowsheet? Which stream does Aspen Plus choose as a tear stream? What are other possible tear streams? – Recommendation Give initial estimates for a tear stream.

Convergence Workshop (Continued) • Questions to ask yourself: – Does the flowsheet converge after entering initial estimates for the tear stream? – If not. ©2000 AspenTech. Direct. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Broyden.g. Note: You can either manually create a convergence block to converge the tear stream of your choice. why not? (see control panel) – How is the err/tol value behaving. or Newton). and what is its value at the end of the run? – Does it appear that increasing the number of convergence iterations will help? – What else can be tried to improve this convergence? • Recommendation – Try a different convergence algorithm (e. or you can change the default convergence method for all tear streams on the Convergence Conv Options Defaults Default Methods sheet.

All Rights Reserved.Full-Scale Plant Modeling Workshop • Objective: Practice and apply many of the techniques used in this course and learn how to best approach modeling projects ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

• This is a large flowsheet that would take an experienced engineer more than an afternoon to complete.Full-Scale Plant Modeling Workshop • Objective: Model a methanol plant.000 kg/hr.95 % wt. The aim is to achieve the methanol production rate of approximately 62. All Rights Reserved. Carbon Dioxide (assumed to be taken from a nearby Ammonia Plant) and Water. at a purity of at least 99. ©2000 AspenTech. The basic feed streams to the plant are Natural Gas. Start building the flowsheet and think about how you would work to complete the project. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • The process being modeled is a methanol plant.

Complexity can always be added later. All Rights Reserved. • Investigate the physical properties. – Use an appropriate equation of state for the portions of the flowsheet involving gases and use an activity coefficient model for the sections where non-ideal liquids may be present. – Use Analysis. Introduction to Aspen Plus . – Check if binary parameters are available.General Guidelines • Build the flowsheet one section at a time. ©2000 AspenTech. • Simplify whenever possible. – Check for two liquid phases.

All Rights Reserved.Full-Scale Plant Modeling Workshop Air Fuel FURNACE MEOHRXR SYNCOMP COOL4 FL3 COOL2 COOL3 MKUPST M2 FEEDHTR COOL1 FL2 SPLIT1 E121 MIX2 CIRC E122 FL4 E223 E124 SPLIT2 BOILER FL1 H2OCIRC CO2 CO2COMP M1 REFORMER SATURATE FL5 NATGAS CH4COMP REFINING TOPPING M4 MKWATER ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Introduction to Aspen Plus .Part 1: Front-End Section From Furnace MKUPST M2 FEEDHTR To BOILER H2OCIRC CO2COMP CO2 M1 SATURATE REFORMER NATGAS CH4COMP ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

MKUPST – Stream of pure steam – Flow = 40000 kg/hr – Pressure = 26 bar – Vapor Fraction = 1 – Adjust the makeup steam flow to • Natural Gas Stream .Part 1: Front-End Section (Continued) • Carbon Dioxide Stream – CO2 – Temperature • Circulation Water .0059 0.0003 achieve a desired steam to methane molar ratio of 2.0019 CO2 H2 H2O CH4 N2 - 0.7 bar – Flow = 29952 kg/hr – Mole Fraction • • • • • CO2 CH4 N2 C2H6 C3H8 - 0.0606 0.9253 0.H2OCIRC – Pure water stream – Flow = 410000 kg/hr – Temperature = 43 C – Pressure = 1.0391 0.8 in the Reformer feed REFFEED. ©2000 AspenTech.0008 0.NATGAS – Temperature = 26 C – Pressure = 21. Introduction to Aspen Plus .0028 • Makeup Steam .4 bar – Flow = 24823 kg/hr – Mole Fraction • • • • • = 195 C – Pressure = 26 bar 0.9539 0.0094 0. All Rights Reserved.

5 inch metal pall ring packing.FEEDHTR Exit Temperature = 560 C – Pressure drop = 0 – • Saturation Column .CO2COMP Discharge Pressure = 27. – • Reformer Reactor .REFORMER Consists of two parts: the Furnace portion and the Steam Reforming portion – Exit Temperature of the Steam Reforming portion = 860 C – Pressure = 18 bar – ©2000 AspenTech.CH4COMP Discharge Pressure = 27. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .5 bar – Compressor Type = single stage – • Reformer Process Side Feed Stream Pre-Heater .5 bar – Compressor Type = 2 stage – • Natural Gas Compressor .Part 1: Front-End Section (Continued) • Carbon Dioxide Compressor .5 inches = 381 mm – Height of Packing = 15 meters – No condenser and no reboiler. – Estimated HETP = 10 x 1.SATURATE 1.

6541 139696.25863 0.68394 751.964 53937.06E-10 2.000686384 258.Part 1: Front-End Section Check Temperature C Pressure bar Vapor Frac Mole Flow kmol/hr Mass Flow kg/hr Volume Flow cum/hr Enthalpy MMkcal/hr Mole Flow kmol/hr CO CO2 H2 WATER METHANOL METHANE NITROGEN BUTANOL DME (DIMETHYLETHER) ACETONE OXYGEN ETHANE PROPANE Reformer Product 860 18 1 10266. Introduction to Aspen Plus .77068 2989.007007476 6.80E-15 0.933793 1381.335833 4882.74097E-07 ©2000 AspenTech.18E-08 1.9538 -213.08402321 0 2. All Rights Reserved.513276 3.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Part 2: Heat Recovery Section SYNCOMP COOL4 FL3 To Methanol Loop COOL2 COOL3 FL2 COOL1 From Reformer BOILER FL1 To REFINING To TOPPING ©2000 AspenTech.

6 bar ©2000 AspenTech.9 bar FL3 Exit Pressure = 17.Part 2: Heat Recovery Section (Continued) • This section consists of a series of heat exchangers and flash vessels used to recover the available energy and water in the Reformed Gas stream. . BOILER Exit temperature = 166 C Exit Pressure = 18 bar FL1 Pressure Drop = 0 bar Heat Duty = 0 MMkcal/hr COOL1 Exit temperature = 136 C Exit Pressure = 18 bar FL2 Exit Pressure = 17. All Rights Reserved.4 bar Heat Duty = 0 MMkcal/hr COOL3 Exit temperature = 85 C Pressure Drop = 0.7 bar Heat Duty = 0 MMkcal/hr COOL2 Exit temperature = 104 C Exit Pressure = 17.5 bar Intercooler Exit Temperature = 40 C Introduction to Aspen Plus COOL4 Exit temperature = 40 C Exit Pressure = 17.1 bar SYNCOM Two Stage Polytropic compressor Discharge Pressure = 82.

997465769 7302. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.0 82.50 0.Part 2: Heat Recovery Section Check Temperature C Pressure bar Vapor Frac Mole Flow kmol/hr To Methanol Loop 40.28917 ©2000 AspenTech.

Part 3: Methanol Synthesis Section MEOHRXR To Furnace SPLIT1 From SYNCOMP E121 SPLIT2 MIX2 CIRC E122 FL4 E223 E124 To FL5 ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

6 bar Heat Duty = 0 MMkcal/hr • E122 – Cold Side Exit Temperature .120 C • E223 – – Exit Temperature . .45 C Exit Pressure .3kmol/hr) • E121 – – • FL4 – – Exit Temperature .8kmol/hr) (Molar extent 0.3 bar CIRC – Single stage compressor – Discharge Pressure = 83 bar – Discharge Temperature = 55 C SPLIT1 – Split Fraction = 0.8 to stream to E121 SPLIT2 – Stream PURGE = 9000 kg/hr – Stream RECYCLE = 326800 kg/hr Introduction to Aspen Plus • • • E124 – – Exit Temperature .2kmol/hr) (Molar extent 0.6 bar ©2000 AspenTech.77.MEOHRXR – – – – Tube cooled reactor Exit Temperature from the tubes = 240 C No pressure drop across the reactor Reactions • • • • • CO + H2O <-> CO2 + H2 CO2 + 3H2 <-> CH3OH + H2O 2CH3OH <-> DIMETHYLETHER + H2O 4CO + 8H2 <-> N-BUTANOL + 3H2O 3CO + 5H2 <-> ACETONE + 2H2O (Equilibrium) (+15 C Temperature Approach) (Molar extent 0.81 bar • Exit Pressure = 75.75.150 C Exit Pressure .Part 3: Methanol Synthesis Section (Continued) • Methanol Reactor . All Rights Reserved.60 C Exit Pressure .

177 0.60 0.129 799.301 2140.428 0.046 8896.354 Temperature C Pressure bar Vapor Frac Mole Flow kmol/hr Mass Flow kg/hr Volume Flow cum/hr Enthalpy MMkcal/hr Mole Flow kmol/hr CO CO2 H2 WATER METHANOL METHANE NITROGEN BUTANOL DME ACETONE OXYGEN ETHANE PROPANE MEOHRXR Product 249.864 0.000 0.000 29091.000 ©2000 AspenTech.Part 3: Methanol Synthesis Section Check Temperature C Pressure bar Vapor Frac Mole Flow kmol/hr To FL5 45.353 644.430 91.144 13379.845 1.588 0.00 1.563 3137.0 75.000 2673.739 413083. All Rights Reserved.807 -559. Introduction to Aspen Plus .7 83.791 15637.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Part 4: Distillation Section To Furnace From FL4 From COOL1 From COOL2 FL5 TOPPING REFINING M4 MKWATER ©2000 AspenTech.

To represent the liquid flow connections a pumparound can be used between stage 1 and 3.% of water in the stream feeding the Topping column (stream TOPFEED) to achieve 100 ppm methanol in the Refining column BTMS stream.52 Valve trays The column has two condensers. .8 bar Distillate vapor fraction = 99 mol% Stage 2 heat duty = -7 Mmkcal/hr Stage 51 heat duty Specified by the heat stream Reboiler heat duty is provided via a heat stream from block COOL2 Boil-up Ratio is approximately 0.5 bar and stage 51 = 1.Part 4: Distillation Section (Continued) • Makeup Steam . All Rights Reserved.TOPPING – – – – – – – – – – – – – Number of Stages = 51 (including condenser and reboiler) Condenser Type = Partial Vapor/Liquid Feed stage = 14 Distillate has both liquid and vapor streams Distillate rate = 1400 kg/hr Pressure profile: stage 1 = 1. Introduction to Aspen Plus ©2000 AspenTech. • Topping Column .MKWATER – – – – – Stream of pure water Flow = 10000 kg/hr Pressure = 5 bar Temperature = 40 C Adjust the make-up water flow (stream MKWATER) to the CRUDE stream to achieve a stream composition of 23 wt.

• FL5 Exit Pressure – Heat Duty – 5 bar 0 MMkcal/hr • M4 – For water addition to the crude methanol Introduction to Aspen Plus ©2000 AspenTech.5bar and stage 95=2bar Reboiler heat duty is provided via a conventional reboiler supplemented by a heat stream from a heater block to stage 95 Boil-up Ratio is approximately 4. the bottoms stream must contain no more than 100ppm by weight of methanol as this stream is to be dumped to a nearby river. All Rights Reserved.8 Valve trays To meet environmental regulations.REFINING – – – – – – – – – – – – Number of Stages = 95 (including condenser and reboiler) Condenser Type = Total Distillate Rate = 1 kg/hr Feed stage = 60 Liquid Product sidedraw from Stage 4 @ 62000 kg/hr (Stream name – PRODUCT) Liquid Product sidedraw from Stage 83 @ 550 kg/hr (Stream name – FUSELOIL) Reflux rate = 188765 kg/hr Pressure profile: stage 1= 1. .Part 4: Distillation Section (Continued) • Refining Column .

798 0.000 0.000 0.031 0.117 0.000 0.535 0.000 0.891 1.005 0.000 0.175 573.000 0.004 26.004 26.117 0.000 0.000 0.267 0. All Rights Reserved.000 1054.104 81223.000 0.000 0.733 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 ©2000 AspenTech.391 -69.116 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.633 -0.000 0.733 82623.002 0.004 0.000 550.000 0.116 0. Introduction to Aspen Plus .000 5.80 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.8 75.1 74.000 0.000 0.000 0.Part 4: Distillation Section Check Temperature C Pressure bar Vapor Frac Mole Flow kmol/hr Mass Flow kg/hr Volume Flow cum/hr Enthalpy MMkcal/hr Mole Flow kmol/hr CO CO2 H2 WATER METHANOL METHANE NITROGEN BUTANOL DME ACETONE OXYGEN ETHANE PROPANE TOPFEED LTENDS SECPURGE REFINE PRODUCT BTMS LIQPURGE FUSELOIL 43.475 1388.031 19.000 0.014 0.000 0.000 0.500 1.267 0.475 61800.000 0.000 0.000 0.020 -178.8 33.942 0.000 0.1 85.001 0.001 1.000 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 7.000 0.618 1928.50 1.059 0.000 0.722 -186.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.910 11.000 0.341 2995.782 0.388 -2.285 0.004 0.000 0.591 1.199 0.014 1054.681 0.000 3029.50 1.000 0.014 107.537 0.000 0.000 0.50 1.000 0.00 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1928.000 0.1 33.143 0.587 -107.000 0.276 0.000 0.851 1945.1 120.802 -0.000 111.00 1.000 0.000 1046.851 1939.000 0.966 0.798 0.058 0.896 11.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.4 5.000 0.95 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.807 0.000 0.52 2.767 33.334 0.8 90.975 21.000 0.974 18871.000 0.736 1047.002 -1.000 0.000 0.201 83.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Part 5: Furnace Section To REFORMER From FL5 Air From SPLIT2 FURNACE Fuel ©2000 AspenTech.

) of oxygen in the FLUEGAS stream.FUEL – Flow = 9436 kg/hr – Conditions and composition are the same as for the natural gas stream ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .AIR – Temperature = 366 C – Pressure = 1 atm – Flow = 281946 kg/hr – Adjust the air flow to achieve 2%(vol. All Rights Reserved.Part 5: Furnace Section (Continued) • Air to Furnace . • Fuel to Furnace .

Managing Your Files ©2000 AspenTech.Maintaining Aspen Plus Simulations Objective: Introduce how to store simulations and retrieve them from your computer environment Aspen Plus References: User Guide. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 15. .

All Rights Reserved.File Formats in Aspen Plus File Type Extension Document Backup Template Input *.bkp *.sum *. Introduction to Aspen Plus .cpm History Summary Problem Definition Report *.apw *.inp Format Description Binary ASCII ASCII Text Text Text ASCII Binary File containing simulation input and results and intermediate convergence information Archive file containing simulation input and results Template containing default inputs Simulation input Calculation history shown in the Control Panel Detailed calculation history and diagnostic messages Simulation results File containing arrays and intermediate convergence information used in the simulation calculations Simulation report Run Message *.his *.appdf *.apt *.rep Text ©2000 AspenTech.

not printable • ASCII files – Transferable between operating systems – Upwardly compatible – Contain no control characters. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. can be edited – Intended to be printed ©2000 AspenTech. “readable” – Not intended to be printed • Text files – Transferable between operating systems – Upwardly compatible – Readable.File Type Characteristics • Binary files – Operating system and version specific – Not readable.

How to Store a Simulation Three ways to store simulations: Document (*. Introduction to Aspen Plus .bkp) Yes No Yes Yes No Low Low Input (*.apw) Simulation definition Convergence info Results Flowsheet Graphics User readable Open/save speed Space requirements Yes Yes Yes Yes No High High Backup (*. All Rights Reserved.inp) Yes No No Yes/No Yes Lowest Lowest ©2000 AspenTech.

Introduction to Aspen Plus .Template Files • Template files are used to set your personal preferences: – Units of measurement – Property sets for stream reports – Composition basis – Stream report format – Global flow basis for input specifications – Setting Free-Water option – Selection for Stream-Class – Property Method – (Required) Component list – Other application-specific defaults ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

©2000 AspenTech. • The text on the Setup Specifications Description sheet will appear in the Preview window when the template file is selected in the New dialog box. • In order to have a personal template appear on the Personal sheet of the New dialog box. put the template file into the Aspen Plus GUI\Templates\Personal folder.How to Create a Personal Template • Any flowsheet (complete or incomplete) can be saved as a template file. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

if near minimum. • Minimum RAM GUI only Win 95 and 32 MB Win 98 Windows NT 64 MB GUI and Engine 64 MB 96 MB • Having more is better -.Maintaining Your Computer • Aspen Plus 10 runs best on a healthy computer. avoid running too many other programs along with Aspen Plus. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Active links increase needed RAM. All Rights Reserved.

– Aspen document files (*.his. .appdf.apw) that aren’t active – Aspen temporary files (_4404ydj. for example) • Defragment regularly (once a week). ©2000 AspenTech. etc. Introduction to Aspen Plus .appdf. All Rights Reserved.Maintaining Your Hard Disk • Keep plenty of free space on disk used for: – Your Aspen working directory – Windows swap files • Delete unneeded files: – Old . even if Windows says you don’t need to -.make the free space contiguous.

. Annotating Process Flowsheets Related Topics: User Guide. Working with Other Windows Programs ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Customizing the Look of Your Flowsheet Objective: Introduce several ways of annotating your flowsheet to create informative Process Flow Diagrams Aspen Plus References: User Guide. Chapter 37. Chapter 14.

pressure and • Add OLE objects – Add a titlebox – Add plots or diagrams temperature – Heat stream duty – Work stream power – Block duty and power • Use PFD mode – Change flowsheet connectivity ©2000 AspenTech.Customizing the Process Flow Diagram • Add annotations – Text – Graphics – Tables • Display global data – Stream flowrate. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Viewing • Use the View menu to select the elements that you wish to view: – PFD Mode – Global Data – Annotation – OLE Objects • All of the elements can be turned on and off independently.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech.) • To create a stream table. click on the Stream Table button on the Results Summary Streams Material sheet.Adding Annotation • Use the Draw Toolbar to add text and graphics. All Rights Reserved. (Select Toolbar… from the View menu to select the Draw Toolbar if it is not visible. • Annotation objects can be attached to flowsheet elements such as streams or blocks.

1 14.224 38.033 4.771 15648.046 0.000 1.500 0.950 0.408 2.1 14.983 1.342 4914.359 106.033 4.000 44. Introduction to Aspen Plus .521 -0.047 0.00 1.085 0.202 42338.60 0.095 0.500 0.000 2.054 44.085 40.772 93.0 14.241 0. All Rights Reserved.046 0.095 1.342 4914.782 0.050 2.70 0.859 0.490 FEED 220.095 0.000 40.029 LBMOL/HR LB/HR CUFT/HR MMBTU/HR LBMOL/HR 2.980 PRODUCT 130.7 14.017 2.000 41.0 36.983 38.513 REAC-OUT 854.069 F PSI COOL-OUT 130.70 1.70 1.470 -0.224 38.906 0.021 0.Example of a Stream Table Heat and Material Balance Table Stream ID Temperature Pressure Vapor Frac Mole Flow Mass Flow Volume Flow Enthalpy Mole Flow BENZENE PROPYLEN CUMENE Mole Frac BENZENE PROPYLEN CUMENE 0.859 0.047 0.202 1110.023 ©2000 AspenTech.000 80.003 RECYCLE 130.431 1003.983 4807.000 4807.

choose the block and stream results that you want displayed as Global Data.Adding Global Data • On the Results View sheet when selecting Options from the Tools menu. • Check Global Data on the View menu to display the data on the flowsheet. Introduction to Aspen Plus . 130 15 106 Q Temperature (F) Pressure (psi) Flow Rate (lb/hr) RECYCLE 220 36 4808 REACTOR 855 15 4914 FEED REAC-OUT Q=0 COOL-OUT Q=-2492499 Q=0 COOL 130 15 4914 SEP Duty (Btu/hr) 130 15 4808 PRODUCT ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

• PFD Mode is indicated by the Aqua border around the flowsheet. ©2000 AspenTech. you can add or delete unit operation icons to the flowsheet for graphical purposes only. All Rights Reserved. • PFD-style drawing is completely separate from the graphical simulation flowsheet. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Using PFD mode means that you can change flowsheet connectivity to match that of your plant. You must return to simulation mode if you want to make a change to the actual simulation flowsheet.Using PFD Mode • In this mode.

the pressure change can be neglected or included in another unit operation block. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Examples of When to Use PFD Mode • In the simulation flowsheet. – For example. pumps are frequently not modeled in the simulation flowsheet. All Rights Reserved. In the report. • On the other hand. – For example. some pieces of equipment may not need to be explicitly modeled in the simulation flowsheet. ©2000 AspenTech. a reactor with a liquid product and a vent may need to be modeled using an RStoic reactor and a Flash2 block. it may be necessary to use more than one unit operation block to model a single piece of equipment in a plant. only one unit operation icon is needed to represent the unit in the plant.

• Part B – Add a title to the flowsheet diagram. • Part C – Add a stream table to the flowsheet diagram. display all stream and block global data. Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. • Part D – Using PFD Mode. add a pump for the BZIN stream for graphical purposes only.BKP).Annotation Workshop • Objective: Use annotation to create a process flow diagram for the cyclohexane flowsheet • Part A – Using the cyclohexane production Workshop (saved as CYCLOHEX. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 8. Chapter 30. Estimating Property Parameters Physical Property Methods and Models Reference Manual.Estimation of Physical Properties Objective: Provide an overview of estimating physical property parameters in Aspen Plus Aspen Plus References: User Guide. . All Rights Reserved. Property Parameter Estimation ©2000 AspenTech.

It can be used to estimate: – Pure component physical property constants – Parameters for temperature-dependent models – Binary interaction parameters for Wilson.What is Property Estimation? • Property Estimation is a system to estimate parameters required by physical property models. • Experimental data can be incorporated into estimation. NRTL and UNIQUAC – Group parameters for UNIFAC • Estimations are based on group-contribution methods and corresponding-states correlations. All Rights Reserved. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Using Property Estimation
• Property Estimation can be used in two ways:
– On a stand-alone basis: Property Estimation Run Type – Within another Run Type: Flowsheet, Property Analysis, Data

Regression, PROPERTIES PLUS or Assay Data Analysis

• You can use Property Estimation to estimate properties for both databank and non-databank components. • Property Estimation information is accessed in the Properties Estimation folder.

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Estimation Methods and Requirements
• User Guide, Chapter 30, Estimating Property Parameters, has a complete list of properties that can be estimated, as well as the available estimation methods and their respective requirements. • This same information is also available under the on-line help in the estimation forms.

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Steps For Using Property Estimation
1. Define molecular structure on the Properties Molecular Structure form. 2. Enter any experimental data using Parameters or Data forms.
– Experimental data such as normal boiling point (TB) is very

important for many estimation methods. It should be entered whenever possible.

3. Activate Property Estimation and choose property estimation options on the Properties Estimation Input form.

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Defining Molecular Structure
• Molecular structure is required for all group-contribution methods used in Property Estimation. You can:
– Define molecular structure in the general format and allow

Aspen Plus to determine functional groups,
or
– Define molecular structure in terms of functional groups for

particular methods

• Reference: For a list of available group-contribution method functional groups, see Aspen Plus Physical Property Data Reference Manual, Chapter 3, Group Contribution Method Functional Groups.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Steps For Defining General Structure
1. Sketch the structure of the molecule on paper. 2. Assign a number to each atom, omitting hydrogen. (The numbers must be consecutive starting with 1.) 3. Go to the Properties Molecular Structure Object Manager, choose the component, and select Edit. 4. On the Molecular Structure General sheet, define the molecule by its connectivity. Describe two atoms at a time:
– Specify the types of atoms (C, O, S, …) – Specify the type of bond that connects the two atoms (single,

double, …)

Note: If the molecule is a non-databank component, on the Components Specifications form, enter a Component ID, but do not enter a Component name or Formula.
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Example of Defining Molecular Structure
• Example of defining molecular structure for isobutyl alcohol using the general method
– Sketch the structure of the molecule, and assign a number to

each atom, omitting hydrogen.

C1 C2 C3
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

C4

O5

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Example of Defining Molecular Structure
• Go to the Properties Molecular Structure Object Manager, choose the component, and select Edit. • On Properties Molecular Structure General sheet, describe molecule by its connectivity, two atoms at a time.

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Atom Types Current available atom types: Atom Type C O N S B Si F CL Br I Al ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Description Carbon Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur Boron Silicon Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Aluminum Atom Type P Zn Ga Ge As Cd Sn Sb Hg Pb Bi Description Phosphorous Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Cadmium Tin Antimony Mercury Lead Bismuth Introduction to Aspen Plus .

All Rights Reserved.Bond Types • Current available bond types: – Single bond – Double bond – Triple bond – Benzene ring – Saturated 5-membered ring – Saturated 6-membered ring – Saturated 7-membered ring – Saturated hydrocarbon chain Note: You must assign consecutive atom numbers to Benzene ring. Introduction to Aspen Plus . and Saturated hydrocarbon chain bonds. Saturated 6-membered ring. Saturated 7-membered ring. Saturated 5-membered ring. ©2000 AspenTech.

©2000 AspenTech. Enter any experimental data using Parameters or Data forms. Introduction to Aspen Plus . It should be entered whenever possible. All Rights Reserved. 3. 2. – Experimental data such as normal boiling point (TB) is very important for many estimation methods.Steps For Using Property Estimation  1. Define molecular structure on the Properties Molecular Structure form. Activate Property Estimation and choose property estimation options on the Properties Estimation Input form.

All Rights Reserved. – Normal boiling point (TB) = 107.6 C – Critical pressure (PC) = 43 bar ©2000 AspenTech.6 C – Critical temperature (TC) = 274.Example of Entering Additional Data • Enter following data for isobutyl alcohol into the simulation to improve the estimated values. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

All Rights Reserved. • Enter the parameters. the components. and the values. ©2000 AspenTech.Example of Entering Additional Data • Go to the Properties Parameters Pure Component Object Manager and create a new Scalar parameter form. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Introduction to Aspen Plus . It should be entered whenever possible. 2. ©2000 AspenTech. Activate Property Estimation and choose property estimation options on the Properties Estimation Input form.Steps For Using Property Estimation 1. Enter any experimental data using Parameters or Data forms. 3. – Experimental data such as normal boiling point (TB) is very important for many estimation methods. Define molecular structure on the Properties Molecular Structure form. All Rights Reserved.

and select one of the following: – Estimate all missing parameters • Estimates all missing required parameters and any parameters you may request in the optional Pure Component.Activating Property Estimation • To turn on Property Estimation. and UNIFAC-Group sheets Estimates on the parameter types you select on this sheet (and then specify on the appropriate additional sheets) – Estimate only the selected parameters • ©2000 AspenTech. Binary. T-Dependent. All Rights Reserved. go to the Properties Estimation Input Setup sheet. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

and import them into other simulations (Flowsheet. structures.Property Estimation Notes • You can save your property data specifications. or Assay Data Analysis Run-Types.) • You can change the Run type on the Setup Specifications Global sheet to continue the simulation in the same file. All Rights Reserved. no flowsheet information is lost even though it may not be visible in the Property Estimation mode. and estimates as backup files. Property Analysis. • If you want to change the Run type back to Property Estimation from another Run type. Data Regression. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Introduction to Aspen Plus .O .CH2 . Formula: CH3 . • Ethylcellosolve is not in any of the Aspen Plus databanks.CH2 .O . and estimate the properties for the new component. save as filename: PCES. All Rights Reserved.CH2 .CH2 . along with the normal boiling point obtained from literature.BKP ©2000 AspenTech.Property Estimation Workshop • Objective: Estimate the properties of a dimer.CH2 .OH TB = 195 C When finished. • Use a Run Type of Property Estimation. ethycellosolve. • The formula for the component is shown below.

Go to the Properties Estimation Input Setup sheet. ©2000 AspenTech. 3. Use a Run Type of Property Estimation and enter the structure and data for the Dimer. Change the Run Type back to Flowsheet. Optionally. 4. for use in other simulations. and choose Do not estimate any parameters.Property Estimation Workshop (Continued) 1. Introduction to Aspen Plus . add a flowsheet and use this component. All Rights Reserved. 5. Run the estimation. – Note that the results of the estimation are automatically written to parameters forms. 2. and examine the results.

Electrolyte Simulation ©2000 AspenTech. Chapter 6. .Electrolytes Objective: Introduce the electrolyte capabilities in Aspen Plus Aspen Plus References: User Guide. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 5. Specifying Components Physical Property Methods and Models Reference Manual.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . bases or salts • Sour water solutions • Aqueous amines or hot carbonate for gas sweetening ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Electrolytes Examples • Solutions with acids.

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Characteristics of an Electrolyte System • Some molecular species dissociate partially or completely into ions in a liquid solvent • Liquid phase reactions are always at chemical equilibrium • Presence of ions in the liquid phase requires non-ideal solution thermodynamics • Possible salt precipitation ©2000 AspenTech.

Introduction to Aspen Plus .Henry’s Law components – Nitrogen – Oxygen – Carbon Dioxide ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Standard molecular species – Water – Methanol – Acetic Acid • Soluble Gases .Types of Components • Solvents .

Each precipitated salt is a new pure component. All Rights Reserved.Species with a charge – H3O+ – OH– Na+ – Cl– Fe(CN)63- • Salts .Types of Components (Continued) • Ions . – NaCl(s) – CaCO3(s) – CaSO4•2H2O (gypsum) – Na2CO3•NaHCO3 •2H2O (trona) ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . salts and molecular species present after considering solution chemistry • Apparent component approach – Results reported in terms of base components present before considering solution chemistry – Ions and precipitated salts cannot be apparent components – Specifications must be made in terms of apparent components and not in terms of ions or solid salts • Results are equivalent.Apparent and True Components • True component approach – Result reported in terms of the ions.

NaCl(s) – True components: • ©2000 AspenTech.Apparent and True Components Example • NaCl in water – Solution chemistry NaCl --> • Na+ + Cl. Na+. NaCl H2O. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Cl-.<--> • • Na+ + ClNaCl(s) – Apparent components H2O. All Rights Reserved.

• Generates reactions among components • Sets the Property method to ELECNRTL • Creates a Henry’s Component list • Retrieves parameters for – Reaction equilibrium constant values – Salt solubility parameters – ELECNRTL interaction parameters – Henry’s constant correlation parameters ©2000 AspenTech.Electrolyte Wizard • Generates new components (ions and solid salts) • Revises the Pure component databank search order so that the first databank searched is now ASPENPCD. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

©2000 AspenTech.Electrolyte Wizard (Continued) • Generated chemistry can be modified. Note: It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the Chemistry is representative of the actual chemical system. Simplifying the Chemistry can make the simulation more robust and decrease execution time. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Simplifying the Chemistry • Typical modifications include: – Adding to the list of Henry’s components – Eliminating irrelevant salt precipitation reactions – Eliminating irrelevant species – Adding species and/or reactions that are not in the electrolytes expert system database – Eliminating irrelevant equilibrium reactions ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.

RCSTR.Limitations of Electrolytes • Restrictions using the True component approach: – Liquid-liquid equilibrium cannot be calculated. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . and RBatch Distl. DSTWU and SCFrac MultiFrac and PetroFrac ©2000 AspenTech. – The following models may not be used: Equilibrium reactors: • Kinetic reactors: • Shortcut distillation: • Rigorous distillation: • RGibbs and REquil RPlug.

All Rights Reserved. – Chemistry for liquid-liquid equilibrium may not contain dissociation reactions. Introduction to Aspen Plus . – Input specification cannot be in terms of ions or solid salts. ©2000 AspenTech.Limitations of Electrolytes (Continued) • Restrictions using the Apparent component approach: – Chemistry may not contain any volatile species on the right side of the reactions.

Temp = 25 C Pres = 1 bar 10 kmol/hr H2O Filename: ELEC1.BKP 1 kmol/hr HCl HCL VAPOR MIX NAOH MIXED FLASH Temp = 25 C Pres = 1 bar 10 kmol/hr H2O MIXER FLASH2 Isobaric Molar vapor fraction = 0.Electrolyte Demonstration • Objective: Create a flowsheet using electrolytes. Use the Electrolyte Wizard to generate the Chemistry. • Create a simple flowsheet to mix and flash two feed streams containing aqueous electrolytes.1 kmol/hr NaOH ©2000 AspenTech.75 1. All Rights Reserved. P-drop = 0 Adiabatic LIQUID Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Click on the Elec Wizard button to generate components and reactions for electrolyte systems. Specify the possible apparent components on the Components Specifications Selection sheet. There are 4 steps: Step 1: Define base components and select reaction generation options. Step 3: Select simulation approach for electrolyte calculations. ©2000 AspenTech. 2. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Step 4: Review physical properties specifications and modify the generated Henry components list and reactions. All Rights Reserved.Steps for Using Electrolytes 1. Step 2: Remove any undesired species or reactions from the generated list.

Steps for Using Electrolytes (Continued) ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

©2000 AspenTech.Steps for Using Electrolytes (Continued) Step 1: Define base components and select reaction generation options. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Steps for Using Electrolytes (Continued) Step 2: Remove any undesired species or reactions from the generated list. ©2000 AspenTech.

©2000 AspenTech.Steps for Using Electrolytes (Continued) Step 3: Select simulation approach for electrolyte calculations. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech.Steps for Using Electrolytes (Continued) Step 4: Review physical properties specifications and modify the generated Henry components list and reactions. All Rights Reserved.

Use the Electrolyte Wizard to generate the Chemistry. Temperature = 25C Pressure = 1 bar Flowrate = 10 kmol/hr 5 mole% sulfuric acid solution Note: Remove from the chemistry: CaSO4(s) CaSO4•1:2W:A(s) B1 WASTEWAT LIME LIQUID Temperature = 25C Temperature = 25C P-drop = 0 Pressure = 1 bar Flowrate = 10 kmol/hr 5 mole% lime (calcium hydroxide) solution ©2000 AspenTech. Use the true component approach. save as filename: ELEC. • Create a simple flowsheet to model the treatment of a sulfuric acid waste water stream using lime (Calcium Hydroxide).Electrolyte Workshop • Objective: Create a flowsheet using electrolytes. All Rights Reserved.BKP Introduction to Aspen Plus . When finished.

Electrolyte Workshop (Continued)
1. Open a new Electrolytes with Metric units flowsheet. 2. Draw the flowsheet. 3. Enter the necessary components and generate the electrolytes using the Electrolytes Wizard. Select the true approach and remove the solid salts not needed from the generated reactions.

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Sour Water Stripper Workshop
• Objective: Model a sour water stripper using electrolytes. • Create a simple flowsheet to model a sour water stripper. Use the Electrolyte Wizard to generate the Chemistry. Use the apparent component approach. VAPOR
Above stage 3 P = 15 psia 10,000 lbs/hr
SOURWAT

Saturated vapor

Mass fractions: H2O 0.997 NH3 0.001 H2S 0.001 CO2 0.001
STEAM

B1

Theoretical trays: 9 (does not include condenser) Partial condenser Reflux Ratio (Molar): 25 No reboiler

On stage 10 P = 15 psia Vapor frac = 1 2,000 lbs/hr
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

BOTTOMS
Introduction to Aspen Plus

Sour Water Stripper Workshop (Continued)
1. Open a new Electrolytes with English units flowsheet. 2. Draw the flowsheet. 3. Enter the necessary components and generate the electrolytes using the Electrolytes Wizard. Select the apparent approach and remove all solid salts used in the generated reactions. Questions: Why aren’t the ionic species’ compositions displayed on the results forms? How can they be added?

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Sour Water Stripper Workshop (Continued)
3. Add a sensitivity analysis
a) Vary the steam flow rate from 1000-3000 lb/hr and tabulate the ammonia concentration in the bottoms stream. The target is 50 ppm. b) Vary the column reflux ratio from 10-50 and observe the condenser temperature. The target is 190 F.

4. Create design specifications
a) After hiding the sensitivity blocks, solve the column with two design specifications. Use the targets and variables from part 3.

Save as: SOURWAT.BKP
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Solids Handling
Objective: Provide an overview of the solid handling capabilities

Aspen Plus References: User Guide, Chapter 6, Specifying Components Physical Property Methods and Models Reference Manual, Chapter 3, Property Model Descriptions
©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Classes of Components
• Conventional Components
– Vapor and liquid components – Solid salts in solution chemistry

• Conventional Inert Solids (CI Solids)
– Solids that are inert to phase equilibrium and salt

precipitation/solubility

• Nonconventional Solids (NC Solids)
– Heterogeneous substances inert to phase, salt, and chemical

equilibrium that cannot be represented with a molecular structure

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

Specifying Component Type
• When specifying components on the Components Specifications Selection sheet, choose the appropriate component type in the Type column.
Conventional - Conventional Components – Solid - Conventional Inert Solids – Nonconventional - Nonconventional Solids

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction to Aspen Plus

chloride ions – Located in the MIXED substream ©2000 AspenTech. nitrogen.Conventional Components • Components participate in vapor and liquid equilibrium along with salt and chemical equilibrium. – e. oxygen. All Rights Reserved.g. • Components have a molecular weight. water. sodium chloride. Introduction to Aspen Plus . sodium ions.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . • Components have a molecular weight. – e.Conventional Inert Solids (CI Solids) • Components are inert to phase equilibrium and salt precipitation/solubility. carbon. All Rights Reserved.g. • Chemical equilibrium and reaction with conventional components is possible. sulfur – Located in the CISOLID substream ©2000 AspenTech.

• Chemical reaction with conventional and CI Solid components is possible. ash. Introduction to Aspen Plus . – e. wood pulp – Located in the NC Solid substream ©2000 AspenTech. salt or chemical equilibrium.Nonconventional Solids (NC Solids) • Components are inert to phase. char. • Components are heterogeneous substances and do not have a molecular weight. coal. All Rights Reserved.g.

©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Component Attributes • Component attributes typically represent the composition of a component in terms of some set of identifiable constituents • Component attributes can be – Assigned by the user – Initialized in streams – Modified in unit operation models • Component attributes are carried in the material stream. • Properties of nonconventional components are calculated by the physical property system using component attributes. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

weight %dry basis ULTANAL Ultimate analysis. Oxygen 1. Hydrogen 4. Constituent 20 Description Proximate analysis. Chlorine 6. Sulfur 7. weight % of original coal.Component Attribute Descriptions Attribute Type PROXANAL Elements 1. Volatile Matter 4. Moisture 2. Constituent 1 2. Nitrogen 5. All Rights Reserved. Fixed Carbon 3. Carbon 3. Organic 1. Pyritic 2. weight or volume % GENANAL ©2000 AspenTech. dry basis General constituent analysis. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Ash 1. Ash 2. weight % dry basis SULFANAL Forms of sulfur analysis. Constituent 2 : 20. Sulfate 3.

• For nonconventional solids – Enthalpy and mass density are computed.Solid Properties • For conventional components and conventional solids – Enthalpy. entropy. All Rights Reserved. free energy and molar volume are computed. – Property models are specified on the Properties Advanced NC- Props form. – Property models in the Property Method specified on the Properties Specification Global sheet are used. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Entropy and Heat Capacity • Barin Equations – Single parameter set for all properties – Multiple parameter sets may be available for selected temperature ranges – List INORGANIC databank before SOLIDS • Conventional Equations – Combines heat of formation and free energies of formation with heat capacity models – Aspen Plus and DIPPR model parameters – List SOLIDS databank before INORGANIC ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Conventional Solids For Enthalpy.Solids Properties . Introduction to Aspen Plus . Free Energy.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . entropy and free energy – Parameter name: CPSP01 • Solid Molar Volume – Volume polynomial model V S  C1  C2T  C3T 2  C4T 3  C5T 4 – Used to calculate density – Parameter name: VSPOLY ©2000 AspenTech.Solids Properties .Conventional Solids • Solid Heat Capacity – Heat capacity polynomial model C C C oS C p  C1  C2T  C3T 2  4  5  6 T T2 T3 – Used to calculate enthalpy. All Rights Reserved.

Nonconventional Solids • Enthalpy – General heat capacity polynomial model: ENTHGEN – Uses a mass fraction weighted average – Based on the GENANAL attribute – Parameter name: HCGEN • Density – General density polynomial model: DNSTYGEN – Uses a mass fraction weighted average – Based on the GENANAL attribute – Parameter name: DENGEN ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.Solids Properties . Introduction to Aspen Plus .

All Rights Reserved.Special Models for Coal • Enthalpy – Coal enthalpy model: HCOALGEN – Based on the ULTANAL. PROXANAL and SULFANAL attributes • Density – Coal density model: DCOALIGT – Based on the ULTANAL and SULFANAL attributes ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Solids Properties .

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Built-in Material Stream Classes Stream Class CONVEN* MIXNC MIXCISLD MIXNCPSD MIXCIPSD MIXCINC MIXCINCPSD Description Conventional components only Conventional and nonconventional solids Conventional components and inert solids Conventional components and nonconventional solids with particle size distribution Conventional components and inert solids with particle size distribution Conventional components and inert solids and nonconventional solids Conventional components and nonconventional solids with particle size distribution * system default ©2000 AspenTech.

©2000 AspenTech. RStoic).Unit Operation Models • General Principles – Material streams of any class are accepted. Introduction to Aspen Plus . solids leave with the liquid. Attributes (components or substream) not recognized are passed unaltered through the block. In vapor-liquid separation. outlet solid substreams are in thermal equilibrium with the MIXED substream. All Rights Reserved. Some models allow specifications for each substream present (examples: Sep. Unless otherwise specified. – The same stream class should be used for inlet and outlet – – – – streams (exceptions: Mixer and ClChng).

5% to 0.1% using air. • Dry SiO2 from a water content of 0. All Rights Reserved.Solids Workshop 1 • Objective: Model a conventional solids dryer. – The pressure and temperature has to be the same in all the sub-streams of a stream. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . – Put the SiO2 in the CISOLID substream. • Notes – Change the Stream class type to: MIXCISLD.

BKP Introduction to Aspen Plus Use the SOLIDS Property Method ©2000 AspenTech.% SiO2 [SiO2/(SiO2+Mixed)] DRY Temp = 70 F Pres = 14. All Rights Reserved.7 psia 995 lb/hr SiO2 5 lb/hr H2O Pressure Drop = 0 Adiabatic When finished.9 wt.Solids Workshop 1 (Continued) Temp = 190 F Pres = 14.21 mole% O2 AIR DRYER WET FLASH2 AIR-OUT Design specification: Vary the air flow rate from 1 to 10 lbmol/hr to achieve 99.79 mole% N2 0. . save as filename: SOLIDWK1.7 psia Flow = 1 lbmol/hr 0.

• In this workshop.g.Solids Workshop 2 • Objective: Use the solids unit operations to model the particulate removal from a feed of gasifier off gases. Bag-filter. fouling. plugging of orifices and packing).. Venturi-scrubber. It is therefore necessary to remove most of the particulate materials from the gaseous stream. All Rights Reserved. Various options are available for this purpose (Cyclone. various options for removing particulates from the syngas obtained by coal gasification are compared. • The processing of gases containing small quantities of particulate materials is rendered difficult by the tendency of the particulates to interfere with most operations (e. Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. surface erosion. The final choice of equipment is a balance between the technical performance and the cost associated with using a particular unit. and an Electrostatic precipitator) and their particulate separation efficiency can be changed by varying their design and operating conditions.

44 30 44.19 CO2 0.35 SO2 0. save as ©2000 AspenTech.Solids Workshop 2 (Continued) Temp = 650 C Pres = 1 bar Gas Flowrate = 1000 kmol/hr Ash Flowrate = 200 kg/hr Composition (mole-frac) CO 0.9 Dielectric constant = 1.20 H2 0.9 G-SCRUB FEED DUPL S-SCRUB G-ESP Design Mode Separation Efficiency = 0.BKP FABFILT S-BF Introduction to Aspen Plus .03 CH4 0.02 O2 0.10 G-CYC CYC Design Mode High Efficiency Separation Efficiency = 0.05 H2S 0.048 bar When finished.5 Particle size distribution (PSD) Size limit wt. Drop = 0.01 H2O 0. % [mu] 0.63 10 63-90 20 90-130 15 130-200 10 200-280 15 F-BF ESP S-ESP G-BF Design Mode Max.05 N2 0. filename: SOLIDWK2. Pres. All Rights Reserved.9 F-CYC Temp = 40 C S-CYC Pres = 1 bar Water Flowrate = 700 kg/hr LIQ F-SCRUB V-SCRUB F-ESP Design Mode Separation Efficiency = 0.

• HCOALGEN and DCOALIGT can be used to calculate the enthalpy and material density of ash using the ultimate.Solids Workshop 2 (Continued) • Coal ash is mainly clay and heavy metal oxides and can be considered a non-conventional component. zero all non-ash attributes. PROXANAL. All Rights Reserved. • Use the IDEAL Property Method. SULFANAL). proximate. ©2000 AspenTech. • The PSD limits can be changed on the Setup Substreams PSD form. • Component attributes (ULTANAL. These are specified on the Properties Advanced NC-Props form. Introduction to Aspen Plus . For ash. PROXANAL. SULFANAL) are specified on the Stream Input form. and sulfur analyses (ULTANAL.

Chapter 17. Accessing Flowsheet Variables ©2000 AspenTech. Convergence User Guide. Chapter 22. All Rights Reserved.Optimization Objective: Introduce the optimization capability in Aspen Plus Aspen Plus References: User Guide. Chapter 18. . Optimization Related Topics: User Guide.

• Optimization can have zero or more constraints. All Rights Reserved.Optimization • Used to maximize/minimize an objective function • Objective function is expressed in terms of flowsheet variables and In-Line Fortran. • Optimization is located under /Data/Model Analysis Tools/Optimization • Constraint specification is under /Data/Model Analysis Tools/Constraint ©2000 AspenTech. • Constraints can be equalities or inequalities. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

The reactor can only handle a maximum cooling load of Q.30 / lb $ 0.11 / lb $ . Introduction to Aspen Plus . E PRODUCT • For an existing reactor. All Rights Reserved. find the reactor temperature and inlet amount of reactant A that maximizes the profit from this reactor.Optimization Example A. B FEED REACTOR A + B --> C + D + E Desired Product C By-product D Waste Product E $ 1. B. D. ©2000 AspenTech. C.20 /lb A.0.

All Rights Reserved.Optimization Example (Continued) • What are the measured (sampled) variables? – Outlet flowrates of components C. Introduction to Aspen Plus .20*(lb/hr E) • What is the constraint? – The calculated duty of the reactor can not exceed Q.11*(lb/hr D) . • What are the manipulated (varied) variables? – Reactor temperature – Inlet amount of reactant A ©2000 AspenTech.30*(lb/hr C) + 0.0. E • What is the objective function to be maximized? – Maximize 1. D.

3. All Rights Reserved. Specify maximization or minimization of objective function (Optimization Objective & Constraints sheet). 2. Identify measured (sampled) variables. ©2000 AspenTech. – These are the flowsheet variables used to calculate the objective function (Optimization Define sheet). Specify objective function (expression). Introduction to Aspen Plus . – This is the Fortran expression that will be maximized or minimized (Optimization Objective & Constraints sheet).Steps for Using Optimization 1.

Specify bounds for manipulated (varied) variables. 5. All Rights Reserved. – These are the variables that the optimization block will change to maximize/minimize the objective function (Optimization Vary sheet). ©2000 AspenTech.Steps for Using Optimization (Continued) 4. 6. Specify constraints (optional). Specify manipulated (varied) variables. – These are the constraints used during the optimization (Optimization Objective & Constraints sheet). Introduction to Aspen Plus . – These are the lower and upper bounds within which to vary the manipulated variable (Optimization Vary sheet).

the constraints. 3. The optimization algorithm only finds local maxima and minima in the objective function. in some cases. This can be accomplished by simply multiplying or dividing the function. It is best if the objective. It is theoretically possible to obtain a different maximum/minimum in the objective function. ©2000 AspenTech. and the manipulated variables are in the range of 1 to 100. by starting at a different point in the solution space. The convergence of the optimization can be sensitive to the initial values of the manipulated variables.Notes 1. 2. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.

If an optimization does not converge. run sensitivity studies with the same manipulated variables as the optimization. Introduction to Aspen Plus . to ensure that the objective function is not discontinuous with respect to any of the manipulated variables. 6. ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. Optimization blocks also have convergence blocks associated with them. 5. Any general techniques used with convergence blocks can be used if the optimization does not converge. Equality constraints within an optimization are similar to design specifications.Notes (Continued) 4.

• The flowsheet shown below is part of a Dichloro-Methane solvent recovery system. All Rights Reserved. and minimize the total usage of steam in streams STEAM1 and STEAM2. Use bounds of 1000 lb/hr to 20.7 psia respectively. The stream FEED contains 1400 lb/hr of Dichloro-Methane and 98600 lb/hr of water at 100oF and 24 psia. The two flashes. The maximum allowable concentration of Dichloro-Methane in the stream EFFLUENT from TOWER2 is 150 ppm (mass) to within a tolerance of a tenth of a ppm. both of which contain saturated steam at 200 psia.7 and 18. ©2000 AspenTech. Set up the simulation as shown below. Make sure stream flows are reported in mass flow and mass fraction units before running. Introduction to Aspen Plus . TOWER1 and TOWER2.Optimization Workshop • Objective: Optimize steam usage for a process. Use the NRTL Property Method. Refer to the Notes slides for some hints on the previous page if there are problems converging the optimization. are run adiabatically at 19.000 lb/hr for the flowrate of the two steam streams.

Optimization Workshop (Continued) TOP1 STEAM1 TOWER1 FEED TOP2 TOWER2 BOT1 STEAM2 EFFLUENT When finished. Introduction to Aspen Plus .BKP ©2000 AspenTech. save as filename: OPT. All Rights Reserved.

Columns ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved. . Chapter 4.RadFrac Convergence Objective: Introduce the convergence algorithms and initialization strategies available in RadFrac Aspen Plus References: Unit Operation Models Reference Manual.

The following convergence methods are available: – Standard (default) – Petroleum / Wide-Boiling – Strongly non-ideal liquid – Azeotropic – Cryogenic – Custom ©2000 AspenTech.RadFrac Convergence Methods • RadFrac provides a variety of convergence methods for solving separation problems. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. Each convergence method represents a convergence algorithm and an initialization method.

All Rights Reserved.Convergence Methods (Continued) Method Standard Petroleum / Wide-boiling Strongly non-ideal liquid Azeotropic Cryogenic Custom Algorithm Standard Sum-Rates Nonideal Newton Standard select any Initialization Standard Standard Standard Azeotropic Cryogenic select any ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

All Rights Reserved.RadFrac Convergence Algorithms • RadFrac provides four convergence algorithms: – Standard (with Absorber=Yes or No) – Sum-Rates – Nonideal – Newton ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Absorber=No) algorithm: – Uses the original inside-out formulation – Is effective and fast for most problems – Solves design specifications in a middle loop – May have difficulties with extremely wide-boiling or highly non- ideal mixtures ©2000 AspenTech.Standard Algorithm • The Standard (default. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus .Standard Algorithm (Continued) • The Standard algorithm with Absorber=Yes: – Uses a modified formulation similar to the classical sum-rates – – – – algorithm Applies to absorbers and strippers only Has fast convergence Solves design specifications in a middle loop May have difficulties with highly non-ideal mixtures ©2000 AspenTech.

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Sum-Rates Algorithm • The Sum-Rates algorithm: – Uses a modified formulation similar to the classical sum-rates algorithm – Solves design specifications simultaneously with the columndescribing equations – Is effective and fast for wide boiling mixtures and problems with many design specifications – May have difficulties with highly non-ideal mixtures ©2000 AspenTech.

All Rights Reserved.Nonideal Algorithm • The Nonideal algorithm: – Includes a composition dependency in the local physical property models – Uses the continuation convergence method – Solves design specifications in a middle loop – Is effective for non-ideal problems ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved. with excellent convergence in the vicinity of the solution – Is recommended for azeotropic distillation columns ©2000 AspenTech.Newton Algorithm • The Newton algorithm: – Is a classic implementation of the Newton method – Solves all column-describing equations simultaneously – Uses the dogleg strategy of Powell to stabilize convergence – Can solve design specifications simultaneously or in an outer loop – Handles non-ideality well.

Vapor-Liquid-Liquid Calculations • You can use the Standard. • Vapor-Liquid-Liquid calculations: – Handle column calculations involving two liquid phases rigorously – Handle decanters – Solve design specifications using: Either the simultaneous (default) loop or the middle loop approach for the Newton algorithm • The middle loop approach for all other algorithms • ©2000 AspenTech. Newton and Nonideal algorithms for 3-phase Vapor-Liquid-Liquid systems. On the RadFrac Setup Configuration sheet. All Rights Reserved. select VaporLiquid-Liquid in the Valid Phases field. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

All Rights Reserved. – Use the Custom method and change Absorber to Yes on the RadFrac Convergence Algorithm sheet. start with the Standard convergence method. – Use the Strongly non-ideal liquid method if the mixture is highly non-ideal. – Use the Azeotropic method for azeotropic distillation problems with multiple solutions possible. The Azeotropic algorithm is also another alternative for highly non-ideal systems. ©2000 AspenTech. If the Standard method fails: – Use the Petroleum / Wide Boiling method if the mixture is very wide-boiling.Convergence Method Selection • For Vapor-Liquid systems. if the column is an absorber or a stripper. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

Convergence Method Selection (Continued) • For Vapor-Liquid-Liquid systems: – Start by selecting Vapor-Liquid-Liquid in the Valid Phases field of the RadFrac Setup Configuration sheet and use the Standard convergence method. – If the Standard method fails. try the Custom method with the Nonideal or the Newton algorithm. All Rights Reserved. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

RadFrac Initialization Method • Standard is the default Initialization method for RadFrac. All Rights Reserved. Introduction to Aspen Plus . • This method: – Performs flash calculations on composite feed to obtain average vapor and liquid compositions – Assumes a constant composition profile – Estimates temperature profiles based on bubble and dew point temperatures of composite feed ©2000 AspenTech.

Use: Crude Chemical Azeotropic Cryogenic For: Wide boiling systems with multi-draw columns Narrow boiling chemical systems Azeotropic distillation columns Cryogenic applications ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . All Rights Reserved.Specialized Initialization Methods • Four specialized Initialization methods are available.

extremely wideboiling (for example. • RadFrac may require: – Temperature estimates as a first trial in case of convergence problems – Liquid and/or vapor flow estimates for the separation of wide boiling mixtures. All Rights Reserved. hydrogen-rich). azeotropic distillation or vapor-liquid-liquid systems. ©2000 AspenTech.Estimates • RadFrac does not usually require estimates for temperature. flow and composition profiles. – Composition estimates for highly non-ideal. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

All Rights Reserved.Composition Estimates • The following example illustrates the need for composition estimates in an extremely wide-boiling point system: ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus .

88 bar.2-dichloroethane) • Column – 33 theoretical stages – partial condenser (vapor distillate) – kettle reboiler – pressure : top 17. 47%wt EDC – (VCM : vinyl-chloride.5%wt VCM.RadFrac Convergence Workshop • Objective: Apply the convergence hints explained in this section. Introduction to Aspen Plus . bottom 18. EDC : 1. 18 bar – 19.24 bar – feed on stage 17 ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.5%wt HCl. • HCl column in a VCM production plant • Feed – 130000 kg/hr at 50C. 33.

• Specify that the mass reflux ratio is 0. Set the distillate flow rate to be equal to the mass flow rate of HCl in the feed. All Rights Reserved.7. Introduction to Aspen Plus . – Temperature profile – Composition profile ©2000 AspenTech. • – Question: How should these specifications be implemented? • Note: Look at the results.RadFrac Convergence Workshop (Continued) • First Step: – Specify the column. • Use Peng-Robinson equation of state (PENG-ROB).

Introduction to Aspen Plus . – Question: How should these specifications be implemented? • Note: You may have some convergence difficulties.RadFrac Convergence Workshop (Continued) • Second step: – VCM in distillate and HCl in bottom are much too high! – Allow only 5 ppm of HCl in the residue and 10 ppm VCM in the distillate. – Apply the guidelines presented in this section ©2000 AspenTech. All Rights Reserved.

5%wt VCM 33. Introduction to Aspen Plus . HCl 19.RadFrac Convergence Workshop (Continued) Use the PENG-ROB Property method flow : HCl in feed 130000 kg/h 50 C.88 bar COL mass reflux ratio:0.BKP (step 1) and VCMHCL2.0%wt FEED DIST max 10 ppm VCM 17.5%wt EDC 47.7 feed on stage 17 BOT 18. 18 bar.24 bar max 5 ppm HCl When finished. All Rights Reserved.BKP (step 2) ©2000 AspenTech. save as filename: VCMHCL1.

1000 kmol/hr of pure EDC feed enters the reactor at 20 C and 30 bar. The hot gases from the reactor are subcooled by 10 degrees before fractionation.2-dichloroethane (EDC) according to the following reaction: CH2Cl-CH2Cl HCl + CHCl=CH2 • The cracking of EDC occurs at 500 C and 30 bar in a direct fired furnace. The HCL column is run at 25 bar and the VCM column is run at 8 bar. EDC conversion in the reactor is maintained at 55%.Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) Workshop • Objective: Set up a flowsheet of a VCM process using the tools learned in the course. anhydrous HCl is removed overhead and sent to the oxy chlorination unit. noncatalytic process involving the pyrolysis of 1. • Two distillation columns are used for the purification of the VCM product. Use the RK-SOAVE Property Method. Introduction to Aspen Plus . ©2000 AspenTech. In the second column. Overheads from both columns are removed as saturated liquids. • Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is produced through a high pressure. In the first column. VCM product is removed overhead and the bottoms stream containing unreacted EDC is recycled back to the furnace. All Rights Reserved.

354 Feed enters above stage 8 Column pressure = 25 bar PUMP 30 bar outlet pressure RECYCLE 10 stages Reflux ratio = 0. All Rights Reserved.550 Feed enters above stage 7 Column pressure = 8 bar Use RK-SOAVE property method ©2000 AspenTech.VCM Workshop (Continued) CH2Cl-CH2Cl EDC 1000 kmol/hr EDC 20C 30 bar FEED HCl + CHCl=CH2 HCl VCM RStoic Model RadFrac Model Heater Model COOLOUT COL1 VCMOUT HCLOUT RadFrac Model REACTOUT CRACK RECYCIN Pump Model 500 C 30 bar EDC Conv. When finished.5 bar pressure drop VCMIN COL2 15 stages Reflux ratio = 1.BKP Introduction to Aspen Plus . = 55% QUENCH 10 deg C subcooling 0.969 Distillate to feed ratio = 0. save as filename: VCM.082 Distillate to feed ratio = 0.

Use the sensitivity analysis capability to generate plots of the furnace heat duty and quench cooling duty as a function of EDC conversion. ©2000 AspenTech. Introduction to Aspen Plus . Furnace heat duty ________ Quench cooling duty ________ Quench outlet temperature ________ Condenser and Reboiler duties for COL2 ________________ Concentration of VCM in the product stream ________ Part B: • The conversion of EDC to VCM in the furnace varies between 50% and 55%. 4.VCM Workshop (Continued) Part A: • With the help of the process flow diagram on the previous page. set up a flowsheet to simulate the VCM process. All Rights Reserved. 5. 3. 2. What are the values of the following quantities? 1.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->