Training and Development

Anubha Walia

Apart from lecture notes pl refer following books Uday Pareekh Dharma Vira Agarwal
Anubha Walia 9818446562

Course Content – 40 hrs

 Training

and teaching  Learning about management issues and concepts  Principles of learning and development – basic idea

individual. TRAINING NEEDS (3 HRS) 23-24feb  Training needs classification.  3. overcoming obstacles. and organizational level needs  Identification of training needs . facilitators. ADULT LEARNING (1 HR) 17 feb  Concept of adult learning  Transfer of learning: Mechanics. occupational. 2. hurdles.

DESIGN OF A TRAINING PROGRAM AND ITS EXECUTION (8 HRS) 2-3 mar  Training objectives  Decision about content of training  Training methods and choice of appropriate aids  Parameters for assessment of training effectiveness  Steps involved in conducting an effective training program . EFFECTIVE LEARNING (2 HRS)  Trainer‟s skills  Role of management trainer in transfer of learning  Role of trainer as a change agent.  5. 2.

INVENTORY OF TRAINING METHODS (20 HRS)  Lecture  Case analysis  Role plays  Business / management games & simulations  Experiential learning. including outdoors  Organizing / preparing training material.EVALUATION OF TRAINING (2 HRS)  Evaluate?  Methods for evaluation  Criteria for evaluation  7.V. including A. aids . 6.

April EOM . MARKETING OF TRAINING ACTIVITY (2 HRS)  Marketing in house (internal customer)  Marketing to external customers  40 hrs in 10 weeks….. 8.

Training and Development    Training = Altering behaviour Development = Increasing knowledge Learning = Permanent change in behaviour Training Need   Job req – existing competencies Desired Group dynamics – existing attitude of an individual  Development Need  .

DefinitionsAccording to “Edwin B.” .” According to Michael Armstrong.skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job. Flippo. “Training is the systematic development of the knowledge. ”Training is the act of increasing knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.

What is training? Training is basically a systematic procedure for transferring technical know-how to the employees so as to increase their knowledge and skills for doing particular jobs. .

what they are most capable of. to be special. people do it because they're paid to   Learning' far better expresses this than 'training'. and strong at doing. People respond to appropriate learning because they want to. to make a difference. rather than what we try to make them they achieve their own individual potential . because it benefits and interests them. .Difference  TRAINING   LEARNING    Developing people from the inside out . Training is about the organisation.what they love and enjoy. Training is (mostly) a chore. Learning is about the person. because it helps them to grow and to develop their natural abilities. Learning is quite different.

to helping others to identify. wisdom. emotional maturity.and most important of all. but most importantly focus on facilitating learning and development for the person. and take steps towards fulfilling their own personal unique potential. transfer of knowledge or skill for organisational gain Train the essential skills and knowledge of course. beyond 'work skills' .   LEARNING Learning is something that people pursue by choice at their own cost in their own time. 'Learning' extends the idea of personal development (and thereby organisational development) to beliefs. aspire to and to achieve and fulfil their own unique individual personal them grow and develop for life . aspire to. compassion. integrity . Does it not make sense for employers to help and enable that process? Of course it them to identify. values. ethics.Difference    TRAINING Training is something that happens at work Also 'training' merely describes. and commonly represents.   .

What is Teaching? Imply deeper knowledge and a longer timeframe. We often hear the term “Lifelong learning." but not Life long training??? .

.with the notion of exercises that we repeat until we "get" the skills we are trying to acquire   TEACHING Teach has many alternate definitions. or experience      . example. including: To cause to know something To guide the studies of To impart the knowledge of To instruct by precept. discipline. or drill To make prepared for a test of skill training focuses on skill ….Difference     TRAINING Train are: To form by instruction.

guidance or support More long-term and takes a broader view of the person .Difference     COACHING Relationship generally has a set duration Generally more structured in nature and meetings are scheduled on a regular basis Short-term (sometimes timebounded) and focused on specific development areas/issues     MENTORING Ongoing relationship that can last for a long period of time Can be more informal and meetings can take place as and when the mentee needs some advice.

immediate goals Coaching revolves more around specific development areas/issues    Mentor is usually more experienced and qualified than the „mentee‟. Senior person in the org who can pass on knowledge. experience Focus is on career and personal development Agenda is set by the mentee.Difference  COACHING  MENTORING    Focus is generally on development/issues at work The agenda is focused on achieving specific. and guidance to prepare them for future roles .

 Guiding: the process of directing an individual or a group along the path leading from present state to a desired state  Coaching: helping another person to improve awareness. to set and achieve goals in order to improve a particular behavioural performance Teaching: helping an individual or group develop cognitive skills and capabilities Mentoring: helping to shape an individual‟s beliefs and values in a positive way. often a longer term career relationship from someone who has „done it before‟ Counselling: helping an individual to improve performance by resolving situations from the past.    .

” . every human activity need up-to-date knowledge and required skills to perform it.Training“ In future.” “As we live and work in the world of knowledge and skill. the success of enterprises „ll depend upon the revolutionary training and development system in human resource management.

elevating employees performance and so on.Features of Training  Training enhances the skills and capabilities of the individuals in an organization. such as in harnessing skills for existing jobs.  . The need for training can be emphasized in various work situations. planning out one‟s future job profile.

the employees have to be convinced of its utility and effectiveness.   . A successful training program improves the performance of an employee which in turn enhances organizational performance. For training to be successful.skills and attitude of the workforce. Training program should attempt to bring about positive changes in the-knowledge .

 ADULT LEARNING – Child to Leader  Andragogy – Adult to Leader  Pedagogy .

ADULT LEARNING  Adult must want to Learn  Adult Learn only what they feel they need to Learn  Adult Learn by doing  Adult learn through the application of past experience  Adult learn in an informal environment  Adult learn best through a variety of training methods .



 Evolutionary

Process  Product of collaboration  Unique to an Individual  Takes place at subconscious level  Intellectual and Emotional elements  Does not progress at Uniform Pace

 Affirmation

or endorsement of existing

Learning  Building on present level of Competencies  Development of New Knowledge and competencies  Learning after going through De-learning


Training – defined as the process of bringing the manpower of an org to the desired level of performance, behavior and attitude from the existing level of performance, behavior and attitude. NEED – When there is GAP

A S ASK GAP TNA K Required A S K Available .

Why Training Need Arise EXPECTED ACTUAL .

When Training Need arises Actual vs Expected is not met Motivation and Morale is Low Special Need – Innovation –ISO When staff themselves communicate Updating staff as per industry scenario Promotion or succession ASK .

Production hold up. High Rejection.FORECAST Expansion Re-organization New Method New Equipment Retirement Seasonal Variation Change in Layout Attrition New Product Promotion FAULT CORRECTION – Customer Complaint. Wastage. Inaccurate data. Disregard safety rules . Abuse of equipment.

WHOM Top / TO TRAIN Strategic Level Management Level Supervisory Level Operational Level Pl share Practical Examples .

Determination of Training Need - Org having Training setup Org Do Not have training setup - - Than how to do TNA Make an inventory – quality n quantity Make forecast of future requirement – wastage – resignation transfer retirement Talent – within and outside org Prepare strategy for development .future .

law. Tools When Capabilities changes – New When the work Environment changes – Mission.When to Assess Needs? When Work Changes – Promotion. goal. budget. Method. regulation .

TNA Current Level Discrepancy Reveals IMMEDIATE TRAINING Actual Level of Performance Discrepancy Reveals Projected Level of Performance LONG Range TRAINING .

Approaches to Training Need Direct Approach – Ask emp Professional Approach – Consultant Secret Shopper Approach – Sample Public Seminar Online Learning Consultants – customized Do It YOURSELF .

Need of Training Present and Future need Qualitative n Quantitative .

NEED ASSESSMENT Thyer & McGhee Model What is the Context? Organization Analysis Task / Role Analysis In What Do They Need Training? Performance Analysis Who Needs the Training? .

Company Country Level Regional Level Global Level .Level of Training Individual.Company Job Level.Company Group and Team Level Organisation Level .

From where u can analyse need Organization Goal & Objective HRIS DATA Efficiency & Effective Index Management request Change in System MBO Performance Data .

TASK / JOB Analysis Job Description Job Specification Performance Standard Analysis of operating problems Asking question about job .

Ability.Person Analysis Performance Appraisal data Work Sampling Interview KASOC (Knowledge. Skill or other competency) Attitude survey Self efficacy measure Critical Incidents .

Analysis Performance Is It N Ignore Y Provide Is it due to lack Knowledge of Knowledge information Is it due to skill deficiency Provide opp to practice Provide opp to practice Consider Feedback Practice Training Coaching .

and develop break though Examine Reward / Punishment Grievance Remove obstacle .Is is due to Condition Are there obstacle to performance Revisit performance. targets.

. This training policy includes the rules and regulations. TRAINING POLICY INCLUDES…. .standards and conditions regarding training. This policy depicts the intention of the company to train and develop its personnel.After Need Training policy………? Every organization has well established and prescribed training policy for the training of employees.budget. It provide guidelines for training programme.procedure.?     This policy depicts the top management‟s philosophy regarding training of employees.

After Policy OBJECTIVE OF TRAINING    Employees learn best when they understand the objective of the training program. . The objective refers to to the purpose and expected outcome of training activities. Training objectives based on the training needs analysis help employees understand why they need the training.

Objectives Operational (Enhance sales. development) Innovation or Change Larger effect . subjective) Personal Growth (Stimulating feeling-self confidence. reduce cost) Performance (Individual performance) Instructional (After training program evaluation) Reaction analysis (During training. competence.

Objective Cognitive : The acquisition of knowledge / understanding of concept Psychomotor : The proactice and acquisition of new skills and behaviour Afftective : The development of awareness of attitude. feelings and preference. emotion. .

The resources are always limited and training objectives actually lead the design of training program.Importance of training objective     1. 4. 2. 3. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. of stakeholders‟ perspectivesTrainer Trainee Designer Evaluator . Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a no.

to demonstrate…. Action verbs to be used (to know. to use. to name. to learn. to illustrate. participants will be able to Cognitive : TO write . to undestand are non action verb . to differentiate.Example By the end of this prog. to define. to list etc Psychomotor : TO operate. to execute Afftective : TO appreciate.

The training department is a good place to put poor performers.  . not an investment. Training is an expense.Misconception in Training     Training is not valuable. Training is the responsibility of the trainers. Anybody can be a trainer.

REVISION Training Focus Use of work experiences Goal Current Low Future High Development Preparation for current job Preparation for changes Participation Required Voluntary .

30-31 April Carry 30% wtg in marks .Subject for training 1Leadership 2Communication 3Selling skills 4Managing change 5Thank you 7Stress Management 8Customer retention 9Feedback skills 10Body Language 11-7 highly effective people 12Presentation skills 6Jack Welch and Warren Buffet approach Presentation on 23-24.

Personal growth. OBJ  TNA – based on Org. regulation and procedure Obj. Policy.We DID TNA.  . performance (efficiency and quality). Reaction. reduce cost). Innovation or change. Job and Performance  Org – Specific area within org  Job-Performing task more effectively to be upgraded  Performance-ASK  Policy-Management responsibity.operational (enhance sale. rules.

FOLLOWED BY   Preparing T&D Budget Deciding Venue  On  Off the Job the Job   Method and Tech to be used Evaluation .

BUDGET  Allocation of funds for carrying out training .

Venue  On The Job itself / Company precincts  Plant  Off the Job – external university. convention. workshop. professional meeting. seminar . conference. college.

.Method and technique     Brain Storming Group Exercise Video Discussion   Ques Ans Practice  Demonstration….

. grievance. quality and production.Evaluation     Objective have been achieved Judging Reaction Measuring how far training was effective Evaluating new and different behavior  Measuring result or change in term of cost.

Designing Program .

 Program  Lesson schedule Plan. Program leader Guide . time  Who will be Trainer  What  Venue.Designing of Training Prog  CHECKLIST  Who would be participants  Objective  Content  What of the program and Structure of the program is expected Out come of program training Methods to be used Date.

more so in the present battle of business in a competitive environment (Be the master of excellence and not the slave of reward) make them realise their role & identity as a partner of the business entp to make their work as source of pleasure.  To .Designing EXAMPLE  Subject Work Ethics and Joy of work  Objective : To bring home the ethical concept of KARMA (Work) from GITA.

 To .Designing EXAMPLE  Subject Work Ethics and Joy of work  Objective : To bring home the ethical concept of KARMA (Work) from GITA. more so in the present battle of business in a competitive environment (Be the master of excellence and not the slave of reward) make them realise their role & identity as a partner of the business entp to make their work as source of pleasure.

Designing EXAMPLE  Content  Right attitude toward work of work effort  Dignity  Sincere  Why we work the rational is Joy of work work become burden or pleasure  What  When  Golden  Your rule of Joy of work pledge .

Designing EXAMPLE  Methodology  Discovery learning from GITA  Brainstorming  Exercise  Role Q play and A .

Designing EXAMPLE  Outcome of Training Program  Develop an awareness about concept Action Plan  Individual  Will enjoy work and be sincere .

.Designing EXAMPLE  Monitoring  Peer senior will give individual feedback for there positive behaviour and reinforce after a month.

00-09.00 Common errors identified during audit Venkatraman AML & Fraud Prevention Chandrachudan 01.30-10.30 CONTENT Introducing of team members and program leader.30-11.30-11.30 Best Practices Jayaram 11.00 Impact of Cash on BBM 11.00 Soiled/Mutilated & Forged notes Arunachalam Presentation & Participative lecture visit to icmc.45-01.inter group quiz Lecture Participative lecture 09.00-01. Basic inputs on cash management Gurunath Delivery Methodology Participative lecture Presentation. Training objectives Sox Process Flow.30 Cash Process 10.45 TEA BREAK Cash & Regulations Cash Returns 11.Lesson Plan DAY 1 TIME TOPIC Introduction 09.30-03. demonstration & simulation .30 LUNCH 01.00-11.

PLG – Program Leader Guide Example .CASH Introduction Learning Objective Cash Process Common Error Cash Regulation Fraud Prevention Reflection Feedback .

Managing Stress  Objective : To make aware about phenomenon of stress. with special reference to work related stress.  . To familiarize them with how to contribute in building a stress free environment through self management to optimize their performance. its disastrous impact on there performance. career. life and how to cope with it.

How Improvement in thought process   Stress management technique Your action plan .Content   What is Stress The root cause of stress      Stressful thought Physical symtom of stres Effect of stress Stress free life.

Methodology     Illustration and demonstration Practice and feel exercise Brainstorming Discussion  Individual exercise .

Outcome / Result  Developing awareness about the concept of stress and its root cause Will be able to manage stress through improvement in thought process   Develop individual action plan for coping up with the stress .

Effective Trainer .

Qualities of effective Trainer   Passion for Training Ability to hold attention of trainee          Thorough knowledge Encourage and elicit participation Manage time Be humorous and Respectful Open to feedback Listening skills Good Communicator Effective use of aid Planner. Flexible. Cool temprament .

Professional skill. Ethical and Personal characteristics)  Professional Qualification (Job Knowledge.Attribute of Trainer  Personal Qualification ( Mental. Professional training) . Emotional. Physical.


Mental – sharp intellect, good judgment, good analytical approach, keen understanding of people, interest values of particpants, skills in getting along with the group, very much alert and receptive to learning new technologies, good instructor, capacity to pursude, win over respect of others, well adapt in peaking and writing


Physical – Training requires great hard work

Must be able to exhibit vibrating energy
Enthusiasm to meet any challenge and difficult situation. T&D needs both physical and mental strain, therefore without physical vitality and mental resilience it may not be possible


Emotional – Self composed

Exhibit emotional maturity both in expression and doing
High degree of tolerance. Should be in high spirit Should not loose temper

Give best performance in his job
Self confidence and strong conviction

Personal  Ethical – Display fair mindedness Should have impartial attitude No favor's Give due credit where its due .

Personal  Personal Characteristics – Should not be rigid Flexible in his approach Should be able to adjust himself in changed situation Cooperative. sympathetic and helpful .

Professional  Job Knowledge – Deep knowledge Conversant Well aware company policy procedure Should act as a change agent .

PLG Should be able to evaluate . program. LP. content.Professional  Professional skills – Special attitude and ability to lecture Well versed with modern technique Capability of developing couse.

Professional  Professional Training and experience – Sound background Good skills Constantly upgrade himself through refresher courses Specialized work experience Experience in on the job Formalized experience in human relation. .

Methods of Training .

one way communication EXPERIMENTAL – learner interact with instructor. a computer.Various Methods  INFORMATIONAL – primarily informational. or other trainee to practice skills.  .

INFORMATIONAL Uses Gaining new knowledge Introductory material Lecture Benefits Equally good as TV Low cost Limitation Learners are passive Poor transfer Reaches large Depends in lecture audience ability Audience is often Is not tailored to comfortable with it individual trainee .

INFORMATIONAL Uses Gaining new knowledge Gaining attention AUDIO VISUAL Benefits Can reach large audience at one time Versatility Can reduce trainer. travel and facility cost Audience is often comfortable with it Limitation Is not tailored to individual trainee Passive learner .

Independent study Uses Benefits Gaining new Allow trainees to knowledge go at own pace Completing degree Continuous education Minimize cost of development Limitation Expensive to develop liabrary material Performance depends on trainee motivation Is not applicable to all job

Uses Limitation Gaining new Expensive to knowledge develop Pre training Allows trainees to Not applicable for preparation go at there own all task pace Provide immediate Does not lead to feedfack higher performance than lecture E Learning Benefits Convenient


ON THE JOB Benefits Good transfer Limited trainer cost High trainee motivation since training is relevant Limitation Depends on Trainer May be costly due to mistake May have frequent interruption due to job demand

Uses Learning Job skills Apprentice training Job rotation

Good Retention Feedback is given .Experimental E-Learning Uses Benefits Limitation Trainees may have difficulty using computer Limited opp for interaction Less useful for interpersonal and psychmotor task Gaining New Self Paced and Knowledge Convenient Drill and Practice Individualise d Learning Standardised.

Experimental SIMULATOR Uses Produces real world conditions For physical and cognitive training For Team Training Benefits Effective for learning and transfer Present realistic challenge Limitation Costly to develop Sickness can occur Requires good fidelity .

Experimental GAMES Uses Benefits Limitation Highly competitive Time consuming May stifle creativity Decision Resembles the making skills job tasks Management training Interpersonal skills Provide feedback Present realistic challenge .

Experimental CASE STUDY Uses Decision Making skills Analytical skills Benefits Decision making practice Limitation Must be updated Real world Criticized as being training unable to teach material mgmt skills Communicati Active learning Trainer often on skills dominates discussion Illustrate diversity of solution Good for problem solving skills .

Experimental ROLE PLAY Uses For Changing attitude Practice skills Benefits Gain experince of other role Active learning Limitation Initial resistance of trainee Trainee may not take it seriously Analyse Close to reality Interpersonal problems .

Experimental Behaviour Modelling Uses To teach Interpersonal skills Benefits Allow practice Limitation Time consuming To teach Provide May be costly cognitive feedback to develop skills To teach Retention is training skills improved .

LECTURE METHOD     Traditional Method / Oldest One way communication Lack of Interaction Effective when seek to transmit information or intellect understanding Trainer becomes center of attraction   Talent of Trainer can engage participants with communication skills .

WHY & WHEN TO USE  When large group is there and participation is not possible Bridge the gap between lectures and reading by themselves   No guarantee that method stimulates thinking or actively involves participants therefore most difficult method. The onus lies with Trainer. It calls for motivation and commitment   .

knowledge and aptitude. Good lecturing and good presentation    . Lack of involvement of the participant leaves the trainer without the feedback. Requires high level of skill.Cont…   Does not allow two way communication Develops a sense of dependence on the trainer.

info can be shared  Can be personalized and customized .ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE  Can reinforce  One Way trainers credibility  Depends on and authority trainer for  Info is effectiveness concentrated and  Words and figs organized can easily be  Efficient: lot of garbled.

  Participant role – Style of speaker. good listener Facilities & resources – Room should be comfortable. flips. Main speaker.CHECKLIST  Trainer Role – Initiator. option of involving question Building Group – The group is prepared for lecture. pen…… Time Allocation – depends on subject   . chart.

Helps participant to think   .CASE STUDY   Very popular Transmitting of knowledge through involvement of the participants Used as an exercise in decision making or problem solving.

  .Guidelines for using   Imp to know objective of the session Through knowledge of the topic should be there. The case study should be based on genuine data and situation The trainer should be aware of the actual outcome in order to enable to compare and contrast after findings.

Guidelines for writing case study   Can be done yourself Can be delegated-imp objective should be kept in mind The case must relate to overall work situation.   . participants skills exp and knowledge Good communication and writing skills and should be in past tense for protection.

    ADVANTAGE Can focus the discussion and learning experience Can gain a shared understanding of on the job training Provide real world experience     DISADVANTAGE Impose time limitation for reading and discussion Difficult to develop and in corporate all the necessary details. Only build and demonstrate understanding and not skills .

highlights the learning. good time Participant role – actively involved in analyzing the case. Climate building – methods procedure norms should be familiarized well. expected learning outcomes. clarifies.Checklist – Case Study  Trainer role – Initiate and guide discussion. assisting for understanding   .

. Black board. recourses and equipments – Case sheet should be well made.Checklist – contd…  Facilities.  Time allocation – approx 2 hours . room should be spaced. flip charts..

Provides a useful experience in self expression and interpersonal communication. involvement and action learning. Engendering (produce) behavioral science. Its not theoretical Provides opportunity for participation.     .ROLE PLAY   Valuable training method It‟s a conscious attempt to bring out dynamic and intricacies of various roles performed in real life.

 CASE STUDY  ROLE PLAY      Real life situation.      Same real life situation Interactive style Emphasis both on cognitive and affective development Greater involvement Stresses the importance of behavior & reaction . problems concerning org and individual Presents the problem for analysis and discussion Focus more on cognitive learning and thinking Less involvement of participants Deals with analysis and response.

group performs in front of group and act as observer too. same exercise. discussion  . play role simultaneously. opportunity for participant to develop sensitivity to the feeling of others Multiple role Plays – Various group. experience same situation.Types of Role Plays  Simple Role Play – Simplest form.

negotiation skill of different role player)     Whom to observe Procedure for observation Recording the observation (observation sheet) Presenting the observation .OBSERVATION  Process observation (Leadership that emerged in a group. issue emerged and response by group. describe how conflicts emerged and resolved. conflict resolution. process of decision making. indicate who took initiative. list factor that influenced action)  Content observation (role of different role player.

CHECKLIST – Role play  Trainer role – Preparation. provide assistance. active involvement in the exercise. discussing highlights  Preparing group – Adequate time should be given. brief the participant. Monitor the progress of the exercise. Participant role – full involvement. procedure norms. acquainted with how role will be played.  .

flip chart…. space required. blackboard.Contd. large room..  Time allocation – Min 1-2 hrs approx .  Facilities and resources – appropriate material to be distributed.

Games concentrate on general management principles ie planning. decision making.MANAGEMENT GAMES   Related to specific aspect of business Bring together various elements of practical decision making.  .

Design and Methodology  Trainer should be well aware about objective Should also know what sequence to be followed for a balance between cognitive and experimental learning. Trainer should well aware how game works Game must have depth    .

Time available to the team for making decisions is normally related to complexity of game Avoid any kind of distraction The term and language used should be same used in training prog    .Contd…  Inter-relationship between functional area of a business are translated into mathematical relationships.

 .GROUP DISCUSSION     Popular method Adaptability Standalone method or in combination Large group or sub group  Aims at structured but informal exchange of knowledge and idea. Result in change in behavior and action if participant willing to learn.

Objective    Process oriented – prompting interaction Result oriented – specific outcome Generate ideas by examining issues in greater depth   Develop skills in interpersonal group Effective means of changing attitude .

Limitation of GD

If group is large all the members may not get the opportunity to participate and contribute to the discussion If the task is not clear defined, the discussion may lack focus and unproductive Difficulties can arise if the leader in unskilled in guiding the discussion Some members may dominate

  

Specialized form of discussion Unstructured way of generating idea Possible to generate more ideas collectively than sum of the ideas


Generating wide range of solutions in solving a problem, stimulating creativity in the group

Developing a positive attitude among the participant by encouraging to listen them carefully Encouraging shy participants to share ideas and views without getting negative reaction
Creating effectiveness

Steps in Brainstorming     Generate of Ideas Amending ideas Posting all ideas on flip chart Analyzing ideas  Action planning .

Models of trainingTraining is a transforming process that requires some input and it turn it produce output in the form of knowledge. The three models of training are1. Instructional system development model 3. skills and attitudes. The system model 2. Transitional model .

The system model – ADDIE MODEL It consists of five phases which should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. the training should achieve the purpose of helping the employees to perform their work to required standards. The steps areEVALUATE IMPLEMENT DEVELOP DESIGN ANALYSE .

sequencing and structuring the contents. 3.1. . 5. examining training material. validating information to be imparted to. ANALYSE-Analyze and identify the training needswhat do they need to learn. DEVELOP-Listing the activities in the training program that „ll assist the participants to learn. identifying the learning steps. DESIGN-It requires developing the objective of training. selecting delivery method. EVALUATE-Evaluating each phase to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. IMPLEMENT-It‟s the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. 2. 4.

V. Cluster form.After  Before  Analyse material and Learner info Site – U. o. content expertise. Theater and maintain credibility (Personal conduct. Classroom.Before – During . practise)  Prepare  During  Establish  Managing Learning Environment skills skills  Communication  Presentation .

After  Questioning  Provide  Use  Use skills clarity & feedback training methods appropriately effective media  Evaluate learners performance delivery information  After  Evaluate  Evaluate .Before – During .

This model comprises of five stages- ANALYSIS PLANNING FEEDBACK EXECUTION DEVELOPMENT . The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program.Instructional system development model This model was made to answer the training problems. And on the basis of designed objective . In it training objectives are designed on the basis of job responsibilities and job description.performance is measured.

3. methods of evaluating the trainee. EXECUTION-it focuses on logistical arrangements. cooling lighting .parking and other training accessories.visual aids etc.workbooks. Planning-This phase consist of setting goal of the learning.outcome. ANALYSIS-This phase consist of training need assesment.equipments.podiums. 4. including handouts.1. such as arranging speakers. trainer and the training program. 5. DEVELOPMENT-This phase translates design decisions into training facilities. .types of training material. EVALUATION-evaluating whole process. 2. it consists of developing course material. media selection.benches.job analysis and target audience analysis.

the other loop describes the vision. mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i. inner lop is executed. .e.Transitional model of training Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole.


A vision statement tell that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. VISION-It focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time.the reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate. it reflects the deeply hold values of the organization. excellent customer service 2. foe example-social responsibility. 3. VALUES-vision is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. .1. inspire and inform the employees regarding the organization. MISSION-explain the reason of organizational existance.

Reasons for Training Turnover  Change in program  Needs of organization or personnel  Cost effectiveness  Employee promotion and advancement  .

Components of trainingComponents of training includes“ALL THAT MAKE-UP A TRAINING PROGRAMME.” Important components are- .

slides Graphs.Trained & Professional trainer Training policy Top mgt. pictures Charts.’s Support and commitment Willing trainee Components Of training Different methods Of training And courses Training procedure Including feedback and evaluation Training materials Posters. equipments Venue & The duration of The training .

Employees should get opportunity of training. There should be sufficient budget for training and development programme.Some important points regarding training…. It should not be based on favoritism.?  In the organization employee training and development is essential part of planning activity so that learning and growth can take place in the organization.   .

 Its importance should be recognized and never be underestimated as sheer waste of time. It should be structured and be managed in such a way that learning takes place properly. The learner should be motivated    It should be an endless activity for all. .

acquiring of skills.time.. . not criticized.   It should be evaluated in terms of terms of effectiveness and changed behavior.  ………………………………………………. in terms of cost. it means it should not be imposed. no negative reinforcement be give it should be participative. It should hold humanistic values. usefulness in job.

3.Purpose of training programs… 1.Improving employee performanceAs it bridges the gap between the actual and expected performance of the employees. 2.Updating employee skills-to adopt any technological advances.Avoiding managerial obsolescence .

.Retaining and motivating employees 5.Creating an efficient and effective organization 6.4.It helps organization to absorb changes taking place in the environment and reduce resistance to change.

It aims to improve the quality of task. . 9.Training increases the productivity and level of performance of employees.To train employees in a particular culture of the company.7. 8.

 . as training improves the knowledge of employees regarding the use of machines and equipments. Wastage is eliminated to a large extent as they use tools. machines in a proper way. There will be fewer accidents.Importance of training  Trained workers can work more efficiently.

  . It helps in introducing and adopting latest technology in order to absorb change. fewer mistakes. Training can contribute to higher production. It makes the relationship between management and employee cordial. greater job satisfaction and lower labor turnover.

Training makes employees more loyal to an organization. he can be more mobile and pursue career goals easily. training enables employees to secure promotions easily. Training helps an employee to move from one organization to another easily. they can realize their career goals comfortably. they will be less inclined to leave the unit where there are growth opportunities.  .

 Economical supervision-as there is less requirement for supervision for trained employees.  Uniform procedures-with the help of training the best available methods can be standardized and made available to all employees .

4. 5. Meeting Manpower need (Do it yourself) Reducing Learning time Improves Performance Reduce Wastage Less Absenteeism Fewer accident – Trained vs Untrained Benefits to employee . 7.BENEFITS of training1. 2. 6. 3.

EVALUATION  WHY RESULT BASED TRAINING  It should not be undertaken unless result can be measured design should include at least one method of evaluation  Prog  Each training staff member should have some responsibility for evaluation should be involved in all phases of HRD understand their role to achieve result  Management  Participants .

e ROI To decide who should participate in future prog To test the clarity and validate. cases and exercise   .PURPOSE AND USE  To determine success in accomplishing prog objective To identify strength and weakness in training prog   To compare the cost to the benefit of prog I.

PURPOSE AND USE  To identify which participants were most successful with the prog gather data to assist in marketing future program determine if the program was appropriate for the specific need  To  To .

KIRK PATRICK MODEL   The most known Developed by Kirkpatrick   Four level approach Assists in determining the types of data  Reaction – Were the participant pleased with the program (material. methodology. self assessment ) Result – Positive affect to org (cost saving. content. instructor) – What participant Learned (test. quality change) . skill practice)  Learning  Behavior – Any change based on what they learned (superior. peer sub-ordinate.

Philip 5 Level Model  Reaction and Planned action – Measure participants reaction to the program Learning – Measure ASK change Job Application – Measure change in behavior on the job Business results – Measure business impact Return on Investment – Measure monetary value of result n cost of prog     .

REFLECTION  Learning from the T& D LECTURE  How you are going to apply this learning in Personal growth and Professional growth   .

Thank You .

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