INCH-POUND MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HANDBOOK

METALLIC MATERIALS AND ELEMENTS FOR AEROSPACE VEHICLE STRUCTURES

This handbook is for guidance only. Do not cite this document as a requirement.

(Knovel Interactive Edition 2003)

AMSC N/A

FSC 1560

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Supersedes self-cover of MIL-HDBK-5H

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 October 2001 FOREWORD 1. This handbook is approved for use by all Departments and Agencies of the Department of Defense and the Federal Aviation Administration. 2. This handbook is for guidance only. This handbook cannot be cited as a requirement. If it is, the contractor does not have to comply. 3. Beneficial comments (recommendations, additions, deletions) and any pertinent data which may be of use in improving this document should be addressed to: Chairman, MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Activity (937-656-9134 voice, 937-255-4997 fax), AFRL/MLSC, 2179 Twelfth St., Room 122, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7718, by using the Standardization Document Improvement Proposal (DD Form 1426) appearing at the end of Chapter 1 or by letter if using the hard copy. 4. This document contains design information on the strength properties of metallic materials and elements for aerospace vehicle structures. All information and data contained in this handbook have been coordinated with the Air Force, Army, Navy, Federal Aviation Administration, and industry prior to publication, and are being maintained as a joint effort of the Department of Defense and the Federal Aviation Administration. 5. The electronic copy of the Handbook is technically consistent with the paper-copy Handbook; however, minor differences exist in format; e.g., table or figure position. Depending on monitor size and resolution setting, more data may be viewed without on-screen magnification. The figures were converted to electronic format using one of several methods. For example, digitization or recomputation methods were used on most of the engineering figures like typical stress-strain and effect of temperature, etc. Scanning was used to capture informational figures such as those found in Chapters 1 and 9, as well as most of the S/N curves and the majority of graphics in Chapters 4 through 7. These electronic figures were also used to generate the paper copy figures to maintain equivalency between the paper copy and electronic copy. In all cases, the electronic figures have been compared to the paper copy figures to ensure the electronic figure was technically equivalent. Appendix E provides a detailed listing of all the figures in the Handbook, along with a description of each figure’s format.

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MIL-HDBK-5H 1 October 2001

EXPLANATION OF NUMERICAL CODE

For chapters containing materials properties, a deci-numeric system is used to identify sections of text, tables, and illustrations. This system is explained in the examples shown below. Variations of this deci-numerical system are also used in Chapters 1, 8, and 9. Example A 2.4.2.1.1

General material category (in this case, steel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A logical breakdown of the base material by family characteristics (in this case, intermediate alloy steels); or for element properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Particular alloy to which all data are pertinent. If zero, section contains comments on the family characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If zero, section contains comments specific to the alloy; if it is an integer, the number identifies a specific temper or condition (heat treatment) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type of graphical data presented on a given figure (see following description) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example B 3.2.3.1.X

Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 Series Wrought Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2024 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T3, T351, T3510, T3511, T4, and T42 Tempers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific Property as Follows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tensile properties (ultimate and yield strength) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressive yield and shear ultimate strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bearing properties (ultimate and yield strength) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modulus of elasticity, shear modulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elongation, total strain at failure, and reduction of area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress-strain curves, tangent-modulus curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatigue-Crack Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fracture Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS
Section Chapter 1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 Purpose and Use of Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 1.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Scope of Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 1.2.1 Symbols and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 International Systems of Units (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commonly Used Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 1.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Simple Unit Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.3 Combined Stresses (see Section 1.5.3.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 Deflections (Axial) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.5 Deflections (Bending) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.6 Deflections (Torsion) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.7 Biaxial Elastic Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.8 Basic Column Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 1.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.2 Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.3 Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.4 Tensile Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.5 Compressive Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.6 Shear Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.7 Bearing Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.8 Temperature Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.9 Fatigue Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.10 Metallurgical Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.11 Biaxial Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.12 Fracture Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.13 Fatigue-Crack-Propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Material Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.3 Instability Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 1.6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.2 Primary Instability Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-5 1-5 1-6 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-10 1-12 1-14 1-14 1-16 1-20 1-24 1-24 1-24 1-25 1-25 1-25 1-25

NOTE: Information and data for alloys deleted from MIL-HDBK-5 may be obtained through the Chairman, MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Activity. Supersedes page I of MIL-HDBK-5H

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MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001

CONTENTS (Continued)
Section 1.6.3 Local Instability Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.4 Correction of Column Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Thin-Walled and Stiffened Thin-Walled Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.0 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 2.1.1 Alloy Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Environmental Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 2.2.0 Comments on Carbon Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 AISI 1025 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low-Alloy Steels (AISI Grades and Proprietary Grades) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2.3.0 Comments on Low-Alloy Steels (AISI and Proprietary Grades) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Specific Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intermediate Alloy Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 2.4.0 Comments on Intermediate Alloy Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 5Cr-Mo-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 9Ni-4Co-0.20C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.3 9Ni-4Co-0.30C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-Alloy Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 2.5.0 Comments on High-Alloy Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 18 Ni Maraging Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 AF1410 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.3 AerMet 100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precipitation and Transformation-Hardening Steels (Stainless) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 2.6.0 Comments on Precipitation and Transformation-Hardening Steels (Stainless) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 AM-350 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.2 AM-355 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.3 Custom 450 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.4 Custom 455 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.5 PH13-8Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.6 15-5PH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.7 PH15-7Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.8 17-4PH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.9 17-7PH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Austenitic Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 2.7.0 Comments on Austenitic Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7.1 AISI 301 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1-26 1-26 1-33 1-34 2-1 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-5 2-6 2-6 2-7 2-10 2-10 2-15 2-67 2-67 2-67 2-75 2-80 2-92 2-92 2-94 2-105 2-108 2-116 2-116 2-116 2-123 2-129 2-141 2-152 2-172 2-177 2-189 2-207 2-214 2-214 2-216

NOTE: Information and data for alloys deleted from MIL-HDBK-5 may be obtained through the Chairman, MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Activity. Supersedes page II of MIL-HDBK-5H

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MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001

CONTENTS (Continued)
Section 2.8 Element Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8.1 Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8.2 Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8.3 Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.0 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 3.1.1 Aluminum Alloy Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 Manufacturing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2000 Series Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 3.2.1 2014 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 2017 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 2024 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.4 2025 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.5 2090 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.6 2124 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.7 2219 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.8 2424 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.9 2519 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.10 2524 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.11 2618 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3000 Series Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 4000 Series Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 5000 Series Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 3.5.1 5052 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.2 5083 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.3 5086 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.4 5454 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.5 5456 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6000 Series Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 3.6.1 6013 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.2 6061 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.3 6151 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7000 Series Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 3.7.1 7010 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.2 7040-T7451 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.3 7049/7149 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.4 7050 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.5 7055 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 2-231 2-231 2-231 2-234 2-240 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-22 3-26 3-26 3-64 3-67 3-149 3-152 3-155 3-164 3-192a 3-193 3-196 3-198 3-207 3-207 3-207 3-207 3-220 3-226 3-235 3-240 3-246 3-246 3-250 3-278 3-281 3-281 3-288a 3-289 3-306 3-343a

NOTE: Information and data for alloys deleted from MIL-HDBK-5 may be obtained through the Chairman, MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Activity. Supersedes page III of MIL-HDBK-5H

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Section 3.7.6 7075 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.7 7150 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.8 7175 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.9 7249 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.10 7475 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 200.0 Series Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8.1 A201.0 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 300.0 Series Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.1 354.0 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.2 355.0 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.3 C355.0 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.4 356.0 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.5 A356.0 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.6 A357.0 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.7 D357.0 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9.8 359.0 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11 Element Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11.1 Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11.2 Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.11.3 Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 4 Magnesium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 4.1.1 Alloy Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Environmental Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.5 Alloy and Temper Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.6 Joining Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnesium-Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 4.2.1 AZ31B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 AZ61A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 ZK60A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magnesium Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 4.3.1 AM100A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 AZ91C/AZ91E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 AZ92A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 EZ33A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.5 QE22A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.6 ZE41A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 3-344 3-403 3-415 3-430 3-434 3-462 3-462 3-472 3-472 3-474 3-476 3-478 3-480 3-484 3-487 3-490 3-492 3-492 3-492 3-495 3-499 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-3 4-6 4-6 4-17 4-19 4-27 4-27 4-29 4-33 4-39 4-44 4-48

NOTE: Information and data for alloys deleted from MIL-HDBK-5 may be obtained through the Chairman, MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Activity. Supersedes page IV of MIL-HDBK-5H

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Section 4.4 Element Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 Titanium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.0 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 5.1.1 Titanium Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.2 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.3 Manufacturing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.4 Environmental Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unalloyed Titanium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 5.2.1 Commercially Pure Titanium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alpha and Near-Alpha Titanium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 5.3.1 Ti-5Al-2.5Sn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alpha-Beta Titanium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 5.4.1 Ti-6Al-4V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3 Ti-4.5Al-3V-2Fe-2Mo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beta, Near-Beta, and Metastable-Beta Titanium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 5.5.1 Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.2 Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (Ti-15-3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al (Ti-10-2-3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Element Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 5.6.1 Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6 Heat-Resistant Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.0 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 6.1.1 Material Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iron-Chromium-Nickel-Base Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 6.2.0 General Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 A-286 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 N-155 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nickel-Base Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 6.3.0 General Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 Hastelloy X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 4-53 4-53 4-53 4-56 4-57 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-5 5-5 5-15 5-15 5-27 5-43 5-51 5-51 5-94 5-111a 5-112 5-112 5-129 5-133 5-138 5-138 5-139 6-1 6-1 6-3 6-4 6-4 6-4 6-15 6-19 6-19 6-21

NOTE: Information and data for alloys deleted from MIL-HDBK-5 may be obtained through the Chairman, MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Activity. Supersedes page V of MIL-HDBK-5H

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CONTENTS (Continued)
Section 6.3.2 Inconel 600 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 Inconel 625 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 Inconel 706 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 Inconel 718 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 Inconel X-750 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.7 Rene 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.8 Waspaloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.9 HAYNES® 230® . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Cobalt-Base Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.0 General Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 L-605 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 HS 188 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7 Miscellaneous Alloys and Hybrid Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Beryllium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 7.2.1 Standard Grade Beryllium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copper and Copper Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 7.3.0 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Maganese Bronzes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Copper Beryllium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiphase Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 7.4.0 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 MP35N Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 MP159 Alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum Alloy Sheet Laminates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 7.5.0 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.1 2024-T3 Aramid Fiber Reinforced Sheet Laminate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 Structural Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.0 Mechanically Fastened Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 8.1.1 Introduction and Fastener Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2 Solid Rivets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.3 Blind Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.4 Swaged Collar/Upset-Pin Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.5 Threaded Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.6 Special Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metallurgical Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Page 6-27 6-34 6-45 6-51 6-77 6-83 6-90 6-95a 6-96 6-96 6-97 6-104 6-120 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-1 7-7 7-7 7-8 7-11 7-20 7-20 7-20 7-26 7-31 7-31 7-31 7-49 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-9 8-34 8-96 8-111 8-133 8-136

NOTE: Information and data for alloys deleted from MIL-HDBK-5 may be obtained through the Chairman, MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Activity. Supersedes page VI of MIL-HDBK-5H

VI

MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001

CONTENTS (Continued)
Section 8.2.1 Introduction and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.3 Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Bearings, Pulleys, and Wire Rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.0 9.0.1 Testing Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.0.2 Data Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 9.1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.3 Approval Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.4 Documentation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.5 Symbols and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.6 Data Requirements for Incorporation of a New Product into MIL-HDBK-5 . . . . . . 9.1.7 Procedure for the Submission of Mechanical Property Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Room-Temperature Design Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 9.2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.2 Designations and Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.3 Computational Procedures, General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.4 Specifying the Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.5 Deciding Between Direct and Indirect Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.6 Determining the Appropriate Computation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.7 Direct Computation by the Sequential Pearson Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.8 Direct Computation by the Sequential Weibull Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.9 Direct Computation for an Unknown Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.10 Computation of Derived Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.11 Determining Design Allowables by Regression Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.12 Examples of Computational Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.13 Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.14 Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.15 Presentation of Room-Temperature Design Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphical Mechanical Property Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 9.3.1 Elevated Temperature Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.2 Typical Stress-Strain, Compression Tangent-Modulus, and Full-Range Stress-Strain Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.3 Biaxial Stress-Strain Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.4 Fatigue Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.5 Fatigue-Crack-Propagation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.6 Creep and Creep-Rupture Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 8-136 8-136 8-158 8-158 8-159 9-2 9-4 9-4 9-5 9-5 9-5 9-5 9-5 9-6 9-7 9-12 9-18 9-18 9-18 9-21 9-23 9-25 9-26 9-29 9-31 9-32 9-33 9-37 9-41 9-59 9-59 9-60 9-65 9-65 9-73 9-90 9-92 9-147 9-150

NOTE: Information and data for alloys deleted from MIL-HDBK-5 may be obtained through the Chairman, MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Activity. Supersedes page VII of MIL-HDBK-5H

VII

MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001

CONTENTS (Continued)
Section 9.4 Properties of Joints and Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.1 Mechanically Fastened Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.2 Fusion-Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Miscellaneous Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5.1 Fracture Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Statistical Procedures and Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Goodness-of-Fit Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.2 Tests of Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.3 Data-Regression Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.4 Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.5 Estimation Procedures for the Weibull Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 9-169 9-169 9-195 9-206 9-206 9-213 9-213 9-217d 9-223 9-233 9-255 9-258

Appendices A.0 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 A.1 Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 A.2 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 Conversion of U.S. Units of Measure Used in MIL-HDBK-5 to SI Units . . . . . . . . Alloy Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5 A-6 A-16 B-1 C-1 D-1 E-1

B.0 C.0 D.0 E.0

NOTE: Information and data for alloys deleted from MIL-HDBK-5 may be obtained through the Chairman, MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Activity. Supersedes page VIII of MIL-HDBK-5H

VIII

photocopying.1 INTRODUCTION — Since many aerospace companies manufacture both commercial and military products. Results of these analyses are submitted to the membership during semi-annual coordination meetings for approval and. This Handbook also contains some useful basic formulas for structural element analysis. the current version of MIL-HDBK-5 is copyrighted. Alternatively. or otherwise. 1. the Navy. this publication provides standardized design values and related design information for metallic materials and structural elements used in aerospace structures. If computerized MIL-HDBK-5 databases are used.1. This printed document is distributed by the Defense Area Printing Service (DAPS). recording. and joint allowables. As noted on the front page.2 SCOPE OF HANDBOOK — This Handbook is primarily intended to provide a source of design mechanical and physical properties. Assistance with orders may be obtained by calling (215) 6972179.1. and the Federal Aviation Administration. Approval by the procuring or certificating agency must be obtained for the use of design values for products not contained herein. Therefore. in any form or by any means. without the written permission of the copyright owner.S. Although the design requirements for military and commercial products may differ greatly. or transmitted. as enclosed on page 1-37. stored in a retrieval system. 1-1 Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H . It is the only official form of MIL-HDBK-5. the required design values for the strength of materials and elements and other needed material characteristics are often identical. electronic. The data contained herein. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 CHAPTER 1 GENERAL 1. are acceptable to the Air Force. the Army.MIL-HDBK-5H. Material property and joint data obtained from tests by material and fastener producers.1 PURPOSE AND USE OF DOCUMENT 1. the standardization of metallic materials design data. when approved. may be filled out and mailed to: DODSSP 700 Robbins Avenue. PA 19111-5094 U. caution should be exercised to ensure that the information in these databases is identical to that contained in this Handbook. published in this Handbook. structural design and analysis are beyond the scope of this Handbook. No part of this document may be reproduced. However. The FAX number is (215) 697-1462. DD Form 1425. Government personnel may obtain free copies of the current version of the printed document from the Defense Area Printing Service (DAPS). Government personnel may also obtain a free electronic copy of the current document from DAPS through the ASSIST website at http://assist.S. which are acceptable to Government procuring or certification agencies is very beneficial to those manufacturers as well as governmental agencies. government agencies. Building 4D Philadelphia.mil. U. and members of the airframe industry are submitted to MIL-HDBK-5 for review and analysis.daps. or from approved items in the minutes of MIL-HDBK-5 coordination meetings. mechanical.

etc. The reference number corresponds to the applicable paragraph of the chapter cited. Column Analysis. fT = BfL [1. 1. Material Property Definitions. The content of this Handbook is arranged as follows: Chapter(s) 1 2-7 8 9 Subjects Nomenclature.3.3.3.) = BfH . 1.2(h)] Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-2 . Statistical Analysis Procedures 1.3 COMMONLY USED FORMULAS 1.2(f)] [1.2(b)] [1. but should not necessarily be considered as containing data suitable for design purposes. it is sometimes convenient to identify associated properties with a positive sign. When compressive action is of primary interest.2 SIMPLE UNIT STRESSES — ft fc fb fs fx fx fs fA = = = = = = = P / A (tension) P / A (compression) My / I = M / Z S / A (average direct shear stress) SQ / Ib (longitudinal or transverse shear stress) Ty / Ip (shear stress in round tubes due to torsion) (T/2At) (shear stress due to torsion in thin-walled structures of closed section.2(a)] [1. Sign conventions generally accepted in their use are that quantities associated with tension action (loads.2 NOMENCLATURE 1.3.4 may be used to assist in the conversion of these units to Standard International (SI) units when desired.3. Systems of Units. and statistical analysis terminology are included in Appendix A. stresses.2 INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (SI) — Design properties and joint allowables contained in this Handbook are given in customary units of U. Appendix A.1 SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS — The various symbols used throughout the Handbook to describe properties of materials. dimensions. test conditions.1 GENERAL — Formulas provided in the following sections are listed for reference purposes. strains. Formulas. are usually considered as positive and quantities associated with compressive action are considered as negative. Thin-Walled Sections Material Properties Joint Allowables Data Requirements. Failure Analysis.. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 References for data and various test methods are listed at the end of each chapter.2(e)] [1. Formulas for all statistical computations relating to allowables development are presented in Chapter 9.MIL-HDBK-5H. grain directions.2(c)] [1. measure to ensure compatibility with government and industry material specifications and current aerospace design practice. 1.3.3.3. Such references are intended to provide sources of additional information.2(d)] [1. Note that A is the area enclosed by the median line of the section.2.2(g)] [1.2.3.S.3.

radians per unit length) x2 [1.3.4(a)] [1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1.) Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H [1.) [1.3(a)] [1.3.4 [ 2 1/ 2 ] (compression.3(c)] fA = fc + fb (compression and bending) fs max = fs2 + ( f n / 2) fn max = fn/2 + fs max 1.3.3.3.5) — [1.3. 2 [1.MIL-HDBK-5H.5(a)] 1.3. radians per unit length.3.3.3.) x2 y 2 = y1 + idx — Deflection at Point 2.3.6(a)] 1.3.) 1.3.3.) Φ = ∫ [T / (GJ )] dx x1 x2 — Total twist over a length from x1 to x2. between the limits of x1 and x2.denotes the area underxthe x .3.3 COMBINED STRESSES (SEE SECTION 1. (This integral denotes the area under the x1 ∫ [1.4(c)] [1. (This integral denotes the area under the curve of T/GJ plotted against x. plotted against x.6(b)] Φ = TL/(GJ) (Used when torque T/GJ is constant over length L.5 DEFLECTIONS (BENDING) — di/dx = M / (EI) (Change of slope per unit length of a beam. between the limits of x1 and x2.) DEFLECTIONS (TORSION) — [1.3(b)] [1. bending.4(b)] [1.5(b)] i 2 = i1 + x1 integral ∫ [M /( EI)]dx — Slope at Point 2.) δ = eL = (f / E)L = PL / (AE) (This equation applies when the deflection is to be calculated using a known value of E.6 dφ / dx = / T / (GJ) (Change of angular deflection or twist per unit length of a member.3. between the limits of x1 and x2.4(d)] e = δ / L (unit deformation or strain) E = f/e (This equation applied when E is obtained from the same tests in which f and e are measured. (Thisagainst x.5(c)] (This integral denotes the area under the curve having an ordinate equal to M/EI multiplied by the corresponding distances to Point 2. and torsion) DEFLECTIONS (AXIAL) — [1.3.5(d)] curve of x1(i) plotted against x.6(c)] 1-3 .3.3.5.) curve of M/EI plotted between the limits of and 1 2 y 2 = y1 + i( x 2 − x1 ) + x2 x1 ∫ (M / EI)(x − x) dx — Deflection at Point 2.

creep properties.3.MIL-HDBK-5H. when determined in accordance with Section 1. Ftu and Fty Fcy Fsu Fbru and Fbry These design properties are presented as A.µfx Ebiaxial = E(1 . . . Statistical analysis methods. Elongation and reduction of area at other temperatures.or S-basis room temperature values for each alloy. . are regarded as having the same basis as the corresponding room temperature values.1 GENERAL — It is assumed that users of this Handbook are familiar with the principles of strength of materials. . . . .µB) — B = biaxial elastic modulus. .3. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1. .1. . Design properties for other temperatures. . and are designated as S-values. .3. A brief summary of that subject is presented in the following paragraphs to emphasize principles of importance regarding the use of allowables for various metallic materials. . Requirements for adequate test data have been established to ensure a high degree of reliability for allowables published in this Handbook. and the Federal Aviation Administration. . . Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-4 .3. .8(b)] 1. the Navy.µfy Eey = fy .4 BASIC PRINCIPLES 1.4. . Bearing .4. . . Compression . . Shear .7(d)] Fc = π2 Et (LN / ρ)2 where LN = L / %& — conservative using tangent modulus c Fc = π2 E (LN / ρ)2 — standard Euler formula [1.8(a)] [1. 1. the Army. .7(a)] µ = eT/eL (Unit lateral deformation/unit axial deformation.1 Basis — Primary static design properties are provided for the following conditions: Tension .and B. . Reference should be made to specific requirements of the applicable agency before using B-values in design. fatigue properties and fracture toughness properties are all typical values unless another basis is specifically indicated. physical properties. are standardized and approved by all government regulatory agencies as well as MIL-HDBK-5 members from industry. provided in Chapter 9. .) This identifies Poisson’s ratio in uniaxial loading. .3. .4.3.3. . Use of B-Values — The use of B-basis design properties is permitted in design by the Air Force. . . Elongation and reduction of area design properties listed in room temperature property tables represent procurement specification minimum requirements.7 BIAXIAL ELASTIC DEFORMATION — [1. subject to certain limitations specified by each agency. 1. .7(c)] [1.7(b)] [1.8 BASIC COLUMN FORMULAS — [1. .3. Eex = fx .1. as well as moduli. .3.

Derived properties are presented in two manners. shear or bearing. S.4. this ratio is a function of the axial strain and is then referred to as the lateral contraction ratio.7. Strains usually are present also in directions other that the directions of applied loads. strain varies directly with stress. T99 and T90 are the local tolerance bounds. tensile stresses identified by Equation 1. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-5 . For stresses exceeding the proportional limit. and are defined and may be computed using the data requirements and statistical procedures explained in Chapter 9.4.1.1 Poisson’s Ratio Effect — A normal strain is that which is associated with a normal stress. Percentage curves usually represent short time exposures to temperature (thirty minutes) followed by testing at the same strain rate as used for the room temperature tests.3. It may also be the same stress property at a different temperature. Refer to Chapter 9 for specific data requirements and data analysis procedures. Under the condition of uniaxial loading.2 Statistically Calculated Values — Statistically calculated values are S (since 1975). depending on the nature of the loading condition.. As in the case of stress.2(a) and 1. but decreases when the proportional limit is exceeded (plastic range).4.4. When data are adequate. the minimum properties guaranteed in the material specification. are calculated using the same requirements and procedure as AMS and is explained in Chapter 9.2 STRESS — The term “stress” as used in this Handbook implies a force per unit area and is a measure of the intensity of the force acting on a definite plane passing through a given point (see Equations 1. 1.3.3 Ratioed Values — A ratioed design property is one that is determined through its relationship with an established design value. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1.2 and 1.MIL-HDBK-5H. 1.2(a) are considered to be uniform. Axial strain is always accompanied by lateral strains of opposite sign in the two directions mutually perpendicular to the axial strain. compression.g.3. (Equation 1. The bending stress determined from Equation 1.3. depending on the nature of the loading condition. Under multiaxial loading conditions. For stresses within the elastic range.4.3 for biaxial loading).2(d) gives the average shear stress. Percentage values apply to all forms and thicknesses shown in the room temperature design property table for the heat treatment condition indicated therein unless restrictions are otherwise indicated. T99 and T90. e.) 1.4. strains resulting from the application of each directional load are additive. This may be a tensile stress in a different grain direction from the established design property grain direction.3. 1.3. The ratio of stress to strain has a constant value (E) within the elastic range of the material. The shear stress acting over the cross section of a member subjected to bending is not uniform. the strain distribution may or may not be uniform in a complex structural element. The stress distribution may or may not be uniform. Room temperature derived properties are presented in tabular form with their baseline design properties.3. or it may be another stress property.2(c) refers to the stress at a specified distance perpendicular to the normal axis.2(b)). this ratio is approximately constant.3. Normal strains that result from an increase in length are designated as positive (+) and those that result in a decrease in length are designated as negative (-).7. For example. the absolute value of a ratio of lateral strain to axial strain is defined as Poisson’s ratio.3 STRAIN — Strain is the change in length per unit length in a member or portion of a member. Information on the variation of Poisson’s ratio with strain and with testing direction is available in Reference 1.1. Strains must be calculated for each of the principal directions taking into account each of the principal stresses and Poisson’s ratio (see Equations 1. Under these conditions. a normal strain occurs in the direction in which its associated normal stress acts. percentage curves are shown for other exposure times and are appropriately labeled.3. Other than room temperature derived properties are presented in graphical form as percentages of the room temperature value.1.

it is noted that the initial part of stress-strain curves are straight lines. 1.) and a stress scale in 1000 lb/in. tangent modulus is the lowest value of modulus at any state of strain beyond the proportional limit. secant modulus is the highest value of modulus beyond the proportional limit.4.4. Primary moduli are not applicable at higher stress levels. and secant modulus.4. This value applies only up to the proportional limit of the cladding. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-6 . Both of these moduli are functions of strain. and denoted by the letter E. are provided in appropriate chapters of this Handbook. the primary modulus of 7075-T6 clad sheet applies only up to approximately 12 ksi.4 TENSILE PROPERTIES — When a metallic specimen is tested in tension using standard procedures of ASTM E 8.3 Strain Rate — Strain rate is a function of loading rate.4 Elongation and Reduction of Area — Elongation and reduction of area are measured in accordance with specification ASTM E 8.01 in.3.2 Shear Strain — When an element of uniform thickness is subjected to pure shear. 1. Numerical values of such ratios are defined as the modulus of elasticity. Both of these moduli are used in structural element designs.4. the standard maximum static rate for tensile testing materials per specification ASTM E 8.4. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1. 1. A typical use of primary moduli is for low amplitude. Similarly. Other moduli of design importance are tangent modulus. This secondary modulus is the slope of the second straight line portion of the stress-strain curve. the cladding is so little different from the core material that a single elastic modulus value is used.4. the primary modulus of 2024-T3 clad sheet applies only up to about 6 ksi.4. Test results are dependent upon strain rate./in. For example. Properties required for design and structural analysis are discussed in Sections 1. such as the upper stress-strain curve in Figure 1. Except for materials such as those described with discontinuous behaviors. Et. Shear strain is computed by dividing this total displacement by the right angle distance separating the two sides. it is customary to plot results as a “stress-strain diagram. The initial slope. as indicated in the typical stress-strain curve shown in Figure 1. The general format of such diagrams is to provide a strain scale nondimensionally (in. Above the proportional limits of cladding materials. Design properties in this Handbook were developed from test data obtained from coupons tested at the stated strain rate or up to a value of 0. each side of the element will be displaced in opposite directions. or primary modulus.1 to 1. 1. (ksi).4. Clad aluminum alloys may have two separate modulus of elasticity values.4.3. Secant modulus is defined as the ratio of total stress to total strain at any selected value of strain.4 (b).1 Modulus of Elasticity (E) — Referring to Figure 1.4.4.3. Modulus of elasticity has the same units as stress. denotes a response of both the low-strength cladding and higher-strength core elastic behaviors. and the ASTM testing procedures specify appropriate strain rates.” Typical tensile stressstrain diagrams are characterized in Figure 1. This indicates a constant ratio between stress and strain. See Equation 1.MIL-HDBK-5H.4. Similarly.4. In some cases.3. high frequency fatigue./in.6.4.4. drawn to scale. The material then exhibits a secondary elastic modulus up to the proportional limit of the core material. Such diagrams.4. a short transition range occurs while the cladding is developing plastic behavior.4./min.4. This value applies up to the proportional limit stress at which point the initial slope of the stress-strain curve then decreases. Es. Tangent modulus is the instantaneous slope of the stress-strain curve at any selected value of strain.

Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Figure 1.4.4.MIL-HDBK-5H. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-7 . Typical tensile stress-strain diagrams.

This property is less affected by testing variables than elongation.4.4). Elongation.4. and the corresponding stress is defined as the yield stress.4.4.6 Reduction of Area (RA) — Another property determined from tensile tests is reduction of area. also stated as total elongation. Welded test specimens are exceptions. Reduction of area is the difference. expressed as a percentage of the original cross sectional area. and the industry adopted 0.0001 in.5 Elongation (e) — An additional property that is determined from tensile tests is elongation. the material elongates considerably with no apparent change in stress.4.4. 1.1 for data basis.4. That is.2 Tensile Proportional Limit Stress (Ftp ) — The tensile proportional limit is the maximum stress for which strain remains proportional to stress. without regard to the lateral contraction due to Poisson’s ratio effects. 1. is defined as the permanent increase in gage length. This is a measure of ductility. and gage length of test specimens. Ultimate tensile stress is commonly used as a criterion of the strength of the material for structural design. 1. At this critical stress. Moduli are slightly greater in compression for most of the commonly used structural metallic alloys.4. Preceding remarks concerning tensile properties of materials.4. strain./in.002 in. Although elongation is widely used as an indicator of ductility. The yield stress is determined as the intersection of the offset line with the stress-strain curve. but it should be recognized that other strength properties may often be more important.4 shows how the tensile ultimate stress is determined from a stress-strain diagram. See the upper stress-strain curve in Figure 1. Permanent deformation may be detrimental. Elongation is usually measured over a gage length of 2 inches for rectangular tensile test specimens and in 4D (inches) for round test specimens.MIL-HDBK-5H.4.1. but yield in a monotonic manner.4.4. Refer to the applicable material specification for applicable specified gage lengths. Since it is practically impossible to determine precisely this point on a stress-strain curve. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-8 . Special considerations concerning the ultimate compressive stress are described in the following section. it is customary to assign a small value of plastic strain to identify the corresponding stress as the proportional limit.4 Tensile Ultimate Stress (TUS or Fty ) — Figure 1.5 COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES — Results of compression tests completed in accordance with ASTM E 9 are plotted as stress-strain curves similar to those shown for tension in Figure 1. the corresponding stress at this offset strain is defined as the yield stress (see Figure 1. This value of plastic axial strain is 0.4. In this Handbook. strain rate./in./in. For tension and compression.1. It is simply the maximum stress attained.002 in.4. Most nonferrous metallic alloys and most high strength steels do not exhibit this sharp break. See Section 1. For practical purposes.5./in. It is commonly expressed as a percentage of the original gage length.4. also apply to compressive properties. this property can be significantly affected by testing variables. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1.1 for data basis. This condition is also illustrated in Figure 1. It should be noted that all stresses are based on the original cross-sectional dimensions of a test specimen.4. The stress at which this occurs is referred to as the yield point.3 Tensile Yield Stress (TYS or Fty ) — Stress-strain diagrams for some ferrous alloys exhibit a sharp break at a stress below the tensile ultimate strength. See Section 1. 1.4.4.4. but is more difficult to compute on thin section test specimens.4. the tension and compression proportional limit stress corresponds to a plastic strain of 0. 1. measured after fracture of a tensile specimen. all strains used herein are termed engineering strains as opposed to true strains which take into account actual cross sectional dimensions. plastic strain as an arbitrary limit that is considered acceptable by all regulatory agencies. between the original cross section and the minimum cross sectional area adjacent to the fracture zone of a tested specimen.4.002 in. except for ultimate stress and elongation. An evaluation of techniques for obtaining compressive strength properties of thin sheet materials is outlined in Reference 1. which is also a measure of ductility. such as thickness. yield stress can be determined from a stress-strain diagram by extending a line parallel to the elastic modulus line and offset from the origin by an amount of 0.4.

1 Compressive Ultimate Stress (Fcu ) – Since the actual failure mode for the highest tension and compression stress is shear.4. 1.6.2 Compressive Yield Stress (CYS or F ) — Compressive yield stress is measured in a cy manner identical to that done for tensile yield strength. The same tests performed without application of ASTM E 238 cleaning procedures are referred to as “wet pin” tests. The shear modulus of elasticity is considered a basic shear property. which bears against the edge of the hole. Heavy section test data are based on “pin” tests. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1. The driver for all the analysis of all structure loaded in compression is the slope of the compression stress strain curve.577.4.6. Results are identified as “dry-pin” values.4.MIL-HDBK-5H. Design values reported for shear ultimate stress (Fsu) in room temperature property tables for aluminum and magnesium thin sheet alloys are based on “punch” shear type tests except when noted. are not strictly basic properties. except where product thicknesses are insufficient. such as the proportional limit stress and shear ultimate stress. Bearing area is the product of the pin diameter and the sheet or plate thickness. The relation between this property and the modulus of elasticity in tension is expressed for homogeneous isotropic materials by the following equation: G= E 2(1 + µ ) [1. isotropic materials is 0. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-9 . plastic strain. Results from such tests can show bearing stresses at least 10 percent lower than those obtained from “dry pin” tests.6. they should be treated as moduli and should not be combined with the same properties obtained from other specimen configuration tests.6.7 BEARING PROPERTIES — Bearing stress limits are of value in the design of mechanically fastened joints and lugs.6 contains additional information on this subject. 1.4.2 Proportional Limit Stress in Shear (Fsp ) — This property is of particular interest in connection with formulas which are based on considerations of linear elasticity. cannot be treated as basic shear properties because of “form factor” effects. This property cannot be determined directly from torsion tests. the maximum compression stress is limited to Ftu. Other properties. See Reference 1./in. otherwise known as the Amsler shear test. The theoretical ratio between shear and tensile stress for homogeneous. by the bearing area. Shear data for other alloys are obtained from pin tests.4. These two tests only provide ultimate strength. which is a slotted shear test (this test is used for other alloys.4.6 SHEAR PROPERTIES — Results of torsion tests on round tubes or round solid sections are plotted as torsion stress-strain diagrams. 1. as it represents the limiting value of shear stress for which such formulas are applicable.5. the standard doesn’t specifically cover materials other than aluminum).1 Modulus of Rigidity (G) — This property is the initial slope of the shear stress-strain curve. Thicker aluminums use ASTM B 769. however. Bearing stress is computed from test data by dividing the load applied to the pin.002 in. In such cases.4.1] 1.4.5. Thin aluminum products may be tested to ASTM B 831. the tangent modulus. It is also referred to as the modulus of elasticity in shear. 1. Reference 1.7 for additional information. Only yield and ultimate stresses are obtained from bearing tests.3 Yield and Ultimate Stresses in Shear (SYS or Fsy ) and (SUS or Fsu ) — These properties.4. as usually obtained from ASTM test procedures tests. A bearing test requires the use of special cleaning procedures as specified in ASTM E 238. as they will depend on the shape of the test specimen.4. 1. It is defined as the stress corresponding to 0.

5 and 2. Bearing design values for conditions of t/D < 0. fracture toughness. As the clearance increases to 0.1 Bearing Yield and Ultimate Stresses (BYS or Fbry ) and (BUS or Fbru ) — BUS is the maximum stress withstood by a bearing specimen. this subject introduces concerns for time-dependent creep properties. The percentage curves showing temperature effects on bearing stress may be used with both e/D properties of 1. Ductility. Caution should be exercised in using these static property curves at very high temperatures.4. subject to the approval of the procuring or certificating regulatory agency. linear interpolation of properties may be used. The effect of temperature on static mechanical properties is shown by a series of graphs of property (as percentages of the room temperature allowable property) versus temperature.1 Low Temperature — Temperatures below room temperature generally cause an increase in strength properties of metallic alloys.4. Bearing values for e/D < 1. BYS is computed from a bearing stress-deformation curve by drawing a line parallel to the initial slope at an offset of 0.25 or t/D > 0. see the applicable chapter and references noted therein. In addition.MIL-HDBK-5H. Bearing design properties are applicable to t/D ratios from 0.8.8. particularly if the strain rate intended in design is much less than that stated with the graphs. For specific information. Because of this dependence of strength and ductility at elevated temperatures on many variables. such as temperature and the time of exposure which may degrade the heat treatment condition.4. the bearing yield and failure stress tends to decrease.50.4.7. Due to differences in results obtained between dry-pin and wet-pin tests.2 Elevated Temperature — Temperatures above room temperature usually cause a decrease in the strength properties of metallic alloys. plastic deformation or creep deformation may occur to the detriment of the intended structural use. ASTM E 238 requires the use of hardened pins that have diameters within 0.5 are not intended for designs of e/D < 1. or cause a metallurgical change.5. 1.5 must be substantiated by adequate tests.0. 1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Additionally. Data used to construct these graphs were obtained from tests conducted over a limited range of strain rates. This decrease is dependent on many factors.001 of the hole diameter.0.5 and 2.02 times the pin diameter. t is sheet or plate thickness. Ductility may increase or decrease with increasing temperature depending on the same variables. 1. and e is the edge distance measured from the center of the hole to the adjacent edge of the material being tested in the direction of applied load.8 TEMPERATURE EFFECTS — Temperature effects require additional considerations for static.001 and greater. For edge margins between 1. The reason for this concern is that at very low strain rates or under sustained loads. D is the pin diameter. Tabulated design properties for bearing yield stress (Fbry) and bearing ultimate stress (Fbru) are provided throughout the Handbook for edge margins of e/D = 1. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-10 . and elongation usually decrease.0. fatigue and fracture toughness properties. In the definition of bearing values. 1. Bearing values for e/D of 1. designers are encouraged to consider the use of a reduction factor with published bearing stresses for use in design.25 to 0. it is emphasized that the elevated temperature properties obtained from this Handbook be applied for only those conditions of exposure stated herein.50 must be substantiated by tests.5 and 2.

Creep data are sometimes obtained under conditions of cyclic uniaxial loading and constant temperature. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1. 1.2.8.4. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-11 . If permitted to continue indefinitely. Since creep in service is usually typified by complex conditions of loading and temperature.8. Such effects are often recognized as reductions in short time strength properties or ductility. It is usually regarded as an elevated temperature phenomenon.2 Creep-Rupture Curve — Results of tests conducted under constant loading and constant temperature are usually plotted as strain versus time up to rupture.2.2. It is recognized that.8.2.8.6 provides a limited amount of creep data analysis procedures. Refer to Section 9.2. creep terminates in rupture. best-fit description of measured behavior.4.6 for data reduction and presentation methods and References 1.4.4.4.2. 1. or both.1 Creep and Stress-Rupture Properties — Creep is defined as a time-dependent deformation of a material while under an applied load.8. although some materials creep at room temperature.8. when significant creep appears likely to occur. A typical plot of this nature is shown in Figure 1. and the initiation and growth of cracks or subsurface voids within a material. including annealing. the number of possible stress-temperature-time profiles is infinite.MIL-HDBK-5H. Section 9.2. Modification of such curves into design use are the responsibility of the design community since material applications and regulatory requirements may differ.4.3.2.2.8.1(a). For economic reasons. Other definitions and terminology are provided in Section 9. Strain includes both the instantaneous deformation due to load application and the plastic strain due to creep.4. creep data for general design use are usually obtained under conditions of constant uniaxial loading and constant temperature in accordance with Reference 1. or constant uniaxial loading and variable temperatures. This damage may involve significant effects on the temper of heat treated materials.2. Each curve represents an average.3. it may be necessary to test under simulated service conditions because of difficulties posed in attempting to extrapolate from simple to complex stress-temperature-time conditions. Typical creep-rupture curve.3. Creep damage is cumulative similar to plastic strain resulting from multiple static loadings. Figure 1.1(b) and (c).6.3 Creep or Stress-Rupture Presentations — Results of creep or stress-rupture tests conducted over a range of stresses and temperatures are presented as curves of stress versus the logarithm of time to rupture.

1.4. test results and data analysis techniques. in some cases. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-12 .N diagrams. Localized high stresses induced during the fabrication of some parts have a much greater influence on fatigue properties than on static properties. For strain control test data. The most important of these are described in Section 9. Refer to Figure 1.9. Such data are therefore provided in the appropriate materials sections.9 FATIGUE PROPERTIES — Repeated loads are one of the major considerations for design of both commercial and military aircraft structures. plate bending tests. S-N (or ε . First. common methods of obtaining and reporting fatigue data included results obtained from axial loading tests. and torsion tests. structural damage.4.N) plots are constructed for specific creep strain levels. flexural fatigue data also have been dropped. Design considerations usually include stress concentrations caused by reentrant corners. Figure 1. For similar reasons. basic laboratory test data are useful for materials selection.9. holes. the only type retained in this Handbook. Fabricated parts have been found to fail at less than 50. Static loading.2 Graphical Display of Fatigue Data — Results of axial fatigue tests are reported on S-N and ε . These factors significantly reduce fatigue life below that which is predictable by estimating smooth specimen fatigue performance with estimated stresses due to fabrication. Tests of this type are now seldom conducted for aerospace use and have therefore been dropped from importance in this Handbook. Refer to Reference 1.2(a) shows a family of axial load S-N curves.000 cycles of loading when the nominal stress was far below that which could be repeated many millions of times using a smooth machined test specimen.9(b) for strain control fatigue testing guidelines. rotating bending tests.2.4. preceded by cyclic loads of lesser magnitudes.2(b).N diagrams are shown in this Handbook with the raw test data plotted for each stress or strain ratio or. The above information may not apply directly to the design of structures for several reasons. Elevated temperature fatigue test data are treated in the same manner as room temperature data. rough surfaces.4. may result in mechanical behaviors (Ftu . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1. Such reductions are functions of the material and cyclic loading conditions.9. In the past.4.4. Handbook information may not take into account specific stress concentrations unique to any given structural design.1 Terminology — A number of symbols and definitions are commonly used to describe fatigue test conditions. an equivalent strain consolidation method is used.9(a) for load control fatigue testing guidelines and Reference 1. consist of completely reversed loading conditions (mean stress equals zero) and those in which the mean stress was varied to create different stress (or strain) ratios (R = minimum stress or strain divided by maximum stress or strain). Axial loading tests.4. joints.9. individual curves are usually based on an equivalent stress which consolidates data for all stress ratios into a single curve. This is provided in addition to the customary plot of maximum stress (or strain) versus cycles to failure.4. However. S-N and ε . etc.3. as long as creep is not a significant factor and room temperature analysis methods can be applied. Rotating bending tests apply completely reversed (tension-compression) stresses to round cross section specimens.4.3. notches. For load control test data. for a single value of mean stress. A best-fit curve is drawn through the data at each condition. Fty . and other conditions. In the limited number of cases where creep strain data have been recorded as a part of an elevated temperature fatigue test series. Rationale used to develop best-fit curves and the characterization of all such curves in a single diagram is explained in Section 9.MIL-HDBK-5H. No significant amount of torsional fatigue data have ever been made available. A fatigue allowables development philosophy is not presented in this Handbook. 1. Data for each curve represents a separate R-value.) lower than those published in room temperature allowables tables.

80 70 x x x x + ++ ++ + + Material=A.MIL-HDBK-5H. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 . → → → → 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 Fatigue Life. . Mean Stress or Stress Ratio = Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Runout Maximum Stress.9. . Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-13 . Cycles Figure 1. Kt=B.2(b). Best fit S/N curve diagram for a material at various stress ratios.4. 100 90 80 x + Material=A. Consolidated fatigue data for a material using the equivalent stress parameter. Cycles Figure 1. Notch Type=C.9.4.2(a). . ksi 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 3 x x x+ x x + + + ++ + + +++ + + x x x x + + + + + + ++ x → x → x → + → + → + → ++ +→ → → → → Note: Stresses are based on net section. Notch Type=C. Seq 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 103 + ++ x ++ + + x x x + ++ + + x + x x + x x + x ++ x x + + + x +++ + + + + Note: Stresses are based on net section. Kt=B. 104 105 106 107 108 Fatigue Life. Mean Stress or Stress Ratio = Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Equivalent Stress.

which influence metallurgical stability include heat. the stability of most structural metallic alloys is relatively independent of exposure time.MIL-HDBK-5H. prolonged heating may progressively raise the strength of a metallic alloy as measured on smooth tensile or fatigue specimens. organization of test results. However. loading may be applied in the z-direction instead of the y-direction..4. the metallurgical instability becomes increasingly time dependent.2(a) and (b) contain more specific information on fatigue testing procedures. between -65EF and 160EF.11. The metallurgy of each alloy should be considered in making material selections. sigma-phase formation. only the maximum (algebraically larger) principal stress and strain are shown for each test result.11 BIAXIAL PROPERTIES — Discussions up to this point pertained to uniaxial conditions of static. All of the mean fatigue curves published in this Handbook. This is a responsibility for the design community. a biaxial stress is then defined as a condition in which loads are applied in both of the xand y-directions. The effect of environment on the material can be observed as either improvement or deterioration of properties. influences of various factors.4. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-14 . In some special cases.4. as temperature is increased. and depend on the criticality of application. a structural material must also retain surface and internal stability. Therein. few data exist. and design considerations. and requirements of the certificating activity. Environmental conditions. level of stress. For anisotropic materials.4. Because of the difficulties of testing under triaxial loading conditions. For example. oxidizing or corrosive media and nuclear radiation. See Reference 1. When a specimen is tested under biaxial loading conditions. fatigue and creep loading. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Notched fatigue specimen test data are shown in various Handbook figures to provide an understanding of deleterious effects relative to results for smooth specimens.11 for an isotropic material. statistical analysis methodology is presented solely for use in analyzing test data to establish allowables.4. it is customary to plot the results as a biaxial stress-strain diagram.4.10 METALLURGICAL INSTABILITY — In addition to the retention of strength and ductility. Surface stability refers to the resistance of the material to oxidizing or corrosive environments. Usually.e. producing a family of biaxial stress-strain curves as shown in Figure 1. and z-directions in a rectangular coordinate system. the resulting curves may be plotted simultaneously. spheroidization. These diagrams are similar to uniaxial stress-strain diagrams shown in Figure 1. Specific reductions vary between users of such information.9. However. Most of the following discussion will be limited to tensile loadings in the x. Under normal temperatures. biaxial stress-strain curves also require distinction by grain direction. 1. at the same time. i. ductility may be reduced to such an extent that notched tensile or fatigue behavior becomes erratic or unpredictable.and y-directions. temper embrittlement. This does not conflict with data analysis methods presented in Chapter 9. Such factors may impose a penalty on cyclic life or upon stress. depending upon the specific imposed conditions. Stresses and strains in these directions are referred to as principal stresses and principal strains. Many structural applications involve both biaxial and triaxial loadings.4. y-. If stress axes are defined as being mutually perpendicular along x-. require modification into allowables for design use. and internal or structural transformation. sources of uncertainty in the analysis. depending upon the specific conditions of exposure. including both the notched fatigue and smooth specimen fatigue curves. Lack of internal stability is generally manifested (in some ferrous and several other alloys) by carbide precipitation. References 1. considerable biaxial testing has been conducted and the following paragraphs describe how these results are presented in this Handbook. However. The factor of exposure time should be considered in design when applicable. 1. When tests of the same material are conducted at different biaxial stress ratios.

.g. 1.g. In a similar manner. the direction corresponding to B=0.g. In the design of aerospace structures. An envelope is constructed through test results for each tested condition of biaxial stress ratios.4. the curve labeled B=1 indicates a biaxial stress-strain result for equally applied stresses in both directions. Information can be combined into a single diagram to enable interpolations at intermediate biaxial stress ratios. the initial slope of such curves is defined as the biaxial modulus. cones. For example.MIL-HDBK-5H. then a best-fit curve is fitted through the nondimensionalized data. 1.4. cross-rolled sheet.5. it is noted that the original portion of each stress-strain curve is essentially a straight line.1 Biaxial Modulus of Elasticity — Referring to Figure 1. plastic strain in the same direction. The letter B denotes the ratio of applied stresses in the two loading directions.. e. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-15 . i. Biaxial property data presented in the Handbook are to be considered as basic material properties obtained from carefully prepared specimens.4.11 indicate results representing both biaxial stress ratios of 2 or 0.4.11. Figure 1. data are first reduced to nondimensional form (percent of uniaxial tensile yield stress in the specified reference direction). the reference direction used for the uniaxial yield strength is indicated on each figure.2 Biaxial Yield Stress — Biaxial yield stress is defined as the maximum principal stress corresponding to 0.4. Under biaxial loading conditions. as shown in Figure 1.. See Equation 1.3.11. a typical biaxial yield stress envelope is identified.11. e. biaxial stress ratios other than those normally used in biaxial testing are frequently encountered. 0 indicates the biaxial stress-strain behavior when loading is applied in only one direction.4. In the preparation of such envelopes. tubes. To avoid possible confusion./in..e. In this case.5 shown in Figure 1.2. etc. as determined from a test curve. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 The reference direction for a biaxial stress ratio.002 in. since this is a hypothetical example for an isotropic material. the slope of this line is defined as the modulus of elasticity.11.4. It is a function of biaxial stress ratio and Poisson’s ratio. In uniaxial tension or compression. 0. e. Biaxial yield strength allowables are then obtained by multiplying the uniaxial Fty (or Fcy) allowable by the applicable coordinate of the biaxial stress ratio curve. The curve labeled B = 4. uniaxial behavior.11. Typical biaxial stress-strain diagrams for isotropic materials. should be clearly indicated with each result.7. B-values of 2. The reference direction is always considered as the longitudinal (rolling) direction for flat products and the hoop (circumferential) direction for shells of revolution.

product form.MIL-HDBK-5H. and other environmental factors.11. The fracture toughness of a material is literally a measure of its resistance to fracture. 1. as a function of biaxial stress ratio test conditions. and a material property defined as fracture toughness. Attendant and interacting conditions of cyclic loading.4. As with other mechanical properties. a crack propagates from the flaw suddenly and completely through the component. prolonged static loadings. This discussion is limited to brittle fracture. which is characteristic of high strength materials under conditions of loading resulting in plane-strain through the cross section. Flaws may appear as cracks. or some combination thereof. Typical biaxial yield stress envelope. when available.4. environmental influences other than temperature. this mode is termed brittle fracture. Since little or no plastic effects are noted.4.12. Very thin materials are described as being under the condition of plane-stress.12 FRACTURE TOUGHNESS — The occurrence of flaws in a structural component is an unavoidable circumstance of material processing. The method of presenting biaxial ultimate strength data is similar to that described in the preceding section for biaxial yield strength. Then.4. geometry. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-16 .1. This property is highly dependent upon geometric configuration of the test parts.1 Brittle Fracture — For materials that have little capacity for plastic flow. component behavior is essentially elastic until the fracture stress is reached. loading rate. or service. which induce triaxial tension stress states adjacent to the flaw. 1. tested at a given biaxial stress ratio. fracture toughness is dependent upon alloy type. voids. or for flaw and structural configurations. The following descriptions of fracture toughness properties applies to the currently recognized practice of testing specimens under slowly increasing loads. weld defects. Both biaxial ultimate strength and corresponding uniform elongation data are reported. metallurgical inclusions.11. such data should be limited in use to the same design configurations. processing variables.4. The fracture toughness of a part containing a flaw is dependent upon flaw size.2.3 Biaxial Ultimate Stress — Biaxial ultimate stress is defined as the highest nominal principal stress attained in specimens of a given configuration. A convenient illustration of brittle fracture is a typical load-compliance record of a brittle structural component containing a flaw. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Figure 1. fabrication. component geometry.12. 1. temperature. as illustrated in Figure 1. design discontinuities. and high strain rate loading are not considered. Therefore.

2] For every structural material. flaws section. They are summarized in Reference 1. component geometry. inches factor relating component geometry and flaw size.2 Brittle Fracture Analysis — The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics has led to the stress intensity concept to relate flaw size. See Reference 1. structural configuration and type of loading. may be imbedded as voids or metallurgical inclusions.1/ 2 where f = a = Y = stress applied to the gross.12. which exhibits brittle fracture (by nature of low ductility or plane-strain stress conditions).1.12. nondimensional. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Figure 1. ksi measure of flaw size.2(a). [1. 1. the stress intensity factor. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-17 . and fracture toughness.MIL-HDBK-5H.4. K.4. can be expressed as K = f a Y. and a variety of these parameters can interact in a real structure. ksi ⋅ in. The specific application of this relationship is dependent on flaw type. there is a lower limiting value of K termed the plane-strain fracture toughness.4. Loadings of concern may be tension and/or flexure.12.4. The ASTM Committee E 8 on Fatigue and Fracture has developed testing and analytical techniques for many practical situations of flaw occurrence subject to brittle fracture.4. In its very general form. This mode of fracture is characteristic of the very high-strength metallic materials under plane-strain conditions. Structural components may vary in section size and may be reinforced in some manner. or may be partial-through (surface) cracks. KIc.2(a) for values.12. Flaws may occur through the thickness. Typical load-deformation record of a structural component containing a flaw subject to brittle fracture.12.

the actual stress state may approach the opposite extreme. even well below the fracture threshold stress. T-S. The statistical reliability of these properties is not known. it has been observed that certain materials exhibit increased flaw propagation tendencies when situated in either aqueous or corrosive environments. etc. forgings. For flat sections of various products. it is customary to specify specimen and crack orientations by an ordered pair of grain direction symbols.12. S-L and S-T. These information are included in each alloy section.g. There are significant influences of temperature on fracture toughness properties. the six principal fracture path directions are: L-T. Temperature effects data are limited.3.1 Environmental Effects — Cyclic loading.4. Typical principal fracture path directions. These critical planestrain fracture toughness values have been determined in accordance with recommended ASTM testing practices.4. Listed properties generally represent the average value of a series of test results.12. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1. When such is known to be the case.. planeSupersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-18 . leading to fracture. This information is provided for information purposes only due to limitations in available data quantities and product form coverages. T-L.12.. (T) transverse. may result in the propagation of flaws.12. 1.3. appropriate precautionary notes have been included with the standard fracture toughness information. Figure 1.MIL-HDBK-5H. when available.4. When identifying either test results or a general critical plane strain fracture toughness average value. in which the three grain directions are designated (L) longitudinal. extrusions. In these cases. L-S. The first digit denotes the grain direction normal to the crack plane. Under the condition of sustained loading. 1.4. The second digit denotes the grain direction parallel to the fracture plane. and (S) short transverse.4. Strain rates in excess of standard static rates may cause variations in fracture toughness properties.4 Fracture in Plane-Stress and Transitional-Stress States — Plane-strain conditions do not describe the condition of certain structural configurations which are either relatively thin or exhibit appreciable ductility.12.3 Critical Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness — A tabulation of fracture toughness data is printed in the general discussion prefacing most alloy chapters in this Handbook. e.3 identifies these orientations. Figure 1. plate. Fracture toughness of a material commonly varies with grain direction.

some intermediate. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 stress.2. or. component geometry. The stress intensity factor concept. The behavior of flaws and cracks under these conditions is different from those of plane-strain.12.4.4. K app = f a o Y [1. as expressed in general form by Equation 1.4. interpretation of the critical flaw dimension and corresponding stress has two possibilities. The other possibility identifies the fracture condition. Typical load-deformation record for non-plane strain fracture.1] Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-19 .12.12. Specifically.12.4. This is illustrated in Figure 1. more generally. As a result. the definition of nonlinear crack length with increasing load is difficult to assess.or transitional-stress state. This nonlinearity results from the alleviation of stress at the crack tip by causing plastic deformation. One possibility is the onset of nonlinear displacement with increasing load.4. and fracture toughness.12.4. 1. In most practical cases. an alternate characterization of this behavior is provided by defining an artificial or “apparent” stress intensity factor. However. these two conditions are separated in applied stress and exhibit large differences in flaw dimensions due to stable tearing. significant plastic zones can develop ahead of the crack or flaw tip. When a compliance record is transformed into a crack growth curve. Figure 1. usually very close to the maximum load.1 Analysis of Plane-Stress and Transitional-Stress State Fracture — The basic concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics as used in plane-strain fracture analysis also applies to these conditions.4. under these conditions.12.4.MIL-HDBK-5H. Generally.4.4. the difference between the two possible K-factor designations becomes more apparent. is used to relate load or stress. This behavior is illustrated in a compliance record by a significant nonlinearity prior to fracture as shown in Figure 1. and stable extension of the discontinuity occurs as a slow tearing process.4.1. flaw size.

the half-crack length is designated by the letter “a.4. This datum coordinate corresponds to point A in Figure 1.12. consistent with specimen type.12.1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Figure 1. the propensity for slow stable tearing prior to fracture is indicated by a crack extension ratio. that is. As added information.12.4. where data are available. ∆2a/2ao.5. Crack growth curve.4. The average Kapp curve.4.8(TYS) / (1 − 2a / W) [1.12. and specimen configuration. This conservative stress intensity factor is a first approximation to the actual property associated with the point of fracture. These data have been screened to assure that an elastic instability existed at fracture.1 Middle-Tension Panels — The calculation of apparent fracture toughness for middletension panels is given by the following equation. as defined in the following subsections. This is provided for each temper.4.5 Apparent Fracture Toughness Values for Plane-Stress and TransitionalStress States — When available. thickness.12.4. In small size specimens.1(a)] Data used to compute Kapp values have been screened to ensure that the net section stress at failure did not exceed 80 percent of the tensile yield strength. product form. 1. The apparent fracture toughness is computed as a function of the maximum stress and initial flaw size.4. The average Kapp parametric curve is presented on each figure as a solid line with multiple extensions where width effects are displayed in the data.12. each alloy chapter contains graphical formats of stress versus flaw size. graphs of Kapp versus thickness are presented.13 FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH — Crack growth deals with material behavior between crack initiation and crack instability. they satisfied the criterion: fc ≤ 0. The coefficient (2) indicates the total crack length. K app = fc ( π a o ⋅ sec π a o / W) 1/ 2 [1. grain direction.MIL-HDBK-5H. where data exist covering a wide range of thicknesses. is shown for each set of data.4.5. 1.” In some cases. crack initiation and specimen failure may be nearly Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-20 .5. Data points shown in these graphs represent the initial flaw size and maximum stress achieved.4. 1.1(b)] This criterion assures that the fracture was an elastic instability and that plastic effects are negligible.1.

[1. corresponding to a prescribed number of loading cycles. such that Equation 1. ∆S or R or Smin. 1. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-21 . and other factors such as environment.4. Environment is important from a potential corrosion viewpoint. ∆S (such as stress ratio.4.4. Such information.3..4. ∆a/∆N = g(Kmax. 1.4.3(c)] 1. However. Certain factors. a. in the Handbook. as shown in Figure 1. the stress and crack size parameters can be combined into the stress-intensity factor parameter. and grain direction. such as that illustrated in Figure 1. by the relation da/dN . K.4.3 Fatigue Crack Growth Data Presentation — Fatigue crack growth rate data for constant amplitude cyclic loading conditions are presented as logarithmic plots of da/dN versus ∆K. ∆K. the instantaneous crack size.4. R. provides a more fundamental characterization of this behavior.4. Fatigue crack growth data presented herein are based on constant amplitude tests. are arranged by material alloy and heat treatment condition. for R # 0. Time at stress is another important factor. [1.13. Constant amplitude data consist of crack length measurements at corresponding loading cycles. Smax. in larger structural components. Additional factors include environment..13.13.3(b) becomes da/dN . R. Thus.13. the above format is not the most efficient form to present information. frequency.. Crack growth behaviors based on spectrum loading cycles are beyond the scope of this Handbook. such that Equation 1. Standard testing procedures are documented in Reference 1.4. loading frequency.3(b)] At present.) where Kmax ∆K ∆K = = = the maximum cyclic stress-intensity factor (1-R)Kmax. for R $ 0 Kmax.1. In general. the range of the cyclic stress-intensity factor. Specific details regarding test procedures and data interpolations are presented in Chapter 9. the independent variable is considered to be simply ∆K and the data are considered to be parametric on the stress ratio.13. ∆a/∆N = g(Smax.3(a)] By applying concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics. have interactive effects. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 synonymous. .4. fatigue-crack-growth rate behavior can be characterized. The instantaneous slope.4.13.13.2 Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis — It is known that fatigue-crack-growth behavior under constant-amplitude cyclic conditions is influenced by maximum cyclic stress. and cyclic loading frequency.1(b). a.). in general form. or minimum cyclic stress. This process is primarily controlled by the maximum load or stress ratio. R. and some measure of cyclic stress range. ∆a/∆N.13. Significant structural life exists during cyclic loading and crack growth.MIL-HDBK-5H.13. and temperature. ∆a/∆N = g(∆K. such as environment and loading frequency.4. R).1 Fatigue Crack Growth — Fatigue crack growth is manifested as the growth or extension of a crack under cyclic loading. Smin).. environment.3(a) may be simplified to da/dN .1(a). Such data are presented as crack growth curves as shown in Figure 1. ∆K. Since the crack growth curve is dependent on initial crack length and the loading conditions.13. .13. [1. temperature.13. fatigue crack growth rate behavior is evaluated as a function of the applied stress intensity factor range. the existence of a crack does not necessarily imply imminent failure. Each curve represents a specific stress ratio.

MIL-HDBK-5H.4. Fatigue crack-growth curve. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Figure 1. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-22 .4.13. Fatigue crack-growth-rate curve.1(b).13.1(a). Figure 1.

3. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Figure 1.13. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-23 .4. Sample display of fatigue crack growth rate data.MIL-HDBK-5H.

such as combined bending and compression or tension.5. Any extension of this theory to cover conditions of final rupture must be based on evidence supported by the user. it is necessary to refer to some theory of failure.1 Direct Tension or Compression — This type of failureis associated with ultimate tensile or compressive stress of the material.2. where failure is not due to buckling or instability. It is customary to determine stresses for members subjected to shear in the form of shear stresses although they are actually indirect measures of the stresses actually causing failure. and environment. See Section 1.2.6 Failure from Combined Stresses — Under combined stress conditions. Consideration should be given to the effect of stress concentrations.5. some ductility data are provided in the Handbook to assist in material selections.5. The maximum bearing stress may not be applicable to cases in which one of the connecting members is relatively thin.5. it can only apply to members having large cross sectional dimensions relative to their lengths. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1. Such simplistic structural design is not always possible.2.MIL-HDBK-5H.5. Section 1. Reference 1. holes. generally members subjected to shear loads fail under the action of the resulting normal stress. it represents an actual stress. Failure of this type depends on the relative size and shape of the two connecting parts. The “maximum shear” theory is widely accepted as a working basis in the case of isotropic ductile materials. 1. a pure shear failure can result.2.5.5.4 provides methodology by which actual bending stresses above the material proportional limit can be used to establish maximum stress conditions.2. When available. or progressive rapid yielding in the direction of load application. This condition is approached in the case of rivets and bolts.3 Bearing — Failure of a material in bearing can consist of crushing. references are cited for specific data in various chapters of the Handbook.1. rate of loading. When the computed bending modulus of rupture is found to be lower than the proportional limit strength.11 contains a more complete discussion of biaxial behavior. The bending modulus of rupture (fb) is determined by Equation 1. The ductility of a material has a significant effect on the ability of a part to withstand loading and delay fracture. 1.2. This is important when considering complex stress states. The following paragraphs discuss the relationship between failure and the applied or induced stresses.3. 1. 1. For compression.5. Otherwise. In cases where ultimate shear stress is relatively low. failure will usually indicate fracture of a member or the condition of a member when it has attained maximum load. 1. a bending failure can be classed as either a tensile or compressive failure.3.2 MATERIAL FAILURES — Fracture can occur in either ductile or brittle fashions in the same material depending on the state of stress. usually the compressive stress.3.3. Failure of tubes in torsion are not caused by exceeding the shear ultimate stress. tearing.6(a) through (c) offer additional information. Actual bending stresses are related to the bending modulus of rupture. But. It should be noted that this theory defines failure as the first yielding of a material.4.3.2. or other stress concentrations.5. 1. Although not a specific design property for ductile materials.5 TYPES OF FAILURES 1.4 Bending — For sections not subject to geometric instability. The failure of brittle materials under combined stresses is generally treated by the “maximum stress” theory.4.5.1 GENERAL — In the following discussion.2 Shear — Pure shear failures are usually obtained when the shear load is transmitted over a very short length of a member. References 1. and is not considered as an actual material strength. splitting.2.5.2. but by exceeding a normal compressive stress which causes the tube to buckle. See Equation 1.5 Failure Due to Stress Concentrations — Static stress properties represent pristine materials without notches. 1. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-24 . it represents an apparent stress.

Documents cited therein are the same as those listed in References 3. 1.5.3 INSTABILITY FAILURES — Practically all structural members.2. but largely depends upon geometry.1. Since the amount of available information is limited. the failure criterion is the modulus of rupture. Due to the various design philosophies and analytical techniques used throughout the aerospace industry. This latter type of primary failure is particularly common to columns having unsymmetrical open sections.2.4 Failure Under Combined Loadings — For combined loading conditions in which failure is caused by buckling or instability. Instability failures can occur in either the elastic range below the proportional limit or in the plastic range.3.3. Equation 1. by local wrinkling of thin outstanding flanges.3. the failure of a tube loaded in compression can occur either through lateral deflection of the tube acting as a column (primary instability) or by collapse of the tube walls at stresses lower than those required to produce a general column failure. is applicable.3.1(b). 1. It is necessary to consider all types of potential failures unless it apparent that the critical load for one type is definitely the controlling condition.3. These two conditions are distinguished by referring to either “elastic instability” or “plastic instability” failures.2.5. In general.20. 1.2 Instability Failures Under Bending — Round tubes when subjected to bending are subject to plastic instability failures. The twisting failure of a closed section column is precluded by its inherently high torsional rigidity.2. the modulus of rupture in torsion is derived through the use of Equation 1. End fixities tend to modify the effective column length as Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-25 . it is advisable to conduct tests on all columns subject to this type of failure.1 Instability Failures Under Compression — Failures of this type are discussed in Section 1.2 PRIMARY INSTABILITY FAILURES — A column can fail through primary instability by bending laterally (stable sections) or by twisting about some axis parallel to its own axis.8. See Reference 1.3. are subject to failure due to instability.5.7. Actual strengths of columns of various materials are provided in subsequent chapters.MIL-HDBK-5H.5.3. Similarly.5. instability can be classed as (1) primary or (2) local. particularly those made from thin material. an I-beam or other formed shape can fail by a general sidewise deflection of the compression flange.2.2(a) through (e). no theory exists for general application. Elastic instability failures of thin walled tubes having high D/t ratios are treated in later sections.3 Instability Failures Under Torsion — The remarks given in the preceding section apply in a similar manner to round tubes under torsional loading.3.1 Columns with Stable Sections — The Euler formula for columns which fail by lateral bending is given by Equation 1. Some of the problems which are not well defined by theory are discussed in this section. 1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1. For example. 1.6. which was derived from theory and confirmed empirically with test data.6.3. methods for computing margin of safety are not within the scope of this Handbook. 1. Values for the restraint coefficient (c) depend on degrees of ends and lateral fixities.8.1 GENERAL — A theoretical treatment of columns can be found in standard texts on the strength of materials. such as beams and columns. 1.6. A conservative approach in using this equation is to replace the elastic modulus (E) by the tangent modulus (Et) given by Equation 1.5. Neither type of failure is associated with a material’s ultimate strength. In such cases. or by torsional instability.6 COLUMNS 1. A method for determining the local stability of aluminum alloy column sections is provided in Reference 1.6 (Columns).3.3. In such cases.6.

diameter.6.3 LOCAL INSTABILITY FAILURES — Columns are subject to failure by local collapse of walls at stresses below the primary failure strength.6. it is necessary to establish curves of transition from local to primary failure.3. combined lateral loads.6.6.3. 1. tests should be designed to cover such conditions.1 Nature of “Short Column Curve” — Test specimens should cover a range of LN/ρ values. torsional instability. sufficient tests should be made to cover the following points.1 Crushing or Crippling Stress (f cc ) — The upper limit of column stress for local failure is defined by either its crushing or crippling stress.2 Column Stress (fco ) — The upper limit of column stress for primary failure is designated as fco. c = 1. or some combination of these dimensions. forms. No buckling of any portion of the cross section occurs.g. 1. this term should not exceed the compression ultimate strength.MIL-HDBK-5H.2. which can combine with primary buckling. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-26 . it is often possible to determine a relationship between crushing or crippling stress and some geometric factor.6. By definition. e. A fixity coefficient of c = 2 corresponds to an effective column length of LN = 0. 1. Loading is applied concentrically along the longitudinal axis of the column. When a family of columns of the same general cross section is used.0 and LN = L.2. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 indicated in Equation 1. Examples are wall thickness. When columns are to be attached eccentrically in structural application. Fewer data are available for other cross sectional configurations and testing is suggested to establish specific information.1. Local buckling. The strengths of round tubes have been thoroughly investigated and considerable amounts of test results are available throughout literature. MIL-HDBK-5 provides typical stress versus tangent modulus diagrams for many materials.8.2 Local Failure — When local failure occurs.6.2. For a pin-ended column having no end restraint. as maximum load carrying capabilities are affected by locations of load and reaction points. This is important particularly in the case of open sections.6. width. leads to an instability failure commonly identified as crippling. and grain directions. In determining these column curves.707 times the total length. the curve of transition from local to primary failure.4 CORRECTION OF COLUMN TEST RESULTS — In the case of columns having unconventional cross sections which are subject to local instability. 1.4.4.3 Other Considerations — Methods of analysis by which column failure stresses can be computed.. 1. regardless of how the latter term is defined.6. Extrapolation of such data to conditions beyond test geometry extremes should be avoided. load eccentricity. The tangent modulus equation takes into account plasticity of a material and is valid when the following conditions are met: (a) (b) (c) (d) The column adjusts itself to forcible shortening only by bending and not by twisting. accounting for fixities. Methodology is contained in Chapter 9 for the development of allowable tangent modulus curves.3(a) through (d). The cross section of the column is constant along its entire length. 1. 1. or varying column sections are contained in References 1. The buckling analysis of a column subject to local instability requires consideration of the shape of the column cross section and can be quite complex. These information are not intended for design purposes. the crushing or crippling stress can be determined by extending the short column curve to a point corresponding to a zero value for LN/ρ.

This factor may be considered applicable regardless of the type of failure involved. (2) Determine the test material column stress (fcN) from one or more column tests.4). Using the ratio of (FcN / FcyN). applicable to the gage. the Army. If the above method is not feasible. Note that not all the information provided in these figures pertains to allowable stresses.6. (4) Assume Ec and nc from (1) apply directly to the column material.MIL-HDBK-5H. In using Figures 1. At this location.4.4.4. the Navy.6.6. Multiply this value by the ratio of compression-to-tensile yield allowables for the standard material. This value can be an individual test result.3(a) through (i) is acceptable to the Air Force. If neither of the above methods are feasible.6. This value can be an individual test result using a standard compression test specimen.4.4 Reduction of Column Test Results to Standard Material--Alternate Method — For materials that are not covered by Figures 1. is the maximum test column stress achieved in test. column crushing.4.3 Reduction of Column Test Results on Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys to Standard Material — The use of correction factors provided in Figures 1. extend a horizontal line to the ordinate and read the corresponding K-factor. (3) Determine the test material compression yield stress (fcyN) from one or more tests. (Note that an alternate method is provided in Section 1. crippling or twisting.3(a) through (i).. The following terms are used in reducing column test results into allowable column stress: Fcy FcN FcyN is the design compression yield stress of the material in question. i. Note that a letter (F) is used rather than the customary lower case (f).6. the Army.4. it may be assumed that the compressive yield stress allowable for the column is 15 percent greater than minimum established allowable longitudinal tensile yield stress for the material in question. nc. is the compressive yield strength of the column material. Note that a letter (F) is used rather the customary lower case (f). This provides the estimated compression yield stress of the column material. the Navy. (1) Obtain the column material compression properties: Fcy. This factor is then used as a multiplier on the measured column strength to obtain the allowable.6.e. as explained below. Ec. and the Federal Aviation Administration. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1. due to an inability of conducting a standard compression test of the column material. the compression yield stress of the column material may be estimated as follows: Conduct a standard tensile test of the column material and obtain its tensile yield stress. the correction of column test results to standard material is made by multiplying the stress obtained from testing a column specimen by the factor K. and the Federal Aviation Administration for use in reducing aluminum and magnesium alloys column test data into allowables. the following method is acceptable for all materials to the Air Force. enter the appropriate diagram along the abscissa and extend a line upwards to the intersection of a curve with a value of (FcyN / FcyN). Continue with the analysis as described above using the compression stress of a test column in the same manner. They should be the same material. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-27 . The basis for this allowable is the same as that noted for the compression yield stress allowable obtained from the room temperature allowables table. Linear interpolation between curves is permissible. 1.4(a) through (i). temper and grain direction along the longitudinal axis of a test column.

0 1.3 0.5 0.20 1.30 1.8 0.2 F cy' Fcy = Column material compressive yield stress Compressive yield stress (std) F cy' Fcy 1.3 F c' Fcy ' = Maximum test column Stress Column material compressive yield stress Figure 1.15 1.9 1.1 1.05 1.2 1.10 0.9 1.4 0. Nondimensional material correction chart for 2024-T3 sheet.0 1.1 1.05 1.6.7 0. 1.10 0.95 1.95 1.35 0.1 .90 K = Correction Factor .MIL-HDBK-5H.8 1.6.0 1.9 1.6 = 0.6 0.1 .35 0.4 0.15 1. 1.20 1.7 0.5 0.8 0.4.0 1.7 0.8 0.4.4(a).00 1.90 K = Correction Factor .30 1.3 F c' F cy' Maximum test column Stress Column material compressive yield stress Figure 1.25 0. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-28 .2 1.00 1.7 0.25 1. . Nondimensional material correction chart for 2024-T3 clad sheet.4(b). Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 .2 Fcy ' Fcy = Column material compressive yield stress Compressive yield stress (std) Fcy' Fcy 1.9 1.3 0.

1 .3 0. Nondimensional material correction chart for 2024-T4 extrusion 1/4 to 1-1/2 inches thick.8 1.95 K = Correction Factor 1.7 0.MIL-HDBK-5H.9 1.3 Fc ' Fcy' = Maximum test column Stress Column material compressive yield stress Figure 1.00 1.3 0.95 K = Correction Factor 1.3 Fc ' Fcy' = Maximum test column Stress Column material compressive yield stress Figure 1.15 1.00 1.5 0. .0 1.4(d).0 1.15 1.1 1.7 0.2 1.9 1.4 0.05 0. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-29 .8 0.4.7 0. 1.6.1 1.20 0.6 0.30 1. Nondimensional material correction chart for 2024-T4 extrusion less than 1/4 inch thick.2 1.35 0. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 .1 .4(c).2 F cy' = Column material compressive yield stress Compressive yield stress (std) Fcy ' Fcy .90 F cy 1.35 0.25 1.30 1.20 0. 1.05 0.0 1.90 1.2 Fcy' Fcy = Column material compressive yield stress Compressive yield stress (std) Fcy' Fcy .6 0.9 1.8 0.10 1.25 1.7 0.9 1.10 1.0 1.8 1.5 0.4.4 0.6.

1 Fcy' F cy .35 0.MIL-HDBK-5H.00 1.7 0.1 1.30 1.2 Fcy' = Column material compressive yield stress Compressive yield stress (std) Fcy' Fcy .8 0.8 1.9 1.20 1.4(e).5 0.3 0.9 1.4 0.7 0.20 0.1 1.0 1.0 1.6.7 0. . 1.0 1.30 1.95 1.05 1.6 0.25 0.3 0.3 Fc ' Fcy ' = Maximum test column Stress Column material compressive yield stress Figure 1.2 F cy' = Column material compressive yield stress Compressive yield stress (std) Fcy 1. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-30 .4 0.95 K = Correction Factor 1.25 1.8 1.6 0.15 1.00 1.2 1.6.7 0.05 0. Nondimensional material correction chart for 2024-T3 tubing.90 Fcy 1.90 K = Correction Factor .2 1.3 Fc ' Fcy' = Maximum test column Stress Column material compressive yield stress Figure 1.4(f).35 0.1 .9 1.10 0. Nondimensional material correction chart for clad 2024-T3 sheet.4.10 1.4.15 1.0 1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 .9 1. 1.8 0.5 0.

4.8 0. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 .7 0.95 1.1 .9 1.0 1.0 .2 F cy' = Column material compressive yield stress Compressive yield stress (std) F cy' Fcy F cy 1.4 0.4(g).6 0. .15 1.6 0.8 0.9 1.90 K = Correction Factor .9 1.3 0.00 1.5 0.8 1.4.30 0.2 Fc ' Fcy' = Maximum test column Stress Column material compressive yield stress Figure 1.25 0.4 0.6. 1.1 K = Correction Factor 1.8 1.35 0.5 0. Nondimensional material correction chart for AZ31B-F and AZ61A-F extrusion.20 1.2 1.05 1. Nondimensional material correction chart for 7075-T6 sheet.30 1.7 0.MIL-HDBK-5H. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-31 .10 0.90 0.0 1. 1.3 0.3 Fc ' Fcy' = Maximum test column Stress Column material compressive yield stress Figure 1.6.7 0.1 1.9 1.2 0.1 1.00 1.7 0.2 Fcy ' = Column material compressive yield stress Compressive yield stress (std) Fcy ' Fcy Fcy 1.20 1.0 1.10 0.4(h).

4(a)] ( Fc / E t ) for design = ( fc '/ E t ') from test (7) Tangent modulus is defined as: [1. (6) Using the conservative form of the basic column formula provided in Equation 1.5 0.8 1.4 0.3. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 . this enables an equality to be written between column test properties and allowables. If ( L'/ ρ ) for design = (L'/ ρ ) of the column test Then [1.6. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H [1.4(b)] E t = df / de (8) Total strain (e) is defined as the sum of elastic and plastic strains.30 0. Nondimensional material correction chart for AZ31B-H24 sheet.20 1.4.6.0 1. (5) Assume that geometry of the test column is the same as that intended for design.6.4.6. 1.4(i).1 K = Correction Factor .7 0.4.4(d)] 1-32 .6 0.6.0 1.2 0.9 1.10 0.8.MIL-HDBK-5H.3 0.1 1.9 1.8 0.4.4(c)] e = eE + ep or. and throughout the Handbook is used as: [1.2 Fcy' = Column material compressive yield stress Compressive yield stress (std) Fcy' F cy Fcy 1.90 1.7 0.1. This means that a critical slenderness ratio value of (LN/ρ) applies to both cases.4.2 Fc' = Maximum test column Stress Column material compressive yield stress Fcy' Figure 1.00 0.

MIL-HDBK-5H. using its compression allowables is: Et = Fc æ F ö Fc + 0.6.4(c) above is not valid.6.4. tangent modulus for the same material with the desired column configuration is: Et '= fc ' æ f 'ö fc ' + 0.6.002 n c ç c ÷ çF ÷ Ec è cy ø nc æ f 'ö f ' = c + 0. This method is also applicable at other than room temperature.4. having made adjustments for the effect of temperature on each of the properties. for the material in question.6.6. 1.4(b) and simplifying provides the following relationship: æF ö Fc + 0.4(i)] The only unknown in the above equation is the term Fc .4.4. the allowable column compression stress.6.6.4. Equation 1. Otherwise.4.7 THIN -WALLED AND STIFFENED THIN -WALLED SECTIONS A bibliography of information on thin-walled and stiffened thin-walled sections is contained in References 1.4(h) for their respective terms in Equation 1.4(f)] Tangent modulus. Equation 1.7(a) and (b).002 n c ç c ÷ ç f '÷ Ec è cy ø nc [1.002ç ÷ çf ÷ E è yø So. the assumption made in Equation 1.4.4.4. Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-33 .4(i) must account for such differences in moduli and shape factors when applicable.6.4(g)] In like manner.4(e)] Et = f æ fö f + 0.6.6. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 æfö f e = + 0.4(c) can be rewritten as follows: n [1.4.4(h)] Substitution of Equations 1.002 n c ç c ÷ ç f '÷ Ec è cy ø nc [1.4.6. It is critical that the test material be the same in all respects as that for which allowables are selected from the Handbook.4(g) and 1. This property can be solved by an iterative process.002nç ÷ çf ÷ E è yø n [1.002 n c ç c ÷ çF ÷ Ec è cy ø nc [1.

W.9(a) 1. “Poisson’s Ratio of Aircraft Sheet Materials for Large Strain. “An Evaluation of Compression-Testing Techniques for Determining Elevated Temperature Properties of Titanium Sheet.1 1. “Fatigue of Aircraft Structures.2. Hyler.5(b) 1. A Division of John Wiley and Sons. “Test Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic Materials. “Recommended Practice for Constant-Amplitude Low-Cycle Fatigue Testing..” ASTM E 139. E. Osgood. W. Department of the Navy. Battelle Memorial Institute. Stickley.. Rice. “Mechanical Properties of Aerospace Structural Alloys Under Biaxial-Stress Conditions.4.1(a) 1.M. and Stress-Rupture Tests of Metallic Materials. and Back.9.” Materials Research and Standards.. 523 pp (1970).5(a) Goodman. 38 pp.” WADC-TR-53-7.12.7(b) 1.2(a) 1. Air Force. and Hyler.8.4.1(b) 1..W. and Tuttle.2. Ramberg.4.” Prepared for Naval Air Systems Command. A. W.” AFML-TR-66-229. “Test Method for Measurements of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates. Bert.2(a) 1.. and Russell.4.” Titanium Metallurgical Laboratory Report No. “Method of Pin-Type Bearing Test of Metallic Materials.” ASTM E 647.. (August 1966). 2.4.2(b) 1. 601.13.4..2. G. Aarnes. “Torsion Tests of Tubes.. “Compression Testing of Metallic Materials at Room Temperature.W. “Effects of Lubrication and Pin Surface on Bearing Strengths of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys.4. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 REFERENCES 1.4.9.8.” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.” ASTM E 238.1(c) 1.C.H. “Standard Method of Test for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials.4. Report No.4.J.11 1.” AFWAL-TR-81-4097 (September 1981).4.4. U. G.” ASTM E 606.3.1 Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-34 . C.B. C. H. 1. A. Mills. M. “Recommended Practice for Conducting Creep. pp 747-751 (September 1962).” Wiley-Interscience.4. and Moore.” ASTM E 9. “Recommended Practice for Constant Amplitude Axial Fatigue Tests of Metallic Materials.9(b) 1.S. S.4. 1956).A.. Creep-Rupture..4.4. Appendix 28 pp (June 8.S. 43. pp 515-535 (Feb.4 1.” ASD Technical Report 61-216 (June 1961) (MCIC 45114).N.” ASTM E 8.MIL-HDBK-5H. “Fatigue Design. 335 pp (1966). Stange.” ASTM E 466. 58 pp (June1953). Grover. M. (9).” ASTM E 399. “Presentation of Creep Data for Design Purposes. Inc.S.8. 1937).. “Reference Document for the Analysis of Creep and Stress Rupture Data in MILHDBK-5.7(a) 1. S. Richard.6 1.J.4.

p. 12.N. Inc. 1.” Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences.6.5. New York. “Brittle Behavior of Engineering Structures. Third Edition. New York. “The Inelastic Behavior of Engineering Materials and Structures. Technical Note No. “Mechanical Metallurgy.2. Aluminum Research Laboratories.S.. 8 pp (1955). 3783.. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 1..R. Freudenthal. 72 pp (July 1957). 479. Gerard.2. G.” U. 102 pp (July 1957).2 1.C. H.5.6.S. Nos. J. John Wiley and Sons (1943).2.S..” John Wiley and Sons..” Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory..3.E. Inc. P.W. 7E29.MIL-HDBK-5H. 17 pp (December 1933).. 107.5. Lundquist.S. (1943). “Bending Strength in the Plastic Range. 10th Sagamore Conference. 89 pp (August 1957). Index No. 40 pp (June 1947).6(c) 1...” George C.2.. 10.” McGraw-Hill Book Company. J. Dieter. Niles.” 2.” John Wiley and Sons.6(a) 1. Marshall Space Flight Center (August 15. A.3(a) 1. 3782.5. H.P. “Index of Aircraft Structures Research Reports. “Straight-Line Column Formulas for Aluminum Alloys. and 3785. “Handbook of Structural Stability. Jr.3(b) 1. A. “Stress Analysis Manual.13. Cozzone.3(c) 1..M. 615 pp (1961).. E. 154 pp (August 1957).4.6. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (February 1970).6(b) 1.” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical Note. “Astronautic Structure Manual. AFFDL-TR-69-42.E. Syracuse University Press (1965).” Proc.” U. F.3(d) 1.. and Becker. and Newell. Parker. Technical Paper No. Inc. “Strength Tests of Thin-Walled Duralumin Cylinders in Pure Bending. 3781.2. 93 pp (August 1957).7(a) 1.2. E. 323 pp (1957).” Aluminum Company of America. 587 pp (1950).2.. and Clark. Air Force Systems Command.3 Paris. Hill. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.7(b) Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-35 .4 1. 1970).5. “Airplane Structure. pp 137-151.2. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.6. 3784. “The Fracture Mechanics Approach to Fatigue.

Documents ordered must appear in the DoD Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) or DODISS Notice. PA 19111-5094 6. Non Government Standardization Documents will not be furnished to commercial concerns. Questions concerning documents not listed in the Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) or DODISS Notice should be directed to: NPFC Attn: Code 105. Eastern Standard Time. And completing and reviewing the collection of information. Directorate for Information Operations and Reports. Requests for Official Use Documents or documents without Distribution Statement “A” must be submitted via cognizant DoD Inspection Officer or Contract Administrator for certification of “need to know.” 7. CLOSING DATE (YYMMDD) (IFB. gathering and maintaining the data needed. YOUR ADDRESS (Print or Type) ! ! G IF YOUR ADDRESS HAS CHANGED. and 8 p. ATTENTION: DOCUMENTS REQUESTED STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT NUMBER b. APR 90 Previous editions are obsolete Supersedes Chapter 1 of Revision H 1-37 . 1991 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 30 minutes per response. Further information may be obtained from NPFC “Guide to Private Industry. VA 22202-4302.” Order as GUIDE-1. 0704-0230 Expires Dec 31. Copies may be purchased from the appropriate Non Government Standards Body. Section D Philadelphia. 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway. If you have a customer number. use the Telephone Order Entry System (TOES) for telephone orders: (215) 697-1187 between the hours of 8 a. Please DO NOT RETURN your form to either of these addresses. DATE SIGNED (YYMMDD) 7. searching existing data sources.m. Requests submitted on this form will speed service. Arlington. CUSTOMER NUMBER (Mandatory for Repeat Orders to expedite requests). QUANTITY (Restricted to 5) c. TITLE (From DoD Index of Specifications and Standards) INSTRUCTIONS 1. 2. Telephone: (215) 697-2667 or (215) 697-2179. Monday through Friday. Suite 1204. Send your completed form to address in item 9 of instructions. FORWARD REQUEST TO: Standardization Document Order Desk 700 Robbins Avenue Building #4. 5. 6. CAGE (formerly FSCM). Reorder forms will be enclosed with each shipment. SIGNATURE OF REQUESTER DD Form 1425. OR UIC NUMBER 2. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information. and to the Office of Management and Budget. 8. It will expedite your order. Enter your customer number. 4. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS REQUISITION Form Approved OMB No. or RFP) 0102-LF-009 4. Washington. X THIS BLOCK ! ! 3.m. 1. 9. PRINT OR TYPE ALL INFORMATION. or UIC number at the top of this form. 5. including suggestions for reducing this burden.MIL-HDBK-5H. a. RFQ. Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0230). DC 20503. to Washington Headquarters Services. including the time of reviewing instructions. CAGE CODE. See “Guide to Private Industry” for details. 3.

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6.2 2.5.1 ALLOY INDEX — The steel alloys listed in this chapter are arranged in major sections that identify broad classifications of steel partly associated with major alloying elements.2 2.1 2.3.2 2.1.5.7.5 2.8.1.1 GENERAL The selection of the proper grade of steel for a specific application is based on material properties and on manufacturing.5 2.6. and economic considerations.20C 9Ni-4Co-0.1 Alloy Designation Carbon steels AISI 1025 Low-alloy steels (AISI and proprietary grades) Specific alloys Intermediate alloy steels 5Cr-Mo-V 9Ni-4Co-0. environmental.6 2.7 2.6.6.4 2.3 2. Some of these considerations are outlined in the sections that follow. 2.1.7.6.1 2.6.2 through 2.6. and consistent generally with steel-making technology.7 2.1. Steel Alloy Index Section 2. Specific alloys are identified as shown in Table 2.6. partly associated with processing. Element properties are presented in Section 2. General comments on engineering properties and other considerations related to alloy selection are presented in Section 2.8 2.6 2.6.30C High alloy steels 18 Ni maraging steels AF1410 AerMet 100 Precipitation and transformation hardening steel (stainless) AM-350 AM-355 Custom 450 Custom 455 PH13-8Mo 15-5PH PH15-7Mo 17-4PH 17-7PH Austenitic stainless steels AISI Type 301 2-1 . 2.3 2.2 2. Table 2.1.4.3 2.4.1 2.3 2.2.1 2.4.1 2. Mechanical and physical property data and characteristics pertinent to specific steel groups or individual steels are reported in Sections 2.9 2.5.1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 CHAPTER 2 STEEL This chapter contains the engineering properties and related characteristics of steels used in aircraft and missile structural applications.4 2.

and austempering. Heat treating is the principal method for strengthening the remainder of the steels (the low-carbon steels and the austenitic steels cannot be strengthened by heat treatment). The maximum hardness of carbon and alloy steels. and cooling at a recommended rate.1. These are commonly supplied to specified minimum strength levels. particularly the carbon content. For example. The purpose of austempering is to obtain increased ductility or notch toughness at high hardness levels. is a function in general of the alloy content. Compression. 2. specific details are presented for individual steels elsewhere in this chapter. Cold working is the method used to strengthen both the low-carbon unalloyed steels and the highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels. or to decrease the likelihood of cracking and distortion that might occur in conventional quenching and tempering. Likewise.1.2. depending on the chemical composition of the specific steel. or “austenitizing”.2. The variations in strength properties with temperature are presented 2-2 . Since both the martensitic hardening and the age-hardening treatments are relatively complex. age hardening. Only moderately high strength levels can be attained in the former. Annealing is achieved by heating the steel to an appropriate temperature. ferrous steels are austenitized. special combinations of working and heat treating have been employed to further enhance the mechanical properties of certain steels. allowed to transform isothermally at that temperature to a completely bainitic structure. often by quenching in oil or water.1 Mechanical Properties — 2.1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 2. quenched rapidly to avoid the nose of the isothermal transformation curve.1. This heat treatment is designed to dissolve certain constituents in the steel. At the present time.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES — One of the major factors contributing to the general utility of steels is the wide range of mechanical properties which can be obtained by heat treatment. Bearing) —The strength properties presented are those used in structural design. which consists of reheating to an intermediate temperature to relieve internal stresses and to improve toughness.Shear. quenched rapidly to avoid transformation of the austenite to a temperature below the pearlite and above the martensite formation ranges. A relatively new class of steels is strengthened by age hardening. softness and good ductility may be required during fabrication of a part and very high strength during its service life. steels can be hardened or strengthened by means of cold working. Both the maximum thickness for complete hardening or the depth to which an alloy will harden under specific cooling conditions. then precipitate them in some preferred particle size and distribution. holding. or a combination of these. and finally cooled to room temperature. and the distribution of hardness can be used as a measure of a material’s hardenability. but the latter can be cold rolled to quite high strength levels. In this process. The room-temperature properties are shown in tables following the comments for individual steels. Both sets of properties are obtainable in the same material. Another method of heat treatment for steels is austempering. heat treating. or “tempers”.1 Strength (Tension. then cooling it at the proper rate. The heat treatment of steel may be of three types: martensitic hardening. Recently. the use of these specialized treatments is not widespread. This is followed by “tempering”. All steels can be softened to a greater or lesser degree by annealing. Carbon and alloy steels are martensitic-hardened by heating to a high temperature.

2.1. The strength of steels is temperature-dependent. reduction of area. when processed to obtain high strength. it appears to be strain rate-sensitive at elevated temperatures because of creep during loading. In addition. metallurgical effects from heat treatment. elongation.4 Stress-Strain Relationships — The stress-strain relationships presented in this chapter are prepared as described in Section 9.1. or when tempered or aged within certain critical temperature ranges. also described in Section 9. However. on loading or unloading at high rates of strain. requirements should be discussed with the steel supplier and properties in critical locations should be substantiated by appropriate testing 2. Such anisotropy is independent of the depth-of-hardening considerations discussed elsewhere.3. Steel bars.1.2 Elongation — The elongation values presented in this chapter apply in both the longitudinal and long transverse directions. It is generally noted that the fracture toughness of a given alloy product decreases relative to increase in the yield strength. particularly at temperatures at which creep occurs.12.1. unless otherwise noted. decreasing with increasing temperature. forgings. It can be minimized by careful control of melting practices (including degassing and vacuum-arc remelting) and of hot-working practices. These values are presented as indicative information and do not have the statistical reliability of room-temperature mechanical properties. may become more sensitive to the presence of small flaws. average. toughness.1.1.1. Thus. 2. when measured by the slope of the stress-strain curve. Data showing the effect of temperature are presented in the respective alloy sections where the information is available. The modulus of elasticity is also temperature-dependent and. exhibit variations in mechanical properties with location and direction.5 Fatigue — Axial-load fatigue data on unnotched and notched specimens of various steels at room temperature and at other temperatures are shown as S/N curves in the appropriate section.3. In applications where transverse properties are critical. 2. The designer is cautioned that the propensity for brittle fracture must be considered in the application of high-strength alloys for the purpose of increased structural efficiency. 2.1. Elongation in the short transverse (thickness) direction may be lower than the values shown. This lower ductility and/or toughness results both from the fibering caused by the metal flow and from nonmetallic inclusions which tend to be aligned with the direction of primary flow.3 Fracture Toughness — Steels (as well as certain other metals). both yield and ultimate strengths decrease.2. surface finishing procedures.2. Minimum. the usefulness of high-strength steels for certain applications is largely dependent on their toughness. the modulus approaches the value measured by dynamic techniques. and maximum values.4. as discussed in Section 1. steels are strain rate-sensitive above about 600 to 800F.2. These strength properties may be reduced appreciably by prolonged exposure at elevated temperatures.2. Surface finish. Specific details on these conditions are presented as correlative information for the S/N curve. In particular.1 and associated subsections. and thick plates.1. and notched strength are likely to be lower in either of the transverse directions than in the longitudinal direction. especially when heat treated to high strength levels. At lower strain rates. 2-3 .1.3. are presented in Table 2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 graphically as percentages of the corresponding room-temperature strength property. as well as coefficient of variation of plane-strain fracture toughness for several steel alloys.2. environment and other factors influence fatigue behavior. billets.

8-1.5 Alloy D6AC Heat Treat Condition 1650F. Temp H1000 Product Form Plate Orientationb L-T Sample Size 19 D6AC Plate L-T 217 0.0-2.5 1 53 0.0 1. AC.20C 9Ni-4Co-. OQ.0 147 147 129 134 107 120 8.8-1. Aus-Bay Quench 975F. 1525F.5 1 34 0.0-8.2.3 8.8-1. inches 1.3.5 Forging L-T 205-212 4.Table 2. 1000F 2 + 2 Quench and Temper 1650F.1. OQ 140F.0 3.12.8 1 103 0.5 1 30 0. b Refer to Figure 1. ksi 217 Product Thickness Range.7 Hand Forging Forging L-T L-T 185-192 186-192 3.4.6-0. 1000F 2 + 2 1700F.1.0-4.9 D6AC Forging L-T 214 0. SQ 375F.5-2. OQ 140F. Values of Room Temperature Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Steel Alloys a  Yield Strength Range. Aus-Bay Quench 975F. 62 Min.7-2.3 for definition of symbols. inches 0.6 KIC.6-0.8 96 66 39 18.7 109 95 81 6. 40 Coefficient of Variation 22. SQ 400F. Aus-Bay Quench 975F.8 92 64 44 18. ksi in. 88 Avg. Max.6-0. 1-2 Hr.0 2 3 27 17 1.20C PH13-8Mo Forging L-T 214 0. SQ 400F.6 D6AC Plate L-T 217 0.5 Number of Sources 1 Specimen Thickness Range.8 101 92 64 8.5 a These values are for information only. 1000F 2 + 2 1700F.0 104 90 49 21.9 2-4 D6AC 9Ni-4Co-. Aus-Bay Quench 975F. 1-2 Hr. Aus-Bay Quench 975F.0 3 12 0. 1000F 2 + 2 1650F. 1000F 2 + 2 1650F. . -100F.

special consideration should be given to the removal of hydrogen by suitable baking. In general. without surface protection. platings.1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 2. 2. K. Fracture toughness of high-strength steels and the growth of cracks by fatigue may be detrimentally influenced by humid air and by the presence of water or saline solutions. It should be noted that there are available a number of heat-resistant paints. atmosphere. 2-5 . In employing electrolytic platings. these comments apply to steels in their usual finished surface condition.1. and other surface coatings that are employed either to improve oxidation resistance at elevated temperature or to afford protection against corrosion by specific media. and ) of steels may be considered to apply to all forms and heat treatments unless otherwise indicated. temperature. Failure to do so may result in lowered fracture toughness or embrittlement. and corrosive media are reported for various steels. C.3 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS— The effects of exposure to environments such as stress.2.2 Physical Properties — The physical properties (. Some alleviation may be achieved by heat treatment and all high-strength steels are not similarly affected.

added to improve machinability.15 to 0. As the carbon content is increased. Many carbon steels are embrittled by warm working or prolonged exposure in the temperature range from 300 to 700F. colddrawn. 2.30 to 0.35 percent lead.50 percent C) grades are best machined in the annealed condition. by the content of the residual elements. normalized.0 COMMENTS ON CARBON STEELS 2. resulfurized and leaded steels are not generally recommended for highly stressed aircraft and missile parts because of a drastic reduction in transverse properties. where surface carbon content is critical. Machining — The low-carbon grades (0. 2-6 . and more frequent annealing is required. stress-relieved. The resulfurized grades (free-machining steels) exhibit a tendency to rupture when deformed in certain high-temperature ranges. Furnace brazing has been used successfully with all grades.25 percent C) may be carburized to obtain high surface hardness and wear resistance with a tough core. protective atmospheres must be employed during heat treatment if scaling of the surface cannot be tolerated. cold-rolled. However. the low-carbon grades (up to 0.0.2.1. these steels are subject to decarburization at elevated temperatures and.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 2. Heat Treatment — Due to the poor oxidation resistance of carbon steels. Welding — The low-carbon grades are readily welded or brazed by all techniques. The finish conditions most generally specified for carbon steels include hot-rolled. Finish machining must often be done in the fully heattreated condition for dimensional accuracy. annealed.2 CARBON STEELS 2.0.1 Metallurgical Considerations — Carbon steels are those steels containing carbon up to about 1 percent and only residual quantities of other elements except those added for deoxidation. the maximum forging temperature is decreased. these steels are soft and ductile and exhibit little or no tendency to work harden. The mediumcarbon grades are also readily weldable but may require preheating and postwelding heat treatment. Preheating and postwelding heat treatment are usually mandatory for the latter. Likewise. Medium-carbon grades show progressively poorer formability with higher carbon content.30 percent C and less) are soft and gummy in the annealed condition and are preferably machined in the cold-worked or the normalized condition. The high-carbon grades require special softening treatments for cold forming. Through cold working or proper choice of heat treatments. to a much lesser extent. should be heated in reducing atmospheres.90 percent C) in the spheroidized condition. these steels can be made to exhibit a wide range of strength properties. and special care must be taken to avoid overheating. Also.2 Manufacturing Considerations — Forging — All of the carbon steels exhibit excellent forgeability in the austenitic state provided the proper forging temperatures are used. Medium-carbon (0. The strength that carbon steels are capable of achieving is determined by carbon content and.2. In addition. Nearly all carbon steels are now available with 0. spheroidized. and quenched-and-tempered. and high-carbon grades (0. At high temperatures. The resulfurized grades are well known for their good machinability. Close control of forging temperatures is required. The high-carbon grades are difficult to weld. Cold Forming — The very low-carbon grades have excellent cold-forming characteristics when in the annealed or normalized conditions. the higher carbon grades are amenable to selective flame hardening to obtain desired combinations of properties.50 to 0.

2. Table 2. and other applications. However.0(b).2.0(a). Specifications and Properties — Material specifications for AISI 1025 steel are presented in Table 2.1. It is not generally classed as an airframe structural steel. fixtures. including jigs.2. The effect of temperature on thermal expansion is shown in Figure 2.2. The machinability of bar stock is rated next to these sulfurized types of free-machining steels. the carbon steels are usually plated to provide adequate corrosion protection. good surface finish. 2. strip.0. Strength and oxidation-resistance criteria generally preclude the use of carbon steels above 900EF. The room-temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Table 2.2. Reasonably good forming properties are found in AISI 1025. Material Specifications for AISI 1025 Carbon Steel Specification Form ASTM A 108 Bar AMS 5075 Seamless tubing AMS-T-5066a Tubing AMS 5077 Tubing AMS 5046 Sheet.1.0.3(a) and (b). Cautions should be exercised in the application of carbon steels to assure that the transition temperature of the selected alloy is below the service temperature.0(a).MIL-HDBK-5H.0.1. it is available in aircraft quality as well as commercial quality. low torque shafting.2. Manufacturing Considerations — Cold-finished flat-rolled products are supplied principally where maximum strength. Additional information is contained in References 2. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 2.0 Comments and Properties — AISI 1025 is an excellent general purpose steel for the majority of shop requirements.1. This transition temperature varies widely for different carbon steels depending on many factors. The corrosion resistance of carbon steels is relatively poor. clean surfaces rust rapidly in moist atmospheres. Carbon steels may undergo an abrupt transition from ductile to brittle behavior.2.1. but the resulting surface finish is poorer. or close tolerance is desirable.2. For aerospace applications.1 AISI 1025 2. prototype mockups.3 Environmental Considerations — Carbon steels have poor oxidation resistance above about 900 to 1000EF. and plate AMS-S-7952 Sheet and strip a Noncurrent specification Supersedes page 2-7 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-7 . Simple oil film protection is adequate for normal handling.

. . . . .0 0. . . .0) . µ . . Basis .. .. .. . . .... .. . . Ec... . (e/D = 2.. .. 103 ksi . . . . 90 . . . . . . . . . . ksi: L . . . . . . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of AISI 1025 Carbon Steel Specification . 90 . . . . .. . Fcy. .. .. ... . E. . in.0 . ... ....2. . LT . . .. . . . . . 29.. . . .. and plate Annealed . . . .. ksi: L . . . 90 . (e/D = 2. Mechanical Properties: Ftu . LT .. . . . . . . ... . 36 36 .... 36 36 . . . .. S ASTM A 108 Bar All .. . . . . . Fbry. . . Fty. . . Btu/(lb)(·F) . . . Condition .1.. 35 .... .. . .. . . . ksi: (e/D = 1.2. . a Noncurrent specification. . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 2. .... . G.. .. . strip...... . .. .. LT . . . . ..32 0. . .. 36 36 . .5) . . . .. . ..0 29../in. .. . . . K... . .. .. . .. c . . . . .0) . . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . .MIL-HDBK-5H. . á . . Sb 55 55 . . . .. . . .. ..5) . . . . 36 36 . .0 (at 32·F) See Figure 2. . . ... . ksi . .. .. . ksi: (e/D = 1. . C.116 (122 to 212·F) 30. .. S AMS 5075. Physical Properties: ù . . .0(b).. . . . . . . .. ... . . . Fsu . . ST . . . .... . . . .. . .284 0. AMS 5077 and AMS-T-5066a Tubing Normalized . c 55 55 55 36 36 36 36 36 36 35 ... . . .0 11.3 . .. ..... . . ... ST . . . . . . ST . Supersedes page 2-8 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-8 . 35 .. . .. . . . . . Form . 103 ksi . . .. . Thickness. . . . . . . 10-6 in. . ... . . . Btu/[(hr)(ft2 )(·F)/ft] .. c 55 55 . . . . . . . .... .1.D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . .. .. . . .... . . ./·F .. .. . lb/in. .. . . . LT .. ... . ksi: L .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . AMS 5046 and MIL-S-7952 Sheet. . . . .. . . 103 ksi . . . . .... ... e. .. Fbru .. percent: L . . .

10-6 in. F Figure 2.1. ./in./F 8 7 6 5 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Temperature.2.Between 70 F and indicated temperature α. 2-9 .0 Effect of temperature on the thermal expansion of 1025 steel.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 9 α.

The latter operation. They are generally heat treated before use to develop the desired properties. If the composition and strength level are such that the 2-10 . As a consequence. However. proper feeds. These steels are available in a variety of finish conditions. Machining — The alloy steels are generally harder than unalloyed steels of the same carbon content. or toughness. then heat treated to produce a combination of high surface hardness and good core toughness. gears. depth of hardening. up to about 1 percent (up to 0. Cold Forming — The alloy steels are usually formed in the annealed condition. The first two digits indicate the alloy group and the last two the approximate carbon content in hundredths of a percent. It is usually desirable to finish machine the carburizing and through-hardening grades in the final heat-treated condition for better dimensional accuracy. The alloying additions in these steels may provide deeper hardening. but not necessarily strength. because of drastic reductions in transverse properties.0 COMMENTS ON LOW-ALLOY STEELS (AISI AND PROPRIETARY GRADES) 2. Little cold forming is done on these steels in the heat-treated condition because of their high strength and limited ductility. are required. The alloying elements used in these steels include manganese. and other parts requiring high strength. speeds. through hardening. At higher carbon levels. However. Generally. molybdenum.1 Metallurgical Considerations — The AISI or SAE alloy steels contain. nickel. Some alloy steels are identified by the AISI four-digit system of numbers. and often postwelding stress relieving. Certain alloy steels can be welded without loss of strength in the heat-affected zone provided that the welding heat input is carefully controlled. high-speed steel cutting tools. Alloy welding rods comparable in strength to the base metal are used.3 LOW-ALLOY STEELS (AISI GRADES AND PROPRIETARY GRADES) 2. and slower cooling rates are also required for alloy steels. maximum recommended forging temperatures are generally about 50F lower than for carbon steels of the same carbon content. Other steels in this section are proprietary steels which may be modifications of the AISI grades. well-designed. after heat treatment.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 2.3. Welding — The low-carbon grades are readily welded or brazed by all techniques. and boron.2 Manufacturing Conditions — Forging — The alloy steels are only slightly more difficult to forge than carbon steels. alloy steels have better strength-to-weight ratios than carbon steels and are somewhat higher in cost on a weight. vanadium. This often leads to two steps in machining: rough machining in the annealed or hot-finished condition. and moderate preheating (200 to 600F) is usually necessary. Medium. silicon. Many of the alloy steels are available with added sulfur or lead for improved machinability. ranging from hot. Their applications in airframes include landing-gear components. higher strength and toughness. chromium. in addition to carbon. and a generous supply of coolant.and high-carbon grades are usually spheroidized for optimum machinability and.0. Slower heating rates. may be finished by grinding. resulfurized and leaded steels are not recommended for highly stressed aircraft and missile parts. Their formability depends mainly on the carbon content and is generally slightly poorer than for unalloyed steels of the same carbon content. basis. then finish machining after heat treating. toughness. higher preheating temperatures.2. the low-carbon alloy steels are somewhat easier to finish machine than their counterparts in the carbon steels. necessitates the use of sharp. or other properties of interest. 2.5 percent for most airframe applications) additions of various alloying elements to improve their strength. shafts.or cold-rolled to quenched-and-tempered. because of the relatively high hardness of the material. shorter soaking period.0.3. Some steels in this group are carburized.

is used to produce the highest mechanical properties while providing relatively high toughness. heat treatment. Annealing generally softens the material. and quenched and tempered.2. In general.0. producing the lowest mechanical properties. and AMS specifications do not always contain minimum mechanical property values (S-basis). Limiting dimensions for common shapes other than round are determined by means of the “equivalent round” concept in Figure 2. it can be used to increase or decrease mechanical properties. tempering temperatures to achieve very high strength should be avoided when toughness is an important consideration. the MIL.3. Because of the potential for several different processing methods for these three conditions.2. The specific details of these three thermal processing conditions are reviewed in Reference 2. S) for these values are indicated in Tables 2. Within this chapter. Federal.3. their toughness is improved.3. For the quenched and tempered condition.1.0. The normalized condition is achieved by holding to a slightly higher temperature than annealing.0 (h1) and (h2). Heat Treatment — For the low alloy steels. normalized. Therefore. the annealed condition is achieved by heating to a suitable temperature and holding for a specified period of time. and (h). The quenched and tempered condition. The purpose of normalizing varies depending on the desired properties.0(c). The mechanical properties for these three processing conditions for specific steels are as shown in Tables 2. the properties of a steel can be tailored to meet the needs for a specific component/application. The mechanical properties presented in this chapter represent steels heat treated to produce a quenched structure containing 90 percent martensite at the center and tempered to the desired Ftu level. discussed in more detail below. Users must rely on their own in-house specifications or appropriate industry specifications to validate that the required strength was achieved.2. The maximum diameter of round bars of various alloy steels capable of being through hardened consistently are given in Table 2. They may contain minimum mechanical property values for one specific quenched and tempered condition. there are mechanical properties for three thermal processing conditions: annealed. Those specifications cited in this Handbook that do not contain mechanical properties are identified with a footnote in Tables 2. there are a large range of mechanical properties that can be obtained for a specific alloy. In general.0 (h1) and (h2).3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 strength of the welded joint is reduced.0.3.1. Therefore.1. This concept is essentially a correlation between the significant dimensions of a particular shape and the diameter of a round bar. assuming in each instance that the material.3. 2-11 . but toughness and ductility in this condition are comparatively low.2 are presented in Tables 2.0. By means of tempering. there are various heat treatment procedures that can be applied to a particular alloy to achieve any one of a number of specific mechanical (for example tensile) properties.3. a large range of mechanical property values can be achieved as indicated in Table 2.0. As a result of these processing routes. In addition. and quenched and tempered conditions in Table 2. The possible mechanical properties for these alloys covered in the specifications for the normalized. but for a shorter period of time. and times can be employed allowing any number of processing routes to achieve these values. Strength levels that necessitate tempering within this range should be avoided.3.5. This degree of through hardening is necessary (regardless of strength level) to insure the attainment of reasonably uniform mechanical properties throughout the cross section of the heat-treated part.3.1. the strength of the joint may be restored by heat treatment after welding. Various quench media (rates). and the mechanical properties at the centers of both the respective shape and the equivalent round are substantially the same.2. (f). no statistical basis (A. Maximum hardness in these steels is obtained in the as-quenched condition. B. tempering temperatures.0(a) and (b). these steels may be embrittled by tempering or by prolonged exposure under stress within the “blue brittle” range (approximately 500 to 700F). usually accompanied by a decrease in strength and hardness.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 2.. . e 4330V..3.. AISI 4340c AMS Grades ce 3..... Maximum Round Diameters for Low-Alloy Steel Bars (Through Hardening to at Least 90 Percent Martensite at Center) Diameter of Round or Equivalent Round.8 . ...0 300Mc ... AISI 4130 and 8630 0.. AISI 4340d D6AC b 5.. . in... Any steels in this table may be used at diameters less than those indicated..... .a Ftu. AISI 8740 AISI 8735 4135 and 8740 1..0.2.7 ..5 . .. and Hy-Tuf.0 .. . d Quenched in water at a flow rate of 200 feet perminute.. 2-12 . AISI 4140 AISI 4140 1.5 . AISI 4340b AMS Grades be 2.5 . ksi 270 & 280 260 220 200 0. c Quenched in oil at a flow rate of 200 feet per minute.. The use of steels at diameters greater than those indicated should be based on hardenability data for specific heats of steel. ... b Quenched in molten salt at desired tempering temperature (“martempering”). D6ACc D6ACc D6ACc AISI 4340b AMS Gradesbe AISI 4340b AMS Gradesbe AISI 4340c AMS Gradesce AISI 4340c AMS Gradesce AISI 4340d AISI 4340d D6ACb 180 a This table indicates the maximum diameters to which these steels may be through hardened consistently by quenching as indicated. 4335V..

0. Correlation between significant dimensions of common shapes other than round.3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Figure 2.2. 2-13 . and the diameters of round bars.

. The limiting temperatures to which each alloy may be exposed for no longer than approximately 1 hour per inch of thickness or approximately one-half hour for thicknesses under one-half inch without a reduction in strength occurring are listed in Table 2. depending on their alloy content and heat treatment. For use at a temperature below -100F. ..0. Elevated-temperature strength for the alloy steels is also higher than that of corresponding carbon steels... These values are approximately 100F below typical tempering temperatures used to achieve the designated strength levels.. . ksi Alloy: AISI 4130 and 8630 AISI 4140 and 8740 AISI 4340 AISI 4135 and 8735 D6AC Hy-Tuf 4330V 4335V 300M 925 1025 1100 975 1150 875 925 975 .. .3..3. 900 450 500 500 . Heat-treated alloy steels may be useful for subzero applications. If the material is exposed to temperatures exceeding those listed.... . .. .. 500 ... The mechanical properties of all alloy steels in the heat-treated condition are affected by extended exposure to temperatures near or above the temperature at which they were tempered.. Temperature Exposure Limits for Low-Alloy Steels Exposure Limit. the steel should be heat treated to a tempered martensitic condition for maximum toughness..3...... . For low temperatures.. .. The corrosion properties of the AISI alloy steels are comparable to the plain carbon steels.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 2.... .. ...0.3 Environmental Considerations — Alloy steels containing chromium or high percentages of silicon have somewhat better oxidation resistance than the carbon or other alloy steels.... 950 550 700 700 . 350 . The decrease in notch toughness is less pronounced and occurs at lower temperatures.0. . This transition temperature varies widely for different alloys. Low-alloy steels may undergo a transition from ductile to brittle behavior at low temperatures. Heat-treated alloy steels have better notch toughness than carbon steels at equivalent strength levels. .... .. F Ftu. an alloy with a transition temperature below the service temperature should be selected. . 775 875 950 825 1075 750 850 875 . Table 2.... 575 725 800 675 1000 650 775 775 .... Caution should be exercised in the application of low-alloy steels at temperatures below -100F..3... 2-14 . ... . 475 125 150 180 200 220 260 270 & 280 a Quenched and tempered to Ftu indicated. ...3. 625 700 . .. Heat treating to strength levels higher than 150 ksi Fty may decrease notch toughness... a reduction in strength is likely to occur.

D6AC.3.6(a) through (c).1. Hy-Tuf.5 D6AC Steel Figure 2. plate.9. 2.0 Comments and Properties — AISI 4130 is a chromium-molybdenum steel that is in general use due to its well-established heat-treating practices and processing techniques.0 contains elevated temperature curves for the physical properties of AISI 4130 and AISI 4340 steels.0(g). a slightly higher carbon version of AISI 4130. In addition. 4330V. It is available in all sizes of sheet.1. Best-fit S/N curves for AISI 4340 are presented in Figures 2. Bar stock of this material is also used for small forgings under one-half inch in thickness.3. 4330V. 2.1.1 AISI Low-Alloy Steels — Elevated temperature curves for heat-treated AISI low-alloy steels are presented in Figures 2.3. Mechanical properties for heat-treated materials are valid only for steel heat treated to produce a quenched structure containing 90 percent or more martensite at the center.3.3.3.3.1.4.3.1.3.1.8(a) through (o). The alloys.3. Fatigue-crack-propagation data for 300M are shown in Figure 2. AISI 4135. and 4140.1. The room-temperature mechanical and physical properties for these steels are presented in Tables 2.3. and 8740 are nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels that are considered alternates to AISI 4130.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 2.3.5. Figure 2. These curves are considered valid for each of these steels in each heat-treated condition but only up to the maximum temperatures listed in Table 2.8(a) through (h).3.3.0(a) and (b).3.3. is available in sheet.6(d) through (g).2.1. There are a number of steels available with compositions that represent modifications to the AISI grades described above. It should be noted that this strength level is not used for AISI 4340 due to embrittlement encountered during tempering in the range of 500 to 700F. and tubing.1.0(c) through 2. 4135.1.1. This steel is generally used for structural machined and forged parts one-half inch and over in thickness.4 300M Steel — Best-fit S/N curves for 300M steel are presented in Figures 2. Material specifications for these steels are presented in Tables 2. AISI 4340 and 300M are utilized at strength levels of Ftu = 260 ksi or higher.4. 4335V.3.3.3.8(a) through (d).3. respectively.4. AISI 4140 is a chromium-molybdenum steel that can be heat treated in thicker sections and to higher strength levels than AISI 4130.1. It can be welded but it is more difficult to weld than the lower carbon grade AISI 4130.3.3. are available in the consumable electrode melted grade.3 AISI 4340 Steel — Typical stress-strain and tangent-modulus curves for AISI 4340 are shown in Figures 2.1.3.1(b). plate.1.2 AISI 4130 and 8630 Steels — Typical stress-strain and tangent-modulus curves for AISI 8630 are shown in Figures 2.6(a) through (c). AISI 4340 is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum steel that can be heat treated in thicker sections and to higher strength levels than AISI 4140. and tubing.2.1. and 4335V.3. AISI 8630. and 300M.1.1. 2. — Fatigue-crack-propagation data for D6AC steel are presented in 2-15 . REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. 8735.1.3.1 through 2.0. 2. AISI 4340.1 SPECIFIC ALLOYS 2. Typical biaxial stress-strain curves and yield-stress envelopes for AISI 4340 alloy steel are presented in Figures 2. 2.9. Best-fit S/N curves for AISI 4130 steel are presented in Figures 2.1.1.1. Four of the steels that have been used rather extensively at Ftu = 220 ksi are D6AC.1.

strip. AMS 6349a . b Noncurrent specification.40C) 300M (0..1.0(b). Material Specifications for Air Melted Low-Alloy Steels Form Alloy 4130 Sheet. AMS 6529a AMS-S-5000a .42C) Sheet. AMS 6415a AMS-S-6049b. AMS 6348 .. AMS 6382a . AMS 6435 .1. AMS 6361. strip.. AMS 6350 . a a AMS-S-6050. .. Supersedes page 2-16 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-16 . AMS-T-6735b AMS 6282a AMS 6381a AMS-S-18728.. Material Specifications for Consumable Electrode Melted Low-Alloy Steels Form Alloy 4340 D6AC 4330V Hy-Tuf 4335V 300M (0. AMS 6373... AMS 6320a AMS-S-5626a ... AMS 6362.. AMS 6280a . AMS 6355a 8630 AMS 6352 4135 AMS 6357a 8735 AMS 6395 4140 AMS 6359a 4340 AMS 6358a 8740 . AMS 6365. a Bar and forgings AMS 6414 AMS 6431. and plate AMS 6454 AMS 6439 . AMS 6257 Tubing AMS 6414 AMS 6431 AMS 6411 AMS 6425 AMS 6429 AMS 6417 AMS 6419.3.MIL-HDBK-5H.. AMS 6322a AMS 6427a AMS 6415a AMS 6323a AMS 6427a Table 2. and plate AMS-S-18729. AMS 6374 AMS 6281a AMS 6372a . AMS 6257 a Specification does not contain minimum mechanical properties. AMS 6360..0(a). Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 2. AMS 6327.3. AMS 6439 AMS 6411 AMS 6425 AMS 6429 AMS 6417 AMS 6419. . AMS 6370 . AMS 6351 a a Bars and forgings AMS-S-6758 . AMS 6528a a a a Tubing AMS-T-6736. AMS 6371a . 4330V AMS 6433 4335V AMS 6430 AMS 6430 a Specification does not contain minimum mechanical properties.

.1. . Fsu . . . . . . Fbru . 103 ksi . 200 . Thickness or diameter. .. 190 . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 2. .. 137 . . .. .. . . ksi . . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu . . . . . . . . Basis . . . . .. . . . and tubing AISI 4135 AISI 8630 Specification [see Tables 2. . . . . percent . 146 . . . . 190 .. . .0 a Noncurrent specification. . 190 .1. . K. ksi: (e/D = 1.. . . . . . .0) . b Design values are applicable only to parts for which the indicated Ftu has been substantiated by adequate quality control testing.. .0 29. . . µ . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Air Melted Low-Alloy Steels Alloy . . . . . . . Ec. . . . . .0(c1). . E. . .. . ksi . . . . . .3. ..188 S ·0. .0 11. . . . .1. . (e/D = 2. . .3.. . . .188 S ·0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . lb/in. . 129 .. .1.. . . .188 S >0.. . .. 103 ksi .3 . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . .. .283 See Figure 2. . ... . .. . e. . . . strip. . . . . Fbry. . .. . . . . AISI 4130 AMS 6360 AMS 6373 AMS 6374 AMS-T-6736 AMS-S-18729 Sheet. . .. . . Physical Properties: ù . stress relievedb ·0. . . plate. . . . . . . . . . . . 180 . .3. 120 . . Condition . 103 ksi .MIL-HDBK-5H. . .. . . . . Fcy. . .. Supersedes page 2-17 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-17 .. . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . strip. . . . .. .. .3. . . . ksi . Fty.188 S ·0.. . .. . ksi . .188 S 95 75 75 57 90 70 70 54 100 85 89 60 95 80 84 57 95 75 75 57 90 70 70 54 . . . 129 .. .0(a) and (b)] ..188 S ·0.0 0. . . . . . . AMS 6365 AMS-T-6735a AMS-S-18728 Form .5) . . . . . . . . 200 .5) . . . . . . . . Tubing Sheet.0(d) 29. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . C. . . . ksi: (e/D = 1. . . . ..0) . ... . . . ...32 0. . ..D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .. . . (e/D = 2. . . . . . . . and á . . . . 120 See Table 2. . and plate Normalized and tempered.. . . G. in. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .3 . e. . . . . . C.0(c2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 175 194 251 125 100 109 75 AMS 6361 AMS-T-6736 AISI 4130 AMS 6362 AMS-T-6736 Tubing Quenched and tempereda AMS-T-6736 ·0. . . .. . . . . . ksi . 103 ksi .0) . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 2. . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Air Melted Low-Alloy Steels Alloy . . . .188 S ·0. . Fcy. . . . Fsu . . percent . . . . . . Basis . ksi: (e/D = 1. . . . (e/D = 2. . ksi . . . . . . . .1.. . .0(e) 29. . . ..1. . . 103 ksi . in. . . . Ec. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . ksi . Fbru . Fty. . . K.32 257 284 0. . . . . . . µ . . .1. .0 0. . . . . . Fbry. Form . ..0(a) and (b)] . . . . . . . . . . ksi: (e/D = 1. .. . . ksi . . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . .283 See Figure 2. .5) . . . . . .3. . . Physical Properties: ù . . . . . . . . . . ... Thickness or diameter. .. .188 S All Walls S 150 135 141 90 180 165 173 108 231 285 277 342 210 232 See Table 2. . . .0) . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2. . .. .0 11. . . . . . . 103 ksi . .. . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu . . .. . .0 29. . . . . .1. . . . . . . and á . . . . . . . . . . .3. .0 a Design values are applicable only to parts for which the indicated Ftu has been substantiated by adequate quality control testing. . . . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . Specification [see Tables 2. . Supersedes page 2-18 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-18 .5) . . . . . . . . . . . . E.3. . . .3. . lb/in... . .. . . . .. . . G. . . . . . . . Condition . . . . . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H. .. .

. . . . . . Physical Properties: ù . . .MIL-HDBK-5H. . . . .5) . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0) . ..0(c3). µ .3. . . .. . . .0 0. .. . . ... . . .3. .. . Fcy. . . . . . . ksi: (e/D = 1. .3. . . .. . . . . . . . (e/D = 2. . . . . . . . . and á . .. Fty. . . . . ksi . . .3 . . . . . Fsu . . . . . . .750 S 125 100 109 75 125 103 108 75 125 100 109 75 194 251 192 237 194 251 146 175 160 177 See Table 2. . . lb/in. . 103 ksi . . . . . . . . ksi .32 146 175 0. AISI 8630 AMS-S-6050 AMS-S-6049a AISI 8740 AMS 6327 Bars and forgings Quenched and temperedb ·1. Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Air Melted Low-Alloy Steels Alloy . . . Basis . . . . . . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 2. .1.. . . . . . . . . . . .500 S ·1. .. Fbru . . . . ..0 11. . . . .1. . . Condition . . . . . in. . Supersedes page 2-19 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-19 . . .. (e/D = 2. . . . . . .. . .0 29. . . . . . . . .1. . C. . Specification [see Tables 2. ksi . . . . . e.. . . . . . . . . . . .0(a) and (b)] . . percent . . Ec. . . . . . K. . . . . . ..0(e) 29. . . . . .283 See Figure 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ksi . . G. .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . . . . . . Form . Fbry. . . . .0 a Noncurrent specification b Design values are applicable only to parts for which the indicated Ftu has been substantiated by adequate quality control testing. . . .5) . Mechanical Properties: Ftu . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ksi . . .. . . . . . . ksi . . ksi: (e/D = 1.3. . . Thickness or diameter. . . . E. .. .0) ..

. 103 ksi Ec. . 103 ksi G. Mechanical Properties: Ftu. b Wall thickness at which through hardening is achieved and verified through quality control testing.283 See Figure 2. ksi .1. .. . . . . . . ksi Fcy.3. . Fsu. . Wall thickness.3. Form . lb/in. K.D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . percent E. . . . . .0 3 AISI 4135 MIL-T-6753 Tubing Quenched and tempered\a ≤0. in . . . .0 0. . . .0(e) 29. .MIL-HDBK-5H. Condition .8 S 125 100 109 75 194 251 146 175 S 150 135 141 90 231 285 210 232 S 180 165 173 108 277 342 257 284 See Table 2. . Design Mechanical and Physical properties of Air Melted Low-Alloy Steels Alloy Specification [see Tables 2. . . 10 ksi µ Physical Properties: ω. . . . . . .0) e. .5) (e/D = 2.1.5b S 200 165 181 120 308 380 274 302 a Design values are applicable only to parts for which the indicated Ftu and through hardening has been substantiated by adequate quality control testing. . ksi: (e/D = 1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . Supersedes page 2-20 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-20 .0(a) and (b)] . . and α 0. . ksi . ksi Fty.3.0 29.1.1. .0 11. Fbru. . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 2. Basis . . .3 C.0) Fbry. . ksi: (e/D = 1.5) (e/D = 2.32 <0.0 (c 4). . . .3. .

032 to 0. . . . . . . . .249 incl. . . . . strip.749 to 1. .125 incl. . .188 incl. . Minimum Elongation Values for Low-Alloy Steels in Condition N Elongation.062 to 0. . .249 to 0. . .500 incl.125 to 0. . and plate (T) .187 to 0. . Tubing (L) .1. . . . . . . . . Up to 0. thick 5 4 4 3 3 3 Sheet specimens 0. . . ksi 125 140 150 160 180 200 Full tube 12 10 10 9 8 6 Strip 7 6 6 6 5 5 REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. percent 17 15 14 13 12 10 Reduction of area. . . . . Over 0. . in. . . . .0(e). . . . . . . . . thick 7 6 6 5 5 4 Over 0. . . . . . .1. percent Form Sheet. . . . . . . Minimum Elongation Values for Heat-Treated Low-Alloy Steels Elongation in 2 in. . Thickness. . . Over 0. . .062 . . . 2-21 . . .3. . Full tube ------10 12 15 Strip 8 10 12 15 16 18 5 7 10 Table 2. thick 10 9 9 8 7 6 Tubing (L) Ftu.188 . Less than 0. . . . Over 0. . . . .3. . . . .0(d). . .060 in. . percent 55 53 52 50 47 43 Less than 0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 2. percent Round specimens (L) Elongation in 4D.035 to 0. Over 0. . . .187 incl.749 incl. .035 incl.032 in. . Over 0. . . Over 0. . . .. . .060 in. . . Over 0. . . . (wall) . . . . . . . .

.. . LT . . . . .. . . ..T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 2. ·2. . . .. . Condition .. . . . g Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1. for quenching in molten salt at desired tempering temperature (martempering). . .32 12 9 10 .. . . . . .3. 103 ksi . . . ksi: (e/D = 1.. . . . . .0 0. . . . . .50 in. . . Fty . . . ·3. .0 10 5a 10 5a 10 7 10 7 29. Thickness or diameter. . . .1. .. . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Low-Alloy Steels Alloy . . . . . . . .1. . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . .. . . .. . . .50 in. . . Supersedes page 2-22 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-22 . . .. . . . . . . . 103 ksi . . . . . 8 . Hy-Tuf 4330V 4335V 4335V D6AC AISI 4340a 0. . . for quenching in oil at a flow rate of 200 feet/min. e Thickness · 1. . Fbru. .5) .. Physical Properties: ù . . . . .0) . . . . . . . . . ·2. . . ksi . . . . . . . . .1.3 ... . . µ . tubing Quenched and temperedb d S e S S f S 280 230 247 168 430g 525g 360c 396c 7 . . . . . . Fcy .. . . . . . .50 in.D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu. b Design values are applicable only to parts for which the indicated Ftu has been substantiated by adequate quality control testing. .. .. . . . . . AMS 6425 AMS 6411 AMS 6430 AMS 6429 AMS 6431 AMS 6414 AMS 6417 Form . ·5. . (e/D = 2. ... . . (e/D = 2. Ec ..70 in. .0 11. . C. .. .. e. c Thickness · 1.70 in. . . . . . for quenching in oil at flow rate of 200 feet/min.7. . . . .. . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H. for quenching in molten salt at desired tempering temperature (martempering).00 in. .42C 300M AMS 6257 AMS 6419 Specification . 267 294 267 294 296 327 327 361 274 302 312 346 344c 379c 297 385 297 385 315 389 369 465 297 385 347 440 414g 506g 220 185 193 132 220 185 193 132 205 190 199 123 240 210 220 144 220 190 198 132 260 217 235 156 270 220 236 162 S S c S S Bar. . . 0..50 in. . .0) . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. for quenching in molten salt at desired tempering temperature (martempering).4. . . Fsu. .. a Applicable to consumable-electrode vacuum-melted material only. .3. . d Thickness · 3.283 See Figure 2. . for quenching in oil at flow rate of 200 feet/min.. and á . . Fbry . . ksi .. ... .. percent: L .. for quenching in oil at flow rate of 200 feet/min. .. . . . . .5) . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . forging. . G. . . . . . . . . . ksi: (e/D = 1... .. . f Thickness ·5. . Basis . .40C 300M 0. . . . . . . ksi . lb/in. 103 ksi . . . .. . . for quenching in water at a flow rate of 200 feet/min.00 in. K. . . . . ksi .0(f1). . . .0 29. . in.

1. .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 2. . . . E. . .32 . .283 See Figure 2. C. . . Physical Properties: ù . ksi . . Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1. . .MIL-HDBK-5H. Form . . Condition . . .. . . . . . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . . . K. . . . and á . . ksi:c (e/D = 1. . .. .. . . e. . . . .250 S ·0. . . . . . . .0 29. . . . . . .. . .4. (e/D = 2. for quenching in oil at a flow rate of 200 feet/min. . . ... 7 29. F su. . . 103 ksi . . . . . . . in. . 103 ksi . . . . and plate Quenched and tempereda b S ·0. . . . F bru. . . . 7 0. Mechanical Properties: F tu. Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Low-Alloy Steels Alloy .70 in. . . . .5) . . . .1. . . .. . . . . .. . µ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Design values are applicable only to parts for which the indicated F tu has been substantiated by adequate quality control testing. . . .0(f2).1. . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . . . . . . . for quenching in molten salt at desired tempering temperature (martempering). . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . E c . a b c 4335V AMS 6435 D6AC AMS 6439 Sheet. .7. . . . ksi:c (e/D = 1. . . . .3 . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2.. . . . . . .5) . . . . . . . . . . . Supersedes page 2-23 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-23 . . . . . . . . . .. .251 S 220 190 198 132 215 190 198 129 224 195 203 134 297 385 290 376 302 392 274 302 274 302 281 310 10 7 ... . .0) . . ..50 in. . . . . . . . . ksi . . . . . . . . ·2. . . . .. . . . . . . . Thickness ·1. .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . Thickness or diameter. .0 11. . . . . . .3. . .0 0. . . ksi . .. . strip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ksi . . . F cy . . . G. Basis . . Specification . . . . . . F ty . . . .0) . . percent: L. . . lb/in. LT .3. . . . .. .. .. F bry . . . . ksi . . . . . .

Supersedes page 2-24 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-24 .MIL-HDBK-5H. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 This page intentionally blank.

.. .. . .. . .188 90 70 70 54 90 70 70 54 90 70 70 54 90 70 70 54 .2. . . . . . .0.. . .188 95 75 75 57 >0. . . . plate. ksi . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . . .3 .1. plate. . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . .. .0 29. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . See Sections 2. . . . . . 103 ksi . . . . . .0. . .188 ·0. . . . C. .0) . .. . in. . 129 . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . .283 See Figure 2. .. . . .. Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Low-Alloy Steels Alloy . 190 . . .0) . . . 200 . . . . .. . Basis .0 11.. .. .. .. . . .3. .. . (e/D = 2. . .. . . . . . . . Ec . . . .3. . . strip. . . . .3. . . . . .. and tubing AISI 8630 AMS 6281 AISI 8735 AMS 6357 Sheet. . G.. .3. . .. .188 95 75 75 57 >0.. . .. Condition .32 0. . . . . . µ . . . 129 . . Fty . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . and plate Tubing Normalized and tempered. . .. .. .1. . .5. . . ksi .. . . . . ..3.5) .0 0. . . . . ksi: (e/D = 1. . 190 . 200 . bars. . .. Fbry . . . .1. . . . . (e/D = 2. . . strip.. . . .. . lb/in.188 ·0. and forgings AISI 4135 AMS 6352 AMS 6372 Sheet. .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . . 120 . . . . . . . 190 . . 120 . . . . .0 Design values are applicable only to parts for which the indicated F tu has been substantiated by adequate quality control testing. . . . .188 b ·0. . . . . .. . . . . ..5) .2. . . Fsu.. . .. . ksi: (e/D = 1. . 190 . . . . and á . . . . . . a b AISI 4130 AMS 6350 AMS 6528 AMS-S-6758 Sheet.. . . . ..MIL-HDBK-5H. .. . .. . . . . . Fcy . . . . .. . . ksi . . . . 103 ksi . . . . ksi .. .. . . 120 .188 95 75 75 57 >0. . . . . . . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu.0(a) and (b)] .0(d) 29. . . . . 103 ksi . . . Fbru. .. . . ..3.1.188 95 75 75 57 >0. . . 200 . . . .. .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 2. . . 120 See Table 2. . . . . 129 . Thickness or diameter.. Specification [see Tables 2. . . . . .. . . .. ... strip. . . . . Form . . . . . . .5 and 2. . . e. . . . . . K. . percent . .0(h1). . . . .. Supersedes page 2-25 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-25 . . . . . .. .1. There is no statistical basis (T 99 or T 90 ) or specification basis (S) to support the mechanical property values in this table. Physical Properties: ù . 200 . . . . . .. . . stress relieveda ·0. 129 .

. .3. . . .50 in. . and Hy-Tuf [Quenched in molten salt at desired tempering temperature (martempering)]. 4335V. Fbru . .. . . . . for AISI 4340 (Quenched in water at a flow rate of 200 feet/min. . 4135. . . (e/D = 2. . for AISI 8740. 5. . .0) . . for AISI 4340. . . . . . . . Mechanical Properties: 4330V AMS 6427 See steels listed in Table 2. . lb/in. 103 ksi . and á . ksi . 3. .. . . . .. . . .0 c d Design values are applicable only to parts for which the indicated F tu has been substantiated by adequate quality control testing.. Fcy. · 3. . . 4335V. . . . . . Basis .3. . . Fbry. . thickness 0.70 in. . ..1.MIL-HDBK-5H. 4330V. 8630. .5. 1.0. . . . Form . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 2. .5 b d c Ftu .70 in. Fty.50 in. . 1. .. 4135. . . Specification .. . LT . .5) . . .. . Fsu . 4330V. .0(e) 29.1. ..1. . 0. .1. Thickness or diameter. (e/D = 2.50 in.5 and 2. . . . . . . .2. . . . Condition . . . . 1. .0. and 8740. ksi . .3.00 in. E.0(a) and (b) All wrought forms Quenched and tempereda · 2. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . 2. . . . and Hy-Tuf (Quenched in oil at a flow rate of 200 feet/min. .) For Ftu = 200 ksi AISI 4130. . . for D6AC (Quenched in oil at a flow rate of 200 feet/min. for AISI 4140. . . . .. 1. . e. ksi: (e/D = 1. . for AISI 4340. µ . a b 220 185 193 132 297 385 267 294 10 5a 125 100 109 75 209 251 146 175 140 120 131 84 209 273 173 203 150 132 145 90 219 287 189 218 160 142 154 96 230 300 202 231 180 163 173 108 250 326 230 256 200 176 181 120 272 355 255 280 See Table 2. .283 See Figure 2. 4330V.0 29...). . .).5) . . . .. .0 11. 2. . thickness 0.). . . .. . . . . . . . for AISI 8735. C. . for D6AC (Quenched in oil at a flow rate of 200 feet/min.. and Hy-Tuf (Quenched in oil at a flow rate of 200 feet/min. .0 0. Ec. . . ksi . .1. 4330V. . .0. . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Low-Alloy Steels Alloy . . . .. 103 ksi .. . .). . percent: L . for AISI 4130 and 8630. for AISI 4140.. . .3. . . 103 ksi . 4335V. . . ksi . . ...3. 8740 not available. for AISI 4340 (Quenched in water at a flow rate of 200 feet/min.D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . and Hy-Tuf [Quenched in molten salt at desired tempering temperature (martempering)]. .) There is no statistical basis (T 99 or T 90 ) or specification basis (S) to support the mechanical property values in this table.50 in.00 in. 4335V. . Physical Properties: ù .2. For Ftu 180 ksi. . . . .00 in.. .. for AISI 4340. . ksi: (e/D = 1.80 in. . G. . · · · · · · · · · · · · · Supercedes page 2-26 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-26 . .3. .3 . K. . . . . 5. . .. . . . . . in. . See Sections 2.50 in.0(h2).32 0. . .. . .80 in.00 in.3. . . .2 for the applicable strength levels See Tables 2. . .. . for AISI 4340. .0) . . .

°F Figure 2. 4340 15 10 5 0 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 C. 10-6 in. Effect of temperature on the physical properties of 4130 and 4340 alloy steels.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH α .At indicated temperature C . 4130 5 4 K.3 10 5 0.4 15 0. 4130 9 8 7 6 α.1.2 0.1 0 3 1600 Temperature. 4340 25 K.Between 70 °F and indicated temperature K . Btu/ (lb)(°F) 0.0. Btu/ [ (hr)(ft2)(°F)/ft] 20 K. 2-27 α.At indicated temperature α./in.3./°F .

1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 200 Strength at Temperature Exposure up to 1/2 hour 180 160 140 Percentage of Room Temperature Strength 120 Fty 100 Ftu 80 Fty 60 40 20 0 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Temperature. Effect of temperature on the tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) and tensile yield strength (Fty) of AISI low-alloy steels (all products).1.3. 2-28 . F Figure 2.1.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 100 Strength at temperature Exposure up to ½ hr 80 Percentage of Room Temperature Strength 60 Fcy 40 Fsu 20 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Temperature.2.1.3.1. 2-29 . Effect of temperature on the bearing ultimate strength (Fbru) and the bearing yield strength (Fbry) of heat-treated AISI low-alloy steels (all products).3.1. °F Figure 2. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 100 Fbry 80 Strength at temperature Exposure up to ½ hr Fbru Fbry 60 Percentage of Room Temperature Strength 40 20 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Temperature.3. °F Figure 2. Effect of temperature on the compressive yield strength (Fcy) and the shear ultimate strength (Fsu) of heat-treated AISI low-alloy steels (all products).1.

6(a). Typical tensile stress-strain curves at room temperature for heat-treated AISI 8630 alloy steel (all products). Effect of temperature on the tensile and compressive modulus (E and Ec) of AISI low-alloy steels.3.1.3.1. 2-30 .1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 120 110 E & Ec Percentage of Room Temperature Modulus 100 90 80 Modulus at temperature Exposure up to 1/2 hr TYPICAL 70 60 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Temperature.4. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.2. °F Figure 2.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 200 150 150-ksi level 125-ksi level Stress.2. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 120 500 °F 100 850 °F 80 1000 °F 60 Stress.4 TYPICAL 1/2-hr exposure 20 0 0 2 4 6 Strain. ksi Ramberg-Osgood 40 n (500 °F) = 9.6(c). Typical tensile stress-strain curves at room temperature for heat-treated AISI 8630 alloy steel.2.3. REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. 2-31 .1. Ftu = 125 ksi (all products). Typical compressive tangent-modulus curves at room temperature for heat-treated AISI 8630 alloy steel (all products).1.6(b).001 in. 0. 10 ksi Figure 2.3. ksi 100 Normalized 50 TYPICAL 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus.0 n (850 °F) = 19 n (1000 °F) = 4./in. 8 10 12 Figure 2.

of Heats/Lots: Not specified Equivalent Stress Equations: For stress ratios of -0.45 R2 = 78% Sample Size = 23 For a stress ratio of -1.Axial Frequency . 0.00 inches gross width 0.88-3.RT Environment .27-3.61. Correlative Information for Figure 2.41 Std.8(a) Product Form: Sheet.1100-1800 cpm Temperature .3. EF RT Test Parameters: Loading .3) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.8(a) and (f) [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.1.8(a).85 log (Seq . ksi 117 Specimen Details: 99 Unnotched 2.] Supersedes page 2-32 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-32 .Air No.1.21 Standard Deviation. Log (Life) = 0..3) Properties: TUS.3. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched 4130 alloy steel sheet.57 log (Smax-43.80-1. normalized.2.075-inch thick Temp. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.0 inch net section radius Surface Condition: Electropolished References: 3.3. Error of Estimate. ksi TYS.1.2. longitudinal direction.60 to +0.65-2.00 inch net width 12.0 Log Nf = 9.2. Log (Life) = 0.MIL-HDBK-5H.02 Log Nf = 9.

Best-fit S/N curves for notched. longitudinal direction. Kt = 1.Air No. normalized.67 R2 = 84% Sample Size = 21 Reference: 3. ksi Temp.94-2.8(b).1100-1500 cpm Temperature . 4130 alloy steel sheet. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.5. Kt = 1. 0.075-inch thick Properties: TUS. Correlative Information for Figure 2.27 Standard Deviation.3) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.5 Test Parameters: Loading .50 inches net width 0.3.76-inch notch radius Surface Condition: Electropolished Supersedes page 2-33 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-33 . EF 117 123 99 -RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Kt 1.2.5 3.3.2.Axial Frequency .8(d) [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.1. Error of Estimate.00 inches gross width 1.1. Log (Life) = 0.61.3. of Heats/Lots: Not specified Equivalent Stress Equations: Log Nf = 7.2. Log (Life) = 0.] Specimen Details: Edge Notched.. ksi TYS.RT Environment .01 log (Seq .8(b) Product Form: Sheet.88 Std.MIL-HDBK-5H.1.

Axial Frequency .2.2.8(b) and (f) [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.MIL-HDBK-5H. 4130 alloy steel sheet. EF 117 120 99 -RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Kt 2.500 0.3.8(c) Product Form: Properties: Sheet.0 Notch Gross Net Notch Type Width Width Radius Edge 2. Error of Estimate. ksi TYS. longitudinal direction. Log (Life) = 0.0 Test Parameters: Loading .] Specimen Details: Notched..1-6.3.2.1100-1800 cpm Temperature . Log (Life) = 0. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.19 Standard Deviation.86 Std. 0.50 1.1736 Supersedes page 2-34 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-34 .8(c). Best-fit S/N curves for notched.1.500 0. Kt = 2. Correlative Information for Figure 2. of Heats/Lots: Not specified Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 17.Air No.500 Fillet 2. Kt = 2.500 1.3. ksi Temp.RT Environment .1.075-inch thick TUS.1.25 1.49 log (Seq) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.0.3175 Center 4.25 1.78 R2 = 94% Sample Size = 107 Surface Condition: Electropolished References: 3. normalized.

2.1. of Heats/Lots: Not specified Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 12.2. ksi 117 120 99 — Temp.25 1.8(d).500 0.8(b).3.63 Std.496 0.500 0.MIL-HDBK-5H.1100-1800 cpm Temperature . and (g) [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.0 30.0.1.070 Fillet 2.0.075-inch thick TUS. Mean Stress = 0.10 1. 4130 alloy steel sheet.0 Test Parameters: Loading .RT Environment .8(d) Product Form: Properties: Sheet.Axial Frequency .0 x Runout → x x x + + + + x → x → + → + → + → ++ +→ → → → Note: Stresses are based on net section.1.70 R2 = 88% Sample Size = 87 Surface Condition: Electropolished References: 3. (f)..24 Standard Deviation. longitudinal direction. ksi 50 40 30 20 10 0 103 + + + ++ 4130 Sheet Normalized. Cycles Figure 2. ksi TYS. Error of Estimate.6-4.3.Air No. 0. 80 70 60 x x x + ++ ++ + + x x x x+ x x x + + ++ + + +++ + Maximum Stress. → → → → 104 105 106 107 108 Fatigue Life. Log (Life) = 0. normalized.3.25 1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH . Log (Life) = 0. Edge and Fillet Notches.0 10. Kt = 4.2.0 Notch Gross Net Notch Type Width Width Radius Edge 2. Best-fit S/N curves diagram for notched. Kt = 4.] Specimen Details: Notched.057 Edge 4.69 log (Seq) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. .0195 Supersedes page 2-35 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-35 .0 + 20. EF RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Kt = 4. Kt=4. Correlative Information for Figure 2.

of Heats/Lots: Not specified Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 12.50 inches Notch radius = 0.. ksi TYS.18 Standard Deviation.0 Test Parameters: Loading . Kt = 5.8(e). Correlative Information for Figure 2. 4130 alloy steel sheet.57 log (Seq) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. normalized.3.2. Log (Life) = 0.] Specimen Details: Edge Notched.8(c) [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.075-inch thick TUS. ksi Temp.8(e) Product Form: Properties: Sheet.87 R2 = 96% Sample Size = 38 Reference: 3.2.1. EF 117 120 99 — RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Kt = 5. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.RT Environment .56 Std. longitudinal direction.0.2. 0. Log (Life) = 0.075 inch Surface Condition: Electropolished Supersedes page 2-36 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-36 .1.3. Error of Estimate.0 Gross width = 2.3. Kt = 5.1100-1500 cpm Temperature .1.25 inches Net width = 1.0-4.Axial Frequency . Best-fit S/N curves diagram for notched.Air No.MIL-HDBK-5H.

] Unnotched 2.1.49 Std.2.2.39 Standard Deviation.MIL-HDBK-5H. Correlative Information for Figure 2.89 R2 = 81% Sample Size = 27 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above. Log (Life) = 0. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.2.Axial Frequency . Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched 4130 alloy steel sheet.3. 0.3.00 inch net width 12.3-7.88 inches gross width 1.8(f).1. of Heats/Lots: Not specified Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 20. Log (Life) = 0. ksi 180 Specimen Details: 174 Temp.. longitudinal direction.31 log (Seq) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. ksi TYS.8(f) Supersedes page 2-37 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-37 .3.RT Environment .20-1800 cpm Temperature .075-inch thick TUS.8(f) Product Form: Properties: Sheet.0 inch net section radius Surface Condition: Electropolished Reference: 3.1.Air No. Ftu = 180 ksi. EF RT Test Parameters: Loading . Error of Estimate.

RT Environment .41.075-inch thick TUS. ksi 100 80 → → 60 40 → Note: Stresses are based on net section. 0. Correlative Information for Figure 2.3. ..0 EN Mean Stress 0. 140 4130 Sht Hard.81 log (Seq .8(f) Supersedes page 2-38 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-38 . 4130 alloy steel sheet.0 50. ksi 180 Specimen Details: 174 Temp.MIL-HDBK-5H. Error of Estimate.1.77 R2 = 94% Sample Size = 19 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.21-1800 cpm Temperature .46 Std.0.Axial Frequency .] Edge Notched 2.87-2.2. KT=2.25 inches gross width 1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH .1.2. longitudinal direction. Ftu = 180 ksi.3.8(g) Product Form: Properties: Sheet. Log (Life) = 0.3175-inch notch radius Surface Condition: Electropolished Reference: 3. Best-fit S/N curves for notched. → → 20 0 103 104 105 106 107 108 Fatigue Life. Cycles Figure 2. Log (Life) = 0.50 inches net width 0.2.0 120 → Runout Maximum Stress.Air No.5) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.3.8(g). of Heats/Lots: Not specified Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 8.1. EF RT Test Parameters: Loading . Kt = 2. ksi TYS.18 Standard Deviation.

Log (Life) = 0.4-4. ksi TYS.2.MIL-HDBK-5H.3.3. EF RT Test Parameters: Loading .Axial Frequency .Air No. ksi 180 Specimen Details: 174 Temp.2.. Log (Life) = 0.8(h).075-inch thick TUS.057-inch notch radius Surface Condition: Electropolished Reference: 3.] Edge Notched 2. Ftu = 180 ksi.8(f) Supersedes page 2-39 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-39 .50 inches net width 0. Kt = 4.23-1800 cpm Temperature .1. 4130 alloy steel sheet.90 R2 = 98% Sample Size = 20 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.45 log (Seq) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. longitudinal direction. of Heats/Lots: Not specified Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 12.25 inches gross width 1.11 Standard Deviation.8(h) Product Form: Properties: Sheet.3.1. 0.2.RT Environment .0. Error of Estimate.1. Correlative Information for Figure 2.60 Std. Best-fit S/N curves for notched.

8 10 12 Figure 2./in.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 200 200-ksi level 180-ksi level 150 140-ksi level Stress.1./in.3.1. 0. 8 10 12 Figure 2. Typical tensile stress-strain curves at room temperature for heat-treated AISI 4340 alloy steel (all products).0 n (-110 °F) = 8.001 in. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 300 Longitudinal 1/2-hr exposure -110 °F 250 RT -312 °F 200 Stress. 2-40 .001 in.2 n (-312 °F) = 8.9 TYPICAL 50 0 0 2 4 6 Strain.3. Typical tensile stress-strain curves at cryogenic and room temperature for AISI 4340 alloy steel bar.3. 0.6(a).6(b). REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. ksi 150 Ramberg-Osgood 100 n (RT) = 7. ksi 100 50 TYPICAL 0 0 2 4 6 Strain.3. Ftu = 260 ksi.

2-41 .6(c). 8 10 12 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Compressive Tangent Modulus.3. Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangentmodulus curves at room temperature for AISI 4340 alloy steel bar. 103 ksi Figure 2. Fsu = 260 ksi.3.001 in.1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 250 200 Stress./in. 0. ksi 150 100 50 Ramberg-Osgood n (RT) = 13 TYPICAL 0 0 2 4 6 Strain.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. axial direction = longitudinal direction of bar stock).1.3. A biaxial ratio. Ftu = 180 ksi. 2-42 .3. denotes the ratio of hoop stresses to axial stresses.6(d). Typical biaxial stress-strain curves at room temperature for AISI 4340 alloy steel (machined thin-wall cylinders. B.

2-43 . FH. FA.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 OO 120 B= 4 3 2 1.5 1 100 Axial Stress. Fty measures in the hoop direction.3.50 40 0.6(e). axial direction = longitudinal direction of bar stock). percent Fty 0 120 Figure 2.3. percent Fty 80 0.33 0. Ftu = 180 ksi.67 60 0.25 20 Cylindrical Specimens 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Hoop Stress.1. Biaxial yield-stress envelope at room temperature for AISI 4340 alloy steel (machined thin-wall cylinders.

A biaxial ratio B of zero corresponds to the hoop direction. Typical biaxial stress-strain curves at room temperature for AISI 4340 alloy steel (machined thin-wall cylinders. 2-44 .5 250 1 0.1.3./in.001 in.6(f). 0. ∞ Maximum Principal Stress. 16 20 24 Figure 2. Ftu = 260 ksi. axial direction = longitudinal direction of bar stock).3. ksi 200 150 100 50 0 0 4 8 12 Strain.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 300 B= 2 0.

REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.5 1 100 Axial Stress.67 60 0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 OO 120 B= 4 3 2 1. axial direction = longitudinal direction of bar stock). Biaxial yield-stress envelope at room temperature for AISI 4340 alloy steel (machined thin-wall cylinders.3.50 40 0. FH.33 0. FA. percent Fty 0 120 Figure 2.3. Fty measured in the hoop direction. Ftu = 260 ksi. percent Fty 80 0.1.25 20 Cylindrical Specimens 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Hoop Stress. 2-45 .6(g).

8(a) Product Form: Rolled bar.3. Log (Life) = 0. Error of Estimate. air melted TUS.MIL-HDBK-5H.Air No. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched AISI 4340 alloy steel bar.8(a) Supersedes page 2-46 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-46 . ksi TYS..77 R2 = 75% Sample Size = 9 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.1.Axial Frequency . of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 14.3.35 Standard Deviation. Log (Life) = 0.RT Atmosphere . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. EF RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading .400-inch diameter Surface Condition: Hand polished to RMS 10 Reference: 2.1. Correlative Information for Figure 2.3.3.3.46 log (Seq-60) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.70 Std. ksi 125 — 150 — Temp. 1-1/8 inches diameter.] Properties: Specimen Details: Unnotched 0.3.8(a). Ftu = 125 ksi.1.2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature . longitudinal direction.96-6.

3.8(b). Log (Life) = 0.450-inch gross diameter 0. ω Supersedes page 2-47 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-47 .3 0.08 log (Seq-20.1. EF RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading . V-Groove.3.. Kt = 3.1. ksi 125 150 Specimen Details: — — Temp.RT Atmosphere .2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.75-3.Axial Frequency .8(b) Product Form: Properties: Rolled bar.MIL-HDBK-5H. r 60E flank angle.90 R2 = 80% Sample Size = 11 Surface Condition: Lathe turned to RMS 10 Reference: 2.010-inch root radius. Best-fit S/N curves for notched. of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 9.Air No.] Notched.40 Standard Deviation. Correlative Information for Figure 2.84 Std. AISI 4340 alloy steel bar.3.1.400-inch net diameter 0. 1-1/8 inches diameter. Kt = 3. longitudinal direction. Log (Life) = 0.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.3. Ftu = 125 ksi. ksi TYS. air melted TUS.3.8(a) [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above. Error of Estimate.3.3.

400-inch diameter Surface Condition: Hand polished to RMS 10 Reference: 2.] Unnotched 0.1. of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 10. ksi TYS.91 log (Seq .77 Std.3. Correlative Information for Figure 2.101.3.3..Axial Frequency . EF 158 190 Specimen Details: 147 — RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading . air melted TUS.8(c) Product Form: Properties: Rolled bar. Log (Life) = 0.Air No.1.1.33 Adjusted R2 Statistic = 73% Sample Size = 9 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.76-3. 1.3.8(c). Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched AISI 4340 alloy steel bar.125 inches diameter.MIL-HDBK-5H.2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature . Ftu = 150 ksi. ksi Temp.8(b) Supersedes page 2-48 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-48 .3.3. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.RT Atmosphere . Log (Life) = 0.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. Error of Estimate. longitudinal direction.17 Standard Deviation.

3. ksi TYS. 1-1/8 inches diameter. longitudinal direction.400-inch net diameter 0.Air No. Best-fit S/N curves for notched AISI 4340 alloy steel bar.74 R2 = 86% Sample Size = 11 Surface Condition: Lathe turned to RMS 10 Reference: 2..3 0.EF RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading . of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 7.2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature .00 log (Seq-40.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. Log (Life) = 0. Correlative Information for Figure 2.010-inch root radius. r 60E flank angle.3.] Notched.8(d).3.90-2.1. Log (Life) = 0.3. V-Groove.MIL-HDBK-5H.3.1. ksi 158 190 Specimen Details: 147 — Temp.60 Std.Axial Frequency .8(a) [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above. Kt = 3.1. air melted TUS.27 Standard Deviation.RT Atmosphere .3. Ftu = 150 ksi. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. ω Supersedes page 2-49 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-49 .8(d) Product Form: Properties: Rolled bar.450-inch gross diameter 0. Error of Estimate.

Ftu = 150 ksi. 1-1/8 inches diameter.98 log (Seq-60. of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 22. air melted TUS.3.3.400-inch diameter Surface Condition: Hand polished to RMS 10 Reference: 2.1.3. ksi 158 153 190 176 Specimen Details: 147 121 — — Temp.36-9. longitudinal direction.66 Std.8(e) Product Form: Properties: Rolled bar.3..MIL-HDBK-5H.Air No.] Unnotched 0.3. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched AISI 4340 alloy steel bar at 600EF. Error of Estimate Log (Life) = 0.600EF Atmosphere . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.1.Axial Frequency . Correlative Information for Figure 2. ksi TYS.3.1.8(b) Supersedes page 2-50 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-50 . Log (Life) = 1.08 R2 = 95% Sample Size = 11 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.24 Standard Deviation. EF RT (unnotched) 600 (unnotched) RT (notched) 600 (notched) Test Parameters: Loading .8(e).2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature .

RT Atmosphere .62 Std.3.MIL-HDBK-5H. Correlative Information for Figure 2.3.8(b) Test Parameters: Loading ..3 0. Log (Life) = 1.010-inch root radius.36 Standard Deviation. of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 10. Log (Life) = 0.1. Kt = 3. r 60E flank angle. V-Groove.3. longitudinal direction.06 R2 = 89% Sample Size = 11 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.Axial Frequency . 1-1/8 inches diameter.1.2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature . Error of Estimate.400-inch net diameter 0.3. Best-fit S/N curves for notched.] Notched.8(f).3. AISI 4340 alloy steel bar at 600EF.1.Air No. ω Surface Condition: Lathe turned to RMS 10 Supersedes page 2-51 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-51 .39-3. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. ksi 158 153 190 176 Specimen Details: 147 121 — — Temp. EF RT (unnotched) 600 (unnotched) RT (notched) 600 (notched) Reference: 2.76 log (Seq-30. Kt = 3.3. Ftu = 150 ksi. air melted TUS.3.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.450-inch gross diameter 0. ksi TYS.8(f) Product Form: Properties: Rolled bar.

42 Standard Deviation.3. Ftu = 150 ksi. ksi 158 125 190 154 Specimen Details: 147 101 — — Temp. Correlative Information for Figure 2.Air No. 1-1/8 inches diameter. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.3.8(b) Supersedes page 2-52 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-52 . Log (Life) = 0.MIL-HDBK-5H.1. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched AISI 4340 alloy steel bar at 800EF. of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 17.99 R2 = 82% Sample Size = 15 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.800EF Atmosphere .Axial Frequency . EF RT (unnotched) 800 (unnotched) RT (notched) 800 (notched) Test Parameters: Loading . Error of Estimate.3. ksi TYS.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.66 Std.53-7. longitudinal direction.8(g) Product Form: Properties: Rolled bar.35 log (Seq-60.400-inch diameter Surface Condition: Hand polished to RMS 10 Reference: 2. air melted TUS.. Log (Life) = 0.] Unnotched 0.1.3.3.2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature .3.8(g).1.

3. Log (Life) = 1.1. AISI 4340 alloy steel bar at 800EF.01 log (Seq-48. ksi 158 147 125 190 154 Specimen Details: 101 — — Temp.14 R2 = 72% Sample Size = 9 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above. Correlative Information for Figure 2.1.010-inch root radius. ksi TYS. 1-1/8 inches diameter. air melted TUS.8(b) Supersedes page 2-53 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-53 .6) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.3 0.3. ω Surface Condition: Lathe turned to RMS 10 Reference: 2.60 Standard Deviation.3.92 Std.8(h).3.2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature . V-Groove.800EF Atmosphere .3.3. Best-fit S/N curves for notched.1.450-inch gross diameter 0.Air No. Error of Estimate. EF RT (unnotched) 800 (unnotched) RT (notched) 800 (notched) Test Parameters: Loading .400-inch net diameter 0.3.31-2.] Notched. longitudinal direction.8(h) Product Form: Properties: Rolled bar. of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 7.MIL-HDBK-5H. r 60E flank angle. Log (Life) = 0. Kt = 3.Axial Frequency .. Kt = 3. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. Ftu = 150 ksi.

8(i) Product Form: Properties: Rolled bar. Log (Life) = 0.2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature .42 Standard Deviation.20 R2 = 88% Sample Size = 13 Surface Condition: Hand polished to RMS 10 Reference: 2.85-7.3. ksi 158 147 81 190 98 Specimen Details: 63 — — Temp.] Unnotched 0. Correlative Information for Figure 2. EF RT (unnotched) 1000EF (unnotched) RT (notched) 1000EF (notched) Test Parameters: Loading . of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 16.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.1.400-inch diameter Supersedes page 2-54 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-54 .Axial Frequency .3..MIL-HDBK-5H.8(b) [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above. Ftu = 150 ksi.3.8(i). Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched AISI 4340 alloy steel bar at 1000EF.3. air melted TUS. longitudinal direction.02 log (Seq-40.80 Std.1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.1000EF Atmosphere .3.3.Air No. 1-1/8 inches diameter. Error of Estimate.1. Log (Life) = 1. ksi TYS.

Axial Frequency . Log (Life) = 1. Best-fit S/N curves for notched.1.2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature .8(j).3. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. Log (Life) = 0. Error of Estimate.450-inch gross diameter 0.3.75 log (Seq-30. ω Surface Condition: Lathe turned to RMS 10 Reference: 2.8(j) Product Form: Rolled bar.Air No. Correlative Information for Figure 2. of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 9. V-Groove.MIL-HDBK-5H.1.3.8(b) Supersedes page 2-55 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-55 .3.3 0.. Ftu = 150 ksi. Kt = 3.1000EF Atmosphere .3. r 60E flank angle.50 Std.400-inch net diameter 0.3.3. EF 158 147 RT (unnotched) 81 63 1000EF (unnotched) 190 — RT (notched) 98 — 1000EF (notched) Specimen Details: Notched.] Properties: TUS.22 R2 = 89% Sample Size = 12 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.1.40 Standard Deviation. longitudinal direction.76-3. air melted Test Parameters: Loading .010-inch root radius. 1-1/8 inches diameter. ksi TYS.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. ksi Temp. AISI 4340 alloy steel bar at 1000EF. Kt = 3.

3.300 and 0. 2-56 .3. F tu = 200 ksi.3.Axial Frequency .°F No.1. Correlative Information for Figure 2.. air melted Die forging (landing gearB36 aircraft).4) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.31-2. 1-1/8 inches diameter.] Test Parameters: Loading . ksi 189.3.RT Atmosphere .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature .8(a) and (c) REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. ksi 208. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched AISI 4340 alloy steel bar and die forging.Air Properties: Specimen Details: Unnotched 0.1.1.3. of Heat/Lots: 2 RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 9. longitudinal direction.73 log (Seq-93. 217 — Temp. 221 251 TYS.8(k).49 Standard Deviation in Life = 0.93 R2 = 72% Sample Size = 26 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.59 Standard Error of Estimate = 0.400-inch diameter Surface Condition: Hand polished to RMS 5-10 References: 2.3. air melted TUS.8(k) Product Form: Rolled bar.

3. 1-1/8 inches diameter..2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature .96 log (Seq-31.3. r 60E flank angle.3. Ftu = 200 ksi. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.8(a) [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.16 Standard Deviation. Correlative Information for Figure 2. V-Groove. Log (Life) = 0. ksi TYS.52-1. of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 7.RT Atmosphere .Air No. Kt = 3. Best-fit S/N curves for notched.1.1.3 0. Log (Life) = 0. Error of Estimate.65 Std. ω Supersedes page 2-57 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-57 . EF RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading . longitudinal direction.3. AISI 4340 alloy steel bar.62 R2 = 93% Sample Size = 26 Surface Condition: Lathe turned to RMS 10 Reference: 2.MIL-HDBK-5H.8(l) Product Form: Rolled bar.] Properties: TUS.3.8(l).3.3. Kt = 3.450-inch gross diameter 0.400-inch net diameter 0.010-inch root radius.Axial Frequency .2) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. ksi 208 251 — — Specimen Details: Notched.1. air melted Temp.

Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched AISI 4340 alloy steel bar and billet. Ftu = 260 ksi.3.3. of Heat/Lots: 2 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 11. 1-1/8 inches diameter.1. 6 inches RCS air melted TUS.200 and 0.RT Atmosphere . air melted Billet..75 log (Seq-80.3. ksi 266. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. Error of Estimate. 291 352 TYS.3.44 Std.Axial Frequency .Air No.MIL-HDBK-5H. Log (Life) = 0.86 R2 = 45% Sample Size = 41 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above. Log (Life) = 0. EF RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading . ksi 232 — Temp.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.1800 to 2500 cpm Temperature .400-inch diameter Surface Condition: References: Hand polished to RMS 10 2.62-3. Correlative Information for Figure 2.8(a) and (b) Supersedes page 2-58 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-58 .3. longitudinal direction.3.8(m) Product Form: Rolled bar.1.1.8(m).] Properties: Specimen Details: Unnotched 0.64 Standard Deviation.

RT Atmosphere .8(n) Product Form: Properties: Rolled bar. ω Supersedes page 2-59 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-59 .Air No. 1-1/8 inches diameter.2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature .22 Standard Deviation..3. of Heat/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 9. Error of Estimate.300-inch gross diameter 0.1. Ftu = 260 ksi.1. ksi 266 390 TYS. longitudinal direction.3.3. Log (Life) = 0.34 R2 = 58% Sample Size = 30 Surface Condition: Lathe turned to RMS 10 Reference: 2. V-Groove.3.Axial Frequency . EF 232 — RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading .030-inch root radius.] Specimen Details: Notched. Correlative Information for Figure 2.1. Kt = 2.0 0.65 log (Seq-50. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.46-2. air melted TUS.MIL-HDBK-5H. r 60E flank angle. AISI 4340 alloy steel bar. ksi Temp.3. Log (Life) = 0.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.8(n). Best-fit S/N curves for notched.220-inch net diameter 0.8(a) [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above. Kt = 2.64 Std.0.3.

8(a) Supersedes page 2-60 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-60 .8(o).3.] Specimen Details: Notched. .0 0.00 0. Error of Estimate. 1-1/8 inches diameter.0. Ftu = 260 ksi.0 Stress Ratio -1.56.010-inch root radius.270-inch gross diameter 0. r 60E flank angle. Log (Life) = 0. air melted Properties: TUS. of Heats/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 7.4) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. V-Groove. Kt = 3. Cycles Figure 2.74 log (Seq .3. Kt = 3.59 R2 = 71% Sample Size = 29 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above. ω Surface Condition: Lathe turned to RMS 10 Reference: 2.MIL-HDBK-5H. ksi AISI 4340 RT Kt=3. ksi TYS.1. + + + → + → + → → → → → → →→ 104 105 106 107 108 Fatigue Life.3. Best-fit S/N curves for notched.220-inch net diameter 0.00 + 0. Correlative Information for Figure 2.1. EF 266 352 232 — RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading—Axial Frequency—2000 to 2500 cpm Temperature—RT Atmosphere—Air No. 250 225 200 + + Maximum Stress. Log (Life) = 0.8(o) Product Form: Rolled bar.14-1.3.3..3.1. ksi Temp. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH .32 Standard Deviation.51 Std. AISI 4340 alloy steel bar. longitudinal direction.54 Runout → + 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 103 + + + + + + Note: Stresses are based on net section.

8(a). Log (Life) = 1. 1-1/4 x 8 inches CEVM TYS.Air No.1800 to 2000 cpm Temperature . longitudinal and transverse directions. Error of Estimate. EF RT Test Parameters: Loading .8(a). ksi 274-294 Specimen Details: Unnotched 0.3. 10 x 20 inches CEVM Die forging.1.8(a) Product Forms: Die forging. Correlative Information for Figure 2.38 log (Seq-63.0 Sample Size = 104 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.MIL-HDBK-5H. (e) Supercedes page 2-61 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-61 .1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. Log (Life) = 55.7 (1/Seq) Standard Deviation. of Heat/Lots: 6 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 14.4.1. Ftu = 280 ksi.3.4. stress relieve References: 2.8) Seq = Sa + 0.] Properties: TUS.4.Axial Frequency ..8-5. 6 inches CEVM Forged Bar. 6-1/2 x 20 inches CEVM RCS billet.48 Sm Std.0.037 R2 = 82. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched 300M alloy forging. (c).3.RT Atmosphere . (d).250-inch diameter Surface Condition: Heat treat and finish grind to a surface finish of RMS 63 or better with light grinding parallel to specimen length. ksi 227-247 Temp.200 .

8(b) REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. CEVM TUS.36 Standard Deviation in Life = 0.3.] Properties: Specimen Details: Notched.8(b) Product Form: Forged billet.Axial Frequency Temperature .1. ksi 242 — Temp.040-inch root radius. of Heats/Lots: 3 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 12.Air No.08 log (Seq-55.3.0.4. K t = 2.250-inch net diameter 0. 2-62 . 300M alloy forged billet.500-inch gross diameter 0. F tu = 280 ksi.8(b).0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.1.3.4.0 0.79 R2 = 79% Sample Size = 70 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above. i Correlative Information for Figure 2. Kt = 2. longitudinal direction.1. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched.4.°F RT (unnotched) RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading .87-5. r 60 flank angle. stress relieve Reference: 2. ksi 290 456 TYS. 60 V-Groove..RT Atmosphere .  Surface Condition: Heat treat and finish grind notch to RMS 63 ± 5.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. unspecified size.

ksi 242-247 — Temp.3. 10 x 20 inches.. Kt = 3.RT Atmosphere .3 (1/Seq) Standard Deviation. 300M alloy forging.4 Sample Size = 99 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.3. Best-fit S/N curves for notched. ksi 290-292 435 TYS.Axial Frequency Temperature .3.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.41 log (Seq-20. Log (Life) = 18.8(c). r 60E flank angle.500-inch gross diameter 0.4.0.40-3. EF RT (unnotched) RT (notched) References: 2.8(a). (b). CEVM Die forging. Ftu = 280 ksi. 6-1/2 x 20 inches. Correlative Information for Figure 2.8(c) Product Forms: Forged billet.1.Air No. CEVM Properties: TUS.4. ω Surface Condition: Heat treat and finish grind notch to RMS 63 or better. Kt = 3.0 0.0145-inch root radius.4. CEVM Die forging. unspecified size.1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. stress relieve Supercedes page 2-63 of MIL-HDBK-5H 2-63 .51 Std.MIL-HDBK-5H.] Specimen Details: Notched 60E V-Groove. Log (Life) = 2.250-inch net diameter 0. Error of Estimate. longitudinal and transverse directions.1. of Heats/Lots: 5 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 10.100 R2 = 97. (c) Test Parameters: Loading .

8(b) [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above. CEVM Properties: TUS.4. K t = 5.52 Standard Error of Estimate = 0. stress relieve Reference: 2.81 R2 = 88% Sample Size = 48 Surface Condition: Heat treat and finish grind notch to RMS 63 maximum.1.8(d) Product Forms: Forged billet. 300M alloy forged billet.28 Standard Deviation in Life = 0. ksi 290 379 TYS.1. Kt = 5. longitudinal direction.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2. °F 242 RT (unnotched) — RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading .Air No.3. r 60 flank angle.] Specimen Details: Notched.0 0.4. unspecified size.0.04 log (Seq-10.0042-inch root radius.250-inch net diameter 0.4.3. 60  V-Groove.RT Atmosphere .8(d)..3.0) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. of Heat/Lots: 2 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 9.  REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.61-3.1. Correlative Information for Figure 2. ksi Temp. Ftu = 280 ksi. Best-fit S/N curves for notched. 2-64 .500-inch gross diameter 0.Axial Frequency Temperature .

) [References .3.1.1.2.41 inches CT Environment: Temperature: Orientation: Low-humidity air RT L-T and T-L 2-65 .09-7.000 inches 3.80-inch thick.4.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.00-inch hand forging and 1. 300M steel alloy plate (TUS: 280-290 ksi. Fatigue-crack-propagation data for 3.3.9(a) and (b).4.900-1.] Specimen Thickness: Specimen Width: Specimen Type: 0.9.

0 inches CT Environment: Temperature: Orientation: Dry air and lab air RT L-T 2-66 . Fatigue-crack-propagation data for 0.9.5.1.80-inch D6AC steel alloy plate.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 2.3.5-5.9. Data include material both oil quenched and salt quenched (TUS: 230-240 ksi). [Reference .3.2.75 inch 1.70-0.1.] Specimen Thickness: Specimen Width: Specimen Type: 0.5.

and XXX. The last digit.0 2XX. ease of fabrication and diversity of form. Wrought and cast aluminum and aluminum alloys are identified by a four-digit numerical designation. General comments on engineering properties and the considerations relating to alloy selection are presented in Section 3.1(a)].11.1. dependent upon composition.0 6XX.0 7XX.0 indicates castings. high strength-toweight ratio. Mechanical and physical property data and characteristics pertinent to specific alloy groups or individual alloys are reported in Sections 3. For structural wrought aluminum alloys the last two digits identify the aluminum alloy.2 through 3. For cast aluminum and aluminum alloys the second and third digits identify the aluminum alloy or indicate the minimum aluminum percentage.10. indicates the product form: XXX. Table 3.1.00 percent minimum aluminum Copper Silicon with added copper and/or magnesium Silicon Magnesium Unused Series Zinc Tin Other Elements 3-1 .1. good corrosion resistance.2 indicate ingot. which is to the right of the decimal point.1(b)] Alloy Group Major Alloying Elements Wrought Alloys Alloy Group Major Alloying Groups Cast Alloys 1XXX 2XXX 3XXX 4XXX 5XXX 6XXX 7XXX 8XXX 9XXX 99.0 9XX.0 99. Aluminum is a lightweight.00 percent minimum aluminum Copper Manganese Silicon Magnesium Magnesium and Silicon Zinc Other Elements Unused Series 1XX. the first digit of which indicates the alloy group as shown in Table 3.0 4XX.0 5XX. further strengthened by heat treatment and/or cold working [Reference 3.0 8XX. Basic Designation for Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys [Reference 3. Among its advantages for specific applications are: low density. corrosion-resistant structural material that can be strengthened through alloying and. The second digit indicates modifications of the original alloy or impurity limits.1 and XXX. Element properties are presented in Section 3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 CHAPTER 3    This chapter contains the engineering properties and related characteristics of wrought and cast aluminum alloys used in aircraft and missile structural applications.0 3XX.

whereas the cast alloys are in Sections 3.3 3.7.0 C355. tensile.8.1. and comments on the effects of manufacturing practices on these properties are given in Section 3.8 Alloy Designation 6151 7000 series wrought alloys 7010 7049/7149 7050 7075 7150 7175 7249 7475 200.0 D357.6 3.2. shown in Table 3.6. Table 3.6.2.4 3.1 3.2.3 3.5. are presented as average or typical values. They may be directly useful in design. such as the room-temperature.1 is the aluminum alloy index that illustrates both the general section layout as well as details of those specific aluminum alloys presently contained in this chapter.9 3.3 3.2.1. fatigue and fracture toughness data. compressive.2 (which is based on Reference 3. Among the properties presented herein.7.1 3. which may be used in assessing the usefulness of the material for certain applications.6 3.7. Comments on the effect of temperature on properties are given in Sections 3.1.8 3.0 series cast alloys A201.7. Other properties.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES — The properties of the aluminum alloys are determined by the alloy content and method of fabrication.9.8 3.7 and 3.1.0 3.1. are either specified minimum properties or derived minimum properties related directly to the specified minimum properties.0 359.2.2 Alloy Designation 2000 series wrought alloys 2014 2107 2024 2025 2090 2124 2219 2519 2618 3000 series wrought alloys 4000 series wrought alloys 5000 series wrought alloys 5052 5083 5086 5454 5456 6000 series wrought alloys 6013 6061 Section 3.1(a)].9.1.3 3.7.1 ALUMINUM ALLOY INDEX — The layout of this chapter is in accordance with this fourdigit number system for both wrought and cast alloys [Reference 3.9.9. 3-2 . are indicative of the type of strengthening mechanism employed.4 3.5 3.2.7 3.9.6 3.5.1.3 3.2 3.1 3.2.1. Data on the effect of temperature on properties are presented so that percentages may be applied directly to the roomtemperature minimum properties.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 3.2 3.0 series cast alloys 354.7.0 355.2.5 3.2 3. while others are strengthened principally by solution heat treatment and precipitation hardening [Reference 3.1 3.2 3.7 3. 3.7.8 3.1 3. Aluminum Alloy Index Section 3.2.2 through 3.8 and 3.7 3.5.9 3.5.1(b)].3.4 3.2.9.5 3.7.9. shear and bearing properties. and modulus of elasticity values.0 A357.3 3. such as the stress-strain curve.1 3.5.6.2.7 3.0 300.1.4 3.2).0 356.1.1. Some alloys are strengthened principally by cold work.2 3.1.6 3.8.2.5 3. The wrought alloys are in Sections 3.0 A356. some.9.1. The temper designations. comments on the corrosion resistance are given in Section 3.7.3.5 3.4 3.9.

Basic temper designations consist of letters. O. has been partially annealed. It is based on the sequences of other than F. Temper Designation System for Aluminum Alloys Temper Designation Systemab the period of natural aging is indicated: example.2. The number following this designation indicates the degree of strain-hardening. there are no annealing. The and slightly higher elongation. with or without supplementary thermal treatments to produce H3 strain-hardened and stabilized.2. W ½ hr. resulting in different characteristics. the are annealed to obtain the lowest strength temper. following this designation indicates the degree of strain-hardening remaining after the product H strain-hardened (wrought products only). These designate specific sequences of basic treatThe first digit following H indicates the specific ments. Subdivisions of the basic tempers. Applies to products which are strain-hardened and whose some reduction in strength. An unstable temper applicable only to alloys which spontaneously age at room temperature after solution heattreatment. (2) mechanical property limits are registered. The T is always followed by one designation.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 3. The H is always mechanical properties are stabilized either by a followed by two or more digits. low temperature thermal treatment or as a result W solution heat-treated. to produce pers.H2 strain-hardened and partially annealed. Should some other variation of the same sequence of basic operations be applied to the H1 strain-hardened only. For other alloys. and (4) the following are also registered if characteristics other than mechanical properties are considered significant: (a) test methods and limits for the characteristics or (b) the specific practices used to produce the temper. as follows: are indicated. The temper designation follows the alloy stable tempers. Subdivisions of H Temper: Strain-hardened. Applies to wrought products which corresponding H3 tempers. Applies to products which are strain-hardened ing processes in which no special control over more than the desired final amount and then thermal conditions or strain-hardening is reduced in strength to the desired level by partial employed. for The temper designation system is used for all forms of wrought and cast aluminum and aluminum T thermally treated to produce stable tempers alloys except ingot. temperature. Applies to the products of shap. where required. This designation is specific only when a b From reference 3. ment. For wrought products.1. 3-3 . and aluminum alloy castings may be registered with the Aluminum Association provided: (1) the temper is used or is available for use by more than one user. Applies to products which are thermally treated. Applies to products which are strain-hardened to obtain the desired same alloy. (3) characteristics of the temper are significantly different from those of all other tempers which have the same sequence of basic treatments and for which designations already have been assigned for the same alloy and product. with or without basic treatments used to produce the various temsupplementary strain-hardening. or H. Applies to products which have their strength increased by strain-hardening. For alloys that age-soften at room mechanical property limits. the two being separated by a hyphen. are indicated by one or more digits following the letter. but only operations recognized as significantly influencing the characteristics of the product combination of basic operations. Temper designations conforming to this standard for wrought aluminum and wrought aluminum alloys. H2 tempers have the same minimum ultimate and to cast products which are annealed to tensile strength as the corresponding H1 tempers improve ductility and dimensional stability. Basic Temper Designations F as fabricated. The number O may be followed by a digit other than zero. or more digits. the H2 tempers have the same minimum ultimate tensile strength as the O annealed. then strength without supplementary thermal treatadditional digits are added to the designation.1.

through 7. the standard limits for ultimate tensile strength are Numerals 1 through 10 following the T indicate exactly midway between those of the adjacent two specific sequences of basic treatments. Applies to products which are cold worked to improve a two-digit temper. For Thermally Treated two-digit H tempers whose second digit is odd. Applies to products which are strength applicable to the 8 temper (75 percent cold not cold worked after cooling from an elevated reduction after full anneal). and about midway between 4 and 8 chanical property limits.d digit H tempers whose second digits are even. Numeral 9 designates tempers whose minimum ultimate tensile strength Subdivisions of T Temper: exceeds that of the 8 temper by 2. or in which the effect of both differ from. or when some other characteristic is significantly affected. cold reduction of approximately 35 percent after a full anneal. Products of the H temper whose mechanical properties are below H_1 shall be variations of H_1. unless stabilized.2. This designation is applicable only to those alloys which. Temper Designation System for Aluminum Alloys . or may not be recognized in mechanical property the 4 temper tensile strength may be established by a limits. gradually age-soften at room temperature. cold worked and naturally aged to a The third digitc. tempers by the numeral 6. Control of this period is exercised when it is metallurgically important. NuThree-digit H Tempers meral 8 has been assigned to indicate tempers having an ultimate tensile strength equivalent to that H_11 Applies to products which incur sufficient achieved by a cold reduction (temperature during strain hardening after the final anneal that reduction not to exceed 120F) of approximately they fail to qualify as annealed but not so 75 percent following a full anneal. the 6 temper tensile temperature shaping process. The digit following the designations H1. Material having an ultimate tensile strength about midway between that of the O temper H112 Applies to products which may acquire some and that of the 8 temper is designated by the numeral temper from working at an elevated 4. 3-4 .0 ksi or more. as follows. Tempers between much or so consistent an amount of strain O (annealed) and 8 are designated by numerals 1 hardening that they qualify as H_1. but are close to.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 3.1. when used. about midway between the O and 4 tempers by the temperature and for which there are menumeral 2. It is used when the degree of strength after cooling from an elevated tempercontrol of temper or the mechanical properties or ature shaping process. A period of natural aging at room temperature may occur between or after the operations listed for the T tempers. added. and H3 indicates the degree of strain hardening.Continued of heat introduced during fabrication. T2 cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process. indicates a variation of substantially stable condition. that (or those) for the two-digit H temper designation to which it is c d Numerals 1 through 9 may be arbitrarily assigned as the third digit and registered with The Aluminum Association for an alloy and product to indicate a variation of a two-digit H temper (see footnote b). T1 cooled from an elevated temperature shaping NOTE: For alloys which cannot be cold reduced an process and naturally aged to a substantially amount sufficient to establish an ultimate tensile stable condition. NOTE: The minimum ultimate tensile strength of a three-digit H temper must be at least as close to that of the corresponding two-digit H temper as it is to the adjacent two-digit H tempers. Stabilization usually improves ductility. H2. The number following this designation indicates the degree of strainhardening remaining after the stabilization treatment. or in which the strength may be established by a cold reduction of effect of cold work in flattening or straightening approximately 55 percent following a full anneal.

be recognized in mechanical property limits. Applies to wrought products that are artificially aged after solution heat-treatment to carry them beyond a point of maximum strength to provide control of some significant characteristic.1. artificially aged after solution heat-treatment to provide dimensional and strength stability. Temper Designation System for Aluminum Alloys . artificially aged. or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized T5 cooled from an elevated temperature shaping in mechanical property limits. 3-5 . Applies to products which are cold worked to improve strength. or in improve strength after solution heat-treatment. Stress Relieved by Stretching T7 solution heat-treated e and overaged/ T_51 stabilized. substantially stable condition. Applies to products which Applies to products which are cold worked to are cold worked to improve strength. cold worked. The following specific additional digits have been Applies to products which are not cold worked after solution heat-treatment or in which the assigned for stress-relieved tempers of wrought effect of cold work in flattening or straightening products: may not be recognized in mechanical property limits.T8 solution heat-treatede. T6. the first of which shall not be or in which the effect of cold work in flattening zero. T6 solution heat-treatede and artificially aged. Some 6000 series alloys attain the same specified mechanical properties whether furnace solution heat-treated or cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process at a rate rapid enough to hold constituents in solution. Applies to cast products that are e Applies to plate and rolled or cold-finished rod and bar when stretched the indicated amounts after solution heat-treatment or after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process. and artificially aged. artificially aged. For this purpose. Additional digits may be arbitrarily assigned and registered with the Aluminum Association for an alloy and product to indicate a variation of tempers T1 through T10 even though the temper representing the basic treatment has not been registered (see footnote b). T9 solution heat-treatede.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 3. T4. holding at that temperature long enough to allow constituents to enter into solid solution and cooling rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution. and rally aged to a substantially stable condition. Applies to products which are not cold worked after solution heat-treatment. T7. process and artificially aged.2. The test method and limit used to evaluate material for this characteristic are specified at the time of the temper registration. may be added to designations T1 through T10 or straightening may not be recognized in to indicate a variation in treatment which signifimechanical property limits. Variations in treatment which do not alter the characteristics of the product are considered alternate treatments for which additional digits are not assigned. Additional digitsf.Continued cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized in mechanical property limits. characteristic is something other than mechanical properties. which the effect of cold work in flattening or or in which the effect of cold work in flattening straightening is recognized in mechanical propor straightening is recognized in mechanical erty limits. Applies to products which are cold worked to improve strength. The products receive no further straightening after stretching. Applies to products which are not cold worked after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process. and e T4 solution heat-treated and naturally aged to a cold worked. T8. or in which the effect of T10 cooled from an elevated temperature shaping cold work in flattening or straightening may not process. f g Solution heat treatment is achieved by heating cast or wrought products to a suitable temperature. and T9 are used to apply to either process and are appropriate designations. cantly alters the product characteristicsg that are or would be obtained using the basic treatment. and natu. property limits. T3 solution heat-treatede. cold worked. In such cases the temper designations T3. cold worked.

Some examples are: “-T4 to -T6 Capability Compliance as for aging” or “-T351 to -T4 Capability Compliance as for resolution heat treating. Temper Designation System for Aluminum Alloys . Designation of Unregistered Tempers The letter P has been assigned to denote H. Drawn Tube .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 3. 1 to 5% permanent set. Stress Relieved by Compressing Assigned O Temper Variations T_52 Applies to products which are stress-relieved by compressing after solution heat-treatment The following temper designation has been or cooling from an elevated temperature assigned for wrought products high temperature anshaping process to produce a set of 1 to 3 nealed to accentuate ultrasonic response and provide percent.2.. These prod.h T42 Solution heat-treated from annealed or F temper and naturally aged to a substantially T_510 Applies to extruded rod.” Stress Relieved by Combined Stretching and Compressing 3-6 . These products receive no further straightening after Temper designations T42 and T62 may also be apstretching. when used. NOTE: As the O temper is not part of temperature shaping process. The following temper designations have been assigned for wrought product test material heattreated from annealed (O. ½ to 3% permanent set. Applicable to products which are to relieved by restriking cold in the finish die. Shapes in the mechanical properties applicable to these and Tube . strain-hardening is recognized in the mechanical properties or other characteristics.T62 Solution heat-treated from annealed or F treatment or after cooling from an elevated temper and artificially aged....) or F temper. plied to wrought products heat-treated from any temper by the user when such heat-treatment results Extruded Rod.. bar. to the designation W to indicate unstable solution heat-treated and stress-relieved treatment.. variations of O ucts may receive minor straightening after temper shall not apply to products which are strainstretching to comply with standard hardened after annealing and in which the effect of tolerances.. The letter P immediately follows the temper designation that h When the user requires capability demonstrations from T-temper.. etc.. tempers. O1. Rolled or Cold-Finished Rod and Bar . T and O temper variations that are negotiated between manufacturer and purchaser. indicates a indicated amounts after solution heat. 1 to 3% permanent set..1. shapes and stable condition. the seller shall note “capability compliance” adjacent to the specified ending tempers.. 54) may be added not applicable. O1 Thermally treated at approximately same time and temperature required for solution heat treatment and slow cooled to room temT_54 Applies to die forgings which are stress perature.product in the annealed condition have special chartreatment or after cooling from an elevated acteristics. 1 to 3% permanent set.. tube and to drawn tube when stretched the indicated amounts after solution heat.. Mechanical Property limits are NOTE: The same digits (51. bar. 52.Continued Plate .. Variations of O Temper: Annealed T_511 Applies to extruded rod. Bar. be machined prior to solution heat treatment by the user. shapes and tube and to drawn tube when stretched the A digit following the O.. 1½ to 3% permanent set.the strain-hardened (H) series. temperature shaping process. dimensional stability. Die or Ring Forgings and Rolled Rings .

preclude its registration. based upon the relationships among the properties developed by tests of at least ten lots of material and applied to the appropriate established A. Bearing strengths are given without reference to direction and may be assumed to be about the same in all directions. consequently.1. Tensile and compressive strengths are given for the longitudinal.) are different from those required for registration with the The use of the temper is sufficiently limited so as to Aluminum Association. The effect of temperature on these properties is indicated in figures which follow the tables. or extruded products. The results of bearing tests on longitudinal and long-transverse specimens taken edgewise from plate. and transverse properties should not be assumed to apply to the short-transverse direction unless so stated. 3-7 . It should be recognized not all combinations of stress and environment have been investigated. in cases where the stress condition approximates that of the longitudinal or long-transverse edgewise orientations.1(a). Shear.2.1 Strength (Tension.1. or S properties. the specified minimum values are stated for at least two directions. drawn. and it may be necessary to evaluate an alloy under the specific conditions involved for certain critical applications. shear.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 3. A reduction factor is used for edgewise bearing load in thick bare and clad plate of 2000 and 7000 series alloys.1. the specified minimum values are for the long-transverse (LT) direction.1 should be made. test specimen configuration. etc.2. while for sheet and plate of nonheat treatable alloys and for rolled. 3. the specified minimum values are for the longitudinal (L) direction. The design tensile properties in other directions and the compression. long-transverse. The A. The bearing specimen orientations in thick plate are shown in Figure 3. Bearing) — The design strength properties at room temperature are listed at the beginning of the section covering the properties of an alloy.1. B.1. the lesser of the applicable longitudinal or transverse properties should be used. Short-transverse strengths may be relatively low.Continued most nearly pertains. with the exception of plate.1.) on the same basis as required for registration with the Aluminum Association. number of designation may be applied include the following: samples. bearing specimens are oriented so that the width of the specimen is parallel to the surfaces of the plate (flatwise). and hand forging have shown that the edgewise bearing strengths are substantially lower than those of specimens taken parallel to the surface.2. All of these properties are representative of the regions from which production quality control specimens are taken. and hand forging. Specific examples where such The test conditions (sampling location. For sheet and plate of heattreatable alloys. Compression. For forgings. die forging.2. and bearing properties are “derived” properties. and shorttransverse directions wherever data are available. In those instances where the direction in which the material will be used is not known. Temper Designation System for Aluminum Alloys . the reductions in design values shown in Table 3. For plate. (Negotiated H temper variations were formerly indicated by the third digit The mechanical property limits are not established zero. die forging.1.and B-basis values for tensile properties for the direction associated with the specification requirements are based upon a statistical analysis of production quality control data obtained from specimens tested in accordance with procurement specification requirements. but may not be representative of the entire cross section of products appreciably thicker than the test specimen or products of complex cross sections.

the bearing test hole should not be located on the parting plane. For products other than hand forgings.1. In the case of die forgings. bearing data have been presented from tests made in accordance with ASTM E 238 which requires clean pins and specimens.1. the lowest shear strength exhibited by tests in the various grain 3-8 .001-6. Table 3.D = 2.. Bearing specimen orientation in thick plate. percent Thickness (in. Designers should consider a reduction factor in applying these values to structural analyses.2. However. bearing specimens are oriented edgewise and the specimens are positioned at the ½ thickness location. the location of bearing specimens is shown in Figures 3.2. For die forgings with cross-sectional shapes in the form of an I-beam or a channel. bulky-type die forgings.0) Fbry (e/D = 1. The specimens are positioned so the bearing test holes are midway between the parting plane and the top of the flange.1.000 15 10 5 5 It should be noted that in recent years. The standard test method for the determination of shear strength of aluminum alloy products. longitudinal bearing specimens are oriented edgewise to the parting plane.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Figure 3.1. For die and hand forgings.2.5) Fbry (e.1. for hand forgings. for consistency.1. is contained in ASTM B 769.1. as shown in Figure 3. longitudinal bearing specimens are oriented so the width of the specimens is normal to the parting plane (edgewise). in the case of large. or trapezoid. Shear strengths also vary to some extent with plane of shear and direction of loading but the differences are not so consistent [Reference 3. 3/16 inch and greater in thickness.1(b) and (c). See Reference 3.1(a). Shear strength values are presented without reference to grain direction.2.1. Bearing Property Reductions for Thick Plate of 2000 and 7000 Series Alloys.1(c).5) Fbru (e/D = 2.0) 1.1.1.. except for hand forgings. Similarly.) .1.1.2. with a cross-sectional shape similar to a square. but the specimens are positioned so the bearing test holes are located on the parting plane. therefore.1 for additional information. rectangle.1(c)]. The severity of metal flow at the parting plane near the flash can be expected to vary considerably for web-flange type die forgings. Bearing Property Reduction.1. bearing specimens are taken edgewise so that no reduction factor is necessary. Fbru (e/D = 1.2.

1. For clad aluminum sheet and plate products. directions is the design value. Figure 3. For clad sheet and plate (i. 3. For plate ≥ . high frequency fatigue. or primary. a supplemental table is provided.2. Short-transverse elongations may be relatively low. However. The initial. the shear strength in short-transverse direction may be significantly lower than for the other two grain directions.1(b).1.1. it is also important to distinguish between primary and secondary modulus values.2.1. the quality-control test specimens are machined from the core so the guaranteed tensile properties in specifications reflect the core material only.. Therefore.1(c). using the nominal total cladding thickness and the typical tensile properties of the cladding material..1. 3.499 inch). the cladding and the core). so that the guaranteed tensile properties and the associated derived values for these products directly represent the composite.2 Elongation — Elongation values are included in the tables of room-temperature mechanical properties. it applies only up to the proportional limit of the cladding. For hand forgings. and long-transverse values should not be assumed to apply to the short-transverse direction.1. are typical curves based on three or more lots of test data. which include elastic and compressive tangent moduli. the stress-strain relationships are no less useful. A typical use of primary moduli is for low amplitude. the primary modulus of 2024-T3 clad sheet applies only up to about 6 ksi. modulus represents an average of the elastic moduli of the core and cladding.e. For sheet and thin plate (≥0. the design tensile properties for the thicker material are obtained by adjustment of the specification tensile properties and the other related properties to represent the composite. 3-9 . containing thin surface layers of material of a different composition for added corrosion protection).2.3 Stress-Strain Relationship — The stress-strain relationships presented.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Figure 3. the primary modulus of 7075-T6 clad sheet applies only up to approximately 12 ksi. Bearing specimen orientation for web-flange type die forging. since there are well-known methods for using these curves in design by reducing them to a minimum curve affine to the typical curve or by using Ramberg-Osgood parameters obtained from the typical curves. For example. the shear strength for hand forgings is presented for each grain direction. Being typical.500 inch in thickness. these curves will not correspond to yield strength data presented as design allowables (minimum values).2.e.1. not the composite. Similarly. In some cases where the elongation is a function of material thickness.1. Consequently. the strength values are representative of the composite (i. the quality-control test specimens are of the full thickness. Bearing specimen orientation for thick cross-section die forging.

1.5 (d) through (q) for information on how to use high-strength aluminum alloys.2.2.1. average. Data for both smooth and notched specimens are presented. The localized high stresses induced in fabricated parts by such stress raisers are of much greater importance for repeated loading than they are for static loading and may reduce the fatigue life of fabricated parts far below that which would be predicted by comparing the smooth-specimen fatigue strength directly with the nominal calculated stresses for the parts in question.1. Minimum.1. notches.1.1.6. Graphic displays of the residual strength behavior of center-cracked tension panels are presented in the various alloy sections.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 3. holes.2.7 Cryogenic Temperatures — In general. the strengths at -452° F (liquid helium temperature) are nearly the same as at -423° F [References 3. 3. The points denote the experimental data from which the curve of fracture toughness was derived. the strengths (including fatigue strengths) of aluminum alloys increase with decrease in temperature below room temperature [References 3.4). Fatigue-crack-growth data are presented in the various alloy sections. Reference 3. and other similar conditions which are present in fabricated parts.1. None of the alloys exhibit a marked transition in fracture resistance over a narrow range of temperature indicative of embrittlement.6(a)] for the high-strength aluminum alloy products are presented in Table 3. The data presented do not apply directly to the design of structures because they do not take into account the effect of stress raisers such as reentrant corners. Although representative. [Reference 3.2.2.1.9.1.5(r) for details on the static and fatigue strengths of high-strength aluminum-alloy bolted joints.2.2.1.1.1.1.4 Creep and Stress Rupture — Sustained stressing at elevated temperature sufficient to result in appreciable amounts of creep deformation (e.5(s) for single-rivet fatigue-test data.6(b) through (j)].1.1.7(c) and (d)].1. the difference increasing with increase in temperature.4.1.2. elongation and various indices of toughness remain nearly constant or increase with decrease in temperature.5(a) through (c)].2. the fatigue strengths are somewhat lower than at room temperature. the values should be considered to be representative for the respective alloys.1.2. 3.3(b) for a general discussion of designing for fatigue. At elevated temperatures. KIc. It may be necessary to evaluate an alloy under its stress-temperature environment for critical applications where sustained loading is anticipated (see Reference 3. these values do not have the statistical reliability of the room-temperature mechanical properties. The data from which the curves were developed were insufficient to establish scatter bands and do not have the statistical reliability of the room-temperature mechanical properties. joints.1.2. 3. The fatigue strengths of aluminum alloys.. with both notched and unnotched specimens.2. The increase is greatest over the range from about -100 to -423° F (liquid hydrogen temperature).6 Fracture Toughness — Typical values of plane-strain fracture toughness. and Reference 1.g.2.5 Fatigue— Fatigue S/N curves are presented for those alloys for which sufficient data are available.1.7(d) and (e)].1. Reference 3. while for the 7000 series.7(a) and (b)].1. more than 0. 3-10 . and maximum values as well as coefficient of variation are presented for the alloys and tempers for which valid data are available [References 3.2.1. See References 3.1. rough surfaces.2 percent) may result in decreased strength and ductility.1. are at least as high or higher at subzero temperatures than at room temperature [References 3.1. For most alloys.2.1.1.1. modest reductions are observed [References 3.1.

5-2.g.0-2.5-2.0 0.5-2.0 2. Coefficient of Variation 8.8 ------------$1.5 2.5-1.4 9.5 $0.5 1.6. 19 18 24 18 27 20 15 18 15 19 14 18 19 16 30 20 20 19 23 20 30 22 25 19 34 28 29 31 26 26 30 25 26 30 25 27 30 26 2014-T651 2014-T651 2014-T652 2014-T652 2024-T351 2024-T851 2024-T851 2024-T851 2024-T852 2024-T852 2024-T852 2124-T851 2124-T851 2124-T851 2219-T851 2219-T851 2219-T851 2219-T851 2219-T8511 2219-T852 2219-T852 2219-T852 2219-T87 2219-T87 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 Plate Plate Hand Forging Hand Forging Plate Plate Plate Plate Forging Hand Forging Hand Forging Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Forging Extrusion Forging Hand Forging Hand Forging Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate L-T T-L L-T T-L L-T L-S L-T T-L T-L L-T T-L L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L S-L S-L T-L S-L L-T T-L L-T T-L L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L $0.1 12.3-1.1 9.0 0.2 2. 25 23 48 30 43 32 32 25 25 38 22 38 32 27 38 37 26 34 34 35 46 30 34 22 39 31 33 34 27 28 34 28 28 37 29 30 33 29 Avg.0-7.8-2. d Varies with thickness.5 0.0 0.6-6.8 4.8 14.1.8 7.7 5.5 0.4.0-1. As a result.9 5. c Refer to Figure 1.4-4.9 2.4-3.Table 3.5 0.5 1.0 $0.2 10. ksi %& in.0 0.3 3.7-2.7 9.12.0 $0.7-2.0 0.8-2.5-1. Values of Room-Temperature Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Aluminum Alloysa Product Thickness Range.5 $0.1.4 6.4 14.5 2.2.8 0.1 8.5 17.5 ---$1.8-2.5 $0.2 2.4 16.5 $1.5-0.7 8. .0 3.8-2.0 $0.3 12.4 0.8-2.0 0.4-1.5 0.8 15.0 1. inches KIC. b Products that do not receive a mechanical stress-relieving process (e.0 1.5 ---3-4 3-4 3-4 4-5 4-5 4-5 5-6 5-6 5-6 6-7 6-7 6-7 7-8 7-8 1 2 2 2 2 4 11 9 3 4 2 13 10 6 4 6 3 1 1 2 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 34 15 15 11 11 102 80 20 35 17 497 509 489 67 108 24 85 19 60 32 28 11 11 16 16 14 17 17 17 17 14 16 21 21 21 18 16 0.8-2.0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 24 20 18 3-11 31 26 24 30 25 24 29 23 24 27 22 23 26 22 a These values are for information only.0 ------$0.0 0.5-2.6 12.0 1.7 Minimum Specification Value Supersedes page 3-11 of MIL-HDBK-5H Alloy/Temperb Product Form Orientationc Sample Size Max.5 21.8 $1.4 0.8 0.0 0. 22 21 31 21 31 25 23 20 19 28 18 29 25 21 33 29 22 25 29 25 38 27 27 22 37 30 31 32 26 26 32 25 27 34 27 29 32 28 Min.5 0.5 18.2 2.4-1.1 9.5 1.4 10.0 0.8 10.7 3.8-2.0 0.4 9.5-1.0 1. inches Number of Sources Specimen Thickness Range.3 for definition of symbols.2 2.5 1.8-2. care must be taken to prevent fracture toughness properties from bias resulting from residual stresses.8 4. -T73 & -T74 tempers) have the potential for induced residual stresses.

0 2.5 1.5-2.5 $0.2 20.8-1.1 1.12.0 0.0 0.5-1.0 $0.7 7.5 1.0-1.5-1.5 $0.0 1.9-1.6-7.6 8. 29 31 24 26 30 22 30 22 19 35 30 28 24 32 28 23 31 21 19 31 26 22 18 27 24 29 21 21 31 23 30 27 22 20 35 Min.5 0.7-5.5-2.6.5 3.0-6.9 10.5 0.7-3.0 0.8 1.g. b Products that do not receive a mechanical stress-relieving process (e.3 for definition of symbols.6-2.4-2.9 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 13 9 6 1 1 1 2 7 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 8 6 3 1 3 13 17 13 17 21 46 28 27 24 31 29 30 12 96 97 44 11 13 17 38 99 135 37 26 25 13 13 22 10 14 65 56 20 19 28 2 2 2 2 0.0-7.0 0.5-1.0-6.0 1.3 8.5-2.0-6. inches Number of Sources Specimen Thickness Range.2 9.1.5 14. care must be taken to prevent fracture toughness properties from bias resulting from residual stresses.2.6-2.5 ---0.4 Minimum Specification Value 23 26 22 22 Supersedes page 3-12 of MIL-HDBK-5H Alloy/Temperb Product Form Orientationc Sample Size Max.5 0.0 1.1 12.0 $1.0 0.5-1.5 8-8.4 7.5 3.6 8.1 ---$1.5-1.0 1.Table 3.8-1.7 12.5 7.5-1.5 3.0-2.4 $0.0 0.8 9.0-1.5 8-8.5-7.7 9.5-0.0 0.5 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.6 6.5-1.5 4.5 0.3 8. 31 34 26 27 34 26 37 28 22 43 35 30 27 39 38 28 34 22 21 40 30 27 22 32 28 35 24 25 39 27 36 47 38 22 43 Avg.0 1.0 2.0 $1.7-5.6 8.7-2.5 0.5 0. -T73 & -T74 tempers) have the potential for induced residual stresses.5 2.5 ---$0. Coefficient of Variation 4.0 $0.0 $0.5-2.0 d d d d d d 3-12 a These values are for information only.1 32.8 8.0 2.2 0.0 3.0 8. As a result.2 11.6 $0. inches KIC. 26 28 23 25 27 18 23 18 14 28 25 25 21 25 21 21 26 18 16 27 20 18 14 23 21 24 17 18 29 20 25 21 17 19 31 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7040-T7451 7049-T73 7049-T73 7049-T73 7049-T73 7049-T73 7050-T7351 7050-T7351 7050-T7351 7050-T74 7050-T7451 7050-T7451 7050-T7451 7050-T7452 7050-T7452 7050-T7452 7050-T76511 7075-T651 7075-T651 7075-T651 7075-T6510 7075-T6510 7075-T6510 7075-T6510 7075-T73 7075-T73 7075-T73 7075-T7351 7075-T7351 7075-T7351 7075-T73511 7075-T73511 Plate Plate Plate Plate Die Forging Die Forging Hand Forging Hand Forging Hand Forging Plate Plate Plate Die Forging Plate Plate Plate Hand Forging Hand Forging Hand Forging Extrusion Plate Plate Plate Extrusion Extrusion Forged Bar Forged Bar Die Forging Hand Forging Hand Forging Plate Plate Plate Extrusion Extrusion S-L L-T T-L S-L L-T S-L L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L S-L S-L L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L S-L L-T L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L L-T T-L T-L L-T T-L L-T T-L S-L T-L L-T 7-8 8-8.9 8. .0 0.0 0.5-5.5-2. ksi%& in.0 6.7 15.4.5 0.6 4.6-2.0 11.0-7.5 ---$1.0-2.8 11. Values of Room-Temperature Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Aluminum Alloysa—Continued Product Thickness Range.2 0.0 0.4 9.1.8 7.1 7.5 1.6 5.7-2.7-3.0 0.5-2.0 0.8-1.0 1. c Refer to Figure 1.0 0.5-7.5 0.

-T73 & -T74 tempers) have the potential for induced residual stresses.0 0. ksi%& in.8 9.9 15.0 0.8 13.7 9.2 14.0 $0.0 0.0-1.9 17.4 10. b Products that do not receive a mechanical stress-relieving process (e.8 3.5 $0.5 7.8-1.4-3.8 0. care must be taken to prevent fracture toughness properties from bias resulting from residual stresses.5 1.0 0.8-2.0 0.9 10.7 6.7 3.6 4.0 0.6 0.7 8.1 7.5 16.8 0.5 0.0 1.8-1.5 $0.5-1.9-2.9 9.5-0.0 0.3 $0.6 1.5-2.8 0.5-0.5-0.6 ---0. inches Number of Sources Specimen Thickness Range.5-1.0 0. inches KIC.0-2.7-0.7 $0.7-1.0 3 3 2 3 6 7 5 2 2 4 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 5 5 3 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 4 3 2 1 8 7 7 4 2 35 15 27 20 82 96 28 30 56 11 42 25 17 10 14 30 32 43 43 14 13 41 10 53 50 12 11 48 49 34 143 23 151 132 74 10 15 0. Values of Room-Temperature Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Aluminum Alloysa—Continued Product Thickness Range.0 0.3-4.8 7.6 1. .8 1.3-7.6 0.2.5 0.5-1.5-0.3 9.6 1.0 0.5 Minimum Specification Value Supersedes page 3-13 of MIL-HDBK-5H Alloy/Temperb Product Form Orientationc Sample Size Max.0 3-13 30 22 27 21 21 25 30 28 d d 25 33 30 a These values are for information only.0 10.8 $0.7 $0.0 ------------1.5-1.g.5-0.8-2.7-0.5 ---$0.6 0.0-5.6-2. 35 22 39 33 43 28 20 30 28 41 36 24 30 26 36 36 30 47 35 38 33 31 29 33 28 32 26 39 31 49 43 36 60 50 36 46 50 Avg.8 0.8 $0.0 15.5-1.0-2.7-3.8 14.0 0.7 11.0 0.8 0.5-1.6-2.5 0.8 $0. As a result.0 0.6 1.8 4.5 0.5 $0.Table 3.1 1.1.6-1.6.3 4.0 $1.0 1.2 9.2 9.0 0.3 10.5 3.0 9.4-0.9-2.5-2.0 0.0 $1.6 7. Coefficient of Variation 20.0 15.3 3. 23 20 33 26 29 23 18 25 24 35 23 21 26 22 32 33 27 33 25 30 24 26 26 32 27 32 25 33 22 38 34 28 47 37 30 41 36 Min.6-2.2 9.5 $0.0 0.6 0.2 ------------------$0. 12 17 30 23 22 20 15 22 21 31 20 18 24 20 24 32 25 23 20 22 21 20 24 30 25 31 24 27 20 33 27 20 34 29 25 36 29 7075-T73511 7075-T73511 7075-T7352 7075-T7352 7075-T7651 7075-T7651 7075-T7651 7075-T7651 7075-T7651 7075-T76511 7075-T76511 7175-T6/T6511 7175-T651 7175-T651 7175-T6511 7175-T7351 7175-T7351 7175-T73511 7175-T73511 7175-T74 7175-T74 7175-T74 7175-T74 7175-T7651 7175-T7651 7175-T7651 7175-T7651 7175-T76511 7175-T76511 7475-T651 7475-T651 7475-T651 7475-T7351 7475-T7351 7475-T7351 7475-T7651 7475-T7651 Extrusion Extrusion Hand Forging Hand Forging Plate Plate Plate Clad Plate Clad Plate Extrusion Extrusion Extrusion Plate Plate Extrusion Plate Plate Extrusion Extrusion Die Forging Die Forging Die Forging Hand Forging Clad Plate Clad Plate Plate Plate Extrusion Extrusion Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate T-L S-L L-T T-L L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L L-T T-L T-L L-T T-L L-T L-T T-L L-T T-L L-T T-L S-L T-L L-T T-L L-T T-L L-T T-L L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L $0.7-1.5 0.0 0.4 8.5-1.5 1.5 1.2-2.6-2.7 7.4-1.1.3-3.7 1.

.1. in Btu/[(hr)(ft2)(EF)/ft]. more quantitative information in the form of the maximum specified tension stresses at which test specimens will not fail when subjected to the alternate immersion stress-corrosion test described in ASTM G 47 are shown in Tables 3. graphs of physical property as a function of temperature are presented for the applicable alloys.2. i. depending upon product.1(b) through (e) for various heat-treated aluminum product forms.e.1. -320. the average values of certain — physical properties are included in the room-temperature tables for each alloy. and sustained service loads.2.1. 3. the precipitation heat-treated tempers of 2024 and 2219 alloys are recommended over the naturally aged tempers. the H34 through H38 tempers of 5086. the thermal conductivity.1.1. 7149. 2219.1. and tempers. 7175. 2618. Other alloy-temper combinations.MIL-HDBK-5H.1(a). Pin-hole flaws in some corrosion protection coatings may also be sufficient to allow SCC to occur.1. 7075. above the room temperature values [Reference 3. Alloys 5083. because of the hazard of developing susceptibility to stresscorrosion cracking. further time at temperature beyond that required to achieve peak hardness results in the aforementioned decrease in strength and increase in toughness [Reference 3.7(f)]. straightening.1. Exceptions to the general trends are tempers developed by solution heat treatment without subsequent aging.2.1. and the mean coefficient of thermal expansion. 2124. the strengths of aluminum alloys decrease and toughness increases with increase in temperature and with time at temperature above room temperature. and 7475 in the T73-type tempers. These stresses may be tensile or compressive.3.3.3. 7475. 7175. Where more extensive data are available to show the effect of temperature on these physical properties. 12. 7050.8 Elevated Temperatures — In general.3. direction and magnitude of stress. including solution heat treatment.3 Corrosion Resistance — [see References 3. and 7050 provide an intermediate degree of resistance to stress-corrosion cracking. The T74 and T76 tempers of 7010. section size. 3. The high-strength heat treatable wrought aluminum alloys in certain tempers are susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking. clamping. and -423EF. in in. 7075. Where short times at elevated temperatures of 150 to 500EF may be encountered./in. and 16 percent. 6000.2. the effect is generally greatest over the temperature range from 212 to 400EF. letter ratings indicating the relative resistance to stress-corrosion cracking of various mill product forms of the wrought 2000. 2025. 7075. and 5456 should not be used under high constant applied stress for continuous service at temperatures exceeding 150EF. and 7475 in the T6-type tempers and 2014. and the H32 through H38 tempers Supersedes page 3-14 of MIL-HDBK-5H 3-14 . notably 2024.1. they are approximately 5. superior to that of the T6 temper. K.or T8-type tempers and 7010. In addition. fit-up. in Btu/(lb)(EF). 7049. are decidedly more resistant and sustained tensile stresses of 50 to 75 percent of the minimum yield strength may be permitted without concern about stress corrosion cracking./EF. and 2519 in the T6. 7049. This table is based upon ASTM G 64 which contains more detailed information regarding this rating system and the procedure for determining the ratings.1(a) through 3.1. 7150.2 Physical Properties Where available from the literature.2. 3. These properties include density. α. but not as good as that of the T73 temper of 7075.2. in lb/in.8]. To assist in the selection of materials. In general. 5086. forming.2. C. ω. These alloys include 2014.2. respectively. alloys.2. and the stresses due to Poisson effects should not be ignored because SCC failures can be caused by sustained shear stresses. 2124. 2024. 7149.1 Resistance to Stress-Corrosion Cracking (d)] — In-service stress-corrosion cracking failures can be caused by stresses produced from a wide variety of sources. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 The tensile and shear moduli of aluminum alloys also increase with decreasing temperature so that at -100. and 7000 series heat-treated aluminum alloys are presented in Table 3.1. the specific heat. and 2219 in the T3 and T4-type tempers. for which the initial elevated temperature exposure results in some age hardening and reduction in toughness.3.

1.1(a). Resistance to Stress-Corrosion Ratingsa for High-Strength Aluminum Alloy Products Alloy and Temperb 2014-T6 2024-T3.3. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 3.2. T37 2219-T6 2219-T85XX. T4 2024-T6 2024-T8 Test Directionc L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST Rolled Plate A Be D A Be D f f f Rod and Bard A D D A D D A B B A A A f f f f f f Extruded Shapes A Be D A Be D f f f Forging B Be D f f f 2124-T8 2219-T351X. T87 6061-T6 7040-T7451 7049-T73 A A B A A B A B D A A A A A A A A A A A B A A A f f f A A B f f f A Ae D A A C f f f f f f A A A f f f A A A f f f f f f f f f f f f A B D A A A A A A A A A f f f A A A A A A A A A f f f 7049-T76 7050-T74 7050-T76 7075-T6 7075-T73 A A B A A C A Be D A A A A B B A D D A A A A A B A A C A A B A A C A Be D A A A A A A f f f A A B f f f A Be D A A A Supersedes page 3-15 of MIL-HDBK-5H 3-15 .MIL-HDBK-5H.

MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001
Table 3.1.2.3.1(a). Resistance to Stress-Corrosion Ratingsa for High-Strength Aluminum Alloy Products—Continued
Alloy and Temperb 7075-T74 7075-T76 7149-T73 Test Directionc L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST L LT ST Rolled Plate
f f f

Rod and Bard
f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f

Extruded Shapes
f f f

Forging A A B
f f f

A A C
f f f f f f

A A C A A B
f f f f f f f f f f f f

7175-T74 7475-T6 7475-T73

A A A A A B
f f f f f f f f f

7475-T76

A Be D A A A A A C

a Ratings were determined from stress corrosion tests performed on at least ten random lots for which test results showed 90% conformance with 95% confidence when tested at the following stresses. A Equal to or greater than 75% of the specified minimum yield strength. A very high rating. SCC not anticipated in general applications if the total sustained tensile stress* is less than 75% of the minimum specified yield stress for the alloy, heat treatment, product form, and orientation. Equal to or greater than 50% of the specified minimum yield strength. A high rating. SCC not anticipated if the total sustained tensile stress* is less than 50% of the specified minimum yield stress. Equal to or greater than 25% of the specified minimum yield stress or 14.5 ksi, whichever is higher. An intermediate rating. SCC not anticipated if the total sustained tensile stress* is less than 25% of the specified minimum yield stress. This rating is designated for the short transverse direction in improved products used primarily for high resistance to exfoliation corrosion in relatively thin structures where applicable short transverse stresses are unlikely. Fails to meet the criterion for the rating C. A low rating. SCC failures have occurred in service or would be anticipated if there is any sustained tensile stress* in the designated test direction. This rating currently is designated only for the short transverse direction in certain materials.

B -

C -

D -

NOTE - The above stress levels are not to be interpreted as “threshold” stresses, and are not recommended for design. Other documents, such as MIL-STD-1568, NAS SD-24, and MSFC-SPEC-522A, should be consulted for design recommendations. * The sum of all stresses, including those from service loads (applied), heat treatment, straightening, forming, etc.

Supersedes page 3-16 from MIL-HDBK-5H

3-16

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998
Table 3.1.2.3.1(a). Resistance to Stress-Corrosion Ratings TM for High Strength Aluminum Alloy Products - Continued
b The ratings apply to standard mill products in the types of tempers indicated, including stress-relieved tempers, and could be invalidated in some cases by application of nonstandard thermal treatments of mechanical deformation at room temperature by the user. c Test direction refers to orientation of the stressing direction relative to the directional grain structure typical of wrought materials, which in the case of extrusions and forgings may not be predictable from the geometrical cross section of the product. LLongitudinal: parallel to the direction of principal metal extension during manufacture of the product. LTLong Transverse: perpendicular to direction of principal metal extension. In products whose grain structure clearly shows directionality (width to thickness ratio greater than two) it is that perpendicular direction parallel to the major grain dimension. STShort Transverse: perpendicular to direction of principal metal extension and parallel to minor dimension of grains in products with significant grain directionality. d Sections with width-to-thickness ratio equal to or less than two for which there is no distinction between LT and ST. e Rating is one class lower for thicker sections: extrusion, 1 inch and over; plate and forgings, 1.5 inches and over. f Ratings not established because the product is not offered commercially. NOTE: This table is based upon ASTM G 64.

REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.

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MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001

Table 3.1.2.3.1(b). Maximum Specified Tension Stress at Which Test Specimens Will Not Fail in 3½% NaCl Alternate Immersion Testa for Various Stress Corrosion Resistant Aluminum Alloy Plate Alloy and Temper 2024-T851 2090-T81c 2124-T851 2124-T8151c 2219-T851 Test Direction ST ST ST ST ST Thickness, inches 1.001-4.000 4.001-6.000 0.750-1.500 1.500-1.999 2.000-4.000 4.001-6.000 1.500-3.000 3.001-5.000 5.001-6.000 0.750-2.000 2.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 5.001-6.000 0.750-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 0.750-4.000 0.750-3.000 3.001-5.000 5.001-5.500 0.750-3.000 3.001-5.500 0.750-5.500 0.750-5.000 0.750-6.000 0.750-3.000 0.750-2.000 2.001-2.500 2.501-4.000 0.750-1.000 0.750-1.000 0.750-3.000 0.750-4.000 0.750-1.500 Stress, ksi 28b 27b 20 28b 28b 27b 30b 29b 28b 34d 33d 32d 31d 38d 37d 36d 43d 41d 40d 39d 31b 35 25 45 35 25 42d 39d 36d 25 25 25 40 25 Referenced Specifications Company specification AMS 4303 AMS 4101 AMS-QQ-A-0025/29, ASTM B 209, AMS 4101 AMS 4221 AMS-QQ-A-250/30

2219-T87 2519-T87 7010-T7351c 7010-T7451 7010-T7651 7049-T7351 7050-T7451 7050-T7651 7075-T7351 7075-T7651 Clad 7075-T7651 7150-T7751 7475-T7351 7475-T7651

ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST

AMS-QQ-A-250/30 MIL-A-46192 AMS 4203 AMS 4205 AMS 4204 AMS 4200 AMS 4050 AMS 4201 AMS-QQ-A-250/12, AMS 4078, ASTM B 209 AMS-QQ-A-00250/24, ASTM B 209 AMS-QQ-A-00250/25, ASTM B 209 AMS 4252 AMS 4202 AMS 4089

a Most specifications reference ASTM G 47, which requires exposures of 10 days for 2XXX alloys and 20 days for 7XXX alloys in ST test direction. b 50% of specified minimum long transverse yield strength. c Design values are not included in MIL-HDBK-5. d 75% of specified minimum long transverse yield strength.

DO NOT USE STRESS VALUES FOR DESIGN

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Table 3.1.2.3.1(c). Maximum Specified Tension Stress at Which Test Specimens Will Not Fail in 3½% NaCl Alternate Immersion Testa for Various Stress Corrosion Resistant Aluminum Alloy Rolled Bars, Rods, and Extrusions
Alloy and Temper 7075-T73-T7351 2219-T8511 7049-T73511 7049-T76511d 7050-T73511 7050-T74511 7050-T76511 7075-T73-T73510-T73511 Product Form Rolled Bar and Rod Extrusion Extrusion Extrusion Extrusion Extrusion Extrusion Extrusion Test Direction ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST Thickness, inches 0.750-3.000 0.750-3.000 0.750-2.999 3.000-5.000 0.750-5.000 0.750-5.000 0.750-5.000 0.750-5.000 0.750-1.499 1.500-2.999 3.000-4.999 3.000-4.999 0.750-1.000 0.750-2.999 3.000-5.000 0.750-2.000 0.750-2.000 Stress, ksi 42b 30 41c 40c 20 45 35 17 45b 44b 42b 41b,e 25 41c 40c 25 44 Referenced Specifications AMS-QQ-A-225/9, AMS 4124, ASTM B211 AMS 4162, AMS 4163 AMS 4157 AMS 4159 AMS 4341 AMS 4342 AMS 4340 AMS-QQ-A-200/11, AMS 4166, AMS 4167, ASTM B 211

7075-T76-T76510-T76511 7149-T73511d 7150-T77511 7175-T73511
a b c d e

Extrusion Extrusion Extrusion Extrusion

ST ST ST ST

AMS-QQ-A-200/15, ASTM B 221 AMS 4543 AMS 4345 AMS 4344

Most specifications reference ASTM G 47, which requires exposures of 10 days for 2XXX alloys and 20 days for 7XXX alloys in ST test direction. 75% of specified minimum longitudinal yield strength. 65% of specified minimum longitudinal yield strength. Design values are not included in MIL-HDBK-5. Over 20 square inches cross-sectional area.

DO NOT USE STRESS VALUES FOR DESIGN

MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001

Table 3.1.2.3.1(d). Maximum Specified Tension Stress at Which Test Specimens Will Not Fail in 3½% NaCl Alternate Immersion Testa for Various Stress Corrosion Resistant Aluminum Die Forgings

Alloy and Temper 7049-T73 7050-T74 7050-T7452 7075-T73

Test Direction ST ST ST ST

Thickness, inches 0.750-2.000 2.001-5.000 0.750-6.000 0.750-4.000 0.750-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 5.001-6.000 0.750-4.000 3.001-4.000 0.750-3.000 0.750-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 5.001-6.000 0.750-2.000 2.001-5.000 0.750-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 5.001-6.000 0.750-3.000

Stress, ksi 46b 45b 35 35 42b 41b 39b 38b 42b 39b 42 35 31d 30d 29d 46b 45b 35 31d 30d 29d 35

Referenced Specifications QQ-A-367, AMS 4111, ASTM B 247 AMS 4107 AMS 4333 MIL-A-22771, QQ-A-367 AMS 4241, ASTM B 247 AMS 4141 MIL-A-22771, QQ-A-367, AMS 4147, ASTM B 247 Company Specification AMS 4131

7075-T7352 7075-T7354 7075-T74c
c

ST ST ST

7149-T73 7175-T74

ST ST

AMS 4320 AMS 4149, ASTM B 247 AMS 4149 AMS 4179

7175-T7452c
a b c d

ST

Most specifications Reference ASTM G 47, which requires 20 days of exposure for 7XXX alloys in ST test direction. 75% of specified minimum longitudinal yield strength. Design values are not included in MIL-HDBK-5. 50% of specified minimum longitudinal yield strength.

DO NOT USE STRESS VALUES FOR DESIGN

Supersedes page 3-20 from MIL-HDBK-5H

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MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001
Table 3.1.2.3.1(e). Maximum Specified Tension Stress at Which Test Specimens Will Not Fail in 3½% NaCl Alternate Immersion Testa for Various Stress Corrosion Resistant Aluminum Hand Forgings

Alloy and Temper 7049-T73 7049-T7352c 7050-T7452 7075-T73

Test Direction ST ST ST ST

Thickness, inches 2.001-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 0.750-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 0.750-8.000 0.750-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-4.000 5.001-6.000 0.750-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 5.001-6.000 0.750-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 5.001-6.000 0.750-2.000 2.001-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 5.001-6.000 2.000-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 0.750-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 4.001-6.000 0.750-3.000 3.001-4.000 4.001-5.000 5.001-6.000

Stress, ksi 45b 44b 42b 44b 43b 40b 35 42b 41b 39b 38b 39d 37d 36d 34d 35 30e 28e 27e 35 29f 28f 26f 24f 44d 43d 42d 35 29f 28f 26f 35 27f 26f 24f

Referenced Specifications QQ-A-367, AMS 4111, ASTM B 247 AMS 4247 AMS 4108 MIL-A-22771, QQ-A-367, ASTM B 247

7075-T7352

ST

AMS 4147

7075-T74c

ST

AMS 4131

7075-T7452c

ST

AMS 4323

7149-T73 7175-T74

ST ST

AMS 4320 AMS 4149

7175-T7452

ST

AMS 4179

a b c d e f

Most specifications Reference ASTM G 47, which requires 20 days of exposure for 7XXX alloys in ST test direction. 75% of specified minimum longitudinal yield strength. Design values are not included in MIL-HDBK-5. 75% of specified minimum long transverse yield strength. 50% of specified minimum longitudinal yield strength. 50% of specified minimum long transverse yield strength.

DO NOT USE STRESS VALUES FOR DESIGN

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MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001

of 5083 and 5456 are not recommended, because these tempers can become susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking. For the cold forming of 5083 sheet and plate in the H112, H321, H323, and H343 tempers and 5456 sheet and plate in the H112 and H321 tempers, a minimum bend radius of 5T should be used. Hot forming of the O temper for alloys 5083 and 5456 is recommended, and is preferred to the cold worked tempers to avoid excessive cold work and high residual stress. If the cold worked tempers are heat-treatable alloys are heated for hot forming, a slight decrease in mechanical properties, particularly yield strength, may result.
3.1.2.3.2 Resistance to Exfoliation [Reference 3.1.2.3.2] —The high-strength wrought aluminum alloys in certain tempers are susceptible to exfoliation corrosion, dependent upon product and section size. Generally those alloys and tempers that have the lowest resistance to stress-corrosion cracking also have the lowest resistance to exfoliation. The tempers that provide improved resistance to stresscorrosion cracking also provide improved resistance or immunity to exfoliation. For example, the T76 temper of 7075, 7049, 7050, and 7475 provides a very high resistance to exfoliation, i.e., decidedly superior to the T6 temper, and almost the immunity provided by the T73 temper of 7075 alloy (see Reference 3.1.2.3.2).

3.1.3 MANUFACTURING CONSIDERATIONS 3.1.3.1 Avoiding Stress-Corrosion Cracking — In order to avoid stress-corrosion cracking (see Section 3.1.2.3), practices, such as the use of press or shrink fits; taper pins; clevis joints in which tightening of the bolt imposes a bending load on female lugs; and straightening or assembly operations; which result in sustained surface tensile stresses (especially when acting in the short-transverse grain orientation), should be avoided in these high-strength alloys: 2014-T451, T4, T6, T651, T652; 2024-T3, T351, T4; 7075-T6, T651, T652; 7150-T6151, T61511; and 7475-T6, T651. Where straightening or forming is necessary, it should be performed when the material is in the freshly quenched condition or at an elevated temperature to minimize the residual stress induced. Where elevated temperature forming is performed on 2014-T4 T451, or 2024-T3 T351, a subsequent precipitation heat treatment to produce the T6 or T651, T81 or T851 temper is recommended. It is good engineering practice to control sustained short-transverse tensile stress at the surface of structural parts at the lowest practicable level. Thus, careful attention should be given in all stages of manufacturing, starting with design of the part configuration, to choose practices in the heat treatment, fabrication, and assembly to avoid unfavorable combinations of end grain microstructure and sustained tensile stress. The greatest danger arises when residual, assembly, and service stress combine to produce high sustained tensile stress at the metal surface. Sources of residual and assembly stress have been the most contributory to stress-corrosion-cracking problems because their presence and magnitude were not recognized. In most cases, the design stresses (developed by functional loads) are not continuous and would not be involved in the summation of sustained tensile stress. It is imperative that, for materials with low resistance to stress-corrosion cracking in the short-transverse grain orientation, every effort be taken to keep the level of sustained tensile stress close to zero. 3.1.3.2 Cold-Formed Heat-Treatable Aluminum Alloys — Cold working such as stretch forming of aluminum alloy prior to solution heat treatment may result in recrystallization or grain growth during heat treatment. The resulting strength, particularly yield strength, may be significantly below the specified minimum values. For critical applications, the strength should be determined on the part after forming and heat treating including straightening operations. To minimize recrystallization during heat treatment, it is recommended that forming be done after solution heat treatment in the asquenched condition whenever possible, but this may result in compressive yield strength in the direction of stretching being lower than MIL-HDBK-5 design allowables for user heat treat tempers.

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MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001

3.1.3.3 Dimensional Changes — The dimensional changes that occur in aluminum alloy during thermal treatment generally are negligible, but in a few instances these changes may have to be considered in manufacturing. Because of many variables involved, there are no tabulated values for these dimensional changes. In the artificial aging of alloy 2219 from the T42, T351, and T37 tempers to the T62, T851, and T87 tempers, respectively, a net dimensional growth of 0.00010 to 0.0015 in./in. may be anticipated. Additional growth of as much as 0.0010 in./in. may occur during subsequent service of a year or more at 300°F or equivalent shorter exposures at higher temperatures. The dimensional changes that occur during the artificial aging of other wrought heat-treatable alloys are less than one-half that for alloy 2219 under the same conditions. 3.1.3.4 Welding — The ease with which aluminum alloys may be welded is dependent principally upon composition, but the ease is also influenced by the temper of the alloy, the welding process, and the filler metal used. Also, the weldability of wrought and cast alloys is generally considered separately. Several weldability rating systems are established and may be found in publications by the Aluminum Association, American Welding Society, and the American Society for Metals. Handbooks from these groups can be consulted for more detailed information. Specification AA-R-566 also contains useful information. This document follows most of these references in adopting a four level rating system. An “A” level, or readily weldable, means that the alloy (and temper) is routinely welded by the indicated process using commercial procedures. A “B” level means that welding is accomplished for many applications, but special techniques are required, and the application may require preliminary trials to develop procedures and tests to demonstrate weld performance. A “C” level refers to limited weldability because crack sensitivity, loss of corrosion resistance, and/or loss of mechanical properties may occur. A “D” level indicates that the alloy is not commercially weldable. The weldability of aluminum alloys is rated by alloy, temper, and welding process (arc or resistance). Tables 3.1.3.4(a) and (b) list the ratings in the alloy section number order in which they appear in Chapter 3. When heat-treated or work-hardened materials of most systems are welded, a loss of mechanical properties generally occurs. The extent of the loss (if not reheat treated) over the table strength allowables will have to be established for each specific situation.

Supersedes page 3-23 from MIL-HDBK-5H

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MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 3.1.3.4(a). Fabrication Weldability of Wrought Aluminum Alloys

Weldabilitya,b MIL-HDBK-5 Section No. 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 Alloy 2014 2017 2024 Tempers O T6, T62, T651, T652, T6510, T6511 T4, T42, T451 O T3, T351, T361, T4, T42 T6, T62, T81, T851, T861 T8510, T8511, T3510, T3511 T6 T83 T851 O T62, T81, T851, T87, T8510, T8511 T61 T87 O H32, H34, H36, H38 O H321, H323, H343, H111, H112 O H32, H34, H36, H38, H111, H112 O H32, H34, H111, H112 O H111, H321, H112 T6 O T4, T42, T451, T4510, T4511, T6 T62, T651, T652, T6510, T6511 T6 All All All All All All All All Inert Gas Metal or Tungsten Arc C B C D C C C C B C A A C A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A C C C C C C C C Resistance Spotc D B B D B B B B B B B-D A B ... B A B A B A B A B A A B A A A B B B B B B B B

3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8 3.2.9 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.4 3.7.5 3.7.6 3.7.7 3.7.8 3.7.9 3.7.10
a

2025 2090 2124 2219 2618 2519 5052 5083 5086 5454 5456 6013 6061 6151 7010 7040 7049 7149 7050 7055 7075 7150 7175 7249 7475

b c

Ratings A through D are relative ratings defined as follows: A - Generally weldable by all commercial procedures and methods. B - Weldable with special techniques or for specific applications which justify preliminary trials or testing to develop welding procedures and weld performance. C - Limited weldability because of crack sensitivity or loss in resistance to corrosion and mechanical properties. D - No commonly used welding methods have been developed. When using filler wire, the wire should contain less than 0.0008 percent beryllium to avoid toxic fumes. See MIL-W-6858 for permissible combinations.

Supersedes page 3-24 from MIL-HDBK-5H

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MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

Table 3.1.3.4(b). Fabrication Weldability a of Cast Alumimun Alloys

Weldabilityb,c MIL-HDBK-5 Section No. 3.8.1 3.9.1 3.9.2 3.9.3 3.9.4 3.9.5 3.9.6 3.9.7 3.9.8
a

Alloy A201.0 354.0 355.0 C355.0 356.0 A356.0 A357.0 D357.0 359.0

Inert Gas Metal or Tungsten Arc C B B B A A A A A

Resistance Spot C B B B A A B A B

Weldability related to joining a casting to another part of same composition. The weldability ratings are not applicable to minor weld repairs. Such repairs shall be governed by the contractors procedure for in-process welding of castings, after approval by the procuring agency. b Ratings A through D are relative ratings defined as follows: A - Generally weldable by all commercial procedures and methods. B - Weldable with special techniques or for specific applications which justify preliminary trials or testing to develop welding procedure and weld performance. C - Limited weldability because of crack sensitivity or loss in resistance to corrosion and mechanical properties. D - No commonly used welding methods have been developed. c When using filler wire, the wire should contain less than 0.0008 percent beryllium to avoid toxic fumes.

REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.

3-25

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

CHAPTER 4

MAGNESIUM ALLOYS
4.1 GENERAL
This chapter contains the engineering properties and characteristics of wrought and cast magnesium alloys used in aircraft and missile applications. Magnesium is a lightweight structural metal that can be strengthened greatly by alloying, and in some cases by heat treatment or cold work or by both.

4.1.1 ALLOY INDEX— The magnesium alloys in this chapter are listed in alphanumeric sequence in each of two parts, the first one being wrought forms of magnesium and the second cast forms. These sections and the alloys covered under each are shown in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1. Magnesium Alloy Index

Section 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6

Designation Magnesium-Wrought Alloys AZ31B AZ61A ZK60A Magnesium-Cast Alloys AM100A AZ91C/AZ91E AZ92A EZ33A QE22A ZE41A

4.1.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
4.1.2.1 Mechanical Properties — The mechanical properties are given either as design values or for information purposes. The tensile strength (Ftu), tensile yield strength (Fty), elongation (e), and sometimes the compressive yield strength (Fcy) are guaranteed by procurement specifications. The properties obtained reflect the location of sample, type of test specimen and method of testing required by the product specification. The remaining design values are “derived” values; that is, sufficient tests have been made to ascertain that if a given material meets the requirements of the product specification, the material will have the compression (Fcy), shear (Fsu) and bearing (Fbru and Fbry) strengths listed.
4.1.2.1.1 Tension Testing — Room-temperature tension tests are made according to ASTM E 8.

The yield strength (Fty) is obtained by the “offset method” using an offset of 0.2 percent. The speed of testing for room-temperature tests has a small effect on the strength and elongation values obtained on most magnesium alloys. The rate of stressing generally specified to the yield strength is less than 100,000 psi per 4-1

REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.

Bearing values in the property tables are considered to be “dry pin” values in accordance with the discussion in Section 1.4 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS — Corrosion protection must be considered for all magnesium applications.1. Estimated values are noted. or a combination of these methods.1(a) to (d)].1. Proper drainage must be provided to prevent entrapment of water or other fluids.3 Bearing Testing — Bearing tests of magnesium alloys are made according to ASTM E 238. holes.7 Fatigue — Room-temperature axial load fatigue data for several magnesium alloys are presented in appropriate alloy sections.2.1.2.1.250 inch were used.2.1.2(a) and (b) provide information on test techniques.1. the shear strength (Fsu) may be expected to reflect the effect of orientation.2. Estimated values of some of the remaining constants were also included.2./min.1.1.1.187 and 0.10 in.005 in. The speed of testing has a considerable effect on the results obtained and no one standard rate of straining is given in ASTM E 21.1. On tests made to obtain the data on magnesium alloys shown in this document.2.1.1.5 Stress Raisers — The effect of notches.2.MIL-HDBK-5H.2.5(d) through (h). Additional information on bearing testing is given in References 4.1.2. For pin diameters significantly larger than 0.250 inch lower values may be obtained.2 Compression Testing — Compression test methods used for magnesium are specified in ASTM E 9.7(a) and (b) provide additional data on fatigue of magnesium alloys.4 Shear Testing — The shear strength values used in this document were obtained by the “double shear” method using a pin-type specimen. 4.1. Supersedes page 4-2 of MIL-HDBK-5H 4-2 . Additional data on the strength properties of magnesium alloys are presented in References 4. paint systems.4.2.2.6.2.1. The values given for the compressive yield strength (Fcy). from yield to fracture [see References 4./in. Just as tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) values vary with location and direction of sample in relation to the method of fabrication. The strain rates most commonly used on magnesium are 0.1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 minute and the rate of straining from the yield strength to fracture is less than 0.1.1. either as a function of the sampling or the maximum stresses imposed by the method of test. including barrier strips and sealants.2 percent. In other cases. 4.1. and stress raisers on the static properties of magnesium alloys is described in References 4.1. Elevated-temperature tension tests are made according to ASTM E 21.1.6 Creep — Some creep data on magnesium alloys are summarized in Reference 4. platings. It can be expected that the speed of testing used for room-temperature tension tests will approach the maximum permitted./min.1. Dissimilar metal joints must be properly and completely insulated. Protection can be provided by anodic films.1.1. pin diameters of 0.2. References 4. References 4. are taken at an offset of 0./in.1. 4.1. The size of pin used has a significant effect on the values obtained.1. Information on shear testing is given in Reference 4./min. 4.5(a) through (c).1. chemical conversion coatings. 4.4. 4. 4.3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES — Selected experimental data from the literature were used in determining values for physical properties. to the yield and 0. 4./in.1.3(a) and (b).1. enough information was available to calculate the constants. the “punch shear” method and the “tension shear” method as applicable. especially the bearing ultimate strength (Fbru).7.1.2.5 in.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Strain-hardened or age-hardened alloys may be annealed or overaged by prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures.5 ALLOY AND TEMPER DESIGNATIONS — Standard ASTM nomenclature is used for the alloys listed. Temper designations are given in ASTM B 296.1. 4. A summary of the temper designations is given in Table 4.5. 4-3 .1. All types of mechanical fasteners may be used to join magnesium.1.1. Refer to Section 4. with a resulting decrease in strength. Maximum recommended temperatures for prolonged service are reported. for specific alloys.6 JOINING METHODS — Most magnesium alloys may be welded. Adhesive bonding and brazing may be used to join magnesium to itself or other alloys. refer to “Comments and Properties” in individual alloy sections.4 when using mechanical fasteners or joining of dissimilar materials with magnesium alloys. where available. 4.

H1 strain-hardened only. This designation is specific only when the period of natural aging is indicated: for example. An unstable temper Tempers between 0 (annealed) and 8 (full-hard) are applicable only to alloys which spontan. Applies to the products of then reduced in strength to the desired level shaping processes in which no special conby partial annealing. The temper designation follows the products which are thermally treated.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 4. Applies to various tempers. Material having eously age at room temperature after solu. The H is always followed by two or more digits. Should some other variation of the The first digit following H indicates the specific same sequence of basic operations be applied to the combination of basic operations. the distincdesignation indicates the degree of straintion between the tempers should be covered in suithardening. W solution heat-treated. It is based on the T thermally treated to product stable temsequence of basic treatments used to produce the pers other than F. O. product stable tempers. Basic Temper Designations Applies to products which are strain-hardened more than the desired final amount and F as fabricated. O annealed recrystallized (wrought products only). The number following trol over thermal conditions or strainthis designation indicates the degree of hardening is employed. and H3 indicates the final degree of strain hardening. The number following this result in identical mechanical properties. followed by one or more digits. resulting in different characteristics. with or alloy designation. to hyphen. where required. 4-4 . W ½ hr. to produce some reduction in strength. tion heat-treatment. able explanatory notes.an ultimate tensile strength about midway between a From ASTM B 296. are indicated by one or more digits following the letter. with indicates the degree of strain-hardening or without supplementary thermal treatments remaining after the stabilization treatment. Basic temper designations consist of letters. H2. whose mechanical properties are stabilized by a low temperature thermal treatment to H strain-hardened (wrought products only). or H. Applies to products which have their The number following this designation strength increased by strain-hardening. The digit following the designations H1. the two being separated by a without supplementary strain-hardening. then additional digits are added to the designation. Applies to which are annealed to obtain the lowest products which are strain-hardened and strength temper.5 Temper Designation System for Magnesium Alloys Temper Designation Systema This temper designation system is used for all forms of wrought and cast magnesium and magnesium alloy products except ingots. as follows: same alloy. Applies to products which are strain-hardened to obtain the deNOTE—In material specifications containing refersired strength without supplementary therence to two or more tempers of the same alloy which mal treatment. H2 strain-hardened and partially annealed.1. These designate specific sequences of basic Subdivisions of H Temper: treatments. but only operations recognized as signifiStrain-Hardened cantly influencing the characteristics of the product are indicated. strain-hardening remaining after the product has been partially annealed. The T is always Subdivisions of the basic tempers.designated by numerals 1 through 7. Applies to wrought products H3 strain-hardened and stabilized. slightly lower strength and increase ductility.

cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and artificially aged. Applies to products which are artificially aged after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process. It is used when the degree of control of temper or the mechanical properties or both differ from. Applies to products which are cold worked to improve strength. and cold worked to further improve strength. but are close to. Numeral 9 designates tempers whose minimum ultimate tensile strength exceeds that of the 8 temper. T7 T2 T3 T4 Additional digits. cold worked. Subdivisions of T Temper: Thermally Treated Numerals 1 through 10 following the T indicate specific sequences of basic treatments. 4-5 . or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized in mechanical property limits. Applies to products which are cold worked to improve strength. solution heat-treated. solution heat-treated and stabilized. and cold worked. T9 annealed (castings only). T5 etc. solution heat-treated and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition. T10 solution heat-treated and cold worked. b For this purpose. and artificially aged. is such that their strength is increased by room temperature aging. Applies to products which are cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process. may be added to designations T1 through T10 to indicate a variation in treatment which significantly alters the product characteristicsb that are or would be obtained using the basic treatment. as follows. Applies to products for which the rate of cooling from an elevated temperature shaping process. Applies to a type of annealing treatment used to improve ductility and increase stability. or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening may not be recognized in mechanical property limits. Applies to products which are not cold worked after solution heat-treatment. or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized in mechanical property limits. or in which the effect of cold work in flattening or straight- ening may not be recognized in mechanical property limits. that (or those) for the two-digit H temper designation to which it is T6 added. Applies to products which are cold worked to improve strength after solution heat-treatment. such as casting or extrusion. the first of which shall not be zero. cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process. T1 cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process and naturally aged to a T8 substantially stable condition. when used. Applies to products which are not cold worked after solution heat-treatment. artificially aged. and about midway between 4 and 8 tempers by the numeral 6. and artificially aged to improve mechanical properties or dimensional stability or both. such as casting or extrusion. indicates a variation of a two-digit temper.1. characteristic is something other than mechanical properties. artificially aged. Applies to products that are stabilized after solution heat-treatment to carry them beyond a point of maximum strength to provide control of some special characteristic. such as extrusion. Numerals 1 through 9 may be arbitrarily assigned as the third digit for an alloy and product to indicate a specific degree of control of temper or special mechanical property limits.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 4. about midway between the 0 and 4 tempers by the numeral 2. The third digit. solution heat-treated and artificially aged.5 Temper Designation System for Magnesium Alloys (Continued) that of the 0 temper and that of the 8 temper is designated by the numeral 4. and cold worked. solution heat-treated.

1.1 through 4. and 4.1 AZ31B 4.4 AZ31B-F Temper — Figures 4.2.6.2.1. and tubes. AZ31B has good room-temperature strength and ductility and is used primarily for applications where the temperature does not exceed 300F.4 Temper O H24 H26 F 4.2.2.1. Forming of AZ31B must be done at elevated temperatures if small radii or deep draws are required.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 4.2.2.1.1.2. Material specifications covering AZ31B wrought products are given in Table 4.2 4.1.1.2.1. plate.1. extruded sections. If the temperatures used are too high or the times too great.1.4.3 4. It is available in the form of sheet.1 4. The effect of temperature on physical properties is shown in Figure 4.2.2.2. No treatments are available for increasing the strength of this alloy after fabrication.1.4.2 MAGNESIUM-WROUGHT ALLOYS 4.6.2.2.0.1.0(a). Table 4.2. Roomtemperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Tables 4. 4. 4-6 .2.2.1.1.2.2 AZ31B-H24 Temper — Effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of sheet and plate is shown in Figures 4. H24 and H26 temper material will be softened.0(a).6.2.1.1.2.2.2.1. Increased strength is obtained in the sheet and plate form by strain hardening with a subsequent partial anneal (H24 and H26 temper).3 AZ31B-H26 Temper 4.1.1.4.0(b) through (d). Material Specifications for AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Specification AMS 4375 AMS 4376 AMS 4377 ASTM B 107 ASTM B 91 Form Sheet and plate Plate Sheet and plate Extrusion Forging The temper index for AZ31B is as follows: Section 4.0 Comments and Properties — AZ31B is a wrought magnesium-base alloy containing aluminum and zinc.2.1 AZ31B-O Temper — Effect of temperature on the tensile modulus of sheet and plate is presented in Figure 4. Typical room-temperature stress-strain and tangent-modulus curves are presented in Figure 4.1. This alloy is readily welded but must be stress relieved after welding to prevent stress corrosion cracking.8 (a) and (b) contain fatigue data for forged disk at room temperature. Typical room-temperature tension and compression stress-strain and tangent-modulus curves for sheet are shown in Figure 4. forgings. 4.2.1.1.2.2.

Fsu. . .2. .. .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .. . . . . ... .0 4-7 . 18 .000 Basis ...063.. . . ... . . .... (e/D = 2. .. . 18 15 15 15 15 29 29 26 24 22 20 LT . .. 58 58 56 54 . . . ... . ..1. . ...501. . 32 32 32 32 32 39 39 38 37 36 34 LT . C. . .. in. .062 0. . a Fcy(LT) allowables are equal to or greater than Fcy(L) allowables.1.. .. . 8 6. AMS 4375 Sheet Plate 0 Sheet AMS 4377 Plate H24 2. ..4 0.. .000 Thickness. . . . .0(b). 60 60 60 . . . . .5) . 17 b Fbru ..... . . .2. ...500 1. . . . ksi: (e/D = 1. .0. . ..0.. . . .. . 9 . Form . . . 32 32 29 27 25 23 Fcy.. . . ..0) .. . . . . .001- S 34 . 24 20 16 13 10 a .. . S S S S S S S S S S S Mechanical Properties: Ftu. 43 43 38 34 .. . . . . 3 0. . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4. . . .. . .000 3. . . . . . . ... . .. . .. . .. . . ... . b Fbry ..016.. . .. . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet and Plate Specification .1.0) . .. . . Physical Properties: . .. . .. . 17 17 .061. ksi: L ..0. . and  . . 103 ksi ... .. . . 29 29 27 .5 6. . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e .. .. .0639 See Figure 4. .250. ..2.. . . . 18 18 18 18 .249 0. 10 ksi . lb/in. . . . (e/D = 2. . ksi: (e/D = 1. . . . . . . 0.. .0. . ...0. . 43 43 38 34 . .. . . 40 40 39 38 37 35 Fty. . . . . . .3 ... . . . .. . . L .. .. . . LT . .. . .. . 12 12 12 10 9 6 6 8 8 8 8 E. . 103 ksi .. . ...0...501.4.500 2. . . . .0013. . .. . . . . .. e. ... . . .001..5) . .. ... . . . ... ...0. .. . . ... ... .. . .. percent . . µ .. . . . .7. ..0. .. . . . . Temper . . 50 50 50 . . . 12 10 10 8 . Ec. . . . b Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1. .5 2. . . . .. . .. . G.35 0.. ksi .249 0. . . K. .000 0..250. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . ksi: L ..1.374 0. ... . . . .. . . . 29 29 27 . .000 2.. ksi: L . . . ... . . .. .. . 68 68 65 63 . . .060 0. .375.016. .. . .

.. . . b Bearing values are "dry pin" values per Section 1. . .3760. Fsu.D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .. . ksi: (e/D = 1. Basis . . . .5) .... LT . . . . . .438 S 0.... . .. e. .000 S 1. ksi: L .3 ...1. .. . .. (e/D = 2.500 S AMS 4376 Plate H26 0. 0... .7. .2500. . . . .0 37 38 23 26 16 .. ... . . . .. . . . ... ... Form . . . . . . ... . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Plate Specification . . . Fcy...... percent: L . . (e/D = 2. . . .. .0(c). . . . . .. . . 6 35 36 22 25 15 . . . . . ... . µ . .. . . .4 0.750 S 0.0639 See Figure 4.4390. Ec. LTa .. lb/in.. . .. ... Fbryb. . ... E.... .. ... . .. . . .... . ksi: (e/D = 1. .. .... .. . ... and  .5 2.35 0.. 103 ksi . . .. 6 6. . ...... . . .. . . .. .500 S 1. .... .. Fty. ..... . . . . . 103 ksi .1. . .. . ... . .. .. G. ... ... . Physical Properties: . . 103 ksi . . . . ... C.. Fbrub.. .000 S 39 40 27 30 22 . . .. Mechanical Properties: Ftu. . .5012. . 6 35 36 21 24 14 . ksi: L . . .0011.. 6 a Fcy(LT) allowables are equal to or greater than Fcy(L) values. 18 56 65 36 36 6 37 38 25 28 17 . .. . LT .. . . . .. ..1.. 4-8 .. Temper . Thicknessa.2. .. . . 18 58 68 40 40 6 38 39 26 29 21 . . . . . . ... .7511.2. . ..0) .. ..0) .375 S 0. . . .. . .. . .5) . . . . . .5 6. . .. ... 18 56 65 39 39 6 38 39 26 29 18 . ksi: L .. .. . K.. in.. ..T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4. . .. ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . . .. . .... ksi . ..4. ..5010.

. .. . ksi: L .2.. 8 32 .. ..1. .... . .. . ... .. .. . . . . .. .. . . .. 16 .. 20 . .. ..1.. . .. . ... . .. 10 . . . . and Extruded Extruded tube solid shapes hollow shapes F 0.. rod. . ... .... ... 19 .. ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e ..250b 0. and  . .. .. ..... .. G. e.. ... .. .5 2. . ...4 0.. ... ksi: (e/D = 1.. . . 16 . .. ..0 32 . 12 . ...7... percent: L . 10 . .. .. ksi: (e/D = 1.. LT .. . LT . . ... 6 a Wall thickness for tube.. . .. 4 34 . LT . ... . 103 ksi .5 6.. . . . . .4. Physical Properties: . . .0639 See Figure 4. .. . 10 . ... b For outside diameter 6. Fsu. .000 inches.. . c Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1. Ec.. . C... . ..2510. . .. .500. ..999 S S S S S S S ASTM B 91 Forging . Thicknessa.. .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4. 21 .. (e/D = 2. . ... .. 103 ksi .. ...2... .. ...250... . . . . Fbruc... E.D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .. ... . Fbryc. ... Temper .. . .... . . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu.. . . . . . . 8 6. . . .. .. . . . .. . 17 36 45 23 23 7 35 .499 2. . .. . . .. ........ ksi: L . .35 0. (e/D = 2. ASTM B 107 Extruded bar...750b 1. . .. .... . . ksi .. .. 103 ksi . . . 17 36 45 23 23 7 32 .. .. . Form . .. . . . ... 17 36 45 23 23 7 34 . µ . .5) . . 22 . .. .. . .1.. .. 12 . lb/in.. . .... . in. ..2.028. . . . .0(d). . . 4-9 .. . Basis ...0) . . .. .. . .. . . 10 ..0. .5) .0) . ..1... K..500All 0. Fty. Fcy.. 16 .... . . S 35 .. .... .. . . .. ksi: L .499 4.249 0.. . . . .. ..3 . . . . . . 7 32 .. . .. ... Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Extrusion and Forging Specification ... . . 22 . . .

Between 70 F and indicated temperature K .2. ? . Btu/(lb)(F) 0.0. O & H24 40 20 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Temperature.20 K./F . 4-10 ./in. F Figure 4.1.35 14 C.At indicated temperature 18 16 0. Effect of temperature on the physical properties of AZ31B.25 80 0. Btu/[(hr)(ft )(F)/ft] 60 2 K.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH .At indicated temperature C . 10 -6 in.30 C 12 0.

ksi 10 5 Ramberg . Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for AZ31B-O sheet and plate at room temperature.001 in. 4-11 .2.6. 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus.1.4.1. Effect of temperature on the tensile modulus (E) of AZ31B-O sheet and plate.1./in.2.) = 30 TYPICAL 0 0 2 6 8 Strain. 0. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 25 Tension 20 Compression 15 Stress.Osgood n (L-tension) = 12 n (L-comp.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.1. 10 ksi 4 10 12 Figure 4.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.1.2.2. 4-12 .1. Effect of temperature on the tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) and the tensile yield strength (Fty) of AZ31B-H24 sheet and plate.

2.1. stear ultimate strength (Fsu) of AZ31B-H24 sheet and plate.1. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.3. Effect of temperature on the bearing ultimate strength (Fbru) and the bearing yield strength (Fbry) of AZ31B-H24 sheet and plate.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.2.2.2. Effect of temperature on the compressive yield strength (Fcy) and the .2. 4-13 .

0.2.2./in.1.1.4. 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus. Effect of temperature on the tensile modulus (E) of AZ31B-H24 sheet and plate. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 50 40 Tension 30 Stress.) = 15 TYPICAL 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.6. ksi Compression 20 10 Ramberg .Osgood n (tension) = 4.2.2. Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for AZ31B-H24 sheet at room temperature. 4-14 .001 in.3 n (comp. 10 ksi Figure 4.

and 000 emery paper and finally No.. 4-15 .33 Standard Error of Estimate = 0.1500 cpm Temperature . of Heats/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: For R values between -1. 600 aluminum oxide powder in water References: 4.829 Standard Deviation in Life = 1.9) Seq = Smax(1-R)0.8(a) Product Form: Forged disk.8 Test Parameters: Loading .50 Log Nf = 8. ksi Temp.1.56 Standard Error of Estimate = 0.0 and -0.13-2. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched AZ31B-F magnesium alloy forges disk.75-inch gross diameter 0.4.1.Air REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.F 26 RT No.2.1. transverse direction.8(a).0) Seq = Smax(1-R)0.916 R2 = 55. No.26 log (Seq-15.4. 0.0 and 0.50 Log Nf = 7.] Specimen Details: Unnotched 0. Correlative Information for Figure 4. 320 aluminum oxide cloth.2.2% Sample Size = 194 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above. ksi 38 TYS.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.20 log (Seq-12.1.87-3.RT Environment . 1-inch thick Properties: TUS.30-inch net diameter Surface Condition: Polished sequentially with No. 00.2.2% For R values between 0.613 Standard Deviation in Life = 0.014 R2 = 33.Axial Frequency .

280-inch net diameter 0.EF RT Test Parameters: Loading .8(b).34 log (Smax) Std.01-inch root radius. Correlative Information for Figure 4.8(b) Product Form: Forged disk. AZ31B-F magnesium alloy forged disk. r 60E flank angle.RT Environment .MIL-HDBK-5H. Log (Life) = 0.4.2. Kt = 3.2.8 Supersedes page 4-16 of MIL-HDBK-5H 4-16 . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.3.Air No.28-4.1. ksi 26 Temp. ω Reference: 4. 1-inch thick Properties: TUS.534 Standard Deviation. of Heats/Lots: 1 Maximum Stress Equation: Log Nf = 8.350-inch gross diameter 0.2.1500 cpm Temperature .Axial Frequency . Best-fit S/N curves for notched..1.707 R2 = 43% Sample Size = 34 Specimen Details: Notched.3 0. ksi 38 TYS.1. Log (Life) = 0. Error of Estimate.4. Kt = 3.1. transverse direction.

2.0(b). tubes.0(a).0(a). Material specifications covering AZ61A are given in Table 4. Table 4.2. It is available in the form of extruded sections.0 Comments and Properties — AZ61A is a wrought magnesium-base alloy containing aluminum and zinc. The increased aluminum content increases the strength and decreases the ductility slightly. Severe forming must be done at elevated temperatures. Room-temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Table 4.2.2. and forgings in the as-fabricated (F) temper.2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 4. AZ61A is much like AZ31B in general characteristics.2.2.2.2 AZ61A 4. Material Specifications for AZ61A Magnesium Alloy Specification AMS 4350 ASTM B 91 Extrusion Forging Form 4-17 . This alloy is readily welded but must be stress relieved after welding to prevent stress corrosion cracking.2.

LT .0) . 19 45 55 28 32 8 40 .. .. . . .. . E. 103 ksi .. . (e/D = 2. 7 6. . 19 45 55 28 32 9 40 .5) .... lb/in. . . .. .. . Thickness. .. . ...../F . . . . .. 16 . .. .. .. . . ....5004. . in. .. .. . . . . Estimated.5) .... S S S S S 38 ..499a 0.. . . 10-6 in.0647 0. . . .. .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . ... . .. 14 .. . . . . .. . . . . .. ksi . . . . 22 . ... ... .7. .. . .. . . Form . .... .. .. . .. ...31 36 . 7 36 .1. .. Physical Properties: . .4. .. 103 ksi . .. 103 ksi . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4.. . 24 . K. Fcy.. .. . .. . . ...... .... . . . .. .. Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1. . . a b c d <0.. .. ksi: (e/D = 1. . .. .. . 21 . rod. .. 14 .. . . 22 . . C. e..... .. . . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu. .000 inches. . . .028-0. LT . . . Basis . 14 . . .. 11 ....4 0.. . µ ..2502.. 4-18 ... Ec.2. . . . 14 . 19 50 60 28 32 6 0. and solid shapes Extruded hollow shapes F All S Extruded tube ASTM B 91 Forging 2... .. ksi: L ... ../in.. .0(b). .. . G. Temper .. . . . . Fbruc. . ..249 0. 7 38 . . . .. .. . . .3 6.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . ... . ksi: (e/D = 1..0) .25 (at 78F)d 46 (212 to 572F) 14 (65 to 212F) For cross-sectional area <25 square inches. . .. . .750b . .. . 16 . .. . . . percent: L ... Wall thickness for outside diameters <6.. . .. . Fbryc. . . .. . . .. Fsu. .. . . . ksi: L . . . . Btu/[(hr)(ft2)(F)/ft] . .. . . ... .. .499 AMS 4350 Extruded bar. . . ... Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of AZ61A Magnesium Alloy Extrusion and Forging Specification ... ..2....3 2. . . . 11 . (e/D = 2.. .. .. .. ksi: L .. Fty. .. .. Btu/(lb)(F) . . . . .... . .. . .3 .. . . . . LT .....

0 Comments and Properties — ZK60A is a wrought magnesium-base alloy containing zinc and zirconium. Room-temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Tables 4.3.3. ZK60A has the best combination of high roomtemperature strength and ductility of the wrought magnesium-base alloys.2.3. It is available as extruded sections.3. and forgings.2. It is not considered a weldable alloy.3. Material Specifications for ZK60A Magnesium Alloy Specification ASTM B 107 AMS 4352 AMS 4362 Form Extrusion Extrusion Die and hand forgings The temper index for ZK60A is as follows: Section 4.1 ZK60A-F Temper 4.2. tubes.2 ZK60A-T5 Temper — Typical room-temperature tension and compression stressstrain curves for extrusions are shown in Figures 4.0(b) and (c).3. Elevated temperature curves for physical properties are shown in Figures 4. Increased strength is obtained by artificial aging (T5) from the as-fabricated (F) temper. ZK60A has good ductility as compared with other high-strength magnesium alloys and can be formed or bent cold into shapes not possible with those alloys having less ductility.2.2.6(a) and (b).MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 4.2.2.2.2.1 4.2 4. Material specifications for ZK60A are given in Table 4.3.0(a). Temper F T5 4-19 .2.3.3.2. Table 4.0.3.8(a) through (c).0(a).3 ZK60A 4. It is used primarily at temperatures below 300F.2.2.2.3. Fatigue curves are presented in Figure 4.

. Fcy... .. . . . . . .. . . ... ...999 All S F 5.. . Basis .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . Form . . .. . . ... ...000 All S 43 ... .. . . . . . . . . ksi: (e/D = 1. ...... .. Temper . 22 .. ..4.1. .. . . . ... .5 6. Physical Properties: .7.5) . .999 All S 3. . ... . . ..... Fsu. 103 ksi . ... .. 31 ... . . 31 .. 31 .0 a Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1. .. 26 . .. ...T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4.. percent: L ... . . . . 70 .5) . . . .. K.. . in. .. .. . . . . . in.. 45 5 6. . . .. .... . .. . . . . . .. . .. .. (e/D = 2. . ... . .0) ... .35 43 . . .. ksi: L . .2. Thickness.. . .5 2. . 20 . ..... . . 5 0. 70 . . . . 31 . 22 . . .. . . ..0280... . . bar.. . . . ksi .. . .. .. . ... . . .. . µ . . . . . . . ..0659 See Figure 4.D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .. 20 . 22 .3 . . .00039.. .0(b).. .2... . .2 . 70 . . e. .. . .. . lb/in.... . .. 4-20 . . . . .... . . .. . . ASTM B 107 Extruded rod. . . . . .0) . .. ..... 28 . . 45 5 43 . . ... .D. .. .. . . 103 ksi .. 4 40 . ...... .. .999 All S Extruded Extruded hollow shapes tube All All S <3. E.000 in....4 0.. .750 wall S <2. . . . . .. ksi: L .. . . . . . . . Ec. . . . ... . 28 . . . .. . LT .. . Cross-sectional area..... .. 5 40 . . .. Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of ZK60A Magnesium Alloy Extrusion Specification . LT .. . . . 27 .. . .. . . . ... .. ... . (e/D = 2. . . ... 0.0004.0002... . . . . . . . .... . Fty..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . ..3. . . . O.. . .. G. and solid shapes 2. . . 25 . . 45 5 43 . ksi: (e/D = 1.. ksi: L . . . . . . .3... . . . . LT . . . C. . . Fbrya.... . . . . Fbrua. . . . 20 . .. . .. 103 ksi ... and  .. . . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu.. .

0940. 47 4 45 . . .. ksi ... . ... .0... 34 . ... .... . E. . G... ..... .. . .. .... LT . .999 4. LT .. 25 . .. ..0659 See Figure 4. (e/D = 2. .. . ... . .. . .. . ... ksi: L . . .. 31 . <2.. .. .... . . ..0) ...250 1. . .. . . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . 38 .. . .. . ... Basis . All S All S 3. . . Fbrya.0002. LT . .188 <3. 4-21 .5.. . Form ..... ... ksi: L .D... . 71 . .5 6.... .. and  .. .. .35 46 . Mechanical Properties: Ftu. . .. .... O. . .. . . . .. . 6 45 . . in.. .. .0) . . . . .. .. (e/D = 2.999 24. .. . . 6 43 . . . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of ZK60A Magnesium Alloy Extrusion and Forging Specification . . .. ..500 . . ..... 103 ksi . . . . ... K. 23 ... ksi: (e/D = 1.. ..... . .. lb/in... .. ..000 2. . .. . 36 .25. . ... ... 22 ... . . .2. 36 .. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . .. 47 4 45 . 30 . .7.. bar. .. percent: L . . . .5 2.. 4 44 . Temper ..0 a Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1.. . .10. Cross-sectional area. . 20 . . . . . . ... .. . 33 . . .. 21 . in.. .. 6 6. 103 ksi . 0. . ... ..... .5) ... .. 22 . .. . . . .. . .. ... ..3 .. ....... . . .. . .. Thickness.000.. .028. 20 . .. . e. ..... .. .. ... ... ..... . . Fbrua.. . . Physical Properties: ....000 in.. ksi: (e/D = 1.999 39.. . ..... ..... .000.999 9.000. .. . . . . . 36 .. 71 .. .. . . . ....T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4.. . . Fcy. .000. . . . . 26 . . . . .... ..... . 103 ksi . .. . and solid shapes Extruded hollow shapes T5 All Extruded tube AMS 4362 Die Hand forging forging <3. . C....4.1. .. .. O. . ..... . ... . . . . .999 All S All S All S All S All S AMS 4352 Extruded rod... .3.. . . 7 0.. 4 46 . . 26 ....2 . . 28 .. 47 4 45 . µ . ... . . .. . Ec. . . . 22 . . 71 . . . . ... ... . ..2. 26 . . . ..0(c). ... ... .. . . . .. 4 42 .. .. .5) . Fsu... . . . . . .. .. 7 38 . . .. .. . ...3. .. . .. ...... . ksi: L . ... ..0008..000 wall wall S S S S 45 .D. . . .. . . .. . .. ... Fty. 34 . ... . . .. 38 .000 <6..4 0. . in.. . . .3. . . . . . ... . .. .. . 22 . . .

/in.At indicated temperature 16 0. 4-22 ./F .3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH .At indicated temperature C .Between 70 F and indicated temperature K . F Figure 4.35 12 C. 10 -6 14 in. Btu/(lb)(F) C 0.25 K. .30 0.0. Btu/[(hr)(ft )(F)/ft] 2 80 K 60 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Temperature. Effect of temperature on the physical properties of ZK60A magnesium alloy.2.

8 10 12 Figure 4. 4-23 .2. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.0 TYPICAL 10 0 0 2 4 6 Strain.2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 50 40 30 Stress.001 in.3.3.6(b). REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. ksi 20 Ramberg .2.6(a)./in.Osgood n (RT) = 7.2. Typical compressive stress-strain curve for ZK60A-T5 extrusion at room temperature. 0. Typical tensile stress-strain curve for ZK60A-T5 extrusion at room temperature.

8 Supersedes page 4-24 of MIL-HDBK-5H 4-24 .7) Seq = Smax(1-R)0. Log (Life) = 0. 400 grit.8(a) Product Form: Extruded bar.1. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched ZK60A-T5 extruded bar.3600 cpm Temperature .2. 240 grit aluminum oxide belt and then a No.250 0.2.9 RT (unnotched) Test Parameters: Loading . longitudinal direction.. Cycles Figure 4.3. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH .MIL-HDBK-5H.RT Environment .000 0. 0.2.60 Standard Deviation.0 Stress Ratio . polished with kerosene to better than 10 micro-inches Reference: 4.600 x 80 Maximum Stress. .166 + 0.3.Axial Frequency .2.2. Log (Life) = 0.50-inch gross diameter 0.2. 104 105 106 107 108 Fatigue Life. ksi → Runout 60 + + x x + x x x + + + 40 x → → → → 20 → → 0 103 Note: Stresses are based on net section.50-inch long Surface Condition: Polished with No.40 Std.750-inch root diameter 7. Correlative Information for Figure 4.] Specimen Details: Unnotched 0.5 TYS.85 R2 = 51% Sample Size = 21 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.56-2.50-inch diameter Properties: TUS.EF 40.8(a).73 log (Seq-23. ksi Temp.Air No. of Heats/Lots: Not specified Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 7. 100 ZK60A-T5 RT Kt=1. Error of Estimate.3.40-inch net diameter 0. ksi 47.

.3. 600 grit alundum lapping compound Reference: 4. longitudinal direction. 0.900 Runout → Note: Stresses are based on net section.51-1.Axial Frequency .600 x 0.3.2) Seq = Smax(1-R)0.82 R2 = 69% Sample Size = 30 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.EF RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading . Kt = 2.] Specimen Details: Circumferential notched.50-inch diameter Properties: TUS. Correlative Information for Figure 4. lapped with a copper rod and No.9 Temp.250 0.2.2. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH . ksi 63.8 Supersedes page 4-25 of MIL-HDBK-5H 4-25 . ω Surface Condition: Ground with aluminum oxide wheel lubricated with sulfur cutting oil.MIL-HDBK-5H. Log (Life) = 0.4 0. 80 Maximum Stress.3.42 Std.RT Environment .2.4 Stress Ratio .46 Standard Deviation.000 0. Error of Estimate.2. ksi 60 x x x 40 + + + → x x + 20 + + ++ x → → x → + → + → + → x → → x x → 0 103 104 105 106 107 108 Fatigue Life.2. of Heats/Lots: Not specified Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 5. Best-fit S/N curves for notched.4. Cycles Figure 4.36 log (Seq-13.032-inch notch radius 60E flank angle. Log (Life) = 0.7 TYS.1. ksi 40.3600 cpm Temperature .Air No. 100 ZK60A-T5 RT Kt=2.2.8(b) Product Form: Extruded bar.40-inch net diameter 0.50-inch gross diameter 0..8(b). Kt = 2.166 + 0. ZK60A-T5 extruded bar.

Log (Life) = 0.250 0. 0. Best-fit S/N curves for notched.2.900 Runout → Note: Stresses are based on net section. 80 Maximum Stress.RT Environment .55 Standard Deviation. ZK60A-T5 extruded bar. Correlative Information for Figure 4. Log (Life) = 0. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 100 ZK60A-T5 RT Kt=3.4.2 TYS.8(c) Product Form: Extruded bar.166 + 0.3.50-inch gross diameter 0.8(c).8 Supersedes page 4-26 of MIL-HDBK-5H 4-26 .Axial Frequency . Error of Estimate. ω Surface Condition: Ground with aluminum oxide wheel lubricated with sulfur cutting oil.1. of Heats/Lots: Not specified Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 9.4 Stress Ratio .3.] Specimen Details: Circumferential notched.99 R2 = 70% Sample Size = 36 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.2. MIL-HDBK-5H. Cycles Figure 4.2.3.Air No. 600 grit alundum lapping compound Reference: 4.63) Seq = Smax(1-R)0.000 0.600 x 0.9 Temp.50-inch diameter Properties: TUS. ksi 40. Kt = 4 0.3600 cpm Temperature .2. Kt = 3.46 Std.2. ksi 58.VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH .2.40-inch net diameter 0. lapped with a copper rod and No. . longitudinal direction.13 log (Seq-5.27-4. ksi 60 x 40 + x + xx + + + x x + → xx x + → x → → → 20 + 0 103 104 105 106 107 108 Fatigue Life..010-inch notch radius 60E flank angle.EF RT (notched) Test Parameters: Loading .

3. Material Specifications for AM100A Magnesium Alloy Specification AMS 4455 AMS 4483a MIL-M-46062 a Noncurrent specification. Table 4. It is primarily used as permanent mold castings.0 Comments and Properties — AM100A is a magnesium-base casting alloy containing aluminum and a small amount of manganese. AM100A has about the same characteristics as AZ92A.3.3 MAGNESIUM CAST ALLOYS 4.0(a). It has good weldability and fair pressure tightness. Form Investment casting Permanent mold casting Casting Supersedes page 4-27 of MIL-HDBK-5H 4-27 . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 4.3.MIL-HDBK-5H.1. Room-temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Table 4.1 AM100A 4.0(a).3.1.0(b).1.1.3. Material specifications for AM100A are given in Table 4. AM100A has less tendency to microshrinkage and hot shortness than the Mg-Al-Zn alloys.

. . . . . . . . . µ . . . . . Location within casting . . . . . . . .. . . . C. .0) . . . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . . . Supersedes page 4-28 of MIL-HDBK-5H 4-28 . . . ... . . ksi . .. . . . . . Physical Properties: ω. . . . . .. . . .. ksi .. . ksi: (e/D = 1.. . . . . .. . ksi . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Propertiesc: Ftu. ... . . . . . . . .. ... .. .5 2. ... .0(b). . .. .5 S 30 16 16 .. .1. . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . . . . Fcy. ... . . . .3 .. .. . . . Fbru. . . G. . . ksi: (e/D = 1. .. . . . . . . Permanent mold casting T6 MIL-M-46062 Casting (any method) T6 Designated area Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 S 38 20 20 . .... .. . . . .. .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . Temper . . . .. . Fsu. Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of AM100A Magnesium Alloy Casting Specification . . . . .. . . (e/D = 2.. .. . percent . . .. . .. Fbry. . . .5d 9. .75 a Noncurrent specification. . . . . 103 ksi . . . 103 ksi . . . . . . . .. Ec. . . .. .. . e. . .5) . . d When specified on drawing. . ... . . ... . .3. .. . . .... ... . . . . .... . . E. .. . . . . .. . . . . .....MIL-HDBK-5H. .. Basis .. . .4 0. . K. . . . . . . Form . ..35 0. . . . Fty. ... . . c Reference should be made to the specific requirements of the procuring or certificating agency with regard to the use of the above values in the design of castings. . . S 35 18 18 . .5) . . . . and α .. . . . 1... . lb.. . 1c S 17d 10d 10 . . 1 b b b Nondesignated area S 17 10 10 . . .. . .. .. . . . ... . .. . . . . .. . .5 . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . 3 6. 0. . .5 6.0651 .. . (e/D = 2../in.T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4. .. . . . conformance to tensile property requirements is determined by testing specimens cut from castings. . . . . . . . . . AMS 4455 AMS 4483a Investment casting T6 Any area S 17d 9.0) . b Class of properties attainable depends on location specified and casting design and should be coordinated with the producer.. . 103 ksi . . . ksi .

Table 4.0 Comments and Properties — AZ91C is a magnesium-base casting alloy containing aluminum and zinc. AZ91C and AZ91E are the most commonly used sand castings for temperatures under 300F.2.3.3. while AZ91E is available as a sand casting.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 4.3.0(a). These alloys have good castability with a good combination of ductility and strength. Typical tensile stress-strain curves at room temperature and several elevated temperatures are presented in Figure 4. 4-29 .2. AZ91E is a version which contains a significantly lower level of impurities resulting in improved corrosion resistance. AZ91C and AZ91E have fair weldability and pressure tightness.3.1.2.3. REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. Some material specifications covering AZ91C/AZ91E are presented in Table 4.2 AZ91C/AZ91E 4. AZ91C is available as sand and investment castings.2.3.1.1 Temper T6 Form Sand casting Investment casting Casting Sand casting 4.4 contains an elevated temperature curve for tension and compression moduli.3.2.3.0(b) and (c). Roomtemperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Tables 4.1 T6 Temper — Figure 4.2.2.0(a). Material Specifications for AZ91C/AZ91E Magnesium Alloy Specification AMS 4437 AMS 4452 MIL-M-46062 AMS 4446 The temper index for AZ91C/AZ91E is as follows: Section 4.3.2.6.

. . . . . .. . . ..0(b).. .. . . . Fsu. . . . Basis . 0. .... .. .. . . percent .. Physical Properties: ω. . ... . .. . . . .. . . . .. ./EF . .. G.25d 41 (212EF to 572EF) 14 (65EF to 212EF) S 27 14 14 . E. . 10-6 in. . Ec..4 0. . .. . ..... K.. . (e/D = 2. .0) . C. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . ksi: (e/D = 1. 3 6. .. .. . . .. 2 S 17 12 12 . . . . . . . . conformance to tensile property requirements is determined by testing specimens cut from castings. . . ksi: (e/D = 1... .. . . .. . . . . . Btu/[(hr)(ft2)(EF)/ft] α. ./in. . . Supersedes page 4-30 of MIL-HDBK-5H 4-30 . . .0652 0. . .. . ... Mechanical Propertiesb: Ftu. . ... . . . . . . . . lb. . ..75c S 17c 12c 12 . . . . 0. .. .. . . . .. .. . . 4 S 29 16 16 . .Btu/(lb)(EF) . . Fbry. ksi .. .. .. Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of AZ91C Magnesium Alloy Casting Specification .... ..35 0. . . .. . . .. .2. . . e... Temper . . . . . . d Estimated.5) . . . ..3. . . . . .. . . . . . Form . .. . .5 2. .5) . . 103 ksi . .. . . .. . c When specified on drawing. . ... . . (e/D = 2. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4.. ..D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . .. . ksi . .0) . . Fty.. . . . .. . . . 103 ksi .. ksi . . .. . . . . . 1c Class 1a Class 2a Class 3a Nondesignated area S 35 18 18 . . AMS 4437 Sand casting T6 AMS 4452 Investment casting T6 MIL-M-46062 Casting (any method) T6 Designated area Any area S 17c 12c 12 . ksi . . . .. . . . Location within casting .3 . .MIL-HDBK-5H. . .. . . . .. . . µ . . . . .. .. . .. . . . 103 ksi . . . Fcy./in. . .5 6. . . Fbru. . . b Reference should be made to the specific requirements of the procuring or certificating agency with regard to the use of the above values in the design of castings. . .. . . .75 a Class of properties attainable depends on location specified and casting design and should be coordinated with the producer. .. . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . .. . .. .

. . 103 ksi . . . Physical Properties: . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ..0) . Fcy. . .25c 41 (212F to 572F) 14 (65F to 212F) Reference should be made to the specific requirements of the procuring or certificating agency with regard to the use of the above values in the design of castings. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Ec. . . µ . . .5 6.. . . . .0) . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . ..2. b When specified on drawing. . . . . . . . . . . . ksi . . . . . . 10-6 in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ksi . . . . . . . .. . . C. . . . . . . . . . . . Basis . . . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of AZ91E Magnesium Alloy Casting Specification . . ksi: (e/D = 1. ksi: (e/D = 1. . . . .0652 0. . . . . . . . . . . 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . Form . . . . . . .35 0. . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4. . . . . . K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Fbru. . ksi . . 4-31 . ... . . . . . G. . . .4 0. . .. ./F . . . . .. . (e/D = 2. . . . . . . . Btu/[(hr)(ft2)(F)/ft] . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .5 2. .. c Estimated. . Btu/(lb)(F) . . . . . Fty. . . . . . . ./in. . . . . (e/D = 2. . . . . . . percent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5) . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . Fsu.. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .0(c). . . ksi . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a a AMS 4446 Sand casting T6 Any area S 17b 12b 12 . . . . . . . Fbry.. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Condition . . . e. . . . . . . .. . .5) . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . conformance to tensile property requirements is determined by testing specimens cut from castings. .. . . .3 . . . . Mechanical Properties : Ftu. . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Location within casting . . . . lb/in.. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

/in.4. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 25 RT 1/2 -hr exposure 20 300 F 400 F 15 Stress.6. ksi 10 Ramberg .3 TYPICAL 5 0 0 2 4 6 Strain.5 n (300 F) = 3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 100 .2.9 n (400 F) = 5. F Figure 4.1. Percentage of Room Temperature Modulus 80 E & Ec 60 40 Modulus at temperature Exposure up to 1/2 hr 20 TYPICAL 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Temperature. 8 10 12 Figure 4.001 in. Typical tensile stress-stain curves for cast AZ91C-T6/AZ91E-T6 at room and elevated temperatures.2. 0.3.Osgood n (RT) = 4.1.3. Effect of temperature of the tensile and compressive moduli (E and E c) of cast AZ91C-T6/AZ91E-T6. 4-32 .

3. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 4.1.1. AZ92A has fair weldability and pressure tightness.3.0. Table 4.1. Supersedes page 4-33 of MIL-HDBK-5H 4-33 .3. and 4.3.3.3. Typical stress-strain and tangent-modulus curves at room temperature and several elevated temperatures are shown in Figures 4.0(a). Material Specifications for AZ92A Magnesium Alloy Specification AMS 4434 AMS 4484a MIL-M-46062 a Noncurrent specification.3.3.0(b).0(a).3. Material specifications for AZ92A are presented in Table 4.1 AZ92A-T6 Temper — Elevated temperature curves for various mechanical properties are presented in Figures 4.0 Comments and Properties — AZ92A is a magnesium-base casting alloy containing aluminum and zinc.3.6(a) and (b).3.3.3 AZ92A 4.4.3.3.1(a) through (c). Room-temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Table 4. It is slightly stronger and less ductile than AZ91C but is much like it in other characteristics.3.1 Temper T6 4.3.3.3. Elevated temperature curves for physical properties are shown in Figure 4.3.3. It is available as sand and permanent-mold casting.3. Form Sand casting Permanent-mold casting Casting The temper index for AZ92A is as follows: Section 4.MIL-HDBK-5H.

.. . . . .5 6. . S 40 25 25 . . ksi . . . K and α . G. ..3. ... . . .. . . . .5) . . . . . . ksi . .. . . Fsu. . .. . ... ....0659 0. . . .. .. .. . Basis . . . Location within casting . .. . . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of AZ92A Magnesium Alloy Casting Specification .. ./in.. . . 0. .3. . . .. ... . . . Ec. . . . .35 0. . .. . . . . . . Physical Properties: ω. . . ksi: (e/D = 1. . . . . . . . e. .. ... Fcy. . . . . . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . .. µ . e Estimated. .. . Form . . . .5 . . .75 b 6. . . . conformance to tensile property requirements is determined by testing specimens cut from castings..MIL-HDBK-5H.. . . . Btu/(lb)(EF) .. .. AMS 4484a Permanent mold casting T6 AMS 4434 Sand casting T6 MIL-M-46062 Casting (any method) T6 Designated area Nondesignated area S 17 13 13 .0) . . . . ksi: (e/D = 1. . .5d 13.. . . Mechanical Propertiesc: Ftu. . . .. . ... . . c Reference should be made to the specific requirements of the procuring or certificating agency with regard to the use of the above values in the design of castings. . . . (e/D = 2. 103 ksi .. ..0(b). percent . . .25e See Figure 4. .3.4 0. . . .. 1 b Class 3 S 30 18 18 . . . C. Fbry.5 . . . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . .. . .3. .. . . . .. . . . . . ksi .0 a Noncurrent specification... . . . . 3 Class 1 b Class 2 S 34 20 20 ... . .. . . Supersedes page 4-34 of MIL-HDBK-5H 4-34 . . .. lb. d When specified on drawing. . . . . . .. . . ... . . . .. . . . . .. . ksi . Fbru. .3 . . . .5 2. . 0.. . . 103 ksi .. Temper . . .. . . .... .5) . .. 103 ksi . Fty. . . .. .. . . ...... . . . . .. .50 Any area S 17d 13.0) ... . . . . .. . . .. . ..T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4. . . . . . E. ... . (e/D = 2... .. b Class of properties attainable depends on location specified and casting design and should be coordinated with the producer.5d 13.. . . . .. . . . . . . . S 17d 13.. ..

Effect of temperature on the physical properties of cast AZ92A-T6./F ./in. F Figure 4. Btu/[(hr)(ft )(F)/ft] 60 2 40 K 20 18 16 12 10 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Temperature.0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH .At indicated temperature K.Between 70 F and indicated temperature K .3. 10 -6 14 in. 4-35 . .3.

1. 4-36 . F Figure 4.3. F Figure 4.1(b). VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 100 Strength at temperature Exposure up to 1000 hr 80 Percent Fty at Room Temperature 60 1000 hr 1/2 hr 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Temperature.3. Effect of temperature on the tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) of cast AZ92A-T6.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 100 Strength at temperature Exposure up to 1000 hr 80 Percent Ftu at Room Temperature 60 1000 hr 1/2 hr 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Temperature.1(a).3. Effect of temperature on the tensile yield strength (Fty) of cast AZ92A-T6.1.3.

Effect of exposure at elevated temperture on the room-temperature tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) and the tensile yield strength (Fty) of cast AZ92A-T6.3.1(c). Effect of temperature on the tensile and compressive moduli (E and Ec) of cast AZ92A-T6.3.1.3.1. .3. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 100 Percentage of Room Temperature Modulus 80 E & Ec 60 40 Modulus at temperature Exposure up to 1/2 hr 20 TYPICAL 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Temperature.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 100 Ftu Fty Percentage of Room Temperature Strength 80 60 40 20 Strength at room temperature Exposure up to 1000 hr 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Temperature. F Figure 4. .4. F Figure 4. 4-37 .

Typical tesile stress-strain curves for cast AZ92A-T6 at room and elevated temperatures.001 in. 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus. ksi 15 10 5 TYPICAL 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain./in. 0.1. 0.1.6(a).001 in. Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangentmodulus curves for cast AZ92A-T6 at room temperature. 4-38 .3. 10 ksi Figure 4.3.6(b). ksi 15 400 F 10 5 1/2-hr exposure TYPICAL 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain. Figure 4.3. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 25 RT 20 300 F Stress.3./in.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 25 Compression 20 Compression Stress.

4.3.4.1(a) through (c).1. It is available as sand castings in the artificially aged (T5) temper. Table 4.3. A material specification for EZ33A is presented in Table 4. and zirconium.4.4.1 EZ33A-T5 Temper — Elevated temperature curves for tensile properties are presented in Figures 4.3. The effect of temperature on physical properties is shown in Figure 4. 4-39 .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 4. Material Specifications for EZ33A Magnesium Alloy Specification AMS 4442 Sand casting Form The temper index for EZ33A is as follows: Section 4.3.4.0. Room-temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Table 4. EZ33A castings are very sound and are sometimes used for pressure tightness.3.4. A typical tensile stress-strain curve at room temperature is presented in Figure 4.3.3.3.0(a).4.6.1 Temper T5 4.4. EZ33A has lower strength than the Mg-Al-Zn alloys at room temperature but is less affected by increasing temperature.3. It is sometimes used for applications requiring good damping ability. zinc.0 Comments and Properties — EZ33A is a magnesium-base casting alloy containing rare earths.0(b). It is generally used for applications at temperatures of 300 to 500F.1.4. It has good stability in the T5 temper and excellent weldability.0(a).4 EZ33A 4.3.

. . K and  .. . E. . .35 0. . µ . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .3. . . Form . . . . . . . . . . .. . .4. . . . .. . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4. .. . . . . . . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of EZ33A Magnesium Alloy Casting Specification . . .. . .4 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ec. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . 4-40 . . . .. . . . . Location within casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fbru. . . .5) . . 1. . . ksi . . . .. . e. . . ksi . . . . . . . (e/D = 2.. .. . . . . . . . .. . . Temper .5 6. lb/in. . . . . . .5) . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0(b). . . .. 103 ksi . . . . . . C. .3 . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . conformance to tensile property requirements is determined by testing specimens cut from castings. ksi . . . . . . . . Btu/(lb)(F) . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Basis . . . .5 6. . . . . . Fbry. . . . . . . .0) . . Mechanical Propertiesa: Ftu. .0) . . . .. . ksi: (e/D = 1.D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ksi .. Fcy.4. . . . percent . . . . . . . . .0659 0. . . ..5 2. . . .25 See Figure 4. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 a Reference should be made to the specific requirements of the procuring or certificating agency with regard to the use of the above values in the design of castings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Fsu. . . (e/D = 2. . .3. . . .. . .. . Physical Properties: . . . . . . . . Fty.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . AMS 4442 Sand casting T5 Any area S 13b 11b 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . b When specified on drawing. . . . . G. . . . .. .. . . . . . ksi . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksi: (e/D = 1. .

0. 4-41 . Effect of temperature on the physical properties of cast EZ33A.3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH . .4. T5 60 2 40 16 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 12 800 Temperature. 10 -6 14 in.At indicated temperature K. Btu/[(hr)(ft )(F)/ft] 80 K.Between 70 F and indicated temperature K ./F ./in. F Figure 4.

3.1.4. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.3. Effect of temperature on the tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) of cast EZ33A-T5.1(b). 4-42 .1(a).4.1. Effect of temperature on the tensile yield strength (Fty) of cast EZ33A-T5.

/in.1(c).6. 8 10 12 Figure 4.001 in.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.4.1. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 25 20 15 Stress.3.Osgood n (RT) = 15 TYPICAL 5 0 0 2 4 6 Strain.4. Typical tensile stress-strain curve for cast EZ33A-T5 at room temperature. 4-43 . ksi 10 Ramberg . 0.3. Effect of exposure at elevated temperatures on the room temperature tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) and the tensile yield strength (Fty) of cast EZ33A-T5.1.

Material specifications for QE22A are presented in Table 4. It is used in the solution heat-treated and artificially aged (T6) condition where a high yield strength is needed at temperatures up to 600F.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 4.1 QE22A-T6 Temper — Elevated temperature curves for various tensile properties and modulus of elasticity are presented in Figures 4.3. Material Specifications for QE22A Magnesium Alloy Specification AMS 4418 MIL-M-46062 Sand casting Casting Form The temper index for QE22A is as follows: Section 4.5.1.1 and 4. It is available as sand and permanent-mold castings.3.5.5.5 QE22A 4.3. Room-temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Table 4. QE22A has good weldability and fair pressure tightness. 4-44 .5.3.5.0 Comments and Properties — QE22A is a magnesium-base alloy containing silver.4.0(b). Typical tensile stress-strain curves at various temperatures from room temperature through 700F are shown in Figure 4.3. and zirconium.3. rare earths in the form of didymium.3.5. Table 4.6.1 Temper T6 4.0(a).5.3.3.5.1.2.0(a).1.3.

.. 4 Designated area Class 1 a Class 2 S 37 26 26 . . . . . . . AMS 4418 Sand casting MIL-M-46062 Casting (any method) T6 Any area S 32c 23c 23 . . . . Fbru. . .5. .. c When specified on drawing. .. . . . . ksi . . . . . . C. .. . . . . . . 10-6 in. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . b Reference should be made to the specific requirements of the procuring or certificating agency with regard to the use of the above values in the design of castings. . . . . E. . . . . . .. K... . . . .. ..D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . .. .. . Basis . . . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . .4 0. 103 ksi .. . ... 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6. Form .. 103 ksi . . .. Supersedes page 4-45 of MIL-HDBK-5H 4-45 . .. .0(b)... lb/in. . . . . Fsu.. .. .. .. . . . ksi . . . Fbry. .5) . . . .. . .. .. ... . ... . ... . 2 a Nondesignated area S 28 20 20 . 2c S 40 28 28 . .3 .. .25d 59 14 (68EF to 392EF) a Class of properties attainable depends on location specified and casting design and should be coordinated with the producer. .5 6. ..T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4.0) . . . . . Physical Properties: ω. percent . ... Fty. .. . . .. . . Temper . . . . α. . . (e/D = 2.. .. . . ksi .35 a Class 3 S 33 23 23 . .. Location within casting . 1 0. . . . e.. Mechanical Propertiesb: Ftu.. . . . . .. . (e/D = 2. . . . ... . . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of QE22A Magnesium Alloy Casting Specification . . .. ... . . . . . Ec. . . µ . . . ksi . .. . .0653 0. d Estimated. . .. ksi: (e/D = 1.. . .. . .5) . . . .. . .. . . .3.MIL-HDBK-5H. . .. ksi: (e/D = 1. . ... conformance to tensile property requirements is determined by testing specimens cut from castings. .5 2./EF . . . Fcy. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .../in.. . . . . . . . . ..0) . .. . . . G.. . . Btu/[(hr)(ft2)(EF)/ft] . Btu/(lb)(EF) . . . . . . . .

1.4.3.3.5.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4. Effect of temperature on the tensile modulus (E) of cast QE22A-T6.1. REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.1.5. Effect of temperature on the tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) and the tensile yield strength (Fty) of cast QE22A-T6. 4-46 .

9 TYPICAL 300 F 400 F 500 F RT Stress.Osgood n (RT) = 6.3 n (600 F) = 4.16.3.5.001 in.5 n (300 F) = 7.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 50 . 0./in.8 n (700 F) = 3.9 n (400 F) = 9. ksi 20 600 F 10 700 F 0 0 2 4 6 Strain.0 n (500 F) = 6. 4-47 .5 -hr exposure 40 30 Ramberg . 8 10 12 Figure 4. Typical tensile stress-strain curves for cast QE22A-T6 at room and elevated temperatures.

1.3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 4.3.3.3.4. It is available as sand or permanent-mold castings in the artificially aged temper (T5).0(a).1.6.3.6.3. It is useful for applications at temperatures up to 320F. zirconium.6(a) and (b) contain tensile and compressive stress-strain curves as well as a compressive tangent-modulus curve.3.3.6.3.6.6. Room temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Table 4.1.3. The effect of temperature on the tensile modulus of elasticity is shown in Figure 4.0 Comments and Properties — ZE41A is a magnesium-base casting alloy containing zinc.3.1 Temper T5 4. and rare earth elements.6. Figures 4.0(a). ZE41A castings possess good weldability and are pressure tight.6 ZE41A 4.0(b).6. ZE41A has a higher yield strength than the Mg-Al-Zn alloys at room temperature and is more stable at elevated temperatures. Material Specifications for ZE41A Magnesium Alloy Specification AMS 4439 Sand casting Form The temper index for ZE41A is as follows: Section 4. Table 4. The effect of temperature on thermal conductivity is shown in Figure 4. A material specification for ZE41A is presented in Table 4.1.0.3.1 T5 Temper — Elevated temperature curves for tensile yield and ultimate strengths are presented in Figure 4. 4-48 .6.6.

. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . (e/D = 2.. . . E. in. . . Form . . .. . ksi . . . . . G. . . . . ./in.5) . . Mechanical Propertiesa: Ftu. . . . .0) .7. . . . ... . . . . . µ . .. .. . . Thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1. . . . . . . . .3. documentation of foundry procedures. Fcy. . .. . . . . . .0656 0. . . These provisions require preproduction approval. . . . . 103 ksi . . . . . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of ZE41A Magnesium Alloy Casting Specification . Basis .6. . . . . . . . . . . .35 0. C. Fbryc. . e. . . . . . . . 10-6 in.5 6. . . . . Fsu. . . . . . .4. .0(b).. . ..5b 15 17 38 49 31 35 2b 6. . ..5) . . . . Strict adherence to these requirements is mandatory if these properties are to be reliably assured in each casting. b Conformance to tensile property requirements is determined by testing specimens cut from casting only when specified on drawing. . . . . . . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .3 . . . ksi . . . . Fty. Btu/[(hr)(ft2)(F)/ft] . . . . .. . . .6.1. . . . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2. . . . . . . . . ksi . . . . . . . . .0 15. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .5 (68 to 212F) a The mechanical properties shown are reliably obtainable when castings are produced under the quality assurance provisions of AMS 4439. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .0) . . . . . Physical Properties: . . ksi: (e/D = 1. . . Btu/(lb)(F) . . . . . . Ec. . . . . . . . . . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 4. Temper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS 4439 Sand casting T5 Any area S 26b 17. . . . . . . . lb/in.. . . . . .3. . . . . . ..5 2. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . percent . . 4-49 ./F . . .. . . 103 ksi . . .4 0. . . . .234 (at 68F) See Figure 4. . . .. . . ksi: (e/D = 1. and specific testing procedures for the acceptance of each production lot of castings. . . . . . 103 ksi . . . K. ksi . . Fbru.. . . .

0. Effect of temperature on the thermal conductivity (K) of ZE41A-T5 sand casting.3. 4-50 .6.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.

1.1.1.6.3. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4. Effect of temperature on the tensile modulus (E) of ZE41A-T5 sand casting.4. Effect of temperature on the tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) and tensile yield strength (Fty) of ZE41A-T5 sand casting.6.3. 4-51 .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.

0.7 TYPICAL 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain.3. Typical compressive stress-strain and tangent-modulus curves for ZE41A-T5 sand casting at room temperature./in.001 in.3.Osgood n (compression) = 3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4.6. 10 ksi Figure 4. Typical tensile stress-strain curves for ZE41A-T5 sand casting at room and elevated temperatures.1.6(a). VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 25 20 15 Stress. 4-52 . ksi 10 5 Ramberg . 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus.6.1.6(b).

4.1.2. See References 4.3. AZ61A ZK60A-T5 K 2. 4.8.900 3.4.25 for solid sections.4.4.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 4.2 Unconventional Cross Sections — Sections other than solid or tubular should be tested to determine allowable bending stress.3(a). 4. Table 4.1(a).1.96 Fcy a Formula is for members that do not fail by local buckling. 4. 4.2 COLUMNS 4.4. See Figure 4. In the absence of specific data.1. P/A Fcy 0.1. Column Formula for Magnesium-Alloy Extruded Open Shapes General Formulaa K( Fcy)n P  A ( L/)m (Stress values are in ksi) Alloy AZ31B.1 Simple Beams — Beams of solid tubular.1.2(a) and (b).300 n ¼ ¼ m 1. Formulas applicable to magnesium-alloy columns are given in Tables 4.1 Primary Failure — The general formula for primary instability is given in Section 1.2.1.1(a) and (b).4. or similar cross sections can be assumed to fail through exceeding an allowable modulus of rupture in bending (Fb).4.4. 4.2.1 BEAMS — Refer to Chapter 1 and References 1.1(a) and (b) for general information on stress analysis of beam s.1 Round Tubes — For round tubes. 4-53 .1.5 1.7.4.4.4 ELEMENT PROPERTIES 4.5 Max. the ratio Fb/Ftu can be assumed to be 1.3 Thin-Web Beams — The allowable stress for thin-web beams will depend on the nature of the failure and are determined from the allowable stress of the web in tension and of the flanges or stiffeners in compression.4.2. the value of Fb will depend on the D/t ratio as well as the compressive yield stress.4.2 Built-Up Beams — Built-up beams will usually fail because of local failure of compo4.

2 Local Failure 4. The allowable stress is plotted against the effective slenderness ratio defined by Equation 3.05 Fcy 2 L/ 2 P  1.4.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 4.3(b).4. 4-54 .4.2.2.05 Fcy  A 4 2 E MAX P  Fcy A See Figure 4.2.11.2.3 Column Properties — Curves of the allowable column stresses for various magnesium alloy columns are given in Figures 4.3(a) and (b).4. Column Formula for AZ31B-H24 Magnesium-Alloy Sheet 1.3. 4.1(b).2.2.4.

3(b).3(a). 4-55 .2. Allowable column stresses for magnesium-alloy columns. Allowable column stresses for AZ31B-H24 magnesium-alloy sheet.2. Figure 4.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Figure 4.4.4.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 4.3. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 4. 4.2 Torsion Properties — An empirical curve of the allowable torsional modulus of rupture for AZ62A-F magnesium-alloy round tubing (specification WW-T-825) is given in Figure 4.4.3. Torsional modulus of rupture for AZ61A-F magnesium-alloy round tubing.2.4.2.4.3 TORSION 4.1 General — The general statements relating to aluminum-alloy tubing in 3. 4-56 .3.4.4.11.3 are applicable to magnesium tubing.3.

“Tensile and Creep Strengths of Some MagnesiumBase Alloys at Elevated Temperatures”. Fenn. L.. B. “The Relation of Stress to Strain in Magnesium Alloys”. 2. The Welding Journal Research Supplement (August 1960).1. pp 202 (December 1943)..1.2. and Moore. and McDonald. J.2. pp 68 (September 1943). and Typical Test Values on Some Magnesium Alloys at Room and Elevated Temperatures”. Proceedings 48. A.2. American Society for Testing and Materials. pp 1097-1118 (1946).1.2.. “Compression Testing of Sheet Magnesium Utilizing Rapid Heating”.. Moore.1.5(d) 4.2. Materials. and Gusack.4 4. Creep and Fatigue Properties of Some Magnesium-Base Alloys”..3(b) 4.. Bulletin No. Report M-104. Dorn. “An Autographic Bearing-Strength Test Method. Proceedings 56. Proceedings 60.2(a) 4. P.1..2.1. “Low-Temperature.. Jr. and Moore.1...1. Dorn. A... W. A. A. and Punched Holes. Jr. “Effects of Lubrication and Pin Surface on Bearing Strengths of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys”. W. C. American Society for Testing and Materials.5(c) 4. and others.1(b) 4. “The Effect of Speed of Testing of Magnesium-Base Alloys”. R. E. pp 842858 (1956)..1. Part V.. R. and Lockwood. American Society for Testing and Materials. C.2. pp 940-956 (1960). Part V. pp 970-989 (1946). and McDonald. pp 834-841 (1956)..1. 3043 (NRC Research Project NRC-21). G.. Proceedings 46. American Society for Testing and Materials.1.1. R. W. Fenn. Reamed. W. R. L. Section II. Proceedings 46... Fenn. Jr. and Meriam. 135. “Effect of Strain Rate and Temperature on the Strength of Magnesium Alloys”. C.1...3(a) 4. J. A. E. J. A.. American Society for Testing and Materials.1(a) 4. and Moore. OSRD No. Jr. “Evaluation of Test Variables in the Determination of Shear Strength”. pp 273-280 (July 1945).1. Doan.1(c) Eastman. J. Fenn. American Society for Testing and Materials. American Society for Testing and Materials. E. J. OSRD No. A.5(e) . and Clapper.. A.1. American Society for Testing and Materials. J. J. Final Report M-177. J. A. Moore. W.2.1. Proceedings 48..1. McDonald. A. Vol.2.. A. J.. pp 747-751 (September 1962).. R. C. 4-57 4.2.1(d) 4.1.1. McDonald. A. The Sensitivity of Magnesium Alloy Sheet to Drilled. Research and Standards. Proceedings 56.. C. The Notch Sensitivity of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions and the Influence of Various Factors”. J.5(b) 4. “The Notch Sensitivity in Static and Impact Loading of Some Magnesium-Base and Aluminum-Base Alloys”. pp 27-30 (August 1945).1. and McDonald. pp 1133-1138 (1948).2. Proceedings 58.. J. No. J. American Society of Testing and Materials.1.2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998  4.1. 1819. F. pp 685-696 (1958). American Society for Testing and Materials.2(b) 4. “Properties and Heat Treatment of Magnesium Alloys. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences.1.5(a) 4.2.1. “Properties and Heat Treatment of Magnesium Alloys. Gusack. C. pp 737-754 (1948). Notch Sensitivity of Magnesium Alloys”.. “Compression Testing of Magnesium Alloy Sheet”. 2.1.1. Part II. Section I.2. A. Properties of Welded Magnesium Alloys”. Moore.1. “Tensile. Stickley.1.

Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. Proceedings 46. and Lazan..1. Magnesium”. 4150. L.. U.2(a) 4. Grube. K. M-292. pp 101 (1944). Part II. Schuette. 15. H.1. L. pp 210 (October 1949).. C. G.1. Office of Scientific Research and Development Report No. Eastwood.2.7(b) 4. L. Schuette. Wyman. A. pp 715-740 (1946).7(a) 4. American Society for Testing and Materials. Part II.. “The Notch Sensitivity in Fatigue Loading of Some Magnesium-Base and Aluminum-Base Alloys”.1. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Technical Report No.2. “High-Temperature Properties of Light Alloys (NA-137). Blatherwick.. E. 4150. H.8 4.2. M-292.5(h) 4.1. 4. pp 523-529 (1948). “High-Temperature Properties of Light Alloys (NA-137). Magnesium”.2.4. E.2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 4.6 4..1. Office of Scientific Research and Development Report No.5(g) 4. WADC Tech Report 53-181.1.. “Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves for Some Magnesium Alloys Showing the Effects of Varying Exposure Time on Their Creep Resistance”.4.. Craighead.S. “Fatigue Properties of Magnesium Alloy Forgings”.1. R. Clapper. L. W. pp 812-825 (1958). pp 112 (December 1960) (MCIC 43549). A..1. U. C.. “Fatigue Properties of Extruded Magnesium Alloy ZK60A Under Various Combinations of Alternating and Mean Axial Stresses”. W.S. “The Effects of Temperature on the Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy”..2. Proceedings 58. 16. “Column Curves for Magnesium Alloy Sheet”.2(b) 4-58 .. H. J.. Rand Corporation Report R-146. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences. H. “Hyperbolic Column Formulas for Magnesium Alloy Extrusions”.2. H. 60-854.5(f) Wyman. Schuette. L.1. and Lorig. pp 301-305 (1949).2. American Society for Testing and Materials. E. P.1. pp 101 (1944). M. B.1. Found.3. pp 27 (August 1953) (MCIC 108173).

4.5Al-3V-2Fe-2Mo 5. corrosion-resistant structural material that can be strengthened greatly through alloying and. and low heattreating temperature during hardening.1 TITANIUM INDEX — The coverage of titanium and its alloys in this chapter has been divided into four sections for systematic presentation. above which it transforms to a “beta” structure.1 Ti-6A1-4V 5.2 Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3A1 5.4. Through alloying and heat treatment. 5. and Metastable Titanium Alloys 5.2 Ti-6A1-6V-2Sn 5.1 Commercially Pure Titanium 5. pure titanium has an “alpha” structure up to 1620EF.1 Ti-13V-11Cr-3A1 5. General comments on engineering properties and the considerations relating to alloy selection are presented in Section 5.5.and physical-property data and characteristics pertinent to specific alloy groups or individual alloys are reported in Sections 5.3 Ti . Table 5.1.5 Beta. both of which are influential in determining the allotropic forms in which this material will be bound.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES — The material properties of titanium and its alloys are determined mainly by their alloy content and heat treatment.2 through 5.4 Alpha-Beta Titanium Alloys 5. good oxidation resistance at intermediate temperatures.1 Ti-5A1-2. good corrosion resistance.3.1. Among its advantages for specific applications are: good strength-to-weight ratio.2 Unalloyed Titanium 5. one or the other or a combination of these two structures can be made to exist at service temperatures. The sections and the individual alloys covered under each are shown in Table 5. by heat treatment. The inherent properties of these two structures are quite different. low coefficient of thermal expansion.2.5.1. Mechanical.3 Ti-10V-2Fe-3A1 5.5.1 GENERAL This chapter contains the engineering properties and related characteristics of titanium and titanium alloys used in aircraft and missile structural applications.4.3 Alpha and Near-Alpha Titanium Alloys 5. Near-Beta. in some of its alloys. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 CHAPTER 5 TITANIUM 5.4. and others. Under equilibrium conditions.5. The system takes into account unalloyed titanium and three groups of alloys based on metallurgical differences which in turn result in differences in fabrication and property characteristics.2 Ti-8A1-1Mo-1V (Near-Alpha) 5.3.5Sn (Alpha) 5. Titanium is a relatively lightweight. low density.3.MIL-HDBK-5H. and the properties of the material vary Supersedes page 5-1 of MIL-HDBK-5H 5-1 . Titanium Alloys Index Section Alloy Designation 5. good toughness.1.1.3 Ti-6A1-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo (Near-Alpha) 5.

5Sn ELI may be significant at stresses above approximately 60 percent Fty. Supersedes page 5-1 of MIL-HDBK-5H 5-2 . 5. Final heat treatments that are indicated as “specified” heat treatments do not necessarily coincide with the producers’ recommended heat treatments. Titanium and titanium alloys of the alpha and alpha-beta type exhibit crystallographic textures in sheet form in which certain crystallographic planes or directions are closely aligned with the direction of prior working. References 5. weldability. Springback is nearly always a factor in hot or cold forming. For fracture critical applications.1. average. but these values do not have the statistical reliability of the room-temperature mechanical properties. Wide variations experienced in these properties both within and between sheets of titanium alloys have been qualitatively related to variations of texture.3 MANUFACTURING CONSIDERATIONS — Comments relating to formability. as well as above about 700EF.1.1.1.1. In practice. MIL-H-81200. for example. Departures from the specified aging cycles are often necessary to account for aging that may take place during hot working or hot sizing or to obtain more desirable mechanical properties. 5.1.1. creep deformation of titanium alloys can be expected at stresses below the yield strength. are presented for various products for which valid data are available. and hence the variation of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. heat treatment. the degree of texturing. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 accordingly.1. Minimum.1 Fracture Toughness — The fracture toughness of titanium alloys is greatly influenced by such factors as chemistry variations. for example. room-temperature creep of Ti-5A1-1. Available data indicate that room-temperature creep of unalloyed titanium may be significant (exceed 0. References 5. and product thickness. improved fracture toughness. Poisson’s ratio and Young’s modulus are among those properties strongly affected by texture.2(a) and (b) provide general discussion of titanium microstructures and associated metallography. these treatments.1.000 hours) at stresses that exceed approximately 50 percent Fty. departures from recommended practices are very common and are based largely on in-plant experience. as well as yield strength. In general.MIL-HDBK-5H.2. that is developed for alpha-beta alloys tends to be less than that developed in all alpha titanium alloys.1.2.1. The degree of applicability of the effect of textural variations discussed above on the mechanical properties of products other than sheet is unknown at present. The values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio listed in this document represent the usual values obtained on products resulting from standard mill practices.4(a) through (c) provide some limited data regarding room-temperature creep of titanium alloys.2.2(c) and (d) provide further information on texturing in titanium alloys. microstructure. and room-temperature creep of the standard grades of titanium alloys may be significant at stresses above approximately 75 percent Fty. as well as coefficient of variation. 5. Below about 300EF. Typical values of plane-strain fracture toughness for titanium alloys are presented in Table 5. These comments are necessarily brief and are intended only to aid the designer in the selection of an alloy for a specific application.4 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS — Comments relating to temperature limitations in the application of titanium and titanium alloys are presented under the individual alloys. More detailed recommendations for specific applications are generally available from the material producers. and maximum values. Rather.2 percent creep-strain in 1. References 5. Rolling temperature has a pronounced effect on the texturing of titanium alloys which may not in general be affected by subsequent thermal treatments. and final heat treatment are presented under individual alloys.1 Mechanical Properties — 5. these factors should be closely controlled. The presence of textures in these materials lead to anisotropy with respect to many mechanical and physical properties. along with the specified roomtemperature minimum tensile properties. are contained in the heat treating-capability requirements of applicable specifications.

8 percent NO. In some cases.1. Red fuming nitric acid with less than 1. mercury. However.1. Crack growth rates in salt water are a function of sheet or section thickness. Titanium is susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking in certain anhydrous chemicals including methyl alcohol and nitrogen tetroxide. or certain of their compounds. silver. a partial pressure of about 50 psi is sufficient to ignite a fresh titanium surface over the temperature range from -250EF to room temperature or higher. with a fatigue crack present in the specimen. Under certain conditions. This problem has been observed largely in laboratory tests at 450 to 500EF and higher and occasionally in fabrication shops. including fingerprints) of parts used above 450EF is recommended. In gaseous oxygen. Refer to MIL-HDBK-1568 for restrictions concerning applications with titanium in contact with these metals or their compounds. However. when in contact with cadmium.MIL-HDBK-5H. there have been no reported failures of titanium components in service by hot salt stress corrosion. These alloys are not susceptible in the form of thin-gauge sheet. Supersedes page 5-1 of MIL-HDBK-5H 5-3 .4(d)]. Impact of the surface in contact with liquid oxygen will result in a reaction at energy levels as low as 10 ft-lb. alpha-beta. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 The use of titanium and its alloys in contact with either liquid oxygen or gaseous oxygen at cryogenic temperatures should be avoided. since either the presentation of a fresh surface (such as produced by tensile rupture) or impact may initiate a violent reaction [Reference 5. in N2O4. certain titanium alloys show an increased crack propagation rate in the presence of water or salt water as compared with the rate in air.4(e) through (g) present detailed summaries of corrosion and stress corrosion of titanium alloys. may become embrittled. but become susceptible as thickness increases. These alloys also may show reduced sustained load-carrying ability in aqueous environments in the presence of fatigue cracks. Traces of water tend to inhibit the reaction in either environment. special processing techniques and heat treatments have been developed that minimize this effect.5 percent water and 10 to 20 percent NO2 can crack the metal and result in a pyrophoric reaction. titanium. and beta-type microstructures. Alloys of titanium found susceptible to this effect include some from alpha. References 5. In laboratory tests. Titanium alloys are also susceptible to stress corrosion by dry sodium chloride at elevated temperatures. Cleaning with a nonchlorinated solvent (to remove salt deposits.4 to 0. NO is preferred and inhibited N2O4 contains 0. The thickness at which susceptibility occurs varies over a visual range with the alloy and processing.

REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. ksi  in.6-1.3 for definition of symbols.1. 5-4 . 38 33 Coefficient of Variation 10.5 <3.1. 60 57 Min. Condition Form Orientationb ksi inches Sources Size inches Mill Forged Annealed Bar Mill Forged Annealed Bar L-T T-L 121-143 124-145 <3. b Refer to Figure 1.5-1.Table 5.5 2 2 43 64 0.7 a These values are for information only.1 0.1.5 11.12. Yield Product Specimen Heat Strength Thickness Number Thickness Treat Product Range.2.3 Alloy Ti-6Al-4V Ti-6Al-4V Max. Range. Values of Room Temperature Plain-Strain Fracture of Titanium Alloys a KIc. 77 81 Avg.4. of Sample Range.

2.0 Comments and Properties — Unalloyed titanium is available in all familiar product forms and is noted for its excellent formability.2.1 COMMERCIALLY PURE TITANIUM 5.2. there being a close relationship among these.1. Additional chemical reactivity between titanium and selected environments such as methyl alcohol. Environmental Considerations — Titanium has an unusually high affinity for oxygen. are intermediate in purity.1. or certain of their compounds.1. Specifications and Properties — Some material specifications for commercially pure titanium are presented in Table 5. and liquid metal. 5. when in contact with cadmium. chloride salt solutions.3(b).0(b) and (c).1 Annealed Condition — Elevated-temperature data for annealed commercially pure titanium are presented in Figures 5. and hydrogen at temperatures above 1050F. Manufacturing Considerations — Unalloyed titanium is supplied in the annealed condition permitting extensive forming at room temperature.2.4 and its references. Severe forming operations also can be accomplished at elevated temperatures (300 to 900F). Commercially pure titanium can be welded readily by the several methods employed for titanium joining.0.1. Brazing requires protection from the atmosphere which may be obtained by fluxing as well as by inert gas or vacuum shielding. may become embrittled. mercury. 5. thus usage should be limited to temperatures below that indicated. silver.2. can take place at lower temperatures. The effect of temperature on physical properties is shown in Figure 5.2.2. Room-temperature mechanical properties for commercially pure titanium are shown in Tables 5. It is stress relieved by heating to 900 to 1000F for 30 minutes. hydrogen. nitrogen. Under certain conditions. titanium. and are commonly referred to as being of commercial purity. The unalloyed titanium grades most commonly used are produced by the Kroll process.1. Atmospheric shielding is preferable although spot or seam welding may be accomplished without shielding.2. or strength.2 UNALLOYED TITANIUM Several grades of unalloyed titanium are offered and are classified on the basis of manufacturing method. degree of purity.1.1.1. 5-5 .6(a) and (b). as discussed in Section 5. Heat Treatment — Commercially pure titanium is fully annealed by heating to 1000 to 1300F for 10 to 30 minutes.1.1. Typical full-range stress-strain curves for the 40 and 70 ksi yield strength commercially pure titanium are shown in Figures 5. Property degradation can be experienced after severe forming if as-received material properties are not restored by re-annealing.1(a) through 5.0(a).2. REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. This results in embrittlement of the material. Refer to MIL-S-5002 and MIL-STD-1568 for restrictions concerning applications with titanium in contact with these metals or their compounds.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 5. Commercially pure titanium cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Unalloyed titanium is readily welded or brazed.1.1. It has been used primarily where strength is not the main requirement.

1. strip. strip. and plate Sheet. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 5. Material Specifications for Commercially Pure Titanium Specification AMS 4900 AMS 4901 AMS 4902 AMS-T-9046 MIL-T-9047a AMS 4921 AMS-T-81556 a Inactive for new design Form Sheet.MIL-HDBK-5H. and plate Sheet. and plate Bar Bar Extruded bars and shapes Supersedes page 5-6 of MIL-HDBK-5H 5-6 .2. strip.0(a). strip. and plate Sheet.

.. LT . . .... C. . .. . .. . ....0004. . . . .2.. . ..... . . .. . . . ..... . . .. .000 inches.. Fbry. ... . .. . . ... .. .. (e/D = 2.. . .......... ....... . . LT .. . . . .. ..... . 15c 15c . .. .. . . 80 80 80 70 70 70 ..... .... . . .. . .. . .. . ..... .. 65 65 . .... ... . . 5-7 . .. . ST . ... . .. Condition .. percent: L . .. . .. strip. 24c 24c . ... 55 55 . . . . (e) (LT) = 12% and RA (LT) = 25%. ksi: L . . . . 25 25 . Fbru.D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . .. . .. . ... . and plate Annealed Annealed 1. . . .. . 15 15b .. .... . . .... . 50 50 . ..025 inch and above.. .. . .. . ksi: (e/D = 1. ..0) . .. . ST ... ... .. . . e. .. .. . . .. ...and MIL-T....... . . ... .... ... . ... .. ... ... . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. .... ksi . ... . .. . ... Thickness or diameter. . .. in.. .. .. K...... . .. .. . . ..... .2. . ... .. .. MIL-T-9046 and MIL-T... .000a S 35 35 . . 103 ksi .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . 101 . . .. .. .. µ ... . . . .... . . ... . .. . . .. .. .. . . ... . .. . . . .5) . 80 80 . . .. . . ...0 6. . 103 ksi . .. Mechanical Properties: Ftu.... . ... . 70 70 42 120 . . . . .. ... . .. .. G... . . .5 16. .. .. . . . .. lb/in.. ... . Physical Properties: . ....... Form .. ...0 a Maximum of 16-square-inch cross-sectional area.. .. . ... .... 20c 20c .999a S 3... . .. .... .. . 15 15 15 30 30 30 0. .. ... . ksi: L . . ......3 ... . Titanium Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Commercially Pure AMS 4902 AMS 4900 AMS 4901 Specification ....... . LT .. 103 ksi .. .. ... ...163 See Figure 5. ... . . .... . .. ... . .. .. . . . .. . .. . and  . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . .. . Ec. . .. .... ... . .. c Thickness of 0. .. . . .. .. . . ksi: L . .. .... ST . . . . . ... ... .. . .. . .. . . . .. . .... . . .. .. ...... . . . .. . . . 70 70b .. ... ksi: (e/D = 1..... Fty.. .... ... . ... ... . . . . REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. . . .. ST .. .. . 18c 18c .. ..1. For AMS 4921.. Fcy.. . . .. . . Basis .. .. . 70 70 .. . . ..0) . .5 . . . .. ... .. . 30 30b . .. . .0(b)..000 S S 2... .. . . . . .. Fsu. b Long transverse properties apply to rectangular bar only for thickness >0. . percent: L .. . . . . . 40 40 ... . . LT . . .. .5) . . . . . .. . LT . ... . 15. ... . 80 80b .... .. ....and MIL-T9046 9046 9046 Designation . S S CP-4 CP-3 CP-2 CP-1 AMS 4921 and MIL-T9047 CP-70 Bar MIL-T9047 Sheet. RA.... . . . . . . .... .. . . . .. .. ..... .. . ... .. . . . ... .. . E.500 inches and widths >3..T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 5. ...1.. ... . . .. (e/D = 2.

. . . . Comp. .. .. ... . . . .. . .3 . ... lb/in... .... . 0. e. . . . .. ... percent: L .2. . LT .. .. . . K. CP-2 18 15 12 Comp.... .. .. 70 .. ..000 S S Comp. .. . . CP-4 Form ... CP-1 S 40 .. . . . . . . . ...5 16. ..000 2. .. Fbru. ..001-3. Basis . .. . . . . . ksi: (e/D = 1.....5) .. . . . . .. . inches 0. . . Thickness or diameter.. ... . . ... . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . 103 ksi . ... . . .. LT . .. .. . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . (e/D = 2. . . .. . . ...163 See Figure 5.... .. CP-4 25 20 18 S AMS-T-81556 Comp.. . and α . . in. . ... Physical Properties: ω. a 50 .. . . . ..... .... ..... . . . .. . Fsu. . . CP-3 Comp. .. .. G. . . . Ec. .. a 15. . . 103 ksi ... . . . .. . .188-1.. . . . ..188-3.. . . CP-1 15 12 10 Supersedes page 5-8 of MIL-HDBK-5H 5-8 . Fcy. ... .. . . 40 .... ksi: L . a 65 .. .. .. . .. . ..... ... .. . . .. Fty. . .. .MIL-HDBK-5H. . .. 103 ksi .. . .. .. . . .. a Elongation in percent as follows: Thickness.. CP-2 Extruded bars and shapes Annealed 0. . .. ... . .. . . ksi: (e/D = 1. . . . LT . . . .0) .. .. ... .... . . . .000 Comp. . . .. . . ...2.. . CP-3 20 18 15 Comp. . . . ksi .001-2. .. .. ... .. µ . . . . . . ..... . . .0 6. .. . .. . . Fbry. .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 5. . a 80 .. . ..000 1. . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. (e/D = 2. . ..1. . ksi: L . . . . . . ....1.. . .. .0) . . .. . . . .... . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . . . ksi: L .5) . 55 .. . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Commercially Pure Titanium Extruded Bars and Shapes Specification . E. . . . ..0(c).. .. . .5 . . Condition .0 Comp. .. C. . Mechanical Properties: Ftu. . . ... . . . .. 30 ..

0.2. 5-9 .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 5.1. Effect of temperature on the physical properties of commercially pure titanium.

5-10 . Effect of temperature on the tensile yield strength (Fty) of annealed commercially pure titanium.1.1(a).1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 5. Effect of temperature on the tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) of annealed commercially pure titanium. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 5.2.1.1.2.1(b).

2(a).1. Effect of temperature on the compressive yield strength (Fcy) of annealed commercially pure titanium.2. Effect of temperature on the shear ultimate strength (Fsu) of annealed commercially pure titanium.1. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 5.2.2(b). 5-11 .1.1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 5.

1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 5.1.2. 5-12 . Effect of temperature on the bearing yield strength (Fbry) of annealed commercially pure titanium.2. Effect of temperature on the bearing ultimate strength (Fbru) of annealed commercially pure titanium. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 5.1.3(a).1.3(b).

6(a). Typical full-range tensile stress-strain curve for commercially pure titanium sheet (40 ksi yield at room temperature).2.1.1. .VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 5-13 Figure 5.

1. .2.6(b).VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 5-14 Figure 5. Typical full-range tensile stress-strain curve for commercially pure titanium sheet (70 ksi yield at room temperature).1.

Annealing — Heating to a suitable temperature. compression. based on alloy composition. and heating and cooling rates used in these treatments vary from alloy to alloy and are described in the applicable specifications. The actual temperatures. This chapter contains strength properties and related characteristics of wrought heat-resistant alloy products used in aerospace vehicles. and shear. The strength properties are those commonly used in structural design. each alloy is identified by its most widely accepted trade designation. Solution-Treating — Heating to a suitable temperature. and fatigue strength. stress-rupture. bearing. 6-1 . holding times. holding long enough to reduce residual stresses. These groups and the alloys for which specifications and properties are included are shown in Table 6. These alloys have adequate oxidation resistance for service at elevated temperatures and are normally used without special surface protection. For uniformity of presentation.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 CHAPTER 6 HEAT-RESISTANT ALLOYS 6. Data on creep.1 GENERAL Heat-resistant alloys are arbitrarily defined as iron alloys richer in alloy content than the 18 percent chromium. For convenience in presenting these alloys and their properties. are presented in the applicable alloy section. the heat-resistant alloys have been divided into three groups. Aging. or as alloys with a base element other than iron and which are intended for elevated-temperature service.1. and cooling rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution. The effects of elevated temperature are presented. 8 percent nickel types. Factors such as metallurgical considerations influencing the selection of metals are included in comments preceding the specific properties of each alloy or alloy group. holding long enough to allow one or more constituents to enter into solid solution. the heat-treating terms are defined as follows: Stress-Relieving — Heating to a suitable temperature. such as tension. There is no standardized numbering system for the alloys in this chapter. as well as crack-growth characteristics. For this reason. and cooling in air or as prescribed. Precipitation-Hardening — Heating to a suitable temperature and holding long enough to obtain hardening by the precipitation of a constituent from the solution-treated condition. The heat treatments applied to the alloys in this chapter vary considerably from one alloy to another. So-called “refractory” alloys that require special surface protection for elevated-temperature service are not included in this chapter. holding. and cooling at a suitable rate for the purpose of obtaining minimum hardness or strength.

3.4 6.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 6.4.3.2.3.3.8 6.4 6.3 6.5 6.2 Designation Iron-Chromium-Nickel-Base Alloys A-286 N-155 Nickel-Base Alloys Hastelloy X Inconel 600 (Inconel) Inconel 625 Inconel 706 Inconel 718 Inconel X-750 (Inconel X) René 41 Waspaloy Cobalt-Base Alloys L-605 (Haynes Alloy 25) HS 188 6-2 .3.3 6.1.1 6.7 6.2 6.2 6.3.1 6. Heat-Resistant Alloys Index Section 6.1 6.4.2 6.2.3.6 6.3.

Prior creep exposure may also affect ductility adversely.1. The variation of properties with temperature and other data or interest are presented in figures or tables. and heat treatment. processing. the mechanical properties shown for the various alloys in this chapter are intended to apply only to the alloy. as appropriate. Consequently. these are intended to represent a fair cross section of all mill production within the indicated scope. Supersedes page 6-3 of MIL-HDBK-5H 6-3 . and heat treatment indicated.1 Mechanical Properties — The mechanical properties of the heat-resistant alloys are affected by relatively minor variations in chemistry. within a limited range.1. this increase in strength has been ignored in the preparation of elevated temperature curves as described in Chapter 9. Fatigue crack propagation data are also presented. In most cases.2. then it increases with higher temperatures. The variation in ductility with temperature is somewhat erratic for the heatresistant alloys. Creep — Data covering the temperatures and times of exposure and the creep deformations of interest are included as typical information in individual material sections.1. cannot usually be taken advantage of in service. this increase in strength is temporary and. size (thickness). Generally. ductility decreases with decreasing temperature for some of these alloys. these alloys may actually show an increase in strength with temperature or time.1). Values for nonspecification strength properties are derived. the properties listed are applicable to all forms and heat treatments. Fatigue — Fatigue S/N curves for unnotched and notched specimens at room temperature and elevated temperatures are shown in each alloy section. however. The strength properties of the heat-resistant alloys generally decrease with increasing temperatures or increasing time at temperature. There are exceptions to this statement. For additional information on mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. For this reason. Below room temperature. thus. At cryogenic temperatures.1. Strength Properties — Room-temperature strength properties for alloys in this chapter are based primarily on minimum tensile property requirements of material specifications. furthermore.3. 6. Ductility — Specified minimum ductility requirements are presented for these alloys in the roomtemperature property tables. such as the Cryogenic Materials Data Handbook (Reference 6. Stress-Strain Relationships — The stress-strain relationships presented are typical curves prepared as described in Section 9. the strength properties of the heat-resistant alloys are generally higher than at room temperature.MIL-HDBK-5H.1. form (shape). as a result of further aging. Processing variables and heat treatment have only a slight effect on these values.1. should be consulted. provided some ductility is retained at the low temperatures. These presentations may be in the form of creep stress-lifetime curves for various deformation criteria as specified in Chapter 9 or as creep nomographs. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 6.1 MATERIAL PROPERTIES 6. When statistical values are shown. other references.1.2 Physical Properties —Selected physical-property data are presented for these alloys. particularly in the case of agehardening alloys. ductility decreases with increasing temperature from room temperature up to about 1200 to 1400EF. where it reaches a minimum value.

2 Metallurgical Considerations Composition — The complex-base alloys comprising this group range from those in which iron is considered the base element to those which border on the nickel-base alloys. Its forging range is 2150 to 1800F.and cobalt-base alloys. The effect of temperature on physical properties is shown in Figure 6. in amounts ranging from 10 to 20 percent or higher. A-286 should be welded in the solution-treated condition. bolts. Since these alloys are susceptible to carburization during heat treatment. Molybdenum. Room-temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Table 6. and discs. machining. primarily increases oxidation resistance and contributes to strengthening of these alloys.2.0(b).2.2.0. REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. and machining is somewhat more difficult than for the stainless steels. A-286 is available in the usual mill forms. 6. when finishing below 1800F.1. tungsten. 6.1 A-286 6. 6. yet contain enough iron to reduce their cost considerably. in those applications in which the stainless steels are inadequate and service requirements do not justify the use of the more costly nickel or cobalt alloys. oil. cold forming. Oxidation resistance of A-286 is equivalent to that of Type 310 stainless steel up to 1800F.2 Manufacturing Considerations — The iron-chromium-nickel-base alloys closely resemble the austenitic stainless steels insofar as forging.2. in the temperature range 1000 to 1200F. welding.1 Comments and Properties — A-286 is a precipitation-hardening iron-base alloy designed for parts requiring high strength up to 1300F and oxidation resistance up to 1500F.2. etc. A low-sulfur and neutral or slightly oxidizing furnace atmosphere is recommended for heating. and columbium contribute to hardness and strength. Some material specifications for A-286 alloy are presented in Table 6. it is good practice to remove all grease. and sheet metal assemblies. generally fall between the austenitic stainless steels and the nickel. light reductions (under 15 percent) must be avoided to prevent grain coarsening during subsequent heat treatment. principally. A dimensional contraction of 0. Cracking may be encountered in the welding of heavy sections or parts under high restraint.2. All of them contain sufficient alloying elements to place them in the “Superalloy” category. A-286 is readily machined in the partially or fully aged condition but is soft and “gummy” in the solution-treated condition.. Chromium.1.2 IRON-CHROMIUM-NICKEL-BASE ALLOYS 6. in terms of cost and in maximum service temperature. It is used in jet engines and gas turbines for parts such as turbine buckets. Titanium and aluminum are added to provide age-hardening. and brazing are concerned. Fusion welding is difficult for large section sizes and moderately difficult for small cross sections and sheet.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 6. lubricant. 6-4 . They are used in airframes. Nickel and cobalt strengthen and toughen these materials. A-286 is somewhat harder to hot or cold work than the austenitic stainless steels.0 General Comments — The alloys in this group.1.1. Pertinent comments are included under the individual alloys. Their higher strength may require the use of heavier forging or forming equipment. from the surface before heating.2.0.0.0008 inch per inch is experienced during aging. cutting. Heat Treatment — The complex-base alloys are heat treated with conventional equipment and fixtures such as would be used for austenitic stainless steels.2. particularly at elevated temperatures.0(a).

and ring Bar.1.2. the appropriate specifications should be consulted for detailed requirements.1.3. and 6.1.2. REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.0(a). and plate Bar.1. 6. forging.2. tubing. and ring Bar.0.1.1.1. Material Specifications for A-286 Alloy Specification AMS 5525 AMS 5731 AMS 5732 AMS 5734 AMS 5737 Form Sheet.2.8(a) through (e) are fatigue S/N curves for several elevated temperatures. and tubing Condition Solution treated (1800F) Solution treated (1800F) Solution treated (1800F) and aged Solution treated (1650F) Solution treated (1650F) and aged VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6.1.1. forging. strip.2.1. Stress rupture properties are specified at 1200F. Figures 6. 6-5 . tubing.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 6. Effect of temperature on the physical properties of A-286.1 Solution-Treated and Aged Condition — Elevated-temperature data are presented in Figures 6. forging.2.2. and tubing Bar. Table 6. forging.4(a) through (c).1.1.

. . .. . .. . ST . ksi: L ..0) .0 140 140b .. . . . ... . Form . .. . (e/D = 2. . . . . 91 210 266 142 171 12 12 12 15 15 15 a Test direction longitudinal for widths less than 9 inches... . LT . . . . . . 20 20b .. . . . G. . . . Thickness or diameter. . . .. . .. >0. Physical Properties: ω. . . . . .. .500-5.. ... . 130 130b ...... . .. .. . E.. . ...... . .... Fbry. .. . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . ... . µ . . . e. . . Fcy. .1. . . lb/in. .0(b). 85 195 247 127 153 15 15 15 20 20 20 29. .. . ... .. . . .. Fsu. 130 130 130 85 85 85 85 . ksi: (e/D = 1.500 inches only. ... . . . ... ..... . . . . . . . .. ksi: L .. .. . ..... . . Ec. . . . LT .. in. . . 15 15b . . ... . . C. . ... . .. 140 ... . . . . .. 95 95b . . . . . . 91 210 266 142 171 12 12b . . . .004 S a AMS 5525 Sheet. . . . ..... . . .. . .. LT .287 See Figure 6. . ST . . ..... . ..499 AMS 5734 AMS 5737 2.. 85 85b . .. K.MIL-HDBK-5H. . RA. . ... . . Fty. . . . . . LT . . . .. .. . 103 ksi . 95 91 210 266 142 171 .. . . . . ... .. .. . 85 195 247 127 153 15 15b ... .1. ksi: L . . . .. . percent: L .. transverse for widths 9 inches and over. . . ..0) . . .. 85 . ST . . .2. strip. . Basis .2. . . Condition . ST . LT . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . .. . .. b Applicable to widths $2. .. . . . . ksi: (e/D = 1. . 103 ksi . . . .. .. . . .1 29. . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of A-286 Alloy Specification . .. percent: L .. .. ...T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 6. . . . .. . . . .. .3 . . . .500-5. . . . ..... 103 ksi . Fbru... . .. and plate AMS 5731 AMS 5732 Bar Solution treated and aged #2.499 2. . . .. . . 15 . . ... . .. . 95 . . . Supersedes page 6-6 of MIL-HDBK-5H 6-6 . . . . . . . . . .. . .1 11..... . . 95 .31 0. (e/D = 2. . . .000 S #2. ksi . . . ... . .. .1 0. .. .000 S S S . . .. .. . . .. ... and α . 140 140 140 95 95 95 95 . .. Mechanical Properties: Ftu. . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .5) . .. .5) . .

1.1. 6-7 . Effect of temperature on the tensile yield strength (Fty) and tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) of A-286 alloy (1800°F solution treatment temperature).1.2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6.

1.4(a).2. 6-8 . Effect of temperature on the bearing ultimate strength (Fbru) and the bearing yield strength (Fbry) of A-286 alloy (1800°F solution treatment temperature). VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6.1.2. Effect of temperature on the tensile and compressive moluli (E and Ec) of A-286 alloy (1800°F solution treatment temperature).MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6.1.1.3.

4(c). Effect of temperature on the shear modulus (G) of A-286 alloy.1.4(b).2.1.2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6. 6-9 .1. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6.1. Effect of temperature on Poisson's ratio (µ) for A-286 alloy.

air melted Properties: TUS.8(a)..418 Standard Deviation in Life = 0.1.8 6-10 .717 R2 = 65.3600 cpm Temperature .9% Sample Size = 17 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.1.2.4 TYS.800F Environment .1-19.2.Air No.1.2.8(a) Product Form: Bar. Correlative Information for Figure 6.F 800 Test Parameters: Loading .47 Standard Error of Estimate = 0. of Heats/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 45.1.1. Surface Condition: Not given Reference: 6. air cooled.1.5 log (Seq) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. longitudinal direction. oil quenched and 1300F for 16 hours. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched A-286 bar at 800°F.3 Temp.Axial Frequency .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6.] Specimen Details: Unnotched 0.250-inch diameter Heat Treatment: 1650F for 2 hours. ksi 141. ksi 95.

375-inch gross diameter 0.3600 cpm Temperature . Kt = 3.8 6-11 .800F Environment .2.4 0.3 800 Unnotched Test Parameters: Loading . Best-fit S/N curves for notched. r 60 flank angle.1.8(b) Product Form: Bar. V-Groove. Kt = 3.8(b). Correlative Information for Figure 6. Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 11.Axial Frequency .2..1. A-286 alloy bat at 800°F. longitudinal direction.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6. ksi Temp.4 log (Seq-20) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. air melted Properties: TUS.4-4.75 Standard Error of Estimate = 0.9% Sample Size = 13 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.F 95.1.4 TYS. oil quenched and 1300F for 16 hours.1.271 Standard Deviation in Life = 0.4.  Heat Treatment: 1650F for 2 hours.] Surface Condition: As machined Reference: 6.1.387 R2 = 50.1. of Heats/Lots: 1 Specimen Details: Notched. air cooled. ksi 141.2.010-inch root radius.250-inch net diameter 0.Air No.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6.8(c) Product Form: Bar.3600 cpm Temperature .6 Temp. air melted Properties: TUS.8 6-12 .1.Air No.1. oil quenched and 1300F for 16 hours.1.2.2. of Heats/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 44.1.F 1000 Test Parameters: Loading .1.2 TYS.835 R2 = 54.2-19. ksi 137.8(c).3 log (Seq) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.. Correlative Information for Figure 6.Axial Frequency .] Specimen Details: Unnotched 0.250-inch diameter Heat Treatment: 1650F for 2 hours.1. air cooled. Surface Condition: Not given Reference: 6. longitudinal direction.1000F Environment .566 Standard Deviation in Life = 0.57 Standard Error of Estimate = 0.0% Sample Size = 18 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.2. ksi 100. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched A-286 bar at 1000°F.

ksi 137.7% Sample Size = 17 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.1. Correlative Information for Figure 6.  Heat Treatment: 1650F for 2 hours.250-inch net diameter 0.4 0.3600 cpm Temperature . longitudinal direction.2.1. ksi 100.1000F Environment .510 R2 = 48.1.Axial Frequency . V-Groove. air cooled.8) Seq = Smax (1-R)0. Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 7.19 log (Seq-35. A-286 alloy bat at 1000°F.] Surface Condition: As machined Reference: 6.1. of Heats/Lots: 1 Specimen Details: Notched.4.2 TYS.8(d).6 Temp.1.375-inch gross diameter 0.365 Standard Deviation in Life = 0.F 1000 Unnotched Test Parameters: Loading .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6.2.61 Standard Error of Estimate = 0. Kt = 3. r 60 flank angle.8(d) Product Form: Bar. Best-fit S/N curves for notched. oil quenched and 1300F for 16 hours.010-inch root radius.8 6-13 .1.2.Air No. Kt = 3.. air melted Properties: TUS.86-2.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6. Surface Condition: Not given Reference: 6.8 log (Seq) Seq = Smax (1-R)0.. Correlative Information for Figure 6.8(e). air cooled.] Specimen Details: Unnotched 0. Best-fit S/N curves for unnotched A-286 bar at 1250°F.1.Axial Frequency . of Heats/Lots: 1 Equivalent Stress Equation: Log Nf = 30. oil quenched and 1300F for 16 hours.6 TYS.1.1250F Environment .2.77 Standard Error of Estimate = 0.1.788 R2 = 57.250-inch diameter Heat Treatment: 1650F for 2 hours.F 1250 Test Parameters: Loading .8-12. air melted Properties: TUS.1.1.Air No.5 Temp.2. ksi 96.8(e) Product Form: Bar.8 6-14 .513 Standard Deviation in Life = 0. longitudinal direction.1. ksi 109.3600 cpm Temperature .6% Sample Size = 13 [Caution: The equivalent stress model may provide unrealistic life predictions for stress ratios beyond those represented above.2.

1 Solution-Treated Condition — Elevated-temperature curves are presented in Figures 6.0(a). This alloy is machinable in all conditions.2.0 Comments and Properties — N-155 alloy.2.2. The effect of temperature on physical properties is shown in Figure 6. low cutting speeds and ample flow of coolant are required. and bolting.4(a) and (b). Effect of temperature on the physical properties of N-155 alloy.2. It has good oxidation properties and good ductility and can be fabricated readily by conventional methods. including afterburner parts.0(a). 6-15 . combustion chambers.2.2.2. also known as Multimet.2. Material Specifications for N-155 Alloy Specification AMS 5532 AMS 5585 AMS 5768 AMS 5769 Form Sheet Tubing (welded) Bar and forging Bar and forging Condition Solution treated Solution treated Solution treated and aged Solution treated 6. Stress-rupture properties are specified at 1500F for sheet and at 1350F for bars and forgings. as well as 6.1.1(a) and (b). is designed for applications involving high stress up to 1500F. It is easily formed by conventional methods.2. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6.2. the appropriate specifications should be consulted for detailed requirements. Table 6. intermediate anneals may be required to restore its ductility.2.2. exhaust assemblies.2. N-155 is forged readily between 1650 and 2200F. turbine parts.1. The weldability of N-155 is comparable to that of the austenitic stainless steels.2. The oxidation resistance of N-155 sheet is good up to 1500F.2. Room-temperature mechanical and physical properties for N-155 sheet and tubing in the solution-treated (annealed) condition are presented in Table 6.0.2 N-155 ALLOY 6.0.2. Some materials specifications for N-155 are presented in Table 6. Bars and forgings are not specified by room-temperature properties but have specific elevated-temperature requirements.0(b). This alloy has been used in many aircraft applications.2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 6.2.2.

.. . . . . .. .0) . . a Test direction longitudinal for widths less than 9 inches: transverse for widths 9 inches and over. . . .. . . . . . .... . .. . 103 ksi . .. .. .. . ..0) .. . . percent: L .. .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. ..5) .. . . . . . . .. C... 40 . . .. .2.625 thick = 40......0 See Figure 6. .. 49b ... .... .. . K. . . c Strip = 35.. . . . .. (e/D = 2. LT . .1. .. .. . . . Ec. .625 thick = 30. .. . .... LT . . ... . .4(b) 0. 103 ksi . . . .. e. . .. . . Full section >0. LT . . .. . . 49b .. ./F . . . .2. . . . S ... . ..103 (70 to 212F) See Figure 6. E. . . 103 ksi . ... . .. Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of N-155 Alloy Specification . . .... ... ..2.. . . . ... . Physical Properties: ... . .. . Fbry. ... .. .... Thickness.. .. . . Fcy.. . .. . . Basis . . . ksi: (e/D = 1...2 See Figure 6...2. .3 . .. . . ..... Btu/(lb)(F) . Fty. . . .. . ... . .0 100 . . . ... . . . .. . . . .. .. . ... . . . Btu/[(hr)(ft2)(F)/ft] . . .. . . Sa AMS 5585 Tubing . . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu. . b Typical value reduced to minimum. .. ksi: L . . . .. . . (e/D = 2. . Full section 0.. . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .. .. 40 29. . . . ... . . .. . 100 . ... . .. . .. . .2.. . . .. .... . . . . . . in.T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 6. . .. LT . .. . ... . ... . ... .2 11. . . c . µ .2.5) . ksi .2 29. ....2. . . . ... . . . G. . .. 10-6 in. Form .. . . ksi: (e/D = 1.. Fbru.0(b).. lb/in. . . .. . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . ... . .. .. .2. ksi: L .. . .. . 100 .300 0. Sheet 0.. . . .187 Sa AMS 5532 Strip and plate Solution treated ... . .. . . ksi: L . ... .. . . Fsu. 6-16 . ../in. . Condition . ..

Effect of temperatire on the tensile yield strength (Fty) of N-155 alloy. 6-17 .2.1(a).1(b).1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6.2. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6.1.2. Effect of temperatire on the tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) of N-155 alloy.2.

4(a).2.1. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 6. Effect of temperature on Poisson's ratio (µ) for N-155 alloy.VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Figure 6.1.4(b).2. Effect of temperature on the tensile and compressive moduli (E and Ec) of N-155 alloy.2.2. 6-18 .

some characteristics relating to the special uses of these alloys are described.2.1 7.1 7. For example. 7.1. The organization of this chapter is in sections by base metal and subdivided as shown in Table 7.3. such as beryllium oxide.1. high modulus.1 7. the electrical conductivity is reported for the bronzes and information is included on toxicity of particles of beryllium and its compounds.2.0(a) through (i).1.2 BERYLLIUM 7.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 CHAPTER 7 MISCELLANEOUS ALLOYS AND HYBRID MATERIALS 7. Structural designs utilizing beryllium sheet should allow for anisotropy. Sheet and plate are fabricated from vacuum hot-pressed powder with 2 percent maximum beryllium oxide content.4 7.2 Designation Beryllium Standard Grade Beryllium Copper and Copper Alloys Manganese Bronzes Copper Beryllium Multiphase Alloys MP35N Alloy MP159 Alloy Aluminum Alloy Sheet Laminates 2024-T3 Aramid Fiber Reinforced Sheet Laminate 7475-T761 Aramid Fiber Reinforced Sheet Laminate 7.5.2 7. particularly the very low short transverse properties. In addition to the usual properties. These products are also available in numerous other compositions for special purposes but are not covered in this document.4.0 GENERAL This section contains the engineering properties and related characteristics of beryllium used in aerospace structural applications.2.3. Table 7. tubing.2. Additional information on the fabrication of beryllium may be found in References 7. Miscellaneous Alloys Index Section 7.3 7.0 Comments and Properties — Standard grade beryllium bars.1 STANDARD GRADE BERYLLIUM 7.5.2. moderate temperature capability metal that is used for specific aerospace applications. Beryllium is a lightweight. and machined shapes are produced from vacuum hot-pressed powder with 1½ percent maximum beryllium oxide content. rods.2 7.5 7.2 7.1 7. 7-1 .1 GENERAL This chapter contains the engineering properties and related characteristics of miscellaneous alloys and hybrid materials.4.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998
7.2.1.1 Manufacturing Considerations

Hot Shaping — Beryllium hot-pressed block can be forged and rolled but requires temperatures of 700F and higher because of brittleness. A temperature range of 1000 to 1400F is recommended. Hot shaping procedures are given in more detail in Reference 7.2.0(b). Forming — Beryllium sheet should be formed at 1300 to 1350F, holding at temperature no more than 1.5 hours, for minimum springback. Forming above 1450F will result in a reduction in strength. Machining — Carbide tools are most often used in machining beryllium. Mechanical metal removal techniques generally cause microcracks and metallographic twins. Finishing cuts are usually 0.002 to 0.005 inch in depth to minimize surface damage. Although most machining operations are performed without coolant, to avoid contamination of the chips, the use of coolant can reduce the depth of damage and give longer tool life. See Reference 7.2.0(c) for more information. Finish machining should be followed by chemical etching at least 0.002-inch from the surface to remove machining damage. See References 7.2.0(h) and (i). A combination of 1350F stress relief followed by an 0.0005-inch etch may be necessary for closetolerance parts. Damage-free metal removal techniques include chemical milling and electrochemical machining. The drilling of sheet may lead to delamination and breakout unless the drillhead is of the controlled torque type and the drills are carbide burr type. Joining — Parts may be joined mechanically by riveting, but only by squeeze riveting to avoid damage to the beryllium, by bolting, threading, or by press fitting specifically designed to avoid damage. Parts also may be joined by brazing, soldering, braze welding, adhesive bonding, and diffusion bonding. Fusion welding is not recommended. Brazing may be accomplished with zinc, aluminum-silicon, or silverbase filler metals. Many elements, including copper, may cause embrittlement when used as brazing filler metals. However, specific manufacturing techniques have been developed by various beryllium fabricators to use many of the common braze materials. For each method of joining specific detailed procedures must be followed, Reference 7.2.0(f). Surface Treatment — A surface treatment such as chemical etching to remove the machined surface of metal is recommended to ensure the specified properties. All design allowables herein represent material so treated. This surface treatment is especially important when beryllium is to be mechanically joined. References 7.2.0(d), (h), and (i) contain information on etching solutions and procedures. Toxicity Hazard — Particles of beryllium and its compounds, such as beryllium oxide, are toxic, so special precautions to prevent inhalation must be taken. References 7.2.1.1(a) through (e) outline the hazard and methods to control it. Specifications and Properties — Material specifications for standard grade beryllium are presented in Table 7.2.1.0(a).
Table 7.2.1.0(a). Material Specifications for Standard Grade Beryllium

Specification AMS 7906 AMS 7902

Form Bar, rod, tubing, and mechanical shapes Sheet and plate

7-2

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Room-temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Tables 7.2.1.0(b) and (c). Notch tensile test data are available in Reference 7.2.1.1(g). The effect of temperature on physical properties is shown in Figure 7.2.1.0.
7.2.1.1. Hot-Pressed Condition — The effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of hot-pressed beryllium is presented in Figures 7.2.1.1.1 and 7.2.1.1.4.
I n t er act i ve T ab l e - D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le - T yp i c a l P r op ert i es

Table 7.2.1.0(b). Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Beryllium Bar, Rod, Tubing, and Mechanical Shapes

Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thickness or diameter, in. . . . . . . . . . . Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu, ksi: L ......................... LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fty, ksi: L ......................... LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fcy, ksi: L ......................... LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fsu, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fbru, ksi: (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fbry, ksi: (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e, percent: L ......................... LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ec, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . µ ........................... Physical Properties: , lb/in.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C, K, and  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AMS 7906 Bar, rod, tubing, and machined shapes Hot pressed (ground and etched) ... S

47 47 35 35 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 2 42 42 20 0.10 0.067 See Figure 7.2.1.0

7-3

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

I n t er act i ve T ab l e - D e s ig n P rop er t i es

Interacti ve T ab le - T yp i c a l P r op ert i es

Table 7.2.1.0(c). Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Beryllium Sheet and Plate

Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thickness or diameter, in. . . . . . . . . . Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu, ksi: L ........................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fty, ksi: L ........................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fcy, ksi: L ........................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fsu, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fbru, ksi: (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fbry, ksi: (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e, percent: L ........................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ec, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . µ .......................... Physical Properties: , lb/in.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C, K, and  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet

AMS 7902 Plate Stress relieved (ground and etched) 0.020-0.250 S 0.251-0.450 S 0.451-0.600 S 

0.601
S

70 70 50 50 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 10

65 65 45 45 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 4 42.5 42.5 20.0 0.10 (L and LT) 0.067 See Figure 7.2.1.0

60 60 40 40 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 3

40 40 30 30 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 1

7-4

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
.

0.9

10

0.8

8

C, Btu/(lb)(F)

C
0.7 6

120

K, Btu/[(hr)(ft )(F)/ft]

80

0.6

- Between 70 F and indicated temperature K - At indicated temperature C - At indicated temperature

2

40

0.5

K
0 0.4

0

400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

Temperature, F
Figure 7.2.1.0. Effect of temperature on the physical properties of beryllium (2% maximum BeO).

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
.

100

Strength at temperature Exposure up to 1/2 hr
80

Percentage of Room Temperature Strength

Fty
60

Ftu

40

20

0

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Temperature, F

Figure 7.2.1.1.1. Effect of temperature on the tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) and tensile yield strength (Fty) of hot-pressed beryllium bar, rod, tubing, and machined shapes.

.

7-5

, 10 in./in./F

-6

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
.

100

80

Percentage of Room Temperature Modulus

60

E & Ec

40

20

Modulus at temperature Exposure up to 1/2 hr TYPICAL

0

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Temperature, F

Figure 7.2.1.1.4. Effect of temperature on the tensile and compressive moduli (E and Ec) of hot-pressed beryllium bar, rod, tuding, and machined shapes.
.

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MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

7.3 COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS
7.3.0 GENERAL

The properties of major significance in designing with copper and copper alloys are electrical and thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and good bearing qualities (antigalling). Copper and copper alloys are non-magnetic and can be readily joined by welding, brazing and soldering. The use of copper alloys is usually predicated upon two or more of the above properties plus the ease of casting and hot and cold working into desirable shapes. The thermally unstable range for copper and copper alloys generally begins somewhat above room temperature (150F). Creep, stress relaxation and diminishing stress rupture strength are factors of concern above 150F. Copper alloys frequently are used at temperatures up to 480F. The range between 480 and 750F is considered very high for copper alloys, since copper and many of its alloys begin to oxidize slightly above 350F and protection may be required. Bronzes containing Al, Si, and Be oxidize to a lesser extent than the red copper alloys. Precipitation hardened alloys such as copper beryllium retain strength up to their aging temperatures of 500 to 750F. Copper alloys used for bearing and wear resistance applications include, in the order of their increasing strength and load-carrying capacity, copper-tin-lead, copper-tin, silicon bronze, manganese bronze, aluminum bronze, and copper beryllium. Copper beryllium and manganese bronzes are included in MIL-HDBK-5. Copper-base bearing alloys are readily cast by a number of techniques: statically sand cast, centrifugally cast into tubular shapes, and continuously cast into various shapes. Tin bronze, sometimes called phosphor bronze because phosphorous is used to deoxidize the melt and improve castability, is a low-strength alloy. It is generally supplied as a static (sand) casting or centrifugal casting (tubular shapes from rotating graphite molds). Manganese bronze is considerably stronger than tin bronze, is easily cast in the foundry, has good toughness and is not heat treated. Aluminum bronze alloys, especially those with nickel, silicon, and manganese over 2 percent, respond to heat treatment, resulting in greater strength, and higher galling and fatigue limits than manganese bronze. Aluminum bronze is used in the static and centrifugal cast form or parts may be machined from wrought rod and bar stock. Copper beryllium is the highest strength copperbase bearing material, due to its response to precipitation hardening. Copper beryllium is also available in static and centrifugal cast form but is generally used as wrought shapes, such as extrusions, forgings, and mill shapes. Copper beryllium, because of its high strength, is also useful as a spring material. In this application its high elastic limit, high fatigue strength as well as good electrical conductivity are significant. Copper beryllium resists softening up to 500F, which is higher than other common copper alloys. Copper beryllium springs are usually fabricated from strip or wire. Consult References 7.3.0(a) through (c) for more information.

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MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998
7.3.1 MANGANESE BRONZES 7.3.1.0 Comments and Properties — The manganese bronzes are also known as the highstrength yellow brasses and leaded high-strength yellow brasses. These alloys contain zinc as the principal alloying element with smaller amounts of iron, aluminum, manganese, nickel, and lead present. These bronzes are easily cast.

Some material specifications for manganese bronzes are presented in Table 7.3.1.0(a). A cross index to CDA and former QQ-C-390 designations is presented in Table 7.3.1.0(b). Room-temperature mechanical properties are shown in Tables 7.3.1.0(c) and (d).
Table 7.3.1.0(a). Material Specifications for Manganese Bronzes

Specification AMS 4860 AMS 4862

Form Casting Casting

Table 7.3.1.0(b) Cross Index

Copper Alloy UNS No. C86300 C86500

CDA Alloy No. 863 865

Former QQ-C-390 Alloy No. C7 C3

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MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

I n t er act i ve T ab l e - D e s ig n P rop er t i es

Interacti ve T ab le - T yp i c a l P r op ert i es

Table 7.3.1.0(c). Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of C86500 Manganese Bronze

Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location within casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fty, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fcy, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fsu, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fbru, ksi: (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fbry, ksi: (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e, percent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ec, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . µ ............................. Physical Properties: , lb/in.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C, Btu/(lb)(F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K, Btu/[(hr)(ft2)(F)/ft] . . . . . . . . . . . . , 10-6 in./in/F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical conductivity, % IACS . . . . .

AMS 4860 Sand and centrifugal casting As cast Any area S 65a 25a ... ... ... ... ... ... 20a 15.0 ... ... ... 0.301 0.09 (at 68F) 50 (at 68F) 11.3 (68 to 212F) 22.0

a When specified, conformance to tensile property requirements is determined by testing specimens cut from casting.

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MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

I n t er act i ve T ab l e - D e s ig n P rop er t i es

Interacti ve T ab le - T yp i c a l P r op ert i es

Table 7.3.1.0(d). Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of C86300 Manganese Bronze

Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location within casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fty, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fcy, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fsu, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fbru, ksi: (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fbry, ksi: (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e, percent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ec, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G, 103 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . µ ................................ Physical Properties: , lb/in.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C, Btu/(lb)(F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K, Btu/[(hr)(ft2)(F)/ft] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 10-6 in./in/F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical conductivity, % IACS . . . . . . . .

AMS 4862 Sand and centrifugal casting As cast Any area S 110a 60a ... ... ... ... ... ... 12a 14.2 ... ... ... 0.283 0.09 (at 68F) 20.5 (at 68F) 12.0 (68 to 500F) 8.0

a When specified, conformance to tensile property requirements is determined by testing specimens cut from casting.

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MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998
7.3.2 COPPER BERYLLIUM 7.3.2.0 Comments and Properties — Copper beryllium refers to a family of copper-base alloys containing beryllium and cobalt or nickel which cause the alloys to be precipitation hardenable. Data for only one high-strength alloy, designated C17200, which contains 1.90 percent (nominal) beryllium, are presented in this section. This alloy is suitable for parts requiring high strength, good wear, and corrosion resistance. Alloy C17200 is available in the form of rod, bar, shapes, mechanical tubing, strip, and casting.

Manufacturing Considerations — The heat treatable tempers of rod and bar are designated TB00 (AMS 4650) for solution-treated or TD04 (AMS 4651) for solution-treated plus cold worked conditions. After fabrication operations, the material may be strengthened by precipitation heat treatment (aging). Rod and bar are also available from the mill in the TF00 (AMS 4533) and TH04 (AMS 4534) conditions. Mechanical tubing is available from the mill in TF00 (AMS 4535) condition. Machining operations on rod, bar, and tubing are usually performed on material in the TF00 or (TH04) conditions. This eliminates the volumetric shrinkage of 0.02 percent, which occurs during precipitation hardening, as a factor in maintaining final dimensional tolerances. This material has good machinability in all conditions. Strip is also available in the heat treatable condition. Parts are stamped or formed in a heat treatable temper and subsequently precipitation heat treated. For strip, the heat treatable tempers are designated TB00 (AMS 4530, ASTM B194), TD01 (ASTM B194), TD02 (AMS 4532, ASTM B194), and TD04 (ASTM B194), indicating a progressively greater amount of cold work by the mill. When parts produced from these tempers are precipitation heat treated by the user, the designations become TF00, TH01, TH02, and TH04, respectively. Strip is also available from the mill for the hardened conditions. Design values for these conditions are not included. Environmental Considerations — The copper beryllium alloys have good corrosion resistance and are not susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. The maximum service temperature for C17200 copper beryllium products is 500F for up to 100 hours. Specifications and Properties — A cross-index to previous and current temper designations for C17200 alloy is presented in Table 7.3.2.0(a).
Table 7.3.2.0(a). Cross-Index to Prevoius and Current Temper Designations for C17200 Copper Beryllium

Previous Temper A AT ¼H ¼HT ½H ½HT H HT

Current ASTM Temper TB00 TF00 TD01 TH01 TD02 TH02 TD04 TH04

Material specifications for alloy C17200 are presented in Table 7.3.2.0(b). Room-temperature mechanical properties are shown in Tables 7.3.2.0(c) through (g). The effect of temperature on physical properties is depicted in Figure 7.3.2.0.

REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.

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MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001
Table 7.3.2.0(b). Material Specifications for C17200 Copper Beryllium Alloy

Specification ASTM B194 AMS 4530a AMS 4532a AMS 4650 AMS 4533 AMS 4535 AMS 4651 AMS 4534

Form Strip (TB00, TD01, TD02, TD04) Strip (TB00) Strip (TD02) Bar, rod, shapes, and forgings (TB00) Bar and rod (TF00) Mechanical tubing (TF00) Bar and rod (TD04) Bar and rod (TH04)

a Noncurrent specification.

The temper index for C17200 alloy is as follows: Section 7.3.2.1 7.3.2.2 Temper TF00 TH04

7.3.2.1 TF00 Temper — Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and tangent-modulus curves are presented in Figures 7.3.2.1.6(a) and (b). 7.3.2.2 TH04 Temper — Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and tangent-modulus curves are presented in Figure 7.3.2.2.6.

Supersedes page 7-12 of MIL-HDBK-5H

7-12

. ... . . ... . ksi: (Estimate) L.. ... ..... . . C...5 18. Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of Copper Beryllium Strip Specification . . . 103 ksi . . 165 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .5 . .. . .. . .. ... . . .. 160 ... . . . ....188 S TH01 #0.. . . . . e. . .. .. ... .. . (e/D = 2. .. .. . .0) . . . . .. . G. . .. . . .. . .. . Mechanical Properties: Ftu. ksi: (Estimate) (e/D = 1. . 140 140 90 214 280 196 210 3 175 . but are estimates. . b These properties do not represent values derived from tests. 150 . . (e/D = 2.. . LT . . . . . . . ... . . ... .. .... lb/in. Fty. . .. . . µ .. Ec.. .. . . . ... .. Form . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . 7. .2. . . .... . ... . .. Condition .. . . . . .. . . ...188 S TH02 #0. .. . .. . . . . . . ... . . . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . Basis .. .. . .. . .0 for TF00 temper a Noncurrent specification. . . .. . . . . . .188 S 165 ... . . . . . . Fbrub. . . . Thickness. . . . . K. . ... . .. . . . E.0) . . . . . . . . . . .. .188 S TH04 #0.0(c). . .. . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . . . 160 160 92 240 314 224 240 1 190 . .. . .. . . .5) . . . . . Supersedes page 7-13 of MIL-HDBK-5H 7-13 . . .. ksi: L. . . .. ASTM B194 AMS 4530a ASTM B194 ASTM B194 AMS 4532a ASTM B194 Strip TF00 #0. . Fbryb.. . . . . . . .. . . . . . LT . .27 185 .. . . . . 165 165 95 247 323 231 247 1 0. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . .. .. and α .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .2.. . percent: L. ksi (Estimate) .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . in. ... . . . .. ..5) ..298 See Figure 7. . ..MIL-HDBK-5H..3. .3 . 103 ksi . . .. .. . . . . Fsub.. 103 ksi .. . . . . . . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 7. LT . .. ... . .. . . .. 140 . .... .. . . . ... . ksi: (Estimate) (e/D = 1... .. . .. ... . . . . . . ..3 0.3. . ksi: L. . .. . .. . . . Fcyb... Physical Properties: ω.. .. 150 150 90 227 297 210 225 2. . . .

. .7. . . . . . . . . . . .. e...3. . ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . .. . G.... Physical Properties: . .. . . .3 0. 150 .. .. . ksi: (e/D = 1..1. . . ksi: (e/D = 1. . . . . .. . . .... .. ST .. .. . . .001-3. .... . . . (e/D = 2. . . .. . .2.5) .000 S 2.27 165 158 140 137 143 142 94 226 290 200 225 3 165 158 140 137 139 142 94 226 290 200 225 3 0. . . . . . .. . .3 . . . .501-2. . . . . . .. .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . 103 ksi . AMS 4650 and AMS 4533 Rod and bar TF00 1. Ec.. .. K. .. . . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of C17200 Copper Beryllium Rod and Bar Specification ..T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 7..000 S 3... . .. . . .. . . . .298 See Figure 7. .. . . . (e/D = 2. . Mechanical Properties: Ftu... .. ksi: L.5) .... . . . . . . . percent: L. . ... . . . .. ... . . .. C. . . . .. .. . .. . 103 ksi . . .. . ... ... ksi . ... . .. . .. . ..2. . . . in.. . . Fty.... . ..5 18. . .. Fbrua. . . . . .. . . .... . . . . . .. . .. . . . . ..0) . .. . . .. Thickness. . . . . . . 140 ... . . . . ksi: L. Fsu.. .0(d). .. . ... . . . . . . . . . ..000 S 165 . b AMS 4650 specifies e = 3 percent. .001-3. ..3. . . . . . . ksi: L. .0) . .. Form . . Basis .. . . . . ... .0 REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. . . . . Fcy. .500 S 1.500 S 3. . . µ . . 103 ksi . . . . .. . .. . . . and  .. . . ST . .. . . . . . .. 226 290 200 225 4b 165 158 140 137 149 142 94 226 290 200 225 4b 165 158 140 137 145 142 94 226 290 200 225 4b 18.. .. . . . a Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1.. . . . lb/in. .. .. . Fbrya. . 7-14 . .7 7... E. ...501-4. . ST .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .4... . . . . . Condition .

5) . . . . . 103 ksi . in... . . . ... . ....501-2. .. . . . . . . .298 . and  .. . . . . . 145 . . ksi: (e/D = 1... . . Physical Properties: .. . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e .... . . .500 S 1. . . ksi: L.. .. (e/D = 2. ... .. . .. .3. . . . . .. . . .. . .. .. . . . Fbrua. ..000 S 1. ksi: L.. . . . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of C17200 Copper Beryllium Rod and Bar Specification .. .. . . . . . . 89 242 306 207 225 1 18. . . . . .375 S 0.. . .... .. . ... . . .. . .. e. . . . ... .. . ksi . ... ...000 S 185 . .. .. .. .. . . AMS 4651 Rod and bar TH04 0. Basis .1. .. 148 .. . µ . ... . . . .. . . .376-1.. . . .. .. . .. . .. . C. . G. .. K. .. ksi: (e/D = 1.. . . . ..D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . ... . 103 ksi . . . . . 148 ..0(e). . .27 175 . . . . . . . Fbrya. . .. . . . . . ... . .3 .. . . . . 90 235 298 207 225 2 175 169 145 140 148 154 93 235 298 207 225 2 0. ST . . ... ... . . . . . . . . . 1 180 . . .7.. . . . 145 . . . . ... . . . . .. .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 7.. . . E. . . . ... (e/D = 2. ... .5) .. . . .. .2. . . . .. .4. . .. .. ... lb/in. ..... . . . . . . Fsu.7 7.. . . ksi: L. . .. .. . . . . . .. . .5 18. .. . . .. . . . .. . Mechanical Properties: Ftu. . .. . .. . . ... . . ... ... 7-15 . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . percent: L. . . Fcy. . .. . .. .. . . .. . . .. . .3 0.... Form ... . .001-1. . . .. . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . ST . . ST ...0) ... . . . . . Thickness. . . . Condition .. . . Ec.. . . Fty.. 103 ksi .. . . . 145 . . . .. a Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1... . ... .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . .0) . . .. . .. .. .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .

Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of C17200 Copper Beryllium Rod and Bar Specification . . . 3 . . Basis . .... . ST .... . Thickness. . . . . 89 242 306 220 239 186 .. ... . . 3 ... . . ... . 3 . ... .. ...3760.. . . . . 95 247 313 228 248 177 167 150 145 153 160 94 238 302 214 233 183 173 158 153 162 168 97 246 312 226 245 175 168 147 142 150 156 95 235 298 210 228 181 174 155 150 158 165 98 243 308 221 240 172 167 145 140 148 154 94 231 293 207 225 178 173 152 147 155 162 96 239 303 217 236 3 .. .. .3 0.. . . .... .... . .... . . .. . .5 18.. . . .4.5) . .. .. . 3 ....1.. .27 3 . . .. ... . ... .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e ... .. .. . . . .. ... ksi: (e/D = 1... .999 A B 1.0001.. . .. .. .0) . . . . µ . .. .000 A B A B 182 .. .. . 153 .. . ST ... . ksi: L. K. .. .. ... .499 A B 1. 103 ksi . 91 238 302 214 233 184 . ..3. Fcy.. ... ..D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .. Fbrub. .. ..0(f). . . .. . . . 7-16 .999 A B 2. . Ec.. . G. ..298 ... 92 250 317 231 251 177a .... in.5) . . 157 . Physical Properties: ..499 A B 2. 18.. ... . . 150a . ..5001.T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 7.. lb/in. ksi: L.. .. 164 . .. .. Form . . . 162 . . . .. .... Condition .. .. . ... . 157 . Fbryb.. C. . ksi: L. . . . ksi . ksi: (e/D = 1.. ... AMS 4534 Rod and bar TH04 0. . .. ....7. . . . . . .. ... 188 180 . .0) . A values are Ftu(L) = 178 ksi and Fty = 152 ksi.5003. . (e/D = 2.. .375 0. a S-basis. E. . ST .. .. and  .. Fsu... . .. (e/D = 2. . 0. 103 ksi . .7 7. Mechanical Properties: Ftu.. .. . percent (S-basis): L. .. . b Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1. .. ...0002. 162 ... . . . e... .3 . . . 166 . .. .. 165 154 . . ..2. .... .. Fty. . .. . .. 103 ksi .. .. .

3 .. . ksi: L. . . . .. . . .. . . .1..298 See Figure 7. . . . .750-2. ..500-12. .. . (e/D = 2. . . .. C. . .. . . . . ... .. . . .2. .2... .. a Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1. .. . . . .. . . . ... . . . 103 ksi . . .27 161 157 126 124 134 135 92 228 287 183 206 3 167 163 136 134 145 146 95 237 298 197 222 .. . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 7. . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . .... . . . .000 A B 161 . .. . . . . 126 . G. . .... .. . . LT .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . ksi: (e/D = 1.. . .. . . . . Outside Diameter. . .. . LT . . ... . . .. . . .. 95 237 298 197 222 . 103 ksi .. .. . . . ..499 0.. Ec.. . .. .. .0 7-17 . . . .. . . 145 . .. . ..749 A B 2. . . . .. . . . ksi .. . .. . .. . .. Mechanical Properties: Ftu. AMS 4535 Mechanical tubing TF00 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .5) ..... . . . ksi: L. Physical Properties: .... . . . 103 ksi .. . . . Btu/(lb)(F) . . .0(g). . . . . ..3.. 0. Condition . . Fcy. ksi: L. . . .... . . . . . . .3 0.. . .. ... .0) . 136 . ... . . . . . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of C17200 Copper Beryllium Mechanical Tubing Specification .. . . . . E... Fbrya.. . . . . Wall Thickness. .. . . . .D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .. .. . ..0) . .. .. . . . 18. .. ... . . . .. Basis . . . . . . . . . .. . Fbrua. .. ... Fsu. in.7 7.. ... . . . . .... .. . . . lb/in. . . .. . ... . .. . LT . . .000 0. ... . . . .. . . . . . ... .. . . . . . Fty. . .. . .. . . .5) .. . . . 92 228 287 183 206 3 167 . .. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . ..4.. . . . .. ... .. .. . . 134 . . . . . . µ . (e/D = 2. .. . .. . . ... . ... . percent (S-basis): L. ..5 18.. . . . e. .. . . . . . .. . ... in. . . .. . . . ksi: (e/D = 1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . .7. . . . . . . . . .. Form . . . . . .

At indicated temperature 80 10 K.3.7 TYPICAL 0 Thickness: 1.625 . 0. Effect of temperature physical properties of copper beryllium (TF00).2./in. F Figure 7./in. 7-18 .6 n (L . Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for C17200 copper beryllium bar and rod in TF00 temper. ksi 120 80 40 Ramberg-Osgood n (L .comp. Btu/(lb)(F) 0. 10 ksi Figure 7. 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus.4./F -6 . 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Strain.tension) = 11 n (ST .tension) = 9.tension Stress.001 in.1 n (ST . VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH L and ST .) = 7.3.0.1. .Between 70 F and indicated temperature K .compression 200 160 L and ST .000 in.1 20 C 7 0.6(a).2 40 8 C.) = 6.0 0 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 6 1000 Temperature.comp.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 100 11 . . Btu/[(hr)(ft )(F)/ft] 2 60 9 K 0. 10 in.At indicated temperature C .2.

200 LT . VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 200 L .8 n (ST . 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus. Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for C17200 copper beryllium mechanical tubing TF00 temper.001 in.tension 160 L .0 n (ST .tension L and ST .6.tension Stress.tension) = 8.tension ST .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH .comp.6(b). 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus. ksi 120 80 40 Ramberg-Osgood n (L .) = 8.2 n (LT .5 TYPICAL Wall Thickness: 0.comp. 10 ksi Figure 7./in.1. 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Strain. 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Strain.3.001 in.1 n (L .tension) = 5.5 TYPICAL 0 Thickness: 0.750-1.compression LT .000 in.tension) = 8. ./in. 0.9 n (L .) = 6.625 in.2.compression L .2. 10 ksi Figure 7.3.comp. 0. ksi 120 80 40 Ramberg-Osgood n (L .) = 8.500 .compression 160 Stress.3. 7-19 .tension) = 7. .comp.) = 7.2.6 n (LT . Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and compressove tangent-modulus curves for C17200 copper beryllium bar and rod in TH04 temper.

4. Short time exposure to temperatures above 700F causes a decrease in ductility (elongation and reduction of area) at temperature. Heat Treatment — After work strengthening.1.1.1.4.5.4 (a) and (b). Initial tests have indicated that MP35N does not appear to be susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement.1. 7-20 . Environmental Considerations — MP35N has excellent corrosion. cold drawn and aged) 7.1. and shear forming are excellent deforming methods for work strengthening the alloy. MP35N is aged at 1000 to 1200F for 4 to 4½ hours and air cooled.1.4.4. Due to the passivity of MP35N. based on the quaternary of cobalt.0. 7. crevice corrosion and stress corrosion resistance in seawater. This alloy is suitable for parts requiring ultrahigh strength. such as aluminum or cadmium.0(b) and (c).1.4. Table 7.6. rolling.4.1. These alloys.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 7.1.1 MP35N ALLOY 7. and cold drawn) Bar (solution treated.1.4. nickel. Material specifications for MP35N are presented in Table 7.2.1. Material Specifications for MP35N Alloy Specification AMS 5844 AMS 5845 Form Bar (solution treated. 7. The room-temperature mechanical and physical properties for MP35N are presented in Tables 7.1.4. may be required to prevent galvanic corrosion of aluminum joints. can be work-strengthened and aged to ultrahigh strengths with good ductility and corrosion resistance.0 Comments and Properties — MP35N is a vacuum induction.1.1. vacuum arc remelted alloy which can be work-strengthened and aged to ultrahigh strengths.0(a). and molybdenum. Drawing. and 7.4 MULTIPHASE ALLOYS 7. Typical tensile stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures are shown in Figure 7.4. Manufacturing Considerations — The work hardening characteristics of MP35N are similar to 304 stainless steel.4. good ductility and excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance up to 700F.0(a). The effect of temperature on physical properties is shown in Figure 7.0 GENERAL This section contains the engineering properties of the “Multiphase” alloys. The machinability of MP35N is similar to the nickel-base alloys. chromium. Mechanical properties at room temperature are not affected significantly by unstressed exposure to temperatures up to 50 degrees below the aging temperature (1000 to 2000F) for up to 100 hours. swaging.4.1. a galvanically active coating.1 Cold Worked and Aged Condition — Elevated temperature curves for various mechanical properties are shown in Figures 7.

. . . ..18 (32 to 70EF) See Figure 7. . . . ... ..0) . . . . Condition . . ... ... ... . . .. ... . . . ksi: L .. Diameter. . . . . . .0 .. .. ..800 inch and under in diameter or distance between parallel sides and at T/4 location of larger size bars.. . ... . . . Fbru. ... . . . . . . . . .. . 230c .. . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .0) . . . . ... .. . .. . . 8 35 260 . . . . . µ .1.. .. .. .1.... 145 . ... . ... e. 11. . . . . . . .. . .. ... . .. 266 ... . . . in.. . .. . . . 103 ksi ..000 S 1. 8 35 275 .. . ... . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . ksi: L . . . ..5) . . 260 . . .304 0. . .. . .. ksi: (e/D = 1. .. Fbry.. . ... . . .. and aged #0. . especially large diameter. . . .. . . LT .. .. . . 103 ksi . ... . . . 230 . . . . consequently. . . . Supersedes page 7-21 of MIL-HDBK-5H 7-21 .. . . . . G. . The strength of bar. LT .. . .. . . . . ... ... .. RA... . .. . . 103 ksi . Basis ..... . . . .. . .. . Fty. . . . . .4. .. . . . .0(b). . ..... . . . . . . . . . ... ... C.. . . .. .. .. . .. . .. Fcy. K and α . 34.. .. .... . . ... .. .. . ..0011. . . .. . .. .. . .. . . . . .. . . . percent (S basis): L ...7 .. Ec. . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . . . .. 230 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . .0 a Tensile specimens are located at T/2 location for bars 0.... . .. . .. .. .... ... . . . .. ... . . A AMS 5845 Bar Solution treated.. . .. . 8 35 0... . . .. ... .. .. .... . Fsu.. .. . . ..... . . . .. . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H.. . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 7.. Physical Properties: ω.. . cold drawn. ...... .3 . . percent (S basis): L . ..... . . ... b The T99 value of 266 ksi is higher than specification minimum.. . Form . .. . ... ... .. . .. . . .. . ... . . . .. . .. ksi: L ...800 inch in diameter since strengths may be lower than design values depending on depth of material removed from surface.a .. . . . ksi . c The T99 value of 256 ksi is higher than specification minimum.. . . . . Btu/(lb)(EF) .. E. . . . . . . .. may vary significantly from center to surface. lb/in.5) . . . .. . caution should be exercised in machining parts from bars over 0. . .... .. . .. ...800 B 0. . ... . . . . .. . . . . .. (e/D = 2. . .. ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . ..8011. . . .. 145 . .. .750 S 260b . . . .. . . . .. . .4. . . ksi: (e/D = 1. . .. Mechanical Properties: Ftu.. ..D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . ... 147 . ... . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of MP35N Alloy Bar Specification .. LT .. . . ..... (e/D = 2. .. . . .

......... 11....... ........................................ e........ ...... 8 35 34............ caution should be exercised in machining parts from bars over 0................................................ .................... 8 35 a Tensile specimens are located at T/2 location for bars 0.............. ksi: (e/D = 1..............................800 inch and under in diameter or distance between parallel sides and at T/4 location for larger size bars............................... Basis .. percent: L . ...... Physical Properties: ω...... ..... Condition .......................4...18 (32 to 70EF) See Figure 7............................ 0...............................................................0) ......000 S 1.....001-1.....T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 7................... RA....5) ... Fsu................. ksi: L ...... G........... ksi: L . in............ especially large diameter may vary significantly from center to surface..........0(c)... 145 ....... LT ..1................ E................... ksi: L ...................... Form ..7 ..........800 inch in diameter since strengths may be lower than design values depending on depth of material removed from surface............ Diameter................0 ........ LT .............................. lb/in.................................................... .................................. 103 ksi ... Btu/(lb)(EF) ..........................750 S 260 ............. Fty....... Mechanical Properties: Ftu............................................0 260 . ................... 230 ......... Fbru..... ........304 0.... percent: L .... Fbry......... ....... (e/D = 2........ 103 ksi .. . AMS 5844 Bar Solution treated and cold drawn #1...........................................................1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e ... 103 ksi ......... ksi: (e/D = 1... K and α ....................... ............ µ ... Fcy............... The strength of bar............. Supersedes page 7-22 of MIL-HDBK-5H 7-22 .......................3 . consequently......... ........... Ec...... LT .0) ..MIL-HDBK-5H.......a ..... Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of MP35N Alloy Bar Specification ........... 230 ... C.......................D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le ...................5) ..... (e/D = 2............................................. ksi .4.......

4. Effect of temperature physical properties of MP35N alloy. . VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 7.1.1. . Ftu = 260 ksi. 7-23 .0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 7.1.4. Effect of temperature on the tensile ultimate strength (Ftu) and the tensile yield strength (Fty) of cold worked and aged MP35N bar.1.

1. .4(a). VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 7.1.4.1. .4(b) Effect of temperature on the dynamic shear modulus (G) of MP35N alloy bar.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 7.4. 7-24 . Effect of temperature on the dynamic tensile modulus (E) of MP35N alloy bar.1.

8 10 12 Figure 7.1. . VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 300 1/2 -hr exposure Longitudinal RT 400 F 240 700 F 180 Stress.4. 7-25 ./in.6. Typical tensile stress-strain curves at room and elevated temperatures for cold worked and aged MP35N bar.001 in. Ftu = 260 ksi. ksi 120 60 Ramberg .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 7.1.1.1.Osgood n (RT) = 13 n (400 F) = 14 n(700 F) = 15 TYPICAL 0 0 2 4 6 Strain. .5. Effect of temperature on the elongation (e) of cold worked and and aged MP35N bar.4. Ftu = 260 ksi. 0.

Initial tests have indicated that MP159 does not appear to be susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement.1 Cold Worked and Aged Condition — The effect of temperature on tension modulus of elasticity and shear modulus is presented in Figure 7. Manufacturing Considerations — The work hardening characteristics of MP159 are similar to MP35N and 304 stainless steel.0(a). swaging. Table 7.4. may be required to prevent galvanic corrosion of aluminum joints. nickel. and shear forming are excellent deforming methods for work strengthening the alloy. 7-26 . The effect of temperature on thermal expansion is shown in Figure 7. The room temperature mechanical and physical properties for MP159 are presented in Tables 7. A typical stress-strain curve at room temperature is shown in Figure 7. The machinability of MP159 is similar to MP35N and the nickelbase alloys.4.1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 7.4. a galvanically active coating. MP159 is aged at 1200 to 1250F ± 25F for 4 to 4½ hours and air cooled. Material specifications for MP159 are presented in Table 7. Environmental Considerations — MP159 has excellent corrosion.4. This alloy is suitable for parts requiring ultrahigh strength. based on cobalt. and excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance up to 1100F. Due to the passivity of MP159.2.2 MP159 ALLOY 7.3. chromium. such as aluminum or cadmium.2.2.2.0 Comments and Properties — MP159 is a vacuum induction. iron. Drawing.2.2. The alloy maintains its ultrahigh strength very well at temperatures up to 1100F.0.0(a). rolling. and aged) 7.0(b) and (c).1. good ductility. vacuum arc remelted alloy.4. Material Specifications for MP159 Alloy Specification AMS 5842 AMS 5843 Form Bar (solution treated and cold drawn) Bar (solution treated. cold drawn.6. and molybdenum.1.4.4. which can be work-strengthened and aged to ultrahigh strength.4.2.4. Heat Treatment — After work strengthening. and stress corrosion resistance in various hostile environments. crevice corrosion.

. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 7. ...D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .. .4. .. .. .. .. Basis . . . . . . . .. .0) ..501-0... . . . .. .. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e ... . Diameter...800 B 0... especially large diameter. . A AMS 5843 Bar Solution treated. . ../in. . .... .. 250 .. . ... ... . . . (e/D = 2... . ksi: L .. . ... ... 103 ksi .302 . ksi: L . . . .. .. .. . ksi: (e/D = 1. 250c ... . .. . . RA. .... . .3 . 11... . 103 ksi . LT . 6 32 35.. .. .2... . . . Ec. .. .. may vary machining parts from bars over 0. . ksi .. . 131 .801-1. .. ..0(b).. Physical Properties: .. .. . 6 32 269 . . (e/D = 2.. .. 103 ksi . . . . . .. . . .. . .750 S 260b . .. .. .. .. . Fbry. .....5) . .. . .... . . C and K ... . LT . ... . percent (S basis): L . . .. . Fbru. . E.. .. . . .. . e. . The rounded T99 value of 253 ksi is higher than specification minimum.. .37 (solution treated condition) 0. . . . . .. Fcy.. . .. . ... . in.... . ... . . ..3 0. . . . . ... The strength of bar... .. ksi: L ..800-inch in diameter since strengths may be lower than design values depending on depth of material removed from surface. ... 250c .. .. b S-Basis.. . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu... . .. . .... . .. . .. .. LT . . . ... ..2. .a .... lb/in. 6 32 269 . . . . ... . .. . .... . . ..3 . µ .. . See Figure 7. and aged 0.... .. . . cold drawn. .4.... percent (S basis): L ... . .. 144 . 10-6 in. .. .. ... 260 .. Fty. .. .. .. . . .. ... Form . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . .0) . . . ... . ..0 a Tensile specimens are located at T/2 location for bars 0. . G....5) .500 B A 0. .... Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of MP159 Alloy Bar Specification .. .. ksi: (e/D = 1. . .. ... . 262 .. . .../F .. . .... 260b . . .. . 262 .. . c S-Basis. . .. .. . . . . . The rounded T99 value of 265 ksi is higher than specification minimum. .. . Condition . . . . .. .. 7-27 .... .800 inch and under in diameter or distance between parallel sides and at T/4 location for larger size bars. Fsu.... ..

..800 inch in diameter since strengths may be lower than design values depending on depth of material removed from surface. . Ec. . . Basis . . .. . . .... .. . .. . . . .. .. .. . . µ ... . . ... . . .. ... . . 7-28 . .. . Diameter... especially large diameter may vary significantly from center to surface.. . .. ... . . . . . . . ... . . ..501-1... . . . .a .5) . . . . . .. ksi: L .. . . . 131 . . . Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of MP159 Alloy Bar Specification . . 103 ksi .. .. 10-6 in. .. . .. . ... (e/D = 2.. . . 6 32 35... . . .. . RA.. percent: L .. . a AMS 5842 Bar Solution treated. .. .. . . .. ... . . . .. . ..37 (solution treated condition) 0. G. . . .. ... . . 103 ksi . . . . . . .. . 6 32 260 ... . .. . . . . . .. . . ksi . . . ksi: (e/D = 1.. . .. .. . . ... . . . . LT . . ... ... . . .... Mechanical Properties: Ftu.. caution should be exercised in machining parts from bars over 0. . . . .. .. . . . . .. LT . . . . . . .. . lb/in. percent: L . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . ... .0(c).. Fbru. ... . . ..... .4. .. . . in.. .. . ksi: (e/D = 1..0) .. . ksi: L . . .. . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. Physical Properties: . . . ... . . .. . .. . Fty. ... . . .. . See Figure 7.0) . .. .. . ... . . . The strength of bar.. . . .. .. .3 . . .. ...... . ... . .5) .2. Fbry. . . .. . . . ...3 0. . . .500 S 0. . . . consequently. . . ... . .. .. . ..D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le .. .. . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . .. . E... . . . ./F . . . . . .. . . . ... . .. Fcy. . C and K .. . . .. ... . .2. .. ..750 S 260 .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 I n t er act i ve T ab l e . . ... . . . . ...... . . . .. .. . . Fsu. and aged 0. . .0 Tensile specimens are located at T/2 location for bars 0. . e. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . Form .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 7. . . . . . . . . (e/D = 2. . .. . Condition . .. .. . . ... . . . ... .../in.. 250 . . .. . cold drawn.. . .. .. . . . . . . LT . .800 inch and under in diameter or distance between parallel sides and at T/4 location for larger size bars. . . .. ..... ..3 . . . . ... .. .4.. . . 103 ksi . . . . 250 . . . .. . . ksi: L . . . .302 ... . . . 11.

4. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 7.1.4.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 7.2. 7-29 . Effect of temperature on tensile modulus (E) and shear modulus (G) of MP159 alloy bar.4.2. Effect of temperature on thermal expansion (a) of MP159 alloy bar.0.

8 10 12 Figure 7./in.4. ksi 120 Ramberg .6. 0.530 in. Typical tensile stress-strain curve at room temperature for cold worked and aged MP159 alloy bar.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 300 Longitudinal 240 180 Stress.001 in.Osgood n (RT) = 13 60 TYPICAL Thickness ≤ 0.1. 7-30 . 0 0 2 4 6 Strain.2.

design values for each grain orientation of the aluminum alloy sheet shall be presented for all mechanical properties.0(a). Therefore.1. while the long transverse direction is 90 to the longitudinal direction or parallel to the width of the sheet laminate. Fbry. These sheet laminates provide a very efficient structure for certain applications and exhibit excellent fatigue resistance.2% offset from load-deformation curves. Manufacturing Considerations — This product can be fabricated by conventional metal practices for machining. Fsu. These sheet laminates exhibit low elongation as measured by the tensile test.0 GENERAL This section contains the engineering properties of aluminum alloy sheet laminates. the design values for bearing strength determined according to ASTM E 238 are conservative and are considered suitable for design. The minimum total strain at failure value from the material specification shall be presented in the room temperature design allowable table. These products consist of thin high-strength aluminum alloy sheets alternating with fiber layers impregnated with adhesive. which is applicable to conventional aluminum alloy products. Compared to 7475-T761 aramid fiber-reinforced sheet laminate. Roomtemperature mechanical properties are presented in Table 7. a more suitable bearing test procedure for aramid fiber reinforced aluminum alloy sheet laminates is currently being developed.0(b). this product has better formability and damage tolerance characteristics.0 Comments and Properties — This product consists of thin 2024-T3 sheets alternating with aramid fiber layers embedded in a special resin.5 ALUMINUM ALLOYS SHEET LAMINATES 7. joining with fasteners and can be inspected by conventional procedures. defined as the measure of strain determined from the tensile load-deformation curve at specimen failure. Shear yield strength was determined at 0.1 2024-T3 ARAMID FIBER REINFORCED SHEET LAMINATE 7. Bearing specimens exhibited several different types of failure and bearing strength was influenced by failure mode. Tensile and compressive properties for the aluminum alloy sheet laminates were determined using test specimens similar to those used for testing conventional aluminum alloy sheet with one exception. The Iosipescu shear specimen was the most appropriate configuration for the determination of shear strength. The design values for Fcy. Consequently.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 7. Shear yield strength and shear ultimate strength were determined using the Iosipescu test procedure. sawing. 7.5. However.1. t. drilling.1.012 inch with a prepreg nominal thickness of 0. and Fbru were derived conventionally in accordance with the guidelines. Consequently. The longitudinal direction is parallel to the rolling direction of the aluminum alloy sheet or length of sheet laminate. Environmental Considerations — This product has good corrosion resistance. The primary advantage of this product is the significant improvement in fatigue and fatigue crack growth properties compared to conventional aluminum alloy structures. 7-31 .5. The maximum service temperature is 200F. Fsy.5. This measurement includes both elastic and plastic strains. a more realistic measure of ductility is total strain at failure.5. The product also has good damping capacity and resistance to impact. except Fsu and Fsy. These sheet laminates are generally anisotropic. Nominal thickness of aluminum sheet is 0.5. Specification and Properties — A material specification is presented in Table 7. Bearing tests were conducted according to ASTM E 238.0085 inch.

Material Specification for 2024-T3 Aramid Fiber Reinforced Sheet Laminate Specification AMS 4254 Form Sheet laminate 7.1.5.5.5.1.1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 7.0(a).6(a) through (l).1. 7-32 .5 T3 Temper — Typical tensile and compressive stress-strain and tangent-modulus curves are shown in Figures 7.

.. . . Fsua.. .. .. . .0 9. . . .. . ... . .. . .. . . . . .. Aramid fiber reinforced sheet laminate Laminate lay-up . ... ... LT . . .. . .. . . . .. .. . LT (e/D = 2. . ... .26 0. . . . .. . . C. 14 68 75 77 76 50 52 59 60 2 14 9.5 2. . Fcy. . ksi: L . ... . . L (e/D = 2. . .. . . . . . . Shear values determined from data obtained using Iosipescu shear specimens. .. G.. . . LT ... .9 8. .. . . ksi . .5) . Fsya. . .. .. . . LT . . . . . .. ... .0) . . . .. ... ... . . .29 0. ..086 .... Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy. . ksi . .. . ..053 0.1 9.. ... . .. . . .. . . .27 0.. .084 . . .... . . . and α .. LT . lb/in. . . .032 0. . Supercedes page 7-33 of MIL-HDBK-5H 7-33 . ..0(b). . .. .. . . .. .. . . ksi: L (e/D = 1. . . . .. L (e/D = 2. Shear ultimate strengths not determinable due to excessive deflection of specimen. .. .. .4 2.. .4 7.... .. . in.. . . . . . . .34 0.094 Basis . . LT (e/D = 1. . µ: L . Fty. . . S S S S Mechanical Properties: Ftu.0) .. . ... LT .. Fbryc. Fbruc... . εtd. . 0.. . . . .T yp i c a l P r op ert i es Table 7. .. .. . .5) .. . .. .. .. K. .. . . .7 2. . . .. . . . .. . . . ksi: L .0) . 15 73 84 86 89 52 52 63 61 2 12 9. . . . . .. .. LT . .5 9.. . . ..6 0. AMS 4254 Form .. . . . . . .. . .5 2.MIL-HDBK-5H. . . .. . . .... . . 2/1 3/2 4/3 5/4 Nominal thickness.... . . . . . . .. ... .. ..081 . . Sheet Laminate Specification . . . . . . ..082 . .. . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 I n t er act i ve T ab l e ...4 0. .1 7. . . .. .5) . . .. .32 0. ...2 2... ... . .34 0. . 103 ksi: L . ... . .. . .... . . .. .. .. . . ... . .3 .... LT (e/D = 1. . . . .2 2. .. .. . ... . .. . . ..4. . ... . ... . Ec. . . . . . Total (elastic plus plastic) strain at failure determined from stress-strain curve. . .. . ksi: L (e/D = 1. . . .9 7. ..5 8. ksi: L ..6 7. ... . . . .. . . . . 103 ksi: L . . . . . ... .1 determined in accordance with ASTM E238. LT . . . .3 7. . . a b c d 90 48 48 33 35 33 b 96 44 49 30 35 30 b 101 43 49 30 34 30 b 101 42 49 30 33 30 b 16 78 89 93 95 53 56 63 66 2 12 9. . .. . . . .. . . . . . ..5) . .25 0. . . . ... Physical Properties: ω. . . .. . .33 0. . . . . . .. . .. ...D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le . . . . . . .. ..074 0.. . . .0 2. . E. . . .7 7. .. . .. . . percent: L . . . . . . . . . 103 ksi: L . . . . .7. .. . . . . .. .1 9. . . . . .0) . . . LT . . . . .. Aramid Fiber Reinforced. . . . ... . . Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1. . 14 73 80 83 81 51 52 61 61 2 12 9.. . .0 2.1. . . . . .. LT (e/D = 2. .4 0.. . ... .2 0...5.. . .. .

0. ksi Long transverse 30 20 Ramberg-Osgood n (LT . REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. Figure 7.1. Layup: 3/2 TYPICAL 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain. Figure 7. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 60 Longitudinal 50 40 Stress.001 in. ksi Long transverse 30 20 Ramberg-Osgood n (LT . Typical tensile stress-strain curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy. .032 in.001 in. 7-34 . .053 in.6(b).tension) = 12 10 Thickness: 0. sheet laminate.tension) = 9. aramid fiber-reinforced./in./in.9 10 Thickness: 0.1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 .6(a). sheet laminate.5.1. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 60 Longitudinal 50 40 Stress.5. 0. aramid fiber-reinforced.1. Typical tensile stress-strain curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy. Layup: 2/1 TYPICAL 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 60 Longitudinal 50 40 Stress.1. 0. Layup: 5/4 TYPICAL 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain.001 in.tension) = 12 10 Thickness: 0. Layup: 4/3 TYPICAL 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain. aramid fiber-reinforced./in.094 in./in.5. Typical tensile stress-strain curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy.6(c). .1.5.6(d). Typical tensile stress-strain curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy. Figure 7. .1.VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH . ksi Long transverse 30 20 Ramberg-Osgood n (LT .1.tension) = 11 10 Thickness: 0. . sheet laminate.001 in.074 in. 0. Figure 7. ksi 30 Long transverse 20 Ramberg-Osgood n (LT . aramid fiber-reinforced. 7-35 . sheet laminate. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 60 Longitudinal 50 40 Stress.

) = 13 n (LT . sheet laminate. 7-36 . 0.1. 10 ksi Figure 7./in.1. 0. Layup: 3/2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain. .053 in.comp.) = 13 10 Thickness: 0. aramid fiber-reinforced. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH .comp.5.001 in.aramid fiber-reinforced. Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus .6(f). 50 Long transverse 40 TYPICAL Longitudinal Stress.) = 12 10 Thickness: 0. Layup: 2/1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Strain. ksi 30 20 Ramberg-Osgood n (L . VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 50 TYPICAL Long transverse 40 Longitudinal Stress.comp. curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy./in. 10 ksi Figure 7.001 in.032 in. 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus. ksi 30 20 Ramberg-Osgood n (L . Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus .1. curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy.comp.5.1. sheet laminate.6(e).) = 13 n (LT . 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus.

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

50

TYPICAL Long transverse
40

Longitudinal

Stress, ksi

30

20

Ramberg-Osgood n (L - comp.) = 12 n (LT - comp.) = 12
10

Thickness: 0.074 in. Layup: 4/3
0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Strain, 0.001 in./in. 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus, 10 ksi

Figure 7.5.1.1.6(g). Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate. .

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
50
.

TYPICAL Long transverse
40

Longitudinal

Stress, ksi

30

20

Ramberg-Osgood n (L - comp.) = 12 n (LT - comp.) = 12
10

Thickness: 0.094 in. Layup: 5/4
0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Strain, 0.001 in./in. 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus, 10 ksi
. Figure 7.5.1.1.6(h). Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus curves for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate. .

REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.

7-37

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100

MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001

X
Longitudinal

.

80

Stress, ksi

60

Long transverse 40

X

Layup: 2/1 20 Thickness: 0.032 in.

TYPICAL 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18

Strain, 0.01 in./in.

Figure 7.5.1.1.6(i). Typical tensile stress-strain curves (full range) for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate.

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH

120

100

X
Longitudinal

80

Stress, ksi

60

40

Long transverse

X

Layup: 3/2
20

Thickness: 0.053 in. TYPICAL

0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18

Strain, 0.01 in./in.

Figure 7.5.1.1.6(j). Typical tensile stress-strain curves (full range) for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate.
Supercedes page 7-38 of MIL-HDKB-5H

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120

MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001

X
100

Longitudinal

80

Stress, ksi

60

40

Long transverse

X

Layup: 4/3
20

Thickness: 0.074 in. TYPICAL

0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18

Strain, 0.01 in./in.

Figure 7.5.1.1.6(k). Typical tensile stress-strain curves (full range) for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate.

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
120

X
100

Longitudinal

80

Stress, ksi

60

40

Long transverse

X

Layup: 5/4
20

Thickness: 0.094 in. TYPICAL

0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18

Strain, 0.01 in./in.

Figure 7.5.1.1.6(l). Typical tensile stress-strain curves (full range) for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate.
Supercedes page 7-39 of MIL-HDKB-5H

7-39

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998
7.5.2 7475-T761 ARAMID FIBER REINFORCED SHEET LAMINATE 7.5.2.0 Comments and Properties — This product consists of thin 7475-T761 sheets alternating with aramid fiber layers embedded in a special resin. Nominal thickness of aluminum sheet is 0.012 inch with a prepreg nominal thickness of 0.0085 inch. The primary advantage of this product is the significant improvement in fatigue and fatigue crack growth properties compared to conventional aluminum alloy structures. The product also has good damping capacity and resistance to impact.

Manufacturing Considerations — This product can be fabricated by conventional metal practices for machining, sawing, drilling, joining with fasteners and can be inspected by conventional procedures. Environmental Considerations — This product has good corrosion resistance. The maximum service temperature is 200F. Specifications and Properties — A material specification is presented in Table 7.5.2.0(a). Roomtemperature mechanical properties are presented in Table 7.5.2.0(b).
Table 7.5.2.0(a). Material Specification for 7475-T761 Aramid Fiber Reinforced Sheet Laminate

Specification AMS 4302

Form Sheet laminate

7.5.2.5 T761 Temper — Tensile and compressive stress-strain and tangent modulus curves are shown in Figures 7.5.2.1.6(a) through (f). Full-range tensile stress-strain curves are presented in Figures 7.5.2.1.6(g) through (j).

REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.

7-40

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998
I n t er act i ve T ab l e - D e s ig n P rop er t i es Interacti ve T ab le - T yp i c a l P r op ert i es

Table 7.5.2.0(b). Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of 7475-T761 Aluminum Alloy, Aramid fiber Reinforced, Sheet Laminate

Specification . . . . . . . . . . Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laminate lay-up . . . . . . . Nominal thickness, in. . . . Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Properties: Ftu, ksi: L ................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fty, ksi: L ................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fcy, ksi: L ................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fsua, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fsya, ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fbrub, ksi: L (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . . LT (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . L (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . . LT (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . Fbryb, ksi: L (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . . LT (e/D = 1.5) . . . . . . L (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . . LT (e/D = 2.0) . . . . . . etc, percent: L ................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E, 103 ksi: L ................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ec, 103 ksi: L ................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G, 103 ksi: L ................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . µ: L ................ LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Properties: , lb/in.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . C, K, and  . . . . . . . . . .

2/1 0.032 S

AMS 4302 Aramid fiber reinforced sheet laminate 3/2 4/3 0.053 0.074 S S

5/4 0.094 S

103 56 76 48 46 51 35 24 91 96 104 108 73 76 83 84 1.5 6.1 9.8 7.7 9.6 7.8 2.8 2.6 0.35 0.25 0.085 ...

111 51 82 43 46 48 33 23 83 85 87 88 70 69 81 76 1.8 6.4 9.9 7.1 9.6 7.3 2.6 2.4 0.35 0.25 0.083 ...

114 50 82 42 44 47 33 22 84 86 88 86 66 69 77 75 1.7 6.3 10.0 6.7 9.6 7.0 2.3 2.3 0.35 0.25 0.082 ...

116 48 84 40 44 45 32 21 82 80 84 80 69 67 79 72 1.8 6.6 9.8 6.7 9.7 6.9 2.3 2.3 0.35 0.25 0.081 ...

a Shear values determined from data obtained using Iosipescu shear specimens. b Bearing values are “dry pin” values per Section 1.4.7.1 determined in accordance with ASTM E 238. c Total (elastic plus plastic) strain at failure determined from stress-strain curve. Values are minimum but not included in AMS 4302.

7-41

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

100

Longitudinal
80

Stress, ksi

60

Long transverse

40

Ramberg-Osgood n (L - tension) = 6.4 n (LT - tension) = 6.1
20

Thickness: 0.032 in. Layup: 2/1 TYPICAL
0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Strain, 0.001 in./in.

Figure 7.5.2.1.6(a). Typical tensile stress-strain curves for 7475-T761 aluminum alloy, . aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate. .

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
100

Longitudinal
80

Stress, ksi

60

Long transverse

40

Ramberg-Osgood n (L - tension) = 5.2 n (LT - tension) = 5.8
20

Thickness: 0.053 in. Layup: 3/2 TYPICAL
0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Strain, 0.001 in./in.

Figure 7.5.2.1.6(b). Typical tensile stress-strain curves for 7475-T761 aluminum alloy, . aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate. .

7-42

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
.

100

Ramberg-Osgood n (L - tension, 0.074 in.) = 5.5 n (LT - tension, 0.074 in.) = 7.5 n (L - tension, 0.094 in.) = 5.7 n (LT - tension, 0.094 in.) = 6.4 Thickness: 0.074 in. Thickness: 0.094 in. Layup: 4/3 Layup: 5/4 Longitudinal

80

Stress, ksi

60

TYPICAL

40

Long transverse

20

0

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Strain, 0.001 in./in.

Figure 7.5.2.1.6(c). Typical tensile stress-strain curves for 7475-T761 aluminum alloy, . aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate. .

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
100

Ramberg-Osgood n (L - comp.) = 6.7 n (LT - comp.) = 13
80

Thickness: 0.032 in. Layup: 2/1 TYPICAL

Stress, ksi

60

Longitudinal

Long transverse
40

20

0

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Strain, 0.001 in./in. 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus, 10 ksi

Figure 7.5.2.1.6(d). Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus . curves for 7475-T761 aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate. .

7-43

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
.

100

Ramberg-Osgood n (L - comp.) = 6.2 n (LT - comp.) = 14
80

Thickness: 0.053 in. Layup: 3/2 TYPICAL

Stress, ksi

60

Longitudinal

40

Long transverse

20

0

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Strain, 0.001 in./in. 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus, 10 ksi

Figure 7.5.2.1.6(e). Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus . curves for 7475-T761 aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate. .

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
100

80

Ramberg-Osgood n (L - comp., 0.074 in.) = 5.3 n (LT - comp., 0.074 in.) = 15 n (L - comp., 0.094 in.) = 5.8 n (LT - comp., 0.094 in.) = 14 Thickness: 0.074 in. Thickness: 0.094 in. Layup: 4/3 Layup: 5/4

Stress, ksi

60

Longitudinal

TYPICAL

40

Long transverse

20

0

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Strain, 0.001 in./in. 3 Compressive Tangent Modulus, 10 ksi

Figure 7.5.2.1.6(f). Typical compressive stress-strain and compressive tangent-modulus . curves for 7475-T761 aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate. .

7-44

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
120

.

100

Longitudinal

80

Stress, ksi

60

Long transverse
40

Thickness: 0.032 in.
20

Layup: 2/1 TYPICAL
0 0 8 16 24 32 40 48

Strain, 0.001 in./in.
Figure 7.5.2.1.6(g). Typical tensile stress-strain curves (full range) for 7475-T761 . aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate. .

7-45

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
120

.

Longitudinal
100

80

Stress, ksi

60

Long transverse
40

Thickness: 0.053 in.
20

Layup: 3/2 TYPICAL
0 0 8 16 24 32 40 48

Strain, 0.001 in./in.
Figure 7.5.2.1.6(h). Typical tensile stress-strain curves (full range) for 7475-T761 . aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate. .

7-46

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH
140

.

120

Longitudinal
100

Stress, ksi

80

60

Long transverse

40

Thickness: 0.074 in.
20

Layup: 4/3 TYPICAL

0

0

8

16

24

32

40

48

Strain, 0.001 in./in.
Figure 7.5.2.1.6(i). Typical tensile stress-strain curves (full rnage) for 7475-T761 . aluminum alloy, aramid fiber-reinforced, sheet laminate. .

7-47

aramid fiber-reinforced.001 in./in.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH 120 Longitudinal 100 80 . Typical tensile stress-strain curves (full range) for 7475-T761 . ksi 60 Long transverse 40 Thickness: 0.6(j).5. 20 Layup: 5/4 TYPICAL 0 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 Strain.1. 7-48 . Stress.094 in. sheet laminate. .2. aluminum alloy. Figure 7. 0.

Vol. R. R. and Harris. London. E. S. pp.. and Ingels. pp. Hong Kong.1(d) “Beryllium Disease and Its Control.... F. 41-51 (1980). “The Fabrication of Beryllium—Volume VI: Joining Techniques for Beryllium Alloys. “Health Protection in Beryllium Facilities.0(b) 7.2. 7.0(h) 7..1(e) Stokinger. A.0(g) 7. Tenth Edition. J..2. Williams. E.. Final Technical Engineering Report. Sydney. “Effect of Annealing and Etching on Machine Damage In Structural Beryllium.. W. Williams. 34 (July 1960).2. DOE. Corle. Rocky Flats Plant. 1990..” U. Atomic Energy Commission.” NASA TM X-53453 (July 1966). 7. E.0(d) 7. and Harris.” AMA Arch. and Tokyo.1.2. J. M.2. and Brewer. “Beryllium. Baltimore. F.0(a) Williams. Ind. A. and Ingels.1(f) Rossman. F. 1958).” NASA TM X-43453 (July 1966). and Powers. W. Health.” RFP-3084. 91-267 (February 1959). J.” NASA TM X-53453 (July 1966). W.” NASA TM X-53453 (August 1966).” NASA TM X-53453 (July 1966). “Practical Ways to Collect Beryllium Dust.. “Strength Efficiency and Design Data for Beryllium Structures. 19(2). 7-49 .1(a) Breslen. H. R.. B. “Beryllium. Leslie. S. S. 1981.. Sept. Health and Safety Laboratory.1(g) Crawford. 7.0(i) 7.. R.” ASD TR 62-7-665 (April 1962). W. U. F... Hanafee.1(b) Breslen.1. R.1.1(c) Cholak. S. 7. “The Fabrication of Beryllium—Volume III: Metal Removal Techniques.2.2. Williams. p. E.2. Beryllium-Biomedical and Environmental Aspects.2.0(c) 7.. Stonehouse... Munich. Applied Metal Working. Williams.. “The Fabrication of Beryllium—Volume V: Thermal Treatments for Beryllium Alloys. B.0(f) 7. P.1.2. U. and Marder.2. 7. and Ingels.. Report HASL-36 (May 1. F..2. 2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 REFERENCES 7. 2(7).. Vol. E.. E. S. E. A.2. W. pp.S. “The Fabrication of Beryllium Alloys—Volume II: Forming Techniques for Beryllium Alloys. 683-687. M. D..” Academic Press (1966). 1.1. and Ingels. M.1. “Toxicity of Beryllium.. No.2. New York Operations Office. “The Testing and Heat Treating of Beryllium for Machine Damage Removal.” ASD TR 61-692 (1961). F. A.” Air Engineering. E. R. Preuss. Williams and Wilkins.1.2. Its Industrial Hygiene Aspect.2.” ASM Metals Handbook. San Francisco. Williams. S. O. and Ingels. 3.. 7. B. Rockwell International.” NASA TM X-53453 (July 1966). “The Fabrication of Beryllium—Volume IV: Surface Treatments for Beryllium Alloys. and Barnes.. A.. R. et al.. 7. “The Fabrication of Beryllium—Volume I: A Survey of Current Technology. 319 pages (1991). and Ingels. J. B. R.” J.0(e) 7. F. R.. Summary of Ten Years' Experience.

0(c) 7-50 . pp.” by the ASM Committee on Applications of Copper. Vol. New York. 8th Edition.0(b) 7. CDA Standard Handbook.0(a) “The Selection and Application of Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 7.” Copper Development Association.3. 8th Edition. “The Selection and Application of Copper Alloy Castings. ASM Metals Handbook. 972-983 (1961).3. pp. 960-972 (1961). 1. ASM Metals Handbook. Vol.” by the ASM Committee on Copper Alloy Castings.” and “Part 7—Cast Products Data. 7.3. 1. “Part 2—Wrought Mill Producers Alloy Data.

Table 8.1.2 8. Similarly.2.3 8.1.1 8.0.2 8.2 has an introductory section (8.4.1.1 Fastener Type Solid Rivets Protruding head Flush head Blind fasteners Protruding head Flush head Swaged collar fasteners Protruding head Flush head Threaded fasteners Protruding head Flush head Special fasteners Fastener sleeves In each of the five major sections. as shown in Table 8. pertinent tables are presented.1 8.0. followed by two major sections comprising different metallurgical joints as shown in Table 8.1.1. while comprising three major sections. with metallurgical joints (various welding and brazing processes).1.6.1.5.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 CHAPTER 8 STRUCTURAL JOINTS This chapter. Section 8. and cables.1 is concerned with mechanically fastened joints.1 8.1.1. it is concerned with bearings.2.2.1. primarily is concerned with joint allowables. the introductory section (8.0.2 8. With particular reference to Section 8.3.3.1.1.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.1).1. Following this introductory section are five sections comprising the five major fastener categories.4 8. Section 8.5 8. pulleys. After each major section.2 8.1.1) contains fastener indexes that can be used as a quick reference to locate a specific table of joint allowables.4.6 8. 8-1 .1.5.2.2. there are subsections that describe the factors to be considered in determining the strength of fasteners and joints. Section 8. Structural Joints Index (Fastener Type) Section 8. Section 8.3 contains information for structural component data.

Threaded Fasteners — Fasteners in this category are considered to be any threaded part (or parts) that after assembly in a joint can be easily removed without damage to the fastener or to the material being joined. and a wide assortment of proprietary fasteners. Examples of such fastening systems are sleeves.2.3 8.1 8. Special Fasteners — As the name implies. chemical. Swaged Collar Fasteners — Swaged collar fasteners are multiple piece fasteners. “Lockbolts”.0.1 Introduction and Fastener Indexes — Five categories of mechanical fasteners are presently contained in this Handbook.2. and “Cherrybucks”. Structural Joints Index (Joining Methods) Section 8. usually consisting of a solid pin and a malleable collar which is swaged or formed onto the pin to clamp the joint. it is necessary to know the strength of the individual fasteners (both by itself.2.2 Joining Methods Welded joints Fusion Flush and pressure Spot and seam Brazing Copper Silver Following each 4-digit section. Blind Fasteners — Blind fasteners are usually multiple piece devices that can be installed in a joint which is accessible from one side only. Following each such section are the various tables of joint allowables or associated information for computing joint allowables as described. screws.2.2.2. blind bolts. failures in such joints occur by tensile failure of the fasteners. applicable tables and figures for the particular section are presented. 8.3 8.1 8.2. etc.2. 8. or other feature forms an upset on its inaccessible or blind side.1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.3.2 8.3.2. shearing of the fasteners and by bearing and/or tearing of the sheet or plate. This fastener usually is permanently installed.2 8. generically defined as follows: Solid Rivets — Solid rivets are defined as one piece fasteners installed by mechanically upsetting one end. 8-2 . In most cases. etc. This fastener class includes such fasteners as “Hi-Shear” rivets. a self-contained mechanical. inserts. This classification includes bolts. panel fasteners. In the following 3-digit sections. this category of fastener is less commonly used in primary aircraft structure than the four categories listed above. descriptive information is presented relative to the establishment of design allowables in joints containing these four categories of fasteners. This fastener category includes such fasteners as blind rivets.2.1 MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS To determine the strength of mechanically fastened joints. These fasteners must be destroyed to be removed. and when installed in various thicknesses of the various materials).2. When a blind fastener is being installed.

2D.1. The second column contains the table number for the allowables table for each fastener. aluminum.2 Edge Distance Requirements — The joint allowables in MIL-HDBK-5 are based on joint tests having edge distances of twice the nominal hole diameter. titanium. 8-3 . It is recommended that Section 9. These indexes are provided to make it easier to locate the allowables table for a given fastener and sheet material combination. the allowables are applicable only to joints having 2D edge distance. Generic terms usually are used.1. Therefore. Some existing tables in MILHDBK-5 may reflect other values. new fastener proposals will be classified in accordance with the above-noted table. The fourth column identifies the specific sheet or plate material.1.1 Fastener Shear Strengths — Fastener shear strengths accepted and documented by the aerospace industry and government agencies are listed in Table 8.1. however. 8.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Tables 8.1. such as steel.4. The third column identifies generally the base material of the fastener.1.1. the protruding head tables appear first in the second column.1 be reviewed in its entirety since it contains detailed information on the generation and analysis of joint data that results in the joint allowables tables contained in this section.1(a) through (e) are fastener indexes that list the joint allowables tables for each fastener category. The fastener column has been so arranged that when protruding head and countersunk head fasteners are included in a given fastener index table. 8.1. etc. The left-hand column describes the fastener by referring to the MS or NAS part number or to a vendor part number when the fastener is not covered by either series. Each of the indexes generally is similarly structured in the following manner. REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.

.2(a) 8. Supersedes page 8-4 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-4 . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8..2.2(s) 8..2(t) Rivet Material ..2(j) 8.2(h) 8.2.2(l) 8.2.1..2.1.1.1. dimpled holes.2.1.2..1.2(c) 8.1.2.2(n) 8.2(b) 8. Aluminum A-286 Monel Monel Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Monel Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Ti-45Cb Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Sheet Material .1..1...2.2.2(f) 8. D.1.1.1.1. .2(e) 8.1. Fastener Index for Solid Rivets Fastener Identificationa Rivet Hole Size Shear Strength of Solid Rivets Unit Bearing Strength Shear Strength Corection Factors NAS1198 (MC)b MS20427M (MC) MS20427M (D)b MS20426AD (D) MS20426D (D) MS20426DD (D) MS20426 (MC) MS20426B (MC) MS20427M (MC) BRFS-D (MC) BRFS-AD (MC) BRFS-DD (MC) BRFS-T (MC) MS14218E NAS1097E (MC) MS14218AD (MC) MS14219E (MC) MS14219E (MC) MS20426E MS20426E AL905KE (MC) a b Table Number 8. . MC.1.1.2.2(b) 8.2(d) 8.2(k) 8. A-286 AISI 301/302 AISI 301/302 Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Clad 2024-T42 AZ31B-H24 Com Pure Titanium Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 7075-T6/Ti-6Al-4V Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3/7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Page No.1(b) 8.2(r) 8.2.2(q) 8.. machine countersunk holes.1(c) 8..1..2(p) 8.1.1.2.2(m) 8.2. .2(g) 8.2.1.2.2(i) 8.1.1.2.MIL-HDBK-5H.2(a) 8.1.1.2.2.1(a). . 8-10 8-11 8-12 8-13 8-14 8-15 8-16 8-17 8-18 8-19 8-20 8-21 8-22 8-23 8-24 8-25 8-26 8-27 8-28 8-29 8-30 8-31 8-32 8-33 8-33a In some cases..2(o) 8.2..2.1.2.. entries in this table identify the subject matter in certain tables.1(a) 8.1.2.2.

3. Friction-Lock Blind Rivets Protruding-head.2(q) 8.1.1.1.1.1.2(a) 8.1.1.2(d2 ) 8.1.1(a) 8.3.3.3.1.2(d1 ) 8.1.1.3.3.3.1(b) 8.1.1.1.1.2(u) 8.1.2(i) 8.1(d) 8.1.1.1.3.2(p) 8.1.1.1.1.2(a) 8.1.1.1.1.1(c) 8.1.3.1.2(m) 8.1.3.3.1.2(e) 8.3.1.3.3. Mechanical-Lock Blind Rivets Supersedes page 8-5 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-5 .MIL-HDBK-5H.3.1.1.1.3.1.2(j) 8.3.3.2(h) 8.2(g) 8.1.1.3.1.3.2(e) 8.2(c) 8.3.2(f) 8.2(b) 8.1.1. Fastener Index for Blind Fasteners Fastener Identification CR 6636 MS20600M MS20600M MS20600AD and MS20602AD MS20600B NAS1398C CR 2643 NAS1398 MS or MW NAS1398 MS or MW NAS1398B NAS1398D NAS1738B and NAS1738E NAS1398B NAS1738B and NAS1738E CR 2A63 CR 4623 CR 4523 NAS1720KE and NAS1720KE (L) NAS1720C and NAS1720C (L) AF3243 HC3213 HC6223 HC6253 AF3213 CR3213 CR3243 HC3243 AF3223 CR3223 Table Number 8.1.1.2(t) 8.1.3.1.3.1.1.2(s) 8.1.1.3.3.1(e) 8.3.1.2(o) 8.3.2(d1 ) 8. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. 8-35 8-36 8-37 8-38 8-39 8-40 8-40 8-41 8-42 8-43 8-43 8-44 8-45 8-45 8-46 8-47 8-48 8-49 8-50 8-53 8-54 8-55 8-56 8-56a 8-56b 8-56c 8-56d 8-56e 8-56f Protruding-head.1.2(r) 8.1.1.1.1.2(v) Fastener Sleeve Material A-286 Monel Monel Aluminum Aluminum A-286 A-286 Monel Monel Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum A-286 Monel Aluminum A-286 Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Sheet or Plate Material Various AISI 301 Clad 2024-T3/7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 AZ31B-H24 Alloy Steel Alloy Steel AISI 301-½ Hard Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 AZ31B-H24 AZ31B-H24 Clad 2024-T81 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Page No.3.1.1(b).1.1.3.1.2(n) 8.

2.2.3.1.1.3.3.2(h) 8.1.3. Friction-Lock Blind Rivets Flush-head.1.1.1.2(m) 8.1.3.1.1.2(a) 8.2(a) 8.3.1.3.2.2.1(a) 8.1.2.1.2(w) 8.3.1.2.2(x) 8.2(j) 8.3.2(e) 8.1.3.3.3.3.2.1(b).1.2.3.3.2(q) 8.1.3.2.2.2(b) 8.1.3.3.1.2.2(i) 8.2(k) 8.2.3.2.3.1. D.2.1.1.1.2(v) 8.1.3. machine countersunk holes. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8.1(d3) 8.2.2(h) 8.3.MIL-HDBK-5H.2.2(l) 8.2(g) 8.2(j) 8.3.2.2(r) 8.2(f) 8.2.1.3.2.1(e) 8. Mechanical-Lock Spindle Blind Rivets NAS1399C (MC) CR 2642 (MC) NAS1399 MS or MW (MC) NAS1291C (MC) NAS1399 MS or MW (MC) NAS1921M (MC) CR 2A62 (MC) NAS1921B (MC) NAS1399B (MC) NAS1399D (MC) NAS1739B and NAS1379E (MC) NAS1739B and NAS1739E (D) NAS1399B (MC) NAS1739B and NAS1739E (MC) CR 4622 (MC) CR 4522 (MC) NAS1721KE and NAS1721KE (L) (MC) NAS1721C and NAS1721C (L) (MC) HC3212 (MC) MBC 4807 and MBC 4907 MBC 4801 and MBC 4901 HC6222 HC6224 HC6252 (MC) AF3212 (MC) CR3212 (MC) AF3242 (MC) CR3242 (MC) HC3242 (MC) AF3222 CR3222 a MC.3.2.1.1.2.1.3.2.3.1.2. Supersedes page 8-6 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-6 .1(f) 8. dimpled holes.1.3.3.2.2.2(i) 8.2(d) 8.1.2.2.2.2.3.2.3.3.2.3.2.1.1.2.1(d2) 8.1(g) 8.2(y) 8.2(z) 8.3.2.2(n) 8.2(u) 8.2.3.2(bb) 8.1(c) 8.2.2.3.3.1. Fastener Index for Blind Fasteners (Continued) Table Number 8.2(c) 8.1.1.1(d1) 8.2.3.2.1(b) 8.2(s) 8.1.2.2(cc) Fastener Sleeve Material A-286 Monel Monel Monel Monel Monel Monel Aluminum Aluminum A-286 A-286 Monel A-286 Monel Monel Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum A-286 Monel Aluminum A-286 Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Sheet or Plate Material Various 17-7PH (TH1050) AISI 301 AISI 301-Ann AISI 301-¼ Hard AISI 301-½ Hard 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 AZ31B-H24 Alloy Steel Alloy Steel AISI 301-½ Hard Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T81 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 AZ31B-H24 AZ31B-H24 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6/T651 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 2024-T3 Page No.1.1. 8-57 8-58 8-59 8-60 8-61 8-62 8-63 8-64 8-65 8-66 8-66 8-67 8-68 8-69 8-70 8-71 8-72 8-73 8-73 8-74 8-74 8-75 8-75 8-76 8-77 8-78 8-79 8-82 8-83 8-84 8-85 8-86 8-86a 8-86b 8-86c 8-86d 8-86e 8-86f 8-86g 8-86h Fastener Identification CR 6626 (MC) MS20601M (MC) MS20601M (D)a MS20601M (MC) MS20601M (MC) MS20601M (MC) MS20601M (MC) MS20601AD and MS20603AD (MC) MS20601B (MC) a Flush-head.3.1.3.2(aa) 8.2(t) 8.1.1.

2. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8.1.1.3(g) 8.3(c) 8.MIL-HDBK-5H.2. 8-87 8-88 8-89 8-90 8-91 8-92 8-93 8-94 8-95 Flush-head Blind Bolts A-286 Clad 7075-T6/T651 Alloy Steel Clad 2024-T3/T351 Alloy Steel Clad or Bare 7075-T6 or T651 Alloy Steel Clad 2024-T42/ 7075-T6 Alloy Steel Clad 7075-T6 Aluminum Clad 2024-T42/ 7075-T6 Alloy Steel Clad 7075-T6/T651 Alloy Steel Clad 7075-T6/T651 Aluminum Clad 7075-T6 Supersedes page 8-6 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-6a .2.3.1(b). FF-260 and FF-312 (MC) NS 100 (MC) SSHFA-200 and SSHFA-260(MC) PLT-150 (MC) NAS1670L (MC) NAS1674L (MC) a MC.1.3(a) 8.1.2. dimpled holes.3.2. Fastener Index for Blind Fasteners (Continued) Fastener Identification MS21140 (MC) MS90353 (MC) MS90353 (MC) FF-200.2.1.2.1.2.3.1.1.3(b2 ) 8.3.3(b1 ) 8.3(d) 8.3.3.3.3(e) 8.2. Table Number 8.3(f) 8. D.3.1. machine countersunk holes.1.3.3(h) Fastener Sleeve Material Sheet or Plate Material Page No.

2(g) 8.1.5.4.5.1.4.5.1..5.1.1.1.1. Fastener Index for Threaded Fasteners Fastener Identificationa Single Shear Strength Tensile Strength Tensile Strength Unit Bearing Strength AN 509 Screws (MC)b AN 509 Screws (MC) PBF 11 (MC) TL 100 (MC) TLV 100 (MC) HPB-V (MC) KLBHV with KFN 600 (MC) HL-61-70 (MC) HL-719-79 (MC) HL-11 (MC) HL-911 (MC) NAS4452S and KS 100-FV with NAS4445DD (MC) HPG-V (MC) NAS4452V with NAS4445 DD (MC) HL18Pin.2(m) 8. Table Number 8.1.1. HL70 Collar (MC) Table Number 8.5.4.2(n) 8.2(b) 8. machine countersunk holes. 8-113 8-114 8-115 8-116 8-117 8-118 8-119 8-120 8-121 8-122 8-123 8-124 8-125 8-126 8-127 8-128 8-129 8-130 8-131 8-132 a In some cases entries in this table identify the subject matter in certain tables.2(l) 8.4.1.1...5. Fastener Index for Swaged-Collar/Upset-Pin Fasteners Fastener Identification Ultimate Single-Shear and Tensile Strengths CSR 925 CSR 925 NAS1436-NAS1442 (MC)a NAS7024-NAS7032 (MC) CSR 924 (MC) CSR 924 (MC) HSR 201 (MC) HSR 101 (MC) GPL 3SC-V (MC) GPL 3SC-V (MC) LGPL 2SC-V (MC) LGPL 2SC-V (MC) a MC.2(g) 8.1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. 8-98 8-99 8-100 8-101 8-102 8-103 8-104 8-105 8-106 8-107 8-108 8-109 8-110 Table 8.2(k) 8.1.1.5.2(o) Fastener Sleeve Material Steel Steel . D.2(a) 8..2(e) 8.5. 8-7 .5(a) 8.2(j) 8.1.1.1(d). Clad 2024-T3 Clad 7075-T6 Ti-6Al-4V Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Page No.1.1(a) 8. Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 7075-T6/T651 Clad 7075-T6/T651 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Page No.2(j) Fastener Pin Material Alloy Steel and Alum. .2(h) 8.1.5.2(d) 8.2(a2) 8.1.1...5.1.4.2(e) 8. Titanium Titanium Alloy Steel Alloy Steel Titanium Titanium A-286 Titanium Titanium Titanium Titanium Titanium Sheet or Plate Material .4.4..2(d) 8.1.5.4.4. HL70 Collar (MC) HL19 Pin.2(c) 8.2(a1) 8.2(i) 8.2(f) 8.1. Alloy Steel Alloy Steel CRES Alloy Steel Titanium Titanium Titanium CRES Alloy Steel Titanium Titanium Alloy Steel or Titanium Titanium Titanium Alloy Steel Alloy Steel Sheet .4.5.1(c). .4.5..1.1...1.1.1. dimpled holes. . b MC.5(b2) 8.1.5(b1) 8.5..5.1.4.1..5.2(c) 8.1.4 8.1.1 8.2(i) 8.1.2(f) 8.2(h) 8. machine countersunk holes.1.2(b) 8.5.1(b) 8.

1 Fastener Shear Strengths Current Usage Fsu.1(e).1. Aluminum Sleeve Sheet or Plate Material Clad 7075-T6 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T3 Page No. A-286.2(b) Fastener Pin Material A-286 Steel Pin.1. 8-133 8-134 8-135 Table 8.1. Fastener Index for Special Fasteners Fastener Identification ACRES Sleeves MIL-B-8831/4 (MC)a MIL-B-8831/4 (MC) a MC.. ksi 28 30 34 36 38 41 43 46 49 50 55 75 78 90 95 108 110 112 125 132 145 156 180 Examples of Current Alloys Which Meet Levela 5056 2117 2017 2219 2017 2024 and 7050-T73 7050-T731 7075 Monel Ti/Cb Monel Alloy Steel and CRES A-286 A-286 Alloy Steel. Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Steel and Ti-6Al-2Sn A-286 Alloy Steel Alloy Steel and CRES Alloy Steel MP35N Alloy Steel Alloy Steel Driven Rivets X X X X X X X Undriven X X X Undriven X X X X X X X X X X X X Blind Fasteners X X X X X X X X Solid Shank Fasteners X X a Different tempers and thermal treatments are used to obtain desired fastener shear strengths.. 8-8 . Aluminum Sleeve Steel Pin.6.6.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. 8.1. Table Number .1. machine countersunk holes.2(a) 8.

Unless otherwise specified.1.2. where D is the decimal equivalent of the hole diameter defined in Table 9. a statistical value determined from test results as described in Section 9. are given in Table 8.3. tests to substantiate yield and ultimate bearing strengths must be performed.4. for a variety of conditions of exposure.04D.2(a).1. the shear strength values obtained from Table 8. Design bearing stresses at low temperatures will be higher than those specified for room temperature. “unit” sheet bearing strengths for rivets. Table 8.2 SOLID RIVETS — The recommended diameter dimensions of the upset tail on solid rivets shall be at least 1.MIL-HDBK-5H.4. If the nominal hole diameter is larger than the listed value.2(a) through (s) contain joint allowables for various flush-head solid rivet/sheet material combinations.1.18. (See Section 9.18.4.2(a). In computing protruding-head rivet design shear strengths.1.1. This compensates for the reduction in rivet shear strength resulting from high bearing stresses on the rivet at t/D ratios less than 0. Tail heights shall be a minimum of 0.67 for double-shear joints. 8.1.4 for possible variations.2(a).1.4. Shear strength values for solid rivets of a number of rivet materials are given in Table 8.4. where D is the decimal equivalent of the hole diameter defined in Table 9.15.5 times the nominal shank diameter except for 2024-T4 rivets which shall be at least 1. From such tests tabular presentation of ultimate load and yield load allowables are made. Shear strengths for driven rivets may be based on areas corresponding to the nominal hole diameter provided that the nominal hole diameter is not larger than the values listed in Table 8.4 times the nominal shank diameter.) This factor is not applicable to shear strength cutoff values. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 8.2.2.2(b).1.1. Unless otherwise specified.3 as the load which results in a joint permanent set equal to 0.1.1(b). joint allowables should be established by test in accordance with Section 9. yield load is defined in Section 9. These bearing stresses are applicable only for the design of rigid joints where there is no possibility of relative motion of the parts joined without deformation of such parts.4. Supersedes page 8-9 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-9 .1.1 Protruding-Head Solid Rivet Joints — The unit load at which shear or bearing type of failure occurs is calculated separately and the lower of the two governs the design.33 for single-shear joints and 0.3.1(a). however. the listed value shall be used. Shear strength cutoff values may be either the procurement specification shear strength (S value) of the fastener.3 as the load which results in a joint permanent set equal to 0. or if no specification exists. no quantitative data are available.2.1. where t/D is less than 0.2(b). For convenience. For those rivet material sheet material combinations where test data shows the above to be unconservative or for rivet materials other than those shown in Table 8. 8.1(c) provides ultimate and yield strength data on protruding-head A-286 solid rivets in aged A-286 sheet. The allowable ultimate loads were established from test data using the average ultimate test load divided by a factor of 1.2.2(b) should be multiplied by the correction factors given in Table 8.1.3 diameter.04D. The design bearing stress for various materials at both room and elevated temperatures is given in the strength properties stated for each alloy or group of alloys and is applicable to riveted joints wherein cylindrical holes are used and where t/D is greater than or equal to 0.1. based on a bearing stress of 100 ksi and nominal hole diameters.2. the yield load is defined in Section 9.2 Flush-Head Solid Rivet Joints — Tables 8.1. Yield load allowables are established from test data.

. When the noncountersunk sheet is thinner than the countersunk sheet. .257 5/16 P 0. in. the bearing allowable for the noncountersunk sheet-fastener combination should be computed.159 3/16 11 0.067 3/32 41 0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 For machine countersunk joints.1285 5/32 21 0. the sheet gage specified in the tables is that of the countersunk sheet. . . . . Increased attention should be paid to detail design in cases where t/D < 0. Table 8. Standard Rivet-Hole Drill Sizes and Nominal Hole Diameters Rivet Size. .25 because of possibly greater incidence of difficulty in service life. .191 1/4 F 0. in. 8-10 . compared to the table value. . . Drill No.386 REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.323 3/8 W 0.1.2(a).096 1/8 30 0. Nominal Hole Diameter. and the lower of the two values selected. . . 1/16 51 0. . .

Driven in the W (fresh or ice box) condition to minimum 1.1. Single Shear Strength of Solid Rivetsa Undriven Rivet Material 5056-H32 2117-T4 2017-T4 2024-T4 7050-T73 Monel Fsu (ksi) Min 24 26 35 37 41 49 50 85 Max n/a n/a 42 n/a 46 59 59 95 Driven Rivet Material 5056-H321d 2117-T3 2017-T3 2024-T31 7050-T731 Monel Ti-45Cb A-286 d Rivet Size Fsub (ksi) Rivet Designation Bf AD D DD E h 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 c 5/16 3/8 Driven Single Shear Strength.2(a). Shear stresses are for the as driven condition on B-basis probability.4D bucktail diameter.1. Should not be exposed to temperatures over 150EF. lbs 99 106 134 145 152 183 187 317 203 217 275 297 311 376 384 651 363 389 493 532 558 674 687 1165 556 596 755 814 854 1030 1050 1785 802 860 1085 1175 1230 1490 1515 2575 28e 30 e 1450 1555 1970 2125 2230 2695 2745 4665 2290 2455 3115 3360 3520 4260 4340 7375 3275 3510 4445 4795 5030 6085 6200 10500 38e 41 g e 43 52e 53 e M T - 8-11 a b c d e f g h Ti-45Cb A-286 90e All rivets must be sufficiently driven to fill the rivet hole at the shear plane. E (or KE.Supersedes page 8-11 of MIL-HDBK-5H Table 8. as per NAS documents). .2(a). Driving changes the rivet strength from the undriven to the driven condition and thus provides the above driven shear strengths. indicates recognition of strengthening derived from driving. The bucktail’s minimum diameter is 1.1. The temper designations last digit (1). Based on nominal hole diameter specified in Table 8.2(b).5 times the nominal hole diameter in Table 8.

. . . . . . 173 192 240 307 346 384 432 480 605 682 768 864 960 1200 1536 1824 2400 1/8 . . . . .090 . lbs Sheet thickness. . .018 .. 1/16 80 107 121 134 168 214 241 268 302 335 422 476 536 603 670 838 1072 1273 1670 3/32 . ... .. . .. . 2035 2293 2584 2907 3230 4038 5168 6137 8075 3/8 .. .036 .040 . 0.. 321 411 462 514 578 642 810 912 1028 1156 1285 1606 2056 2442 3210 5/32 . .... . . .. .. . .160 . ..190 . . ... . .071 . . 688 764 860 955 1203 1356 1528 1719 1910 2388 3056 3629 4775 1/4 . 0. . . .. . 0. .... .. .... ... . 8-12 . . . .. .080 ... . . . . . . 0.. 0. . . 2741 3088 3474 3860 4825 6176 7334 9650 REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . Fbr = 100 ksi Unit Bearing Strength for Indicated Rivet Diameter.. . .. .. . . ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. 509 572 636 716 795 1002 1129 1272 1431 1590 1988 2544 3021 3975 3/16 ... . . . . . . .. 0. .125 . . 0. . . . .. .... . . .. 0... . . . . . .. . . . .. . . 0..100 . . . 0. . . 0.016 .032 . . . . 0.. . . . . Unit Bearing Strength of Sheet on Rivets. . .. . 0.. . . . . . . ...050 . . in. 0. . . . 0. .250 . . . .. .045 . . 0.063 . .. . . . . . . . .025 . . .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. .. . 1285 1619 1825 2056 2313 2570 3212 4112 4883 6425 5/16 . . .... . ...012 . 0.. . . . 0.. . . ... . . .. . .. . . ..1. . . . . .. ... . . ... . .. . .. . 0. .. . . . .. ... . . . .020 .1(a).. . . . . .... . ..

.. .. . 0. .090 .. .981 0.... ...550 0. .071 ..545 0.. . .... Shear Strength Correction Factors for Solid Protruding Head Rivets Rivet Diameter. . . 0.. . .981 0. ..080 . 0. . . ..2..995 1.992 1.. . . .951 1...000 . . . .. ..071 . 0. 0... 0.080 .891 0..964 0. ... .972 1. .000 Sheet thickness is that of the thinnest sheet in single-shear joints and the middle sheet in double-shear joints...933 0....025 ... . ... . . . ... in. .. ... ..872 0. . .737 0.687 0. . .964 0.. .. 0. .935 0. .. . . 0. . . 0.. . .. .708 0.981 1. . .. . . . . . 0. 0.912 0. .000 .744 0.. 0...687 0.. . . Supersedes page 8-13 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-13 ... ..814 0.... .. .. . . . 0. ... 0. 0... .... . . . . .585 0.. . . . . ..744 0.036 ... ....050 .. . .. .951 1... . . . . . 0. .518 0. 0.... . . . .. .000 ... . in. .... . 0.560 0.040 .. .. . .708 0. .. ...016 .. ....032 .. ... .000 .... .. . . . . .679 0. . . . .. . . . . .040 ... .653 0. . . Sheet thickness. .. 0.. . .. .190 .160 . . . .969 0. . . .. ...000 . ..... . . . .. .964 0. ....953 0. ... ..1(a). .995 1..789 0. .995 1... ... ..970 1. . . 0.508 0.. ... .789 0.622 0. .870 0.924 0.. . ..941 0. ... . .857 0.585 0.000 .. . . . . .018 ... . . . . . . 0. .937 0.. . . .. . . .MIL-HDBK-5H. . 0.870 0.961 0.. . .805 0..... ....... . . .100 . .100 ..032 . . .834 0...891 0. .808 0. . . .. . .870 0. . ..... . . .. .834 0.789 0... 0... 0. ..687 0. . ....000 . . .. Values based on tests of aluminum rivets. ... 0. .....941 0. .020 .. . . . . .. ... . .050 ..789 0...933 0..1(b). . . . in. . . . . . .090 . . .925 0. 5/16 3/8 0. . .789 0. ..966 0... . . . . . . .063 . ..000 ... . . ... . . . ... . .941 0. .. ...708 0. . .. . . . 0. . . ... ... ..891 0.000 . ... . .. . . ....933 0. .. . .946 0. 0. ... . . . . .. . Reference 8.: 0. 0. . . ... . .. .125 ... ..939 1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 a Table 8. .250 . .. . ...545 0..992 1.. . .. .125 .870 0.. . .000 . . .912 0. . .. . ... . 0. . .. .953 0.630 0.. ..585 0. .. . . .... . 0.020 .. .. ... . ... . ... . . . ..744 0.063 . .018 . .. .000 . . . . . .000 . . .. 0. .000 . .045 . . . . .969 0. .920 0.924 0.. . .. 0. ..852 0.. . ...920 0. .. .970 1. a 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 Single-Shear Rivet Strength Factors .. .. . .. 0..: 0.. . Sheet thickness.... 0.. . 0..653 0. .. 0.909 0. . . .981 0. .979 0.. 0. . . . 0. . . .964 0. ....992 1. . . . . .. .... ... ..016 . . .045 .. . .. . .. . . ... . .. .025 . .995 1. . ... 0. . .... 0..000 .995 1. ... 0... .036 . 0. . 0.687 0.. .518 0.744 0. 0..1. . .. .944 0.909 0. . .992 1.000 Double-Shear Rivet Strength Factors 0. . . 0.. .922 0.981 0. .. . . . . . ... ..

.. .....1. . .... . 300 . . . . . ... ..... ..160 . ... .. . . . . . .. . . .160 .. 0. . . . . .. . . .. ... . ... .. . 1200F. 740 932 1152 1428 1578 1660 1752 1790 .. . Sheet Material .. 0.040 ..... . . . . . . d Permanent set at yield load: 0. . . . .. 0.1(c). . . . .. .. Rivet Diameter. . .. 1132 1397 1677 1821 1909 2008 2118 2229 2504 2580 2580 . .. ..090 . . ..005 inch. .. .. ... . ..... . ..125 . . . . ..191) 470b 587b 752b 783 .. .050 .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . such conditions should be avoided in design... .. . . Tested in 15 Seconds 1/8 5/32 3/16 (0. .. . . .063 .....080 .. ... . .. 0. ... . .. . .020 .025 . 0. .. . .. 464 374 713 593 479 890 741 598 1112 925 . . . ... . . . . ... . 0.125 . .. . 0... . ..080 .. . . Static Joint Strength of Protruding Head A-286 Solid Rivets in A-286 Alloy Sheet at Various Temperatures Rivet Type . . . . 712 889 1110 . . . .1285) (0. . in. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . Table 8.. . .: 0... . . . . .. .100 .. . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate. ... . .... . .... . .. . ... .. . . .040 . . . . .) Sheet thickness. 726b 930b 1164b 1198 .. . c Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1198 as 90 ksi. (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . .. . Note: Because of difficulties encountered upsetting countersunk head rivets in thin A-286 sheet. .. .. . . . . ...2.. 331 . . . .. . . . . . .1.. . . .... . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .100 . .. ... . . . . . .. .. .. .1285) (0. . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . .... . . . . 974 1167 1407 1649 1723 1806 1898 1990 2221 2543 NAS1198 (Fsu = 90 ksi) A-286.159) (0. .. 1729 . . . . .071 . . . . ... . . . . ... . . .. 0.. . . .. . . 0. . 0. . . . Rapid Heating in 20 Seconds.. .050 . .. . . 695 932 1152 1331 1447 1518 1597 1686 . .. .. . . .d. . . . in. . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . .159) (0. Stabilized 15 Minutes 1/8 5/32 3/16 (0. .. ... Ftu = 140 ksi 1200F.1285) (0. .. . . . . .. . . . . Room Temperature 1/8 5/32 3/16 (0. .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .... .. . .. . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . ... .. . .. . . ... . . .. ... . . . 0. Rivet shear strengthc . ...025 .. .191) 478 590 745 923 1023 1131 1170 . . . . . ... 1400 . .. . . . .. . . . 1507 1044 682 Yield Strengtha. ... .. . . . .090 . .2. . . . . ... . . .1. .063 .. 464 593 740 924 .... .... .. .. . . .. .191) Ultimate Strengtha. .. . . . . 0. . . . .. . .. . . . . 1170 447 590 745 867 938 1031 1089 .159) (0.071 .032 . . . . . .. . . .. .. . in.REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.. . . . . . lbs. .. solution treated and aged. ... . 0. 0.. 0. . 0. 1117b 1397b 1729b . . ... . .. 1507 . . . .. ... . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .020 . . 8-14 a Test data from which the yield and ultimate strengths were derived can be found in Reference 8.: 0. .. 0. . .. ... . . .... . in. . . . .. . 0.. . . . . . 626 426 962 801 560 1204 1002 682 1505 1044 . ... 1198 . . 0.. . 0. . . ... . . . . . . . .. 0. ... Temperature . lbs. .. . . . 1790 . 783 300 374 478 598 . . . . .. . .. . .. . 0... . .. Sheet thickness.032 . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .

.. .191) (0. .... . . .. . 673 732 830 936 973 . . .1285) (0. .. . . . . . 0. .. . . . . . .. ... . .061 .. . . . . . . 958 1012 1062 1160 .050 . .).. .1285) (0.. . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . . 570 686 714 764 893 . .. . .191) Ultimate Strength. ... Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Monel Solid Rivets in MachineCountersunk Stainless Steel Sheet Rivet Type . .. .042 324 360 480 561 635 .100 . . 780 848 1000 1160 1400 0. .. . . . . lbs 259 324 408 . 0. . . c Rivet shear strength is documented in MS20427M. . 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/8 5/32 3/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . .. AISI 302-Annealed MS20427M (Fsu = 49 ksi) AISI 301-¼ Hard AISI 301-½ Hard AISI 301-Full Hard Rivet Diameter. .. .. . . ..090 . . . . 0... . lbs Sheet thickness.096) (0. . . 673 a b . 0. ... 0. .. . .063 . 635 820a 915a 973a . . in. . . . . . . . . b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable..: 0. .071 ... .. .. . . . ..005 inch. Sheet Material . . . .... . . 0. . . . 0. .. . . . ... ... . . 635 b . . .061 . . . .. . .. . in. . . . . .. . Sheet thickness.. 1400 b 251 322 355 .191) (0.. ... . ... . . .. 498 557 630 765 893 . . 0. . . .. . . .. 973 b .159) (0. . 990 1118 1255 1400 .. .048 .. ... . . . . 1110a 1246a 1380a 1400 . ... . . . .. . 1400 b 439 468 595 635 .. .. . .. 0.. . . .. ... . . .. . . 635 b .. . . .. .. in. .077 a Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. ..040 . .. . . 355 439 447 538 615 635 . . . . 0. .. . . .048 . .. . 0.. . 0..2. .. . . . . . . . 0.. .. . . . 973 Yield Strengthd. .125 .. . . ... 673 688 741 850 973 . .: 0. ..100 .. . . . Rivet shear strengthc . . in. 0. ... . . . 439a 526 a b .. 0. .1285) (0. . .. . .) (0.061 . . . . ...080 . . .. . .. .. . . . .... . ... .159) (0.. . .. . . .. . . . .. 0. . . . .048 .. 0. . . . . ...080 .. . .. . . .063 . . d Permanent set at yield load: 0. .159) (0. . . . . .. 8-15 . Head height (ref. .. . . . 0. .. . . . . . . . . .. .... . 984 995 1132 1280 1400 1400 b 635a . .. 685 771 865 965 .. ... . .090 . . . . . . ... .. 0. . .. .050 . 0. ... . . . .. . .. . . . ... .. . . . 0. . . . . .040 . . 402 506 570 643 . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . ... .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8...077 368 442 492 561 . . 0. . 973 b .. .. . 0. ..071 .. ..1.. . . . in.. . . . . . .. .. .. . .125 . . . ...2(a). .. .. .077 212 293 355 .. . .

. .. . . ..2(b). .. b Permanent set at yield load: 0. . .. . . .. . 973 1252 0. 1405 0. . . .. . . .. . . .. . in.048 0. . .. . . . . .. . . .. .. . .. . .: 0. . 449 . in. . .. .061 0. . . . .. . .. . .080 . .. . 973 1382 0. .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . 427 518 . . .. . . . .048 0. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .005 inch. . . .077 0.. . . .. . . . in. . . ...025 . . .. . . . (0.. ... . 635 856 1020 1326 .. 329 449 .. ... . .020 . . lbs. Sheet thickness..: 0. . . . . . . . .. .. .. .1/4 hard AISI 301 .. .048 0. 0. . .. . . . . .. . Rivet shear strengtha . . . in.. . ... . . . . . . .. ..061 0.. . .. . . ... .. 1405 2140 . .. . . . . . . . .. . . 8-16 . . . . . ... 348 497 . .. . .. .. . 568 698 846 . .. .. . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . .. .annealed AISI 301 . 973 1320 1730 ... . . . . .. . . . ...032 .061 0. . . . .1285) (0. . . .257) (0. . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . Sheet thickness...096) (0. .. 635 973 1405 2540 635 973 1405 355 635 973 1405 Yield Strengthb. .. .. . . 0. . . .. .077 a Rivet shear strength from Table 8. . . . .. 0. . . ... . . .. 0.. 348 . ... 497 . 2490 . . . .1285) (0. . . . .077 0. .. . . . . .. . .. . ....032 . . .) . .071 .040 .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . 355 595 766 .. . . . ... . . . . .025 . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. . . . .. . ..1285) (0. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . 550 679 801 .. 973 1252 . Head height (max. .103 0. . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. . . . . .. ... . . . . .. .. .. . .159) (0. 1405 2240 . .1. .. .191) (0. . . .. . . .. . 1405 . .159) (0. . . . .. AISI 302 ... . . . 355 533 681 . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. .071 . . .. 1405 0. . . 595 766 .. . 533 681 . . .2(b). . . . . .... . . . .063 . . .. . in.191) (0.. . . . .. . . . . ....050 . . . . . .... . .. . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . ..063 . . .1. . . 0. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... .).. . . . . . lbs. . . . . . . .. . . . .080 . . . . . ... .... . 0. MS20427M (Fsu = 49 ksi) Sheet Material . . . . . . .. ... . . . . .. . . . .. ... . . .. . ..... . . . . 2540 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 441 536 . .. .. . 635 931 1163 0. . . . 635 931 1163 . 973 1280 1678 .. . 2540 .. . . . . . . . .020 . . . . . . . ... .. .. .1/2 hard Rivet Diameter.. . 2420 . . . . 0. . .. 635 884 1046 1370 .. . .... .159) (0. . . . . . . 635 842 1049 0. .. . . . . . . ..2..191) Ultimate Strength. . . . . . ..Table 8. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. 1405 .. . . . . 0. . .. . . . . 635 842 1049 . .050 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .042 0. . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Monel Solid Rivets in Dimpled Stainless Steel Sheet Rivet Type . . .. . . . 973 1382 . . . .. 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 1/8 5/32 3/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . 336 . . . ... . 0. .. . .

.. . . 217 . . . . .. . . . 0. 0. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . .. 324 430 ...b Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . .050 . .025 . 0. . 474 568 596 . .. . . . . 388 . 462 722 596 839 . . .. . . . .. . .: 0. . .159) (0. . . .. Rivet Diameter. 410 525 . . . . . . ... . . . . 0. . . . . .... . . . . . . d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0.. 596 . . Head height (max. . . . .. 257 315 367 . .. . . . . Sheet gage is that of the thinnest sheet for double dimpled joints and of the upper dimpled sheet for dimpled. . .. . .. in. 462 596 . . . . . .055 ... . in. ... . . . . . ..1285) 2024-T86 7075-T6 5/32 (0.070 . . .. . . . . lbs.. . . .. .. .1. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. 0. . . . . . . .. . . . . In no case shall allowables be obtained by extrapolation for gages other than those shown. . 862 . . . . .042 . . . . . . . . .. . . b Test data from which the yield strengths listed were derived and can be found in Reference 8. . 0.020 . . . . . . .055 . . .159) 2024-T62 2024-T81 1/8 (0. . . . .. .. . . .. 512 644 757 0. .. ...1. . . ... . . .. . . 257 315 367 .. . ..2(c). . . . . 0.1. . . c Rivet shear strength from Table 8. .. . . . . .) .. .025 .. . . . . .. . . . .2. .. . .020 . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. .. . . . .. . . . .. 299 360 388 . . 0. . . 0.. . ..005 inch or 2. . . ..159) 3/16 (0.. .1285) MS20426AD (Fsu = 30 ksi) 2024-T3 2024-T42 5/32 (0. .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. . . .2.. . . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . .. .. . 0. . Rivet shear strengthc .. . . .. . 2024-T3 2024-T42 2024-T62 2024-T81 3/32 1/8 (0. . . ... . . . .. Sheet thickness.. .. . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter.. . . . 0. 0. 324 430 506 . ..036 . . . .040 . .. 0. . . .016 . .. . .. .. . .2(b). . . . . . . . . .. lbs. . . .. . .. . .. . ...032 . . . .. . . . machine-countersunk joints... . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Aluminum Alloy (2117-T3) Solid Rivets in Dimpled Aluminum a. . . . . .032 . . . 388 . . .191) (0. . ..2. 725 862 . . . . .). . . . . . .. . .055 .. ... ... . . 0. 0. .Table 8. 512 644 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 725 862 .. Sheet thickness. .. . .042 . . in.. .191) Ultimate Strength. . . in. .. . . .. ... in. .. . . 302 383 388 . . . . . 596 . .040 . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. .070 . . .050 ..070 a These allowables apply to double dimpled sheets and to the upper sheet dimpled into a machine-countersunk lower sheet. . . . . .096) (0. . . . 862 177 209 217 ..: 0. . . 862 596 Yield Strengthd. .016 . . . . .. . . . Sheet Material . . ... . . . ... . . . The thickness of machine-countersunk sheet must be at least one tabulated gage thicker than the upper sheet. . .. . .. . . . . .191) 3/16 5/32 3/16 (0.. 640 782 . . . 862 8-17 154 184 209 . . . . .. .5% of nominal diameter. . 0.

. . ... . ..040 . . .1. .159) 3/16 (0. . . . .. . .070 . 0.: 0. in. 681 905 1090 . . . .. ... . . In no case shall allowables be obtained by extrapolation for gages other than those shown. . . . . . . . . . . ... ..080 . ... 0. . lbs. . . ... 0. 0. . . . . 822 1000 1090 . . .. . . . 705 867 1007 . .. . . .. . . . . 978 1508 1803 1930 1970 0. . . in. . . . ... . . . . .070 .. . .. . . .040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5% of nominal diameter. . . . . 0.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 755 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 730 888 .. .. d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . .b Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . . . .025 . .. Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . . .2(d). . ... .. . . a These allowables apply to double dimpled sheets and to the upper sheet dimpled into a machine-countersunk lower sheet. . . . . .. . . 1108 1508 1803 1930 1970 1970 8-18 Yield Strength ..050 . . . . lbs. . . . ...095 c MS20426D (Fsu = 38 ksi) 2024-T3 and 2024-T42 5/32 (0. . . ..191) 1/4 (0. . .050 . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . in.: 0. . . . .. . . . . . . . .257) Ultimate Strength. ..2. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . 1090 . . ... .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . .. .1. . . . .. .. . in. . ... . 1090 . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 0.025 . . . . . .071 . Head height (max.063 . . Rivet shear strength . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . . . .. 0. . . . . . . .. . .) .1. .. . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ..... .. . . . .257) 2024-T86 and 7075-T6 5/32 (0. . . . .257) 2024-T62 and 2024-T81 5/32 (0.. . . .. . . . . . Sheet gage is that of the thinnest sheet for double dimpled joints and of the upper dimpled sheet for dimpled. .. . . .. in. . . . . 0. . . . .055 .055 . . Rivet Diameter. .. . . . . .. . . .Table 8. . . . . . .005 inch or 2.. . . . . . . . . . 546 730 888 . .191) 1/4 (0. 755 . . . . .191) 1/4 (0. . . . 845 1187 1415 1656 1870 0. . . . . . . . . The thickness of machine-countersunk sheet must be at least one tabulated gage thicker than the upper sheet. . .. ... . . . . . . c Rivet shear strength from Table 8. . . . . .. . . 845 1187 1415 1656 1870 0. . . . . .. Sheet Material .. .. . .. 681 905 1090 . . . . . b Test data from which the yield strengths listed were derived and can be found in Reference 8. . .095 336 483 589 681 . . . 0.. . . . . . machine-countersunk joints. . . 0. . . .2(b). . . . . . 1090 d . . . . .095 450 581 675 ..071 .. .. 0. . . . 0. .032 . 1108 1508 1803 1930 1970 1970 419 600 738 755 . . .. . .. 755 . .080 . . . . . . ... .. . 419 600 738 755 .. . .).. . .... . .. Sheet thickness. . . . .055 . 0. . . . 0.159) 3/16 (0. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . .2. ... . . . . ... . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Aluminum Alloy (2017-T3) Solid Rivets in Dimpled Aluminum a.. . .. 336 483 589 681 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2..070 . . . . . . . . . . .032 . . . 845 1332 1695 1853 1970 1970 530 672 755 . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. ... . . .063 .159) 3/16 (0. . . . . 0. . . 0..

2. . . . . . . . . .. ...071 .) . ... .. . 0. . . . 2024-T3 2024-T42 3/16 (0. .. . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . 1175 . 962 1308 1564 1711 . .5% of nominal diameter. . . . .257) (0. . . . .050 . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthc . .. . . . . . . 978 1543 1958 2125 . 1300 1705 2010 2125 . . . . . . . . .071 . . . .. . . . . . . . d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . . . . . . . in. lbs. . . 8-19 ..070 . . .191) 1/4 (0.: 0. ... . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . .040 . .090 . . . . .050 . . In no case shall allowables be obtained by extrapolation for gages other than those shown. .. . . . . .090 . . .063 . . . ..191) 1/4 MS20426DD (Fsu = 41 ksi) 2024-T62 2024-T81 3/16 (0. . . . . . . . 0. . in. . . .. . . . 0. .. . . . . . . Head height (max. . . . . . . 0.. . . .1. .1. . . . 0. .). machine-countersunk joints. Sheet thickness. . 0. 0. 0. . 0.. .040 . . . . . .. . .095 649 816 961 1068 .. .. . . .. . ... . . .. . . . ..191) 1/4 (0. .. 1300 1705 2010 2125 . . . . . .. . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Aluminum Alloy (2024-T31) Solid Rivets in Dimpled Aluminum Alloy Sheeta. . . .2(b). . .. ..080 .b Rivet Type . . . . lbs. .. . 0.. . . . . 0.070 . 1175 . . . ... b Test data from which the yield strengths listed were derived and can be found in Reference 8.. . 0. . . . . 744 941 1110 1175 . . . . . 879 1308 1564 1711 1928 2121 0... . . .. . 0. . . . .. . . . . . . 0. . Rivet Diameter. . . Sheet thickness. . . . .032 . . .2.. . .. . . . .. . . Sheet Material . . . . . .. .. . . 2125 786 982 1152 1175 . 0. . .005 inch or 2. . . . . . . . ... . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.: 0. . .2(e).080 . . .. . . . . . . in.063 . .. The thickness of machine-countersunk sheet must be at least one tabulated gage thicker than the upper sheet. . c Rivet shear strength from Table 8. 2125 Yield Strengthd. . . .095 a These allowables apply to double dimpled sheets and to the upper sheet dimpled into a machine-countersunk lower sheet. . . . . . . . .2. . .070 . .. Sheet gage is that of the thinnest sheet for double dimpled joints and of the upper dimpled sheet for dimpled.. . . . . . . . . . .. ..257) 2024-T86 7075-T6 3/16 (0. . .. in. (Nominal Hole Diameter.. . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . .032 . . 582 666 738 925 . . .. ..095 786 982 1152 1175 . . 0. 1175 . 879 1359 1727 1883 2025 2125 2125 786 982 1152 1175 . . .. .1. . . . . . .257) Ultimate Strength. . 0. ..

in.191) 1/4 (0. . . . . ....080 .125 .. . . .. 705 739 769 795 818 853 . . 0. . . .2(f). . . .. . . .. ..055 . 859b 917b 969b 1015 1054 1090 .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .... .. . . 309 340 363 373 . .. . .. . .2. . ..063 ... . . .. . .. .. .. 1090 c . in.. ... ... . . . . .. .. . . . ... . ... . Rivet shear strengthd .... . . . . . 0. .. . . . . ...040 ... . 0. 471 538 616 685 745 836 . . . 0. . .191) 1/4 (0. ... 0. .. ... . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. lbs 178 193 206 216 . . ..159) 3/16 (0. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. ...042 . 0... 0.. . ... .080 . .. . . . 1647b 1738b 1877 2000 2084 2125 c 657b 690 720 746 . . . .5% of nominal diameter. . .. (Nominal Hole Diameter. 596 c . . .. . ... ... .. . . . . . . .. . 0. . . . . . 862 c . . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . 614 669 761 842 913 1021 . . . . .070 . ... ... . . .095 .2. . . . . . .. . . . Rivet Diameter. . . .: 0... . ... .. . . . .090 . . . . 755 Yield Strengtha.. . 515 557 623 746 854 1018 . in.. 0.. . . . .032 .. . .. . .e.. in. . 321 402 453 498 537 . .. .1285) (0. . . . .... . . . . . . . . . .071 . . . . .070 . 0.. ... .1.. 231 261 321 348 . . . 0... . . . 0.095 a Test data from which the yield and ultimate strength listed were derived can be found in Reference 8. .160 .. . ... . ... . . . . . 0. .. ..040 . .036 . . . . . .050 . .. .. 0. 886 942 992 1035 1073 1131 . . . .. . . . . . .1. . .. .. . .071 . ..... . lbs 132 153 188 213 . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . .2. 1053 1115 1357 1694 1925 0. . . .. . 479 523 542 560 575 . . . 0. . . .096) MS20426AD (2117-T3) (Fsu = 30 ksi) MS20426D (2017-T3) (Fsu = 38 ksi) Clad 2024-T42 1/8 5/32 3/16 5/32 (0.. .. 217 c . . . . .. 345 401 481 562 633 . 3/32 (0. . . e Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . . . .. 8-20 . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value.005 inch or 2. . . . . . .. . 0. . . . .. .. . . .. .... . . . . . .. . . .. . . ..) Sheet thickness.090 . ..100 . .. . . . . 0. . . . ....... . .. . . . . Sheet thickness.063 .. .257) MS20426DD (2024-T31) (Fsu = 41 ksi) Ultimate Strengtha.. . . . . . .. ... ... . . . . 0. . . 861 1017 1313 1574 1753 0. . . Sheet Material . . . . .. . . 1175 c .. .. . d Rivet shear strength is documented in MS20426. .. . .. .... . .. . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Aluminum Alloy Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .159) (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..). . . .. . . 580 b c . . . . .. ... .032 . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency.. . . 0. . . . . in. . .. . . .. . . . . 0. . . . . . . .. .160 . . . . . . .. .070 .. . Head height (ref. . .. . .. .050 . . . . 0. . ..191) (0. . . .. 0. . .. . . . .. . ... . .: 0. . . 1552b 1640b 1773 1891 1970 1970 c .. .. . . .... . . .. . 0. .. . . 388 c . . .. . . . . .055 . 0.. . .... .. .. ... . .. . ..125 .. . . .. .. . . . . .. .190 . . . 0. .... .. . . .. .257) 3/16 (0. . . . ..190 . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. . .. . 0. ... . . .

. . . . .. .. . ... . . (Nominal Hole Diameter.. in..036 . .005 inch or 2. . .050 . . .. .. . . ..063 . . Sheet thickness.. . . . .. . .. .032 . . . 0. .. 802 1/4 (0. .. . . .. The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. in. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . ... . . b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . .. . . . . 0. . 1244 1271 1343 1440 1450 1450 b 104 127 152 186 . . . . .040 . . . . . 0. . 0. . . . 0. . . . . 0. 0. . in. . 0. . 0. . . .: 0.. . Sheet thickness. . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .190 . . . 0. .. . . .. . ...: 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... in. . . . . . . 268 334 369 406 450 491 556 . . . 8-21 . . . . . . .. . in. . . b 467a b 490 503 519 536 554 556 . . . . . . . . 0.. .. . ..... . . 0. lbs . . . . .190 . .. . .090 .042 . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 409 459 504 555 606 735 . . .100 ... 556 Yield Strengthd. . . . . . . . . . . ...1285) (0. . 0. . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . 0. . . 0. . .. . . . .. . . . 0. . . .. . .. . . . . lbs .... . . . .. . . . . ... . . Rivet Diameter. . . . . ..125 . . .. 203 b b .. . 363 . . .050 . . . .. 0. . . . .. . . . 0. . . . . . .. ..090 . . 3/32 (0. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .160 .071 . . . . .. . . . . . . . c Rivet shear strength is documented in MS20426. .125 . .159) (0.. . . . .070 .160 ... . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.032 .. . . . . .. . .055 . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . ... .. 0. . . . . .5% of nominal diameter. . . .. . . . . .080 .063 . . . . . .. . . . . . Rivet shear strengthc .071 . . .191) Ultimate Strength.... . . . . . . . . . 304a 318 337 348 360 363 . . .095 a Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value.. . Head height (ref. . .1. .. .. .2(g). . . . . . . . . . . . 679a 697a 715 737 757 802 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 172 214 259 287 318 353 . .. . . . . . . 0.080 . . . .040 . . . . .. . . .... . . .. . .2. . .. . .). . . . . 792 856 1030 1273 1450 0. . . .. . .. 0. . . .. . .096) MS20426B (Fsu = 28 ksi) AZ31B-H24 1/8 5/32 3/16 (0. . .) . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Aluminum Alloy (5056-H321) Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Magnesium Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . .100 ... .. . . . . ..... . 0. . . . . . .. Sheet Material . .257) 172a 180 190 203 . . . . . . ... . ..

. 818 . . . . .. . . . . ... . . .. ... . . . . .5% of nominal diameter. . 0. . . . . . .: 0... . . .005 inch or 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-22 . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. .. . . .. . . . .. . . . a 885 . . . .. .. . . . . . Sheet thickness. . 0. . .. 933 1130 1268 1400 . . . . 0. . . ... . .. . . . . . . .. 973 1400 Yield Strengthc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Monel Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Titanium Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. Ftu = 80 ksi 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 (0.. .191) (0. . . . . . . . . 0.. ..090 . . . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness.. . . . . . . .. . . in. (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . .160 . . .). . . . . . 0. . Rivet Diameter. . . . . . .159) (0.. . . 0. . . . in. 0.125 . . 1360 . .. ..... . . . . . . . .090 . . . . . 635 .160 .048 . . . . .. . . . Sheet Material . . .050 . . . . .. . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . 0. . . . .125 . . .080 .1. . . . .. . . 926 1242 973 1302 . c Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . . . . . . . 1400 . . . .. Head height (max. in. . . . .) . .. . . . . .080 . ... . . . . MS20427M (Fsu = 49 ksi) Commercially Pure Titanium. . . . . . . .040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .061 . . . . . 0. . .050 . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .1285) (0. . . . 0. . .040 . . . . . . . . . . . .071 . . . lbs 531 573 626 635 . . . . . . .. . . .. 0. . . . . . . .. .077 . . . . .100 . .. . .. . . Rivet shear strengthb . . . . 2260 2460 2540 2540 a a a 376 472 598 635 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .063 . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .071 . .103 a Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. .: 0. 0. ...063 .. . .. 0. in. . . . . . .. .. .. . . . 1860 2340 2540 0. . . in. . . . . .. . . . . . . . lbs . . . . .. . .. 0. . .. 0. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 582 736 835 945 . . . .257) Ultimate Strength. .. . . . . b Rivet shear strength is documented in MS20427. 0. .. . . . ... . .. . .2. . . . .. . .. .2(h). .. . . .. . 0. . .. .. . . .. .. . .100 . . . 0. . . . . . . .

. . . . .0975. . . . .032 . . . 0. .2(b) and Fsu = 38 ksi. . .125 . . . 9. . . .. .. . ... . .. 367 465 585 741 755 . . .096) BRFS-Da (Fsu = 38 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 1/8 5/32 3/16 (0.. .. . . . . .1285. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Material . . . .4. . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. Fasteners installed in hole diameters of 0. . .. . ..1615. .. . . .: 0. a b c d 3/32 (0. .. . . . .001. . . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . .. 0. . ..080 . .1285) (0. 547 680 814 857 914 . . . . . . .. .020 .. . Sheet thickness. .: 0.. . in. . . . . . 0. 0.. . . Sheet thickness. . . . . .071 . . 0. . 494 . . . .080 . . . . . . .. 0. . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . 0. . . .. . . . . ... . . . .. +0. . . . . . . . .025 . 0. . . 0.. . .1. -0. . in. . . . . .. . 918 1149 1295 1430 1513 1592 1790 0. 0. ... . . . . .. .. . . . . . . 1090 1/4 (0. .. 0. . . . . . . .. ... . .. .. . 0. .032 . ..030 . . . . 0. ... . . . respectively.. .191) Ultimate Strength. .050 . . . . . . . in.040 . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . Shear strength based on Table 8. . . .040 .3). . . . . . .049 Data supplied by Briles Rivet Corp. .. . . .1.100 . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ..090 . .. 0.. . 0... . . . . 0. . .0005. .3.)b .. .. . . 0. . . . . . .. in. . . . . . . . . .. . Rivet Diameter. . 930 1182 1338 1513 1711 1902 1970 1970 137 171 207 231 . . . . . .257) 139 176 226 275 . . . .... . . .2. .. . . . 275 . .. . . .. . .. . 359 453 550 614 655 . . . . .. . .090 . . .. . . . . . . .1.050 . . . . .. . .063 . . . . . . ... . . . . 0. . . . .. .. . .. . .. . . . . . 0... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 0. . . .. . .020 . . . 0. .125 . . . . .. .039 .257. ... .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. Static Joint Strength of 120° Flush Shear Head Aluminum Alloy (2017-T3) Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . .159) (0.063 . . . . 0. .. . . 229 294 357 398 451 . . 233 300 378 477 494 . . . . . . .1945. . 0. . . 0. .. . . Head height (ref. .. .. . .. .2(i).. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. Rivet shear strengthc . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 552 697 886 1005 1090 . . . . . 755 Yield Strengthd. .018 . . . . . . ... . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . .025 . . . . . . . 0. . .. . . ..071 .. .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . lbs ... .. . 0. . . .. ... lbs . 0. . ..023 . . . . . . .. . . .100 . in. . .). . .. . . . 8-23 . .

. .. . .159) (0.. 316 386 451 536 596 . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . .032 ... in. . . . . .). 0.. . . ... .. -0. . . . . . .1.020 .. . .. . a b c d 3/32 (0. . . . . . .1615. .. . . . . . .020 . ...0975. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .023 . . . . 0. .1.. 0. . . . .001. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 0. . . . . 0. . 0.. . .. . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . ... . .063 . . 0.. . . . . . . . . . . +0. . Shear strength based on Table 8. . . . .100 . . 217 . . .. . . . Sheet thickness. . . . .. . .. 0. . . . . .100 . ... . . 862 1/4 (0. . 316 386 451 536 596 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Sheet Material . .. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . . ... 0.. .. . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 120° Flush Shear Head Aluminum Alloy (2117-T3) Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . 0. . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 0. . . 474 571 675 737 812 862 . . . ..... in. lbs . . .. . . 0. . . Sheet thickness. . . .0005.018 . .2(j). .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. .)b .. Rivet shear strengthc .: 0. . . . .. Head height (ref. .. . . . . .. . . . Rivet Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... . . . . . . .. .. . lbs . . . . .. . . . .. . . .063 . . 0. .2. . .3).071 . . 0.. . . .3. . . . . . . . .257. . 0. 9. . . . Fasteners installed in hole diameters of 0.050 . .. ..071 ..080 . . . . . . . .032 . . . .. 0. ... . . .1. . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . .. 388 . . . 201 250 292 343 388 . . .2(b) and Fsu = 38 ksi. . .. . . .. . . 0. 201 250 292 343 388 . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . .. . 0. 0. . .. .039 . . in... .096) BRFS-ADa (Fsu = 30 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 1/8 5/32 3/16 (0. .... . . 806 987 1073 1169 1278 1371 1550 0. . . . . . . . . .. . 0. . . .050 . . . . . . . .. . . 596 Yield Strengthd. . . . . .4. ..191) Ultimate Strength. . 0...1285) (0. . .. . . . . .125 .. . . .1945.025 . . . . 806 987 1073 1169 1278 1371 1550 1550 119 144 171 204 217 . .030 . . .. in. 474 571 675 737 812 862 . . 0.. . . . 8-24 . . . .. . . 0.... . 0. . . .: 0. . . . .. ..040 . . in. . .080 . . .. ... . . . 0. . . .257) 119 144 171 204 217 .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . .. 0.125 . .090 . ..1285. . . . . . . . . .025 . . . .. respectively.090 . . .. . . .049 Data supplied by Briles Rivet Corp. . . . . . 0. .

.090 . .080 .. . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthc . .1. . . . . .1. . . . . . .049 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . . .040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1935 and 0.257. .. .191) Ultimate Strength. . . . . . . . . . in. . Rivet Diameter. . . . 8-25 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. in. . in. . 1180 Yield Strengthd. . Fasteners installed in hole diameters of 0.. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .0005.050 . . . . in. . . . . . . . ..3). .063 . . .. . . . . .: 0. . . . a b c d BRFS-DDa (Fsu = 41 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 3/16 (0. . . . lbs 598 772 949 1000 1060 . . . Head height (ref. . 0. . . 0. 0.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . lbs 598 772 994 1130 1180 . .039 . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .050 .2. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ±0. . Static Joint Strength of 120° Flush Shear Head Aluminum Alloy (2024-T31) Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . Shear strength based on Table 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . in. 0. . . . .100 .1. 0. .090 . . . Sheet Material . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . 0.063 . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . .: 0. .071 . . . . . . . 9. . . . 1000 1300 1480 1690 1920 2120 2120 1/4 (0. . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . .080 . . .100 . . . . . .071 . .). . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2(k). . . .. . . . . . 0. . . . . . .2(b) and Fsu = 41 ksi. . . . . . . . . . . . .257) Data supplied by Briles Rivet Corp. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . .)b . 1000 1300 1480 1680 1760 1850 0. .

161 and 0. . . . . . . . . . . 671 967 1330 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . in. . . .. . .030 0. . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . . . 687 996 1370 .4. . . . . . 1050 1450 . Head height (ref. . 1050 1420 0. . . 687 1050 1520 687 1050 1520 Rivet shear strengthc . . 577 713 858 602 867 1190 0. . . . 9. . respectively.. . .. . Yield Strengthd. . . . .. in.. .. . . .. . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . .: 0. ... . .. . .100 . . . . . . . . . . d Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (Ref. . 671 967 1330 . . . .3. . . . .. .. . .1285) (0.2(l).040 .032 . 687 996 1370 ..039 a Data supplied by Briles Rivet Corp. 461 572 685 564 796 952 0.0005. . . . 577 713 858 602 867 1190 0. . . 649 939 1300 687 1005 1360 0.025 . 610 891 1080 650 927 1270 0.090 . .159) (0.. .. .023 0. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .023 0. . . 610 891 1080 650 927 1270 0. 369 456 . .3).1935 ±0. . . . .. . . . . . .. .. .1. . . . . . .1285) (0. .. .191) (0. . in.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . 628 914 1220 680 964 1310 0. . .: 0. except 5/32 and 3/16 diameters were 0. 0. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . Static Joint Strength of 120° Flush Shear Head Ti-45 Cb Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy and Titanium Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . . . .. .050 .. . . . . . .. 513 635 .125 .. 1520 . 1470 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .090 .125 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 1050 1420 0. . . .. . 1050 1450 . . . .. 8-26 . . . . . . 288 . . . . . . 649 939 1300 687 1005 1360 0.063 . . . . . . .). . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . . . 288 . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .191) Ultimate Strength. .. . . . . .160 . . . .063 . . . . .2.. . . .. . . . . . . 1520 . . ..040 . .. .032 . Clad 7075-T6 Annealed Ti-6Al-4V Rivet Diameter. .159) (0. . .030 0. . . . . 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/8 5/32 3/16 (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . . . 628 914 1220 680 964 1310 0. in. . . . 400 . . .. . . . .)b (0. . . . . .. . BRFS-Ta (Fsu = 53 ksi) Sheet Material . . .080 ... . . . . 1520 0. . . lbs Sheet thickness. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 .. . . . .1. . . . 0. . .025 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... ... 0.080 . . . . .. . . 1520 0. . .. . . . . . . 513 635 . b Allowables developed from tests with hole diameters noted. 0. .2(b) and Fsu = 53 ksi. . lbs Sheet thickness. .. . . . . . . .1. c Rivet shear strength based on Table 8. . . . . . .. .050 .071 . .039 0. . . . .071 . in. . . . 369 456 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 1470 0. . .. 461 572 685 564 796 952 0. .100 . . . . .160 . . . . . . . .

307 346 . . . . . 487 601 721 806 . . . . . . . . ..190 . . . . .. . 3/16. . 1230 1735 2140 2650 0. . . . c 0. . .. . .. . .061 0. .160 . . . . . . .290) Ultimate Strength. . 1755 2230 2810 0. ... . . . . . . . ..027 0.. . .. . . 558 827 1140 1565 1735 1835 0.. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 508 673 732 806 .. . .2(b) and Fsu = 43 ksi.050 . 1630 1930 2320 2725 3205 3400 3525 3525 c .. . .. . . 552 803 1030 1225 1377 1530 0. . . . . . . in. .. . .080 . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (Ref. . . .2.. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . ...3.090 . .4. .257) (0.090 . . . . .... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . and 0. . . .. . . . .. . ... 536 760 912 1085 1200 1285 0. .)b (0. .032 .035 0. . .. . .. . .025 . .. . . . . . . . . lbs Sheet thickness. . . . . .. ..080 . . . . . . . . . . .. . .).040 . . . . . . .190 . . . . . ... .100 .160 . . . . . .069 5/16 (0... . . . . .053 0. b Allowables developed from tests with hole diameters noted. . .044 0. . . . .. . . . . . . . ..040 . . . . . .. . . . . . .2(m). . . . ... . . 0. . . . .. .. 0.. . . . . 0. . . 1630 1930 2200 2445 3060 3400 3525 0. . . . 558 827 1140 1385 1554 1755 0.. . . 554 803 1110 1365 1445 1530 0. 1205 1645 1950 2200 0. .1935.071 . . .. . .. . . . 0.. . . .063 . . .125 . . . 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 9/32 (Nominal Hole Diameter. . .. c 0.077 a Data supplied by Briles Rivet Corp. . ... 854 1175 1560 1750 1970 0. . . . . MS14218Ea (Fsu = 43 ksi) Sheet Material . .. 536 781 1045 1135 1200 1285 0. .228) (0. .. . . .. . . .. in.. . . . . . . . d Shear strength based on Table 8. . .1285) (0. .. ... c 0. . Static Joint Strength of 120° Flush Shear Head Aluminum Alloy (7050-T731) Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . .: 0. 2840 Rivet shear strengthd . . . . . 558 854 1230 1755 2230 2840 e Yield Strength ..1. .. .. . . . . .. .. ... . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. .. 1230 1740 2140 2650 0. . . . . 854 1175 1605 1990 2200 0... 2840 Head height (ref. . . . . . . ... 9. . . .. . . ... . . .063 .. . . .323) c . . . respectively. . . . in. .. . 1205 1645 2030 2525 0. 215 . . . . . 388 478 529 . . . . .3). . . 0... c 0. 8-27 .. ..050 . . . . . . . .. . .032 . . .. . . . . . 0. ... .. . . .. .. . .. .100 . .. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . Clad 2024-T3 Rivet Diameter.. . . .. . . . . .. and 5/16 diameters were 0. . . . 434 478 529 . .. .125 . . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency... .001 inch... . . . . . . . . . . . . ..191) (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1755 2230 2820 0.1. . . ... 215 . . . . . Hole tolerances were +0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . .. . . . .. . . except 5/32. in. . .. . . . . . . .161. . . . . .. . .: 0. .. . . . . . in. . .. . ..0005-0. lbs Sheet thickness. . .316.1. . . . . .. . . . . .. 307 346 .071 . . .. . . .025 . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . .. . ... . . .. . .159) (0. .

.. . . . . .190 . in. .4. . . . ..: 0.). . . . . . . 398 538 674 767 398 572 724 894 0. . . . . . 2110 . . . .046 0. . .. . . NAS1097-Ea (Fsu = 41 ksi) Sheet Material . .. . . . . .. ... . . .. . . . . . . . 0.1. . . . .. . 814 1130 1905 0. lbs Sheet thickness. . .1.160 . .. . . . . .. . 2125 Head height (ref. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . 531 781 1085 1870 531 774 1070 1825 0. . . . . . . . 1175 2030 . ... . ... . . . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . 0. . . .2. 283 311 . . . respectively. 2050 0.. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Aluminum Alloy (7050-T73) Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . .. . ... b Fasteners installed in hole diameters of 0. . . 372 475 542 . . . . . lbs Sheet thickness. . . .032 . . . 349 439 479 . . . . . . .050 . . . 2125 .. . . . . . . . .. c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. .. . . . . . . ..190 . 466 679 773 908 456 674 823 1120 0. . .. . .130. . . . . . . . . . .. . .071 . Clad 2024-T3 Clad 7075-T6 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 Nominal Rivet Diameter. 507 747 1045 1750 505 734 1020 1760 0. . . . .. .. . . . . . c c 367 . .2(n). . . ... ... ... . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .158. 521 765 1065 1840 520 754 1045 1790 0. . .1285) (0.. . 531 781 1065 1595 525 729 976 1595 0. . .. .029 0. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . 814 1135 1935 ...3. . ..257) (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . .025 .. . . . .. . . . .090 .071 . . . . . . . .. . 222 . in. 497 665 857 1310 451 638 867 1400 0. 497 731 1025 1500 490 716 999 1570 0. . . . . . ...025 .100 . . . . ..1. .100 .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . 507 720 921 1400 474 666 900 1490 0. 0. The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . 521 765 995 1500 499 698 938 1540 0. . . .060 0. . 0.. . .. . 307 356 . . . . . .1285) (0. .3).063 . .040 . .. . . . . . ..037 0. . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . 531 814 1175 2125 531 814 1175 2125 e Yield Strength . . . . .040 . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 439 547 c 661 . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . .063 . . . . . 354 441 . ... .090 . d Shear strength based on Table 8. . . .. . . . . . 2115 0. . 1175 2020 0. . .. ... . .2(b) and Fsu = 41 ksi.. . . . . .. . 192 .. . . ..125 . . .159) (0. . . . .. . . . . . . .. ..191... . in. 2125 Rivet shear strengthd . . . ..257) (0. 462 617 799 1105 431 612 836 1205 0. . . . . . . . . .. . .080 . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (Ref. . . . . . 437 505 c 561 c c 0.037 0.250 . . .. . . .159) (0. . 8-28 . . .003 inch. . 485 717 1005 1275 477 700 980 1330 c 0. . . 2125 . . . . . .. ..191) (0. . .254 ± 0. 2110 . . ... . . . . . .. . . .125 . . . . .029 0. . 808 1070 1720 0. .: 0. . 1175 2030 . .. . .... . ... 278 .060 a Data supplied by Lockheed-Georgia Company. 9. .050 . . .)b Ultimate Strength. .. . .. . . . . . . ....160 . . .. .. . . 227 . .. 326 . . .250 . . . . .. . . . 0. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175 1895 0. .080 .... . . . . . . ..032 . . 0. . . and 0. 814 1135 1835 . .. . . .191) (0.. . .. in. . . . . . . . . . . .046 0. in. . . . . . ... ..

.... .159) (0.090 . .025 . . . . . . 0. . . . . ... . 842 1125 1290 0. . . . . . 0. . . 1225 1480 0. .096) (0.. . . . . . . 388 588 751 910 1040 0.. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . 388 574 733 910 1040 0. . 188 263 334 . .. ...098. . . .. 188 263 334 . . . 5/32.. . lbs Sheet thickness.. .. . . . . .2. . . ..). . . . . . . .. . . . 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 (Nominal Hole Diameter. . 0. c 0.040 . . 1555 Head height (ref. .. . .. .: 0. . .. . .. . . .. .061 a Data supplied by Briles Rivet Corp. . . . . . . . . and 3/16 diameters were 0.. except 3/32. . . . . .. . . . . . . .257) Ultimate Strength. .. .022 0.. . .. . . . . .. .125 . . . .040 . . . . . . ... . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (Ref. . .. . .. . . . ... . .001 inch. . . . . .. . Supersedes page 8-29 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-29 . . . 1555 d Rivet shear strength . . . . . . 0. . . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. ... . . ... . and 0. . .. . . 216 322 408 498 .. .. 217 388 596 862 1225 1555 e Yield Strength . b Load allowables developed from tests with hole diameters noted. .3.. . . . . . . . . Hole tolerance was +0. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . in.1285) (0. ..020 . . . . .050 .. .080 . . . . . .125 . . ..1935. . . . . . .080 . 125 . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8.: 0. .. . . . .. . .. . .1. . . . .. . .. 125c . . . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . MS14218ADa (Fsu = 30 ksi) Sheet Material . . . . . . .. ..228) (0. .. . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H. lbs Sheet thickness. . . .. . . . .1. .. .. . . . .. . . ...044 0.. . 217 370 492 609 740 849 0. . .. . d Shear strength based on Table 8. .050 . . . . . . ... c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . ... . 596 794 1005 1155 0. .2(b) and Fsu = 30 ksi... . . . .. . .... .. . . .4. . 216 319 408 498 . . . .020 . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . .. . . . . . . c 0.. . .025 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .161. .191) (0.063 . . . . .1.100 . . ..071 ... . 862 1205 1425 0. 0.. . . . 0. . . .. ... . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . .0005-0. . . 153 212 . . . . . ..090 . . . . . . . . . 862 1180 1380 0. .100 .032 . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 120E Flush Shear Head Aluminum Alloy (2117-T3) Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . in. .. . . . in.. .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . .3). . . . ..071 . . ..053 0. . . . . .2(o). 1225 1520 0. c 0.. .. 596 817 1015 1155 0. . . . . . . .032 . in. . .. . .. ... . . . respectively. . . .. . in. . . .. . . . .063 . . .. . . . 9. . . . . . . ..027 0. . . . 842 1090 1275 0. c 0.035 0. .)b (0. 217 380 498 609 740 849c 0. .. . . . .. Clad 2024-T3 Rivet Diameter. . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. 153 212 . .. . . . .. . . .

. 527 728 788 823 833 .. . . .. 1625 1875 2145 2200 .. 0.040 .. . 819 979 1100 1165 1190 .. . . .. . 0.. 0. . ... . . . . Hole tolerances were + 0. 0. . . .1935.. . . . . 2020 2580 2840 .. .. . .. . .. . . . .. 0. . . . . 0. .... . . . .. ..077 .2. . respectively. . . . 0.. . .. ... .. .. The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency.. . . . .. in. . . . ..).. . . . b Load allowables developed from tests with hole diameters noted. ...228) 1/4 (0. . 0..523) Ultimate Strength.050 .2(b) and Fsu = 43 ksi. . .191) 7/32 (0. . . 0. 0... .. ... . .. . . . . .2(p). . .... . . . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . .. ... . . . 311 c .100 . . . . .. . . . . .. . 0. . . . . .032 .: 0. . . . . . .032 . . . 2840 . . . .. . . . . 8-30 . 527 743 788 834 854 . . . . .. . . ... 0. . .. . . . . . . .080 . . .090 .. ... lbs 210 277 301 309 .. ..041 . .. 0. ... .. . . .. . d Rivet shear strength based on Table 8. 819 979 1105 1165 1230 . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . .... . . .. ... .. . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. .160 . . . .. . .257) 9/32 (0. . .... . 0. .. . . .. ..100 . . ..190 . . 0. . . . . . ..104 a Data supplied by Briles Rivet Corp. . . . and 0... 339 473 538 558 .. .. . . .. . 588 c .. Head height (ref.. . ... . ... . 0. . . . 3/16.. . . Static Joint Strength of 120° Flush Tension Type Head Aluminum Alloy (7050-T731) Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . in. 0. .. . 0. .. .. . . . 2020 2580 2765 ..159) MS14219 Ea (Fsu = 43 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 3/16 (0. ... . .. . .. 2120 2965 3415 3525 3525 c Yield Strengthe. . . . 0. ... . . .040 . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . ...161.. Sheet Material . 3/32 (0. .316. . .. 339 468 538 543 . . .4. Rivet shear strengthd . . . . . . .160 .. .071 . . .. 1625 1890 2145 2230 . .. .. . . . 1755 c . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . .... . .3). .. 9. ... . . . . ... . .090 .. .. . .090 .. . .071 . . 0. . . . .. . and 5/16 diameter were 0. .068 ... e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (Ref. . . . . except 5/32.. -0. . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .... . . ..)b Sheet thickness. . . . .190 .. .3.. . ... . 0. . .. . . . . ..125 .. .034 ... ...1285) 5/32 (0. REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. . 0. Sheet thickness. . . . .1.063 . . .. .. .. .... .. .. 1065 1280 1490 1605 1705 .. . 0. .... . .. . . . . . ...100 . .096) 1/8 (0.080 . .. . . .001 inch.. . . . lbs 210 279 310 311 . . . . . .. . ..: 0. . . . .0005. .. .....063 .. . . .. . . . . . .... . ..1. .050 . . . . . . 2120 2945 3390 3455 0.. .. .. . ...290) 5/16 (0.125 .. . ..... ... . in. 1065 1280 1520 1605 1755 .1. 854 c . 0. . . . .. .. in. 2230 c . . . . . 0.... . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . 1230 c . . . . . . . ... . . . ... . ...... .. .. . 0. .. .. Rivet Diameter. .. . 0. . . 0. . . in.. .053 ... . . .

. except 3/32. . ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . ... . .. .1.. . .. d Rivet shear strength based on Table 8.. ...071 .. 8-31 . . . . .. . . and 5/16 diameters were 0. 0. . . .. .068 . . 455 522 550 . .077 . 0.. .. 2230 2565 2740 2840 2840 Yield Strengthe. ... . ...159) MS14219 Ea (Fsu = 43 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 3/16 (0.. . . . . .098. . 311 c . .. . ... . . . . .. . . . .. .. .. .. . . 0. ..)b Sheet thickness. .. ... . . . Rivet shear strengthd .... . 0. . . . . 2565 2715 2815 0.032 .. .. 455 522 558 ... ... .041 .. .. . .. ..1. . . .. . .096) 1/8 (0. . .... ... . . . . . in...4.071 . . .290) 5/16 (0.. . . .. .. 558 c . 0. 0.3). Rivet Diameter.. 2030 2090 2195 ... .. .. . . 704 803 832 854 .080 .228) 1/4 (0.. .. . . . . 0.. . . ... . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. in.. 1230 c . . . .100 . . .. .125 .). 9.. . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. ..160 . 1435 1600 1650 1685 1740 . . . . . . 0.257) 9/32 (0.. . .. . . . . respectively. ..034 . . . . . .080 . . . . . Sheet thickness. .125 .. . . . .. . lbs 272 297 311 . ... . .. . . . .. 0..191) 7/32 (0... . . ..1... . . .. . . . . 0. ...2(q). .. . . . .160 ... in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..050 . 0..316. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .104 a Data supplied by Briles Rivet Corp. ... . 0. . 0. .. 854 c .. . 2860 3295 3480 0.. . ... 0. . 0. .. .2. in.. . . . . . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (Ref. 0. .. 3/16.. .1935. . .001 inch. .050 . . Static Joint Strength of 120° Flush Tension Type Head Aluminum Alloy (7050-T731) Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .: 0.0005.. . . . . . lbs 272 296 308 .. . .. . . . . . .. 1065 1140 1170 1205 1220 . . . . . . .523) Ultimate Strength. . . .. . . .. ... 0.. .3. .... 0. .... . .. 0. .. . .1285) 5/32 (0. . ... . .. . . . .. . Hole tolerances were +0. 1755 c . . 0. .. 0. . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. .. . . . .. . .100 . . ... 0... . . .... . . . . . . .040 . .. . .. .: 0.. 1065 1140 1180 1220 1230 . . .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . 0..032 . . . . . . . 0.. . .. ... . . . . . .. 3/32 (0. . .. . . .. . .2(b) and Fsu = 43 ksi.063 .. . . 1435 1600 1650 1700 1755 . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter....090 .. .. ... . 5/32.. . -0. .. .. . .. . . ... . . . Head height (ref.100 . .. .. .. . . . . . c . ..090 . . .. . ... .... .. . . . . . . Sheet Material . . . 2860 3295 3525 3525 c 2030 2090 2230 .053 . .090 . . .. .. in. ... 0. . 0. ..161. and 0.. . .063 . . ..040 . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. .. . . .. .. ... .. . . .. . . . . 704 802 823 845 . b Allowables developed from tests with hole diameters noted.. .. . . . . .. ..

. . Sheet Material ... in. . . . . .... . .090 . .. . . .. 404 510 574 647 728 794 814 . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . .) b . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . in. .). . . . .. . . .. . 0.256 ± 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .055 . . .040 . . .: 0. . 0. . . . Rivet shear strength d MS20426E (Fsu = 41 ksi)a Clad 2024-T3 1/8 (0. . . .160 . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Solid 100° Flush Head Aluminum Alloy (7050-T73) Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . .159) 3/16 (0. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .190 . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . 870 910 955 1005 1055 1175 .. 0. . . .2(r). . . in. .. .063 . . . . . .: 0... .080 . lbs Sheet thickness. . 531 . .063 . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . 0. . . 1175 1310 1635 2070 2125 0. .191. . .. . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of the nominal hole diameter. . . 0. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbs 386 419 463 491 521 531 . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . .125 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 0.. .191) 1/4 (0. . . 1610 1680 1845 2085 2125 2125 c Yield Strengthe. . . . d Shear strength based on area computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. . . . . 0. . . . . 0. .190 ... . . . . . .. . . Head Height (ref. . . .. . . . . .158. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . and 0.. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612 690 777 875 972 1160 . . 0.042 . 0. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . ... .257) Ultimate Strength. c The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . 0. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . .. .. . . . . 0. . . 592 647 680 718 760 802 814 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . in.2. and Air Force Materials Laboratory. 0. .050 . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . .070 . . . .. . . . . . . . .125 . 0.003 inch. . . . .. . . . .1285) 5/32 (0. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . Co. . . . .. . . . . . . . .2(b) and Fsu = 41 ksi. . . ...1. .080 . .. . 1175 c . . . . . . .090 . .160 . b Load allowables developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . 0. . . 0. . . . . 262 327 412 464 517 531 . . . ..100 .095 a Data supplied by Lockheed Ga. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .071 . . . . .. . . . . ...071 . . . . 0.040 . . . .100 . . . . . 0. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires the specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .130.. . . .. .1. .. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . 814 c c . . Rivet Diameter. ..050 . 0. . 8-32 .

.. . . . . . 814 c . . . . . . . .. . . in. . . . . ... Douglas Aircraft Co. . . in. 1430 1570 1755 2010 2125 2125 c Yield Strengthe. . 0. . . . . . . . Head Height (ref. . Sheet Material . . 0.191) 1/4 (0. . .. . . . . . . . .090 .042 . . .190 . . ... . .. . . . Static Joint Strength of Solid 100° Flush Head Aluminum Alloy (7050-T73) Solid Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . lbs 257 330 423 469 502 531 .. . . . . . . . c The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . . .040 . . Co. . . . . 1175 1320 1680 2010 2125 0. . 531 c . . . . .. . . . . ... . . .. .. . . 0. . .159) 3/16 (0. . .. 0. . . . . . . . 0. . . . .158. . . . . . . 0. 0.. .050 . 0. .. 0. . . . ... .160 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .100 . . . . and 0. . d Shear strength based on area computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. . . . .2. . in. . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . . . in. 0.. . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .063 . . . . . . . 0. .080 .071 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbs 318 393 440 469 502 531 . . ..2(s). . . . . . . . . . Rivet Diameter. 0. 0. . . .090 . . . . ...095 a Data supplied by Lockheed Ga. . . . . . .: 0. 0. . . .080 . . . . . . .. 745 840 898 952 1005 1140 1175 . . . . Sheet thickness. ... Rivet shear strengthd Sheet thickness. 0.. . . REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. Air Force Materials Laboratory. b MS20426E (Fsu = 41 ksi)a Clad 7075-T6 1/8 (0. . . .190 . . . . . . . . . b Load allowables developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . .003 inch. . . .. .. .. . . . . . 0.071 . . .130. Cherry Fasteners. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .1285) 5/32 (0. .. and Huck Mfg. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .256 ± 0. . . . .... . 0. . . . . . . .055 . .: 0. 492 606 642 683 728 773 814 .. .160 . .1. . 399 515 586 666 728 773 814 . . .. ... .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . 0. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . .. .. . . . . .063 . . 8-33 . . in. . . . . .191. . . . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of the nominal hole diameter. . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter.).2(b) and Fsu = 41 ksi. . . .1. . .. . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires the specific approval of the procuring agency. .. . . 1175 c . . . 0. 0. Allfast. .070 .050 . . . .125 . . .. 0. . . . . .125 .257) Ultimate Strength. . . . . .. . . . . . 607 693 789 896 1005 1140 1175 . . . Co. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .100 .) . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . . ... . .

. Static Joint Strength of 105 degree Flush Shear Head Aluminum Alloy (7050) Solid Rivet in 100 degree Machine-Countersunk Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .3.. .. . . ... Sheet Material . . . .. ..032 0..125 0. ..4. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8.080 0.... ....161. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. .. .1.... .160 Head Height [ref. 0...029 --415 504 620 692 771 814 ----0..)b . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . .1..257. . .160 Rivet Shear Strengthd ..090 0.2(b) and Fsu = 41 ksi.].. Head height values reflect driven rivet configuration... in. .040 0.. 325c 396 452 498 526 531 ------531 --502c 612 696 731 771 814 ----814 ----750c 923 980 1030 1080 1175 --1175 ------1280c 1425 1585 1735 1985 2125 2125 Yield Strength.. ...071 0. and 0.: 0.159) 3/16 (0.032 0...: 0. . ... a b c . .3)..071 0. .. in. .. . New Page 8-33a .. in.. d e f Data supplied by Ateliers De La Haute Garonne SARL.. .1285..1. . ..MIL-HDBK-5H.080 0.060 . . Sheet Thickness.0..191) 1/4 (0. .. ..... Rivet Diameter.. ..2(t). Rivet shear strength is based upon Table 8. ..050 0.037 ----619 759 845 942 1050 1175 --0. The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring activity. .046 ------1060 1175 1305 1450 1955 2125 0. .f in.125 0.. ... .2. . . lbse Sheet Thickness.. .. .193. The values above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable.050 0.040 0. in... . .090 0.001 inch. . Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0.. ..... .257) Ultimate Strength..063 0. 0... . .. . . 9. +/..1285) AL 905 KEa (Fsu = 41 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0.063 0.... ..... . lbs.... 1/8 (0.. ... ... . 268 326 399 493 526 531 ------0. .

1.1 Friction-Lock Blind Rivets— Tables 8.2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 8. 8.3. When the noncountersunk sheet is thinner than the countersunk sheet.4.2(a) through (u) contain joint allowables for various flush-head.3 as the load which results in a joint permanent set equal to 0.1(a) through (g) contain joint allowables for various flush-head.3. where D is the decimal equivalent of the hole or fastener shank diameter.3.2 Mechanical-Lock Spindle Blind Rivets Tables 8. For joints with e/D ratios less than 2. 8. Some tables are footnoted to show the previous criteria used for those particular tables.4. Joint allowable strengths of blind fasteners in double-dimpled or dimpled into machine countersunk applications should be established on the basis of specific tests acceptable to the procuring or certifying agency. friction-lock blind rivet/sheet material combinations.1.3.3. 8-34 .1.3.1(a) through 8. Increased attention should be paid to detail design in cases where t/D < 0.2 Mechanical-Lock Spindle Blind Rivets— Tables 8.4.1.1.0.1. allowables for blind fasteners in machine countersunk sheet may be used.2.1.1.4.1. In the absence of such data.1.2(a).2.1.25 because of the possibility of unsatisfactory service life.1.3). permanent set at yield load may be increased if hole sizes greater than those listed in the applicable table are used. a statistical value determined from test results as described in Section 9. The analyses included dividing the average ultimate load from test data by 1.3.1. and the lower of the two values selected.1. as defined in Table 9. The strength values were established from test data and are applicable to “joints” with e/D  2.1.15.2 Flush-Head Blind Fasteners 8. mechanical-lock spindle blind rivet/sheet material combinations. or if no specification exists. 8. the bearing allowable for the noncountersunk sheet-fastener combination should be computed.1(e) contain joint allowables for various protruding-head.1.04D. 8.2. friction-lock blind rivet/sheet material combinations. For machine countersunk joints. tests to substantiate the use of yield and ultimate strength allowables must be made.and flush-head blind fasteners were obtained as described in Section 9. This factor is not applicable to shear strength cutoff values which may be either the procurement specification shear strength (S values) of the fastener.1. Unless otherwise specified.2. This condition may exist even though the test hole size lies within the manufacturer’s recommended hole size range (Reference 9.1 Friction-Lock Blind Rivets — Tables 8.3.3 Blind Fasteners — The strengths shown in the following tables are applicable only for the grip lengths and hole tolerances recommended by the respective fastener manufacturers. mechanical-lock spindle blind rivet/sheet material combinations.1.1 Protruding-Head Blind Fasteners 8.3. yield load is defined in Section 9. compared to the table value.3 Flush-Head Blind Bolts — Tables 8.3. the sheet gage specified in the tables is that of the countersunk sheet. REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.3. For some fastener systems.2(a) through (p) contain joint — allowables for various protruding-head.1.3(a) through (h) contain joint allowables for various flush-head blind bolt/sheet material combinations.1. Ultimate strength values of protruding.3.1.0.3.3. 8.4.2.3. Reference should be made to the requirements of the applicable procuring or certifying agency relative to the use of blind fasteners such as the limitations of usage in design standard MS33522.1.

. . . . . .2(a) and Fsu = 75 ksi. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . 0. . 2150 . . . . .15 x 2. . . . . . . . . .080 . . .020 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 0. . Ftu = 120 ksi. . in.. .258) Ultimate Strengthb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . CR 6636a (Fsu = 75 ksi) Alloy Steel. .008 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. There was no requirement for submission of the yield data for inclusion in ANC-5. Sheet Material . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . .071 .162) 3/16 (0.. . Titanium Alloy and A-286 Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . .016 . . . . . . . ..130) 5/32 (0. . . . .. . . . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . 0. . . Rivet Diameter. b Yield strength is in excess of 80% of ultimate. . . . .012 . . . . . . . . in. .3. .. . . . . .. 970 .050 . . . . . .1. This is based on a previous Navy “BuAer” definition that yield strength would not be considered to be critical if it exceeded 1.. . . . .032 . . 0. .. Titanium Alloys.: 0.. . . . . . . . .. 0. . . . .. . 1490 . . 341 493 645 816 1050 1233 1354 1461 1490 . . .. . . in. . . . .. . . . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Ftu = 140 ksi 1/8 (0. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . and A-286 Alloy. . . .. . . . . lbs 169 290 412 532 688 796 879 945 970 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. 0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c Shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Ftu = 125 ksi. . . . . . .063 . . . . . . ..3 of design ultimate strength. . 566 748 967 1278 1570 1807 1980 2062 2150 . . 924 1221 1650 2129 2673 3168 3350 3515 3663 3779 3890 3890 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . .090 . Rivet shear strengthc .. . . . .. . .. . . 8-35 . . . . . . . . . .. . . 0. . . . .1(a). .040 . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head A-286 Rivets in Alloy Steels. . 0. . . . . . . . .194) 1/4 (0. . . .. . . .. . . . ..025 . .. . . . . . . . .112 . . . .. . . ..

. . . . . . . .071 . . a Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value..071 . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 332a . . . . . .... ..1. . . . . . . . lbs Sheet thickness... . . .020 .154) (0. .. . .. . 1090 1580 2380a . . . 681a 919a 1280a 1875a 678 980 1385 0. . . . . .1. 358 450 551 0. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . 1/4 (0. . . . 405 501 601 810 678 980 1325 0. . ..032 . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . ... . . ..: 0. .. . . . . (0. ... . . . . . . .. 160 199 . . 1081 1540 0.. . . . . . . . . . b Rivet shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. . . . . .080 . . . . . .162) (0. . .020 . .. . .125 .. . . . . .. .050 . . . 715 860 1155 . 0. . .. .. 1080a 1530a 2240a .. 713 1090 1580 2855 713 1090 1580 Yield Strengthc. . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . .040 ... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . .. . . . . . . . .040 . . .. . 257 318 382 514 580 810 1040 0. . . . . . . . . . .063 ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . 2700a . .005 inch or 2. . . . . . . . . .) . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .012 . ... . . . . . . . . . ...025 . .. .. . .032 . . . . .160 . . . . 456 564 678 912 701 1013 1385 0. . . . . . 225 287 ... . . . . 472 627a 768a . . . . . . . 1090 1540 0. . ... . . .. . . . . 0. . . . . .. 1081 1486 0..100 .194) Ultimate Strength. Static Joint Strength of Protruding Head Monel Rivets in Stainless Steel Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .016 .. . .. . 396a 494a . . . . . . . . . . .100 .. . .010 . . . . .063 . .. . . . . . .. 774 940 1163 1430 1760 2090 2220 2340 2450 2540 2710 2855 2855 . . . . . .258) (0.. . . . .050 .. .. . . .. . . . . ... . . 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 1/8 5/32 3/16 (Nominal Hole Diameter. 2855 . . 594 810 1070 1585 635 903 1325 0.. 0. 195 . . . .090 . . . . .. . . .. 321 397 477 642 635 903 1200 0. . . 526a 729a 942a 1290a 580 810 1200 a a a a 0. . . . . 700a 984a 1370a 1980a 701 1013 1438 a a a 0. . . .. 440 552 675 a 0.. . .016 . . 514 635 764 1025 713 1050 1438 0. . . . 205 254 306 . . 1605 . .010 .. . . . . . in.125 . . . . . 195 . ..090 .. . . . . .. .130) (0. . . . . .. . . . . . .. 290 367 453 0.. . . .. .: 0. . . . .. 774 940 1163 1430 1760 2090 2220 2340 2450 2540 2710 2855 8-36 ..012 . . . . . . . . . .. . 440 552 675 0. 225 287 . . .. .. .. . . . 0. . . ... . . lbs Sheet thickness. . . . . .. ... . . . .130) (0. . b Rivet shear strength . . in.. . . .. ... . . . . .. . . . .... . . . .. . ..258) . . .. . . . . . . . ... . ANSI 301-Annealed AISI 301-½ Hard Rivet Diameter... . 1090 1580 0. . . . . . 522 690 836 0. 2055 . . . . .. 358 450 552 0. .... . . . .1(b). . .. . MS20600M (Fsu = 55 ksi) Sheet Material . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . ... 128 . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .160 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . in. . .. 522 690 1040 0. . . . .. . .2(a) and Fsu = 55 ksi. .. . . . .. . .. .. .... . .. . . . . . . .. . . .080 . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .025 . . .. . . . . . in. .. .. .. .. .. . . 290 367 453 0. . . . . 713 1055 1470 2110 713 1050 1486 0. . . . .. . . . . ... . . .. .1. .. . . . . . .. ... 795 955 1285 . . . c Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0.5% of nominal diameter. . . .. . .. . . . . . . 0. .162) (0. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .

. . . . . .090 . . . . . ... lbs Sheet thickness. 1050 1415 2180 0. . . 0. . . . . . . . . .. . . (0. .. .063 .. . . . . . . .3. .050 . .194) (0. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .080 . . . 713 1010 1345 2060 713 1010 1345 2060 0.) ... .. . .125 . . . . .. . . . 1090 1545 2480 0. . . . .. .: 0. 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . .. . . . 1450 2310 0.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . .130) (0. . 652 903 1180 1665 652 903 1180 1840 0. in. . . . . 2480 a Shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .. . 577 818 1090 1470 577 818 1110 1700 0. .032 . . 0. . . . . . .. . . .162) (0. . ... . . .. . . . . . . in. .258) (0. . . .1.160 .032 . 485 631 720 . . . . .025 . . .. . 425 533 644 . .. . . . . 1450 2310 . .. 297 370 . b Yield Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.. .. 1580 2735 0. 268 . . . . ..025 .... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 1050 1415 2180 .. . . .125 . . .. MS20600M (Fsu = 55 ksi) Sheet Material .090 .. . . . . . .. .2(a) and Fsu = 55 ksi..080 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605 853 1155 1650 605 853 1155 1915 0. 405 472 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .190 .... . 343 430 . . .258) Ultimate Strength. .. ... 1090 1545 2480 . . .. . . . . . . . . 0. . .. . . . . .. . ... . . . 545 738 860 1070 545 747 955 1190 0.071 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . ..071 .. . . . 888 1200 1830 . .... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .5% of nominal diameter.063 . . .. . . . . in. . . . . ... . . . .005 inch or 2. . 1580 2735 .190 . . b Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .... . . . . .130) (0. . . . .1(c). . . . .. .. . . . .: 0.. .. . . . . . . . . . 2024-T3 7075-T6 Rivet Diameter. . . . . . . 2855 713 1090 1580 2855 713 1090 1580 2855 Rivet shear strengtha . .. . . . . . . . . . . .194) (0. . .. . . .100 . . .. . . . . . 368 460 556 . . . 0. . . 552 786 970 1315 552 786 1075 1520 0.. .050 . . . 272 . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. .. . 8-37 . 478 569 650 . 529 715 863 1170 529 759 996 1350 0...160 . 976 1300 2110 . lbs Sheet thickness.. 622 844 1110 1430 622 844 1110 1590 0. . 888 1200 1970 0. . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Monel Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . . . . . 297 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . 0. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . .. .1.. . 2855 ... . . . . .. . 234 . .. . . in.. . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . .. .. . . 458 570 688 936 492 657 797 1090 0.162) (0. .. . . .. . . . . 976 1300 2110 0.040 . . . . . . . . . . 2480 . .. . . .040 .. . . . . . 684 968 1255 1910 684 968 1255 1940 0. . . . 365 429 . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet Diameter. 0.. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . in. .194) (0. . . .. . 0. .025 .100 . . . . lbs . ..071 . 0. . . .1. . . . . . .. . 0. . . . . . .) . in.. . . 0. . .. . . . . .. lbs 233 277 321 388 . . . . . .. . . . . . 961 1110 1200 1305 1415 1550 1550 226 264 304 362 388 . . . . . . .. . . . . .3.. ..040 . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . . . .. . 0. .. 0. . 0. . . . MS20600AD and MS20602AD (Fsu = 30 ksi) Clad 2024 T3 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 (0. .. . . . . . . .090 . . . . .2(a) and Fsu = 30 ksi.025 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . in. ..063 .. . . . .. Sheet Material . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862 . .032 . . . . . . . . . . .005 inch or 2. . . . 823 . .. . . . . . . . 0. .. in.1(d). . . . . . . . 0. . . .. . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . .162) (0. . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . .. .050 . . . . 388 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .1.258) Ultimate Strength. . Rivet shear strengtha . . . . . . . . . . 0.080 . Sheet thickness.. . .130) (0. b Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .071 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Alloy (2117-T3) Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . .. . .032 . . .090 . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .: 0. . . . . 425 544 506 643 596 753 . . . . .. . .. . .050 . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 356 406 475 560 596 . .. . 8-38 . ... . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .063 . . . 0. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . 596 862 Yield Strengthb. . . . 0. . . . . .: 0. . . .080 . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . .100 . .040 . . . 0. . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . .. .5% of nominal diameter.. . . . . . . . . . .. .. 925 1058 1135 1230 1330 1450 a Rivet shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 368 .. . . . . .1. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 523 610 709 771 862 . . . ..

. . . . .. . .125 . . .. . . . . Rivet shear strengthb . . . . . .2(a) and Fsu = 28 ksi.. 556 . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .. . . . .162) (0. . .) Sheet thickness. Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Aluminum Alloy (5056) Rivets in Magnesium Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . .1. .194) Ultimate Strengtha. . lbs . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 802 1/4 (0. 282 339 392 449 481 512 550 556 .160 . .. . .1. . . . . . 420 502 584 627 667 714 757 802 . . . . . . Rivet Diameter. .. . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . . . 0.. . . . . . . . in.. . . . .1(e). . 363 .. .. . .258) 178 218 256 290 330 352 363 . .090 .: 0. . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in.025 . . . . . . 714 870 942 1025 1090 1160 1315 1450 1450 a Yield strength is in excess of 80% of ultimate. . . . 0. . .. . . . . . 0. . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . b Shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. 0. . . . . 1/8 (0. . 0.100 .080 .. There was no requirement for submission of the yield data for inclusion in ANC-5. . Sheet Material . 0.071 ... . . . . .050 . 0. . 8-39 . . ..3..032 .. . .. . . . . . . . .15 x 2/3 of design ultimate strength. . This is based on a previous Navy “Bureau of Aeronautics” definition that yield strength was not considered to be critical if it exceeded 1. . .. ...063 . .130) MS20600B (Fsu = 28 ksi) AZ31B-H24 5/32 3/16 (0. 0. . . . . . . . .1. . 0. . . .

.15 x 2/3 of design ultimate strength. in.071 . .040 . . . a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners.. . . . . . .1. 2720 d d d e e Rivet shear strength ..) (0. . . . .. . . . . c Yield strength is in excess of 80% of ultimate. . . .032 .. . .. . . 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/8 5/32 3/16 (Nominal Hole Diameter. . .. . . lbs Sheet thickness. . . .. . . . . . . . .. 807 1112 .. e Shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. b Confirmatory data supplied by Olympic Fastening Systems.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 970 1490 2150 1230 1885 2720e Rivet Type . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .3. . . in. . . . . . . 956 1325 1772 1043 1406 1833 0. . . .: ... .2(a).. 860 1211 1628 911 1246 1639 0. in... . .. . . 1490 2070 1230 1748 2240 0. . . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle A-286 Rivets in Alloy Steel Sheet NAS1398Ca and NAS1398C. ...063 . . . . . . .130) (0. . . 697 .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.. . . ... . . .. 2610 0. . . . . . There was no requirement for submission of the yield data for inclusion in ANC-5. .162) (0. 8-40 . 2150 . . . . . . .1. This is based on a previous Navy “Bureau of Aeronautics” definition that yield strength would not be considered to be critical if it exceeded 1. . . . . .. . ..194) (0. . . . . . . 0. . . .. . Code Ab (Fsu = 75 ksi) CR 2643a (Fsu = 95 ksi) Sheet Material . . . . .162) (0. 697 0. . . . .130) (0. .080 . . 1885 2420 0. . . . 0. 785 1112 . . 970 1480 1958 1215 1615 2090 0. . .090 .. . .194) Ultimate Strengthc. . . Alloy Steel Ftu = 180 ksi Rivet Diameter.. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .050 . . . . . .1. .. . . .2(a) and Fsu = 95 ksi. .. . .. . . . . ..100 . . . . . . .. . . . . . d Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1400. Inc. .025 .

. . . . . . . .080 . . . . .. . Rivet Diameter. . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . .194) Ultimate Strengthc. . d Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1400. . . . . .. . .032 . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .15 x 2/3 of design ultimate strength. . . . .3. . in. .2(b).MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. .130) (0. .162) (0. in. . . . . . . .. . . . . Inc. b Confirmatory data supplied by Olympic Fastening Systems.. . 1094 1270 1335 1380 1428 1532 1580 1580 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Monel Rivets in Stainless Steel Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . .. 1090 . 0. . There was no requirement for submission of the yield strength data for inclusion in ANC-5. . . . .. . 710 . . .025 . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . .050 .071 .. 0. . .. . . . c Yield strength is in excess of 80% of ultimate strength. .: 0. . . .. . . . .1. . 8-41 . . .090 . . . 0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Code Ab (Fsu = 55 ksi) AISI 301-½ Hard 1/8 5/32 3/16 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . Sheet Material . . . . . . . 734 870 915 971 1009 1048 1090 . . . Rivet shear strengthd .100 . . .040 . . . .063 . This is based on a previous Navy “Bureau of Aeronautics” definition that yield strength was not considered to be critical if it exceeded 1. . . . . 0. . NAS1398 MS or MWa and NAS1398 MS or MW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . lbs 462 568 594 632 678 706 710 . . .. .) Sheet thickness.

. . .) . 0. .. .. . . .194) Ultimate Strengthc. . . . . . . . .1. . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Monel Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . 0. . . . . . .. .3. . Rivet Diameter. 0. . . .. 0. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .130) (0. . . .. . . . . . . 0. . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . .100 . .. . . .: 0. . . . . . .162) (0. . . b Confirmatory data supplied by Olympic Fastening Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . This is based on a previous Navy “Bureau of Aeronautics” definition that yield strength would not be considered to be critical if it exceeded 1. . . . . . . . . . . c Yield strength is in excess of 80% of ultimate. . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . .15 x 1/3 of design ultimate strength. . .2(c). . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc.. . 0. . .025 . . . . 0. . . . . . Code Ab (Fsu = 55 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 1/8 5/32 3/16 (0. .090 . . . . in. lbs 318 404 466 546 647 710 . . . . . .040 . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthd . . . . . . . .071 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090 .050 . . . . Sheet Material . . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . ...125 . . . . .. . . 0. . . . d Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1400.063 . . . . . . . 710 . . . .080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . There was no requirement for submission of the yield data for inclusion in ANC-5.032 .. . . . . . . . . . . 774 922 1072 1168 1272 1387 1507 1580 1580 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . . . .. NAS1398 MS or MWa and NAS1398 MS or MW. . . . . . . . . . in. . .1. .. . . . .. . .. . . . 8-42 . 506 624 720 845 921 1009 1090 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . .

.. . .. . .. . .. 862 . .. . . . .. . 228 289 337 388 . b Rivet shear strength documented in NAS1400.2(d1).. . . 755 . 412 553 662 781 854 862 . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . . .130) 5/32 (0. .) (0.. ... . . . lbs.. 1/8 (Nominal Hole Diameter... .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Sheet Material . . ...3. . . . 364 448 521 596 . .063 . . . .. . . . . . 0. .. . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 914 1205 1303 1420 1545 1670 1970 1970 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. .. . . . . . .071 . 0.. . . .. ..080 . 494 . . . . .. ..1. . . . .050 .. . .258) NAS1398Da (Fsu = 38 ksi) Ultimate Strength.. 670 914 1145 1240 1350 1475 1550 .258) 1/8 (0. . . . . . .032 . . .090 .. . . . .100 .. . 0. .. . . .. .. 388 . .194) NAS1398Ba (Fsu = 30 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 1/4 (0.1. . 0. . . .. . . 0. . ... . . . . . . . . . .130) Sheet thickness.. . . . .. 553 696 816 894 975 1069 1090 .. .. . . . . . . .: 0. . .. . . . . . . .162) 3/16 (0. 0. . . .. .. 0. . . . 0...162) 3/16 (0. in. .. . . 5/32 (0. . .. . Rivet Diameter. .. . . . 1550 228 304 355 418 494 ... . . . .. . . . 0. .. . . . . . . .025 . . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthb . . . . . . in. . ... 1090 . . . . 596 . . . ... . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .... . . . . 364 470 548 647 710 755 . . .. . . . . in. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . 8-43 .194) 1/4 (0. . .040 .125 . . ... ..

. . in. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .025 . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .090 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . 8-44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837 Yield Strengthd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .025 . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0. . .020 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 0.040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. .) . . . . . . lbs 267 368 427 480 547b 554b .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .1.: 0. (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . .080 . .032 . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . .. . .: 0. . . in. . . . . . . . . .100 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178) (0. . . . . . . .071 . . . . . . .063 . .207) Ultimate Strength.071 . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 305 428 567 650 735 785b 837b . . . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthc . . .040 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144) (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . dated January 15. . . . . 1974. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Material . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5% of nominal diameter. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . . .032 . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .2(d2). . . in. . . . . . . . . lbs 213 285 386 453 489 508 508 508 . . . . . . . . . .063 . . . . . . . 0. . . . 330 473 636 815 912 976 1042b 1115b 1128b 1128 185 242 298 321 336 336 336 . . . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . Sheet thickness. Rivet Diameter. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 317 433 568 625 680 684 684 684 684 Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . 0. . . ... .050 . . . . . . . . . . . a b c d NAS1738B and NAS1738Ea (Fsu = 34 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 1/8 5/32 3/16 (0. . . . . . . .. . .050 . . . . .090 . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .005 inch or 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .080 . . . . . . . Rivet shear strength was documented in NAS1740 prior to Revision (1). .

.130) 5/32 (0.2(e). . . . . . . 519 654 822 924 1020 1109 1191 1397 1550 1550c 202 261 325 372 425 458 495 536b 554b . .. Sheet Material . .. .. . Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. dated January 15. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . 0. . . . . . 8-45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ..080 . . . .. .. . . . ... .. 282 353 441 556 614 638 664 684 684 684 Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners.1. .. . 372 465 579 708 756 809 866 925 1072b 1128b 1128d Yield Strengthe. . . .. .... . . . . 0. . . . ... . . . Rivet shear strength . . 554d . 163 208 255 298 352 385 388 . . . . . . .090 . . .100 .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . .063 . . 0. . . . . .160 .160 .080 . . . 0. . . . . .040 .. . .. . . . 0. . 0.. . 862c . ... . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . ..3. ..090 . . .. . .. . . 0. . . Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0.125 .. . .194) 1/4 (0. . . . .. . 0. . 0. .... . . . . .. . 243 304 380 460 478 499 508 508 508 . . . . . . . 0. . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Magnesium Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 155 198 248 302 325 336 336 336 336 . . . . .. .: 0. . . . .. . ...071 . Rivet shear strength was documented in NAS1740 prior to Revision (1).. . . .. . . . . . . . . .063 . . ..025 .125 .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.. .178) 3/16 (0. . lbs. . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . .. . . . . . . lbs. . .. . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . .. . ... . . . ... . .. .. . .032 . . . . . . .. 310 388 485 588 639 695 755 820 862 .. . 596c . .. .. . . . . .. 388c . ..040 . . . . . in.. ... .050 . .. .. . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .005 inch or 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . 0. . . . .. . . . . . . . 1974. . . . 0... 0. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .258) NAS1738B and NAS1738Ea (Fsu = 34 ksi) 1/8 (0. 0. . . 0.. . . . in. . ... .. . . . . ... . . . . .) .100 . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .5% of nominal diameter.. . in.. . . . Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1400. 837d . .. . .. . .162) 3/16 (0. . . Sheet thickness. .071 . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . ..... in. . . . .. . .... . . . . .. 321 401 501 570 609 656 709 759 837b . .: 0. Rivet Diameter. . . .. . . . . . .. . 0. . . . .. . .025 ... . . . . . . . . ... .. .. . a b c d e NAS1398Ba (Fsu = 30 ksi) AZ31B-H24 1/8 (0. . . .. . . . . .. . . . 256 324 394 461 501 550 596 .. . .. . 0. . . 0. . . .144) 5/32 (0. . . .. . .. . .1. . . . .032 . .207) Ultimate Strength. .050 ... 0.

404 458 527 617 672 734 741 . . . . ... . . . . . . . ..) . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..080 . . . . . Rivet Diameter. 0. . 0. . .. . . 404 458 521 598 646 683 690 .. . . . . . . .100 . . 741 Yield Strengthc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 592 675 783 848 922 1005 1063 1063 256 295 336 383 440 445 .. . . . . 0. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . b Shear strength values based on indicated nominal hole diameters and Fsu = 36 ksi. . . . . . .032 . . . . . 478 .. . . .080 . . .063 .071 . . . . 0. . . . . . in. . .. . 0. . 592 675 770 827 890 963 984 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . .. . . . .040 . . . . . . . . in. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .032 . . . . . . . . . . . 8-46 .063 . .: 0. 0... .025 . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . .071 .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/16 (0. .050 . . . .3. 1/8 (0. . . . . 9. . . 0. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . Sheet thickness. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . .050 . ..130) CR 2A63a (Fsu = 36 ksi) Clad 2024-T81 5/32 (0. Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy (2219) Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . Rivet shear strengthb . . . . . .3). . .090 . . 0. 0. . . . . . . . . . .2(f). . 0.1.1. . .194) 256 295 340 395 467 478 . in. . . . .. . lbs . . . . . . in. . . . . .040 . . . . 0. . . . . .162) Ultimate Strength. . .. . . . . . 0.. .. . . . . 0.025 .1. c Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (Ref. .. . . Sheet thickness. lbs . . . .090 .. . Sheet Material . . .4. . . . . . .

. . . . 1545 . 0... .. .. .. .. . ... . . . . 9. . .063 ... . .... ..2(g). lbs.. . .. . ... .1. . ..020 0.. . lbs... . ........ . .... .... . . .. . .. .... .. ... . . . .... . .. . .258) Ultimate Strength. . .050 ..... . 367 478 601 757 958 1080 1220 1340 1405 1545 ... in. . 0....250 . .. .. . .. .. .. ...... 367 475 594 745 932 1005 1085 1175 1265 1365 .071 0. ..... . . 0... .. ... . .. .080 0. ..100 . ..... . .. . .... . .. .. .. .. . . .. Rivet Diameter. .. .: 0. . .. . 8-47 .. Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle A-286 Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . .. . ... . .. . . .. .. . .. ... . .. . . 0.3. ..... 0.. . ....... . . .. . . . 938 1180 1490 1680 1895 2140 2360 2715 3215 3425 3690 . . .. .. .. . ... 237 298 385 486 610 772 856 903 956 995 . .080 .. . .. . .. Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . ..... . ..162) 3/16 (0... .. ... . . .. . . . .090 .1. . . . .. in.)b Sheet thickness.040 0. . ...063 0... . . . . ........ . Sheet Material . . ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.160 .. . . . . . . . ..... ... . ... . 0.3. . .. 237 296 381 478 596 690 747 812 857 879 . ...1. .. .. . . . ..... . . . . . ... . . . . ... . . . 0..... (Nominal Hole Diameter.... .... .190 .. .. . . .... ... in. . . .. . . . . .... .: 0.. . . ..... . .. ..032.. .... . . . . . 939 1185 1505 1705 1925 2175 2425 3035 3570 3885 3920 3920 Yield Strengthd.. . . 566 714 902 1145 1290 1455 1645 1830 2055 2215 .. .. . Fastener shear strength based on nominal hole diameters and Fsu = 75 ksi from data analysis. . . .071 .. .. .... Rivet shear strengthc ..... . .3)... . ....040 ....090 0... .. 0. . .. . . ... 0. .. . . .. ... in. ... .. .194) 1/4 (0. . 565 709 890 1125 1270 1385 1495 1600 1870 1995 .. ... .. ..... . 0... . 0..190 0. . . .032 0.160 0.. .. . . . .. .130) 5/32 (0. . . .. . ...... . . . ...... . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (Ref. . . 2215 .. . . . .125 . 0.. .. .050 0.... . . .. ..025 0..... Sheet thickness... . ... .. . . ... .020 ... . .. . Allowable loads developed from test with hole diameters as listed. .. ...... . . . .. . .125 0. ... .. .. .. . . . . ... . . . ... . 995 . . .100 0. ...025 . . .. .... .. . .4.. .. .250 a b c d CR4623a (Fsu = 75 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 1/8 (0. 0.. .. .. ... . . .

. . . . .. . 0. . . . . . ... . . 533 684 875 1120 1270 1440 1540 1590 1725 1905 1920 . .... . . .. . . .. 530 667 841 1065 1205 1340 1430 1520 1645 1765 1870 . .. .025 ... . .. .. . 1920 .160 0..125 ... . .. ..250 .. . 0. . .. . 0. ... . .. ..063 0... Rivet Diameter. .. ....: 0. . ... . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . . . . ... . .. 0. . ... . . .090 0. .. .. . . .. ....... .. . . .... . . . 344 456 582 740 945 1055 1095 1140 1180 1290 1340 ... .. . . . . . . ...... 221 279 360 453 569 659 707 729 752 776 834 .. 0.. . . . ..... . . .. . .. . . . .071 0. ..190 .. . .. . .. . ... . .... .. . ... .080 . . ... . ..080 0. . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Monel Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . .... . .. ..3... . . . . . ... ............ . . . . .. .. ..... ..071 ... . . . . ... .. . 0.. .. ..032 0..100 0. . ... . ... ... Sheet Material .. .. . . . .. . lbs.. 9. . . in.. . ... . .....258) Ultimate Strength.. . in.050 ... .. ... .. .. . ..063 . .1. . . . ... .. . . . .. . .194) 1/4 (0. 878 1110 1405 1590 1795 2030 2260 2590 2880 3015 3290 .... . 0.090 . . 0. .... . . . . . ..... .250 a b c d CR 4523a (Fsu = 65 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 1/8 (0. . . . Rivet shear strengthc ....1.130) 5/32 (0... . ... . .. . . . .. .. ... in . .... .... .. ..2(h).. . .040 .. (Nominal Hole Diameter. .... Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (Ref.. .. . . .)b Sheet thickness. .. . ... ..050 0.. ..3. . . . .. 0. ..... .... .. Fastener shear strength based on nominal hole diameters and Fsu = 65 ksi from data analysis. . . . ..3). . ... . . . ... . 0.. 863 .. . . Sheet thickness... . . ..125 0..160 .. Allowable loads developed from test with hole diameters as listed. .. .... ... 8-48 . 0.. .. ... . . . ... . . ..100 . . . . . 0.. .....162) 3/16 (0. . . . ... . . . ... lbs...025 0.. ..... .. in. . ..040 0. .. 344 447 561 706 893 965 1035 1105 1135 1205 1305 . . ...... .. . . .032 ... 1340 .190 0... ... . . . . . ..020 0..: 0. ... . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. ...... .. . .. 0.. .. . . . 221 284 373 475 602 701 729 760 796 831 863 . .... . ..... ....020 .. . .. ...... .. . . .4. . 878 1130 1455 1655 1885 2135 2390 2760 3005 3215 3400 3400 Yield Strengthd.. .1. . . . . . . ..... ... .. Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners.

. .. . .... ... . . .. . ..... .. . . . .. . .050 ... . . .. 0. .. ... ... .. .. .025 . .. . . . .. . .. .. . .3. . . . . . Rivet shear strengthd . . . . .. . . . . . . .090 0.... .020 0. .. ... .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . ... .. .. .. lbs. . . . . .. ... .. .. . ... . .194.. .. 0. . . .100 . . . . ... .160 .025 0. . . ... Rivet Diameter. .. 272 340 406 489 570 582 595 610 625 662 700 . ....... .063 .. ...040 . ..... . .. . . 9. . .. .. ... 0.....: 0. .. .. 0. 0. ....15. .. . . .. ... . ... . 0... .071 0. . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy (7050) Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .. . ... . . . .. .. . .. 0. .. .1. . 450 . . . ... .. . ..: 0.. .. .. . ... .0000 inch.. . ..1. .. in. . .... . .063 0... .1.. . 0.. ......125 0.. . . . .... . .... . ... .. ... ... . in... ... .. . .. ... .... .. .. .. . . .. ....... . . ... . .. . . 0. . . . .. ... ... . 272 350 440 552 585 597 611 626 641 680 700 700 Yield Strengthe... 0..080 .. .. and 0.0005.. ..... .3... -0. . . .. .. .050 0.130.. .. . . . . Data supplied by Avdel Corp.. Sheet thickness..b (Fsu = 33 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 1/8 (0..100 0..... .. . ..032 .. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.194) .. .080 0.. .. .. ... . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . .. .. .. . .3).. . . . .. .090 . . .. lbs. .. .162) Ultimate Strength.. Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. .. Fasteners should not be used for structural applications where the t/D is less than 0.. . .. . . . . 8-49 .. . . .032 0.... in. ..125 ... .4. . 0. Sheet thickness. .. .. . .. . . . . . .020 .162. .... . . .. . . . . . . . ... . . . .. .. . ... . .040 0. .. . Sheet Material . . .. .130) 5/32 (0. . . .... . . ..... ... .. .. . . .... . 417 525 659 816 831 847 866 884 929 950 950 3/16 (0..071 . .. . . . .2(i). . ... . . . .. 0.. . .. . . ... . . . .. .. 174 219 282 354 376 392 402 413 425 437 450 .160 a b c d e NAS 1720KE and NAS 1720KE( )La... . .. . Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS 1722.. .. 174 215 261 314 366 382 391 402 414 426 450 . .. . +0.. . .. ... .. .. . .. . .. . . . ..... . .. .. .. . . .. ... . . .... .... . .... . .. . ... . . .. . . . . .. . . .. .. .)c ... . in... .. ... ... 417 504 603 732 809 825 843 861 905 950 . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. .

. . . 799 930 1170 1320 1490 1680 1865 1955 2090 2200 2200 3/16 (0. . . . . 0. . Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3). . . . . . . . . . . Fasteners should not be used for structural applications where the t/D is less than 0. . . . . . Rivet shear strengthd . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .050 . .063 . . . . . . . . . . . .100 .1.025 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .162. . . . . . . . . . .194) Data supplied by Avdel Corp. . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . 0. . .190 . . . .. . . . . . .025 .194. .130. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .080 . .125 . . . . . . .125 . . .1. ..032 .3. lbs. . .. . . . and 0. in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . .4. . ±. . . . .b (Fsu = 75 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 1/8 (0. . . . . . . . .190 . . . . .100 . . 0. . . . . . . . . 386 607 704 831 909 996 1070 1090 1140 1210 . . . . . . . . .090 . . . . .090 . . . . . . . . . . . .15. . . 0. . in. . .. . . . . . . . .162) Ultimate Strength. . . . . .1. . . Sheet Material . . . 0. . .071 . . . . . 0. . . . 0. 329 390 453 531 632 687 701 717 733 773 829 . Sheet thickness. . . . . . .130) 5/32 (0. . . 0. . . .160 .. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .071 . .050 . . 0. . . . . .160 . . . . . . . . 0.040 . 0. . . . 1000 .3. . . . . . . . . . . 9. . .. . . . Sheet thickness. .032 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .0001 inch. . . .063 . . . . 8-50 . 528 621 778 982 1105 1245 1320 1350 1430 1500 . . .080 . . . . .. . . . . . Rivet Diameter. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . .2(j).. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle A-286 Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . .. 329 399 499 625 789 847 870 896 921 985 1000 . . 779 895 1045 1140 1245 1360 1475 1575 1655 1730 . 0. . . . . . 1500 Yield Strengthe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. .040 . . . . 0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . in: 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .)c . . .. . . 0. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . lbs. Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1722. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . a b c d e NAS1720C and NAS1720C( )La. . . .: 0. . . . . . . . 0. . 0.

. . .050 0...1.. ...3)....... . . . . ...... .. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref..050 0.. .. ..100 0.MIL-HDBK-5H.. .. ........ ... .....: 0.... .. ... (Nominal Hole Diameter...... Sheet Thickness... .025 0..... ..2(m).......... ..160 a 1685 ...... .. 242 302 371 456 538 556 577 600 622 679 759 --382 467 572 710 795 828 856 885 955 ----453 551 674 834 932 1040 1110 1140 1225 1335 3/16 (0.001 inch. Rivet Diameter.207) THIS FASTENER HAS ONLY BEEN TESTED IN THE SHEET GAGES SHOWN IN THIS TABLE..144) AF3243 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx..032 0.. ...... .160 . . . ...080 0. DESIGN DATA FOR SHEET GAGES OR DIAMETERS OTHER THAN THOSE SHOWN HERE CANNOT BE EXTRAPOLATED.. . ... ...... in....032 0.. .. .. 1/8 (0. .... ...125 0... ... Rivet Shear Strengthc . in.. . .. 9.. . .063 0... Sheet Material .. . . .. ... .. .. ... lbs.100 0... Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0.. .......063 0. ..... in. ....... 0.. .4. . ...... ........071 0.090 0. ...)b .178........ and 0.....3..... .071 0..3. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. ... ... . in.... +/-0.....125 0.090 0.. . 242 302 371 456 538 556 577 600 622 679 759 --382 467 572 710 795 828 856 885 955 --- --453 551 674 834 932 1040 1110 1140 1225 1335 b c d Data supplied by Allfast Fastening Systems Inc. .025 0.... .... .. Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type ... ... .... lbsd Sheet Thickness. .....040 0. ....)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0. .080 0. ........ . Rivet shear strength is documented on AF3243 standards drawing.144..: 0.. ... Supersedes page 8-53 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-53 . ..... ..040 0. . . ... . .178) Ultimate Strength.. ......1. . ..207...1.. . .... . 814 1245 Yield Strength. ....

.. .1...090 0...3..050 0... .. ........ .... ... ....... Rivet shear strength is documented on HC3213 standards drawing. . . ..190 a b c d 3/16 (0.162... ... lbsd Sheet Thickness. ....... . ...... .. .125 0. Sheet Material .MIL-HDBK-5H....063 0.162) Ultimate Strength.. .... ...080 0. .... ... ... ... . . Sheet Thickness.0..... . ... (Nominal Hole Diameter.001 inch. ...3.... .. ..063 0..... .1. . . . . in. .. .... ..... Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0...032 0. ........: 0..... . . ..... ........... ...... ..032 0... .100 0...025 0. ....080 0..)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0. .130.. .. .. . ....050 0.. ...071 0..... in. ...... ... . ..... 225 265 320 383 461 538 558 581 607 632 664 ----664 --351 419 498 596 723 801 840 872 904 983 1030 --1030 Yield Strength.040 0.. ... .... ........... +/..... . 9. .. ..025 0. . .. .100 0.040 0.. 0... ........ ...... ...160 0... . .. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. ... . . . and 0... 1/8 (0. in. Supersedes page 8-54 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-54 ...... ..1.. ......020 0..130) HC3213 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx....190 Rivet Shear Strengthc ..160 0.)b ....125 0.020 0.. ... Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .090 0..071 0. ...... .... .. 182 222 278 343 423 436 444 453 463 473 497 ----- --284 354 434 534 658 668 679 691 704 734 777 --- ----431 527 647 803 898 951 965 980 1015 1065 1110 Data supplied by Huck International Inc..3).. ...2(n)... lbs. . .. .. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. ..194.: 0........4........ .194) ----527 621 738 891 985 1090 1180 1220 1315 1445 1480 1480 ....... ..... .... ..... Rivet Diameter. in..

. 661 864 975 1033 1099 1171 1244 1425 1480 . . . .. . . . . . . . .3).050 . Sheet thickness. .032 . . . . . . .1. .. . . . . . . . . . . .100 .063 . . . . . .. . . . . .160 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 0. . .. .. . ..130) HC6223a (Fsu = 50 ksi) Nominal Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0. . . . . 0. . 0. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .025 . Rivet Diameter. . . . .. . . . . . .. .160 . .016 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . lbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .080 . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .090 . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . 0. . . 0. . . . . .. Static Joint Strength of Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Blind Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . 0. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 8-55 . . .: 0. 0. . . .3.100 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . . .. . . . . . 0. . . . . . 0.. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthb . . .063 . . . . .. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . in. . 0. . lbs . . .: 0. .125 . . . . 1030 Yield Strengthc. . . . 437 573 664 743 792 846 907 967 1030 . .3. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .2(o). . . .080 . .. . . .162) Ultimate Strength. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. in. . . . . . .020 . . . . . .... . . 272 367 427 476 539 578 622 664 . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . .) . .. ... . . 0. . . . . 664 . . in. .125 .1. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .4. . . . b Rivet shear strength is documented in MIL-R-7885D. . . . .. . . . . . 406 498 613 648 664 681 700 720 768 . . . .. . 1480 3/16 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0.040 . . . . .020 .071 . . . . . 255 320 394 417 437 449 463 478 . . . Sheet thickness. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . 1/8 (0. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . 0. . . . 605 743 901 920 940 963 986 1044 1125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .032 . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet and Plate Material . . . . ...090 . in. . . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . .. 0. . . .. . .. . . . . . .071 . . . 0. . . . Inc. . . . . .194) a Data supplied by Huck International.. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. .. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . 0. . . 0. . ... . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .025 . . . . .. . . . .050 . . . 0. . . . . . . . c Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (see 9. . . . . . . . . .. . 0. 0.. . . . . .. .190 . . . . . .

.. . . .. . .250 . 0. . . 0. . . . . . .. . .032 . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Material . .071 . .. .. . . ... . 0. .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .160 . . . . . . . . . . . 344d 403 462 523 541 560 583 605 660 738 . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .050 . . . . . 1245 Yield Strengthc . . . 0.: 0. . . . . .. . .040 . ..3. 0. . . . . . . .. in. . . 0. . . . . . lbs . . ..100 . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .178) Ultimate Strength. . .MIL-HDBK-5H. . . Rivet shear strengthb Sheet thickness. . . .. . . 0. (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . .. . . . . .1.. . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . in... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . in. 419d 532d 619 715 774 805 832 859 928 1024 1245 . . . 613 777 992 1055 1101 1152 1204 1332 1512 1666 1685 1685 . .. 814 .. . . . . . Supersedes page 8-56 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-56 . . . 0. . .071 .. . . . . . . . .125 . . 0. 0.. . . . . .080 . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . .040 . . . . . .. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .. . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Blind Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .. . . .. . . 0. .. . . . . 419 532 674 789 824 864 908 952 1063 1217 1245 . .063 . . . . . . .207) .. . . ..020 . . . . . 0. 0. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet Diameter. . . . .090 . . . . . . . . .1. . .3). . . . . . . .016 .. . .100 . . . . . .4. . . . . . .. . .160 . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .063 . . . . .025 . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (see 9. . . . . . . . .. . . Yield reduced to match ultimate strength. .190 . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .125 . Inc. . . . .1. . . . .. . . HC6253a (F su = 50 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 1/8 (0. . . 344 436 513 559 588 620 656 691 781 814 . . .050 .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . 0. . .... . . . .090 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . a b c d . . . . . 0. . .. . . . . . . . .190 . .080 . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . 0. .. . . . 0. . . . 613d 731 879 948 1025 1079 1110 1190 1302 1397 1588 Data supplied by Huck International. . . . . . . .. . . . .: 0. .250 . . . . . . . . . .020 . . . .. . . . 0. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .025 . . Rivet shear strength is documented in MIL-R-7885D. . . . .032 .016 . . . . . . . . . . .. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. . . . . . .. . in. . . . . . .2(p). . . . . . . .144) 5/32 (0... . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.. .. . . . 3/16 (0. . . lbs . . . . . . . . 0.

.. .. ...130..001 inch.. . .160 0.020 0..090 0.160 0.. .)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0.. New Page 8-56a . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. .. ..... ..063 0. ...050 0. Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0...3)..MIL-HDBK-5H. ..... .. .. .. ... Sheet Material .. .194) THIS FASTENER HAS ONLY BEEN TESTED IN THE SHEET GAGES SHOWN IN THIS TABLE.130) AF3213 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx.. ... . ..... Rivet Shear Strengthc .040 0.. ..... ........: 0... .. Rivet Diameter.080 0.. Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .......1..........162.... .. . .... +/. ... .. in..... .. lbsd 1480 Sheet Thickness.. ......050 0.. in. ... 1/8 (0....... .194...... . . . .. .)b ..... 0.. .... . Rivet shear strength is documented on AF3213 standards drawing. .. ...3.. .032 0.162) Ultimate Strength......... .. .....: 0. . .3.090 0.. ..040 0.. ... ..063 0...... ........ ... . ...... 223 262 317 380 411 441 459 480 503 526 583 ------347 416 494 592 640 663 689 717 746 818 918 ------522 616 733 875 902 933 968 1000 1085 1205 1310 3/16 (0. .0.. .. ......... .4.... . .....2(q)....... .. 664 1030 Yield Strength.... ..190 ... ... . . ... . . .. . ...125 0.......190 a b c d ....1.. 9.... ..... DESIGN DATA FOR SHEET GAGES OR DIAMETERS OTHER THAN THOSE SHOWN HERE CANNOT BE EXTRAPOLATED. and 0.. .. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. (Nominal Hole Diameter..080 0......032 0.... . Sheet Thickness.. ............. .100 0.025 0.. ..... lbs. . .....071 0. in.... .. . .. . ..125 0..1.071 0. 223 262 317 362 378 398 411 425 441 457 496 ----- --347 416 494 562 588 604 622 641 661 710 779 --- ----522 616 733 814 833 854 878 901 960 1040 1110 Data supplied by Allfast Fastening Systems Inc.... ...... ........100 0......025 0. ..020 0. . .... . in..

. .100 . . . . Rivet Diameter. Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . .090 . .. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . in. . . . . .125 . . . Sheet Material . .162) Ultimate Strength.)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0. . . . . . . . . . . lbs. . . . .080 . . .025 . . 0. . . . .020 . . . . . . . .050 . . . . . . .032 . . . .063 . . .1.3. . . . . . . in. . 0. . . . . .080 . . . 0. . . . . . 0. . . . .: 0. Rivet shear strength is documented on CR3213 standards drawing. ... Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . . 0. . . .130) CR3213 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx. . lbsd 1480 Sheet Thickness..4. .071 . . . . . . . . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. . . . . .194) THIS FASTENER HAS ONLY BEEN TESTED IN THE SHEET GAGES SHOWN IN THIS TABLE. . . . . . . 0. . . .. . .. . 0.130. . .162. . 250 280 322 370 430 492 513 536 562 587 652 --389 441 501 576 673 733 769 801 833 913 ----576 648 737 853 925 1005 1080 1115 1215 3/16 (0. 0. .2(r).090 . . 0. .. . Sheet Thickness. DESIGN DATA FOR SHEET GAGES OR DIAMETERS OTHER THAN THOSE SHOWN HERE CANNOT BE EXTRAPOLATED.. . . . .025 . . . . . . . .032 . 0. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .3). . and 0.100 . . . 0. . . . . .194. . ..071 . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . 0. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. .040 . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . Rivet Shear Strengthc . 0. . .040 . . . . . . .001 inch. . . . +/. . in. . 664 1030 Yield Strength. . .020 . . . . . .0. . . . . . . Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . . . . 0. . . .. .. . .. . . . . . 9.063 . . . . New Page 8-56b . . . 1/8 (0. . . . . 0. . . .3.1. . . . . . . . . . .125 . . a b c d 214 238 272 298 315 338 351 367 384 401 445 --332 375 424 463 491 508 527 549 570 624 ----491 550 623 672 692 716 741 767 831 Data supplied by Textron Aerospace Fasteners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .)b .050 . . . . . 0.: 0. . . . . .. . . . . in. . .MIL-HDBK-5H. 0. .

.. 272 317 368 432 451 462 475 489 503 538 --425 488 567 664 677 693 710 728 771 --527 600 692 811 884 911 931 951 1000 Data supplied by Textron Aerospace Fasteners.)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0.... .. ...050 0... .. 9. .178) Ultimate Strength.1... . .. .. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8... ... . . ..080 0... ..... .1. . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . .. lbsd Sheet Thickness..... . . .. ..... .. . lbs.. .125 a b c d 1685 .... 317 366 421 489 579 623 640 660 679 728 --494 562 647 758 826 902 957 981 1040 --617 696 795 924 1000 1090 1190 1280 1350 3/16 (0. .025 0. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.. 0. ... . .. . ..207....3).. .)b . . ....... ........... ... .. .. Sheet Thickness.. Sheet Material . .. ..... Rivet shear strength is documented on CR3243 standards drawing.125 .. . .090 0........ ... (Nominal Hole Diameter.. ...207) THIS FASTENER HAS ONLY BEEN TESTED IN THE SHEET GAGES SHOWN IN THIS TABLE..: 0........ ...178. in....144) CR3243 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx.... Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0.. ... ... .144.025 0... ..MIL-HDBK-5H..100 0. .. .071 0.. . .032 0...... .... . .. .. DESIGN DATA FOR SHEET GAGES OR DIAMETERS OTHER THAN THOSE SHOWN HERE CANNOT BE EXTRAPOLATED.. ..3..032 0.090 0... +/-0. .001 inch.... .. ...... in...050 0.... ... ......... and 0.. .. . . . 814 1245 Yield Strength.. .. .... ...... in. .. ... ..063 0..080 0. in.: 0....040 0..040 0.. .. ....4... ...... 1/8 (0... .. .071 0....... .. Rivet Shear Strengthc . .100 0.2(s).063 0....3.1. ..... New Page 8-56c . .. .. Rivet Diameter.. .......

. . . . . . . . . . 0.100 . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . . . . . . .. in..080 . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . lbsd Sheet Thickness. . . . . . 0. . . . . 0. . . .. . . . . . . . .. .MIL-HDBK-5H. . . . +/-0. . .001 inch. .: 0. . . Sheet Thickness. 0. . . . . .025 . .. . . . ..3. . . . . 0. . . .1. . . . .190 . .025 . . . 0. (Nominal Hole Diameter.125 . . . . 0. . . . .. . 1/8 (0. . . Rivet shear strength is documented on HC3243 standards drawing. . . . in. . . 0.1. 252 312 380 465 546 576 610 647 685 779 814 ----814 --397 481 586 723 803 844 891 937 1050 1215 1245 --1245 Yield Strength. . . . . . . a b c d 3/16 (0. . . . .040 . . . 0. . .250 . . . . .)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0. . . . .071 . . . .. . . . .090 . .178. . . . . .. . 0. . . . . . .144) HC3243 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx. . 0. . . . .144. . . . . . . . .250 . 0. . .125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .063 . . . . . . . . . . .050 . . . . 0. .071 . 0. . . . . . . in. . . . . New Page 8-56d . . . . . . . . lbs. .160 . . . . . . . .. .032 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . .080 .063 . .3). . . .050 . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . .. . 0. . . . . Rivet Shear Strengthc . . .207) --473 571 693 852 950 1060 1125 1175 1310 1500 1665 1685 1685 252 312 371 401 440 464 491 521 551 626 730 ----- --397 481 569 617 646 680 717 754 846 976 1085 --- --473 571 693 790 824 863 906 949 1055 1205 1335 1595 Data supplied by Huck International Inc. . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Material . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207.178) Ultimate Strength. . . . . . . 0. 0. . . . . . . . .1. and 0. . . . . .2(t). . . . . . . . . .)b . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.032 . . . . . . . . . .160 . . . . . . .3.190 . . . . . .. . . 0. . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . 0. .. . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. .: 0. . . 0. . . . . . .. .090 . .. . . . . 0. . . . . . . 0. . Rivet Diameter. . Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. .4. . .

. . Rivet shear strength as documented in Allfast Fastening Systems Inc P-127. . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 727 883 920 958 987 1015 1085 1185 1270 d 3/16 (0. .063 . . . . . .0.080 . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 .. . . . . .3. . . . .: 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a b c d c AF3223 (Fsu = 50 ksi approx. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .001 inch. . . .050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .025 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..130. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 . .MIL-HDBK-5H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0. . . .162) Ultimate Strength. . . . . . . . . . . .: 0. . . . .194) . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. . . . . .032 . . .125 . .. . . . . . . . . in. . . .071 . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . +/. 0. . . . . . .071 . . . . . . . . . .)b .1. 387 485 606 656 678 700 723 747 806 889 . 0. . . . . . . . . . . .2(u). 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 312 390 421 448 463 481 500 519 566 633 . .130) 5/32 (0. . . . .090 . .. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. 0.032 . . .1. .162.. 0. . . . . . . . .090 . . . . . in. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .)a Clad 2024-T3 1/8 (0. .3.063 . .. . . . . . . . . .080 . . Sheet thickness. . . .025 . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . 640 767 883 920 962 1005 1050 1170 1330 1460 1460 Data supplied by Allfast Fastening Systems Inc.. . . .194. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . . . . 664 . . . . and 0. . . . New Page 8-56e . . . . . . . . 0. .100 . . . . . . . . . . .160 . . . .125 . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . . . . . . lbs. . . . . 0. . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . Rivet shear strength . . . . 0.. .040 . . . .. . . . . . . . 0. . 431 516 606 656 687 722 760 799 896 1030 . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Material . .. . . . . . . . . 0. . in. .160 . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . 0. . . lbs. . . . . .1. . 272 331 390 421 461 486 514 545 576 653 664 . . .050 . 1030 Yield Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. 0. .. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet Diameter. . . 9. . . .3). . .

. . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . . .. . . Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 316 383 450 486 509 534 562 590 659 664 . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . 0. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .050 . . . . .090 . . . . . in. . . lbs. . . . . . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Protruding Head 5056 Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Clad Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H. . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . a b c d e CR3223 (Fsu = 50 ksi approx. Rivet shear strength as documented in Textron Aerospace Fasteners PS-CMR-3000. . . . . . . . . . . . .025 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2(v). . . . . . . .)a Clad 2024-T3 1/8 (0. . . .032 . . . . . . .194) . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.071 . . . . .032 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . lbs. . . . . .190 . .080 . . .071 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 0.160 . . . . . .. . . Rivet shear strengthd . . . . . 606 731 894 987 1025 1065 1105 1210 1355c 1480c 1480 221 279 321 333 350 360 371 384 396 428 472 . . Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . Sheet Material . . . . . . . .090 . 0. . 0.125 . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .063 . 0. .. .1. . . . . . . . . .130. . . . 0. . . ..125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. 0. . . . . . . . . New Page 8-56f .0005 inch. . . . . . . . . . .)b . in. . . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . .. . e c . . . . . . . . . .0. . .3. . . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . 0. 0. . . ... . Sheet thickness. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 664 c c 3/16 (0. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 525 649 720 736 752 771 790 837 903 959 Data supplied by Textron Aerospace Fasteners. .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. 0. and 0. . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.160 . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .080 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . in. . . . .: 0.050 ..162. . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . +/. 0. . 0.. . . . . . . . . . 1030 Yield Strength . . . ..063 . . . . . . . . . . . .162) Ultimate Strength. . Rivet Diameter. . . . .025 . . . .194. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 0. . . in. . . .: 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 434 498 519 531 545 561 577 616 671 . . . . . . . . . . . 0. 408 492 596 701 729 760 795 830 917 1030 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. ..3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130) 5/32 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 0. . . . . . . . . . .

.125 . . . . . Sheet thickness.050 ... . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . 0. . .. . . . .1(a). .. . . . . . . . . . 0. 0.. . . . . . . and A-286 Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . 0. . 0. 1700 1997 2327 2690 3053 3432 3845 0. .. . . . Head height (ref.. . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . .. . . . . . . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . in. .. . . . . 0. . . .055 . . . . . . 2558b 2772 3036 3333 3531 3795 3890 3890 c c c 355 499 681 771 858 920 .2. . . . . . .112 .005 inch or 2. .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . c 1082 1351b 1189 1478 1303 1633 1379 1798 1461 1916 1490 2026 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Material .. . . . . 0. . .. . . .. . .. ...3. . . . .. . . . . . .140 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .090 . . .: 0. . . . . . .1. .. . .063 . . . e Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. Rivet shear strengthd . . . . . . . .. ... . . . 0.. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ftu = 140 ksi 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 (0. . . 0. . . . . . . . . .. 8-57 . .258) Ultimate Strength. . .. .080 . . 2150 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .) . . . . . . . . . .095 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . . . . .. . . .. . 0. .. . . .. . .. . .). .112 . . . . 0. . 0. . . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . and A-286 Alloy. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 0. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. Ftu = 120 ksi. . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .194) (0.. . .. . . . . . 0. . ... . . . .. . . . . CR 6626a (Fsu = 75 ksi) Alloy Steel. . Ftu = 125 ksi. .5% of nominal diameter. . . . . 0. . . . . . . lbs . . . . . ... . . .070 . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . .162) (0. . . . .. . . . . . . .090 .. .. . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head A-286 Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Alloy Steel. . . . ..042 . 0. . . . . . .040 . .. . . .. . . in. . . . . .190 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . .. (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . 0. . . .. . 858 1031 1223 1424 1643 1779 1925 . 0.130) (0. .. . 0.. . . ..1.. . . . . . .160 .. . . . . .. 898b . . . . .040 . . . in. . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . .. .050 . . . Titanium Alloy.. . . . . 0.160 . . .100 . . . d Rivet shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. . 1490 2150 e Yield Strength . . . . .125 . 0. . .071 ..: 0.. . . . . 970 . . Rivet Diameter. . . . .. .080 . .140 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Titanium Alloy. . . .. . .... . . . . . . . . . . 0. . .. . . . .063 . . . . . . 0. . lbs 582b 693 842 891 949 970 .. . .2(a) and Fsu = 75 ksi. . . in. 557 784 923 1082 1202 1297 1417 . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . . . . .071 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .

.... ................. .............. 1615a 1720 1970 2320 2520 2855 373a 429 495 535 579 625 . .........090 ......... 0...... .. 0.... 0.. .063 ... 0.....180 ............... MS20601M (R.... 0..... ........... 518 621 741 910 1075 1290 1305 .... ... 904 .......... 1030 1212 1731 2320 2500 0.... ..... 0........ in.. lbs 373a 429 495 535 579 630 .... .070 .................... .......130) (0.......070 .....: 0. ...258) (0.... in....... 574a .......Table 8... . 0...095 213 303 439 528 579 625 ..2.....130) (0.040 ...... 1030 1212 1731 2300 2360 0.....1(b). 0. . 0.2(a) and Fsu values at 55 ksi........ 0... 0......... TH 1050 Room 500F 700F 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 (0.... 713 ... .. .. ... 574a 664 714 771 833 884 904 .... 1580 . 0.......194) (0........ ........... 0......... . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Monel Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Stainless Steel Rivet Type .............. .... 0.... ............. 1615a 1720 1970 2300 2360 2360 b 8-58 213 303 439 528 579 630 ....... 518 621 741 910 1075 1325 ... ... 0..194) (0.......... ....... .... 714 924 b .....095 213 303 439 528 574 590 ...042 .042 ....... ..160 ... ... 1305 ... The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency... ..... b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable....080 .. .... 574a 664 714 771 833 896 ............. ..... ...........125 ....... 0... .... respectively..... Sheet Material ...... .. Head height (ref... Rivet Diameter... b ..162) (0..: 0...... ....071 ... in.050 .......... 0...... 0........ in.....050 ......100 .. Fsu = 55 ksi) 17-7PH............... 0....... . (Nominal Hole Diameter.. ..... and 45 ksi at room temperature. 648 ............... 518 621 741 910 1075 1325 .. 332 476 569 696 833 896 .....005 inch or 2. .. .... 0......) Sheet thickness.... Sheet thickness.. ........3.... 833 1065 1615a 896 1140 1720 ......055 ...130) (0.... . ..... .. ......162) (0.......194) (0. .... ........160 ...............095 a Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value...............258) (0................. Temperature .........100 ... ..... 0.. 50 ksi.......... b 866a 924 991 1065 1140 1290 1305 ....... 0........071 ............. d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. .. ...... 1325 1970 .. 771 991 .162) (0................ 1030 1212 1731 2320 2520 0...1. 0.5% of nominal diameter........055 ... 664 b 866a .............. ... . ....180 ... 1090 ..... .... 0. b ... c Rivet shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8.063 . ....... 2320 .080 ...... 0.. 500F and 700F.. .258) Ultimate Strength......T...................... 332 476 569 696 833 896 ......... . Rivet shear strengthc .. b 866a 924 991 1065 1140 1325 ............. in.. .................. .042 ............. .125 .. 0.......... 332 476 569 696 833 884 904 ... 2500 993 1430 2590 Yield Strengthd..090 ..... ........ 590 b .. ...055 .......... .......1.....)............... lbs b b b b 373a 429 495 535 574 590 ..... ...........................070 .......................040 ...... 0...

. . . . . . 635 377 428 485 542 642 750 833 910 964 973 . . . . . .: 0. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. ... . 0. .. . . . . . .130) (0. .040 .. . . .. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .). .. . 0. 973 .. . . .. . . . . . ..100 . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Monel Rivets in Dimpled Stainless Steel Sheet Rivet Type . lbs. . . .055 . . . . 8-59 . . .040 . . . . .. .070 . lbs. .016 . . ... 0. . 519 610 722 876 1055 1150a 1200a .. . .. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258) AISI 301-1/4 Hard 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 (0. . . . ..5% of nominal diameter. . . . 0. . . .. . . .. . .. .130) (0. .. . .070 . . . . . . 1045 1255 1490 1790 2065 2100 2150 2200 . . . . . . . 1135 1230 1400 1660 1930 2175 2275 2340 2440 2510 2540 Yield Strengtha. . . . Rivet shear strengthb Sheet thickness. . 0. ..025 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.194) Sheet thickness. .080 .. . .. . . . . .042 a Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . . . 896 1080 1330 1590 1770 2000 2140 2305 2395 2475 0.080 . . . . .. 338 412 486 576 705 793 825 868 . .. .. .005 inch or 2. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . Sheet Material . . . . . . . 635 . .. . ... .. . . . . . . . . ... . . . 281 352 422 506 627 772 825 868 . 0.. 438 518 627 770 939 1150 1200 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .012 . . . . . . . . .. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.. . . . . . 0. . 224 254 313 375 447 516 536 565 . . . .010 .. . . .. . . . . . ... 423 535 639 774 912 1015 1145 1305 1350 1400 . . . . . .032 . . . . . 0. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .016 .. . . . . . . . . ..090 . . . . .055 . . .. .... . . . .. . . 0. . .032 .071 . . . . . . 0.. ..3.. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . in. 1405 .. . .. . . . . . .1.. Ultimate Strength. . . .050 . 0.025 . ... . .. . . . . . .090 . . .020 . . . . .. . . .100 .. 973 . 873 1070 1310 1590 1970 2100 2150 2200 . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... 0. .095 244 259 333 398 443 505 576 619 .2. . . . . .. .. ... . .. . . . in.. . . . 0.2(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .258) Rivet Diameter. .. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .071 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. ... 0.. . .. . . .. . . . . .... . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . ..012 . . 560 632 705 808 963 1110 1240 1330 1375 1405 . . .. . .. . . . .063 . . . . . . . . in. .. . . . in. . . . .. . . .. .. . . 1405 . .. . . 0. . .. . .. . . . 0. 0. . . . . . . (0. .. . . . . . . .050 . . . MS20601M (Fsu = 55 ksi) AISI 301-Annealed 1/4 (0. . .. 1/8 5/32 3/16 (Nominal Hole Diameter.. . .. b Rivet shear strength from Table 8. . . . . .042 291 335 428 528 612 689 779 883 954 973 . .. .. . . .194) (0. . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .. 0. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . 0.. . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. 0.020 . .) . 0... . . .010 ..162) (0. . . . . 0. . 0. . . .063 . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .162) (0. . .. . . . . .. . .. 2540 277 302 358 415 482 543 585 628 . . . . . . . . . . . ... .1(c). 0. . . .. .. . . . .: 0. . . . in. .095 Head height (ref. . . ... .. . . . . 0. 188 214 270 328 397 498 536 565 . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .1. . . . . .. . . .

. . . .. . . . . . . 1135 0... . in. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . b 864a 1075a . 0. . .. . .162) (0. . . . . . . . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . Rivet Diameter. . . . . .. in. . . .. 0. . . .1(d1).. . . . . . . 0.. . . . .. .. . . . . . . 713 b b . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .). . . . ... . . Rivet shear strengthc .095 a Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. .. ... . . . 0. 1/8 (0. . ..090 . .1. . . . . . .080 . . . . . . . . . . ..194) Ultimate Strength. . . . . 359 500 . ..040 . . . . .063 . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . .. . 8-60 . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . 0. . .. . . . . . . . . 2040 2855 b 231 321 . Sheet thickness. . . . . . .063 . . .. . . . Sheet Material . . . .. in. . .. . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. .: 0. . .005 inch or 2.: 0. . .050 . 0. . . . in. . . ..2(a) and Fsu = 55 ksi. .. . . . . . . . 1090 1580 d Yield Strength .090 . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Head height (ref. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. . .. ... . . . ... . .. . . . . .. . . .055 .042 . ..1. in... . .3. . . . . . . Sheet thickness. .2. . . .. . 0. .080 .. b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . ... Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Monel Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Stainless Steel Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . .. . . . . .258) 469a 555a . . . . .071 . . lbs . . .. .. . . . 0. . 1187a .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 0.. .5% of nominal diameter. . .050 . .. 0. .071 . . . . . . . .. 721a .040 . .. .. ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. 0.. . . lbs . .) . . . . .070 1/4 (0. . . . . . . . . . 566 678 . . . . . d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . .130) MS20601M (Fsu = 55 ksi) AISI 301-Annealed 5/32 3/16 (0. c Rivet shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. . .

0. . Rivet shear strengthc . . . .. . .. 0. . . . ... . . . . . .. 0. . . . . . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . .. . . . . 471 576 690 872 1060 1420 .2. .. .. . . .. .. 1645 1800 2135 2550 2780 2855 b b . . . . . . . 0... .1. . . . . . . . . 0.. . . . . .050 . . . . .. 0.. . . .. . .063 . .. . .. 574a 704 773 838 910 984 1090 . 1580 b . .. .... ... . . . . 359 531 625 725 832 943 1090 . .. .162) (0.080 .T.. ..180 .040 .194) (0... ... . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .T. ... .. 1090 b .. 0. in. .095 192 279 425 525 590 .. . 1645a 1800a 2135 2360 . .... .). . 0.070 . .... . . ... . in.. .. 0. 993 1430 d Yield Strength . . .. . . . . 713 b .. . MS20601M (R. ... . .. .. . 0. ... 2360 b 8-61 231 336 459 530 607 693 713 ..258) 373a 450 538 584 637 695 713 . ... . . . . . .: 0. 0. . .130) Sheet thickness. 0.194) (0. . ... . . 866a 960 1065 1155 1240 1460 1580 . ... ..... ... . . in. .. .055 . . . . ... 298 440 546 683 832 .. . . .005 inch or 2. 648 . .... .. .. Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Monel Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Stainless Steel Sheet Rivet Type .055 . . ... .071 .. d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . .042 .. . .. .042 . . . 298 440 546 683 832 943 993 . .. . . . .071 . in. . . . . . . ..090 .. .. . . .. .. . . . . ... . 574a 704a 773 838 904 . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . 904 b .) (0. . . 0.. . . ... . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . .. lbs 373a 450a 538 584 637 648 . . 0. 0. .. ... b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable.. ... . ... .. ... . . 0.055 . .. Fsu = 55 ksi) AISI 301-¼ Hard 500F 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 (0. . . . ... . . . .. 0. .. . . . . ...130) 700F 5/32 3/16 1/4 (0. . .. . . . .. .: 0. Temperature . .3. . . . 471 576 690 872 1060 1305 .. . . .....5% of nominal diameter. . 0. . . . 0. . Rivet Diameter. .. . . . . . . . .080 . 590 b . . ... . Sheet Material . .. . . .. . in.. . .. . . ... . .050 . .125 . . .. 0. c Rivet shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. . .. 0... . . . . .. . . ..162) (0. .258) 1/8 (0. . . 0....1. . ...090 ... . .. . . . and Fsu = 45 ksi at 700F. . Sheet thickness. . .. . . . 945 1115 1670 2360 . . .095 192 279 425 525 607 648 . . .. . . .. . . .. ... . .160 ... .. 566 698 835 966 1095 1420 1580 . .. b .. . . . . 1135 1345 1815 2430 2775 0.. . . . . . . .100 . . . . .. . . .. ... . . ..125 .258) Ultimate Strength. . . . .. . . . .. .. .. . . . .100 ..063 . lbs b Room 5/32 3/16 (0. .... 1645a 1800a 2135 2550 2590 2590 b 373a 450a 538 584 590 . .070 . . .. . . .. 0. . . . . 1/8 (Nominal Hole Diameter. .. .130) (0. . .. . .160 . .. ... . . .070 . . . . . 0. Head height (ref... . .095 a Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . . Ftu = 50 ksi at 500F. . . . . . . ... . 0. . .. . .Table 8.. ..194) 1/4 (0.042 . . .. . . .... . 866a 960a 1065a 1155 1240 1305 . . 0. . . 0. . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . . . b 704a 866a 773 960a 838 1065a 910 1155 984 1240 993 1430 . . . .. 1305 .2(a) and Fsu = 55 ksi at R.... . . . . . 0. . .. . ...1(d2). 574a .180 . 945 1115 1670 2430 2590 0.162) (0. . .. .

. .055 . . . . Temperature . 0. . lbs b Room 5/32 3/16 (0. .. 1580 b . . . . . 540a 694 773 838 910 984 1090 . ..) (0.080 . . .. .. . . .... .. .. . . .. . 0.042 . . ..005 inch or 2.. . 0. .162) (0. . . .. . . .. . . 821 935 1065 1155 1240 1460 1580 . . . . . . and Fsu = 45 ksi at 700F. .. . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . ... .. . . . . .. 1430 . .. .. . . . . .. 540a 694 773 838 886 904 .194) 1/4 (0.. 1090 b . . . . .. .095 231 336 459 530 586 590 .. . b 694 821 773 935 838 1065 910 1155 962 1240 993 1410 . . . 713 b .. . 0. . .100 .. . . . .1. . . . . . .. in. .071 . 648 . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Monel Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Stainless Steel Sheet Rivet Type ... . . . . .040 .. .. . . Fsu = 55 ksi) AISI 301-½ Hard 500F 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 (0. . ..Table 8. 0.. 0... .T.). . 0. . ..040 ... ... .3.. .070 . . . 1135 1345 1815 2430 2775 0.. . .. ....2(a) and Fsu = 55 ksi at R... . . . . . . 0. ... . .. . ... ... .. .. 821 935 1065 1155 1240 1305 ... .. . Sheet Material . . . .. 0. .2.. . . . . . . . 904 b . ... 0. .. . . . . . . .. . ... . d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. ... . . . in. 0. 359 531 625 725 832 904 . . . .... ... 359 531 625 725 832 943 993 . .. .. . . .125 .055 . .071 .063 . .. . . .160 .055 . . . ... .162) (0. .. . .. . . ... . .042 .050 ... .... . .130) Sheet thickness. . . . Rivet shear strengthc .. 1135 1345 1815 2345 2360 0. . . . c Rivet shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8.194) (0. . Rivet Diameter. . .. .160 . . . . . . . 0.. . Sheet thickness.. .. . 1305 b . . . 359 531 625 725 832 943 1090 . . . .. .. .. . . . 566 698 835 966 1095 1410 1430 . ..: 0.. . . . . .. . .. .130) (0... . . . . . ... . . . . . .180 .. . 1/8 (Nominal Hole Diameter. 0. . . . . . .258) 1/8 (0. . . .. .. . . .. . in. . . ... . 540a . ... lbs 350a 444 538 584 624 648 . .. .. . . ... .. .070 . .130) 700F 5/32 3/16 1/4 (0. . . . . 1585 1780 2135 2345 2360 2360 b 8-62 231 336 459 530 607 693 713 . ... . . .T. . . . . 0. . 1585 1780 2135 2500 2590 2590 b 350a 444 538 575 586 590 . .180 . . . .. . . . . . .... . 0. .. . . . . . 0.. 0. . . . 0. .258) Ultimate Strength. MS20601M (R.. . 0.. .... . . . .080 . . .258) 350a 444 538 584 637 695 713 .. . . . . . . . .... .5% of nominal diameter. b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. ... . . 566 698 835 966 1095 1305 .. . . . .. . . in.. .050 . . . . . . . ... . 993 1430 Yield Strengthd. . . . .. . . Fsu = 50 ksi at 500F. . .. . . .. . ... . . . 0.194) (0. . . .. .1(d3). . . . . . ... 0. 590 b . . ... .. . .042 .. . .. . .. . . .. .125 . .070 ..... .063 . .. .100 . . 0. .095 231 336 459 530 607 648 . .. . . . .162) (0. . .. .. . . .. . 0. . . . . .. . 1135 1345 1815 2430 2590 0.. 1585 1780 2135 2550 2780 2855 b b . . . . . ... ..095 a Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. .. . . . . . . .090 . . .. . . . . . .... . . . 0.. . . . .. . . 0.. . . . . .: 0.. in. . . 566 698 835 966 1095 1420 1580 . . .. Head height (ref. . 0. . . 0. .. . ... . .1. . . .090 . .

. . . 0.. . . 0.2(a) and Fsu = 55 ksi. .. . .. Sheet Material . . . .080 .100 . . . . . . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . . .. . 0. . in.130) MS20601M (Fsu = 55 ksi) 7075-T6 5/32 (0.063 . . . .). . . . ..063 . . .. . . .. . . . . ..3. 0.. . .160 . . . ..100 . . . . .. . . . . 0. . . . 0. .071 . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . 494a 612a 684 766 840 867 937 . . . .. . .. . . b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. .1(e)... . . .095 a Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .1. .080 . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. .. .. . . 0. . .162) 3/16 (0. . . .. . . . . .. . .090 . . . . . .070 ..: 0. 146 228 395 496 526 561 595 . .. .194) 1/4 (0. . . . .125 . . . . . . . . . .5% of nominal diameter. . 0. 343 444 615 806 1000 1195 1375 . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . .005 inch or 2. . . . . . .. . . 0. . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet Diameter. . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . . .. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 .050 . . . . . 1580 . . . . . . . 0. 1425a 1570a 1940 2260 2390 2855 b b b b Yield Strengthd. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . Head height (ref. . . ... . . in. . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Monel Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . ... . .. . . .. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .055 . .090 . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .071 . . . . . . . . ... 0. . .160 . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .2. . . . . . . 226 369 495 640 769 811 918 . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . .125 . . . . 0. . .. . . . . 0.. . in. . . . . . . . . . . . lbs Sheet thickness. . . . .: 0. (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . . . . lbs Sheet thickness. . 0. .040 . . ..042 .. . . 713 . . . . . . 1/8 (0. 0.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) . . . . .. . 8-63 . . . . . . 660 912 1560 2105 2310 0. 747a 832a 930a 1040 1150 1270 1385 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. . . . . . d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0.. . .258) Ultimate Strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . c Rivet shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. . . . . .050 . . . 0. .. . . . . .040 . 0. . in. . .. . . . . . 320a 393 487 545 565 587 610 . . . . . 1090 .

. . .: 0. . . . 0. . . . . . . 592 709 793 0..055 0.1... . .. . . . ... . . 336 384 391 . . . . . . .040 . . . . . .005 inch or 2. 0.. . . . . . . . . . . .2(a) and Fsu = 30 ksi. . .. . .5% of nominal diameter. 561 684 795a 0.. . . . . . . 862 1150 Head height (ref..125 . . . . . . . . 0. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . 360 439 485 . . . . . .. . 0.3. MS20601AD and MS20603AD (Fsu = 30 ksi) Sheet Material . . . . . . . . .090 . . 0. in. . . . . .095 a Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . .). . . . . . . .. . . .MIL-HDBK-5H. . . . . .063 . . .1(f). . .042 0. . . . . . . . .125 .. . . . . . . . . 236 258 .130) (0. . . . . . Clad 2024-T3 Rivet Diameter. . . . .. .. . . . . .070 0. . . . . . in. . . . . . . 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 (Nominal Hole Diameter.. . . .. . 327 369 398 . 300 308 296 . . . . . . 524 614 621 0. . . .071 . . 0. . . . . 0. . . . .. . . . .100 .. .194) (0. b Rivet shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. c Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . in. .. . . . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . 377 468 497 . . . .. .. . 0. . . . . . . .071 . . . . . . . . . . . 159a . .. . . . . . . . c Yield Strength . .: 0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . ... . .. .040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. lbs Sheet thickness. . . . . .080 . . 596 768 945 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . .2. . . . .. . . .1. . . .050 . . .063 . .090 . 862 1270 388 596 862 1550 Rivet shear strengthb ... . .. . . . . a 0. . . . . .258) Ultimate Strength. . . .. ... . . .. . . . . in. . . . . . . . . .162) (0. . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100E Flush Head Aluminum Alloy (2117-T3) Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . 0. . . . 110 . . . . . . . . . . . 198 185 . . . . . a 0. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. . .. . . . 388 511 577 . . . . . . . Supersedes page 8-64 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. in. . . . . . . . . . . .050 . . .. . . . . . .. lbs Sheet thickness. . . . . . . .080 . . (0. . .. .. . .

. . . 244 308 346 391 440 489 556 . .2(a) and Fsu = 28 ksi. . . . .. . . . 0. .. .. . .190 . . . .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . .130) MS20601B (Fsu = 28 ksi) AZ31B-H24 5/32 3/16 (0. 363 a a . in. . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .042 . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . .. . . . . . .: 0. . . . ... . . . . .090 . 0. . . . . . . . . b Rivet shear strength based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. .. 802 .. . . . . . . . . ... .. .. . .040 . . . . . . lbs . . . . . . . .095 a Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0..050 .2. . . . . . 749 833 1040 1332 1450 1450 a 158 197 248 279 315 354 . 257 . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.. . . . . .. . . .162) (0.1. . . . . . . . . . . .). . . . . . . . Sheet Material .258) 167 208 262 295 333 363 . . 0. . . in.. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . Rivet Diameter. .. . . Rivet shear strengthb .. .005 inch or 2. . . .. 8-65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .080 .160 .. . . lbs . . . . . . ..050 . . . 0. . . . . . . . .3. . . Sheet thickness. .. . 0. . . . .100 .. . . ... . .063 . . .1(g).. .. . . . . .194) Ultimate Strength. . . . in. . . . . . . . . . .190 . . . . in. . . .080 . .: 0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . . .. 0.. . . . . . . . . in. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.. . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .070 1/4 (0. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .071 . . . . . . . . .. 556 802 Yield Strengthc. . . .063 . . . . .... .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 0. . .. . . . . . .. . .071 ... . 1/8 (0.125 . .. (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . 0. . 0. .. . 370 417 469 527 587 734 802 . . . . ..5% of nominal diameter. . .. . . . . . . .160 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .055 . . . . . . .. . . . . . .040 . . . . . .125 . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Aluminum Alloy (5056-H321) Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Magnesium Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . 0. The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . .. . . 0. . a 324 390 366 440 413 495 464 557 516 620 556 774 . . . c Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . .. . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. 710 789 986 1262 1450 0.090 . . . . . . . . . . Head height (ref. . . . . . . . . . .

. .. c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable.194) CR 2642a (Fsu = 95 ksi) 1/8 (0. . . . . Ultimate Strength. . . . 0. . .2(a) and Fsu = 95 ksi. . . . . . . . . . . . e Shear strength is based on areas computed from nominal hole diameters in Table 8. 0. . . . . . . . .. . 0. . 0. . . . . . . .. . Rivet shear strength .. . . . NAS1399Ca (Fsu = 75 ksi) 5/32 (0. .080 .. . . . 219 468 620 793 983 1176 . . . . . . . .050 . .080 . . . . 8-66 . . . . . . 387 570 776 1003 1236 1809 . . . . 0. . . . .. .. . . in. .. . 432 628 847 1090 1337 1950 2720 0. . 0. . . in. . .. . . .. ... .5% of nominal diameter. . . . . . . . . . . .. .125 . . . . . . .063 . .. . . . . . . in. . . . . .. . . . lbs. 0. . . . . 588 b c .. . . .. . . . . . . .) . 1/8 (Nominal Hole Diameter. .. .. . .. . . . .194) Alloy Steel. . . .055 . . (0. . . . . . .. . . 588 741 b b c . lbs.. . .042 . . . 0. . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . ..100 . .. 2150d Yield Strengthf. . .. .. . . .005 inch or 2. 0. 890 b c 380b 475 698 840 1002 1185 1230 . .. . . . . . 1885e 908 1108 1333 1490 . . . 0. . .125 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Sheet thickness. Head height (ref. . 0. .. . ..055 .162) 3/16 (0. . .070 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. ..040 . . . .. . .... . d Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1400.. .. 0. . . . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . . .: 0. . . in. . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle A-286 Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Alloy Steel Sheet Rivet Type . . . . 0. . . .090 . . . 0... . . . . 137 292 494 614 755 . . Ftu = 180 ksi Rivet Diameter. . . 1490d 1004b 1171b 1438 1710 2150 . . . . . . . . . . . . .070 180 320 536 665 816 981 1144 . . Sheet Material .. . 890b 1004b 1171 1438 1710 2380 2720 2720e c 698 840 970 . ... .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . . .050 . .063 . 278 513 675 860 1063 1267 1777 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.100 . . .. . .162) 3/16 (0... . . . .3. . . . .040 .). . . .071 . . 0. . . . 380b 475 b c . . 0. . . . f Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . . . ... . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. .. . . . . .. . . .130) Sheet thickness. . .160 . in. . .. . . .: 0. . 0.1. .. .. 0. . . 970d 741 908 1108 1333 1559 1885 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1230e c . . . . . .160 . .. .2(a). . .. . . . .. 0. .. . . . . . .042 .2.130) 5/32 (0. ..071 . . . .090 . .1. . . . . .

. 0. . 0. . . . ... . . .063 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .). . . . . .100 .5% of nominal diameter. .194) Sheet thickness. .. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . 0. . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . .040 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.2. . . . Sheet Material . . . 671b 755b 886 1032 1182 1580 1580 c Sheet thickness. . . ..080 . . . . . . . . . . . 8-67 .071 . . .125 . . . . 0. . . .162) Ultimate Strength.3. .040 . . . .042 . . .) . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .100 . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . 0. . . 253 384 463 554 655 753 1004 0. ..055 . . . . . .005 inch or 2. . . . . . 710 c . . . . . . 1/8 (0. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . 0. . ...125 . in. 3/16 (0. . . d Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1400. . . .: 0. . 0. . .050 . . . . . 0. . . .. . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthd . lbs.. . .. . . . .070 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . . . . .: 0. . . . . Head height (ref.080 . . . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable.130) NAS1399 MS or MWa (Fsu = 55 ksi) AISI 301-1/2 Hard 5/32 (0. . . . . . . . . . .1. . e Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . .. . . . . . . .2(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 243 348 413 487 568 . . .090 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .071 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet Diameter. in.090 .050 . . 0. . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle Monel Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Stainless Steel Sheet Rivet Type . in. . . . 0.063 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . lbs. c . in. 401 496 606 726 846 1156 0. . . . 445b 569 668 776 898 1019 1090 1090 Yield Strengthe. . 287b 363 491 569 657 710 . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . .130) NAS1921Ca (Fsu = 80 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 5/32 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .063 . . . 0. . . . . . ... in.. . . . . 0. . . . 0.. . . . . . 1090 . . 8-68 . . . . . . 0. . . . 0. lbs . . a b c d 1/8 (0. . .3. ... . . . . . . . . .080 . . 0. . . . . . . . . . .071 . . . 1985 from the greater of 0..063 . Rivet shear strengthc . . . . 873 990 1105 1325 1605 0. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . in. . .050 . . . . . . .. . Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1900. .162) Ultimate Strength.070 Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company. . . 0. . . .160 . . . .160 . .. . . . . . 0. . 9.055 3/16 (0. . 0. .042 . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .3) (revised May 1. . .071 . . . . .. . . . 1670 Yield Strengthd. . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. Rivet Diameter. . . . . 956b 1060b 1180b 1305b 1435b 1670b . . . . .. . . . .) Sheet thickness. .. .2. .. . . . . . . . .. .125 . . . . . 0. . .100 . .194) 612b 749b 831b 923b 1110b 1090b . . Sheet Material .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . .090 . . . . . Sheet thickness.. . . 1450b 1605b 1755b 2130b 2400b 2400 365 466 528 598 639 686 804 . . .080 .). . Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .: 0. . .. . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . .. . . 0. . . . . . . . 0. . .. . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle A-286 Blind Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Steel Sheet Rivet Type .. . 571 649 737 835 931 1065 . . . 0. . . . . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter). . ..090 . . . . . .125 . . .. . . .. . . . . . . lbs .4. . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . .2(c). . Head height (ref. . .. . . . . . . .050 . . . . . .1. . . . . in. .1. in. . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 0.

. . . . 0. in. .1. . . . 0. 1985. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .. . . .100 . . 0. . . . . . . . . . Rivet Diameter. .090 . from the greater of 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.042 . . . . 0. . . .130) NAS1399 MS or MWa (Fsu = 55 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 5/32 (0. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .3. .. . .. Sheet Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 . . 0. . .. 8-69 .071 . . . Head height (ref. . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.050 . . . . . . . . . .040 . . .063 . . . . 0. . . . . . .4.. . . 0. . .. . . . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . . . . . .125 . 1/8 (0. . . . . in. d Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1400. . . . . . . . . lbs. . 0. .) . .3) (revised May 1. . . 499 631 b c b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 . . . 1090 Yield Strengthe. . ..090 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. ... . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .3. The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . 0. . 0. . . lbs. (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . 218 353 436 529 633 737 873 894 . . . . . . . .160 . . . . . in. . .050 . .: 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .190 .. . . . in.1. . . . 351 451 563 687 811 1120 1260 1280 0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .100 . . . . Sheet thickness. . .080 . . . . . . . . .. . .5% of nominal diameter).190 . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . . . 139 223 331 397 472 556 562 574 . . . .. .070 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . . 9. c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable.). . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . .. . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle Monel Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . 0.. . . .005 inch or 2. . . . . . . .071 . . . 757b 855b 958b 1065b 1175 1370 1505 1580 1580 c 557 610 636 662 710 . in. . . . . 0.055 . . . .162) Ultimate Strength. . . . .040 . . . .080 . ..2(d). 710 703b 784 873 937 1015 1090 . . . 0.194) . . . . . . .063 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .: 0. 0.. . 323b 404 500 b b c 3/16 (0. . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthd . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle Monel Blind Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .080 . . . . . .2(e). . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . 1565 Yield Strengthd. . . a b c d 1/8 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .3) (revised May 1. in.. . in. . . .. . . . 1985 from the greater of 0. . . . . . . .125 . . . . . .125 . . . . 554 625 707 796 885 972 1080 . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0.090 . 927b 1035b 1158b 1289b 1415b 1525b 1565b . . . . . . . . .. . . . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter). . . .. . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . .090 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbs . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.080 . .. . . Sheet thickness. . . . 9. . . 0. . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 0. . 0. . Rivet Diameter. . . 0. .. . . . . .162) Ultimate Strength. . . . . . 0. Head height (ref.130) NAS 1921 Ma (Fsu = 75 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 5/32 (0. . . . 0. . . . . in. . . . . 0.055 3/16 (0. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . 0. . . . . .063 . . . .. . . .100 . . . in. . 0. . 0. . .160 . . .. 0. .. . in. . 0. . . . 1400b 1570b 1720b 2055b 2245b 2260 2260 354 447 504 569 607 626 686 . . .3. . . . 1020 .071 . . . . .. 843 952 1060 1265 1430 1540 0. . .. . .160 . . . . . . . . . . . . .063 . . .050 . . . .. . . lbs . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .071 . . . . . Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS 1900. .042 . . . . . . .3. . . .100 . . . . . . . . Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value.. . . . . .1. 8-70 . .2. . . Sheet Material . . . . . . . . .194) 595b 732b 816b 913b 946b 980b 1020 . . . . . . .190 .050 .. Rivet shear strengthc . . . . .). . . . . . 0.. .1. 0. . .. . . . . . . . . .190 . . 0. . .: 0. . . . . . . . .070 Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company. .. .) Sheet thickness.4. . .

. . . .. . . . . 1/8 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .162) Ultimate Strength. . . .071 .125 . .. . . . .090 . . . . . . . 0. . in. ... . . 0. . . Rivet Diameter.100 .050 . . . . .. .. . . ..063 . . . . . . . . 741 Yield Strengthc.. . . . .1.125 . . .) Sheet thickness. Sheet thickness. . .3. . . . Head height (ref.042 . . . .. . . . . . . .070 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . 423 514 603 827 960 1002 0. . . . . . . . .2(f). in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .194) 203 289 342 393 416 439 478 . Sheet Material . . . . . . c Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. 0. . . 0. . .3). . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . . 8-71 . 0. . 0. . . . . 0. .071 . . . .063 . . . . . 0. . . . 0. . . . 0. . lbs . . .. .. . . . . . .190 . . 0. . 0.130) CR 2A62a (Fsu = 36 ksi) Clad 2024-T81 5/32 (0..050 . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . .. .. 267 326 394 468 544 658 670 . . . . . . . .190 . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthb . . .160 . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .). .. . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . in.100 .. .080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Aluminum Alloy (2219) Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . .1. . .2. .: 0. . ... . . . . . . . . 319 385 461 542 610 682 741 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .055 3/16 (0. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . 503 603 701 894 1013 1063 1063 169 247 295 349 409 424 448 . . . .. .160 . . . . . .3.090 . . . . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . .. in. . . . . . REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. . . in. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .080 . . . . . . . . b Shear strength values are based on indicated nominal hole diameters and Fsu = 36 ksi. .. . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . lbs . . 478 . . .

... ...... in.... 171b 232 313 360 416 477 494 ----495 --267b 366 427 498 571 647 755 --755 Yield Strength... .. Supersedes page 8-72 of MIL-HDBK-5 8-72 .3.]. .040 0.3. ..... .1.. . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. (Nominal Hole Diameter.. ... . ... . ..050 0..2(g). . . .080 0.. . . .) ... ... ..090 0. lbsd Sheet Thickness..125 0...100 0.055 ----270 330 399 506 611 803 906 0.. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. .. lbs... . NAS1921B0()S0().... ..2......: 0.160 Rivet Shear Strengthc .162) Ultimate Strength. ...... .. ....... ...... in.. .. .. .. . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100 degree Flush Head Locked Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .....130) 5/32 (0.. . .. Values above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . Rivet Diameter... ..100 0...... .......... . 9.. The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring activity. .063 0.. . . .. ... .. .090 0. in. .3). ..071 0.4.... in.050 0.. . . NAS1921B0()-0(). . .194) Sheet Thickness... Sheet Material ...040 0. 3/16 (0... a b ----411b 484 566 658 748 978 1090 1090 . . ..125 0...MIL-HDBK-5H. ... in.. 110 161 247 303 354 373 393 ----0. . .070 . ... . ...063 0.... .1.160 Head Height [ref.: 0...... ...042 --171 254 315 395 484 549 610 --0........ .... ... .071 0. c d Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company.. . . . . ....080 0. NAS1921B0()S0()Ua (Fsu = 36 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 1/8 (0. .. ... Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1900. .

.. .. . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.. . . . . . . . . .070 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . .005 inch or 2. . .160 . . .. . . .. . . . . . 0. .125 . 0. .. . . . . .. . Sheet thickness. .063 . in. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . .160 . .3. 596 448b 544b 646b 751b 862 . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . 0. . . . .... . .. . . lbs.194) Ultimate Strength.. . . . 862 379b 423 459 494 . 0. c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 415b 492b 578 596 . . .100 ..090 ... . . . 170 220 304 399 493 729 . . .. . . 149b 223b 310 b c . 0. . 0. . . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. in. .. . . . . .. . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.. .. . . .. . . . .. .. .130) 5/32 (0.. . . . .042 .. . . . . . . . .. ..162) 3/16 (0. .055 . . . ... . . . . lbs. . . . . . 8-73 . . . .: 0. . . . . .. . . 1985. . . . . . 0.040 . . .. . . . .162) Clad 2024-T3 3/16 (0. . . .2. . . . . . . . 9. 72 114 197 247 304 . . (Nominal Hole Diameter.. . . . 0. .4. d Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1900. . .. .055 . . . . . .: 0.070 72 114 197 247 304 367 431 . . 230b 349 b c . 170 220 304 399 493 729 1060 0. . . . . . . .080 . 0. .. . . . . 0.. . . .. . 230b 349 b c .. . in.050 . . . . . . 113 182 245 316 396 473 . . . . . . .. . Head height (ref. . . .5% of nominal diameter). . . from the greater of 0.. 1/8 (0. . in.. . . . ..080 . 0. . 0. . 0.. . . . 755 Yield Strengthe.194) 1/8 (0. .100 . . .040 . . . 0. . . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . . . . . . .). . . . 356b 448b 547b 660b 775b 969 1090 1090 c 366 388 . .050 . . . 0. . . . 0. .071 . . . 0. . . . . . NAS1399Ba (5056) (Fsu = 30 ksi) NAS1399Da (2017) (Fsu = 36 ksi) Sheet Material . Rivet Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . .071 . . . . . . . . . 0. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . 0. 356 b c 149b 223b 319 b c . . . . . . . .063 . . .090 . .3. 113 182 245 316 396 473 672 . . . . .. .1. ... . .042 ..3) (revised May 1. . . . .) Sheet thickness.130) 5/32 (0. . Rivet shear strengthd . . .. .. . . .1.. . . .. . . .125 .. .. 494 420b 506b 600b 652 755 . .2(h). . . . . 0.

0. ... . . . . . . ..063 . . . . . .. .) . . . . in. . . .. .. . .. .. .. . . . 0. . . .. . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . . . Head height (ref.. .. ... . . . . .. . . . . . Sheet Material . . .. . . ..020 . . . . ... . . NAS1739Bb and NAS1739Eb. Inc. . 554 . c Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . 0. .. .. . .5% of nominal diameter).. . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. . .. . . . . . 246 . . . . 837 . . . . . . . .178) (0. 0. .. . 0. . . .. . .025 .207) Ultimate Strength. . . . 0. . .100 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Sheet thickness. .. 330 . . . . . . . .032 ... .). .. . . 326 410 533 608 693 787 837 .. . . . . . . . 696 794 . . . . . . ... . . . .. . 0. . . . . . ..207) (0. 1128 . . . . ... . . . . 9... . . . machine-countersunk joints. . . . in. 0. . . . .. .. . . .. . . .080 . . . . .071 . . 1985.. . 1128 d d . . . . . . .: 0. . Sheet gauge is that of the thinnest sheet for double dimpled joints and of the upper dimpled. . .. . . . . .. .. .. 0. . . . . . . . . 0. . These allowables apply to double dimpled sheets and to the upper sheet dimpled into a machinecountersunk lower sheet. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. 456 606 546 d . 0. . . lbs. . . . . 900 . f Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . .. . . . .090 . . .3) (revised May 1. . 0.. . Confirmatory data for machine-countersunk holes provided by Allfast Fastening Systems. 0.2(i).: 0. 0. . . Rivet Diameter. Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Machine-Countersunk and Dimpled Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . d The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. .. .. . . .063 a Machine-countersunk holes. . . .. . . .. .. . 0..3. 0. . . . . . . . . . .. 0. .178) (0. . . . .035 . ..2.c NAS1739Ba and NAS1739Ea... . ..c (Fsu = 34 ksi) (Fsu = 34 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/8 5/32 3/16 (0.144) (0.047 .. ... . . .. 0. . 247 331 437 503 577 659 689 . . e Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1740.. in.. . . . . .063 . .. . .047 . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ...050 . . . 212 266 344 441 504 554 ... . . . .020 . .. . . . .. . . The thickness of the machine-countersunk sheet must be at least one tabulated gauge thicker than the upper sheet.. .. . . . . . . . . . .144) (0.. . . . Rivet shear strengthe . .. . . . . . . . . . 0. 1128 554 Yield Strengthf. . . 0. . . . . ... .. . . . b Dimpled holes. ... . 0. .080 . .. . . . .. . . .125 . . . . . . .. . . . . . 837 418 465 536 616 716 845 926 1015 1110 . . .. . . . ... ... . . .. . 386 .3. .. . . . . .. .. . . . ... .. . . . . . lbs. ... 1015 . . . . . 159 212 279 365 418 448 .. . 0.. . .. .040 . . . . . . .071 . . . . . . .. . . . .005 inch or 2. . .. .. . . . .. .. . .. . . . 0.. ... . from the greater of 0. Sheet thickness. . .. . . .1.. .050 . 0. .025 .063 . 492 568 654 750 845 960 0. (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . .035 334 376 436 506 592 703 771 837 . . . . .100 . . . .. . . . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . .. ... . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . ...125 . . . . . . .... 8-74 . . . . . . In no case shall allowables be obtained by extrapolation for gauges other than those shown. 281 .. . . . . . . . .. .. . . in. .. . . .090 . . . in. . . . .032 . 0. .4. . . . . .1. . . . .. . .040 . . .

. ..258) (0.. . . . . .. .070 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .125 . . . . . d Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1400. .095 106 147 197 262 300 314 330 336 . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Magnesium Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . 0. . .207) Ultimate Strength. .. The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . 0.100 . . . . . . . . . . . .071 . .. . . . 0. ... 837e 334b 383b 388 . 0. . . . lbs. . . . . . . . . .. . 0. . . .. . . .160 . 340 399 462 534 608 667 .. . . . . .. . . . . .1.. 0. . . . .. . . . . in.063 a Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . . . . . . f Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. .063 . . 128 186 250 323 396 580 .. . . . . . . Sheet thickness. .032 .3. . . . . . . .. .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 1128e c 457 514 580 651 725b 837b . . 0. . . .. . .071 . . . .. .100 . 292b 362 b c . . . . . ..080 . . . . . . . . . Sheet Material . . .. .130) (0. . . .162) (0. . .. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . e Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1740 dated March 1968. . . . . . . .063 . . . . .. .194) (0. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . ... . . . . . .144) (0. . Head height (ref. . . 0. . .. . in.. . . . . .032 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0.035 . . . . 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 1/8 5/32 3/16 (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . . . . 388d 399b 459b 526b 593b 596 . .. Rivet shear strength . .: 0.. . .. 0.. . ... . 0. . . . .. . . . . . ..178) (0. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . lbs. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .080 . . 530b 600b 671 756 843 1052b .050 . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . 0. . . . . 8-75 . . . . . . . 0.055 . . . . . .. . ... . 596d 471b 536b 613b 693b 862 . . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. in. . . . . .. . . . . . . NAS1399Ba (Fsu = 30 ksi) AZ31B-H24 NAS1739B and NAS 1739Ea (Fsu = 34 ksi) Rivet Diameter. . . .. . . . .. .. ... . . . 0. .. . . in.. 49 94 158 197 242 291 . . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . . 0. . . .. . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . .: 0. . . . . . . . . .090 . . . .050 .160 .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . .. . .. . 0. . . . .. 178b 223 292 b b c . . ... ... . . . .. 554e c . ..042 . 76 152 200 254 315 375 530 . . 277 376 621 968 0. .. . . .. . . .005 inch or 2. . .. . . . . . . . . . . 862d Yield Strengthf.. . .) . . 418 b c . . . .. . 803b 892b 1153b 1532b 1550d c 188b 235b 295 371 418 471 531 554 . . . . . ... . . . . .). . .040 .125 .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . .090 . (0. . . 164 227 307 355 414 459 478 508 . .. . . . 0. . . . .. 0. . . . . . . . . . ..2. . . . . . . . . 0. .2(j). . . .. . .. . . 274 349 b b c . .. ... .. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . 0. in.. . . . . . 0.. . . . .047 . . . .. .5% of nominal diameter. . . .040 . . . . .. . . .. . ...

. . . . . . .1. . .. ..160 . . 8-76 . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . .160 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 0. . lbs . . .. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . 0. . . .190 . .: 0. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .080 . . . . .. .2. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 0.)b Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . . . . .3). .. . . . . . . .071 .. . . .. . .125 . . .. . Rivet shear strengthd .. .100 . . . . in. . . . . . .. . .. .. . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle A-286 Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . .. . .090 . . . .. . .063 .080 . . . . 1545 2215 Yield Strengthe. .. . . . .: 0.. 1160c 1410c 1290c 1570c 1420 1725c 1525 2060 1545 2215 . . . ... . 0. .. . . .063 . . . . . . ..). . .054 . . .. . . .162) (0. . . . .. ... .. . . . . . 0. . .. . . . 0. . . . . . . . 0. 2360c 2880c 3605 3810 3920 3920 211 348 489 608 664 720 860 . . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . .. . . . . . 0. 0. Sheet thickness. in. . .. . . . . 0. . . . .. . . . . . . in.. 995 . . . . c 932 . . . . . . . . . . .. . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. Allowable loads developed from test with nominal hole diameters as listed. . 0. . . . . .. . in. . . .. . ... ... .2(k). 0. . . . 574 774 970 1400 1695 .258) 595c 733c 817c 913 947 982 995 . . . . .190 . . . .. .3. . . . .125 . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . 0. . . . . 0.. . . . . . . c 1035 . Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value.194) Ultimate Strength.1.. ..095 Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . .090 . . . 853 1505 2410 2740 3405 0. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a b c d e 1/8 (0.250 . . Head height (ref.. . . . . Fastener shear strength based upon nominal hole diameters and Fsu = 75 ksi from data analysis. .. . . 0. . . 0. . . .. . . . . . . . . 0. . .050 ..... . . .3. . 9. .100 .. . . . . .4. .. . . . .. . Sheet Material . . . . . . . . . . . . .050 . ..250 . . . . . . . 0. .069 1/4 (0. . . Rivet Diameter . 0. . . . . . . . . . 339 470 620 787 947 1120 1365 . . . . . . . . . .041 . .. . . . . .130) CR 4622a (Fsu = 75 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 5/32 3/16 (0. . lbs . . . . . . .. . . . . .071 . . . ... . . .

. . . . . . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . 0. 863 . . . . . . . . . . 0..160 .. 0. . . . . . . 0. . .312 .. . . 0. . . . 0. Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value.. . . . . ..: 0. . . .070 1/4 (0. . . .. . . . . . . . . . c 995 1240c 1095 1360c 1170 1475c 1240 1695 1335 1810 1340 1910 . . . . .130) CR 4522a (Fsu = 65 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 and T651 5/32 3/16 (0. . Sheet or plate thickness. . . . .090 . . . . . .. 1340 1920 Yield Strengthe. . . . . . . . . . . . . ...194) Ultimate Strength. . . . . . . . .. .)b Sheet or plate thickness. . 0. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .... . . . .071 .. . . . . . lbs . .312 . .080 . . .055 .. . .. . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle Monel Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Rivet Type . 1355 2225 2585 3300 3400 0.050 .095 Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners.4. . . . .. . . . . . . Fastener shear strength based upon nominal hole diameters and Fsu = 65 ksi from data analysis. . . ..162) (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .... . . . . .125 .160 . . . . . ..258) 529c 632c 694c 754 776 797 852 863 .100 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .1. .2(l). . .. . .. . 273 408 562 732 874 1060 1325 1340 . . . . . . ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . Rivet shear strengthd . .190 . . in. . . . . . 0. lbs . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. Head height (ref. . 0. . . in. . . . . . . 0. 0. . . . . .. . . Sheet and Plate Material . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . . . . . . . .071 . .. Allowable loads developed from test with nominal hole diameters as listed. 483 688 888 1300 1615 1885 1920 . 1920 . . . . . .3). ..... ... . .). . . . . . . .250 . . . 0. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 0. . .090 .. . . . . . . . 0. .. . . .. . . . . 906c . . . 0. ... . . . . . . .: 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . .050 . . .080 . . .3. .. . . .. . . . 828c . .. . . . 9. . a b c d e 1/8 (0. . . . . . . . 0. .. . .. . .1. . . . . .. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 .063 . Rivet Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2485c 2975 3105 3365 3400 3400 169 346 454 561 621 682 833 863 ..125 .250 . 0. . . .. . . 0.. . . . 0.063 . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.. . 8-77 .. . .. . . in. . .042 . . .. . . . . ..100 .

.2(m).. . .. . . .: 0. . 450 c . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. .080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet Diameter. .130. . Sheet thickness. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 62 150 263 333 386 403 . . . in. . . . .. . . . . . 9. . . . .050 . . .162.. in.2. . . . . . and 0. . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . The use of knife-edge conditions in the design of military aircraft requires the specific approval of the procuring agency. . e Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1722. . . . . . . . . . . . .001 inch. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .: 0. . d Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate value. . . . 3/16 (0. lbs. .063 . . . . . . ±0. . 0. . .. . . . . . 99 240 327 425 534 600 653 0. . .3. . . ... . . . in. 0. . 8-78 . . 518d 586d 662d 747 832 950 950 c Yield Strengthf.130) 5/32 (0. . .. . . . . . . . lbs.3). . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . . . .063 . 0. . . . . . . . 0. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . b Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . . . . . Rivet shear strengthe . . NAS1721KE and NAS1721KE ( )La (Fsu = 33 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 1/8 (0. . . . . Head height (ref. .4..). . . . . Sheet Material .. . . c The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge conditions. . .194) Sheet thickness. . .125 .071 . . . . . . . . in. . . . .)b . . . . 0. .. . . . . . 182 287 404 534 665 874 0. . . . . . 0. . . .162) Ultimate Strength.. .125 . .1. . . .055 . . .070 a Data supplied by Avdel Corp. . . . . . . . . . .194. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342d 435d 491d 555 626 697 700 700 c . . 0. . 0. . . . . .100 . . 221d 277d 351 396 448 450 . . . . . . .. . . .. in. . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy (7050) Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.090 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0... .090 . . . . .. . . . . . . . .040 .100 .042 . . . . . and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . 0. . 0. . 0. .. 0.071 . . . . .050 .1. .

. .250 . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .090 . . . . . . . . .001 inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . lbs.080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .)b . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Supersedes page 8-79 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-79 .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . .1. . . . .. . 0. . . . . . . . .: 0. . . .. . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . .. . . 0. . . . . . . . .130. . . . ±0.071 . . lbs. . . . . . . . . . 77 220 375 470 578 615 641 707 799 .. . . . . . .071 . . . . . . The use of knife-edge conditions in the design of military aircraft requires the specific approval of the procuring agency. . . d 585d 751d 853d 881d 896 912 951 1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000 . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . 0. 0. . . . . . . . . . .125 . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2(n). .: 0. . . Rivet Diameter. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .162. . . .162) Ultimate Strength. . .. in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. Static Joint Strength of Blind 100E Flush Head Locked Spindle A-286 Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . .. d Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate value. . . . . . . . . . .. . .3. .194) Sheet thickness. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .050 . 122 352 471 604 753 902 997 1110 1210 . . . . . . . . .. . .. .160 . . e Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS1722. . . . . .d 919d 1045d 1190d 1345d 1365d 1415 1485 1500 . . 1075c. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .063 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .090 . 9. . . . .125 . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . 454c.194.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . f Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . . . 0.160 .050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Head height (ref. . . . . . . ..3. . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthe . . . . . . .055 . . .d 1230d 1405d 1595d 1785d 1970 2055 2125 2200 2200 Sheet thickness.100 . . . . .. . . in. . . b Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . . . . . . . . NAS1721C and NAS1721C( )La (Fsu = 75 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 1/8 (0. .. .190 . . . . . . . .070 a Data supplied by Avdel Corp. . . . .042 . .. . .040 . . . 0. . . . . . . . . 0. . .. . 0. . .080 . . . . . . .040 . . .. . . . 0.2. . . . . .). . in. . Sheet Material . . . . . . . . . . . c The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge conditions and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . .3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/16 (0. .. . . .250 . . . . .190 . . 0. . . 0. .063 . . . .. . 0. . .. . . . . . . 707c. . . . 0. . . . 1500 Yield Strengthf. . . .130) 5/32 (0.100 . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. and 0. . .. . . 246 425 585 763 942 1330 1470 1585 1820 0. . . . . . . . 0. . .

4......250 Rivet Shear Strengthe .. in....... in. . lbsf ----643c.... ..055 ----382 494 619 758 851 979 1095 1195 1395 0.. . . .. . 0. .. . ...3. .... 9.... ...050 0.: 0.. ...3..d 497 535 577 624 671 789 954 1030 --1030 Yield Strength. e Rivet shear strength is documented on HC3212 standards drawing...100 0.. ...080 0. .. .. .. The use of knife-edge conditions in the design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring activity. ..2(q).... ..100 0.. Sheet Thickness.071 0..194) Sheet Thickness. . ..001 inch..0. (Nominal Hole Diameter. .)b . ....... ...... b Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . . ..1.. ..... d Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value..... c The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge conditions and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. .. .125 0...160 0...090 0.... .. .... 1/8 (0. in. ... ..... . ... .090 0.071 0......130.. Sheet Material ... . . ...070 . and 0. ...040 0. Static Joint Strength of Blind Flush Head Locked Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheets Rivet Type . ....1......d 318 367 397 431 469 507 602 664 ----664 --436c...... f Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.040 0.063 0... a Data supplied by Huck International Inc. ......160 0. . ..194. . . .3). Rivet Diameter. 151 244 366 397 431 454 476 532 610 ----0...190 0. . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. .... ..250 Head Height [ref.. in..... ...... .)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0..: 0......125 0.. .. lbs. .042 --236 387 480 577 624 671 740 837 921 --0. +/..MIL-HDBK-5H. in...... . . ..050 0.... . 3/16 (0.]..2.. ..d 688 739 795 851 992 1190 1355 1480 1480 ......... .... .. 280c..080 0.. . ..063 0.... . .162) Ultimate Strength.... Supersedes page 8-82 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-82 ....162... . ...190 0..130) HC3212 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx.. . .

. .)a Clad 2024-T3 1/8 (0. 286 382 441 508 582 641 700 . 0. . .) b MBC 4807 and 4907 (Fsu = 33 ksi approx.3. . . . . . . . 0. . c The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge conditions. . . . . . .. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .e c . 160 274 345 423 486 519 602 . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . d Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS 1722. . . . . .040 . .. .001 inch.. .194) Sheet thickness. . . . . . . and 0. . .: 0. .040 . . . . . Sheet Material .. .. . . . . . .125 . .2(r). . . . . . . . . . 3/16 (0. . . . .090 . . . Rivet Diameter. . . . 0. . 0. . . .. . and rivets meet the requirements of NAS 1721. . . . . .. .. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable.050 .130) 5/32 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .2. . 437 508 588 677 766 937 950 950 c Sheet thickness. .. . . .041 . . . Rivet shear strengthd .1. . . . . . .. .053 . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . 0. . . . . .071 . . . . 102 173 264 309 333 360 387 . .071 . b Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . . (Nominal Hole Diameter.. . .162) Ultimate Strength.0. . . . . .090 . .063 . . .: 0. . . . .063 . . . . . . . The use of knife-edge conditions in the design of military aircraft requires the specific approval of the procuring agency.080 . . . . . . . in. . . 0. .. . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle 2014 Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Machine Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . . .. .130. . . .3). . 183 243 320 368 412 435 450 . . . .100 . . .3. .4. 263 347 441 546 651 765 904 0. . . . . . . 0. in. 0. . 0. .. 0. . . . .. . Head height (ref. 8-83 .050 . . . . . . .. . . lbs. . . . . . . . . . . in. in. .. . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. .. . . . . . . . . . 450 c .. . .. . . . . . in. 9. . .160 . . . . 700 Yield Strength. . 0. . . . .. . . . . . . . .160 . 0. . lbs. . . . . 0. . . . . . .068 a A product of Avdel Systems Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194. . +/. . .162. . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . .080 . . . . .).100 . .. . 0. . . . . . . 0.125 . .

. 0. 0. . . . . . .130.1. .. . . 247 284 326 378 415 437 450 . . . . . .2. . 0. .. . . . . . 0. .. . . . . . ..063 . . . . Rivet Diameter. . . 0. . .080 . . . .d . . . . Rivet shear strength is documented in NAS 1722. . . .. . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . . . 389 441 507 589 617 649 684 700 . 0. . . . . . . . .071 . . . . . . 0. . . 9. . .3. .. . . 0. . . . ±0.050 . . . .. 0. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.. . . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . .. . . . . and 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . 571 650 751 814 864 906 948 950 950 Sheet thickness. . . Sheet Material . . . .125 . . .162. . . .090 .3). . . . . .050 . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .032 . lbs.. .090 . . . . 0. . . . .100 . 700 Yield Strength. . .040 . . . . . . .032 . . . . . . . . . . . . a b c d 238 277 321 368 381 389 399 . . . Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . . . .071 . . . in. . . . . . . 0. . .. . . . . . ... . . 0. . . . . in. Static Joint Strength of Blind Protruding Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .063 . . . . . . 375 431 500 572 583 594 607 619 . and rivets meet the requirements of NAS 1720. . . . . . . . . .100 . in. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .080 . 0. . . . . . . . . .. . . .: 0. . . . . lbs. . . . .130) 5/32 (0. .2(s).)a Clad 2024-T3 1/8 (0. . .025 . . . . MBC 4801 and 4901 (Fsu = 33 ksi approx. . ..025 . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . Rivet shear strengthc . . . . . . .. 8-84 . . . . . . . 552 635 743 810 828 843 858 896 A product of Avdel Systems Ltd. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . 0. . .194) Sheet thickness. . 450 .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194. . 0.162) Ultimate Strength. . in. . . . . . .125 . . . . . . . .040 . .4. . . . . . .. . . .: 0. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .)b .. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .001 inch. . . 0. . . . .. .. . . . 3/16 (0.

. . . . . . . . . .3.160 . . .160 . . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (see 9. . . . . . . . in. . lbs 270c 317 377 414 456 503 550 664 . . . . . . . .. . . . 0.. . . . . 0. .125 . 420c 496 542 594 652 711 856 1030 . .125 . . .. . .3. . Rivet Diameter. . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Blind Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . . . . 0. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250 . . . .. . .. . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . .. . 0. . . . . . . . . lbs 196 252 323 368 417 445 459 494 . . . .055 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . ... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthd . . . . . . . . 1480 3/16 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 624c 680 743 812 882 1055 1299 1480 . 0. . . .080 .090 . .090 . . . . . . . . . . 1/8 (0. .071 .063 . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . .162) Ultimate Strength.). . 1030 Yield Strengthe.063 . in. . . . .3). . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . in.071 . 0. . . . . .. . .. . . . . .042 237b 306 395 451 512 581 650 714 775 . . . . . . . . . . 0. . .. .100 . . . .. .1. b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . 0. . 0. in. . . . . . . . 664 . . .040 . . .. . . Sheet Material . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . .050 . .: 0. .194) a Data supplied by Huck International. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 0. . . . . 0. .130) HC6222a (Fsu = 50 ksi) Nominal Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0. . . 464 530 605 687 770 972 1045 1108 . . . . 0.. 0.080 . . . . . .. . . . . . . Head height (ref. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. .) . ..2. . . . . . . . .. . 0. . . .. . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . . . . . ... . . 0. .. . . . . . . . . . . .250 . . .040 .070 . . . . . .. .050 .2(t). . 8-85 .4. . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .190 . d Rivet shear strength is documented in MIL-R-7885D. . . . .190 . . Sheet thickness. . . . .100 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .: 0. . . . . . . . . . in. . .. 0. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.

. . . .. . 0. . . . 814 . . .2(u). . 0. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . 0. . . . . . 500 586 682 788 895 1048 1139 1218 1376 0. .125 . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . .). . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Blind Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbs . . .090 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . .071 . Sheet thickness. . . . . .. . . 1/8 (0. 8-86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet Diameter. . 0. . . . . . . . . .. . . 0.. . 0. . . . . . d Rivet shear strength is documented in MIL-R-7885D. . . . . . . . . . . . in. in. .144) HC6252a (Fsu = 50 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . in. . .3. . . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . 0. . .190 . 0. .207) 265 b..250 . . . . . .1. . . . 0. .. . . . . . . . .035 . .: 0. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . 0. . . . 665 c 720 782 851 920 1092 1332 1505 1685 1685 154 214 288 384 444 494 513 531 576 640 . . .125 . ..063 .160 .c 467 544 591 645 704 763 911 1097 1237 1245 1245 Yield Strengthe. . . . in. . ..) . . . . 0. . . 0.: 0.1. . .178) Ultimate Strength.063 .190 . 408 b. . . . . . . . ... . . . Sheet Material . . . . .4. lbs . . . . . 0. . . . . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate. . .090 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .050 . . .3). . . 0. .071 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . .250 . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . .047 3/16 (0. 0. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . .032 . . . . . Rivet shear strengthd .. . .. . .2. . . . 0.032 . . . . . . Inc.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . in. . . . . .. . . . . . . .080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (see 9. . . . . . 0. . . . .c 304 352 414 452 495 543 591 701 814 . . . . . . . .. . . Head height (ref. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .063 a Data supplied by Huck International. . . . . . .080 . . .3. . . . . .. 0. . . . . ... . . . . . . . .160 .040 . . . . . . . .050 . 240 332 451 524 607 698 758 814 893 961 1096 0.

. . lbs 294c 358 439 544 608 681 716 768 897 1030 .1. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (see 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthd . .. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 . . 0. . . . . Rivet Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .090 . . . . 0. . 0. . . . . . Inc. .040 . . . HC6224a Sheet Material . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . 0. . . . .. . . .046 a Data supplied by Huck International. . 0.. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . 0. . . . .063 . .080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 . . . . . . . . . .130) Sheet thickness.160 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .: 0. . . .037 230 282 347 431 456 493 535 576 664 . . . .090 . . . . 0. . . .. in. . in. 0.071 . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . .190 . .063 . . . . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate. . 1030 Yield Strengthe. . . . . . . Head height (ref. . . 0. . . . . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring activity. . . .050 . . . .160 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. .3). . in. . . .) . . .071 . . . . (0. . .190 . . . d Rivet shear strength is documented in MIL-R-7885D. . 0. . 0. 0. . . . . 0. . New Page 8-86a . .2. . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100E Flush Shear Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Blind Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type .032 . . . .: 0. .050 . . . . . . .100 . . . . .). . . . . . . . lbs 209 288 387 516 595 681 697 710 742 786 . . . . . . . . . in. . . (Fsu = 50 ksi) Nominal Clad 2024-T3 5/32 3/16 (0. . . . . . 664 437c 534 660 737 824 921 979 1135 1350 1480 1480 185 248 328 431 448 457 467 477 503 . . . . . . . .2(v). . . . . . . . . . . . . .162) (0. . . . .028 320 438 592 687 794 912 979 1030 1080 1125 0.. . . . 1/8 (Nominal Hole Diameter. . .080 .MIL-HDBK-5H. . . . 0. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. . . . ..194) Ultimate Strength. . 0. . . .032 . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . 0..1. in. . . . . . .3. . . . . . .

071 0.063 0. The use of knife-edge conditions in the design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring activity.. .. . .... .130) AF3212 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx..... . .. . Rivet shear strength is documented on AF3212 standards drawing.070 .. . Sheet Material ....040 0. . .... Rivet Diameter.. .. ..... .050 0.3. .. ................. . . ...190 0...090 0... ...... . lbse 1480 Sheet Thickness. ... a b c ...... ....3). .... . . ..... . ..... .. .. .. ..........100 0..2(w)....055 ----370 491 572 662 713 808 914 1055 1280 0. in. and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable....194) THIS FASTENER HAS ONLY BEEN TESTED IN THE SHEET GAGES SHOWN IN THIS TABLE.190 0... . 143 235 310 330 353 379 404 468 557 ----0..160 0... .. . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. .... The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge conditions... . ... +/.. .. Rivet Shear Strengthd ..: 0. and 0.... d e Data supplied by Allfast Fastening Systems Inc.160 0....130.080 0..250 Head Height [ref...... .071 0..1.. Sheet Thickness.....194....MIL-HDBK-5H...... ..1...........040 0.. . ..... in. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . .... . 1/8 (0..... ..3.: 0.250 . .. . New Page 8-86b .. . .)b . .042 --224 371 431 486 518 549 629 740 835 --0.. ..)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0. ... .090 0. ....100 0..... .... . .. ... .050 0.. 664 1030 Yield Strength...... Static Joint Strength of Blind Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheets Rivet Type .001 inch. .. (Nominal Hole Diameter.. . ... .... ... .. in...2.162.. .. . 143c 247 383 414 435 457 480 537 616 ------224c 393 497 614 647 676 746 846 931 ------370c 494 634 790 902 987 1105 1205 1410 3/16 (0... ....0. . 0.. . lbs.. .. in.].. Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . . .. ..... ... .... 9... .125 0...162) Ultimate Strength.125 0.4.. DESIGN DATA FOR SHEET GAGES OR DIAMETERS OTHER THAN THOSE SHOWN HERE CANNOT BE EXTRAPOLATED....063 0. .. .. .. in.080 0.

.071 0. ..: 0. .. DESIGN DATA FOR SHEET GAGES OR DIAMETERS OTHER THAN THOSE SHOWN HERE CANNOT BE EXTRAPOLATED...100 0. .. ..050 0.080 0.. lbsf 1480 Sheet Thickness..... . .. ..162) Ultimate Strength.. . ..125 Head Height [ref.. Static Joint Strength of Blind Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type ... .... ... .063 0. . The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge conditions. Rivet shear strength is documented on CR3212 standards drawing... d e f Data supplied by Textron Aerospace Fasteners........ . ... ....090 0. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref..3. . .194) THIS FASTENER HAS ONLY BEEN TESTED IN THE SHEET GAGES SHOWN IN THIS TABLE..090 0....4.... 1/8 (0. . ... ... 9.070 . .... and 0...]... lbs... in.055 ----317 377 444 520 595 783 0.050 0.. in. +/.. ... .042 --204 286 336 393 456 518 576 0.. (Nominal Hole Diameter.001 inch. and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. ..... . Rivet Shear Strengthe ... . .2....1.. .. ... . Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0... 664 1030 Yield Strength........ ....162....... .040 0. 131 181 247 287 333 361 371 394 0... . .. .. . .. .194.. Rivet Diameter. .040 0. .3....... .... in. ..1..125 . . . . . Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value. The use of knife-edge conditions in the design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring activity.. in..... . . . . .130.3). . . ....... ..... . . .. ......080 0.MIL-HDBK-5H. .. .. .....: 0. .. .063 0...130) CR3212 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx. ..100 0.... ....)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0.. . . Sheet Material . .. ..... New Page 8-86c .. . 0..0...d 342d 401d 437d 477 513 536 594 --462d 535d 580d 630d 687d 743 834 ----683d 737d 798d 865d 932 1100 3/16 (0...)b .. in...2(x)..071 0... . a b c . Sheet Thickness.. . .. 297c... ..

035 --298 387 501 571 651 738 804 886 1000 --0...001 inch.063 d e Data supplied by Allfast Fastening Systems Inc. ... DESIGN DATA FOR SHEET GAGES OR DIAMETERS OTHER THAN THOSE SHOWN HERE CANNOT BE EXTRAPOLATED..... and 0. ..... in... ...3).: 0......MIL-HDBK-5H.... .. .... .. . ...2. . .063 0..050 0.071 0.. .. .... New Page 8-86d ..... ..050 0..... The use of knife-edge conditions in the design of military aircraft requires the specific approval of the procuring activity.... ....125 0..090 0.144) AF3242 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx..160 0..080 0... . and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable...... ... in.. . .... . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8.178... .. ... ..1.160 0.. Sheet Material ...... .. ... .. . ..... ....178) Ultimate Strength. .. .. . in.190 . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref...4..... 193c 250 321 414 470 524 550 577 643 736 814 --299c 387 501 571 651 738 804 886 1000 --------573c 654 746 849 951 1120 1250 1365 3/16 (0.. ... Rivet Shear Strengthd .207. 192 250 321 414 470 524 550 577 643 736 814 0. .....100 0.... . Rivet shear strength is documented on AF3242 standards drawing. 0. ... . ......... . ....1. lbs.....080 0.... .. . ... . ... 814 1245 Yield Strength.. ...... . ... .. . . Rivet Diameter... in... . .. 1/8 (0. ...032 0.)b .: 0.. The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge conditions. ...... .... ... . ....).........2(y)..144.... . +/-0..)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0..... .. . .. Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0.. Sheet Thickness. . .... . ..040 0.. .... lbse Sheet Thickness.. .. ....040 0.. .207) THIS FASTENER HAS ONLY BEEN TESTED IN THE SHEET GAGES SHOWN IN THIS TABLE...090 0.100 0.. . (Nominal Hole Diameter.. ... ..190 Head Height (ref.063 0.... in. .... .. .047 ------573 654 746 849 951 1120 1250 1365 0.3. 9... . . a b c 1685 . .3....032 0..125 0.071 0. .

090 0... .. in..d 302 374 467 568 584 602 620 664 --378c........ ....3. . .. . and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable.144) CR3242 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx.. DESIGN DATA FOR SHEET GAGES OR DIAMETERS OTHER THAN THOSE SHOWN HERE CANNOT BE EXTRAPOLATED.080 0. ....032 0. . . .. .. in.. . The use of knife-edge conditions in the design of military aircraft requires the specific approval of the procuring activity.. . .).: 0. . .. . 1/8 (0.. ...100 0. in.. . .063 d e f Data supplied by Textron Aerospace Fasteners.2. ... Rivet Diameter......3.. . 9.090 0. .. . . 0.178) Ultimate Strength. .. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.207) THIS FASTENER HAS ONLY BEEN TESTED IN THE SHEET GAGES SHOWN IN THIS TABLE. .. . . . ... ..... 245c...040 0.. Sheet Material . .. . . .... .)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0. ... .. .. .. .. Rivet shear strength is documented on CR3242 standards drawing.. Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value.... ..... ... . . ...071 0..)b ... . . .050 0... in.. .1.. Rivet Shear Strengthe ...... Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0.......178. .... Static Joint Strength of Blind Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type ... .071 0. . ... and 0. .... .. . .. ... 814 1245 Yield Strength...063 0. .040 0. . .. (Nominal Hole Diameter. .. ... . . +/-0.. ..... .. ...: 0. .. . ..... ... ...063 0..... ..100 0.d 467 582 653 732 872 894 950 ------681c 764 856 959 1165 1230 3/16 (0. .050 0.... Sheet Thickness. lbs. .... 158 206 265 330 361 395 434 473 569 0.. ..1... .125 .. .207... ... Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8....047 ------472 540 616 678 734 873 1685 Head Height (ref. .. . ... ...3).144.. . . . in...035 --245 318 413 471 514 562 609 729 0. a b c 0. lbsf Sheet Thickness..032 0. .080 0. .. New Page 8-86e .125 . . ..2(z).... .MIL-HDBK-5H... The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge conditions. .. ......4.. ... ...... .001 inch.

. ... .. in.. Rivet Diameter.125 0.. . lbsf Sheet Thickness.035 --217 340 500 598 675 741 781 833 906 968 --0. . . .4...... .. .... Sheet Material . ... ...3.063 0.071 0...160 0... ..3. a b c 0... .. .. .... .2(aa)..3). . ...... . . . .. .032 0... ...... ..178............ Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value..... .MIL-HDBK-5H. Rivet Shear Strengthe .. in... Static Joint Strength of Blind Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type ..... and 0.. Rivet shear strength is documented on HC3242 standards drawing.... ...080 0. . in... ... DESIGN DATA FOR SHEET GAGES OR DIAMETERS OTHER THAN THOSE SHOWN HERE CANNOT BE EXTRAPOLATED. .. . . 1/8 (0.. .190 0.)a Clad 2024-T3 5/32 (0. .. +/-0..063 d e f Data supplied by Huck International Inc. ..063 0... 138 218 317 433 475 510 527 543 585 644 ----0. . .... ... .: 0. ... lbs...178) Ultimate Strength..... ..250 .. ....160 0......001 inch.. . 814 1245 Yield Strength.. .......... 0..... ...... . .047 ------529 643 772 889 966 1075 1160 1235 1375 1685 Head Height (ref. ..... ... .071 0.. Sheet Thickness.100 0. . .. ...... .)...d 477 563 616 675 741 803 918 1075 1215 --------682c 744 813 889 966 1130 1320 1480 1685 3/16 (0.100 0..144) HC3242 (Fsu = 51 ksi approx. . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8..090 0. 9. 267c.b . in.......... .....050 0.. The values in the table above the horizontal line in each column are for knife-edge conditions...... .. . ........ . .. .d 310 363 433 475 522 560 597 690 814 ------411c. . . ..144... The use of knife-edge conditions in the design of military aircraft requires the specific approval of the procuring activity. . ..050 0..... ... .2......040 0..207. ...080 0. .. . . .. .... . (Nominal Hole Diameter... ...: 0.... and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable.. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . ... . . . ... .. . ..... New Page 8-86f .250 . .... ..125 0.... ....... .1...190 0. . .....1. . ..... . . ... in.. .. ..090 0.032 0... .. ... . ..... ...040 0.. .207) THIS FASTENER HAS ONLY BEEN TESTED IN THE SHEET GAGES SHOWN IN THIS TABLE. Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0.. .

0. .130. . . . 316 452 536 608 645 683 775 905 1015 1030 1030 Yield Strength . . . . . . . . +/. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 . . . . . 0. . . 0. . . . d Rivet shear strength as documented in Allfast Fastening Systems Inc. . . . ..001 inch. . . . . . . . . 0.090 . . P-127. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .050 . . . .063 . . . . . . . . . . . 249 341 397 460 531 591 720 901 1015 1030 0. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . e c 3/16 (0. . . . . . . The use of knifeedge condition in the design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .162. . . . . New Page 8-86g . . . 664 . . . .)a Clad 2024-T3 1/8 (0. . . . . . . . 0. . . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.. . . . . . . . . .071 . .4. . . . . .. . . . . 0. . . . Rivet Diameter. . . . .3).080 . . . . .162) Ultimate Strength.3. . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . . .: 0. . . . . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. .2(bb). . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .). lbs. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .. . . 0. . . . . 0. . .071 . . . .250 . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . .. .)b . . in.042 . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Head height (ref.080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 492c 593 706 832 891 1000 1155 1290 1480 1480 Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194) . 0. . . . . . . . . and 0. . . lbs. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .194. . 0. .1. . . . . b Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . . . . . . . . . in. . . . .0. . . . . . . . . . 202c 287 388 412 439 469 498 573 664 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . 0. 0. . in. 160 216 290 335 379 421 462 566 664 . . . . . . . 0. .090 . . . . . . . . . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . .100 . d AF3222 (Fsu = 50 ksi approx. .040 . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .: 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.063 . . . . . . . . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . . .125 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .250 . . . . .050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 0. . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H.. . .. . . Rivet shear strength . 0. . 0. . . 0.070 a Data supplied by Allfast Fastening Systems Inc. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. . . . ..130) 5/32 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind Flush Head Locked Spindle Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . Sheet Material . . . .040 . . Sheet thickness. . .3. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .055 .160 . . . 383 451 527 611 696 880 1095 1280 1480 0. .

. . . . . . . . . 0. 0. . . . . . . .250 . . .125 . . . 0. . . . . ..1. . . . . . .. . b Loads developed from tests with hole diameters of 0. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .0. . . . . . . .160 . . .100 . The use of knifeedge condition in the design of military aircraft requires the specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . . .054 . . . . 0.. .160 . . Rivet shear strength . . .194) (Nominal Hole Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. d Yield values is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value. . . . . . . . . .071 . . .130. . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . 0. . . CR3222 (Fsu = 50 ksi approx. . . . . 0. 0. in. . . . . .. . . . . . 158 199 252 285 322 362 384 425 483 . . . . e Rivet shear strength as documented in Textron Aerospace Fasteners PS-CMR-3000. 373 422 476 537 598 750 881 955 1100 0. .1. . . .2(cc). . . in. . 0.162) (0. . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. . . . . . . . in. . . . . 0. . . Ultimate Strength. . . . Head height (ref. . . . .080 .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .040 . .190 . .. . 0. . . . . .063 . . . . . +/. . . . . . . . . . . . . . a Data supplied by Textron Aerospace Fasteners. . . . . . .: 0. . . .d 708d 764d 827d 889 1045 1215 1325 1480 1480 f 416 454 496 528 589 664 .040 . (0.050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .080 . . . .. .. . and 0. . . . . . . . Clad 2024-T3 1/8 5/32 3/16 Rivet Diameter. .3). .. . 286c. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .4. 0. . . lbs. . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . 9. . . . . in. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 658c. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .069 e 328d 382 d 445c. . . . . . .0005 inch. . . . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . .3. . . . . .d 513 d . . . .071 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. lbs. 0. . . . . . . . . . 0. .041 . . . . . . . . . . . . .063 . . . . 0. .MIL-HDBK-5H. . . . . . . . .050 . . . . .d . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .)b . . . .: 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .). . .194. . 0. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 . . . . . . . . New Page 8-86h . . f Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.130) (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250 . .. .090 . . . . . . 247 313 354 399 450 501 597 669 731 854 0. 0.090 . . .162. . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of Flush Head 5056 Aluminum Alloy Rivets in Clad Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . Sheet thickness. 0. . . .. 664 555d 602d 654 706 821 928 1020 1030 1030 Yield Strength .. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . .190 .)a Sheet Material . .

.090 . . . . . . . 7215 3/8 (0. . . .. 5005 Yield Strengthe. .: 0.. . 3935b 5080b 6150b 6520b 7215b . . .200 . . .. Sheet or plate thickness. 0. . . . . . . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . 2430 3235 3510 4860 6460 0. . . . . . . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter). . . . . 0. . . .. . . from the greater of 0. . . . . . . . .. in. . .. c . . . . . . . . . 0.071 ..) Sheet or plate thickness. . . .. . . . ... . ..312 .090 . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . .. . . .. .100 . . .. . . . . Sheet and Plate Material . .. . ... . . . . .. . .. . . ..160 . ... .. .. 0. . . . .. . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . .. . . . .125 . . . .080 . 0.. . .168 a Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company. Fastener Diameter. . . . . . . . 0. .. . REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.125 . . .. 1980 c c . . . 6010b 7205b 6580b 9810b 10380b 10380 c 478 584 702 819 1115 . .198) (0. . . .. . . . . 0. .. ... . .100 . . . .. . ... . .. .. . . . Head height (ref..160 . . . . . 0.1. . . . . . .071 .082 . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . .... . . . .. .. . . . . .250 . .259) (0. ..). . . .. . .. . 0. . . . . .312 .. Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head A-286 Bolts in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .: 0.. 0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.190 . . . .. .1. ... . lbs . . . .311) Ultimate Strength. . . 0. .3.. . 627 730 901 1260 1760 . . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . d Fastener shear strength is documented in MIL-F-8975. Fastener shear strengthd . . .373) 1165b 1330b 1515b 1700b 1980b . ... . . . in. .. . . . . . in. . . . 0. . .. . . . . ... . . . .. . . . 1600b 1805b 2020b 2595b 2925b . 1986. . . . .. . . . . 0. . . . . .. . . . . 0. . .. . . .. ... . . . . .. . . . .. . ... . . . . . 5/32 (0. .. . . . 8-87 . . .. .. 2925 . . 0. .3) (revised May 1.. . .. . 2615b c 3295b 4335b 5005b . . . . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . . . . ....3. . 0. . . .. . .. . . . . . 0. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . .163) MS21140a (Fsu = 95 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 and T651 3/16 1/4 5/16 (0. . . . .. . ... . . .. . . . . .. . 1540 2285 2965 3190 4320 . .. . . . . . . . 1025 1435 2090 2655 . . lbs . . . . . . 0. . . .250 . . . .074 ..140 . . . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. .. . . .. in. .2. . . 9. . . .080 . . . . . . . . 0.200 . . .. . .. . . 0. 0.4.190 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 0. .3(a). . . . in.108 . . .. . .

.190 . . .. ..090 . Fastener shear strength is documented in MIL-F-81177.3). 0. . . . .. . . .. Clad 2024-T3 and T351 Fastener Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . 2340b 3195b 4440b 5060b 5700b. .. . . 7135 Head height (ref.: 0. . . .. . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . .. .. .. 3450b 5090b 6310b 7180b 0. b b 0.1. . . . .071 .. .125 . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H. . . . .. . . . . . . . lbs Sheet or plate thickness. . .. . . .. . . . .137 0. . . .. .. . . . . ..3.. . . ... . . . .. . ...105 0. . . . . . ..c .. .). Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. ..160 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . 0. . . . .311) (0. . . . .. Static Joint Strength of Blind 100E Flush Head Alloy Steel Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type .. . . . .090 . .. . . ..373) Ultimate Strength. . . . . ... .. . . . .. .... . .4. . . .125 .1. . . .. ... . . .259) (0. . 4955 6175 0. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .. 0. . .100 . . .072 0. .080 . . . 0. . . . . . 5/32 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 (Nominal Shank Diameter. ..080 . .. .. 0. .160 . . . . . Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . 12200b Fastener shear strengthd . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . .312 . . 403 ..c . . . . . in. . 989 1170 1525 1620 .3(b1). . . . . . . .190 . . in. . . .312 . . 0. 0. MS90353S. . .. . . . ..c 0. . . .. . . .250 . .375 . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . . . 2340 3450 5900 8500 12200 e Yield Strength . . . .163) (0. . . . 636 652 . . . . . . . . . . . . ..c 2000 2380 . . . . . . . . 1305 1480 . 3330 4170 5095 0. . . . . .. . 1120b.) . . . .. . . . . . . . Supersedes page 8-88 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-88 .. .c 0.3. . . . . .. . .. .. .. .100 . . 1170 1510 2200 2430 2610 0. . 8500b 11600b 0. and MS90353Ua (Fsu = 112 ksi) Sheet and Plate Material .375 . . . . .. . . lbs Sheet or plate thickness. . .: 0. . b b. . . . . in.. ... . . . . . b b b. . ... . . . . . . . . . .250 . . .... . . .. .080 0.. .. . 1740 0.. . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency.. 5900b 7860b 9890b 0. . . . (0. in. .. 759 799 1045 . . . . . 9. .. . . .. 513 501 ... MS90353. . . . . Yield strength value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . ..165 a b c d e Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company.. . . . .. 2080b 2670b 3210b 3625b. . . . . . .071 .198) (0. 1700 2700 3120 3440 0. . . . . . 1510 1735 . .2.

d Fastener shear strength is documented in MIL-F-81177. . in. from the greater of 0. . . . .165 a Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company. .090 . in.. . . 1830c 2090c 2330c 2825c 3365 3450 . .... . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . ..071 .. .. . 0. . . 2970c b 3805c 4760c 5370c 5900 .105 . (Nominal Hole Diameter. .. . . . in. .250 . . Fastener shear strengthd . . . . ... . . . .. 0. . . .312 .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. ... 0. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .3) revised May 1. . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . ..190 .. 0. . . . . Fastener Diameter.. . . . . 0. . . . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. .. .... .. . . . . . .137 . . .. . . . . . .3. in. . 0. . .. . . 9. . . . 3450 . .. . . . 5/32 (0. . . . c Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value. . . . . . 2340 b b . .: 0. .. .. . . 0. . . 0. . 0. .373) 1360c 1535c 1710c 1880c 2200c 2340 . . . .. . 1240 1640 2315 2895 4055 .080 . . .125 . .. . . .. .... . . . .250 . ... . . . .) . 4490c 5850c 6790c 8290c 8500 . .. . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . 5900 Yield Strengthe. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0. .. . . . .. . .. . . . .160 . .3. . . .. . . . . 0. . . . . 8-89 .160 . . .375 .. . . . . . . . ..125 . . .100 . . . . . . . 0. .. 0..1. .080 .. . . . . .080 . 0. .. 0. . . 8500 3/8 (0... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198) (0. . . . 0. . . . .1. . ... . lbs . ..2. . in.. . 2850 3675 5345 7075 8830 0. .100 . 0.. 0. .259) (0. .. . . .. . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Alloy Steel Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Rivet Type . Sheet or plate thickness. . . . .. . Sheet and Plate Material . . Sheet or plate thickness.. . . . Head height (ref. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . .. . . . . . . .311) Ultimate Strength.. . . . . . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameters. ... e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . .. . . b .). .: 0. 0.071 . . . . . . . . . ... .312 . .. .163) MS90353a (Fsu = 112 ksi) Clad or Bare 7075-T6 and T651 3/16 1/4 5/16 (0. . . 757 875 1025 1395 1910 2355 . . . 0. .090 . .072 . . . . .. . . . . . 6960c 8310c 10450c 12200 12200 12200 b 557 666 787 909 1215 1640 . .. . . . . . . .. . ... .2(b2).. . 1860 2590 3290 4680 6125 . . . 0. . . 1986. . . . .. . .. .190 .. . . .. .. . .375 .. . . . . . . . 0. . . . lbs . . . .... . . . . . . .

. . 0. 0. ...077 850 930 1025 1130 1350 1640 1960 2550 . . . . in.. 0.: 0. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1540 1980 2520 3710 . . . . . . . . . .160 . . . FF-200a FF-260a FF-312a Clad Clad Clad Clad Clad Clad 2024-T42 7075-T6 2024-T42 7075-T6 2024-T42 7075-T6 3/16 3/16 1/4 1/4 5/16 5/16 (0. ... . . . . . 0. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. e Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. .. 2620 . . .080 . . .. . 0.259) (0. . .. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. .. .. . . . . . 0. .. . . . . in. . .312 . 8-90 . . Head height (ref. .. . . . . 0.3. . . . .. . . (Nominal Shank Diameter.. . . .. ... .100 . in. .259) (0... . . . . . .190 . . . . . .080 . . .. . in. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Alloy Steel Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . . . .. . .. . . . . . .190 .. 0. .... .125 . . . . . .. . .311) Ultimate Strength. .198) (0. . 0.) Sheet or plate thickness. .160 . . .198) (0. . . . . .1. . .090 .. 1280 1600 2050 2470 3190 3880 .. .... . . . . ... . ... . . . . . . . .. .). . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .071 . .. . .. . 0. . 3080b 3940b 4810b 6000b .311) (0... . . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value.312 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . .102 . . . . 1440 1820 2200 2950 3690 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .134 . . .. . . . . . . . . lbs 1220b 1380b 1520b 1650b 1890b 2160 2400 2620 . . . . 2720 3600b 4490b 5550b 6000b 6000 . . . 2620 1360b 1500b 1620b 1740b 1960 2200 2420 2620 . . . . . . Fastener shear strengthd Sheet or plate thickness.3(c). . . . .. . . . 0.. . . . .250 . . . 0. . . Sheet and Plate Material . . .. 0. . .071 . . . 0. . . 2250b 2700b 2940b 3220b 3390b 3570b b 3730 2860b b 4260 4320 4500 4500 4500 4500 Yield Strengthe. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. in. ..2. . ... . . . 0. .. 6000 c c c 685 770 870 980 1200 1500 1800 2400 . . . . . . . .. . . . .125 ..: 0. .090 . a Data supplied by Monogram Aerospace Fasteners. . . . . . . . . . . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. 0. .. 0. . Fastener Diameter.250 . . . . . d Fastener shear strength is documented in NAS1675. . . lbs .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. 1120 1380 1700 2010 2600 3200 0. . . . . . . . .. .

. . . . .. .160 . . 1400b 1710b 2020b 2335b 2745b 3325b 3325b . Sheet thickness. . . .. . . . . 0. Head height (ref. . . .. .160 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .090 .259) 1085b 1295b 1525b 1695b 1830b 2170b 2190 .. . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . .. . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Alloy Steel Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type . . . ..3) (revised May 1. . . . . . 0. 0. . . . . 2190 c c . .. .. . . 8-91 . 0... . 0. .). . . .. . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . .080 . . . . . . . . . .3(d). .090 . . . . . ... d Fastener shear strength values are A basis from analysis of test data.. . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 . . . 0.. . . . . . ..190 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . .125 . 0. . . . . . .071 . . 0. . . . . . Sheet Material .: 0.250 . . . . . ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. .063 . . . . . . . .. .. . . 0.. 0. . .190 . . .1.071 . . .. 0. . .) Sheet thickness. . . . 0. in. . . 5/32 (0. . . . .. . . .: 0. . . . 1300 1725 2320 2830 3725 0. . . . ..198) Ultimate Strength. . .100 . . . . .1. 690 805 936 1065 1390 1835 2165 . . .. . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . . . 0. . . 0. . . . . . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter). . 0. . 0. . . . . . . .063 .102 a Data supplied by Monogram Aerospace Fasteners. b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . .100 . . . . .4. . . . .. . . .163) NS 100a Clad 7075-T6 3/16 (0. . . . . .. lbs . .080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbs . . . . . from the greater of 0. . . . in. . Fastener shear strengthd .3. . . . 1985. . . . . . .. . in. . . 9. . . . 2715b 3765b 4615b 5280b 5690b 5690 c 516 602 698 804 911 1180 1500 . . . . . . .. .250 . Fastener Diameter. . . .2. . 0. . . 3325 Yield Strengthe.. 0. . . .077 1/4 (0. . . . . . . . .069 .

. .071 . .080 .. . . . .3. . . 990 1040 1080 1300 0. . . . . .. .. . .. . . 1980 2240 0. . .. . . . . . . . . . .198) (0. . . . . . . . . .: 0. .. 2300 2650 0. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . 3/16 3/16 1/4 1/4 (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . . . . . . .125 . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 0. ... . . . . 2420 . .: 0. . lbs Sheet thickness.. 860 915 940 1160 0. . .071 . .. .061 0. . . . . . . . . . .090 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 640 750 . . . .080 . . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. . . .063 . . . . . . .. . 500 590 . . . . . . . . . . . .. .160 . . 1450 1450 1680 1850 0. . . . .3(e). . . 8-92 . . . . 0.. . . . . . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . 2520 .. . . . . .050 . . . . 1550 1550 2010 2250 0. . 740 800 . 0.190 . . 0. . .. . . . . .160 . . 1130 1180 1230 1460 0. . 790 880 . . . 1040 1060 1310 1480 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . lbs Sheet thickness.. . . . .259) (0. . . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . .. . . . . . 1270 1270 1480 1650 0. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . (0. . . .. . . . . . . . Head height (ref. . . . . Yield Strengthd. .088 0. . . . SSHFA-200a (Fsu = 50 ksi) SSHFA-260a (Fsu = 50 ksi) Sheet Material . . . .. . . . .190 . . .198) (0. . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Aluminum Alloy Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type .259) Ultimate Strength. 1340 1420 1550 1790 0. . . . . . . . . . .250 . . ... .. . . 500 520 . . . . . .050 . . .. . .. . . . . ..). . . . . in. . .. . . .. . .125 . . . . . . .250 . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . 0.. .. .. . . . . . .. .100 . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . 2650 . 630 700 . .061 0. . . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .088 b a Data supplied by Monogram Aerospace Fasteners.. . . . .. . . . .090 . . . .. b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. Clad 2024-T42 Clad 7075-T6 Clad 2024-T42 Clad 7075-T6 Fastener Diameter. .. . b 0.100 . .. . . . . . .063 . . in. . d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . . . . . . . c Fastener shear strength is documented in NAS1675. . . . . . . . . 0. . in.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1550 1550 2650 2650 Fastener shear strengthc . . . . .. in.. . . . . . 2650 . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .

. . . . 0. . . .063 . . . 0.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.250 . .102 . . .. . . . . 0. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . c 1755b . . . . . 0. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .259) (0. .2. . . . ..250 .. . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . .063 . . . . 0. .. . . . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter). .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . 8-93 .3) (revised May 1. . . . 0. . . .. .312 . . 0. . . .125 . . . . . . b Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. 3160 3850 5395 6985 0. . . . . . . . 0. . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .198) (0.. Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Alloy Steel Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . . in.125 .. . . . . ...312 . . . . . . .190 . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .3. . . . . . 5900b .. 0. . 0. 1345 1750 2310 2965 3840 . 0. .. . .) .1. . . . . .. . 0. ..077 .. . . . . . . . . . 0. . . lbs . .. .100 . .. . . . . . . . Sheet or plate thickness. . . . .. . .4. . . ..160 a Data supplied by Voi-Shan Industries (Inconel X-750 Sleeve) and Monogram Aerospace Fasteners (A-286 Sleeve). ..373) Ultimate Strength. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . b 2350 2820b b 2850 3825b b 3450 4790b . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . ...100 . . ... . . . Head height (ref. .... . . .. 2340 . 1985. . . PLT-150a (Fsu = 112 ksi) (H-11 Nut and screw. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . .. .. . .. .160 . . .. . Fastener Diameter. . .. . ... . . .190 . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . 0... .: 0. in. . . . . . . . . . Sheet or plate thickness. . . .163) (0. . . . .. . . .4. . . . . . 0. b 1470 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730 830 953 1075 1390 1910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbs 1120b 1320b 1550b 1730b 1885b 2300b 2340b .080 . . . . . . . .. in. .080 . . . d Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameter in Table 9. . . 5570b .3(f). . 6695b 8440b 10700b 12250b 12250 c c c 534 615 705 805 906 1235 1545 . . .. . . . .: 0. . 0. . . . .. . . .2(a) and Fsu = 112 ksi. . . Fastener shear strengthd . . 0. . . . . . .. . .). . . . . . .090 . . . . 3450 5900 Yield Strengthe.160 . . . . . in. Sheet or Plate Material . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.071 . . . . .. 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .090 . . . . . . . . .. . . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . . . . 0.. . Inconel X-750 or A-286 Sleeve) Clad 7075-T6 and T651 5/32 3/16 1/4 3/8 (0. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .069 . . . . . . . . .071 . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . 2060b . . . from the greater of 0. . . . .

. . 0. .. . . Sheet or plate thickness. . . . . Fasteners installed in 0. . . . . . ..190 . .. . . .071 . .) Sheet or plate thickness.. . . .. . .090 . 9. 0. . . . . . . .. . . . .. .312 . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .. 1255 1770 2250 2655 3480 .071 . . . . . . . 4500 Yield Strengthf. . . . . .125 . 0. . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.. . . . . . .. . . . in.250 . .. . .. ..069 . . . . . 0. . . . . . . .160 . ...261/0. .063 . . .b . Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. 6000 3/8 (0. . . .. .. . . ... . . . . . . . 0.. . . . . . .090 .201. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .376 inch holes. . . .. f Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . 0. ... . . . . .: 0. . . . . 0.313. .. 2620 .. . .375/0. 6350c 7395c 9625c 9750 9750 9750 d 500 601 711 802 887 1105 1405 . . . .. 1530c 1700c 1885c 2065c 2530c 2620c 2620 .. . . . . . .. Fastener shear strengthe . . .259) (0. . . . .. . . ... .200/0. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . .. .. . . 0. . . . . . .250 . . . .063 . e Fastener shear strength is documented in NAS1675. . . .. ..312/0. . . . .. in.. . .. . . . . . 0. . .. . . . ..2. .. .. . . . . . 0.. 0.. . . . . 0. . . . . . . .311) Ultimate Strength. . .. . lbs . . . . 1930 2720 3200 4185 . . . .. .3). .... . . . .080 . . ..100 .. . . 0.. 1678 d d .160 . . . . . 0.. .134 . . 0..262. 0. in. 0. . . . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Alloy Steel Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type .. . . Fastener Diameter.080 .. .. ..... in. . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . .1.. . . . . 4165c 5190c 6000c 6000 . a b c d 5/32 (0. .. .312 .165/0. 0.. .125 ... .. .. . . . .375 . . . .. d . .. . . . . . . . 0. . . Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . . . . .375 . . .... .373) 1110c 1230c 1365c 1525c 1678c 1678 1678 .. . ..163) NAS1670-La Clad 7075-T6 and T651 3/16 1/4 5/16 (0. . .166. . .. The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. .3(g). . .160 Data supplied by Monogram Aerospace Fasteners..4. 0. . . . .. . .. . . . . .198) (0..1. ... . 3055 3890 5020 6280 7520 0.. . . . 647 788 941 1085 1340 1700 2020 . . . . . . 0. . . .: 0. . . . . . .. in. . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . .. . Head height (ref.. .. . .102 . .. .. . .. . . 2800c d 3400c 4255c 4500c 4500 . . . 0. . . . lbs . . .190 . . Sheet and Plate Material .077 . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . 8-94 .. 0. . 0. . .. . . .. 0. 0. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0.3.. . . .. . .. . . . . . . .). . . ..

. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 9. . . . . Head height (ref. . Fastener shear strength is documented in NAS1675. . . . .200. . . . ..125 . . 0. .050 . in. . . . . ..)b Sheet thickness. 0.). . . . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter.3. .049 . .071 .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . 0. . . . in. .061 1/4 (0. . . . . . . in. . . .: 0. . . . . . . 0. . Fastener shear strengthd . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . .. 0. . .063 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. 0. .. . . . . . .. . 1275 1450 1880 2480 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .090 . . . . . .. Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . .198) Ultimate Strength. . . . . . .3). . 853 1010 1185 1375 1550 . Static Joint Strength of Blind 100° Flush Head Aluminum Alloy Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type .. . . . . . 8-95 . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. .160 . . lbs . . .199/0. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . 0. . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . 0.. . . . . 666 774 892 1025 1155 . .1. 1550 Yield Strengthe.. . . . . . 0. .. . . .090 . . . . . . . .080 . 0.. in. a b c d e 5/32 (0. .. Fasteners installed in 0.100 .: 0. . . . . . .063 . .261 inch holes. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 0.4.. .080 . . . . . . . . .100 .125 . . . . Sheet thickness. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in.260/0. . ..165/0. . .. . . ..1.. . . . . . 0. .. . .050 . . .. .088 Data supplied by Monogram Aerospace Fasteners. . . . . 0. 1645 1900 2535 2650 2650 356 481 561 650 . . 960 . .3(h). .. . .. . . ..071 . 0. . Fastener Diameter. .259) 548c 756c 882c 960 . . 0..166. . 0.. . . . . . . . . . . .163) NAS1674-La Clad 7075-T6 3/16 (0. Sheet Material . 0. . . ..2. .. . . . . lbs . . .160 . .. .. . . . .

4.4.1 Protruding-Head Swaged Collar Fastener Joints — Tables 8. Where t/D < 0.3 as the load which results in a joint permanent set equal to 4% D.4.1.3). Allowable shear loads are obtained from Table 8. It has been shown that protruding shear head (representative configurations are NAS 2406 to NAS 2412 and M43859/1) fastener joints may not develop the full bearing strength of joint material.0 7075-T6 lockbolts.3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 8.4. These bearing stresses are applicable only for design of rigid joints where there is no possibility of relative motion of the parts joined without deformation of such parts.1.1. and sheet material is obtained by multiplying the proper “unit” strength by the ratio of material allowable bearing stress (ksi) to 100.1.1. if no specification exists. sheet thickness. as defined in 9.4 for the appropriate shear stress level. the load per fastener at which shear or bearing type of failure occurs is calculated separately and the lower of the two governs the design.1. static allowable loads for protruding shear head fasteners must be established from test data using the criteria specified in Section 9.1.0 where Rt and Rs are the ratios of applied load to allowable load in tension and shear. “unit” sheet bearing strengths for pins.1. This factor is not applicable to shear strength cutoff values which may be either the procurement specification shear strength (S value) of the fastener or. yield load is defined in Section 9. a statistical value determined from test results as described in Section 9. where D is the decimal equivalent of the fastener shank diameter.5. 8. The allowable loads for flush-head swaged collar fasteners were established from test data using the following criteria.4.1.4 SWAGED COLLAR/UPSET-PIN FASTENERS — The strengths shown in the following tables are applicable only when grip lengths and hole tolerances are as recommended by respective fastener manufacturers.1. Therefore. For convenience. are given in Table 8. The strength for a specific combination of fastener.4.1.18.2(a) through (j) contain joint allowables for various flush-head swaged collar fastener/sheet material combinations. unless otherwise noted in the footnotes of individual tables. tests to substantiate yield and ultimate bearing strengths must be performed. For some fastener systems.4. For lockbolts under combined loading of shear and tension installed in material having a thickness large enough to make the shear cutoff strength critical for shear loading.3.1. respectively.4.18. based on bearing stress of 100 ksi and nominal fastener diameters.4. Tensile strengths of lockbolts and lockbolt stumps also are contained in Table 8.14. permanent set at yield load may be increased if hole sizes greater than those listed in the applicable table are used.2 Flush-Head Swaged Collar Fastener Joints — Tables 8. The ultimate allowable shear load for lockbolts and lockbolt stumps may be obtained from Table 8.4. 8-96 . Rt + Rs5 = 1.2(a).1. Unless otherwise specified.4.1(a) and (b) contain joint allowables for various protruding-head swaged collar fastener/sheet material combinations. 8. as defined in Section 9. the following interaction equations are applicable: Steel lockbolts. This condition may exist even though the test hole size lies within the manufacturer’s recommended hole size range (refer to Section 9. The design bearing stresses for various materials at room and other temperatures are given in strength properties stated for each alloy or group of alloys.1.4. and are applicable to joints with pins in cylindrical holes and where t/D > 0. Ultimate Load — Average ultimate test load divided by a factor of 1. For shear joints with protruding tension head fasteners. Rt + Rs10 = 1.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 The allowable loads shown for flush-head swaged collar fasteners are applicable to joints having e/D equal to or greater than 2. For machine countersunk joints.0. When the noncountersunk sheet is thinner than the countersunk sheet. the bearing allowable for the noncountersunk sheet-fastener combination should be computed. 8-97 . compared to the table value. and the lower of the two values selected. the sheet gage specified in the tables is that of countersunk sheet.

5/16 . .Table 8. . . Tensile type have a higher head and more grooves than the shear type and can be either protruding or 100 flush head. Available as lockbolt stump only (0. 3/8 . NAS 1080.156 dia. lbs. Available as lockbolt only (0.4. . lbs. Used with 2024-T4 aluminum alloy collar. 7075-T6c Tensile Strength. . . Five groove design on lockbolts. .1. Strength value listed refers to lowest strength fastener configuration within this type.164 dia. lbs. . a b c d e f g h Lockbolts are pull-gun driven. . . . . . for 5/32 stumps). . . . . . . . . for #8 lockbolts). . . . 1/4 . . . Strength values listed refer to lowest strength fastener configuration within this type. Tensile Strength. . Tensile Typed NAS 1516 thru 1522 NAS 1525 thru 1532 NAS 1535 thru 1542 NAS 1546 thru 1552 NAS 1556 thru 1562 960f 1260 2185 3450 4970 740f 1195 2200 3500 5455 8-98 5/32 . . . . . . Used with 6061-T6 aluminum alloy collar. . . Ultimate Single-Shear and Tensile Strengths of Lockbolts and Lockbolt Stumpsa Heat Treated Alloy Steelb(160 ksi) Single-Shear Strength. . . Shear type have shorter head and less grooves than the tensile type and can be either protruding or 100 flush head. . 3/16 . . lockbolt stumps are hammer or squeeze driven. lbs. . Tensile Typed Nominal Diameter (inches) NAS 1456 thru 1462 NAS 1465 thru 1472 NAS 1475 thru 1482 NAS 1486 thru 1492 NAS 1496 thru 1502 2007f/1822g 2623 4660 7290 10490 1100f 2210 4080 6500d 10100h Shear Typee NAS 1414 thru 1422 NAS 1424 thru 1432 NAS 1436 thru 1442 NAS 1446 thru 1452 705g 1105 2040 3250 5050 Single-Shear Strength. . . . .

...)b .......190 .. Static Joint Strength of Protruding Shear Head Ti-6Al-4V Cherrybuck Fasteners in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type Sheet Material ..................100 ..... .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8....... 0... . 0........ 5/32 (0....190 . in.. ..... 2067 2246 2425 2873 3499 4036 a b c d Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners.... 0. ......250) Fastener Diameter.......002") (Ref.. .4).080 ............ 0.... in.............. 0......1.4.... in..... 0.. Section 8..1.3)....125 ........160 . . ........ ..... in...090 ..... 2007 . (Nominal Shank Diameter.. lbs..... ...... ................ 1225 1334 1455 1592 1727 2068 ........ ... Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameters in Table 9. ...... 861 1013 1107 1213 1331 1448 1741 ........ 0.. .0005" ..063 ...... 0..........190) Ultimate Strength. 0. 0. ..... . 0.. lbs.... 1/4 (0......1.071 ..2(a) and Fsu = 95 ksi.164) CSR 925a (Fsu = 95 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 3/16 (0...... 2694 Yield Strengthd... ..063 ... ........ ..080 ..050 ....... 995 1227 1371 1532 1711 1890 2007 ........4... 2415 2688 2960 3641 4595 4660 4660 Sheet thickness.......... 0............... 1442 1607 1792 2001 2205 2694 ............ . ...... 0......... ......3.... ... .....0................... 0. ......: 0.050 .100 .. 8-99 ......... .. Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref..... Fasteners installed in clearance holes (0....... .1(a). ......4........160 ... ............ ... 9.. . Sheet thickness........1.. 0.. .125 ...........: 0......071 .. 0.......090 .... Fastener shear strengthc ........

. . . . . .3).0. . . 2007 . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .190 .071 . . . . . . . . .002") (Ref. . . . Fastener shear strengthc . . . . 0. . . . .160 . . . . . .090 . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 889 981 1085 1200 1315 1600 2000 . . 5/32 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .080 .4). . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 8-100 . . .1. . . 0. . . . . . . . lbs. . . . . 1495 1645 1795 2175 2705 3155 Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners.)b . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . . .4. .. . . 1/4 (0.1(b). . . . . Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal diameters in Table 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180 1335 1505 1695 1885 2360 2694 . .080 . . . . .. . . .. . . .125 .. . . . . . .190 . . . . . . . .2(a) and Fsu = 95 ksi. . in. . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . .050 . . . . . . 0. . . 807 1020 1150 1300 1465 1630 2007 . . . . . . . .125 .: 0. . . . . . lbs. . .. Sheet Material . . .164) CSR 925a (Fsu = 95 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 3/16 (0. . 1970 2220 2470 3095 3975 4660 4660 Sheet thickness. . .. . . .160 .. .190) Ultimate Strength. .. . . . . . . a b c d 619 747 827 916 1015 1115 1360 . .1. . . . . . . . . . 0.. . . .. . . . . . . 0. . . . 0. . . . . . 0.4. . . . . 0. . . . . .. . . . .. . .: 0. . . . . . . . 0. . Static Joint Strength of Protruding Shear Head Ti-6Al-4V Cherrybuck Fasteners in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . Section 8. . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . Fastener Diameter. . . .. . . . . . . . .050 . . . . . . . . . .250) Sheet thickness. . . .071 . . . . . . . . . . 0. .063 . . . . .1. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . in. . 0. . . .100 .0005" .. . . ... Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . . . .. . . . . in. . . . . . . .. .. . 0.. 2694 Yield Strengthd. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fasteners installed in clearance holes (0. . . . . in. .090 . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .063 . . . . 0. 0. . . ..

. . . .. . . . . .). . . 0. . . . 0. . . . 0.. . .250) (0. .. . . . . . .312) Ultimate Strength. . 0. in. .. .. . .. . . . . . .081 Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company. . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Alloy Steel Lockbolt Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . .4. . . .090 . . . . . . .. in. .. . . . ..080 . . . . . . . . . . . .071 ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . in. . . .. .. . . ..100 . . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . . . .. . 0. . 7300 .125 . . . . .. . . . . . . . 3075 . .160 .071 . 0. . 0. . . . ..: 0. . . . . . 7350 8554 10435 10500 10500 1405 1598 1717 1850 2232 . Sheet or plate thickness. . . . . . 4650 7300 d Yield Strength . . . . . . . . .. .. . .) . . .. .190 . . . . . Fastener Diameter.. Head height (max.. .. in. .049 . . . . . . . . . . .190) NAS 1436-1442a (Fsu = 95 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 and T651 1/4 5/16 (0. . . . . 0... .. a b c d 3/16 (0. . . .. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . lbs ... . . . . 5656 6342 7910 8946 0. . . 0. Sheet or plate thickness. . . . . . ..063 . . .. . . Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . .. . . 0. . 2620 . . . .. . . . 0... . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . .071 3/8 (0. . .080 . . . . . ... . . . .190 . 0. 3327 3851 4666 5248 .125 . . .. . . . . . . . . in. . . . ... . . . . . 0. . . ... . . .. .. .312 . . . . .. . . . . . . . 0. . . . .250 . . 0. .160 ..090 . . . Fastener shear strength is documented in NAS 1413. . . . . .. . 0. .. . . .. . . .. . lbs . . . . .. .. . . .. .2(a). . . 3750 4811 4625 5994b 4650 6993 . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . Fastener shear strengthc . . . . ... . . 0. .. . . . . . . . ... . .. . . . .100 . . 2395 2790 3415 3765 . . . . . 0. . . ...312 . Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0.. . . .250 . . . . . . . . .375) 1684 1875 2077 2286 2620 .. .. .. . . . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter.: 0. . . . . .. . . 0. . . . . . . . Sheet and Plate Material . . . .. 8-101 . .

. . . . . . . .. .077 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .042 .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .... .. .. . . . . . . Fastener shear strengthe . . . 0.. . . . .. 0.. .. . . . .. 0. .. Fastener Diameter. . . . . . . . . .. . .094 . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. ..... . .) . . . .. 0. . 0. . .. . . . . ..324 . . . . .. . Yield value is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate strength value. . . 0.). . . . . .. .125 .. . . . . 2392 2669 3363 4340 5170 6210 7040 7200 . . .040 . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . 1071 . 3177 4010 4975 5760 7340 8730 8810 9160 9560 0. 0... . .. 8-102 . .. . . . .. . . . . . . 3071 3425 5200d 6490 7530 7870 8220 8280 . .080 . .2(b).. 0. . . .. . .. . ..063 . . . . . .060 .. .. . .312) Ultimate Strength. .. .433 . . ... .. . .. . 0.050 . .. .. . . . . . 0. . .125) NAS 7024-7032a.160 . . . . 0. . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. ... 8280 3/8 (0.. . .1. . . . . . . . .. .. . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .080 . . . . . . .. 0.012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. . .250) (0. .. . . 5280 .100 . .050 . .. .250 .. .. . . . .160 .. 0.250 . . .. . . . . Sheet and Plate Material . 0. .. . . 0. .. . .. . ... . . ..... .. . a b c d e f 1/8 (0. . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. Sheet or plate thickness. . . . . . . . . c 1398 . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear/Tension Head Alloy Steel Lockbolt Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . .. . 0.... .375 . 0. . . . 0. .040 .. . . . . in. . . . . . ... 0.. in.. . . . 4225 5500 8080d 8725d 10010 11270 11340 11620 11930 11930 c 426 537 682 770 870 981 1092 . .375 . .. . .. ... . . . . .. . 2070 ..156) (0. . . . . . .. . 0. 5300 ... . . .... . 0. . . . 0. . . . . .4. . . . .090 . . ..190 .. . .. .. . . .. . . .375) 563 846d 1040d 1147 1231 1289 1325 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .... .. . . .100 . . . .. . . . . . 0.. . .. ... . . . .312 .... . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . 0.. . . in. . . .071 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804 1024 1159 1311 1430 1649 2071 2595 . . . . Used with NAS1080K aluminum alloy collar. .. . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . .. ... . . .. .071 . . . . . . .. . . 1325 c c c . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . .090 .. . . 3060 5300 Yield Strengthf. . .. 0.. . .. .b (Fsu = 108 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 and T651 5/32 3/16 1/4 5/16 (0. . . . . .. . . . . 0. .. . ..050 . . . . .. . . . . . . 0. .111 Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company..125 . . .190) (0.. in. . . . .. . . . .. .. . . ...: 0. . 0. . . . . Sheet or plate thickness. .433 . . . 0. 881 1341d 1494d 1645d 1813 1921 2070 . . . . . . . . . . .. in. . Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0.. 666 846 957 1082 1221 1360 1705 . . .. . . .063 . . 0. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . . .. .. .190 . . . . . . . . . lbs . . . . .: 0.. ..324 .. . .. . . . . .. . .. .312 .. d 1743 2001 2083d 2256 2288d 2823 d 2493 3390d 2878 4140d 3060 4930 . . .. . . 0. . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . Fastener shear strength is documented in NAS1413. . lbs . . 1508 1708 1931 2152 2709 3486 4050 4140 . . ... . . . . Head height (ref. .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . 0. . . . . . . . .. ....

. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .: 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .250 . . .. .2(a) and Fsu = 95 ksi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . 2281 2594 2919 3765 4387 4525 4660 4660 Sheet thickness. . . . . .. . .190 . . . . . . . Head height (ref. . . . .160 .. .. . .250) Sheet thickness. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .063 . 1625 1894 2162 2619 2950 3231 3794 0. . . . . . . .: 0. .. . 9. . . . . . . ... . . . .071 . . . . .4. . . . . . 0. 0. . .. . . . . .250 . .. . . . . .100 . . . . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . .190) Ultimate Strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . in. . . . . .1. .. .160 . . . . .. . . . .063 . .. . . 0. . . . .060 Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .090 . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . a b c 659 887 1022 1116 1189 1257 1393 1608 .3.. . . . . 0. . . . .164) CSR 924a (Fsu = 95 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 3/16 (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . 0.)b . . . .. . . . . 0. .3). . . . . .080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..1. 0. . . . Fastener Diameter. . . .080 . . . . . . . Fastener shear strengthb . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .046 . . . . . . . . . .4.. . . . . . .1. . . . . 0. . 5/32 (0. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . . .071 . . . . . 2007 . lbs. . . . . . . . . 1/4 (0. . Sheet Material . . .100 . .. . . . 0.. . .090 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Ti-6Al-4V Cherrybuck Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type . . . 8-103 . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . .125 . . . . . . . .2(c). . 1383 1588 1779 2050 2263 2542 2660 2694 . . Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameter in Table 9. . . . . in. . . . . 941 1207 1385 1557 1775 1876 1950 2007 . . . . . 985 1148 1325 1480 1545 1733 1978 2191 . . .034 . . .. . . . . . . . . 0. 0. . . .. . . .050 .050 . 0. . . . . . 0. . . 0.). lbs. . . . . . in. . . . . . 2694 Yield Strengthc. 0. . . 0. .. . (Nominal Shank Diameter.

. .1. . . . 1118 1319 1509 1673c 1834c 2242c 2680c 2694 . .071 .2(a) and Fsu = 95 ksi. . . . . . . .050 . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . .046 . . . .. . .1. . . . . 778 922 1039 1109 1178 1352 1596 1805 . . . . . . . . lbs. . .050 . . . 0. . . . . . Fastener shear strengthd ..080 . . .250) Sheet thickness. . . 0. . .. . . .250 .160 . . .. . . . . 0. . . . in. Section 8. . . .071 .. . . .. . . . . .. 0.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 737 1019 1152 1279c 1419c 1560c 1898c 2007c . 0.034 . . . . .. in. . . . . . . . . . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter.. . . . . .4. . 0. . 9. . . .190 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . 0. . ... Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameter in Table 9. . . .). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . ..080 .4.. . . . . . .1. . . . . 0. . Yield load is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a b c d e 511 712 786 840 900 960 1110 1321 .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . .160 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007 .063 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . 0. .060 Data supplied by Cherry Fasteners. 1276 1513 1750 1979 2300 2575 3125 0.100 . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . 1/4 (0. . . . . .190 . . 2694 Yield Strengthe. . . . . . . . .: 0. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .090 . .. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Material . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Ti-6Al-4V Cherrybuck Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type . . . .125 . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . 5/32 (0. . . . Head height (ref. .4.4).. .250 . . . .: 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .2(d). . . Fasteners installed in clearance holes (0. .164) CSR 924a (Fsu = 95 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 3/16 (0. . . . . 0. . . . . .063 . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1837 2168 2500 3036c 3786c 4404c 4660 4660 Sheet thickness. . .0. 0. . . . .002) (Ref.. . lbs. . .190) Ultimate Strength. . in. Fastener Diameter. . . . 8-104 . .090 . . . . .)b . . . . . . . .3). . . .. . 0. . . . . .0005 . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . .125 . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .). . . . . 0. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 0. . . .2(e). . . . .. . Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameter in Table 9. .. . Sheet Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .063 . . .100 . .: 0. . . . in. . .164) HSR201a (Fsu = 95 ksi) 7075-T6 3/16 (0. . . . . . lbs. 8-105 . . . . .4. . .4... . 0. . .3. . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . . .)b . . . . . .160 . . . .. . . . . 5/32 (0.046 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 . . . . . 1/4 (0. . 0. . .3). . . . .. .. . . Fastener shear strengthc . . . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . . . . . . 0. . in. . . . 0. . . . . . .100 . . . . . . .090 . . Head height (nom. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 0. . 0. . .071 . . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head A-286 Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type . . . . 0. . . . .050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. Hole Size: Fastener installed in 0. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . lbs. .. in.. . .005 clearance (Ref. 2694 Yield Strengthd. . . .125 . . a b c d 835 1055 1185 1340 1505 1675 . . Fastener Diameter. . 0. . . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . .040 870 1225 1380 1550 1745 1940 2420 . .1. . . . . . . .. .090 . .. .4. . . . .: 0. . . . . . . 1055 1330 1500 1690 1900 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1605 1810 2040 2295 2550 3190 4180 0. . . . . 0. 0. . . . . . . . . . . in. . .4). . . . . . . .063 . . . .071 . 2030 2285 2575 2895 3220 4025 4660 4660 Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2007 1095 1545 1740 1955 2200 2445 2694 . . . .000 interference to 0.050 . . . . 0. .1. . . . .125 . .080 . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . .190) Ultimate Strength.. . . .2(a) and Fsu = 95 ksi. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .080 . . . .250) Sheet thickness.060 Data supplied by Hi-Shear Corporation. . .. . Section 8. . . . . .

.000 interference to 0. . . 0. .. .1. .4). . . . . . . . in. . . . .. . . . .2(f). . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . .4.090 . . 2007 1205 1520 1715 1930 2170 2410 2694 . .125 . . . . . . . .090 .3. . . . a b c d 797 1005 1130 1275 1435 1595 . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . . .. . . .100 . . 0. . .. . . 0. . .3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .080 . . . . . .160 . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthc . . .. . . .: 0. . . lbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/4 (0. . . . .)b .071 . . . .. . 0. . . . . . . . .. . . . . 0. . . .. . . . 0. . . . . . . 0. . . . .250) Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .050 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .080 . . .046 . . Head height (nom. . 0. .050 .063 . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Ti-8Mo-8V-2Fe-3Al Rivets in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . .1. . . . . lbs.1. . . .250 and Fsu = 95 ksi. 0. Sheet Material . . . . 2694 Yield Strengthd. . . . . . . .040 921 1165 1310 1475 1660 1845 2310 . . Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameter in Table 9. 0. . .1. . . . . . .. in. . .: 0. . . . . 0. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .063 .. . . . . . 0.2(a) and 1/4 = 0. .125 . . . . . . . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . . .160 . . . . . . . . . . . .. Hole Size: Fastener installed in 0. . . Section 8. . 5/32 (0. . . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . .). . 1530 1725 1945 2185 2430 3035 3885 0. . . . . . . 0. . . . . .164) HSR101a (Fsu = 95 ksi) 7075-T6 3/16 (0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . 9. . in. . .190) Ultimate Strength. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .060 Data supplied by Hi-Shear Corporation. . 1040 1310 1480 1665 1875 2007 . ..4. .071 . . . . . . 2000 2255 2540 2855 3175 3965 4660 4660 Sheet thickness. . . Rivet Diameter. . . . . . . . . . ..005 clearance (Ref. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-106 .100 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-107 . . in. . .. . . 0. . . . 3170 3780 4390 5880 8005 8955 10490 10490 e e Yield Strengthf. . . . . . . . . . . . .160 . 0. .048 . . . . lbs. . . 0. . .063 . . . . . . 2SC-3C Collar Clad 7075-T6 3/16 (0. . . . . . . . .250 . . .. . . . . . 9. 2694 . . . . . .. . . ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness.. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . 0.050 . . .071 . . .1. . . . .080 . . . in)c . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . .. 3090 3415 3740 4535 5670 6635 8230 0.. .. . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . . . . .. 0. . . . GPL3SC-V Pina. . . 0.080 . .2(a) and 1/4 = 0. . . . . 0. . .190) 1/4 (0. .. . . . Aluminum coated per NAS 4006. 0. (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 4660 . . . 0. . . . . .1.090 . . . . . ...1. . . .. . . . . . . 1800 2125 2485 2885 3310 3945 4660 . . . . . . .... .. . . .070 . . . . . . . 0. . .. . . . . lbs. . Section 8. . . . .4). . 1105 1500 1740 2020 2200 2355 2694 .190 . . . . . . .. . . . . in. . .063 .: 0. . . . 0. . .081 Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company and Voi-Shan Industries. . in. Hole Size: Fastener installed in 0.312) 3/8 (0. Rivet Diameter. 0. . . . . . . .375) Ultimate Strength. .3). . . .3. . . . . . . .2(g). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . 0. . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Ti-6Al-4V Lockbolt Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Rivet Type . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .b (Fsu = 95 ksi). . . 0. . . 0. . .090 . . . .190 . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . Sheet Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..125 . . . . . . . . .125 . . Head height (ref. .160 . .: 0.250) 5/16 (0. . . . . . . . . . .0005" clearance (Ref. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .4. . .. . . . . . . . a b c d e f 948 1160 1290 1435 1600 1760 2095 . .4.). . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthd . . . . . ..100 . . .250 . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . 1585 1755 1945 2160 2375 2910 3585 .. . . .071 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 0. . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . .. 0. . . . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . .063 . . Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameter in Table 9. . . . . . 2265 2500 2765 3030 3705 4640 5440 6270 0. . .1. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . .. . . . . . 2430 2865 3365 3865 5135 6245 7010 7290 7290 . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .250 and Fsu = 95 ksi. . . . . .005" interference to 0. . . . . . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . in.050 . .

. 0. . . . . . . . ..4). . . . . . . 0. . . . 9. 8-108 . . . . . . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency.). . . .160 . . . . lbs. . . . . 0. 0. . . . 0. .063 . ..250 . . .2(a) and Fsu = 95 ksi. . . . . . . . . . .375) .b (Fsu = 95 ksi). . . . . . .070 f Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company and Voi-Shan Industries. . . . . . .081 Ultimate Strength. . . . . . . . 0. ... . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .071 . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .: 0. . . . .. . ...050 . . . .375 . .3. . . .. 0. . . . . .090 . . Head height (ref. .090 . . . . . . 0. . .250 . . . Hole size: Fasteners installed in 0. . . Sheet Material . . . . .. in.005" interference to 0. . . . . . . . . 1285 1810 1435 2030 1590 2260 1760 2475 1910 2975 2205 3495 2620 3935 2975 4820 3685 5740 .1. Yield load is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate.. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . 0. . . . . . .)c . 0.1. . . . . . 0. .. . . . 2740 3230 3725 4930 6645 7885e 9705e 10490 . . . . . . .160 .071 . . . . . Aluminum coated per NAS 4006.. . . . . . . . .1. . . . .: 0. . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness.. Rivet Diameter. . . . . . .. . . . . 4660 7290 Yield Strengthg. . . . . . . . .. . 0. . . .. .063 0. . in. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .125 . 1535 . . . . . .3). . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Ti-6Al-4V Lockbolt Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Rivet Type . . . . . . . . . . . .2(h). . ... . . . ..4. . . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . in. ... . . f 1795 2085 2085 2440 2410 2845 2735 3245 3470e 4270 5505e 4175e 4590e 6260e 4660 7230 .. . . . . . . . . . g Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref..190 . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.. .312) 3/8 (0. . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthd . . . . . .. . . . . . . .125 . 2SC-3C Collar Clad 2024-T3 3/16 (0. a b c d e f GPL3SC-V Pina. . . . Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . .4. . . . 0. . . . .0005" clearance (Ref. .. . . in. .100 . . .063 . . . . . . . . . .190) 938 1255 1455 1680 1920e 2080e 2460e 2694 .. . . in. . .080 . . .. Section 8. .312 . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .312 . . . 0.190 . Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameter in Table 9. . . . . .. . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .080 . . . lbs. Sheet thickness. . . .050 . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2694 777 945 1050 1140 1230 1320 1545 1860 . 7290 .100 . 0. 0.. . . . . . . . . .048 1/4 (0. . . . . . .250) 5/16 (0. 2440 2750 3065 3705 4475 5010 6075 7175 0. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . ... 10490 .. 0. 0. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . 0.

.. . . . . .125 . .1. . . . . . . e 1980 2345 2280 2715 3130 2615 3550 2950 4605 3790 6070 4430 6750 4660 7290 . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 9.. . . . . . .: 0. . .2(a) and Fsu = 95 ksi. . ... . . . .. . . . 3SLC-C Collar Clad 7075-T6 3/16 (0. . . . . Hole size: Fasteners installed in 0. .. . . . 7290 4660 Yield Strengthf. . . . . Section 8. . . .375) . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Ti-6Al-4V Lockbolt Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Rivet Type . . . in. . .312) 3/8 (0. .4. .. . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . .1. . . .. . . .063 0. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 0. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbs. 8-109 . ... . . . .250 . . . . . . . . . Head height (ref. . .. . .)c . .2(i). .. . . . .250 . . . . . .. . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.063 . . .190 . . . .081 Ultimate Strength. . .. . . . . . . .080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a b c d e f LGPL2SC-V Pina. . .. .048 1/4 (0. . . in. 0.050 . . . . . . . . . . .). . . . ..4. . 1710 . . . .. . . . . . .. . Aluminum coated per NAS 4006. . . . Sheet Material . .. . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . ..: 0. . 0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .080 . .005" interference to 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .090 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . lbs. . . . . . . . . . . .312 .. . Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameter in Table 9.. . . .190) 1040 1370 1575 1805 2060 2315 2590 2694 . ..070 e Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company and Voi-Shan Industries. . . . . 0. 0. .190 . . Rivet Diameter. 3105 3620 4130 5375 7150 8660 10154 10490 10490 . . . . . . . .100 . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0005" clearance (Ref. . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthd . . . . . .. . . . .. 0. . . . .125 . . . . . .4). ... in. . . .050 . . . ..063 . 0. . .250) 5/16 (0. . .4. 0. . . . . 0. 2694 948 1160 1290 1435 1600 1760 2095 2395 . . . . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency.160 . . . . . 0. Sheet thickness. . . . . . . in. in.071 . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 0. .1. . . . . . . 0. .. . . . .090 .160 . . . . . . . . . . 0.. . . 0. . 1585 2265 1755 2500 1945 2765 2160 3030 2375 3705 2910 4640 3585 5440 3900 6270 . . . . 0. . . 0. . . 0. . . . . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.. . . . . . . . . .3. . . .b (Fsu = 95 ksi). . . . . . . . . . .. . 0. . . . . . . . . .. . .071 . . .1. .. . . . . . . .... . . . . . . 3090 3415 3740 4535 5670 6635 8230 9255 0. . . . . .312 . . . .3). . . . . .100 .

..050 .. . . . . 0.). .070 f Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company and Voi-Shan Industries. . . . . . . . . .. 0. . .312 . . . . . .. . . .125 . . . . . . . . 2270 2800 3335 4640 6500 8080e 9180 10270 10490 10490 . . . . . ..: 0. . . . . 3SLC-C Collar Clad 2024-T3 3/16 (0. . . in. . . . . . .. .375 . . . . . . . . . . 0. Aluminum coated per NAS 4006.063 . . . . Rivet shear strengthd . . Yield load is less than 2/3 of indicated ultimate. . .. . . . . g Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref. . 7290 . . . .090 .375 . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . .. . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . .. . 0. . . . . . . . . 1350 . 0. . f 1630 1775 1950 2155 2300 2595 2650 3035 3530e 4140 5645e 4000 4355 6085 4660 6965 . . 0. . . . . .)c . . a b c d e f LGPL2SC-V Pina. . . . . .190 . . 0. .. . . . . . Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . .. . .312) 3/8 (0. . . . . . .. . . . .3. . . . . ..2(a) and Fsu = 95 ksi. .. .. . . . . . 0. . . in. . 1220 1745 1360 1930 1515 2140 1685 2355 1855 2895 2280 3640 2795 4230 3100 4985 3700 5760 . . .1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .048 1/4 (0. . .. Rivet Diameter. . . .. . . . 0. .312 . . Sheet thickness. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .. .4. .250 . . . . . . . . . . 2694 733 901 1005 1125 1250 1380 1640 1910 2140 . .063 0. . . . . . . . .4). . .. . lbs. . .081 Ultimate Strength. . .160 . 0. 8-110 . . 9. . 4660 7290 Yield Strengthg. .190) 836 1180 1395 1640 1900e 2115e 2340 2655 2694 . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . The use of knife-edge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . ... . . .: 0. .. .. .. . . . . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . 0. . . .. . . . . .125 . . .2(j). .. . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Ti-6Al-4V Lockbolt Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Rivet Type . . . . . . . . . . .. 0. . .1. . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameter in Table 9. . . . . . .. in.050 . .080 . . .. . .090 . . . . . .b (Fsu = 95 ksi)..071 . . . . . . Hole size: Fasteners installed in 0. 0. . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.190 . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0005" clearance (Ref. . .071 . Section 8. 0. . . . .. . . . .375) . . .160 . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0005" interference to 0. . .. . . . . .1. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . .3). . . . .4. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2270 2635 2895 3530 4430 5200 6440 7375 8325 0. . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . . . . . .. . Head height (ref. . . . . .080 .250) 5/16 (0. . ... . 0. . . . . . . 0. .250 . . .100 . . . . . Sheet Material . 0. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . lbs. . .063 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 0. . . . . . .

Unless otherwise specified. shear strength. The values listed herein have been judged acceptable for design. or other requirements of the pertinent procurement specification.1. are given in Table 8.1. permanent set at yield load may be increased if hole sizes greater than those listed in the applicable table are used.1.1.1.3).1. The strength for a specific combination of fasteners.1.5(b1) and (b2). the yield load is defined in Section 9. tests to substantiate yield and ultimate bearing strengths must be performed. and sheet material is obtained by multiplying the proper “unit” strength by the ratio of material allowable bearing stress (ksi) to 100.5(a). 8.18.5(b1) and (b2). The ultimate tensile strength of threaded fasteners is shown in Tables 8. These bearing stresses are applicable only for design of rigid joints where there is no possibility of relative motion of the parts joined without deformation of such parts.5. The design bearing stresses for various materials at room and other temperatures are given in the properties for each alloy or group of alloys. For some fastener systems.1.1. and are applicable to joints with fasteners in cylindrical holds and where t/D  0.3.04D. where Rs and Rt are ratios of applied load to allowable load in shear and tension. Where t/D < 0. based on a strength of 100 ksi and nominal fastener diameters.2(a). acknowledging that they may be slightly conservative since they are based on the nominal minor diameter area. For convenience. 8-111 .5 THREADED FASTENERS — The strengths shown in the following tables are applicable only when grip lengths and hole tolerances are as recommended by the respective fastener manufacturers.1. with the area based on the following: Shear — Based on basic shank diameter. The ultimate single shear strength of threaded fasteners at full diameter is shown in Table 8. The following interaction formula is applicable to AN3 series bolts under combined shear and tension loading: Rs3 + Rt2 = 1. respectively.5. This condition may exist even though the test hole size lies within the manufacturer’s recommended hole size range (refer to Section 9. “unit” sheet bearing strengths for threaded fasteners. In both tables values shown are a product of the indicated strength and area.3 for threaded fasteners as the load at which the joint permanent is set equal to 0. For any given threaded fastener the allowable load shall be chosen using an appropriate category corresponding to minimum tensile strength.0. It is recognized that some procurement specifications may provide higher tensile strengths than those reported in Tables 8.4.1.1 Protruding-Head Threaded Fastener Joints — It has been shown that protruding shear head (representative configuration is NAS 1982) fastener joints may not develop the full bearing strength of the joint material.4.5(a).21 of Handbook H-28. since they may be based on a larger effective area than shown in the table. Therefore. sheet thickness.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 8. static allowable loads for protruding shear head fasteners must be established from test data using the criteria specified in Section 9. For shear joints with protruding tension head fasteners. and the lower of the two values so determined governs the design. the load per fastener at which shear or bearing type of failure occurs is separately calculated.18.4.3. where D is the decimal equivalent of the fastener shank diameter as defined in Table 9.4. Allowable shear loads may be obtained from Table 8.1. Tension — Based on the nominal minor diameter of the thread as published in Table 2.

1.0. The allowables shown for flush-head threaded fasteners are applicable to joints having e/D equal to or greater than 2. compared to the table value.1. as defined in Chapter 9.15.2 Flush-Head Threaded Fastener Joints — Tables 8. Unless otherwise noted. When the noncountersunk sheet is thinner than the countersunk sheet. the bearing allowable for the noncountersunk sheet-fastener combination should be computed. 8-112 . if no specification exists.5. It should coincide with shear values from Table 8. the sheet gage specified in the tables is that of the countersunk sheet. the allowable loads for flush-head threaded fasteners were established from test data using the following criteria.5(a).1. and the lower of the two values selected. For machine countersunk joints. Ultimate Load — Average ultimate test load divided by a factor of 1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 8. This factor is not applicable to shear strength cutoff values which may be either procurement specification shear strength (S value) of the fastener or. a statistical value determined from test results.2(a) through (o) contain joint allowables for various flush-head threaded fastener/sheet material combinations.5.

625 0.250 1.1.250 0.500 Sizea #4 1/8 #6 5/32 #8 3/16 #10 #12 7/32 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1 December 1998 8-113 a Fractional equivalent or screw number.188 0.076699 0.156 0.216 0.036644 0.875 1.037582 0.44179 0.Table 8.014957 0.11045 0.019175 0.78540 0.125 1.138 0.562 0. 887 1105 1345 1725 1900 2485 2550 3295 3380 4420 6900 9935 13500 17650 22350 27600 39750 54100 70700 89500 110000 133500 159000 936 1165 1420 1820 2005 2620 2690 3480 3570 4660 7290 10450 14250 18650 23600 29150 42000 57100 74600 94400 116500 141000 167500 1060 1325 1615 2070 2280 2980 3060 3955 4060 5300 8280 11900 16200 21200 26800 33100 47700 64900 84800 107000 132500 160000 190500 1230 1530 1870 2395 2640 3450 3540 4580 4700 6140 9590 13800 18750 24500 31050 38350 55200 75200 98200 124000 153000 185500 220500 1300 1620 1970 2530 2785 3645 3740 4840 4960 6480 10100 14550 19800 25900 32800 40500 58300 79400 103500 131000 162000 196000 233000 1425 1775 2165 2780 3060 4005 4110 5315 5445 7115 11100 16000 21750 28450 36000 44500 64000 87200 113500 144000 177500 215000 256000 1535 1910 2330 2990 3295 4310 4420 5720 5860 7660 11950 17200 23450 30600 38750 47900 68900 93800 122500 155000 191000 231500 275500 35 38 75 90 95 108 125 132 145 156 Fastener Diameter in.24850 0.000 1. 0.027612 0.7671 345 430 523 671 739 966 992 1280 1315 1715 2680 3865 5260 6870 8700 10700 15450 21050 27450 34750 43000 52000 61800 374 466 568 729 803 1045 1075 1390 1425 1865 2915 4200 5710 7460 9440 11650 16750 22850 29850 37750 46600 56400 67100 739 920 1120 1435 1580 2070 2125 2745 2815 3680 5750 8280 11250 14700 18600 23000 33100 45100 58900 74600 92000 111000 132500 Ultimate Single Shear Strength. lbs.312 0.4849 1.028353 0.438 0.2272 1.99402 1.049087 0.19635 0.021124 0.15033 0.375 1.112 0.0098520 0.125 0.164 0. Ultimate Single Shear Strength of Threaded Fasteners Shear Stress of Fastener.30680 0.750 0.375 0.60132 0.500 0.219 0.012272 0. . ksi Basic Shank Area 0.5(a).190 0.

63307 0. all other values are for 3A threads.0347 1.375 0.24349 0.5(b1).112 4-40 0.a. c 0.082397 0.19190 0.138 6-32 0.1.48695 0.500 0.312 0.250 0.15116 0.053666 0.2.0076821 0.1 of Handbook H-28.b 280 423 673 994 1835 2950 4530 6110 8310 10550 13350 19550 26750 34800 45200 56900 70000 84400 316 476 758 1120 2070 3325 5110 6890 9370 11900 15100 22050 30150 39250 50900 64200 78900 95100 318 480 765 1130 2085 3350 5150 6950 9450 11950 15200 22250 30400 39550 51400 64700 79500 95900 636 960 1525 2255 4170 6710 10300 13850 18900 23950 30400 44500 60900 79100 102500 129000 159000 191500 713 1075 1710 2530 4680 7510 11500 15550 21150 26850 34050 49800 68200 88600 115000 144500 178000 214500 814 1225 1955 2890 5340 8590 13150 17750 24150 30700 38950 57000 77900 101000 131500 165500 203500 245500 916 1380 2200 3250 6010 9660 14800 20000 27200 34500 43800 64100 87700 114000 147500 186000 229000 276000 8-114 a b c d 0.125 1.033394 0.438 10-32 1/4-28 5/16-24 3/8-24 7/16-20 1/2-20 9/16-18 5/8-18 3/4-16 7/8-14 1-12 1-1/8-12 1-1/4-12 1-3/8-12 1-1/2-12 Minor Aread 0.190 0.500 Values shown above heavy line are for 2A threads. lbs.750 0. Nuts and fastener heads designed to develop the ultimate tensile strength of the fastener are required to develop the tabulated tension loads.5345 55 62 62.11115 0. The tension fastener allowables above are based on the nominal minor diameter thread area for MIL-S-7742 threads from Table 2.250 1.Table 8.875 1.562 0. Fractional equivalent or number and threads per inch.5 125 MIL-S-7742 140 160 180 Ultimate Tensile Strength.0050896 0. .35605 0.2724 1.012233 0.375 1.164 8-32 0.82162 1. Ultimate Tensile Strength of Threaded Fasteners Tensile Stress of Fastener. ksi Nominal Fastener Diameter in.018074 0.000 1.625 0.

.19502 0. Ultimate Tensile Strength of Threaded Fasteners (Continued) Tensile Stress of Fastener.500 5/16-24 3/8-24 7/16-20 1/2-20 9/16-18 5/8-18 3/4-16 7/8-14 1-12 1-1/8-12 1-1/4-12 1-3/8-12 1-1/2-12 869 1305 2055 2975 5480 8780 13400 18100 24550 31200 39500 57700 78900 102500 133000 167000 205500 247500 MIL-S-8879 Ultimate Tensile Strength.190 10-32 0.0054367 0.500 0.562 0.012848 0.5477 160 180 220 260 Fastener Diameter in.5(b2).750 0.034241 0.125 1.112 4-40 0.375 1.1.64156 0.0081553 0.000 1.b 979 1195 1465 1790 2310 2825 3345 4090 6160 7530 9880 15100 20350 27600 35100 44500 64900 88800 115500 149500 188000 231000 278500 12050 18450 24900 33750 42900 54300 79400 108500 141000 182500 230000 282500 340500 1410 2120 3340 4840 8900 14250 21800 29400 39900 50700 64200 93800 128000 166500 216000 271500 333500 402000 8-115 a Values are for 3A threads. c 0.36082 0.138 6-32 0.312 0. d The tension fastener allowables above are based on the maximum minor diameter thread area for MIL-S-8879 threads from Tables II and III of MIL-S-8879.625 0.438 0.11323 0.250 1/4-28 0.Table 8.49327 0.875 1.15358 0.2844 1.0456 1.018602 0.375 0.083879 0.24700 0.250 1. b Nuts and fastener heads designed to develop the ultimate tensile strength of the fastener are required to develop the tabulated tension loads.83129 1. lbs.054905 0.a.164 8-32 0. ksi Maximum Minor Aread 0. c Fractional equivalent or number and threads per inch.

.. . .. lbs. in. Fbr = ksi Unit Bearing Strength of Sheet for Fastener Diameter Indicated. .... .. . .. . . 0. . 0.1. . 2662 3000 3375 3750 4688 6000 7500 9375 11700 14063 18750 23440 28125 32810 37600 0. . .875 . . ... . . . . .... . .. . . . ... 20000 25000 31200 37500 50000 62500 75000 87500 100000 8-116 a Bearing strengths shown are based on nominal fastener diameter.. .. . 1250 1575 1775 2000 2250 2500 3125 4000 5000 6250 7800 9375 12500 15625 18750 21875 25000 0. . . .500 .438 . . . . . . 12000 15000 18750 23400 28125 37500 46875 56250 65625 75000 0. 0. . . . . . .. ....750 .1...562 .. . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . Unit Bearing Strength of Sheet and Plate in Joints With Threaded Fasteners or Pins.375 . . .. . . 17500 21875 27300 32810 43750 54690 65625 76560 87500 1.100 . 0. 0. . . .375 . 0. . ... ..050 . .. . . . .. . . ... . .312 .. . . 0. .. . . .045 . . .. . . .. ... . ..071 . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . .063 .. ... 0. . . . . 0. . . .. . . ..250 . . . 0.. .500 . . .080 . . .... . . .. ... . .. . ... . .. ..... . . .188 . . . . 0. . . . .. . 0. 684 760 855 950 1197 1349 1520 1710 1900 2375 3040 3800 4750 5928 7125 9500 11875 14250 16625 19000 0... ... . ... . .... .. . 1.a Fastener. . Diameter. 0. .. 0.. . .125 .. . . ... ... . . .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .200 . . . .. . ... .. . .. .250 . . . .. .. . . . .. Thickness. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . . 0. . . .5. . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . ..... .. . . .. . ...040 . . . . .090 . 7030 9000 11250 14060 17530 21075 28100 35125 42150 49175 56200 0. .. . . . .. . . . . ..Table 8.. .. . . . 1969 2219 2500 2812 3125 3906 5000 6250 7812 9734 11700 15600 19500 23400 27300 31200 0. . . .. . ... ... . . . in.. . . . .. .160 . . . ... . . . . . .... . 7812 10000 12500 15625 19500 23400 31250 39062 46875 56690 62500 0... . . ... .. ... . . . .. . . . 0. .156 500 563 625 704 781 985 1110 1250 1407 1562 1953 2500 3125 3916 4867 5850 7800 9750 11700 13650 15600 0. .. .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . ... .036 ... .625 . . . . . . .164 525 590 656 738 820 1033 1164 1312 1476 1640 2050 2624 3280 4100 5117 6150 8200 10250 12300 14350 16400 0.625 . . 0.312 . . .. . . .. . . . 0..750 . . .. . . . . . .. 675 750 845 940 1180 1330 1500 1690 1875 2340 3000 3750 4688 5866 7050 9400 11750 14100 16450 18800 0. . .. ..875 .. . .. . .000 .. . . . . 0. .. . . .. 0... . .032 . . . . . .190 ... ... 0.. . . 3500 3938 4375 5469 7000 8750 10940 13670 16425 21900 27375 32850 38325 43800 0. . .000 . 4500 5000 6250 8000 10000 12500 15600 18750 25000 31250 37500 43750 50000 0. . . . ... .. . .. . . . . . . . . .... .

. (Nominal Shank Diameter.. . Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. . .. . 3922c 4722 5405c 5750 . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Alloy Steel Screws in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . . .080 . .375) ½ (0. lbs 1576c 1726 1877c 2126c .4.. . . ... . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . 0.. . . . . . . . . . .. Sheet or plate thickness.080 .160 . . . . Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . ... ... .) . . . . . 0. . Fastener shear strengthe .5. . . Fastener Diameter. . . . . . . . .312) 3/8 (0. . ..190) 1/4 (0. . . . 0. . . . ... .. . 0. . . . 0. ... . . . . 2126 c d . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . 8280 c d . .. .. . . . .375 . . . .. . . .375 . ... The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . 9408c 12201c 14141c 14730 14730 d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 0. ..213 Test data from which the yield and ultimate strengths were derived can be found in Reference 8. .. 0.1. . ... . .. . . .f. . 0. . . in. . .. 0. .. . . 0. . . . . .: 0.. .1.. . . . . . . . . . .100 . 0. . .. . . 0. . . . . 0. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2567c 3054c 3536 3682 c d . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .2. lbs 903 989 1084 1296 1615 . ..250 . .. . . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . This fastener is no longer manufactured. ..125 .. do not specify for new designs. . .. . . . .... .. .. . . . 0... Sheet and Plate Material . .. . 0... . . . 5750 c . .2(a) and Fsu = 75 ksi. Head height (ref. . . . . . . . .125 .160 . . .. . . . . . . . .. .250) 5/16 (0... .090 .. . . . . . . . 0. f Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. ... . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 2559 2939 3361 4197 5092 . . .. . . . 0.. . . . . . . .090 . steel nut Clad 2024-T3 and T351 3/16 (0. . . .2(a 1). .. . . . . . in. . .. . . 1490 1748 2116 2484 . . .190 .. . 8-117 .106 .). .. e Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameters in Table 9. . .159 . . 3682 Yield Strengtha. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. 0. . . . 2001 2334 2702 3404 .080 . . in. . . 0.1.. .. Sheet or plate thickness.012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter..100 . 6012 7306 8452 9996 0. in.. . . . . . . . in. . . .500) Ultimate Strengtha. .. .. . . . . . .. a b c d AN509b steel screw (Fsu = 75 ksi) w/MS20365 or equiv. . . . . .. 4579c 5878 6872c 8280c 8280c . . . .312 .: 0. . . . .. . . . .. . . . ...MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . .. . 0. . .312 .. . .250 . . . .133 . . .

... . in.. . . . . . . . .125 .2(a2). . . . . . . .. .) . . .125 .. . . .. . . .. . . . 2126 . . . . . . . .. . .. . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . ..... in. .. . . .190 . . .. . . . . .. . . . .312) (0. .250) (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fastener Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . lbs . . . . . . .. . .375 .. . 8-118 .. Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Alloy Steel Screws in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . .. .. .. . Fastener shear strength based on area computed from nominal shank diameters in Table 9.5.375) (0. . . Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. .080 . .090 . 8280 . . . ..312 . . . . . 0. 8041 9437 11686 0. 0.2. . . . .. . 0. . . . .. . Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . 0. . . .. . . . .090 . . . .160 . Sheet or plate thickness. ..100 . . 0. Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value.4. . (Nominal Shank Diameter. .1. Sheet and Plate Material . . . .. . . . . Fastener shear strengthe . . .190 . . . . .. . ..500) Ultimate Strengtha. . . .. .080 . . 2699 3088 3601 4868 6624 . . . . 0. . . . . .. 0. . .. . 0.: 0. . .312 . . . . . .190) (0. . . .. . . .. . . . . 0. .080 . . .. d 4180c 5216c 4858c 6193c c 5433 6996c 5750 8280c ..012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. . . . . .. . . . 0. . ... . .. . .... . . 0. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . This fastener is no longer manufactured. steel nut Clad 7075-T6 and T651 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 ½ (0. .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. 0. . .2(a) and Fsu = 75 ksi. ... .. . 0. ... . . .. .. .. 3682 . . 12421c 14185c 14730 14730 d d d 965 1063 1179 1462 . .. .. . . . . .).. . .160 . ... . . . . . .. .. . . ..213 Test data from which the yield and ultimate strengths were derived can be found in Reference 8. do not specify for new designs. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 1600 1895 2363 2926 . . Sheet or plate thickness. . 5750 8280 Yield Strengtha. . . . . . . . .. .375 . . . . .. .. . ... . . 0. . . .5. . .. .. . . .106 .. . . . . . . .250 . .. . 0. . .. . .. .. . . 2723c 3109c 3551c 3682 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 2098 2501 3018 4312 .: 0.. .. . . . . .. . . . in. . . .1... . . Head height (ref. . . . 0.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .250 . . . .. . . in. .. . . .. . .1. . 0. 0. ..159 .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. .. .f. . . .. . . . a b c d e f AN509b steel screw (Fsu = 75 ksi) w/MS20365 or equiv. . . . 0.133 . lbs 1632c 1762c 1892 2126 . in. .100 ... .. . . 0. .. . .. .. . . .. .. . . ..

0. . . . . . .1. . . . . . .190 . . . . 0. . . . . .. . .. .3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..375) Ultimate Strength. .200 . . .. . 0. .. .. Sheet or plate thickness.. . . . .0030) (Ref. . . .: 0.1. ... . . . . . . . . . . . .3. ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . 5667 6370 7101 8789 10645 . . . . . . ... . 0. . . . . .. . . . . Fastener shear strengthd ... . . . . . 4213 .. . .. . . . ..050 . . . . .080 .5. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 .077 1/2 (0. . .090 . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . . ..160 . 11264 . . 0. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . .1.125 . . . . . 0. . . . 5/32 (0. . .190 .. . . Sheet or plate thickness. . . 11250 14575 19250 23200 24540 24540 c 1237 1543 1947 2049 . . . . lbs . .090 . . .. .. . .. . . . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. 8-119 . . . in. Rivet Diameter. . .060 .. . . . . . .040 . . . . . .. . in. in. .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable.. .. . . . .. 0. .101 a Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company and PB Fasteners.. . . . .. .. 0. . . .. . . . . 0. . ..250) (0. . 9500 11825 15025 17825 18400 0. .. .)b . .. . . . . 6140 13810 e Yield Strength . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Stainless Steel (PH13-8Mo-H1000) Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Titanium Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . 9. e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal diameter (Ref.. .. . . . . . . .. . . . .100 . . Sheet and Plate Material .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .100 . . .: 0. . . 2640 c . . . . .. . . 4813 6820 5438 7818 6140 8775 . .. . . 3656 . (Nominal Shank Diameter.071 .. . 0. . . . ..164) PBF 11a (Fsu = 125 ksi) Annealed Ti-6Al-4V 1/4 3/8 (0. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .050 .071 . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 0. . 0. . . . . . 13810 . . . . . . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . 0. . . . . 0. . . .. . . .. . . . 2969 3350 3756 4219 4600 ..160 . . . in. . . . 0. . . . ... . lbs . . . .. . . . . ... . . . .. .040 . . .080 .. . . . . . .5). . . . . . ... . 0. .. . 0. . . . . . . . ..063 . . .500) 1535 1963 2528 2640 .200 .. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . . . .040 . .4. Section 8. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Head height (nom. . . . . . . . . . b Fasteners installed in clearance holes (0.. . . .). . . . . d Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from indicated nominal shank diameter Fsu = 125 ksi. . . . . . 0. ..0025-0. .. . . . . . . .. .063 . .. . . . . . . .. . . .2(b). . . 0. . . . . . 0.. .. . . . .

.. . . . . . . . . 8-120 . .). ..) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . ..312 . 11570 . 12030 ... ...1969) TL 100a (Fsu = 108 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 and T651 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 (0... 2990 3550 3970 4830 . . . . 3/16 (0. . . . . .. . 3290 . . 12640 8760 12640 Yield Strengthc. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .... 0. . 7993 9737 13220 15000 15280 15560 15820 16870 17100 ½ (0. . .. . .... . . . . .. . . .344 . . . . . . . in.3214) (0. 3745 4831 5269 5670 . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Tapered Alloy Steel Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . . . b Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from indicated nominal shank diameter and Fsu = 108 ksi. . . . .. .. . . . .250 . . .. . . . .. .500 . . . . . ... . . . 0. . . in. 0. . . . . 0. . . in. . . . . . . . 0. . . .. .. .. . . . ... .. .. .. . . .. . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. . ... .. . . . . . lbs .100 . . Sheet or plate thickness. 0.070 .344 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . 0. . .. . . ... . . .. . 3818 4650 5308 6450 7060 . . . 10900 14890 17240 19000 19800 20110 21320 22250 1960 2350 2840 . . .. . 0. . 0.048 . . . Fastener Diameter.1. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . 0.2585) (0.. . .100 .. . . .. .2(c). . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . Sheet or plate thickness. . .. . . . . 5650 6596 8209 9090 9680 10010 10430 .. .190 . . . . . 11800 . ... . . 0. . . . .. .100 . . . . . 0.. . . . . . 0. . . . .4490) Ultimate Strength. . . . Sheet and Plate Material . . .285 .125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Head height (max. . 0. ... . . . . .. .. . . . . .. (Nominal Shank Diameter. .. . . .: 0. . . . . c Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . .. . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .160 .. Fastener shear strengthb . . . 0. . . . 9045 11560 12840 13930 14930 16000 18490 0. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .. . 6703 7806 9903 10930 11780 12710 13200 15160 0. . .160 . .. . . .250 . . .. . . .. lbs . . . . . . .312 . .. 0.125 . . . . . . . . . ..375 . . . .3860) (0. . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . ...375 ... .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . .. ...500 .063 . . .. .. . 4443 . . . . .. . .110 a Data supplied by Briles Manufacturing Company.. .. .5.. . . . . . 0. . . . . .081 . .. . 0.190 . .. . .. . .285 .5122) 2435 2913 3290 . . . . in. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ... . 0. . . . . . . . 6017 7016 7017 8511 8148 11120 8760 11360 .... . . . . .: 0.. . . . . 5670 . . . ..

012 inch or 4% of fractional diameter. . .090 . . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . .100 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 1/8 (0. . . 0.250 . 0. . . .125 . . . . . in. .. . . . .050 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .090 .. . 713 826 896 1050 1145 1312 1290 1491 1470 1690 1670 1910 1845 2130 2010 2580 2125 2800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . .. 0.048 1/4 (0. . .. . . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. .100 . . . . . . .071 . . . . .063 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 713 890 1118 1240 1377 1522 1639 1880 2111 . . .. . . . . .. . 1730 1960 2192 2455 2711 3304 3986 4437 4980 0. . .063 . . . . . . .. . .032 . . . . . . . . . . . 0. .190 . . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Tapered STA Ti-6Al-4V Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .250 . . 0. . ... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .071 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .: 0. . .. . .2583) 488 610 768 967 1120 1260 1377 1441 1530 1540 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . 8-121 . . . 0. . . . . 826 1050 1301 1467 1637 1806 1976 2331 2683 2880 . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . .050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . .. . . b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1540 b b . . . . . . in. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .032 . 0. . .. . . . . . d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . c Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from indicated nominal shank diameter and Fsu = 95 ksi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Material . . lbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . 0. 0. .2(d). .1688) (0. . . REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. . . . . . . . .: 0. . . . . . . . 0. .. .) . . . . ..080 . . Fastener shear strengthc . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . 0.1437) TLV 10a (Fsu = 95 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 5/32 3/16 (0.. . . . .1965) Ultimate Strength. . 0. . .160 .040 . . . Head height (max. . . 2880 . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 0. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .033 . 0. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2125 2880 d Yield Strength .080 .125 .. . . 1730 1960 2223 2505 2800 3540 4410 4750 4980 4980 b 488 610 753 925 1035 1138 1238 1321 1480 1540 . . . lbs . .. . . . . . . . 0. . . . .. 0. . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .190 . . . . ... . . . . . . . .040 . . . . .063 a Data supplied by Lockheed Georgia Company. . .. Fastener Diameter. . . . 0.1. . . . . . . . .041 . in. . . .. . . .. . 0. . . . . . 0. . . .160 . . . . . . . . .). .5.. . .

. . .1.375 . . .090 . . 2718 3908 5176 6285 0. in. . . . .2587) (0. . .. . 1554 2041 . . .. . .160 . . .. .160 . . . . . . . .. . . . .250 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ..190 . .250 .. . . . . . . . . 2319 3293 4454 5336 0. .. . . . . . . ... . . . . .. Supersedes page 8-122 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-122 . .. . . .. .125 . . . . .. .. . . . . ... .057 0. . . . . . . . . . . 4993 7155 8968 0... .. . 0. . . . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from the indicated nominal shank diameter and Fsu = 95 ksi.)b . . . .076 0. . . . . . . . 82E 82E 82E 75E Ultimate Strength. .080 . . .. . .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .100 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . in. ..2(e). .. . . 1984 2637 3279 3928 0. . . . . 1847 2583 3207 . . ... . . . lbs Sheet or plate thickness. . Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . .. . 11058 2913 4993 7692 11058 Fastener shear strengthc . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 70E Flush Head Tapered Ti-6Al-4V Fasteners in Non-Matching Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . . . . . . .. . .0048) (Ref. . . . in. . . 1812 2376 2949 . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 (Nominal Shank Diameter. . in. . . . .190 . .. . . .: 0. . . .3850) Sheet Countersink Angle . 1355 . . . ..1. . . . . . . 1984 2864 3567 4269 0. 11058 0.063 . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. . .. . . . 1429 1874 .312 .. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .063 .. Clad 7075-T6 and T651 Fastener Diameter . .090 . .. . . . .. .500 .125 . . . . . . . ..MIL-HDBK-5H. .. . . .. . 0. 4993 6980 8968 0. .500 . . . . .5. 11058 Head height (max. . . . . .. . . . lbs Sheet or plate thickness. . .. . . 1613 2108 .. .. . . . Fasteners installed in interference holes (0. . . . . . . 2913 4444 5836 7396 0. . . . . . . . (0. .071 . . . . . 11058 0. . . . . . . . .. . . HPB-Va (Fsu = 95 ksi) Sheet and Plate Material . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 7692 10257 0. . .. . . . . . . 2319 3299 4093 4906 0. . . . . . . . 2913 4397 5836 7396 0. .). .. . . 2792 3908 5176 6611 0. . .080 . . . . . . . . . . . .5).: 0.0015-0. . 7692 10613 0. . . .. . . 0. .. . . . . . 0. . . . . .071 . . . . . .067 0. .3211) (0. . 1710 2296 . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . . . . .375 ...086 a b c d Data supplied by PB Fasteners. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1269 . 0. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 8.1976) (0. . Yield Strengthd. . . . . .312 . . . . . . ..

070 . Fastener Diameter. . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . .. . Head height (ref.. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Fastener shear strengthd . . . . . . . . . . . . ..: 0.100 . . . . .. . .. . . . .055) (Ref. . . . . . .063 . . . . . 0. . .. . 0. . . . . .071 . . . . . 0. .3). 0. ... .080 . . . .003-0.. .)b . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .100 . . . . . . . 2007 .. . . . 2267 2540 2824 3517 4455 4983 5168 6038 0. . . . . . . . . . . d Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from indicated nominal shank diameter and Fsu = 95 ksi. . . . . . . . ..... . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Ti-6Al-4V Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type . . . in. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . lbs 748 987 1291 1428 1571 1722 1883 2007 .3125) (0. . 0. . 0. . .. . ... . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. .050 . . . . . . . . . . 859 1079 1213 1368 1534 1675 1942 . . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . .250 . 0. . .. . . . . . .. .080 .. . . . . . . . . b Fasteners installed in interference holes (0. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . ..2(f). . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Material .5). .. . 1419 1600 1806 2031 2250 2813 3306 3725 . . . . . .063 . . . . 0. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.. . . . . .. . . . . . .250) (0. . . . . . 0.. . . .. . . .048 . . ..1. . . .063 . .. ... . 0. . ... 3052 3375 4219 5386 6385 6581 7636 0. . . . .040 .. . .164) (0. . . .. . . .. . 0. . . . . 8-123 . . . . . .1. . .250 . . lbs .160 . .. . in. . . .. KFN 600 Nuta Clad 7075-T6 5/32 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 (0. ... . . . 0. . . . .. . .. . . . 0. . . . in. . ... 0. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .071 . . . . 1813 c 2100 2438 2794 3150 3725 4531 4660 . . . .. . . .. . 4660 Yield Strengthe. . .. . . . 0. .190 . . ... . .. . . .. . . 9... . . . in. . .040 .. . . 0. . . . . . . .. . . . .190) (0.. 3867 4402 5724 7397 8452 8789 10490 10490 c 594 740 931 1049 1176 1283 1375 1606 . . KLBHV Pin (Fsu = 95 ksi).. .. . . .. . . c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . .. . . 2902 3322 3810 4924 4901 6790 7083 7290 7290 . . 2694 . e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of the nominal diameter (Ref. Sheet thickness. . . ..160 . . . .200 .4.200 .. . . . . . 0. .125 . . .125 . . . . . . . 0.. 0. . . . . .090 . .. 0.3.. . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . in. . 0. . . . .081 a Data supplied by Kaynar Manufacturing Co.. . . .. . ..375) Ultimate Strength. 0. . . . Sheet thickness. 0. The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. .. . . .5. . ... . . . . .043 . . .). . . .. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 . .. . .050 . 8. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .: 0. . .. . . . .. .090 . . . 1112 1462 1679 1888 2058 2231 2694 . . . .

. . . respectively. . . . . . . . . . in. .. .125 . . . . .. . . . . . .375 . d Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from the indicated nominal shank diameter and Fsu = 125 ksi. . . . . Use of fasteners made of this material in design of military aerospace structures requires the specific approval of the procuring agency.. . . . . . . 9100 10230 11390 12580 13810 13810 1840 1943 2195 2540 2840 3110 .. 0. . . 0. . . . . .. . . . 4080 . . . . . .. . 0. . . . e Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . .. . .190 .160 . . . . . . .. . . Sheet or plate thickness. . .. . . .: 0. . . . .. because of its sensitivity to heat treatment. . .. . . . . .. . . . 0. b Data supplied by Hi-Shear Corporation.. . . . . 8-124 . . . .312) (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . Fastener shear strengthd . . . . . . .250) (0. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 3544 . . . . . . . .. . . . . 0. . . . . . in... 6140 9590 Yield Strengthe. . . .. . . . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. . . . 4560 6500c 4970 7160 5800 8320 6140 9590 . . . ...MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. HL 70 Collarb Clad 7075-T6 and T651 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 (0.. . . . . .. . 0. . . . . . .063 . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear AISI 431a Hi-Lok Fasteners in Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Rivet Type . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .160 . . . 4030 5430 6590 7580 7890 . lbs . . . ..: 0. . . lbs 2327 2430 2695 3070 3390 3544 . .. . . . . . . Sheet and Plate Material .500 . .. . . . . . . . 2900 3240 3700 4020 4870 5350 . . .. . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 3740 . . 0. . 0. . . . . . . .. . . .. . .375 . . . . 0. . . . . 0. . . . . .2(g). . .190 . . . . . . . . ...049 . 0.. . . .5. . . .077 . . 7120 8500 9700 10410 12070 0.312 . . . ... . . (Nominal Shank Diameter.125 . . . . . . . .051 AISI 431 is prohibited from use in Air Force and Navy structure by MIL-STD-1568 and SD-24. . . . . . . . . .. . .. .312 .100 . . 0. . . . . .. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . .190) (0. . ..090 . . . . . ..090 . 0.. Sheet or plate thickness.250 . . . . 0. . . 0. . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .. . . .. .. .500 . . . .250 . . . . . . .. .. Head height (max. . . . . . . . . . in. 0.375) Ultimate Strength. . Rivet Diameter ... . . .. . . . . .. .) . . . . . . c Yield value is less than 2/3 of the indicated ultimate strength value. 0. ... .. . . . . . .. . .. . a HL 61 Pin (Fsu = 125 ksi).). . .. . . .

. . .1. . . lbs . .. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet or plate thickness. .. . . . in. . . 0. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . . ..160 . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 0.... . .. .190 . .)b . . . .125 . . . . . . . .125 .. . .. ..190) (0. . . .. . . . ..312 . .... . . . . . . . . . . . .375 . . . . . . . . 0. .. . .. 0. . . 8-125 . . . . .050 . . .. . . b Fasteners installed in interference holes (0. . . 2916 3532 4059 5229 6347 6702 7512 8146 8280 8280 3/8 (0. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.. .164) HL 719 Pin (Fsu = 108 ksi). . . . . . 1131 1565 1820 1998 2193 2345 2524 2774 2989 3062 . . .: 0.080 . . . Section 8. . . . . . . . .. . . . . Head height (nom. . . . . . .2(h). . . . . 0.. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 3578 3976 4970 6362 7330 9160 10130 10820 0.. . . . . . . . . . . . 5300 Yield Strengthe. . ..160 .. . . .5). . . . . . . .. .100 . . . .. 3724 4516 6167 7928 9087 9985 10870 11760 11930 690 861 1086 1224 1346 1478 1610 1845 2022 . . . . .. 0. . . . . . .: 0. .. .190 .. . .. in. . . . .. ... .... . . . . . . . . . . .001-0. . . .250 . . . .090 . . . . .. .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . .. . in. .). . ... . . . 0. . 0. . .. .080 .090 . . . . . . . 1813 2216 2594 3015 3338 3980 4350 4634 5200 5300 . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . .312) Ultimate Strength.312 .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . in.. . . . d Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from indicated nominal shank diameter and Fsu = 108 ksi. . ..040 . .. Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Alloy Steel Hi-Lok Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . . Fastener Diameter. . . 0. . .. . .. . .. . 0. . . . . . . .. . . 0. . . . . . . . . .063 . . 0. . Sheet and Plate Material .250 . . . 0. . . . . . HL 79 Collara 7075-T6 and T651 3/16 1/4 5/16 (0. . in. . .. . .. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . .375 . 1664 1876 2114 2378 2642 3210 3920 4344 4785 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .063 . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . 0. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . 0. .071 . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . 2647 2978 3309 4136 5124 5886 6925 7496 8158 0. . . . . . .. ..100 . . lbs . . . . . .. . . 0. .. . . . . . 5/32 (0. . . . 1000 1261 1421 1601 1771 1924 2308 2583 2750 3062 . . . .375) 734 1044 1384 1518 1668 1764 1825 1979 2195 . . . . . .. c Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . 0. . . . . . . . . .002) (Ref. . . . . Sheet or plate thickness. . . .. . . . .077 a Data supplied by Hi-Shear Corporation. . . . 0. . . . . .. e Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . . . . .. . .071 . .. . .067 . . .040 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . 0. . . 2281 c . 0. . . .060 . . . . . . 0.040 . . . . . . . . . .050 . . . . . .1.. 0. . . . 3062 . . . . 0. .046 . . .. Fastener shear strengthd . . . . . . . . . . . .250) (0. 0. . .

.190) (0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . .080 . . . b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable.250) (0. . .. . . . . . . . Fastener shear strengthc . . .046 . . . 1325 1655 1813 2062 2250 2470 2930 3480 3840 4440 4660 . .: 0. . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Ti-6Al-4V Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type .. .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . HL 11 Pin (Fsu = 95 ksi). . . . .. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . 0.164) (0. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . lbs 794 982 1230 1355 1480 1625 1750 2020 2360 2560 . . . . . . . . . 2007 837 . .. . . . . 4660 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .071 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Head height (nom. .. .. . . . .125 . . . . . . ..312) Ultimate Strength. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b 1083 1343 1393 1762 1588 2012 1779 2281 2050 2594 2263 2919 2542 3765 2660 3970 2694 4165 . . . . . . . ... .063 . . 0. . . .. . .040 . . 0. .. . . .. . . .) . .. . . . .060 . . 0. . . . . . . . . . .. 2170 2463 2823 3193 3631 4594 5890 6105 6580 7050 7290 7290 b b 674 835 1038 1130 1230 1342 1440 1670 1891 .071 . . . . . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. . . . . . . .090 . . . . . . . ... . . . 4530 . . . 0. .. . . .. .. . .063 . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .: 0. .375 . . . . . . .080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . HL 70 Collara Clad 7075-T6 and T651 5/32 3/16 1/4 5/16 (0. . . . . . .1. . Sheet or plate thickness. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2141 2338 2620 2880 3420 3860 4620 5150 6170 6900 7290 0. .160 . . . . . . . . . . . . .312 . . .).067 a Data supplied by Hi-Shear Corporation. . . . . . . . . in.190 . .. 0. Fastener Diameter. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . .. . . .040 . d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . .190 . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . in.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . in.. . . . . . . . . . .375 . . .. . . . . . in. in. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . 0. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 . . . . .. . . . 0. . . 2694 4660 d Yield Strength . . . . 0. . .050 . .050 . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 . . 0. . . . .250 . . . . . 8-126 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . 0. .5. . . .090 . . Sheet and Plate Material . .. . .. . . .. . . . . . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . .. .. . . . . .250 .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . .. .2(i). . . . 0. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . 0. 0. . . . 0. (Nominal Shank Diameter.. . . ... . . .312 . 0. . . Sheet or plate thickness. . . . . . . . . . . c Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from indicated nominal shank diameter and Fsu = 95 ksi. . . . . . . . . . . . lbs 734 941 1207 1385 1557 1775 1876 1950 2007 . . . . . .

.. .. .. . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ..063 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . ... 2281 . .250 . . .160 . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0. .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .375 . .. . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . in. . . . 0. . . . HL 911 Pin (Fsu = 108 ksi). .. . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . . . ... . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . .. .312) (0. . . .067 . Sheet or plate thickness. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..500 . . . . .250 . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . 2190 2472 2774 3066 3358 4010 4818 5354 6269 6883 7418 . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1. . 3062 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HL 70 Collara Clad 7075-T6 and T651 5/32 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 (0. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . 0. 0. . . . . . . . .090 . . .. . . . . 0. . 0. . . 3096 3473 3965 4415 5666 7339 8788 9589 10362 11079 11930 11930 b b b 734 882 1076 1184 1320 1392 1480 1700 1870 1978 2178 ..) .164) (0. . . . . . . . 1456 b 1863 2094 2425 2750 3063 3875 4219 4450 4925 5300 . . . .040 . .. . . . . . . . 8280 ..060 . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . in. . . 0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250) (0. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . .. . 1137 1458 1642 1866 2105 2310 2455 2660 2840 3062 . .. . . . . . .125 . . . 0. .: 0. 0. . . . .. . . .. . . . b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. . . . . . . .. . . . Fastener shear strengthc . .. . .. . .. . . .090 . . . . . . .). 0.. . . . .077 a Data supplied by Hi-Shear Corporation. . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. . . . . 2287 2570 2920 3339 3777 4770 6181 6483 7067 7670 8280 .080 . . . 0. . . . . . . . .. 0. .063 . in. . . . . . . . . . . . in.: 0. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . lbs . . 0. . . . . . . .. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . Sheet or plate thickness. .071 . . . . . . . . . . . .125 . . . .5. . 0. ..... 0.. . . . . . 0. . . . 2995 3332 3768 4120 5019 6074 6749 8183 9209 9870 11039 0. . . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . . .. . . . .050 . 1044 1300 1406 1540 1680 1810 2085 2380 2530 2740 . . . .080 . . . Fastener Diameter. . . . .. . .375 . . . . . . . .500 . . . . . . . 1394 1750 1938 2188 2375 2569 3031 3563 3937 4375 4687 . . 0. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . 0. . 0.050 . . . . .. . .2(j). d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . .312 .. . . . . . . . . . . 5300 Yield Strengthd. . . .312 . . . . 0.. . . c Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from indicated nominal shank diameter and Fsu = 108 ksi. . 8-127 . . . . ..160 .190) (0. Sheet and Plate Material .. . . . . . . . . . . . .046 . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . . . lbs 780 982 1264 1426 1622 1740 1794 1915 2098 2252 2281 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Head height (nom.071 . .. . . 0. .100 .375) Ultimate Strength. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . ..

. . . . . . . . in. ... . . . . . 0. 0. . . . 0. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . NAS 4452S and KS 100-FV Pinsa (Fsu = 108 ksi). . . . .190) (0.. . . . 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .040 . . . . . . . . ..080 . .) . . Sheet thickness.063 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .037 . . . . . 0. . 0. .125 . . . . . . . . 2281 3062 Yield Strengthd. . . 0. . . . .: 0. . . . . . . . .138) (0. . . 0. . 0. . . . .164) (0. .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . . . .071 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 . . . . . . 1615 . . .. . . . . .190 . . 1706 1956 2219 2500 2762 3350 4100 4419 4925 0. . .. c Fastener shear strength is documented in NAS 4444. .125 . . Sheet thickness. . . .2(k). . . . . . .100 . . . . . .. . . Shear Type Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type . Sheet Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbs 644 857 1131 1268 1428 1499 1539 1615 . . .. . . . . . .. lbs . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . .160 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. .. . . . . . 0. . .050 . . . . . . . Fastener Diameter. ... . . . .040 . . . .049 . . . . . . 1029 1325 1505 1668 1848 2014 2397 2661 2845 . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Head Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn or Alloy Steel. . . Fastener shear strengthc . . . .5. . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . .. . . . . . 906 1157 1278 1412 1555 1694 1904 2106 . 976 1065 1305 1458 1512 1697 1703 1964 1910 2227 2084 2458 2200 2848 2281 3036 . . . . . . . . in. . . . .. . . . .250 . . . . ... . . . . . . 0.. .090 . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . Head height (max. . The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency. . . . . . .). . .040 . . .. . . ... 1750 2062 2406 2794 3181 4063 4900 5113 5300 5300 b 609 766 946 1044 1152 1261 1320 1444 . . . . . . in. . b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. .090 . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .080 . . . .. 0. .. . . in. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..250) Ultimate Strength. . 8-128 . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . in. . . . 0.063 . . . . . . . 3062 . . . . . . . .071 . . .. . . . . . NAS 4445DD Nut 7075-T6 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 (0. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . .: 0.063 a Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .050 . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .250 . .

.312 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0..090 . . . .070 0. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .3175) (0. . . .. . . . . .. .: 0. . . . .. . . . . . . . .312 . . . 0. . . .2(l).. . . .. .080 . . . . . . . . . . . .063 . . . lbs Sheet or plate thickness. .160 . . . . ... . . . . . 1814 2580 3125 . . . . 1378 1651 . Yield Strengthd. . 1546 1970 . . . . . . . ..071 . .. . . . . in. .125 . 2265 3282 4465 5270 0. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7521 10396 0.080 . . in. . . . . . . .063 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2734 4062 5413 6902 0. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 1348 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.190 .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . Fasteners installed in interference holes (0. . . . . . . 2779 4361 5826 7393 0. . .100 . . 0. .5)..5. . . .. .. 1704 2275 .. 2496 3601 4848 6209 0. . . . .0055) (Ref. . . . . 82E 82E 82E 75E Ultimate Strength. 8. . . . . . . . . . .090 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255) (0. . . . . . . . . . . .: 0. . .060 0. . . . .. . . . .380) Sheet Countersink Angle . . . .. . . . . .100 . . . . Supersedes page 8-129 of MIL-HDBK-5H 8-129 .. . . . . . . . . . . . 2112 3055 4133 4664 0. . ... . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . (0. . . . . . . . .. . Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 8. . 1702 2321 2631 . . . . . . . . . .193) (0. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .). . . . . . 7378 9631 0. . .. . . . . . . . .071 . . 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . .. . . . .250 . .0045-0.1. . . . . . . . . .125 . . . . . . Clad 7075-T6 and T651 Fastener Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from the indicated nominal shank diameter and Fsu = 95 ksi. . . . . . . . . . . .375 . 10584 Head height (max. . . . . . . . . Static Joint Strength of 70E Flush Head Straight Shank Ti-6Al-4V Fasteners in Non-Matching Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H. . .. 1948 2873 3528 4100 0. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . .080 0. . . . .160 .. 2700 3868 5171 6642 0. . . . . . . . . . .250 . . . . . .. . . . . . .090 a b c d Data supplied by PB Fasteners. . 4851 7056 8880 0. . . . . . . . 1180 . . . . . . . . .)b . . Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . in. . . . 1590 1944 . . . . . . . . .. lbs Sheet or plate thickness. ... . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . 1818 2620 3024 3350 0. . . .375 . . . . .. . . . .. . . . ... . . 0. .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. . . . . . . . . . ..... . . 10774 2779 4851 7521 10774 Fastener shear strengthc . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 4745 6552 8288 0. in. . . . HPT-Va (Fsu = 95 ksi) Sheet and Plate Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head STA Ti-6Al-4V Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type . 0. . . d Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . . in. . . 0. . . .. . . . .190 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .071 . .. . . .250) (0. . .. . . . .100 . . . . .. . . . . . . .063 . . . NAS 4452V Pin (Fsu = 95 ksi).. . . . 1712 1932 2169 2420 2658 3196 3812 . . . ..040 . . . . 4082 5072 6321 7265 8802 0. .. .. . ... . . . ... . .040 . . 0. . .090 . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 0. . . . . . . .. . 4660 Yield Strengthd. . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . .. . . .125 .. . lbs 766 1092 1450 1633 1805 1955 2007 . . ... 0. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 0. . . .2(m). .. . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 0. . . . . . . . .250 . . 0. . . . . . 0.. . . . . . . .. . . . .). in. .. . . . Fastener Diameter. 0. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .071 . . .. . . . .. .. . . .050 . . . . . b Values above line are for knife-edge condition and the use of fasteners in this condition is undesirable. lbs . .. . 1034 1295 1445 1604 1768 1920 2241 . . 0.. . ... . . . . . . . ..: 0. . . .. 7290 . . . . .091 a Data supplied by Huck Manufacturing Company. . . in. . . . 2715 3056 3383 4145 5076 5746 . . ..080 .190) (0. . 0. . . . .160 . 0. .. . .250 . . . . .312) (0. . . . . 0. . .. .. . . . . . . . 0..090 . . 1886 b 2290 2710 3135 3515 4273 4660 . . . .. .. . . . . . ..160 .049 .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . 8-130 . . .. . 0. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. .. . . . in.. . . . . ..080 ..040 ... .. 0. . . . .. . 0. . . . . . . c Fastener shear strength is documented in NAS 4444. 2694 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . in. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . ... Fastener shear strengthc .. . . . . . . 0.. .. .. . ..164) (0. .. .375) Ultimate Strength. 1173 1639 1889 2136 2368 2557 2694 ..) . . .077 . Head height (max. .. . .. . . . 0. .. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . ..050 . . . . .. The use of knifeedge condition in design of military aircraft requires specific approval of the procuring agency.063 . . . . . . .. . REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. . . .5. . 3028 3651 4230 5485 6776 7290 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .100 . . . 4669 6428 8426 9708 10490 10490 b 712 891 1103 1223 1349 1475 1489 .190 . . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . . 0. . . .: 0. .. . . . . .. . . .1. . . . . . .. 0. .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. . . . . . .063 . Sheet Material . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . .. 2007 .125 . . .. . . . . . NAS 4445D Nuta Clad 7075-T6 5/32 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 (0. Sheet or plate thickness. . . . . . .

. .. . . . . Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from indicated nominal shank diameter and Fsu = 95 ksi.125 . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . . .. 0. . . .. . . . . . . .160 . . . 0. . . .. . . . . . . .. .090 . . .5. . . . . 4660 2694 Yield Strengthd. . . . . . . . 3/16 (0. ..190) 1/4 (0. . . Static Joint Strength of Protruding Shear Head Alloy Steel Hi-Lok Fasteners in Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type . . . . . . .. . . .. . . .080 . .1..2(n). . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4050 5075 6509 6880 7290 7290 .. . . . . . .. .. . 0. . . . . 0.. ... . . . . .. . 1426 . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter.. . . in. . . . . .. . . . . 0. Data supplied by Hi-Shear Corporation. . . . . . Section 8. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . 0. 1559 . lbs. . . . . . . 0.190 . . . .125 . . . . . . . . .. .100 .: 0. Sheet Material . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .164) 1078 1353 1520 1718 1890 1930 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a b c d HL 18 Pin (Fsu = 95 ksi). . . . . .. . . . . .. . .160 . . . . .. . . Fasteners installed in clearance holes (0. HL 70 Collara Clad 7075-T6 5/32 (0. .063 . . . . . . . . . .312) . 1776 2593 1957 2937 2224 3250 2473 4063 2580 4450 2694 4620 .. . . .5). . .. . . 1624 2344 1848 2687 2065 3031 2242 3750 2563 4406 . . . . . 2007 976 1251 1430 1589 1746 1875 . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .250) 5/16 (0.. .. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.0025) (Ref. . .. .050 . . .. . . . lbs. . 0. . . . .. .. in.. . .250 . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..0005-0. . . . . . . . . .. . . .063 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rivet shear strengthc . 8-131 . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .. . . .. . . . . 0. . . . . . 0. .. .071 . .. . . . Sheet thickness. . . . . . . Fastener Diameter. . . . . . . . . .090 . . . . . . . . . . .1.050 . . . . .: 0. . . .. 3660 4734 6051 6686 Ultimate Strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. . 0. . . . .071 . .100 . . . . . .. . . . . . .)b .. . . . . .. . . 4660 . . .080 . .. in. 0. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . .190 . .... . . . . Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. 0. .. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4660 2694 Yield Strengthd. . . . .. . .5... . . . . . Head height (nom.190) 1/4 (0. . .125 . . . . . . . . 1606 2344 1823 2675 2050 3000 2300 3781 2570 4420 2694 4625 .312) . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . .063 . . . . . . . . . 1336 2013 1480 2219 1632 2420 1805 3000 2173 3670 2545 4144 . 0. . . . . . . Permanent set at yield load: the greater of 0. . . .125 .. . . . .. . . . . . . lbs. .. . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .046 0. . . . . . . in. . . . 1408 . . . . . .. .. .. . 0.. . . . . . . . . ..1. ...MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.. . . . . . . . .. . . . .2(o). . .. . . . . in. . . Static Joint Strength of 100° Flush Shear Head Alloy Steel Hi-Lok Fasteners in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet Fastener Type . . . . 4660 . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness... . . . . .. .. . . Fastener shear strength based on areas computed from indicated nominal shank diameter and Fsu = 95 ksi. . . . . . . . . . . 3660 4685 6051 6832 7290 7290 . . . . 3143 3777 4800 5514 6686 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fasteners installed in clearance holes (0. . . a b c d HL 19 Pin (Fsu = 95 ksi).. . . . . . . . .. . . . HL 70 Collara Clad 7075-T6 5/32 (0. . 0. . . . 8-132 . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .. .012 inch or 4% of nominal diameter. lbs.)b .164) 968 1251 1400 1595 1815 1903 2005 .0025) (Ref. .. . . . 0. . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .060 Data supplied by Hi-Shear Corporation. . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .080 . ..160 . . . .100 . .071 . . . 0.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . (Nominal Shank Diameter. . . .. .... . .. . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..250 . . . . . 1191 . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 0.. . . . . . . . . . .090 . .040 3/16 (0.. . . . . . . . . . . .: 0. . . .. . 0. . . . . . 0. . . .5). . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .250) 5/16 (0. . . . .190 . . . . . . . . . . . ..063 . . .. .160 . 0. . . .071 . 2007 839 1031 1141 1279 1416 1540 1807 .067 Ultimate Strength. ... 0. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . Fastener Diameter. . . . .. . . Sheet thickness. .080 . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .: 0.. .). . . . . . . . . .190 . . . 0. . .050 . . .090 . . .. . . Sheet Material . .050 . in. . . . . .. . ...1. .100 . . . . . Section 8. . Rivet shear strengthc . . . 0. . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . 0.0005-0. . . . 0. . . . . . . . 0.250 . . .

04D.1. Other properties such as tensile strength. 8. the bearing allowable for the noncountersunk sheet-fastener combination should be computed.6. For machine countersunk joints.2(a) and (b) contain joint allowables for various sleeve bolt/sheet material combinations. fatigue strength.0. The allowable loads shown for flush-head fasteners are applicable to joints having e/D equal to or greater than 2. When the assembly is placed in a cylindrical hole and the bolt is drawn into the sleeve.6 SPECIAL FASTENERS — Due to the special nature of this classification of fastener. as defined in Section 9. Sleeve bolts are made of precision-formed aluminum alloy sleeve elements assembled on standard taper shank bolts.1. Yield Load — Average yield test load as defined in Section 9. This factor is not applicable to shear strength cutoff values which are defined by the procurement specification.3. compared to the table value. The analysis was restricted to static lap joint data (in accordance with MILSTD-1312 Test 4) and equivalency to fastener systems other than those listed above is not implied. thus filling the hole and causing an interference-fit condition.1 A-286 ACRES Sleeves in 7075-T6 Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate — Analysis of static lap joint data indicates that a single 100 low profile head.15.6.1. In particular.6.1.6.3 and the load which results in a joint permanent set equal to 0. care must be exercised in their application.1. and corrosion characteristics should be verified by test data. test and analysis methods used for fasteners in this section may necessarily be different than those used in preceding sections. the sleeve expands. the sheet gage specified in the tables herein is that of the countersunk sheet. The allowable loads were established from test data using the following criteria: Ultimate Load — Average ultimate test load divided by a factor of 1.4. 8-133 .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 8. Fasteners and sleeves were installed to the same comparable hole tolerance and fit condition as fasteners when tested alone.1.1 Fastener Sleeves — Fastener sleeves are precision-formed. knife-edge conditions should be avoided. When using sleeves. 8. Consideration should be given to the proposed fastener application and its compatibility with data presented in this section. tubular elements designed to replace oversize fasteners used in the repair of damaged or enlarged holes.4. where D is the hole size.1. A-286 [ACRES Sleeve (part number JK5512C)] installed with titanium or steel Hi-Loks and alloy steel lockbolts (up to 108 ksi Fsu) provided static joint allowable shear loads equivalent to those developed by the above-noted fasteners when tested without sleeves.2 Sleeve Bolts — Tables 8. When the noncountersunk sheet is thinner than the countersunk sheet. and the lower of the two values selected. preload. 8.

. . . .. . . in. . Fasteners installed to interference levels of 0.125 . . . . .. Static Joint Strength of 100° Reduced Flush Head.. . Fastener shear strength is documented in NAS 1724 as 108 ksi. .. . . . . . . ... . . . 0. . . . .4350) 7/16 (0. . .. .. . . . . ... 11900 15480 19180 21265 22250 22250 . Alloy Steel Pin.. . . .190 . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . .. . .. ... . . . . 0.. .375 . . 12355 .. . .. . . . . . 0. . . .1. Fastener in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type .). . . . . . . . . Sheet thickness. 5035 . . 3300 4170 4915 . ... . . .1. 5670 . .. . .100 . . 6385 7560 7535 8925 8760 11640 . . . 12640 .. . in. .190 . . . .. .. ... lbs. . 4100 5205 5670 . . . ... . . . 0. ..B. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . Fastener Diameter. ..062 1/4 (0. . . . . . . . 0.500 . ... . . . .. .. ..160 . .. .3695) 3/8 (0. . . . Sheet Material .. . . . . 12395 ..160 . in.. Rivet shear strengthd ..250 . . . .: 0. in. . . . 0. . .. .4. . .. ... . .5022) . Sleeve head height (ref. 0. . . 0.3032) . ..5735) .125 . . . . . . . . expanded sleeve  min.. ... . .. 7125 8360 10825 13375 15620 . . . . .093 Nominal hole diameter based on max.312 . . (Nominal Hole Diameter. . in.. . . . 8-134 . . .. . 0. . . .. .. .. . 8760 12640 Yield Strengthe...082 0.. .. . . . . MIL-B-8831/4a (Fsu = 108 ksi) Clad 7075-T6 3/16 (0.. . . . . . . Aluminum Alloy Sleeve. . . .075 5/16 (0.. . .. .. .120 Ultimate Strength. . . .0025-0. . .6.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . hole using larger expanded diameter from MIL-B-8831/4 2 dated 23 August 1982. . . . 4075 .3. . lbs. 0... . .2(a). ... . . . . .. . . . . . . a b c d e Data supplied by P. .. . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . ..500 . . .. Fasteners. . .. . . . . . . . . . 0. ... . . . . . . . . 9. . . .2390) 2585 3205 3290 . . . . . . . 0. . 3290 2080 2570 3255 . . . . .)b. .. . . .. . .. . . . . . .c Sheet thickness. . . .. .008 in. . .. . 0. . . . . 5135 6105 6040 7175 7855 9310 . . . 11520 . .. . 0. . .115 ½ (0. . . . . . .: 0. . . .375 .. . . hole + min. ..100 . . . 8790 10360 13495 16195 16625 17100 17100 . . . .312 . .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . .3). .. 0. 9635 12450 15360 18320 21570 0.. . . . . . .. . . . .. . Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (Ref. . .250 . . . . .

1. 4720 5395 6735 8115 9525 11010 12385 12640 . .. in... .160 . lbs. . 0. .. . . .... . .375 .. . .... ... . . . ....... .500 0. .. ...750 0... .5735) Ultimate Strength... . . ..6... .... . . Fastener Diameter.. 0... .000 .. .160 0... . 8760 ... . . ... . . . . . .... ... . ... .. .062 .. .. . .... . . . . .190 .625 ... 6335 7525 9895 11085 11345 11865 12385 12640 .)b. 7595 9360 11185 13040 16720 18625 20520 21805 22250 0. ...002-0..750 ... .. . .. 0. ... . . .. ..082 . . 4205 5380 6390 7945 8165 8385 8760 . . . ..4350) 7/16 (0. . ... .. .... . . .. . ... . .. .. ..... . . .. . a Data supplied by P. .. c Fasteners installed to interference levels of 0. . ... ..MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . ....4.... . .. . . . . .. . .. Fasteners. .. . . . .... ... 0. .. 0.. . ... . . .. . . ... .B. . Sheet Material .. . .. .. ... . ...1. ... b Nominal hole diameter based on max. ... . 1. . . ... . . .. ..... . 0.. . . 12640 . 0...100 . ... . 0.. . .625 0. ...3032) MIL-B-8831/4a (Fsu = 108 ksi) Clad 2024-T3 5/16 (0..... . .... .. .. . . . .. . ..... . .. . .. .. . . . ..312 .. .. .312 0. . ... .. . .. . .. . . . .. (Nominal Hole Diameter. ... .. ... .3695) 3/8 (0.. . . . ........375 0. .. . 0... . . . .. . ..... ...c . ... . ..075 2175 2720 3290 . . . . ... .... 3450 4415 5240 5480 5655 5670 .. .. .. . . . ... .. . .. . . . . . hole + min. .. . .. .. .. .. . . . 1575 1880 2310 .. .. . . . Rivet shear strengthd .. . . .120 Sleeve head height (ref. ....... .. 0.. .. 5670 3/16 (0. . . 0. .. . . expanded sleeve  min.. . . .. . . .875 1.... in. ... 3200 3865 4435 5570 6745 7460 8680 .3).: 0. 3290 . .... . 8-135 ...5022) 1/2 (0.875 ... lbs. .093 . . . ... . .. Aluminum Alloy Sleeve. . ... . . in. Static Joint Strength of 100° Reduced Flush Head. . . in..... ... 5655 6430 7980 9580 11205 13655 15315 16645 17100 ... . .500 . .. .. . .... e Permanent set at yield load: 4% of nominal hole diameter (Ref.. . .. .. . .. . .... d Fastener shear strength is documented in NAS 1724 as 108 ksi. . 0. . . 17100 . . ... .... . ..... . 0. .. . .... 0. ... .. in.... . . ...190 0.....250 . ... . ..3.. .. .. . . . hole using larger expanded diameter from MIL-B2 8831/4 dated 23 August 1982. . . .. .. ... . . . .100 0.008 in. ... . Sheet thickness.. . ....000 .). . . .......: 0. .... 2505 3050 3515 4450 5055 5560 .125 . ...250 0.. .2(b). .. 9....125 0. . ... . ...... .. .. . Alloy Steel Pin. .. ..... ...... ... . . 0... .. ...115 ... .. 7315 8685 11425 14260 14845 15445 16045 16645 17100 . .. .. . ... .. ... Fastener in Machine-Countersunk Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate Fastener Type .... . ... .... 9920 13050 16285 19070 19755 20440 21225 21805 22250 22250 Yield Strengthe. .2390) 1/4 (0. . Sheet thickness..

pressure or both. dimensions and geometry. Bonding results from the intimate contact produced by the dissolution of a small amount of base metal in the molten filler metal. 8-136 .2 METALLURGICAL JOINTS In the design of metallurgical joints. Brazing — Brazing consists of joining metals by the application of heat causing the flow of a thin layer. specified allowable strength. Figure 8.1. 8. and flash. Welding — Welding consists of joining two or more pieces of metal by applying heat. weld metal) and the adjacent parent material must be considered. the strength of the joining material (for example. Several terms used in describing various sections of a welded joint are illustrated in Figure 8.2. Schematic diagram of weld and parent metal.2 WELDED JOINTS — The weld metal section of a joint should be analyzed on the basis of its loading. to produce a localized union through fusion or recrystallization across the joint interface. of nonferrous filler metal into the space between the pieces.2. The effects of the parent metal are to be accounted for as specified herein. capillary thickness.2. without fusion of the base metal. dimensions and geometry.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 8. resistance (spot and seam). shielded-arc welding with tungsten electrode (TIG) and inert-gas shielded metal-arc welding using covered electrodes (MIG)]. and the material being joined. 8.1. The following subparagraphs define certain joining processes. the specified allowable strengths.2.1 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS— The allowable strength for both the adjacent parent metal and the weld metal is given below in the particular section dealing with the method of forming used. The joint should be analyzed on the basis of its loading. with or without filler material. Examples of common welding processes include: fusion [inert-gas.

5 class E10013 . . ksi 51 51 72 85 Table 8. . . ksi b Fb from Figure 2. AMS 6457 .2. . . . AMS 6452 . .2. . . . . ksi 32 Carbon and alloy steels . .1 for Ftu = 90 ksi Tapered joints of 30 or less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 of the values of Fb from Figure 2. . .1 for Ftu = 90 ksi a Welded after heat treatment or normalized after weld. . . 4140. . 8. . .2.1 Strength of Fusion Welded Joints of Steel Alloys — Allowable fusion weld-metal strengths of steel alloys are shown in Table 8.1.4. . . Allowable Ultimate Tensile Stresses Near Fusion Welds in 4130. . .2. . . . . . . .1.2. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 8. . The following subsections contain specific information for a number of materials. . .1 Fusion Welding--Arc and Gas — Section 9. . . . .1(b).1(a). . . . . . . MIL-E-22200/10. . . 43 50 Alloy steels .1 classes E6010 and E6013 . . . 8. . . .2.2. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . None . 32 Alloy steels . . .1. . . For steel joints welded after heat treatment. . . . . . or 8630 Steels a Type of Joint Bending Modulus of Rupture. classes MIL10018-M1 Table 8. . . other methods can be employed as approved by certifying agencies. . All others . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . b Gussets or plate inserts considered 0 taper with centerline. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 4140.1. . . . . Stress relieved . . b Gussets or plate inserts considered 0 taper with centerline. Ftu.2. 0. . . . . . . . . .1. . 4340. . .2.2 contains a detailed discussion of one acceptable method of establishing fusion welding allowables. . . 80 a Welded after heat treatment or normalized after weld. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Bending Modulus of Rupture Near Fusion Welds in 4130. AWSA5.1(c). .2. ksi 90 Tapered joints of 30 or lessb . . .2. All others . . . .1(b) and (c). .8. 8-137 . . . .1(a). .2. or 8630 Steelsa Section Thickness ¼ inch or less Type of Joint Ultimate Tensile Stress. . . . . . . . As stated in that section. . .8. Strength of Fusion Welded Joints of Steel Alloys Heat Treatment Welding Rod Material Subsequent to Welding or Electrode Fsu. . . . . . Design allowable stresses for the weld metal are based on 85 percent of the respective minimum tensile ultimate test values. . . .1. . . the allowable strengths near the weld are given in Tables 8. . None . . . . .1. . . . AWSA5. . . . .

8.012 shall be determined by test.2. the allowable strength in the parent metal near a welded joint may equal the allowable strength for the material in the heat treated condition as given in the tables of design mechanical properties of the specific alloys. together with the “maximum” pitches that permit attainment of these strengths.2. 8-138 .3.2.3.2.2.2(e).2 Fatigue Strength of Spot-Welded Joints in Aluminum Alloys — The fatigue strength of spot-welded joints in aluminum alloy are given in Figures 8.2.2.2.3.2.1 Design Shear Strengths for Spot and Seam Welds in Uncoated Steels and Nickel and Cobalt Alloys — The design shear strength for spot welds for these materials are given in Tables 8.2 Design Shear Strengths for Spot and Seam Weldings in Aluminum Alloys — The acceptable aluminum and aluminum alloy combinations for spot and seam welding are given in Table 8. Design shear-strength for spot welds in aluminum alloys are given in Tables 8. Efficiencies for gages under 0.1(a) and (b). where ribs.2(a).3.2.2. 8.2.2.2.2.2.1.2. The design shear strengths listed are also applicable to seam welds. 8.3.3.020 shall be determined by test.2(b) and (c).2. intercostals. or doublers are attached to sheet.2.2.2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 For materials heat treated after welding.2. based on tearing of the sheet. 8.2. however. Design shear-strength for spot-welded joints.1.3 Spot and Seam Welding — Permission to use spot and seam welding on structural parts is governed by the requirements of the procuring or certifying agency. is given in Table 8.1(a) through (c). the allowable ultimate strength of the spot-welded stainless steel sheet shall be determined by multiplying the ultimate tensile strength of the sheet (A or S-value) by the appropriate efficiency factors shown in Figures 8.2. Joints having larger pitches fail in the spot welds rather than by tearing of the sheet.3. 8.2.2.3 gives the recommended allowable edge distance for spot and seam welds. Efficiencies for gages under 0.2. it should be noted that the weld metal allowables are based on 85 percent of these values. or doublers are attached to sheet. 8.2(a) through 8.2. and are governed by Tables 8.2(a) and (b).3.2.2.3. either at splices or at other joints on the sheet panels.2.2. The thickness ratio of the thickest sheet to the thinnest outer sheet in the combination should not exceed 4:1.3. Table 8.3.2(d) for some aluminum alloys. The thickness ratio of the thickest sheet to the thinnest outer sheet in the combination should not exceed 4:1.2 Flash and Pressure Welding — The ultimate tensile allowable strength and bending allowable modulus of rupture for flash and pressure welds are given in Tables 8.2. A higher efficiency may be permitted in special cases by the applicable procuring or certifying agency upon approval of the manufacturer’s process specification.2.2.1 Effects of Spot Welds on Parent Metal Strength of Aluminum Alloys — In applications of spot welding other than splices.2.2.1.3. The thickness ratio of the thickest to the thinnest outer sheet in the combination should not exceed 4:1.3. intercostals.2.2.3.2. the allowable ultimate strength of the spot-welded sheet may be determined by multiplying the ultimate tensile strength of the sheet (A or S-values) by the appropriate efficiency factor shown on Figure 8.3.3.2(b) and (c).2.2.2. 8.3.1 Effects of Spot-Welds on the Parent Metal Strength of 300 Series Stainless Steel — In applications of spot welding where ribs. 8.2.2.3 Design Shear Strengths for Spot and Seam Welds in Magnesium Alloys — Design shear-strength for spot welds in magnesium alloys are given in Table 8.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2(a). . . . .6 Ftu + 30 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 8. . . . . . . . . Tubing heat treated (including normalizing) after welding. . . . . . . .0 Ftu (based on Ftu of normalized tubing) Tubing Normalized tubing — not heat treated (including normalizing after welding Heat-treated tubing welded after heat treatment . . . . . . Ftu of unwelded material in heat-treated condition: < 100 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The thickness ratio of the thickest sheet to the thinnest outer sheet in the combination should not exceed 4:1. . . . . . . . . . .2.8. . .1. . . . . .2. . 0. . . . Allowable Bending Modulus of Rupture for Flash Welds in Steel Tubing Allowable Bending Modulus of Rupture of Welds (Fb from Figure 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2. .2. . 100 to 150 ksi . . . . .6 Ftu + 30 0. . > 150 ksi . . Table 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Ftu Table 8. . .2. . Ftu of unwelded material in heat-treated condition: < 100 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . > 150 ksi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 Ftu (based on Ftu of normalized tubing) 1. . . . . . . . . . . .0 Ftu (based on Ftu of normalized tubing) 0. .1 using values of Ftu listed) 1. . . . . . . Allowable Ultimate Tensile Stress of Welds 1. . . . .4(a) and (b). . . . . 100 to 150 ksi . . Allowable Ultimate Tensile Stress for Flash Welds in Steel Tubing Tubing Normalized tubing — not heat treated (including normalizing) after welding Heat-treated tubing welded after heat treatment . . . . . . .0 Ftu (based on Ftu of normalized tubing) 1. . . . . . . . . .3.3. . . . . .8 Ftu 8-139 . . . . .9 Ftu 0. . . . . . . . .2(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Design Shear Strengths for Spot and Seam Welds in Titanium and Titanium Alloys — Design shear strength for spot welds in titanium and titanium alloys are given in Tables 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .9 Ftu 0. Tubing heat treated (including normalizing) after welding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

however.47 0. e Less than minimum recommended spacing may cause shunting that leads to deterioration of weld strengths and joint life.28 0. c Edge distances are measured materials in contact.58 0. Edge distances less than those specified above may be used provided there is no expulsion of weld material or bulging of the edge of the sheet. b Intermediate gages will require interpolation between adjacent gages.d Edge Distance.063 0.3.19 0. inch 0.25 0.050 0.160 Minimum Lap Jointc. inch 0.60 a Reference Aluminum Association and American Welding Society Handbook.79 0.080 0.22 0.52 0.38 0. d Minimum contacting overlap is twice the minimum edge distance.19 0.38 0. inch 0.025 0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. this can be to a free edge or to a sheet metal radius where one material bends away from another. Recommended Minimum Edge Distance and Spacing for Spot-Welded Joints a Nominal Thicknessb of Thinner Sheet.016 0.69 Minimum Spacinge.46 0.41 0.100 0. these joints may have less static strength and shorter fatigue life.2.20 0.032 0.25 1.31 0.2.00 1.071 0.44 0.67 0.89 1.50 0.020 0. 8-140 .73 0.30 0.56 0.125 0.090 0.040 0.

and precipitation hardening steels.2. applicable design strength shall be determined as noted below: Xm (K) Nr  Xr Ns where Xm Ns Nr Xr K K = = = = = = design shear strength in accordance with the above table standard spots per inch in accordance with the above table required spots per inch (production part) actual design shear strength requirement 1. e When the number of spots differs from the standard spots per inch by 15 percent or greater. Spot-Weld Design Shear Strengtha.f 1-50 1-30 1-17 1-14 1-13 1-10 1-8 1-7 Design Shear Strength. c Refers to plain carbon steels containing not more than 0. in. Higher values may be used.007 0.006 0.b in Thin Sheet and Foil for Uncoated Steelsc and Nickel and Cobalt Alloys (Welding Specification MIL-W-6858) Spots/inch Thickness of Thinnest Outer Sheet. b The allowable tensile strength of spot-welds is 25 percent of the design shear strength.1(a). austenitic.2. the design shear strength shall remain constant at the value obtained at the top of the range. the design shear strengths tabulated above shall apply. d When the number of spots per inch is within 15 percent of the standard spot per inch requirement.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. however. ksi Above 185 150 to 185 90 to 149 Below 90 Rangee.15 percent carbon.002 0.003 0. f When the number of spots per inch is above the range indicated in the table.15 when number of spots per inch is reduced more than 15 percent of the standard spacing of the above table 0. pounds per linear inch (Xm) 72 144 240 324 392 432 504 552 64 128 208 280 340 380 440 488 52 104 164 228 272 304 352 392 36 72 120 152 188 220 256 284 a Strength based on 80 percent of minimum values specified in Specification MIL-W-6858.004 0. 8-141 .001 0.90 when number of spots is increased more than 15 percent of the standard spacing but within range of the tabular spacing.3. but does not exceed the noted range of spots per inch. heat and corrosion resistant. 0.008 Standard (Ns)d 40 20 12 10 9 7 6 5 Material Ultimate Tensile Strength. The reduction in strength of spot-welds due to the cumulative effects of time-temperaturestress factors is not greater than the reduction in strength of the parent metal.005 0. if these are substantiated by tests acceptable to the procuring or certifying agency.

... 0.... 0.....028............ 0... 0. in........025.... pounds per spot Material Ultimate Tensile Strength................. b The allowable tensile strength of spot-welds is 25 percent of the design shear strength............... 0..063............ Higher values may be used............................ 8-142 ....090..................................... 0................100....056......... Spot-Weld Design Shear Strengtha......045..........050....... c Refers to plain carbon steels containing not more than 0.....3...................010.. 0...............036.....018....MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8............... 0............................125............2.... 0.071.... The reduction in strength of spot-welds due to the cumulative effects of time-temperature-stress factors is not greater than the reduction in strength of the parent metal....b in Panels for Uncoated Steelsc and Nickel and Cobalt Alloys (Welding Specification MIL-W-6858) Design Shear Strength....112....... precipitation hardening steels......................... 0.032....020............................ 0................ if these are substantiated by tests acceptable to the procuring or certifying agency... 0....1(b)...................................... 0... 0.... 0........ however...........040........: 0..15 percent carbon and to austenitic heat and corrosion resistant.................2.....080................................................. 0.......... 0.......................................... 0..... Above 185 150 to 185 90 to 149 Below 90 160 196 280 384 472 508 584 696 820 1000 1200 1400 1680 1960 2304 2840 3360 3880 4480 5040 5600 6228 140 164 220 320 392 424 488 580 684 836 1004 1168 1436 1700 2040 2472 2984 3528 4072 4576 5092 5664 104 128 160 236 272 312 360 424 508 620 736 852 1028 1204 1416 1688 2028 2404 2812 3200 3636 4052 80 92 120 172 200 224 264 320 372 452 552 652 804 956 1168 1408 1664 1964 2308 2640 3036 3440 a Strength based on 80 percent of minimum values specified in Specification MIL-W-6858.........................012................... 0.. 0....... 0.009.........022.... ksi Nominal thickness of thinner sheet.......016.........

and AISI 347-A.2.3. Efficiency of the parent metal in tension for spot-welded AISI 301-A.3. VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 8.1. Efficiency of the parent metal in tension for spot-welding AISI 301-1/2H stainless steel 8-143 . and AISI 301-1/4 stainless steel.1(a).2.2.1.1(b).2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 8.

Efficiency of the parent metal in tension for spot-welded AISI 301-H stainless steel. 8-144 .3.1.2.2.1(c).MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 8.

.... ... . . . * .2..... ... .... .... .. .. c Clad heat-treated and aged 7075 material in thicknesses less than 0. ... ... . .......3....... Material .. . .. .. ...2.. . . . .. . The combinations indicated by the asterisk (*) may be spot-welded only with the specific approval of the procuring or certifying agency. .. b This table applies to construction of land. . ... . * . . .. . * .and carrier-based aircraft only. . . . . . .... * * * . . ...... ....... .. ... .. .. ...... . . The welding of bare....... ....... . ..... . . . .. .... . . .. . .. . .. ... . .. . ... .. . .020 inch shall not be welded without specific approval of the procuring or certifying agency... .2(a).... ... . . * .. .. ... * * * .. . * .. . .......... * .. . ..... . 1100 Specification AMS-QQ-A-250/1 AMS-4029 AMS-QQ-A-250/3 AMS-QQ-A-250/4 AMS-QQ-A-250/5 AMS-QQ-A-250/2 AMS-QQ-A-250/8 AMS-QQ-A250/11 AMS-QQ-A250/12 AMS-QQ-A250/13 Material 1100 Bare 2014b Clad 2014 Bare 2024b Clad 2024 3003 5052 6061 Bare 7075b Clad 7075b . Acceptable Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Combinationa for Spot and Seam Welding Specification .. . ... .. . .Table 8. . .. high-strength alloys in construction of seaplanes and amphibians is prohibited unless specifically authorized by the procuring or certifying agency. ... . .. ... ..... . . . .. ... . ... .... .. .. AMSQQ-A250/1 AMS4029b Bare 2014 AMSQQ-A250/3 Clad 2014 AMSQQ-A250/4b Bare 2024 AMSQQ-A250/5 Clad 2024 AMSQQ-A250/2 3003 AMSQQ-A250/8 5052 AMSQQ-A250/11 6061 AMSQQ-A250/12b Bare 7075 AMSQQ-A250/13c Clad 7075 8-145 a The various aluminum and aluminum-alloy materials referred to in this table may be spot-welded in any combinations except the combinations indicated by the asterisk(*) in the table. . ....... . ...... * * * .. .... .. ....

.. Spot-Weld Design Shear Strength in Thin Sheet and Foil for Bare and Clad Aluminum Alloysa....... pounds per linear inch (Xm) 24 48 80 108 132 148 168 188 16 32 52 72 92 100 112 128 The reduction in strength of spot-welds due to the cumulative effects of time-temperature-stress factors is not greater than the reduction in strength of the parent metal..007..... The allowable tensile strength of spot-welds is 25 percent of the design shear strength....c (Welding Specification MIL-W-6858) Spots/inch Thickness of Thinnest Outer Sheet.....2....90 when number of spots is increased more than 15 percent of the standard spacing but within range of the tabular spacing. 0...003..............b.006..... applicable design strength shall be determined as noted below: XM (K) Nr  Xr Ns where Xm Ns Nr Xr K K = = = = = design shear strength in accordance with the above table standard spots per inch in accordance with the above table required spots per inch (production part) actual design shear strength requirement 1. 0....... 0. Higher values may be used... When the number of spots differs from the standard spots per inch by 15 percent or greater.......008... Strength based on 80 percent of minimum values specified in Specification MIL-W-6858..... f When the number of spots per inch is above the range indicated in the table........... if these are substantiated by tests acceptable to the procuring or certifying agency.002. When the number of spots per inch is within 15 percent of the standard spot per inch requirement.. the design shear strength shall remain constant at the value obtained at the top of the range..........f 1-50 1-30 1-17 1-14 1-13 1-10 1-8 1-7 Design Shear Strength...... 0. but does not exceed the noted range of spots per inch.. 8-146 .....3. in.......2.. however... ksi 56 and Above Below 56 Standard (Ns)d 40 20 12 10 9 7 6 5 Rangee....MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8... 0................15 when number of spots per inch is reduced more than 15 percent of the standard spacing of the above table = 0.....004....... a b c d e Material Ultimate Tensile Strength.....005........... 0.....001.. 0. 0.2(b).. the design shear strengths tabulated above shall apply..

012 0...... .... b Strength based on 80 percent of minimum values specified in Specification MIL-W-6858............... Nominal thickness of thinner sheet... ... ..... pounds per spot Material Ultimate Tensile Strength...: 0..040 0......... ..112 0.................... ...... however.................... ........100 0.........016 0.... ...... ................. 16 40 52 64 76 88 108 132 156 180 208 236 272 316 360 420 476 540 588 628 ..036 0.....160 0................ 48 60 88 100 112 128 148 172 208 244 276 324 372 444 536 660 820 1004 1192 1424 1696 2020 2496 2980 3228 5880 40 52 80 92 108 124 140 164 188 220 248 296 344 412 488 576 684 800 936 1072 1300 1538 1952 2400 2592 5120 .....................056 0....080 0..022 0....... ksi.9 Below 19.................. .....140 0............................................032 0...... 24 56 68 80 96 116 140 168 204 240 280 320 380 456 516 612 696 752 800 840 ........... ..063 0.........071 0............ ....045 0....025 0...018 0.............. .............c (Welding Specification MIL-W-6858) Design Shear Strength. ...... . .... 56 and Above 35 to 56 19...b.250 .................5 a The reduction in strength of spot-welds due to the cumulative effects of time-temperature-stress factors is not greater than the reduction in strength of the parent metal...125 0.............. .... . ..........................MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.. ..........2........ ................050 0.........190 0.. ..090 0............................020 0....... 8-147 ....... ............ if these are substantiated by tests acceptable to the procuring or certifying agency.........180 0...... ... .. in......028 0......010 0.... ....... ...3. c The allowable tensile strength of spot-welds is 25 percent of the design shear strength. ..... ......5 to 34. ............ ........................ ....2(c)....... ............................. ....2..... Higher values may be used... Spot-Weld Design Shear Strength in Panels for Bare and and Clad Aluminum Alloysa.. .....

194 0.167 0.234 0...125 0.. 438 526 701 876 1095 1402 1752 2190 2759 3110 3504 3942 4380 4906 5475 Pitch÷No. lbs/in.. 0..556 0..220 0... lbs/in. 0.684 7075-T6 clad Strength.. 0.010..290 0.451 0.188 0..3.212 0..319 0. 0.. 0.260 0.152 0. Maximum Static Strength of Spot-Welded Joints in Aluminum Alloys and Corresponding Maximum Design Spot-Weld Pitcha.........310 0..148 0.Table 8.194 0.349 0.. in..267 0..479 0.192 0.... 0.122 0.. 210 252 336 420 525 672 778 910 1082 1187 1306 1438 1580 1728 1900 Pitch.110 0.158 0. 0.... .........2. in.... 0.224 0.267 0.169 0....170 0. 7075-T6 clad Strength. of Rows.025..257 0.605 0.247 0....... 0.524 0.012...125..2.222 0.....242 0.471 0. 0.235 0.2..270 0.659 0..080.302 0.143 0.2.. 0.426 0.100.622 0..2(b) and (c).237 0.. 0. 0...130 0. of Rows.114 0..071...310 Multiple Row Joints 2024-T3 clad Strength. in.209 0.260 0.788 6061-T6 Strength..132 0.191 0....173 0.090..378 0.301 0..170 0....717 0.272 0..063.620 0.525 0.. 0..135 0...050. 329 395 526 658 822 1053 1316 1645 2073 2336 2632 2961 3290 3685 4112 Pitch÷No..200 0..353 6061-T6 Strength.280 0.290 0... lbs/in.180 0......225 0.415 0.... 288 346 461 577 721 923 1059 1230 1452 1589 1742 1913 2084 2289 2511 Pitch. lbs/in.205 0.. 384 461 614 768 960 1229 1536 1920 2419 2726 3072 3456 3840 4301 4800 Pitch÷No......206 0..596 0.112.. 0. in.032. 0..675 2024-T3 clad Strength.154 0.. 0.. 0. 0.572 0.194 0. 0..3.. in....... strength is governed by Tables 8.2(d).....291 0...190 0.. 250 300 400 500 625 800 918 1067 1259 1378 1511 1660 1808 1986 2179 Pitch. lbs/in.331 0.179 0. of Rows. in....020.....261 0..164 0. in.126 0..316 8-148 a For multiple row joints row spacing is at minimum and same pitch in all rows......543 0......284 0..369 0... b For pitches greater than those shown..238 0.. 0......016.040..b Single Row Joints Material.146 0..128 0..255 0.. Thickness of Thinnest Sheet... lbs/in...485 0.

2.1.2.2.3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 8. 8-149 . Efficiency of the parent metal in tension for spot-welded aluminum alloys.

2. 8-150 .2. Load Ratio = 0.3. Fatigue strength of spot-welded joints in aluminum alloy sheet.2.2(a).05 (static failure by tearing sheet).MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 8.

2.3. Load Ratio = 0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 8.2(b).2. 8-151 .2. Fatigue strength of spot-welded joints in aluminum alloy sheet.05 (static failure by shear in the spot welds).

2(c).2. Load Ratio = 0. 8-152 .2.05.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 8. Fatigue strength of triple row spot-welded lap joints in 6061-T6 aluminum alloy sheet.2.3.

Load Ratio = 0. 8-153 . Fatigue strength of spot-welded multiple row joints in aluminum alloy sheet.3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 8.2.05 (static failure by shear in the spot welds).2.2(d).2.

2. Fatigue strength of triple row spot-welded lap joints in 6061-T6 aluminum alloy sheet.2(e). 8-154 . Load Ratio = 0.05 (static failure by tear in sheets).2.3.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 VIEW INTERACTIVE GRAPH Figure 8.2.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . 0. . .063 . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . if these are substantiated by tests acceptable to the procuring or certifying agency. 0.090 . 0. 0. . 0. . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .045 . 0.036 .020 . . ksi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.022 . . . . . . however. . . . . . .112 . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .018 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . .050 . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 0.040 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-155 . .: 0. . . . . 0. . 0. . . . . . . . .2.028 . . . . . . 0. . . .. Spot-Weld Design Shear Strength in Panels for Magnesium Alloysa. . . . . . . . . . . .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c Magnesium alloys AZ31B and HK31A may be spot-welded in any combination. . pounds per spot Material Ultimate Tensile Strength. . . Higher values may be used. . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .025 . 0. . . . . . . . . . . .5 16 40 52 64 76 88 108 132 156 180 208 236 272 316 360 420 476 540 588 628 a Strength based on 80 percent of minimum values specified in Specification MIL-W-6858. . . . . . . . .080 .125 . . . . . .016 .012 . . . . . . . . . .b. Nominal thickness of thinner sheet. . . . . .c (Welding Specification MIL-W-6858) Design Shear Strength. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .056 . . . . .5 24 56 68 80 96 116 140 168 204 240 280 320 380 456 516 612 696 752 800 840 Less than 19. . . . . . in. . . . Greater than 19. . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b The allowable tensile strength of spot-welds is 25 percent of the design shear strength. . . . . .032 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .071 .

.. Spot-Weld Design Shear Strength in Thin Sheet and Foils for Titanium and Titanium Alloysa. .f 1-50 1-30 1-17 1-14 1-13 1-10 1-8 1-7 Design Shear Strength. .. .. b Strength based on 80 percent of minimum values specified in Specification MIL-W-6858... 8-156 . Higher values may be used.4(a)..2. applicable design strength shall be determined as noted below: XM/Ns(K)Nr = Xr where Xm Ns Nr Xr K K = = = = = design shear strength in accordance with the above table standard spots per inch in accordance with the above table required spots per inch (production part) actual design shear strength requirement 1.2.002 0...b. pounds per linear inch (Xm) 72 144 240 324 392 432 504 552 64 128 208 280 340 380 440 488 52 104 164 228 272 304 352 392 36 72 120 152 188 220 256 284 . d When the number of spots per inch is within 15 percent of the standard spot per inch requirement. but does not exceed the noted range of spots per inch.. The reduction in strength of spot-welds due to the cumulative effects of time-temperature-stress factors is not greater than the reduction in strength of the parent metal..005 0.007 0.. .....MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8.. f When the number of spots per inch is above the range indicated in the table. the design shear strengths tabulated above shall apply. in. .c (Welding Specification MIL-W-6858) Spots/inch Thickness of Thinnest Outer Sheet.004 0.90 when number of spots is increased more than 15 percent of the standard spacing but within range of the tabular spacing..3.. if these are substantiated by tests acceptable to the procuring or certifying agency.15 when number of spots per inch is reduced more than 15 percent of the standard spacing of the above table = 0.... 0... ksi Above 185 150 to 185 90 to 149 Below 90 Standard (Ns)d 40 20 12 10 9 7 6 5 Rangee..006 0... however... . c The allowable tensile strength of spot-welds is 25 percent of the design shear strength. . e When the number of spots differs from the standard spots per inch by 15 percent or greater.001 0.003 0. the design shear strength shall remain constant at the value obtained at the top of the range...008 a Materials Ultimate Tensile Strength..

. . . . . 0. . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . .056 .063 . . . . . . . .012 . . . . 0.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 8. . . . . .b. . . . .022 . . . . . . . . . . .125 . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . .080 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ksi . . . . . . 0. . . . .: 0. . .2. . .112 . . . . . . . . .3. . .071 . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b Strength based on 80 percent of minimum value specified in Specification MIL-W-6858. . . .025 . . . . . . . . 0. . . .100 . .090 . . . . . . . .020 . . . . . . . . . . Spot-Weld Design Shear Strength in Panels for Titanium and Titanium Alloya. . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . .036 . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . c The allowable tensile strength of spot-wells is 25 percent of the design shear strength. . . . . 0. . . . . . .045 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . in. . 164 220 320 392 424 488 580 684 836 1004 1168 1438 1702 2040 2400 2702 3048 3430 3810 4260 4760 128 160 236 272 312 360 424 508 620 736 852 1028 1204 1416 1688 1914 2160 2435 2702 3030 3380 Above 100 100 and Below a The reduction in strength of spot-welds due to the cumulative effects of time-temperature-stress factors is not greater than the reduction in strength of the parent metal. . . .4(b). . if these are substantiated by tests acceptable to the procuring or certifying agency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nominal thickness of thinner sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. 0. . . . . . . . .2. . however. . .028 . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . 0. . . . . . . . . . . .010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .018 . . . . .040 .050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .c (Welding Specification MIL-W-6858) Design Shear Strength.032 . Higher values may be used. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-157 . . . . . . . . . pounds per spot Material Ultimate Tensile Strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

PULLEYS. selection criteria.3 BRAZING 8. 8-158 . Higher values may be allowed upon approval of the procuring or certifying agency.1.2. Chapters 3 and 6.1 Copper Brazing — The allowable shear strength for copper brazing of steel alloys shall be 15 ksi. The allowable shear strength for silver brazing of steel alloys shall be 15 ksi. provided that clearances or gaps between parts to be brazed do not exceed 0. Silver brazing alloys are listed in specification QQ-B-654. for all conditions of heat treatment. whichever is appropriate: MIL-W-83420 or MIL-W-87161.2.2. and other data for plain and antifriction bearings are found in AFSC Design Handbook AFSC DH-2-1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 8. Deviation from this specified allowable value may be allowed upon approval of the procuring or certifying agency.2 Silver Brazing — Silver-brazed areas should not be subjected to temperatures exceeding 900F. Pulleys — Pulley strengths and design data are to be utilized in accordance with Specification MILP-7034.2.010 in. AND WIRE ROPE Bearings — Design. the calculated allowable strength of the base metal which is subjected to the temperatures of the brazing process shall be in accordance with the following: Material Heat-treated material (including normalized) used in “as-brazed” condition Heat-treated material (including normalized) reheat-treated during or after brazing Allowable Strength Mechanical properties of normalized material Mechanical properties corresponding to heat treatment performed 8. 8. The effect of the brazing process on the strength of the parent or base metal of steel alloys shall be considered in the structural design.3.3. Wire Rope — Strengths and design data for wire rope are to be selected from the following specifications. Where copper furnace brazing is employed. The effect of silver brazing on the strength of the parent or base metal is the same as shown for copper brazing in Section 8.3 BEARINGS. Deviation from this specification may be allowed upon approval of the procuring or certifying agency. strengths.3.

S.2 “Report on Flush Riveted Joint Strength.2. 8. “The Shear Strength of Aluminum Alloy Driven Rivets as Affected by Increasing D/t Ratios..” Airworthiness Requirements Committee.” Almay Research and Testing Corporation Report No. Airworthiness Project 20 (Revised April 6.1. G.. 1953). E.1 Fugazzi. Technical Note No.1(a) Hartman.” U. 1948). 8. A/C Industries Association of America.2 “Report on Flush Screw Joint Strength.. G8058.1. 23 pp (July 1944).. C. A/C Industries Association of American.” Airworthiness Requirements Committee. “Results of Test Evaluation Program to Develop Design Joint Strength Load Allowable Values for A-286 Solid Rivets Under Room and Elevated Temperature Conditions. 8. Inc. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. 8-159 . R.2. and Westcoat. Inc. 942.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 REFERENCES 8. Airworthiness Project 12 (Revised May 25. C.5. 63 pp (November 1964).1.

13 9.6.5 9.2. procedures for analyzing data in determining property values for inclusion in previous chapters.2.3.15 9.0.6.12 9.4 9.14 9.4 9.2.1 9.0 9. & Full-Range Stress-Strain Curves Biaxial Stress-Strain Behavior Fatigue Data Analysis Fatigue-Crack-Propagation Data Creep and Creep-Rupture Data Properties of Joints and Structures Mechanically Fastened Joints Fusion-Welded Joints Miscellaneous Properties Fracture Toughness Statistical Procedures and Tables Goodness-of-Fit Tests Tests of Significance Data-Regression Techniques Tables Estimation Procedures for the Weibull Distribution Page 9-2 9-4 9-4 9-5 9-5 9-5 9-5 9-5 9-6 9-7 9-12 9-18 9-18 9-18 9-21 9-23 9-25 9-26 9-29 9-31 9-32 9-33 9-37 9-41 9-59 9-59 9-60 9-65 9-65 9-73 9-90 9-92 9-147 9-150 9-169 9-169 9-195 9-206 9-206 9-213 9-213 9-217 9-223 9-234 9-257 9-260 Supersedes page 9-1 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-1 .5 References Subject Summary Testing Standards Data Requirements General Introduction Applicability Approval Procedures Documentation Requirements Symbols and Definitions Data Requirements for Incorporation of a New Product into MIL-HDBK-5 Procedure for the Submission of Mechanical Property Data Room-Temperature Design Properties Introduction Designations and Symbols Computational Procedures.2 9.1 9. Compression Tangent-Modulus.2.2.2.1.2.1 9.2 9.11 9.5 9.4 9.7 9.2.2 9.1.6 9.6. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 CHAPTER 9 GUIDELINES FOR THE PRESENTATION OF DATA This chapter contains Guidelines for judging adequacy of data.3.2 9.4.2.2.2.1.7 9.1 9.0.2 9.1.2.1 9.8 9.6 9.5 9.2.4 9.5 9.2.3. General Specifying the Population Deciding Between Direct and Indirect Computation Determining the Appropriate Computation Procedure Direct Computation for the Normal Distribution Direct Computation for the Weibull Distribution Direct Computation for an Unknown Distribution Computation of Derived Properties Determining Design Allowables by Regression Analysis Examples of Computational Procedures Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s Ratio Physical Properties Presentation of Room-Temperature Design Properties Graphical Mechanical Property Data Elevated Temperature Curves Typical Stress-Strain.3.3 9.1 9.1 9.1.4.1.3 9.1 9.3 9.6.MIL-HDBK-5H.10 9.6 9.1.3 9.4 9.5. The following index can be used to locate sections of the Guidelines applicable to various properties: Section 9.3.2.3 9.9 9.2 9.3.6. and formats for submitting results of analyses to the MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Group for approval.6 9.2 9.

Similarly. one-sided lower tolerance limit. elevated temperature properties. bearing. and (2) specification minimum properties are included in MIL-HDBK-5 tables as design properties in situations where there are insufficient data to determine statistically based material design values. Before an alloy can be considered for inclusion in MIL-HDBK-5. The minimum sample size required for the direct computation of T99 and T90 values (from which A and B-basis design properties are established) is 100. Fty). which can only be done if there are at least 299 observations. it must be covered by a commercial or government specification. fatigue crack growth and mechanically fastened joints are also covered since these data are commonly used in aircraft design. Analysis procedures for fatigue. shear. bearing. There are two main reasons for this: (1) the alloy. representing a 95 percent lower confidence limit on the tenth percentile of the distribution. a T90 value is a statistically computed. If the sample cannot be described by a Pearson1 or Weibull distribution. elongation and elastic modulus. and its method of manufacture. except that creep and stress rupture properties are added to the list. shear (Fsu). Recommended changes in statistical procedures within the guidelines are evaluated first by the Statistics Working Group (SWG). must be “reduced to standard practice” to increase confidence that the material. which supports the GEMTG.MIL-HDBK-5H. by far. The elevated temperature properties are the same. elongation and elastic modulus) are provided in a tabular format. commercial and military. Chapter 9 is divided into 6 subchapters which cover the analysis methods used to define room and elevated temperature properties. These 100 observations must include data from at least 10 heats and lots (as defined in the next paragraph). Room temperature design properties are the primary focus in the Handbook because most aircraft. A T99 value is a statistically computed. representing a 95 percent confidence lower limit on the first percentile of the distribution. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 9. of the data in MIL-HDBK-5 are room temperature design properties: including tensile (Ftu. if obtained from different suppliers. A Pearson distribution analysis with zero skewness is comparable to the normal analysis method used in earlier versions of MIL-HDBK-5. one-sided lower tolerance limit. For instance. The majority. compression (Fcy). the T99 and T90 values must be computed by nonparametric (distribution free) means. will still demonstrate similar mechanical properties. the room temperature mechanical properties (tensile. typically operate at near-ambient temperatures and because most material specifications include only room temperature property requirements. Similarly. Since 1966.0 SUMMARY The objective of this summary is to provide a global overview of Chapter 9 without defining specific statistical details. bearing strengths (Fbru and Fbry). The room temperature mechanical properties are tensile. these guidelines have described statistical procedures used to calculate mechanical properties for alloys included in the Handbook. recommended changes in fastener analysis procedures are examined by the Fastener Task Group (FTG) before approval by the coordination committee. Design minimum mechanical properties tabulated in MIL-HDBK-5 are calculated either by “direct” or “indirect” statistical procedures. The presentation of these data varies depending upon the data type. Chapter 9 is the “rule book” for MIL-HDBK-5. Recommended changes in the guidelines are reviewed first by the Guidelines and Emerging Materials Task Group (GEMTG) and later approved by the entire coordination committee. compression. shear. compression. This overview will be most helpful to those unfamiliar with the statistical procedures used in MIL-HDBK-5 and to those who would like to learn more about the philosophy behind the MIL-HDBK-5 guidelines. fatigue. and typical stress-strain curves are presented in graphical format. fracture toughness. while the fatigue. elongation and elastic modulus. Supersedes page 9-2 of MIL-HDBK-5H 1 9-2 .

MIL-HDBK-5H. For tensile properties. and shear strengths are paired with tensile values determined in the same region of the product to produce a ratio. This is done through the use of regression analysis for both direct and indirect properties. In addition. For these curves.2 percent yield stress. This is because the general consensus within the MIL-HDBK-5 committee has been that a large number of observations (in the realm of 100) are needed from a large number of heats and lots (e. and bearing (ultimate and yield). it is common practice to test for variability in mechanical properties as a function of product thickness. compression. In this indirect method. Therefore.g. This is done to reduce cost. The creep rupture plots are shown as typical isothermal curves of stress versus time. Minimum compression. only minimum tensile ultimate and yield strength values are determined by the direct method. is all of the material that is cast at the same time from the same furnace and is identified with the same heat number. Many mechanical property tables in the Handbook include data for specific grain directions and thickness ranges. and product form that has passed through all processing operations at the same time. because as few as 10 data points (from 3 heats and 10 lots) can be used. that often display variations in mechanical properties as a function of grain direction and/or product thickness. 10) for a particular material to properly characterize the variability in strength of that product. in the case of batch melting. Statistical analyses of these ratios are conducted to obtain lower bound estimates of the relationship between the primary property and the ratioed property.6. A heat of material. such as wrought products. A lot represents all of the material of a specific chemical composition. The physical properties are shown as a function of temperature for each property. not a percentage of a room temperature value. etc.1. where a single heat is commonly cast in sequential aluminum ingots. a single heat of material is generally poured without interruption. The exception is for ingot metallurgy wrought aluminum products.e. i. These curves are included to illustrate each material’s yield behavior and to graphically display differences in yield behavior for different grain directions. These curves are identified as typical because they are based upon only a few test points. These numbers can be used in conjunction with a material’s elastic modulus to empirically develop a stress-strain curve. the compression. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 In most cases.. properties may be computed separately (without regression) for reduced thickness ranges. T90 values are not computed if there are insufficient data to compute T99 values. Each typical curve also contains a shape factor called the Ramberg-Osgood number (n). tempers.2). Effect of temperature and thermal exposure curves are included throughout the Handbook. bearing. Typical tensile full-range stress-strain curves are also provided that illustrate deformation behavior from the proportional limit to fracture. Fbru. in combination with “paired” direct properties to compute a design minimum value. etc. Fbry values for shear. and shear strengths are typically determined through the indirect method. respectively. compression tangent-modulus curves are provided to describe compression instability. heat treat condition or temper. If a regression is found to be significant. These ratios are then multiplied with the appropriate Ftu or Fty in the Handbook to obtain the Fsu. This is done to better represent anisotropic materials. Fcy. even though a much smaller sample size is required to compute nonparametric T90 values. there is a minimum data requirement and statistical procedures have been established to construct the curves. To compliment the mechanical property tables. Physical properties are reported as average actual values. In the case of continuous melting. specific heat. thermal conductivity. the Handbook also contains typical stress-strain curves. Supersedes page 9-3 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-3 . bearing. the curves are presented as a percentage of the room temperature design value. Multiple lots can be obtained from a single heat. Typical curves are shown for both tension and compression and are extended to just beyond the 0. which are melted from a single furnace change and poured in one or more drops without changes in the processing parameters (see Table 9.

MIL-HDBK 5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 In addition to the mechanical properties, statistically based S/N fatigue curves are provided in the Handbook, since many airframe structures experience dynamic loading conditions. The statistical procedures are fairly rigorous. For example, the procedure describes how to treat outliers and run-outs (discontinued tests), and which models to use to best-fit a specific set of data. Each fatigue figure includes relevant information such as Kt, R value, material properties, sample size and equivalent stress equation. Each figure should be closely examined by the user to properly identify the fatigue curves required for a particular design. Design properties for mechanical fasteners and mechanically fastened elements are also included in MIL-HDBK-5. A unique analysis procedure has been developed for mechanical fasteners because fasteners generally do not develop the full bearing strength of materials in which they are installed. Realistic joint allowables are determined from test data using the statistical analysis procedures described in Chapter 9. There are four different types of fasteners for which design allowables must be determined, as described in Section 4. The last section in the Handbook (Section 6) provides a detailed description of statistical procedures used in Chapter 9 for the analysis of data. Most of these procedures are backed up with examples and appropriate statistical tables. 9.0.1 TESTING STANDARDS — Testing standards used in MIL-HDBK-5 are summarized in Table 9.0.1. In most cases, testing standards maintained by the American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM, are referenced. The primary exception is fastener testing, where NASM-1312 is used as the reference standard. The mostly recently approved version of each standard is used as the baseline for all test data reviewed for inclusion in MIL-HDBK-5. 9.0.2 DATA REQUIREMENTS — Data requirements for determination of mechanical and physical properties within MIL-HDBK-5 are summarized in Table 9.0.2. The customary statistical basis of each material property is listed, along with the relative importance of each data type within the Handbook. Potential extenuating circumstances, such as special material usage requirements, are also considered. Where applicable for each data type, the minimum sample size and the minimum number of heats and lots are identified. Applicable MIL-HDBK-5 introductory or guideline sections are also referenced.

Supersedes page 9-4 of MIL-HDBK-5H

9-4

New Page

Table 9.0.1. Summary of Recommended Testing Standards within MIL-HDBK-5 Property to be Determined or Procedure to be Followed Bearing Classification of Extensometers Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Compression Creep and Rupture Density Elastic Modulus – Compression Elastic Modulus – Shear Elastic Modulus – Tension Elongation Exfoliation Corrosion Fastener Mechanical Properties Fatigue - Load Control Fatigue - Strain Control Fatigue Crack Growth Designation Title of Testing Standard Relevant Section(s) within Guidelines 9.1.6.4, 1.4.7.1, 3.1.2 9.1.6.6, 9.3.2.2 9.2.14 1.7.1 9.3.6.3 9.2.14 9.1.6.6, 9.2.13 9.2.13 9.1.6.6, 9.2.13 1.4.3.5 3.1.2.3.1 9.4.1.3.1 9.3.4.1 9.3.4.1 9.3.5.2

ASTM E 238 Method for Pin-Type Bearing Test of Metallic Materials ASTM E 83 Method of Verification and Classification of Extensometers

ASTM E 228 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials with a Vitreous Silica Dilatometer ASTM E 9 Compression Testing of Metallic Materials ASTM E 139 Rec. Practice for Conducting Creep, Creep-Rupture, & Stress-Rupture Tests of Metallic Materials ASTM C 693 Test Method for Density of Glass by Buoyancy ASTM E 111 Test Method for Young's Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus ASTM E 143 Test Method for Shear Modulus at Room Temperature ASTM E 111 Test Method for Young's Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus ASTM E 8 Test Method for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials ASTM G 34 Test Method for Exfoliation Corrosion Susceptibility in 2XXX and 7XXX Series Aluminum Alloys (EXCO Test) NASM-1312 Fastener Test Methods ASTM E 466 Recommended Practice for Constant Amplitude Axial Fatigue Tests of Metallic Materials ASTM E 606 Recommended Practice for Constant Amplitude Low Cycle Fatigue Testing ASTM E 647 Test Method for Measurements of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates

9-4a

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Table 9.0.1. Summary of Recommended Testing Standards within MIL-HDBK-5, Continued

Property to be Determined or Procedure to be Followed Fracture Toughness - Plane Strain Fracture Toughness - Plane Stress Poisson's Ratio Reduction in Area Shear – Pin Shear – Slotted
9-4b

Relevant Section(s) within Guidelines ASTM E 399 Test Method for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials 9.5.1 ASTM E 561 Recommended Practice for R Curve Determination ASTM E 132 ASTM E 8 ASTM B 769 ASTM B 831 ASTM D 2766 ASTM G 47 ASTM E 8 ASTM B 557 ASTM E 21 ASTM C 714 Test Method for Poisson's Ratio at Room Temperature Test Method for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials Test Method for Shear Testing of Aluminum Alloys Standard Test Method for Shear Testing of Thin Aluminum Alloy Products Test Method for Specific Heat of Liquids and Solids Test Method for Determining Susceptibility to Stress-Corrosion Cracking of High Strength Aluminum Alloy Products Test Method for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials Test Methods of Tension Testing Wrought and Cast Aluminum- and Magnesium-Alloy Products Recommended Practice for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests of Metallic Materials Test Method for Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon and Graphite by a Thermal Pulse Method 9.5.1 9.2.13 1.4.3.5 9.1.6.4, 3.1.2 9.1.6 9.2.14 3.1.2.3.1 1.4.4.1 1.4.4.1 1.4.4.1 9.2.14

Designation

Title of Testing Standard

Specific Heat Stress Corrosion Cracking Tension

Tension - Elevated Temperatures Thermal Conductivity

Table 9.0.2. Summary of Data Requirements within MIL-HDBK-5 Mechanical or Physical Property Customary Statistical Basis Relative Importance in MIL-HDBK-5
Applicable Extenuating Circumstances Minimum Data Handbook for Special Material Usage Requirements Requirements Sample No. of No. of Sections Size Heats Lots Except for elevated temperature 20 3 10 9.1.6.4, applications 1.4.7.1, 3.1.2 Especially for anticipated range Triplicate measurements 9.2.14 of usage 20 3 10 1.7.1 6 tests per creep strain level and temp, at least 4 temps over usage range Duplicate measurements Clad materials must have 9 3 Multiprimary and secondary modulus ple properties defined For anticipated usage range 9 3 Multiple Two-inch gage length preferred 30 3 10 100 3 10 9.3.6.3

New Page

Bearing Yield and Ultimate Strength

Derived form Paired Mandatory Tensile Tests Strongly recommended Mandatory

Coefficient of Thermal Typical Expansion Compression Yield Strength Derived from Paired Tensile Tests Creep and Rupture Raw Data w/ BestFit Curves 9-4c Density Elastic Modulus (Tension and Compression) Elastic Modulus (T and C) Elevated Temperatures Elongation Fastener Yield and Ultimate Load Fastener Shear Strength Fatigue-Load Control Typical Typical

Recommended Especially for elevated temperature applications Mandatory Mandatory

9.2.14 9.1.6.6, 9.2.13 9.2.13 1.4.3.5 9.4.1.3.1 9.4 9.3.4.5

Typical S-basis B-basis B-basis Raw Data w/ BestFit Curves Raw Data w/ BestFit Curves

Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory

Fatigue-Strain Control

At least 15 tests per fastener 100 3 10 diameter Recommended Especially for high-cycle fatigue 6 tests per R ratio, 3 R critical applications ratios, no minimum heat or lot requirements Recommended Especially for low-cycle fatigue 10 tests for Rε = -1.0, 6 tests other strain ratios critical applications

9.3.4.5

Table 9.0.2. Summary of Data Requirements within MIL-HDBK-5, Continued

New Page

Mechanical or Physical Property

Fatigue Crack Growth

Fracture Toughness - Plane Strain Fracture Toughness - Plane Stress Poisson’s Ratio Reduction In Area Shear Ultimate Strength Specific Heat Stress Corrosion Cracking Stress/Strain Curves (To Yield) Stress/Strain Curves (Full Range) 9-4d

Applicable Extenuating Circumstances Minimum Data Handbook for Special Material Usage Requirements Requirements Sample No. of No. of Sections Size Heats Lots Raw Data w/ Best- Recommended Especially for damage tolerance Duplicate da/dN results 9.3.5.3 Fit Curves critical applications for relevant stress ratios and stress intensity range Basic Statistical Recommended Mandatory for materials with 30 3 10 9.5.1 Information spec. min. requirements for plane strain fracture toughness Raw Data w/ Best- Recommended Mandatory for materials with a 2 5 9.5.1 Fit Curves spec minimum requirements for plane stress fracture toughness Typical Strongly Duplicate measurements 9.2.13 recommended Typical Recommended When tested, use same 9.2.15 criteria as for elongation Derived from Paired Mandatory Except for elevated temperature 20 3 10 1.4.6.4, Tensile Tests applications 9.1.6.4 Typical Strongly Important to document over Duplicate measurements 9.2.14 recommended anticipated usage range Letter Rating Recommended Especially for susceptible Conform to replication 3.1.2.3 aluminum alloys requirements in G47 6 3 6 9.3.2 Typical Mandatory Desirable to have accurate -6 plastic strain offsets from 10 to 3 x 10-2 Typical Mandatory 6 3 6 9.3.2

Customary Statistical Basis

Relative Importance in MIL-HDBK-5

New Page

Table 9.0.2. Summary of Data Requirements within MIL-HDBK-5, Continued

Mechanical or Physical Property

Customary Statistical Basis

Tension Yield and Ultimate Strength Tension Yield and Ultimate Strength 9-4e Tension Yield and Ultimate Strength

S-basis A- and B-basis

A- and B-basis

Tension Yield and Ultimate Strength - Elevated Temps Thermal Conductivity

Typical Typical

Applicable Extenuating Circumstances Minimum Data Handbook for Special Material Usage Requirements Requirements Sample No. of No. of Sections Size Heats Lots Mandatory 30 3 Multi1.4.4.1 ple Strongly Especially for strength critical 100 10 10 1.4.4.1 recommended applications; a parametric representation of data is possible Strongly Especially for strength critical 300 10 10 1.4.4.1 recommended applications; a parametric representation of data is not possible Recommended Mandatory for elevated b 2 5 1.4.4.1 temperature applications Strongly Important to document over Duplicate measurements 9.2.14 recommended anticipated usage range

Relative Importance in MIL-HDBK-5

a Minimum sample size not specified, testing should be conducted at 6 or more panel widths to confidently represent trends over the panel widths of interest. Refer to ASTM E561 for testing details. b Minimum sample size not specified, testing should be conducted at 6 or more temperatures to confidently represent trends over the temperature range of interest. Testing in regions where properties are expected to change rapidly with changes in temperature must be done at temperature intervals sufficiently small to clearly identify mean trends.

MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998

9.1

GENERAL

This section of the Guidelines covers general information. Information specific to individual properties can be found in pertinent sections.
9.1.1 INTRODUCTION — Design properties in MIL-HDBK-5 are used in the design of aerospace structures and elements. Thus, it is exceedingly important that the values presented in MIL-HDBK-5 reflect as accurately as possible the actual properties of the products covered.

Throughout the Guidelines, many types of statistical computations are referenced. Since these may not be familiar to all who may be analyzing data in the preparation of MIL-HDBK-5 proposals, a detailed description of each operation is required. To present the detailed description in the individual sections, however, would unnecessarily complicate the orderly presentation of the overall computational procedures. Therefore, the detailed description of the statistical techniques have been covered in Section 9.6.
9.1.2 APPLICABILITY — Minimum data requirements and analytical procedures defined in these Guidelines for establishment of MIL-HDBK-5 design properties and elevated temperature curves for these properties should be used to obtain approval of such values or curves when proposed to the MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Group or a certifying agency. However, the minimum data requirements and analytical procedures are not mandatory; to the extent of precluding use of other analytical procedures which can be substantiated. Any exceptions or deviations must be reported when requesting approval of these values or curves by the Coordination Group or certifying agency. 9.1.3 APPROVAL PROCEDURES — The MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Group (a voluntary, joint Government-Industry activity) meets twice yearly. At each meeting, this group acts upon proposed changes or additions to the document submitted in writing in advance of the meeting. The agenda is normally mailed to attendees four weeks prior to the meeting date, and the minutes four weeks following the meeting. Attachments for either the agenda or the minutes should be delivered to the Secretariat well in advance of the mailing date.

Attachments containing proposed changes or additions to the document shall include specific notations of changes or additions to be made; adequate documentation of supporting data; analytical procedures used (see Section 9.1.4); discussion of analysis of data; and a listing of exceptions or deviations from the requirements of these Guidelines. Approval procedures for establishment of MIL-HDBK-5 equivalent design values are defined by the individual certifying agency.
9.1.4 DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS — The purpose of adequate documentation of proposals submitted to the MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Group is to permit an independent evaluation of proposals by each interested attendee and to provide a historical record of actions of the Coordination Group. For this reason, both supporting data and a description of analytical procedures employed must be made available to attendees, either as an integral portion of an attachment to the agenda or minutes, or by reference to other documents that may reasonably be expected to be in the possession of MIL-HDBK-5 Meeting attendees. A specific example of the latter would be certain reports of Government-sponsored research or material evaluations for which distribution included the MIL-HDBK-5 attendance list. In some cases involving large quantities of supporting data, it may suffice (at the discretion of the Coordination Group) to furnish a single copy of these data to the Secretariat, from whom they would be available to interested attendees.

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MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 All relevant reference documents (specifications, testing standards, data submissions, etc.) for proposals must be provided in English, to facilitate interpretation and evaluation by the MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Group. If metric units are used as the primary system of units in these documents, a soft conversion to English units must also be provided. The following English units are standard within MILHDBK-5: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Coefficient of thermal expansion, 10-6 in./in./F Density, lb./in3 Fracture toughness, ksi-in1/2 Frequency, Hz (cycles per second), or cpm (cycles per minute) Load, lbs., or kips (103 lbs.) Modulus of elasticity (Tension and Compression), 103 ksi Shear Modulus, 103 ksi Specific heat, Btu/(lb.)(F) Strain, in./in. Stress or strength, ksi Temperature, F Thermal conductivity, Btu/[(hr)(ft2)(F)/ft] Thickness, in. Time, hrs.

Refer to Section 9.2.2.2 for the terminology used within MIL-HDBK-5 for mechanical properties.

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MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998
9.1.5 SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS (also see Sections 9.2.2, 9.3.4.2, 9.3.6.2, 9.4.1.2, 9.5.1.2, and 9.6) — 

99,90 50
A AD

— — — — — — — — — — — 

99,90 50
B df F heat

k99,90 log lot

— — —

ln n r

¯ r
S s 

99,90 50
t T90 T99 V99,90 Xi

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —  

¯ X

Significance level; probability (risk) of erroneously rejecting the null hypothesis (see Section 9.6.2). Shape parameter estimates for a T99 or T90 tolerance bound based on an assumed threeparameter Weibull distribution. Shape parameter estimate for the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit test based on an assumed three-parameter Weibull distribution. A-basis for mechanical property (see Section 9.2.2.1). Anderson-Darling test statistic, computed in goodness-of-fit tests for normality or Weibullness. Scale parameter estimate for a T99 or T90 tolerance bound based on an assumed threeparameter Weibull distribution. Scale parameter estimate for the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit test based on an assumed three-parameter Weibull distribution. B-basis for mechanical property (see Section 9.2.2.1). Degrees of freedom. The ratio of two sample variances. All material identifiable to a single molten metal source. (All material from a heat is considered to have the same composition. A heat may yield one or more ingots. A heat may be divided into several lots by subsequent processing.) The T99 or T90 tolerance limit factor for the normal distribution, based on 95 percent confidence and a sample of size n. Base 10 logarithm. All material from a heat or single molten metal source of the same product type having the same thickness or configuration, and fabricated as a unit under the same conditions. If the material is heat treated, a lot is the above material processed through the required heat-treating operations as a unit. Natural (base e) logarithm. Number of individual measurements or pairs of measurements; Ramberg-Osgood parameter. Ratio of two paired measurements; rank of test point within a sample. Average ratio of paired measurements. S-basis for mechanical property values (see Section 9.2.2.1). Estimated population standard deviation. Threshold estimates for a T99 or T90 tolerance bound based on an assumed three-parameter Weibull distribution. Threshold estimate for the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit test based on an assumed three-parameter Weibull distribution. Tolerance factor for the “t” distribution with the specified “confidence” and appropriate degrees of freedom. Statistically based lower tolerance bound for a mechanical property such that at least 90 percent of the population is expected to exceed T90 with 95 percent confidence. Statistically based lower tolerance bound for a mechanical property such that at least 99 percent of the population is expected to exceed T99 with 95 percent confidence. The T99 or T90 tolerance limit factor for the three-parameter Weibull distribution, based on 95 percent confidence, a sample of size n, and a specified degree of upper tail censoring. Value of an individual measurement. Average value of individual measurements. The sum of. Value determined by regression analysis. 9-6

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MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 9.1.6 DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR INCORPORATION OF A NEW PRODUCT INTO MILHDBK-5—This section specifies requirements for the incorporation of a new product into MIL-HDBK-5 on an S-basis (see Section 9.2.2.1 for definition). These requirements are applicable to each alloy, product form, and heat treat condition or temper. Sections 9.1.6.2 through 9.1.6.7 delineate requirements for a test program for the determination of mechanical property data suitable for computation of derived properties (see Section 9.2.10). A test matrix, based on these requirements, is shown in Table 9.1.6. 9.1.6.1 Material Specification — To be considered for inclusion in MIL-HDBK-5, a product must be covered by an industry specification (AMS specification issued by SAE Aerospace Materials Division or an ASTM standard published by the American Society for Testing and Materials), or a government specification (Military or Federal). If a public specification for the product is not available, action should be initiated to prepare a draft specification. Standard manufacturing procedures shall have been established for the fabrication and processing of production material before a draft specification is prepared. The draft specification shall describe a product which is commercially available on a production basis. An AMS draft specification should be submitted to the SAE Aerospace Materials Division and an ASTM standard should be transmitted to the American Society for Testing and Materials for publication. See Section 9.1.6.8 for requirements to substantiate the S-basis properties. Foreign-produced materials not covered by a U.S. industry specification, but covered by an internationally recognized material specification may be considered for publication first in the Preliminary Material Properties (PMP) Handbook, which is a periodically updated MIL-HDBK-5 supplemental data source. This approach allows for the rapid initial review and publication of preliminary design properties on these materials, while the required U.S. industry specifications and standards are being developed and approved. Once the specifications are in place and other data requirements for introduction of these materials into MIL-HDBK-5 are satisfied, a proposal can be made to have the applicable data tables and curves transferred to MIL-HDBK-5. 9.1.6.2 Material — The product used for the determination of mechanical properties suitable for use in the determination of minimum design (derived) values for incorporation into MIL-HDBK-5 shall be production material. The material shall have been produced using production facilities and standard fabrication and processing procedures. If a test program to determine requisite mechanical properties is initiated before a public specification describing this product is available, precautionary measures shall be taken to ensure that the product supplied for the test program conforms to the specification, when published, and represents production material. Ten lots of material from at least three production heats, casts or melts for each product form and heat treat condition shall be tested to determine required mechanical properties. See Table 9.1.6.2 for definitions of heat, cast, and melt. A lot is defined as all material of a specific chemical composition, heat treat condition or temper, and product form which has been processed at the same time through all processing operations. Different sizes and configurations from a heat cast or melt shall be considered different lots. For a single lot of material, only one heat treat lot may be used to meet the ten-lot requirement. Thicknesses of the 10 lots to be tested shall span the thickness range of the product form covered by the material specification (or for the thickness range for which design values are to be established). Dimensionally discrepant castings or special test configurations may be used for the development of derived properties with prior approval by the MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Group, providing these castings meet the requirements of the applicable material specification. Design values for separately cast test specimens shall not be presented in MIL-HDBK-5. 9.1.6.3 Test Specimens — Mechanical property ratios are utilized in the analysis of data to determine minimum design values. Tensile yield in other than primary test direction, compressive yield, and
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MIL-HDBK-5H, Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 bearing yield strengths are paired with the tensile yield strength in the primary test direction for each lot. Tensile ultimate in other than the primary test direction, shear ultimate, and bearing ultimate strengths are paired with the tensile ultimate strength in the primary test direction. See Table 9.2.10 for the primary testing direction for various products. Therefore, it is imperative that these test specimens be taken from the same sheet, plate, bar, extrusion, forging, or casting. Test specimens shall be located in close proximity. If coupons or specimens are machined prior to heat treatment, all specimens representing a lot shall be heat treated simultaneously in the same heat treat load through all heat treating operations. This procedure is necessary to provide precise mechanical property relationships (ratios). Test specimens shall be located within the cross section of the product in accordance with the applicable material specification, or applicable sampling specification, such as AMS 2355, AMS 2370, and AMS 2371. Subsize tensile and compressive test specimens may be used when appropriate. Specimen drawings should be provided along with each data proposal, with English units included. The applicable testing standard should be identified along with the specimen drawings. If the standard is not routinely available in English, an English translation of the standard should be provided.

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Full-range tensile stress-strain data from at least one lot shall be submitted. depending on product form and size.050 inch in thickness be selected for shear tests conducted according to ASTM B 831.c A B C D E F G H I J a b c d e f g h i j k TUS & TYS L 2k 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 LT 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 d. Thicknesses of ten lots shall span thickness range of product form covered by material specification.5 STj 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 L 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 LTj 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 BUS & BYSi. It is recommended that minimum sheet and strip selected for bearing tests comply with the t/D ratio (0.6. these include materials such as aluminum-lithium alloys and Aramid fiber reinforced sheet laminate. e/D = 2. Products should also be tested in the 45E grain direction that are anticipated to have significantly different properties in this direction than the standard grain directions.e. If precision modulus values for E and Ec are not available.g CYS STj 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 L 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 LT 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 d. . For failure modes. are required. or casts or melts. representing at least three production heats. multiple heat treat lots shall not be used to meet 10-lot requirement. see Figure 9.Supersedes page 9-8 of MIL-HDBK-5H Table 9.25-0. a single test is acceptable if retesting can be accomplished to replace invalid tests. Shear testing of sheet <0. As applicable.4. e/D = 1. For a single lot.g SUS STj 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 L 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 LT 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 h BUS & BYSi.f. precision modulus tests should be conducted on three lots. At least two specimens are recommended.b.0 L 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 LTj 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 9-8 Ten lots.050 inch in thickness may result in invalid results due to buckling around the pin hole areas during testing.2. It is recommended that sheet and strip $0. Test Matrix to Provide Required Mechanical Property Data for Determination of Design Values for Derived Properties (on S-Basis) Test Specimen Requirements Lot Lettera.e. but data from three or more lots are preferred. however.7. Stress-strain data from at least three lots shall be submitted.1.1.50) specified in ASTM E 238.

A cast consists of the sequential aluminum ingots which are melted from a single furnace charge and poured in one or more drops without changes in the processing parameters. or. and Cast Material Ingot Metallurgy Wrought Products Excluding Aluminum Alloys Heat.6.) REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. in the case of continuous melting.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 9. is cast at the same time from the same furnace and is identified with the same heat number. Melt. or whiskers. fibers.) A heat is a consolidated (vacuum hot pressed) billet having a distinct chemical composition. or Cast A heat is material which. Melt.2 Definitions of Heat. (The cast number is for internal identification and is not reported. in the case of batch melting. the molten metal includes unmelted reinforcements such as particles. Ingot Metallurgy Wrought Aluminum Alloy Products Powder Metallurgy Wrought Products Including MetalMatrix Composites Cast Alloy Products Including Metal-Matrix Composites A melt is a single homogeneous batch of molten metal for which all processing has been completed and the temperature has been adjusted and made ready to pour castings. is poured without interruption. (For metal-matrix composites. 9-9 .1.

Some variation in strength within a product is expected. within ±15E.6 Modulus of Elasticity Data — Tensile and compressive modulus of elasticity values shall be determined for at least three lots of material. as described in Section 3.6.1. The pin shear testing of aluminum alloys should be done in conformance to ASTM B 769.1. For materials used exclusively in high temperature applications. 9. such as gas turbine or rocket engines. within ±15E. Bearing tests for products from all alloy systems shall be conducted in accordance with ASTM E 238.1 for data requirements for elevated temperature curves. bearing specimens must be oriented edgewise. For aluminum alloy plate. the determination of design values for compression. shear. The long transverse grain direction is defined as perpendicular. Data should be submitted for the useful temperature range of the product. to the longitudinal (predominate) grain direction and perpendicular. Triplicate test specimens are preferred.1.6. Mechanical properties shall also be obtained in the 45E grain direction for materials that are anticipated to have significantly different properties in this direction than the standard grain directions. to the parting plane. (Both conditions must be met.S. shear ultimate strength. The method of determining or verifying the classification of extensometers is identified in ASTM E 83. strip. 9. to the parting plane. to the longitudinal (predominate) grain direction and parallel. The use of replicate specimens provides multiple mechanical property observations so that lot averages can be used to form paired mechanical property ratios. to the predominate grain flow.5 Mechanical Properties — Tensile. For aluminum die forgings. or an equivalent specification. Mechanical property ratios formed from lot averages are more reliable than those formed from individual observations. and bearing strengths may be waived by the MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Group.1. sufficient elevated temperature data for tensile yield and ultimate strengths. For some product configurations. shall be submitted so that elevated temperature curves can be constructed. Single test specimens may be acceptable for some products providing retesting can be performed when needed. and bearing yield and ultimate strengths for e/D = 1. within ±15E.0 for each grain direction and each lot of material.1.3. and bearing tests shall be conducted at room temperature to determine tensile yield and ultimate strengths. 9. Grain orientations and loading directions for shear specimens must be defined in accordance with ASTM B 769. or thin extrusions or for products from other alloy systems.1. as well as modulus of elasticity. (Both conditions must be met. compression. or an equivalent public specification.4 Test Procedures — All tests shall be performed in accordance with applicable ASTM specifications. Duplicate specimens are recommended as an economical compromise. or heat.2. or an equivalent public specification. Shear testing standards are not available in the U. shear. Elastic modulus values are those obtained using a Class B-1 or better extensometer. within ±15E. and short transverse (when applicable) grain directions.) The short transverse grain direction is defined as perpendicular. or melt. or their equivalent. In lieu of data for these properties. See Section 9.MIL-HDBK-5H.1. using “clean pin” test procedures. compressive yield strength. bearing specimens are oriented flatwise and for aluminum alloy die and hand forgings. within ±15E. tangent modulus. long transverse. ASTM E 111 is the standard test method for the determination of Young’s Modulus. All data shall be identified by lot.) All three grain directions are applicable and tests shall be conducted. the longitudinal grain direction is defined as orientations parallel. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Test specimens shall be excised in longitudinal. Supersedes page 9-10 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-10 .1.5 and e/D = 2. and chord modulus of structural materials. for aluminum alloy sheet.6. A modulus value shall also be obtained for the 45 degree grain orientation for materials that are anticipated to have significantly different properties in this direction than the standard grain directions. it may be impractical to obtain transverse bearing specimens.

Since only limited quantities of data are generally available for the basic mechanical properties (tension yield.1. It is recommended that the substantiation be based on a procedure similar to SAE/AMS in which the analysis of data or other appropriate documentation supports a statistical S-basis value where at least 99 percent of the population of values is expected to equal or exceed the minimum value with a confidence of 95 percent.6. but data for three lots are preferable. With that in mind. However. a procedure has been established to provide some level of statistical significance to these S-basis properties contained within the Handbook.6. For heat resistant materials for which elevated temperature data for tensile yield and ultimate strengths are required. especially when applicable specifications contain minimum property requirements. physical property data for coefficient of expansion. tensile load deformation curves or stress-strain data for each grain direction shall also be provided. REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. the number of lots.6.95 based on the number of specimens (See Table 9. As indicated in Section 9. Full-range stress-strain data shall be provided for at least one lot. A material being submitted for inclusion into MIL-HDBK-5 shall include as part of the substantiation package the basis of the specification properties. environmental effects (corrosion resistance). Also. tension ultimate. heat treatments and other variables affecting the physical and mechanical properties.1. Also.2. such as minimum fracture toughness values. Within a specification. it is recommended that at least 30 test samples from at least three heats or lots of material are provided for each thickness range or product form. one of the basic requirements is to provide minimum properties (S-basis) which includes tension yield. it is known that minimum mechanical properties in the SAE/AMS specifications have been statistically justified in recent years (since ~ 1975) with a procedure contained in their documents. fatigue crack propagation. It is also expected that the test material chemistry be in the nominal specification range and not tailored to the chemistry extremes.1).6. thermal conductivity. when available.1.7 Other Data — Room temperature. product forms.8 Guideline Requirements for Specification Minimum Design Mechanical Properties (S-basis) — A product must be covered by an industry specification prior to being considered for inclusion into MIL-HDBK-5 as indicated in 9. the statistical significance to the S-basis properties is typically not known. compression yield). This could include the development of minimum as well as maximum properties. full-range. tensile. A precise density value in pounds per cubic inch shall be provided. Consideration must be made for the specified sizes. elongation and compression yield (when specified). fatigue and fracture toughness properties should be submitted whenever possible. and specific heat should be submitted. and compressive load-deformation curves or stress-strain data for each grain direction from at least three lots shall be provided.6. and the method of determining any property covered in the specification even if it is not to be reported in MIL-HDBK-5.1.8) where ¯ X s k99 = = = sample mean standard deviation one-sided tolerance-limit factor corresponding to a proportion at least 0. data for creep. information regarding manufacturing (fabrication and processing).2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 9. tension ultimate. room and elevated temperature stress-strain data shall be provided. 9. Although not required. heat treat condition and applicable specification shall be provided so that a comments and properties section can be prepared. 9-11 .4.99 of a normal distribution and a confidence coefficient of 0. This substantiation package should include the number of test samples. The Sbasis value may be computed by assuming the distribution of the sample population to be normal and using the following equation: ¯ Minimum S  X  s  k99 (9.1. stress rupture. Room temperature.

the S-basis value may be slightly lower. This information will be stored in the MIL-HDBK-5 archives for future reference. gage length etc. For example.X).7. It is recommended that the software applications in Table 9.1..6 for derived property values. grain direction.1 Computer Software — The data can be supplied on 3. and specimen number. based on experience and judgement.1.7. Strength data recorded in metric units should be converted to English units. will contain alloy type. Fsu.7.X) and modulus is to be reported in units of 103 ksi to the nearest tenth of a msi (X. metric equivalent tables and figures can be included as part of the working data submitted with a data proposal. product form. When the tensile and compressive properties vary significantly with thickness. 9.7. The columns (or data fields).1. Along with the floppy disk. product thickness. LT for long transverse. show the information that should be supplied in electronic form along with the mechanical test results. provide a hard (paper) copy of the data contained on the disk and any other supporting documentation such as specimen dimensions.3 and 9.01 ksi.7.4. and ST for short transverse.6: L for longitudinal. Columns will be added towards the right of the specimen number and will contain the individual test results as discussed in Sections 9.2 General Data Format — Tables 9. to insure conservative values. specifically data supplied for the determination of T99 and T90 values for Ftu and Fty and for data supplied to obtain derived property values for Fcy.1 be used to construct the data files. The data supplied on these disks are to be supplied in English units. before data analyses are undertaken. The amount of data to be supplied for both of these are indicated in other sections of Chapter 9.2(a) and (b). If desired by the data supplier. Table 9. regression analysis should be used. Although the establishment of an S-basis value should be based upon the statistically computed value. temper/heat treatment. When specifying grain direction for wrought product strengths. Products that are anticipated to have significantly different properties in directions other than those stated above should be tested in the appropriate directions and the results reported.1. Supersedes page 9-12 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-12 . Software Applications for Data Submission ASCII text editor • Current Spreadsheet or Database Applications • The Chairman or Secretary of MIL-HDBK-5 can be contacted concerning software compatibility questions. such as Table 9.XX). stress should be reported in units of ksi to the nearest one hundredth of a ksi (X. physical dimensions should be reported in units of inches to the nearest thousandth of an inch (X. If necessary. Fbru and Fbry. specimen location.1. but the tables and/or figures proposed for inclusion in MIL-HDBK-5 will contain only English units. 9.7. 9.7.2 to convert to English units of measure.2. etc. in order. use the conventions identified in Table 9. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 All data analyses must to be performed in English units.7 PROCEDURE FOR THE SUBMISSION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTY DATA — This section specifies the procedure for submission of mechanical property data for statistical analysis.1. This section covers the format to submit the data in electronic form.XXX).1. refer to Table 1. lot and/or heat number. strain is to be reported in percent to the nearest tenth of a percent (X.1. for wrought and cast products respectively.1.1.MIL-HDBK-5H.1. to the nearest 0. specification number.5 inch disks for PC format or sent electronically.

Examples for wrought products are sheet.7. To construct a typical (full-range) stress-strain curve.2.XX) and strain should be reported to the nearest X. the individual specimen curves must be documented up to slightly beyond the 0.7. bar. as previously shown in Table 9. grain direction. Supersedes page 9-13 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-13 .2 percent offset yield strength. TUS Test #1 and TUS Test #2 are on the same row for a given thickness and heat. The data should be stored in a file which contains the load (or stress) in the first column and the displacement (or strain) in the second column. This column should be just to the left of the test result.XXX). The results of these tests are to be reported as shown in Table 9.1. 9. lot and/or heat number. elongation (e).4(b).1.) and the displacement should be reported in units of thousandth of an inch (X. For stress-strain curves. Examples for cast products are sand casting . as shown in Table 9.3 along with alloy designation. The same procedure is to be used for the other properties. several types of tests may be conducted such as tensile.MIL-HDBK-5H. The results of these tests are to be reported as shown in Table 9. lot and/or heat number.5 or 2.5 Data Format for the Construction of Typical Stress-Strain Curves — The tensile and compression stress-strain data should also be submitted in electronic form.XX x10-6 units.2. and permanent mold casting. also identify the e/D ratio of either 1. For the bearing properties. etc. investment casting. SUS for shear ultimate. and modulus. as previously shown in Table 9.4 along with alloy designation. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 There are several types of product forms identified in the Handbook. respectively.1.1.3 Data Format for the Determination of A and B-Basis Values of Ftu and Fty — The tensile test results that are to be reported for determination of A and B-basis properties are tensile ultimate strength (TUS). 9. specification. therefore. plate. two tests are preferred (one required) for a given test type and product thickness. tensile yield strength (TYS). The abbreviations (see Section 1. and BUS and BYS for bearing ultimate and bearing yield strengths. The data for the stress-strain curves must be supplied on a separate floppy disk from the mechanical property data. specification.7.7. 9. the term product form should be properly defined and reported in this column.2.2) for the other test types are CYS for compressive yield. and forging.4(a) while the yield strength properties are to be contained in another file as shown in Table 9.7. the stress should be reported to the nearest hundredth of a ksi (X.7.1.7.4 Data Format for Derived Property Values — For the derived property values. product thickness. In order to construct a typical stress-strain curve. The ultimate strength properties are to be contained in one file as shown in Table 9. For example.6.1. The results of these tests are to be reported in columns adjacent to each other. Generally. For cast products it is important to identify properties from designated or nondesignated areas. compression tangent-modulus and typical tensile (fullrange) curves can be constructed. reduction of area (RA).1.1.7.2. product thickness. An additional column should be created to report the specimen number for the second test. compression. the individual curves must be documented through to failure. shear and bearing. Each stress-strain pair should be identified with its corresponding specimen identification number. if possible. grain direction.7.0. the load should be reported in pounds (X. The number of tests required for determining A and B-basis properties are identified in Section 9.1.1. so that typical tensile and compression stress-strain curves. A hard copy of the load displacement curve should also be submitted for each stress-strain curve. For the load-displacement curves. etc.

2) Location tion Form Lot and/or Heat No. Treatment Product Thickness SpeciGrain (in.1.2(a). Table 9. Product Form Product Thickness Specimen Location (Designated.2(b). Nondesignated) Specimen No.7. Treatment Lot and/or Heat No.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 9.1. REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. Specimen No. or Product men DirecArea (in. General Data Format for Cast Products Industry/ Alloy Government Trade Specification Temper/Heat Name No.).7. General Data Format for Wrought Products Alloy Trade Name Industry/ Government Specification Temper/Heat No. 9-14 .

1.2(a) or (b). TUS ksi TYS ksi % E % R Elastic Modulus. msi The information to be entered between these two columns depends upon the product form.Table 9.1. see Table 9.3 Data Format for Determination of A and B-Basis Values of Ftu and Fty Alloy Trade Name Specimen No. 9-15 .7.7.

7. Derived Ultimate Properties Alloy Trade Name Specimen No.0 Test 2* The information to be entered between these two columns depends upon the product form.2(a) or (b). only one is required. TUS Test 1 TUS Test 2* SUS Test 1 SUS Test 2* BUS e/D=1.1. .4(a). see Table 9.5 Test 2* BUS e/D-2.0 Test 1 BUS e/D=2.Table 9.1.7. 9-16 * Two tests are preferred.5 Test 1 BUS e/D=1.

1.7.5 Test 1 BYS e/D=1. Table 9. only one is required. TYS Test 1 TYS Test 2* CYS Test 1 CYS Test 2* BYS e/D=1.2(a) or (b).5 Test 2* BYS e/D-2.4(b).1.7.0 Test 2* The information to be entered between these two columns depends upon the product form. . Derived Yield Properties Alloy Trade Name Specimen No. see Table 9.REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE.0 Test 1 BYS e/D=2. 9-17 * Two tests are preferred.

but are particularly pertinent to computation and presentation of room-temperature mechanical properties. the repercussions may be greater for both the user and producer. the statistical assurance associated with S-basis values established since 1975 is known within the limitations of the qualification sample and the analysis method used to evaluate the data. If the more rigorous A-basis property exceeds the S-basis value. Traditionally. However. steels hardened and tempered to a designated Ftu). This statistically calculated number is computed using the procedures specified in Section 9.2.1 Data Basis — There are four types of room-temperature mechanical properties included in MIL-HDBK-5.2.2. A-Basis — The lower value of either a statistically calculated number. 9.2. In the opposite (and fortunately infrequent) situation where the more rigorous A-basis property falls well below the S-basis value. They are listed here.MIL-HDBK-5H. Actual design margins (as compared to originally perceived design margins) on primary structure may be reduced below desirable levels if the S-basis value must be downgraded to a lower A-basis value. from the least statistical confidence to the highest statistical confidence.1 INTRODUCTION — This section contains detailed procedures for the determination of roomtemperature design properties. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 9. Within those constraints S-basis values established since 1975 may be viewed as estimated A-basis values. or the specification minimum (S-basis). The perceived adequacy of a material for a particular application may be reduced if the S-basis value is reduced to match a lower Abasis value. the statistical assurance of S-basis values has not been known.) For certain products heat treated by the user (for example.2. the S-basis value may reflect a specified quality-control requirement. as follows: Typical Basis — A typical property value is an average value and has no statistical assurance associated with it. S-Basis — This designation represents the specification minimum value specified by the governing industry specification (as issued by standardization groups such as SAE Aerospace Materials Division. This statistically calculated number is computed using the procedures specified in Section 9. B-Basis — This designation indicates that at least 90 percent of the population of values is expected to equal or exceed the statistically calculated mechanical property value.2 DESIGNATIONS AND SYMBOLS — Designations and Symbols presented in this section are applicable throughout the MIL-HDBK-5.2 ROOM-TEMPERATURE DESIGN PROPERTIES 9. The statistically calculated number indicates that at least 99 percent of the population is expected to equal or exceed the statistically calculated mechanical property value with a confidence of 95 percent. the S-basis value should be reduced to match the A-basis value if process improvements cannot be instituted to raise the A-basis value to the level of the original Sbasis value. etc. the statistical validity of these estimated A-basis (S-basis) values should be verified as soon as sufficient heats and lots of material are available from the major producers to establish more rigorous A-basis properties by the methods described in MIL-HDBK-5.2.) or federal or military standards for the material. under most circumstances. Supersedes page 9-18 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-18 . with a confidence of 95 percent. ASTM. Wherever possible. However. (See MIL-STD-970 for order of preference of specifications. in order. 9. the major suppliers and users of the material may benefit from updating or replacing the specification because then they will be able to take full advantage of the capabilities of the material within the design allowable tables in MIL-HDBK-5.

all available original test data for current material that is produced and supplied to the appropriate government. defined above. Since this is a function of both the type of product and the nature and frequency of the acceptance tests practiced by each company.6. except that the number of tests per lot shall not exceed the usual frequency of testing for the product. Only tensile ultimate strength. It is recognized. ratioing procedures (described in Section 9.2. and reduction of area (for some alloys) are normally specified in the governing specifications and can be termed S-basis values. (However.2. tensile yield strength. a material must be covered by an industry. and 9.) Only positive proof of improper processing or testing is cause for exclusion of original test data. To assure that the A. However. to be considered for inclusion in MIL-HDBK-5.and B-basis values. represent true current process capability of a material. in accordance with definitions given above. Federal. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Sections 9.7. only tensile ultimate and yield strengths in a specified testing direction are determined in such a manner that they can be termed A.10) have been established. by which other property values such as New Page 9-18a . 9.1. or equivalent company specifications are included in calculating these values.and B-basis values.2. industry. Usually.5. 9.1 contain discussions of data requirements for direct computation of design properties based on current process capability of the majority of suppliers of a given material and product form.1.9. or Military specification per Section 9.2. it is impractical to attempt to include these considerations in this document.1. that extensive acceptance testing resulting in elimination of low-strength material from the population may justify establishment of higher mechanical-property values for the remaining material.2.8.MIL-HDBK-5H. however. elongation.

and B-basis values for structural design requires consideration of such effects. (2) The S-basis value is used for elongation and reduction of area. B-.2. It is important that use of a subscripted. are incorporated into MIL-HDBK-5 with an explanatory footnote. and bearing are computed to have approximately the same assurance levels as A-. However.2.5 inches. (7) Design data for all other properties.2. creep. when available.2.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 compression.and B-basis values. (3) If an A-basis value is presented for a strength property. fatigue. replace S-basis values. based upon data representing samples of material supplied in the annealed. A-basis values that are higher than corresponding S-basis values are presented as footnotes in MIL-HDBK-5 property tables. or as-fabricated conditions. are presented on a typical basis unless indicated otherwise. It is recognized that structural fabrication and processing can alter mechanical properties. Its use to designate an individual test value can lead to confusion and should be avoided in MIL-HDBK-5 data proposals. and these A-basis values are not qualified for general use in design unless the specification requirements are increased to equal the A-basis value. The absence of a directionality symbol implies that the property value is applicable to each of the grain directions when the product dimensions exceed approximately 2. the corresponding B-basis value is also presented.and B. which were heat treated to demonstrate response to heat treatment by suppliers. (5) A. 9-19 . capital letter “F” should be limited to designation of minimum values. such as elastic modulus. The use of A. or S-basis values for tensile ultimate and yield strength. Poisson’s ratio. These material property values are derived from the statistically computed T99 and T90 values defined earlier. (4) A.2. 9. and physical properties.2 Mechanical-Property Terms — Mechanical properties that are presented as roomtemperature design properties are listed in Table 9. Current practice regarding the use of the above data bases in the presentation of room-temperature design properties is as follows: (1) Room-temperature design properties for tensile ultimate and yield strengths are presented as A.and B-basis values. shear. A-basis values that are equal to or lower than corresponding S-basis values replace S-basis values in the document. solution treated.or S-basis values. based upon item (1) conditions. Property values determined in this manner are presented as having the same data basis as tensile ultimate and yield strengths in the same column of the table. (6) Strength at room temperature after thermal exposure is presented graphically as a percentage of the tabulated design property.

0.2. Mechanical Property Terms Property Tensile Ultimate Strength Tensile Yield Strength Compressive Yield Strength Shear Ultimate Strength Shear Yield Strength* Bearing Ultimate Strength Bearing Yield Strength Elongation Total Strain at Failure* Reduction of Area * As applicable.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 9. Short-transverse direction. Sample Mean — Average of all observed values in the sample. parallel to the principal direction of flow in a worked metal. Thus.2.3 Statistical Terms — Proper use of the following statistical terms and equations will alleviate misunderstanding in the presentation of data analyses: Population — All potential measurements having certain independent characteristics in common. often called the “width” direction.2. not castings. may be further defined as LT or ST. A mean is indicated by a bar over the symbol for the value observed. “all possible TUS(L) measurements for 17-7PH stainless steel sheet in TH1050 condition. Data for use in establishing these properties should be based on ASTM standard testing practices. i. ST — Values of Fbru and Fbry should indicate the appropriate edge distance/hole diameter (e/D) ratio.5 and e/D = 2.2.. of area The listed mechanical property symbols should be followed by one of the following additional symbols for wrought alloys.” Sample — A finite number of observations drawn from the population. 9. The test practice and any deviations therefrom should be reported when submitting proposals to the MILHDBK-5 Coordination Group for consideration. Transverse direction. often called the “thickness” direction. L T — — Longitudinal direction.2. the transverse direction having the largest dimension. Design properties are presented for two such ratios: e/D = 1. strain at failure red. LT — Long-transverse direction. Units ksi ksi ksi ksi ksi ksi ksi percent percent percent Symbol Room-Temperature Minimum Value Ftu Fty Fcy Fsu Fsy Fbru Fbry e et RA Individual or Typical Value TUS TYS CYS SUS SYS BUS BYS elong.e. the mean of n observations of TUS would be expressed as: 9-20 . perpendicular to the principal direction of flow in a worked metal. the transverse direction having the smallest dimension. It is an estimate of the population mean.

therefore.3. as related to tolerance bounds for design properties. For example.1 degrees of freedom. For MIL-HDBK-5. or sTUS  sTUS 2 Degrees of Freedom — Number of degrees of freedom for n sample values is defined as that number minus the number of constraints. it has n . expressed as 2 sTUS   TUSi  TUS i 1 n 2 n  1  n (TUSi)  2 i 1 n n 2  TUS i i 1 n(n  1) Sample Standard Deviation — An estimate of the population standard deviation.2. 95 percent of conclusions regarding exceedance of T99 and T90 values would be true. and. means that chances of a material-property measurement equaling or exceeding a certain value (the one-sided lower tolerance limit) is 99 percent in the case of a T99 value and 90 percent in the case of a T90 value. and a number of examples of the several procedures are presented in Section 9. as related to design properties. the square root of the sample variance.. Confidence — A specified degree of certainty that at least a given proportion of all future measurements can be expected to equal or exceed the lower tolerance limit.2. divided by n .3 COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES. T99 — At least 99 percent of the population of values is expected to equal or exceed this tolerance bound with a confidence of 95 percent. based on n observations of TUS.11. Degree of certainty is referred to as the confidence coefficient. the confidence coefficient is 95 percent which.2.. the standard deviation calculation contains one fixed value (the mean). GENERAL — Procedures used to determine tolerance bounds for mechanical properties vary somewhat from one sample to another.  TUSn n TUS    n i1 (TUSi) n Sample Variance — The sum of the squared deviations from the sample mean. T90 — At least 90 percent of the population of values is expected to equal or exceed this tolerance bound with a confidence of 95 percent. Probability.4 through 9. These steps are summarized as follows: (1) Specify the population to which the property applies (2) Decide on the procedure for computing the property (3) Compute the property.1. means that. 9-21 . 9. These steps are described in greater detail in Sections 9.2. All involve a number of steps that are best illustrated by the flowchart in Figure 9. in the long run over many future samples.2.12. Probability — Ratio of possible number of favorable events to total possible number of equally likely events.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 TUS1  TUS2  .

2. General procedures for determining design allowables.3.4) Subpopulations Any significant regressions? (Section 9. SUS.2.6) (TUS.5) Direct Computation (Large Samples) Transformation Determine Form of Distribution (Go to Figure 9.6.2. CYS.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Gross Sample Specify the Population(s) (Section 9.3) Single Population Regression Required (Section 9.2. BYS)/TYS (Section 9.11) No Significant Regressions Can Subpopulations be Combined? Combine Treat Individually Each Population Decide Between Direct and Indirect Computation (Section 9.2. 9-22 .2.10) Compute: (Ratio)(F tu ) Compute: (Ratio)(Fty ) Figure 9. BUS)/TUS Indirect Computation (Small Samples) Determine Reduced Ratio of Properties (TYS.

4 and described in Section 9.12 presents examples of their use in MIL-HDBK-5 data analyses.4. and forgings of one alloy may have essentially the same TYS. all regressions should be tested for equality to determine whether the data sets may be combined and considered a homogeneous population. are described in Section 9.g. However. data should be pooled and T99 and T90 values should be calculated using the single combined data set. In the latter case. or test temperature. T99 and T90 values should be calculated separately for each data set and minimum T99 and T90 values determined for all data sets should be reported.2. the different data sets should be tested for homogeneity using a k-sample Anderson-Darling test as described in Section 9. and Section 9. These tests are described in detail in Section 9. This procedure is used to determine whether several available data sets may be combined for the purpose of computing design allowables. If data from the various producers constitute more than one population. heat-treated condition.2. plate.6.1 Specification Procedure — In most cases.3. Strip. or (2) by dividing data into thickness ranges and calculating T99 and T90 values for each range.2. these tests will provide a fairly clear-cut division between one population and another.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 9.1. then T99 and T90 values can be calculated in one of two ways: (1) by regression. such as thickness. A corresponding acceptability test would be desirable for the regression setting.2. while for another material the TYS may differ greatly among those product forms.2. 9.3.3 should be used to perform this test. an acceptability test is employed to eliminate unacceptable data sets.2.7.4. appropriate statistical tests of significance should be applied to the respective groups of data. 9-23 .9.2. If the regressions are not equal. Regression analysis procedures. In most cases a homogeneous population of data for a measured test parameter should not include more than one alloy.2. For example.2.1.1. 9. different producers) show significant regression due to the chosen material dimension. to first test the data for the relationship between the property and the material dimension. If data sets are found to be homogenous. grain direction or processing history. L and T properties either are or are not nearly identical. The step-by-step procedure for specifying the population is illustrated in Figure 9. If any one of a group of data sets analyzed by regression shows a significant effect on properties due to the selected material dimension.8. The procedure described in Section 9. which should be applied to each set of producer’s data to determine if there is an effect due to a particular material dimension. definition of a population must be sufficiently restrictive to ensure that computed tolerance bounds for design properties are realistic and useful. It is not necessarily obvious whether such a population may include more than one product form or size. It is necessary.2. (1) Data sets which do not comply to the minimum number of observations as stated in Sections 9.6.1 data requirements should be excluded from any further evaluation until they meet the minimum requirements. however. such a procedure has not yet been developed. To resolve these questions. If the regressions are accepted as equal.5. If none of the individual data sets (e. This is done by establishing a range of products and test conditions for which a mechanical property can be characterized by a single statistical distribution. and 9.4 SPECIFYING THE POPULATION — For computational purposes. the following procedure should be used. The procedure is applicable to data collections for which regression analysis is required as well as those for which regression is not required.2.6. therefore. This procedure is described in Section 9. wrought product properties may sometimes vary continuously with some dimensional characteristic.6.4. bars.

4.2. General procedures for specifying the population and calculating design allowables.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Figure 9. 9-24 .

Two rules govern the choice between direct and indirect computation: (1) Ftu and Fty in the specified or usual testing direction may be determined by direct computation only. If the hypothesis is not rejected (UCB greater than or equal to specification limit). that producer’s data for both properties should be excluded for the purpose of computing T99 and T90 values.5 DECIDING BETWEEN DIRECT AND INDIRECT COMPUTATION — The only room-temperature design properties that are regularly determined by direct computation are Ftu and Fty. 9.8. it is concluded (with a 5 percent risk of error) that the producer’s data do not meet the specification minimum value. It also assumes that the data are distributed according to a three-parameter Weibull distribution (although normally distributed data are also accommodated by this test). (3) All remaining data sets should be tested for homogeneity using the k-sample Anderson-Darling test.2.6. To carry out this test.MIL-HDBK-5H.5.4. If the data sample is highly skewed.(e)]) to calculate the UCB value. then it is concluded that the producer’s data is acceptable. If the data sets are found to be homogeneous.2. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 (2) Each remaining data set should be tested for acceptability using the three-parameter Weibull acceptability test described in Section 9. If UCB is less than the specification limit. If it is not. This UCB value is calculated in the same manner as a T99 value is calculated (in Section 9.8) with the following modifications: (1) In solving for the threshold τ(θ) (Section 9.10.4.6. If UCB is greater than or equal to the specification limit.4.2. (2) The value of V99 should be taken from Table 9.1). an upper confidence bound (UCB) is calculated for the first percentile of the producer’s population assuming that the population is distributed according to a three-parameter Weibull distribution. background data should be reviewed to determine whether the skewness is caused by a mixed population.4. If there is statistical evidence that one or more statistically distinct data sets do not meet the specification minimum value.6.8 when using the formula for T99 (Equation [9. θ should be set equal to 0. the Weibull test procedure can be applied. 9. This technique is applicable only when data have not been censored from the sample.2. This procedure is usually limited to a specified or usual testing direction because there are seldom enough data available to determine properties in other test directions. this method tests (at 5 percent significance level) the hypothesis that at least 99 percent of the producer’s population is greater than the specification limit. the results will be brought to the Material Data Review Working Group where a decision will be made on whether or not these data sets should be included in the computation of material property values. and if a producer’s data is unacceptable for either property. In statistical terms.2.2. If the populations are not homogeneous. Supersedes page 9-25 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-25 . it is concluded that the producer’s data is acceptable.7 rather than Table 9. material property values must be determined by calculating T99 and T90 values for each data set. If the hypothesis is rejected (UCB less than the specification limit).2. it is concluded that the producer’s data is unacceptable. T99 and T90 values can be calculated using a single combined data set. This test should be applied to both tensile yield and ultimate strengths (in appropriate grain directions).2 Three-Parameter Weibull Acceptability Test — The three-parameter Weibull acceptability test is designed to determine whether an acceptable proportion of a producer’s population is likely to exceed the specification limit for corresponding material property.

then standard normal distribution computation procedures were used.2.MIL-HDBK-5H. the Weibull approach was expanded to incorporate two different levels of upper-tail censoring and a last-resort conservative “backoff” option. Notice that for very skewed Weibull distributions.8). Fsu could be determined by indirect computation with as few as ten paired observations of SUS and TUS (representing at least ten lots and two heats).6 DETERMINING THE APPROPRIATE COMPUTATION PROCEDURE 9.6. provided Ftu has been established.0. use of the normal distribution was supplemented by use of the three-parameter Weibull distribution to accommodate skewness in material properties. assume that available data for a relatively new alloy comprise 50 observations of TUS in the specified testing direction.6. In addition. at least 299 observations are required so that computation can proceed without knowledge of the distributional form. The second column provides estimates of the probability that a sample of size 100 will be “accepted” as normal. Fsu. Because the Anderson-Darling test is especially sensitive to departures in the tails from the candidate distribution (the very high and very low observations) in many situations. Fbru. nonparametric procedures were used. For example. However. Table 9.2. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 (2) Ftu and Fty in other testing directions (as well as Fcy.2. 9. Since only direct computation is permitted in this instance. it became evident how inadequate the traditional normal procedure is for computing tolerance bounds when the data come from a skewed distribution – even if a goodness-of-fit test is applied to screen out non-normal distributions. the chi-square test was replaced by the more sensitive Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit test. the Weibull distribution is often rejected. This sample is not considered large enough to determine the distribution form and reliable estimates of population mean and standard deviation. these properties may be considered for presentation on the S basis at the discretion of the MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Group. even when the model fit (by a probability plot) appears adequate in the lower values. contingent on availability of an acceptable procurement specification for the material. Also. If the above example involved observations of SUS instead of TUS.1 illustrates the shortcomings of the normal procedure for computing T99 and T90 for distributions1 ranging in skewness from minus 1 to plus 1.2.1 Background — Prior to 1984. Otherwise. In 1984. and Fbry in all directions) may be determined by direct computation only if (a) the data are adequate to determine the distribution form and reliable estimates of population parameters. If the distribution cannot be described parametrically. However.1 is based on data generated from Weibull distributions with varying skewness. T90) were established by one of two methods. the same criteria would apply for direct computation. determination of T99 and T90 values must be postponed until a larger sample is available.6. lower tolerance bound mechanical properties (T99. If the sample population was found to be normally distributed by a chi-square test. If the number of observations increases to 100.2. Supersedes page 9-26 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-26 . provided data can be described by a Pearson Type III (gamma) or Weibull distribution. the proportion 1 Table 9. All distributions are standardized to a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 5. or (b) the sample includes 300 or more individual. a modified version of the A-D test was developed which places more emphasis on the lower tail than the upper tail. this quantity may be adequate to allow determination of T99 and T90-values. During the development of the Weibull procedure (Section 9. To permit computation of lower tolerance bounds in more of these cases. representative observations of the property to be determined.

2.2. in MIL-HDBK-5. Therefore. then only the nonparametric method (9. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 accepted by the normal Anderson-Darling test is small. Figure 9. Table 9. If no systematic effects (e. (Bias is presented in units of standard deviations.6.1 are provided to emphasize the notion that applying the normal method can result in very poor tolerance bound estimates due to undetected skewness. much of the emphasis is on estimating the first and tenth percentiles .2 Computation Procedures — Current analysis procedures for computing lower tolerance bounds (T90.2.2. 9.1 estimates the coverage.MIL-HDBK-5H. ksi units. The Pearson method was incorporated into the Guidelines in 1999. However. Figure 9. New Page 9-26a . Bias for T99 represents the difference between the 95th percentile of the T99 values produced by the normal procedure minus the true first percentile. because methods based on the Weibull distribution are computationally intensive and have less intuitive appeal than methods based on the normal distribution. say.6. The remainder of this section provides an overview and a roadmap to these procedures. and values for publication in the mechanical property tables in this Handbook. the Weibull and Pearson procedures should not be applied if the sample skewness is outside this range.) It can be interpreted as the amount that would have to be subtracted from the T99 values produced by the procedure to get an appropriate answer. The last two columns provide coverage and bias estimates for T90.9) should be applied.which is not very sensitive to skewness. The third column of Table 9. The fourth column estimates the systematic bias of the procedure. and the nonparametric procedure.6(b) describes the procedure for translating T99 and T90 values to A and B values. If the distribution is negatively skewed then the coverage can be substantially lower than the claimed 95 percent. the sequential Pearson procedure. On the other hand. The Pearson family includes the normal distribution as a special case.6.6.2. coverage goes down. Three methods are permitted: the sequential Weibull procedure.2. Although still significant. The problem is. the errors associated with T90 are much smaller than those for T99. if the standard deviation is known.. Notice that as bias goes up.g.which are very sensitive to skewness.1 displays the bias of T90 and T99 for skewness between minus1 and plus 1 (again. in practice. This can be converted to. in units of standard deviations).6(a). The sequential Weibull procedure and the sequential Pearson procedure were developed based on distributions with skewness between minus 1 and 1.2. thickness) are identified as significant by regression.2. This should be 95 percent. T99) are described in Figure 9. one never knows true skewness.1 and Figure 9.6. but it increases for distributions with skewness near zero. Normal-based methods can be very good for estimating the mean of a distribution . an alternative procedure was developed based on the Pearson Type III family of distributions. which is the probability (or confidence) that the method will yield a T99 below the true first percentile. It is for this reason that the traditional normal method for computing tolerance bounds is not provided in the Handbook as a recommended procedure.

6 -0.8 -1.6 -0. Dev.00 -0. Estimated Bias of T 99 and T 90 Using Normal Method on Skewed Data.2 1.4 -0.7 Percent Coverage 66 78 83 88 93 97 99 100 100 T90 Bias (Std.2 -0. New Page 9-26b .00 0.4 0.12 0.02 -0.2 -0.2 -1.4 0.22 0.06 -0.16 0.0 -0.1.MIL-HDBK-5H.0 -1.00 0.06 -0.10 1. Devs.00 Percent Accepted 16 40 68 91 98 91 65 21 4 Percent Coverage 3 11 43 82 98 100 100 100 100 Bias (Std.2.25 -1.04 -0.7 -0. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Table 9.00 -0.6.0 0.1 -0.6.50 -0.2.) 0.25 Skewness Figure 9.7 0.75 1.50 0.75 -0.50 -0.08 0.2 0.75 1. Dev.75 -0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.0 0.50 0.4 -0.8 0.) 0. Performance of Normal Method for Calculating T90 and T99 on Samples of Varying Skewness T99 Skewness -1.1.00 1.6 T99 T90 Bias (Std.) 1.

2.1.6. T99 using sequential Pearson model estimates [9.6(a).6.6.1.8] Accept ComputeT90.1.2. subtracting up to 0.6.5 ksi [9. melts? Yes No Produce data for more heats. T99 as initial estimates minus selected backoff [9. melts Weibull * Select the method to be applied Nonparametric Test complete sample for Weibullness [9. T99 using ranked values (Nonparametric estimates) [9.) Figure 9.2. n .) Supersedes page 9-27 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-27 .6(b) for guidance on conversion of T99 and T90 values to A and B values.6.4] Reject Accept Pearson ComputeT90. T99 using appropriately censored Weibull model estimates Reject Compute T90.5 ksi [9.8] Accept Test complete sample for Pearsonality using backoff method.1.6 Begin data analysis At least 10 heats.7] Test lower 50% of sample for Weibullness [9.6. T99 cannot be calculated unless more data are generated * T90 or T99 values computed by any and all of the approved methods are acceptable.2] Test lower 80% of sample for Weibullness [9.6] Accept ComputeT90.6.2.1.6. However. 299 for T99) [9.7] No Test complete sample for Weibullness using backoff method. Procedures for computation of T99 and T90.1.9] Yes Test complete sample for Pearsonality [9.1.29 for T 90. (Go to Figure 9. T99 as initial estimates minus selected backoff [9.7] Accept Accept If sufficient sample size (n .4] Reject [9. lots. (Provided appropriate data requirements are met and associated goodness-of-fit tests are passed.1.8] Reject Reject Have not tried all methods Try one of the other two methods All methods tried T90.2.2.MIL-HDBK-5H. the same method must be used for determining T90 and T99 values. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Determine Appropriate Computational Method Section 9. lots.2. subtracting up to 0.4] Reject ComputeT90.

6(a)] to A and B Values. rounded Yes Fractions greater than 0. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 Computed T99 and T90 values Were T99 and T90 computed based on at least 100 data points? No A and B values may not be computed. and Mechanical Property Table Values.6(b). Figure 9. B value is recorded in mechanical property table.2.2.MIL-HDBK-5H. New Page 9-27a . rounded B = T90. Yes S value is used in “A” column of mechanical property table. Computed A value is included in a footnote. Is Spec Value < A? (S) No A value is recorded in mechanical property table. Procedure for Converting T99 and T90 values [from Figure 9. No Yes Collect more data Was a parametric method accepted? (Weibull or Pearson) No At least 299 data points? Yes A= T99. while lesser fractions are disregarded.75 are usually raised to the next larger integer.

If the assumption of normality is not rejected.5 ksi is not identified. for this method. until the percentiles of the resulting model are sufficiently less than the sample percentiles. or the adjusted normal procedure described in Section 9. then the next step is to test the lower 80 percent of the data for Weibullness by trimming the top 20 percent of the measurements and applying a censored version of the Anderson-Darling test. we use the notation X(1)#X(2)#.4 for the uncensored sample. and then subtracting τbackoff.2. certain procedures require artificial censoring of the measured data. If this test is not rejected. the first step is to perform an AndersonDarling goodness-of-fit test for Pearsonality as described in Section 9. If the sequential Pearson analysis procedure is applied. until the percentiles of the resulting model are sufficiently less than the sample percentiles.2.) If the assumption of Weibullness is rejected for the complete sample.5 ksi is not identified.8.5 ksi.9 should be considered. To avoid accepting an extremely inadequate fit.1. (The risk that one may conclude erroneously that a true Weibull distribution is nonWeibull is set at 5 percent.1.6 describes the method for identifying a proper backoff (the decrease from the initial Weibull threshold estimate).#X(n) to denote the ordered sample.8 describes the method for identifying a proper backoff. a modified Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit-test is conducted as described in 9.5 ksi. This method decreases the initial Weibull threshold estimate while holding the shape and scale parameters constant.8 for complete samples. Alternatively. Section 9..5 ksi. the decrease in the mean is limited to 0. This method decreases the estimate of the mean. If an appropriate backoff less than or equal to 0. Use the version of the test described in Section 9. because the real engineering interest for design lies in lower percentiles of the distribution of a material’s properties. If an appropriate backoff less than or equal to 0. the lower tolerance bounds should be calculated by first computing bounds based on the complete sample as specified in Section 9. then the sequential Weibull procedures described in Section 9. then a last resort conservative Weibull method should be attempted. To avoid accepting an extremely inadequate fit. then the nonparametric procedures described in 9.6. When the sequential Weibull procedure is applied.2.7. the lower tolerance bound should be computed using methods described in Section 9. the lower tolerance bounds may be computed using the methods described in Section 9. If the assumption of Pearsonality is rejected. Specifically. should be considered.1.8 or the nonparametric procedure described in Section 9. (1-r/n) represents the proportion of the sample which is censored.9. In the case of uncensored data. while holding the standard deviation and skewness estimates constant. If the Weibull model is still rejected with 50 percent censoring..6.7. denoted by τbackoff.7. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 In what follows. The terms r and n will be used throughout subsequent sections without redefinition. If the assumption of Weibullness is rejected here.6.1. in the same manner as described for 20 percent censoring. denoted by τbackoff.7.2.5 ksi. the lower tolerance bounds should be calculated by first computing bounds based on the complete sample as specified in Section 9.2.8 for 20 percent censoring.6. r=n. If the appropriate backoff is less than or equal to 0. That is. the decrease is limited to 0. then 50 percent censoring should be attempted. Section 9. where r/n represents the proportion of the sample which is uncensored.MIL-HDBK-5H. for the sequential Pearson method.2..#X(r).2.2. If the assumption of Weibullness is not rejected.6. some of the following procedures ignore a portion of the observations in the upper tail. If the appropriate backoff is less than or equal to 0. and then subtracting the τbackoff value.4 for 20 percent censoring.1. then the lower tolerance bounds should be computed using the methods described in 9. and will frequently refer to the censored sample: X(1)#X(2)#. then the Pearson backoff method should be attempted. Supersedes page 9-28 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-28 .2..

a T90 value cannot be calculated for inclusion in MIL-HDBK-5 with fewer than 100 data values. the number of observations from each lot must be nearly equal.7). the lower tolerance bounds cannot be calculated. cast. Fbru. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 In those cases where sufficient data is available.2. See Section 9. and skewness of the population. In what follows. casts.8 or the sequential Pearson procedure described in Section 9. 9.) or some transformation of the measured value that is normally distributed. See Section 9.* The nonparametric procedure is described in Section 9.1.1.1. If the sample size is too small for the nonparametric method. Fsu. For a material.6.6. and the goodness-of-fit tests will not allow application of the sequential Weibull or sequential Pearson procedures. * However. and q.9. one may choose to calculate the lower tolerance bounds by the nonparametric procedure. The sample shall include multiple lots.1 Data Requirements — Direct calculation of T 99 and T90 values requires adequate data to determine (1) the form of distribution and (2) reliable estimates of the population mean and standard deviation.9.MIL-HDBK-5H.2 Computational Procedure — To compute lower tolerance bounds for a population from the Pearson Type III (or gamma) family of distributions. these are denoted respectively by X .2.1. The ith observation in an interval is set equal to ai where n L U L i n 1 (U L) i 1.2. the sequential Weibull procedure described in Section 9..7. should be considered. from a majority of important producers. These estimates are also necessary for applying the Anderson-Darling (AD) test for Pearsonality (described in 9. observations in an interval are spread uniformly over that interval.2. Grouped data may be “ungrouped” and analyzed as described below.. standard deviation.7 DIRECT COMPUTATION BY THE SEQUENTIAL PEARSON PROCEDURE — This procedure should be used when a lower tolerance bound (T99.2 for definitions of lot. For the uniform smoothing method.7. In order to avoid an undesirable biasing of the sample in favor of lots represented by more observations than other lots. and Fbry if sufficient quantity of data is available. It may also be used for Fcy.7. This procedure is applicable to Ftu and Fty.2. Prior experience with the material under consideration will help in determining sample size requirements. T90) is to be computed directly (not paired with another property for computational purposes) and the population may be interpreted to signify either the property measured (TUS.6. A T99 bound requires 299 data values and a T90 bound requires 29 data values. heat.. representing at least ten production heats. 9. according to current guidelines. The uniform smoothing method for ungrouping grouped data should be used. or melts. S.. etc. The sample should be distributed somewhat evenly over the size range applicable to the tolerance bound for the mechanical property.2.2) and for the backoff part of the test (described in 9. each population should be represented by a sample containing at least 100 observations. 9.2. and melt. if grouped data are reported in intervals of 1 ksi or less. Supersedes page 9-29 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-29 .n = = = the number of observations in the interval the lower end point of the interval the upper end point of the interval. In those cases where sample sizes are insufficient to apply the nonparametric method. it is necessary to have estimates of the mean.2.

then T99 and T90 should be calculated by the following formulae: where T99 = X − k 99 (q .6004 ⋅ ln(n ) + 0. If the data are not rejected by the Anderson-Darling test for Pearsonality (described in 9. X(1). b.1864q 2 ⋅ ln (n ) [ ] k 90 (q. from smallest to largest. If Q < 0 and X(n) > T. X(2). Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 In what follows. X(n) represent the sorted observations.6.n ) = z 99 (q ) + exp 2.987q 2 − 0.99999 X (1) ).2).943q − 0. First calculate the sample skewness: n 3 ∑ ( Xi − X ) n Q= • i =1 3 ( n −1) S3 If Q = 0. q = Q.541 − 0. n ) ⋅ S k 99 (q.6542 ⋅ ln(n ) + 0.229q + 0. then let q = 2• S /( X − 0.1.0684q ⋅ ln(n ) + 0. c. then let q = 2• S /( X − 1.00001X ( n ) ). n ) ⋅ S T90 = X − k 90 (q .0897q ⋅ ln(n ) − 0.0864q 2 ⋅ ln(n ) [ ] Supersedes page 9-30 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-30 .n ) = z 90 (q ) + exp 1. If Q > 0 and X(1) < T. then let q = 0. calculate the estimated threshold T = X − 2• S / Q and use the following rules to define q: a. Calculate the sample mean and sample standard deviation as usual: X= 1 n ∑ Xi n i =1 1 n 2 ∑ Xi − X n −1 i =1 S= ( ) The skewness is calculated as follows.6515q 2 − 0.556 − 1.MIL-HDBK-5H. If Q … 0. Otherwise. ….

003139 q 4 + 0.326348 ⋅   − 0. or melts. shape. n ) ⋅ S − τ backoff .1. The sample should include multiple lots. 9. but accepted under the backoff option of the test (9. the number of observations from each lot must be nearly equal. For the uniform smoothing method. then the above formulas should be applied to compute then T99 and T90 with the following slight modification: T99 = X − k99 (q. from a majority of important producers.2.326348 and / z90(q) = 1. each population should be represented by a sample containing at least 100 observations that are distributed (parametrically) according to a three-parameter Weibull distribution. Fbru. T90 = X − k90 (q.281552 ⋅   + 0. and scale parameters. then z99(q) = 2.1 Data Requirements — Direct calculation of the lower tolerance bounds (T99.MIL-HDBK-5H. If q = 0. representing at least ten production heats. Grouped data may be “ungrouped” and analyzed as described below.8 DIRECT COMPUTATION BY THE SEQUENTIAL WEIBULL PROCEDURE — This procedure should be used when a mechanical property value is to be computed directly (not paired with another property for computational purposes) and the population may be interpreted to signify either the property measured (TUS.003814 q 2 − 0. etc.001007 q 5 q   36 6      z 90 (q ) = 3  q2 q 2  − 1. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 z 99 (q ) = 3  q2 q 2  1 − 1 − − 2. Prior experience with the material under consideration will help determine sample size requirements. If the data are rejected by the Anderson-Darling test for Pearsonality.6. In order to avoid an undesirable biasing of the sample in favor of lots represented by more observations than other lots.2.7) with a reduction in the mean of τbackoff. It may also be used for Fcy. T90) requires adequate data to determine (1) form of the distribution and (2) reliable estimates of population threshold. The uniform smoothing method for ungrouping grouped data should be used. 9. casts.281552.) or some transformation of the measured value that follows a three-parameter Weibull distribution.003231 q 3 + 0. This procedure is applicable to Ftu and Fty. Fsu. observations in an interval are spread uniformly over that interval.000633 q 4 + 0.013133 q 2 − 0. n ) ⋅ S − τ backoff .002466 q 3 − 0. if grouped data are reported in intervals of 1 ksi or less. For a material.8. and Fbry if a sufficient quantity of data is available.000122 q 5 1 − 1 − q  36 6      The above formulas for z99(q) and z90(q) should be used for q = 0. The ith observation in an interval is set equal to Supersedes page 9-31 of MIL-HDBK-5H 9-31 . The sample should be distributed somewhat evenly over the size range applicable to the property.

6.6. Let X1.. the real population is being empirically modeled by some Weibull population with a threshold. denoted by τ99 and τ90. A tabulation of tolerance limit factors by sample size.8. (2) estimates of population shape and scale parameters. Computational Procedures — In order to compute the lower tolerance bounds for a three-parameter Weibull population.X(n) denote sample observations ordered from smallest to largest.2. there may be a small percentage of observations in the population that fall below the model threshold. Separate threshold estimates. Both of these procedures permit estimation with complete or censored data (20 or 50 percent censoring). and population proportion covered by the tolerance interval is presented in Table 9.. The population threshold is theoretically the minimum achievable value for the property being measured.8(b). 9.8..2.8(a) and 9.. censoring level.6. Since this empirical model is not perfect. Change Notice 1 1 October 2001 ai where n L U = = = L i n 1 (U L) i 1.2.MIL-HDBK-5H.5..Xn denote sample observations in any order and let X(1). see References 9.2.1. it is necessary to have (1) an estimate of population threshold..2 contains the method for estimating population shape and scale parameters. and Section 9..5.n the number of observations in the interval the lower end point of the interval the upper end point of the interval. The method for estimating the population threshold based on complete or censored data (20 or 50 percent censoring) is presented in Section 9.. will be obtained for T99 and T90 using the methods described in Section 9.2..1.5. However. The first step in calculating T99 and T90 for a three-parameter Weibull population is to obtain an estimate of the population threshold.. New Page 9-31a .4..6. For further information on these procedures and tabled values. and (3) tables of one-sided tolerance limit factors for the three-parameter Weibull distribution.

9. compute the maximum likelihood estimates of the shape and scale parameters for the censored or uncensored sample {X(i) . Using the same procedure. (The two-parameter Weibull is equivalent to the three-parameter Weibull with threshold zero. 9-32 .4. the computation of the lower tolerance bounds is carried out by use of the formulas: T99  99  Q99 exp T90  90  Q90 exp where  V99/ 99 n  V90/ 90 n . where r equals n for uncensored data and r represents the smallest integer greater than or equal to 4n/5 for 20 percent censoring and n/2 for 50 percent censoring. compute estimates 90 and 90 based on the sample {X(i) .. and V90 = the value in the V90 column of Table 9. Also. In that case the rounded T99 value is included in a footnote.r}. Although censoring is highly undesirable. because this censoring level is determined by the goodness-of-fit test (9.6. Fbru.01005)1/99 Q90 = 90 (0. .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 The second step in calculating mechanical properties for a three-parameter Weibull population is to obtain estimates of population shape and scale parameters for each property.99 : i=1...2.1...8 corresponding to a sample of size n and the appropriate degree of censoring.75 usually are raised to the next larger integer while lesser decimal fractions are disregarded.. It may also be used for Fcy.6.6.r}. This procedure is applicable to Ftu and Fty.2. and Fbry if sufficient quantity of data is available. and scale parameters must be used in determining V99 and V90. If the property that follows a three-parameter Weibull distribution represents a transformation. Denote these estimates by 99 and 99. Distribution should not be considered unknown (1) if tests show it to be nearly normal or three-parameter Weibull. When the computed T99 or T90 value results in a fractional number.5. — Data must be adequate to assure that the sample is 9.) Using the method outlined in Section 9. Estimation of shape and scale parameters is performed using a maximum likelihood procedure for the two-parameter Weibull distribution. the same censoring level is used for both T99 and T90. Note that the level of censoring used in estimating the threshold. T90) computed by the above formulas must be transformed back to the original units in which the mechanical property is conventionally reported. respectively. Q99 = 99 (0. Fractions greater than 0. However.. after subtracting off the estimated threshold. the lower tolerance bounds (T99. shape. Fsu.10536)1/90 V99 = the value in the V99 column of Table 9.4.9 DIRECT COMPUTATION FOR AN UNKNOWN DISTRIBUTION — This procedure should be used when a mechanical-property value is to be computed directly (not paired with another property for computational purposes) and the form of the distribution of population is unknown (not normal or three-parameter Weibull). With population parameter estimates discussed above at hand.4).2.8 corresponding to a sample of size n and the appropriate degree of censoring.90 : i=1. parametric techniques will REPRINTED WITHOUT CHANGE. the rounded T99 value is replaced in the mechanical property tables with the S value if the S value is lower. the mechanical property used in the room temperature tables is determined by rounding.9. Shape parameter estimates will be denoted by 99 and 90 and scale parameter estimates will be denoted by 99 and 90.6. or (3) if it can be separated into nearly normal or three-parameter Weibull subpopulations. (2) if it can be transformed to a nearly normal or three-parameter Weibull distribution.1 Data Requirements representative of the population..

2. Determination of a T99 value requires at least 299 individual observations that represents 10 heats. n. casts. one would designate the value of the lowest (r=1) test measurement as T99 and the 22nd lowest (r=22) test measurement as T90. are of interest in determination of T99 and T90 values. For sample sizes smaller than 299. nonparametric techniques will not “tolerate” censoring. the actual mechanical property value used in the room temperature tables is determined by rounding. an array of ranked test points might appear as follows: Rank of Test Point 1 2 3 4 5 299 Value of Test Point. interpolation is permissible. or melts.2. However. the B-basis property is not included in the Handbook without the A-basis property. with 0. or melts. The selection of the number 299 is not arbitrary. as well as Ftu and Fty in other than specified test direction by direct computation as described in Sections 9.2. T99. Fractions greater than 0. For sample sizes between tabulated values.7 through 9.0 COMPUTATION OF DERIVED PROPERTIES — Ideally.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 “tolerate” a limited degree of censoring. this procedure must not be used when there is reason to suspect that the sample may have been censored.1 75. When the lower tolerance bound (T99 or T90) results in a fractional number. it is possible to predict. Since only two fractions.2. this section describes an indirect method of computation to determine the mechanical property values. However.2 Computational Procedure — Nonparametric (or distribution-free) data analysis assumes a random selection of test points and uses only the ranks of individual test points and the total number of test points.4.75 usually are raised to the next larger integer while less decimal fractions are disregarded.3 75. the least fraction of population that exceeds the value of the test point having rank r. Consequently. or probabilities. 9. it is desirable to determine Fcy. If test points have been deleted from a sample. To use this table with a sample size of 299. casts.9.6.95 confidence. The requirement for number of heats or lots for the sample is comparable to that required for a parametric analysis.9. In contrast. T99 is smaller than the value of the lowest point and cannot be determined in this manner. ksi 73. The T90 value can be computed with a minimum of 29 observations provided these observations represent 10 heats.3 74. 9.6 85.2. consequently. Fsu. and. if sufficient quantity of data is available. The test point having the lowest value has rank 1. Fbru.7 For each rank from a sample of size. etc.1. direct computation procedures shall be used. Fbry. only the ranks of test points having the probability and confidence of T99 and T90 values are presented in Table 9. T99 is below the lowest observation and thus cannot be determined without knowledge of the form of population distribution. Thus. The lowest of 29 observations is a tolerance bound. 299 represents the smallest sample for which the lowest observation is a tolerance bound. the cost of generating required data for these properties is usually prohibitive. assume that a sample consists of 299 test points selected in a random manner. but additional data is very desirable. 9-33 . the random basis is violated. the test point having the next lowest value has rank 2. As an example.2 75. for example. In that case the rounded T99 value is included in a footnote. For smaller samples. the rounded T99 value is replaced in the mechanical property tables with the S value if the S value is lower. Unfortunately. Rather.

TUS or TYS in the specified testing direction always appears in the denominator of the ratio of observed values. Average values for each lot shall be used when more than one measurement per lot is available. as delineated in the applicable material specification. specified or primary test direction for different product forms of each alloy system is shown in Table 9. cast. For most materials. The ratio consists of measurements of the property to be derived as the numerator and measurement of the established tensile property as the denominator. SUS.1 Data Requirements — Computation of a derived value for each significant test direction requires at least ten paired measurements from ten lots of material obtained from at least two production heats. If two lots are from the same heat. For guidance. This technique is based on the premise that the mean ratio of paired observations representing related properties provides an estimate of the ratio of corresponding population means. they must be heat-treated separately in order to constitute two lots.10. The procedure involves pairing of TUS. B. the L direction is preferred for analytical purposes. See Section 9. Thus. See applicable material specification.6. cast. and BYS measurements with TYS measurements for which Fty has been established. or melt and have the same product form and thickness. and Fbry.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 A derived property is a mechanical property value determined by its relationship to an established tensile property (Ftu or Fty. or S-basis). mechanical property ratios shall be formed using strength values which represent the same grain directions in the numerator and denominator. Since there is no primary test direction for titanium alloys. Primary Testing Direction for Various Alloy Systems Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Non-Heat Treatable Alum.2. A. This indirect method of computation is applicable to Ftu and Fty in grain directions other than the specified testing direction. Fbru. the T direction by definition includes all orientations not within ±15 of parallel to grain flow.2. or melts for each product form and heat-treat condition or temper. 9. 9-34 .2. Although material specifications require testing in both L and T directions.2 for definitions of lot. Hence.10. Table 9. routine quality control (certification) tests are usually conducted only in one grain direction even though the specification may contain mechanical property requirements for two or three grain directions. or BUS measurements with TUS measurements for which Ftu has been established or the pairing of TYS. Grain direction to be used for the denominator is the specified test direction as delineated in the applicable material specification. Fsu. the primary test direction indicates the grain direction which is tested regularly. and melt. casts. heat. Heat Treatable Alloys Alum. The design allowable is computed as the product of the reduced ratio and the Fty or Ftu value for the grain direction represented by the reduced ratio. CYS.1. Alloys Magnesium Alloys Titanium Alloys d a Product Form Corrosion and Heat Resistant Alloys Other Alloys b Sheet and Plate Bar Tubing Extrusion Die Forging Hand Forging a b c d LT L L L b b L L L L L LT LT L L L Lc LT L L L L L LT LT L L L b b d b b b b b L d d d Although material specifications may contain mechanical-property requirements for two or three grain directions. and for all grain directions for Fcy.10.

05. If coupons or specimens are machined prior to heat treatment. or melts.6.2. The thicknesses of the ten lots shall span the thickness range of product form covered by the material specification. forging. for the ratios of paired observations. Use the reduced ratio as the ratio of the derived to the established design allowable. may be defined as R  r  t0. CYS (LT) for heat-treatable aluminum sheet] by the measurement for established tensile property [for example. 9-35 . Dimensionally discrepant castings or special test configurations. may be used for a test program to obtain mechanical properties for determination of derived values.2. or casting.4.10.95 for various degrees of freedom. the reduced ratio. Determine the lower confidence interval estimate (reduced ratio) for the mean ratio.95 s/ n . all coupons or specimens from the same lot shall be heat treated simultaneously in the same heattreat load through all heat-treating operations. The ratio of the two population means [for CYS (LT) and TYS (LT). the average of those observations shall be treated as an individual observation.95. as approved by the MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Group.1 degrees of freedom. cast. or melt. 9. plate. TYS (LT)] in the specified testing direction.10. are tabulated in Table 9. In the cases where multiple observations are available from a single lot. respectively] is expected to exceed the lower confidence limit defined as r  t1  s/ n [9. casts. extrusion. Test specimens for paired ratios shall be located in close proximity and shall be taken from the same sheet.3. At the risk level of  = 0. it is recommended that two lots with the same product form and thickness come from a different heat. Since some variation in strength may be expected from one specimen location to another.1. use of lot averages minimizes the effect of this variable. providing these castings meet the requirements of the applicable material specification. The ratio of two paired observations is obtained by dividing the measurement of the property to be derived [for example. Equations for computing average and standard deviation of the ratios are the same as those in Section 9. bar.2 Procedure — Four basic steps are involved in determining design allowable properties by indirect computation: (1) (2) (3) (4) Determine the ratios of paired observations for each lot of material.2. the appropriate t value is t0. Separately cast bars are not acceptable for use in obtaining mechanical properties. [9. Compute the statistics. n .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Therefore. Since the lower confidence interval estimate is used as the ratio between the design allowable properties.2(b)] Values of t0. R.2.2(a)] where n r s t1 is the number of ratios is the average of n ratios is the standard deviation of the ratios is the 1- fractile of the t distribution for n . Some or all of the lots may be heat treated together provided they are of the same product form that represent different thicknesses or heats.2. r and s.10.5.

casts. r. for short transverse grain direction. Similarly the reduced ratios.10.2 for procedure. is determined from ratios.75 usually are raised to the next larger integer while lesser decimal fractions are disregarded. formed from paired observations for each lot of material. Although a longitudinal ratio is being obtained. then a regression with thickness should be computed and the average and reduced ratios determined from the regression. Compression properties are shown by grain direction similar to tension properties. The basis (A.2. r. The derived allowable property is computed by cross multiplying: Fcy (LT) = R Fty (LT) . The reduced ratio. r. is determined from ratios. When the material is shown to be isotropic.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 The reduced ratio may now be used to establish the design allowable for the property to be derived using the example of aluminum sheet.1. When the computed design allowable results in a fractional number.3 Treatment of Grain Direction — Tensile properties are usually listed according to grain direction in material specifications although some specifications do not indicate a grain direction. In a sample of ratios for a given product. for long transverse grain direction. r. However.8 must be used to compute the derived properties if there are 100 or more observations representing 10 heats.2(b) to obtain a reduced ratio. R.6.2. actual design allowable value used in room temperature tables is determined in the following manner. Fractions greater than 0. or S) for computed or derived property is assumed to be the same as the basis for Fty or Ftu tensile property in the right-hand side of the equation. are determined from ratios. CYS(ST)/TYS(LT). CYS(L)/TYS(LT). 9. or melts. for each grain direction.2. design property values are determined from the resulting relationships.8 or the T99 value must be used to compute the A-basis derived properties. then the same properties should be shown for each direction. determined in the above manner are used in conjunction with Equation 9. R  Fcy(L) Fty(LT) 9-36 . If only the S-basis (integer) properties are available to compute the derived properties. effect of thickness on the ratio should be examined. ratios for the various thicknesses can be pooled to compute the average and reduced ratio. formed from paired observations for each lot of material. R. R  Fcy(LT) Fty(LT)  allowable to be derived established allowable in specified test direction .6. For MIL-HDBK-5. R. R. it is recommended that tension properties be shown for each grain direction. If there is an effect of thickness. Equating the reduced ratios. for longitudinal grain direction. these values must be used.1.10). An example of computing compression properties for heat treatable plate is shown below. which implies isotropy. When there are 100 or more observations. The lower of either the S-basis value computed from Section 9. and the T99 and T90 values can be computed for Fty or Ftu.10. B.2. CYS(LT)/TYS(LT). The reduced ratio. See Section 9.1l. formed from paired observations for each lot of material. these unrounded values must be used to compute the derived property values to ensure the proper statistical confidence in the derived values. the divisor is long transverse because this is the specified testing direction (refer to Table 9. The ratios. the unrounded S-basis Fty or Ftu values computed with the method in Section 9. If there is no effect of thickness.

10. In computing wrought product derived properties. the longitudinal grain direction is defined as orientations parallel. if the ratio for two paired measurements is to provide an estimate of population mean ratio. and design properties shall be based on the lowest reduced ratio obtained for longitudinal. compression. have been adjusted to represent the average properties across the whole section. Shear and bearing properties are usually shown without reference to grain direction.6 Propo sals — Proposals presented to the MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Group should include (1) proposed new or revised table of room-temperature allowables. within ±15.or A.2.500.” 9. to the predominate grain flow. The following footnote.2. (Both conditions must be met. For aluminum die forgings. including X percent per side nominal cladding thickness. to the longitudinal (predominate) grain direction and parallel.2. as for aluminum plate.) When possible.5 Treatment of Clad Aluminum Alloy Plate — For clad aluminum alloy plate.11 DETERMINING DESIGN ALLOWABLES BY REGRESSION ANALYSYS — Procedures used to determine design allowables by regression analysis vary from sample to sample and all involve a number of decisions. within ±15. 9. to the longitudinal (predominate) grain direction and perpendicular.500 inch and greater in thickness. tensile properties represent core material.) The short transverse grain direction is defined as perpendicular. An exception is aluminum hand forgings for which shear values shall be presented according to grain direction. flagged to the appropriate thickness ranges.4 Treatment of Test Specimen Location — Testing specifications require a change in test specimen location from t/2 for 1. (Both conditions must be met. 0. paired ratios representing different grain directions shall not be combined in the determination of a reduced ratio. then paired measurements must represent the same grain direction as that of the corresponding population means. This is based on the premise that. These properties shall be analyzed according to grain direction. consequently. Before employing regression 9-37 .2.10. 9. within ±15. and shear tests for three grain directions shall be conducted. except for short transverse properties. to the parting plane. The long transverse grain direction is defined as perpendicular.11.10. (2) raw data used in the analysis. bearing. These decisions are illustrated by a flowchart in Figure 9. representing core strength. tensile properties are determined using round tensile specimens. long transverse and short transverse (when applicable) directions.500-inch thickness for certain products. except in the ST direction. and (3) analysis for the proposed design values.and B-basis). an adjustment must be made in the tensile yield and ultimate strength values (S. within ±15. These strengths shall be reduced by a factor equal to twice the percentage of the nominal cladding thickness per side.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 or similarly and Fcy(L)  RFty(LT) Fcy(LT)  RFty(LT) Fcy(ST)  RFty(LT) . Although this change in specimen location may result in t/4 mechanical property ratios which are significantly different from t/2 ratios (different populations). within ±15.2. the t/2 and t/4 mechanical property ratios should be treated together for analysis to determine derived properties. To present design values which represent the average tensile properties across the thickness of the clad plate. 9. These adjustments in the tensile yield and ultimate strengths shall be made prior to the computation of derived properties. to the parting plane.to t/4 for >1. shall be incorporated into the design allowable table: “These values. in the primary test direction(s).

Regression analysis.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 9.2. 9-38 . 1/t. analysis in the determination of material properties.6. one must ascertain that the average of property to be regressed varies continuously and linearly or quadratically with some dimensional parameter x (such as x = t.11. General procedures for determining design allowables when regression is required. The procedure for fitting a regression equation of the form. Validity of this normality assumption should be evaluated by performing the Anderson-Darling test presented in Section 9. If the variation of average is attributable to other causes. TUS = a + bx. as described herein.1. where t is thickness). etc.2. Residuals are the differences between observed data values and the values which are predicted by the fitted regression equation.. regression should not be used. also assumes that residuals are normally distributed about the regression line.

(2) Determine the root mean square error of regression (sy).10. using Equation [9.3.2. as described in Sections 9. and c are constants from the least squares equation. (3) At selected values of x. to n data points is described in Section 9.11.2.6. b. by splitting the 1.to 2.000-inch plate). When it is desired to present a single allowable covering a range of product thickness (for example. a decrease in product thickness interval can be made: for example.500 and 1. Fractions greater than 0. Thus. b.001.3. this procedure produces two F statistics.000 inches. The procedures described in this section permit the determination of design allowables only for specific values of x. or (SUS/TUS) = a + bx + cx2.000-inch interval into two intervals of 1.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 or (SUS/TUS) = a + bx.326/ (1) /n and n .2.2. determine the allowable for the property by the procedures described in Sections 9.11. If a linear relationship has been determined.8.001.3. If F2 indicates a lack of fit of the model to the data.001 to 1. 9. 9.2).2. should be used.1.2.1(a)] T99  a  bx0  k99 sy [9.6.2.6.to 2. the lowest allowable for the range should be used. A convenient equation for computing the root mean square error from large quantities of data is shown in Section 9. or 9. compute T99 for Ftu at x = xo.11. and sy are computed in the regression of TUS data.000 inches would be presented in MIL-HDBK-5.2. The steps involved in determining design allowables by regression analysis are as follows: (1) Express the property as a simple linear (or quadratic) function of the dimensional parameter and obtain estimates of the coefficient using the least squares regression procedure in Section 9.6. The other statistic (F2) tests the adequacy of a linear model for describing the relationship between the material property and the dimensional parameter.1(a)] where a.1 Direct Computational Procedure — The direct computational procedure takes into account errors in the model estimates. one of the other appropriate analysis techniques.11.2.1 or 9. the TUS(LT) corresponding to x = 2.7. If F1 indicates an insignificant regression.75 usually are raised to the next larger integer while lesser decimal fractions are disregarded.1 (or Section 9. if TUS(LT) decreases continuously with increasing thickness.2 degrees of freedom. 9. for example TUS = a + bx or (SUS/TUS) = a + bx + cx2 where x is thickness or area and a. a transformation of the data may account for the nonlinearity. and 9-39 . One statistic (F1) tests the significance of regression.2. 1. actual design allowable value used in room temperature tables is determined in the following manner.9. When the computed design allowable results in a fractional number. If the decrease is large.501 to 2. k´ is (1) /n times the 95th percentile 99 of the noncentral t distribution with noncentrality parameter 2.3.11. In addition to estimates for a and b (and possibly c).

2 1.58/n} k90 = 1.11.2 Reduced Ratio Computational Procedure — Regression may also be used to determine reduced ratios when an allowable for a property. and Q are computed by quadratic regression. c.71 + ) + 6.326 Q Q sy where a. [9. calculate T99 for Ftu at x = xo using Equation [9. the following approximations to k´ and k´ may be used: 99 90 k99 = 2. 2. To calculate T90 in the presence of a quadratic relationship.486 .11.282 + exp{0.1(f)] where a.2. c. is computed indirectly from an already established allowable for TUS.11.326/ Q and n-3 degrees of freedom. such as SUS.1(e)] 2 [9. [9. sy.282/ Q and n-3 degrees of freedom. (2) The coefficient of variation must be the same for the two properties within particular bounds.1(e)] T99  abx ocxo  t0.282 Q Q sy 3.0. which is more than three standard deviations from the mean x-value.11. * Note that critical values for the noncentral t distribution are not tabulated in MIL-HDBK-5.1(f) T90  abx ocxo  t0.n is the 95th percentile of the noncentral t distribution with noncentrality parameter 1.82 + ) + 4. a  value of 10 would represent an extreme xo value.62/n}.0. 2. n3. (3) The average of the ratio of the two properties must be well described by a linear function of the independent variable.1(c)] [9.n 3. use Equation 9.42/n)ln(3.2. and Q are computed by quadratic regression. and the factor t0.2.2.95.1(d)] These approximations are accurate to within 1.659 .282/ (1) /n and n .986/n)ln(1. 1.2. and the factor t0. b.95.2. n3.1. The following assumptions are inherent to the reduced ratio procedure: (1) The two properties must be distributed according to a bivariate normal distribution.11.0 percent for n > 10 and  < 10. Thus.* 9.595 .282 Q [9.95.2 degrees of freedom. k´ is (1) /n 90 99 90 times the 95th percentile of the noncentral t distribution with noncentrality parameter 1.481 . where  is defined above.11.2.514 ln(n) + (0.0. If calculation of the appropriate noncentral t percentile is not possible. 9-40 .MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998   x/n 2  x   x/n 2/n xo  .326 Q is the 95th percen- tile of the noncentral t distribution with noncentrality parameter 2.11.11. If a quadratic relationship has been determined. b.2.95.326 + exp{0. sy.508 ln(n) + (0. The square root of  is the number of standard deviations between xo and the arithmetic mean of the x-values.1(b)] The equation for computing a T90 is similar with k´ being used in place of k´ .

11.95. Problems I through VII illustrate techniques based on an assumed underlying normal distribution. use Equation [9.11.2.6.11. flow charts of Figures 9.2. c.5 corresponding to n-2 degrees of freedom. 9. Because entire data sets (as opposed to means and standard deviations) are required for Problems VIII through XII.6. The example problems presented fall into two major categories.n3 s y Q 2 [9. and 9. Problems VIII through XII provide illustrations of techniques based on an assumed underlying three-parameter Weibull distribution.2.3. To compute the reduced ratio at x = xo’ in the case of linear regression.2. 9.1(b).2(b)]. To do so.n-2 is selected from Table 9.n-3 is selected from Table 9.4. sy.95.2. The allowable for Fsu at xo is then computed as the product of the reduced ratio and the established allowable for Ftu: Fsu = (Reduced Ratio)(Ftu) .95.4.2(a)] where  is defined in Equation 9. Reduced Ratio  a  bx0  t0.2.12(a) through (c). representing one long transverse tensile test per lot. and t. a.6. plus other tests from a portion of the lots.4. use Equation [9. To compute the reduced ratio at x = xo’ in the case of quadratic regression. The allowable for Fsu at xo is then computed as the product of the reduced ratio and the established allowable for Ftu: Fsu = (Reduced Ratio)(Ftu) .2.4 through 9.2. and sy are computed in the regression of SUS/TUS data.2.2. b.95. Note that the confidence level associated with allowables computed using the reduced ratio technique may be somewhat below 95 percent. In progressing through this example.11.2. and Q are computed in the quadratic regression of SUS/TUS data. and appropriate references to specific sections of the guidelines have been made. Reduced Ratio  a  bx o  cx o  t0.11 have been followed.2. and t. The input data for these example problems are described below. at a frequency of one test per lot.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 It is also important that paired data be available over the entire range of the dimensional parameter for which there is data for the direct property (TUS). b. a hypothetical set of input data has been invented.11.2.11.2(a)]. 9. 9-41 .2(b)] where a. the data points for groups (1) through (4) and group (6) have been reported in Tables 9.12 EXAMPLES OF COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES — It is appropriate to review computational procedures described in Sections 9. It is assumed for this example that a quantity of quality assurance test data has been amassed.n2 s y 1 n [9.5 corresponding to n-3 degrees of freedom.

614 157.309 143.236 148.279 153.678 148.579 150.714 148.154 158.336 155.992 154.229 151.781 154.296 153.021 158.297 154.924 157.686 148.620 143.334 147.670 151.508 144.914 153.920 152.656 152.541 154.286 153.944 146.326 147.076 145.755 149.427 150.118 148.785 147.695 148.921 145.798 149.500 146.340 150.609 151.855 153.996 150.925 145.599 151.731 150.301 146.463 144.837 144.865 143.332 152.721 145.504 153.952 148.952 147.103 149.844 153.882 152.567 148.891 148.785 151.571 149.740 156.644 143.267 148.684 150.940 142.355 148.962 151.180 149.038 148.111 151.854 148.2.158 149.368 148.101 152.214 145.285 146.367 146.386 155.973 145.110 154.270 152.894 149.323 151.242 154.019 151.075 151.489 147.710 146.736 152.165 145.012 148.766 146.844 143.341 157.001 148.469 155.873 141.037 152.051 148.980 148.982 149.012 155.015 152.884 148.068 154.720 143.091 148.029 148.857 146.102 155.187 149.128 154.433 151.016 149.304 148.716 156.234 151.221 144.442 147.693 145.353 148.379 156.739 150.620 148.088 156.823 155.334 148.695 153.648 153.077 155.597 142.110 145.415 150.867 143.325 145.957 148.048 148.270 145.763 157.606 149.042 151.425 151.416 145.724 148.577 145.199 152.707 153.543 153.694 143.876 146.423 150.116 155.352 152.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 9.715 153.707 149.416 149.701 148.864 144.320 144.616 156.150 152.194 150.966 145.198 147.478 153.868 148.941 146.840 152.988 141.143 152.722 150.651 146.752 147.021 154.206 153.785 155.359 154.604 155.122 145.105 142.136 146.049 148.220 146.518 159.497 147.876 151.641 155.837 151.581 149.600 145.812 149.980 158.045 149.292 148.765 147.12(a).448 152.2.321 149.714 146.310 150.872 145.653 149.284 147.219 154.064 154.919 148.382 154.311 155.388 151.478 142.122 148.929 153.627 155.077 154.810 149.12 Group (1) 139.081 152.802 152.149 154.339 148.961 147.605 149.377 162.357 157.674 143.711 140.741 145.267 155.471 151.007 153.183 149.207 152.277 145.970 147.731 149.074 148.315 150.479 146.229 145.628 151.699 146.608 140.283 151.087 147.124 147.858 155.197 148.359 155.298 153.059 148.942 147.792 153.534 146.904 156.118 153.830 151.773 150.997 144.651 144.863 155.049 153.473 149.201 148.422 155.803 147.102 153.846 153.459 150.053 157.717 9-42 .825 146.978 146.890 144.502 143.399 145. Group (1) Data Set for Example Problems in Section 9.641 151.571 154.691 148.992 152.605 149.211 151.508 154.638 140.709 145.069 146.907 152.612 144.584 148.291 147.557 151.667 146.653 147.377 150.078 156.107 149.029 153.151 152.911 147.157 152.428 151.576 153.231 155.

438 121.811 127.348 136.032 136.2.477 131.755 123.203 127.632 123.087 137.891 129.191 135.770 123.296 132.784 129.757 122.337 127.899 129.129 126.309 128.176 124.877 126.003 131.779 134.715 129.560 129.2.470 132.195 131.718 132.247 125.149 136.189 132.518 135.741 127.819 128.237 130.140 127.768 133.203 128.413 129.160 136.690 131.000 125.103 131.321 129.441 133.762 132.007 130.109 122.694 123.883 137.224 133.020 130.070 130.843 133.731 131.709 129.282 132.983 128.683 133.115 137.873 134.494 122.070 125.436 132.717 125.788 129.823 128.920 124.499 135.159 133.383 127.874 134.934 125.747 134.031 133.025 124.388 131.895 131.841 127.105 124.342 126.526 130.276 126.586 130.595 132.341 128.380 132.393 132.975 131.055 124.545 135.754 131.532 135.822 126.030 136.859 127.101 123.618 137.225 130.121 124.499 130.484 137.083 126. Group (3) Data Set for Example Problems in Section 9.797 130.672 128.288 128.508 133.607 127.907 126.972 126.420 127.016 128.083 124.703 132.966 128.727 126.296 123.279 125.049 133.050 136.482 132.922 133.989 129.752 128.070 125.153 128.836 135.689 134.673 126.474 123.163 137.825 124.387 127.890 134.906 131.869 132.193 123.096 133.027 136.527 123.859 127.531 125.029 129.449 126.774 133.008 131.136 129.795 128.640 128.158 131.654 129.052 129.194 134.919 126.249 134.786 131.171 124.373 124.893 133.511 132.040 131.898 133.606 126.427 130.883 134.851 132.696 126.513 135.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 9.808 131.624 130.668 126.089 134.027 135.969 135.535 125.083 129.444 131.112 136.999 127.592 133.138 132.677 131.772 130.595 133.558 132.433 125.849 132.176 131.325 131.128 126.710 130.276 126.104 131.749 133.946 128.944 136.148 129.361 134.223 132.776 134.434 129.300 127.323 128.677 127.691 124.535 126.977 132.754 135.351 130.117 129.938 129.514 132.699 128.714 125.599 130.439 131.719 128.166 133.175 131.350 125.286 132.579 127.194 126.695 127.915 126.665 126.948 134.035 129.295 125.718 124.921 135.546 129.763 133.920 135.430 126.351 134.204 136.114 127.710 127.934 133.064 135.018 125.846 128.841 133.653 138.238 123.388 126.868 128.12 Group (3) 121.723 128.254 131.622 133.801 125.332 128.010 128.816 131.765 130.192 131.141 9-43 .912 133.543 122.125 131.152 125.681 124.614 121.778 124.179 134.855 136.474 127.335 139.077 122.217 136.793 124.469 131.452 128.370 125.940 130.457 130.889 127.339 134.761 127.322 127.082 123.12(b).024 133.134 134.661 135.616 123.564 132.503 122.805 132.150 125.528 130.952 133.154 136.581 133.206 130.596 129.863 126.438 133.223 124.684 130.

761 150.957 141.197 149.091 146.831 148.681 145.797 146. and (6) Data Sets for Example Problems in Section 9.802 145.862 126.754 145.650 144.981 148.500 147.280 125.2. Groups (2).612 131.876 146.153 155.017 135.626 139.110 145.944 9-44 .967 147.592 141.149 147.450 137.164 153.147 132.150 151.484 151.901 144.988 149.954 148.305 147.675 147.224 147.500 135.708 148.096 146.675 155.770 137.179 130.919 138.914 143.782 130.626 145.857 153.833 148.141 143.061 145.118 162.127 135.303 146.812 133.082 149.472 151.716 134.836 136.298 142. (4).167 124.787 135.467 152.302 146.129 132.785 142.930 154.605 152.307 139.125 142.924 Group (6) 145.582 141.518 141.313 144.886 144.114 137.642 132.082 145.435 141.461 140.937 146.083 141.646 152.12(c).158 129.847 144.465 144.418 144.622 124.785 145.672 144.965 149.492 157.441 142.159 146.564 152.138 142.200 144.985 131.271 124.672 125.798 153.12 Group (2) 141.980 145.149 141.919 145.937 142.827 139.974 150.772 148.276 144.332 128.900 138.235 136.373 135.447 146.241 137.694 148.839 140.737 152.523 151.556 148.860 129.180 143.325 151.657 147.558 143.082 145.072 145.460 145.859 143.158 139.426 Group (4) 120.852 153.426 143.829 145.838 142.775 136.444 143.397 143.831 149.722 143.068 137.901 137.388 133.916 139.089 152.022 140.637 157.2.241 164.123 149.238 130.412 148.746 152.331 145.590 149.473 141.MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 Table 9.086 152.731 141.487 122.012 154.606 145.084 148.024 154.

2.125 Group (2) TUS (LT).MIL-HDBK-5H 1 December 1998 INFORMATION FOR EXAMPLE PROBLEMS Material Identification: Alloy X sheet.126-0. 30 observations of SUS(LT) for thickness range 0.125 inch from Supplier A.00 * The statistical tests described in Problems I through III apply specifically to the case where normality can be assumed.249 inch — Ftu (LT) = 135 ksi.020 to 0. Group (2). ksi Group (1) TUS (LT).020-0.020-0. Go to Problem VII.126-0. 0. Group (6). no variation with thickness. The more general Anderson-Darling procedure described in Problem IV can be applied to normal as well as nonnormal distributions.020-0. annealed. Go to Problems I and VIII. 300 observations of TUS(LT) for thickness range 0. Go to Problems II and IX. VIII.0 151.020 to 0. observations may be paired with TUS(LT) if desired.2. 30 observations of TUS(LT) for thickness range 0. no variation with thickness. Go to Problems III and X. 0. 300 observations of TYS(LT) for thickness range 0. ksi s.0 4. apparent decrease in SUS(LT) on increasing thickness. Go to Problems I.125 (Refer to Sections 9. no variation with thickness.6. Group (4). EXAMPLE PROBLEMS BASED ON AN ASSUMED UNDERLYING NORMAL DISTRIBUTION* PROBLEM I Should the data in Groups (1) and (2) be combined? Other Information: Neither property varies with thickness. Group (3). Available Test Results: Group (1). Fty (LT) = 110 ksi. 100 observations of TUS(LT) for thickness range 0. Sample statistics are: — Subpopulation n X .125 inch from Supplier B. Fty (LT) = 115 ksi.125 inch from Supplier B.249 inch.125 inch