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THE RULE OF LAW
AS A TOOL TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
SUBMITTED UNDER THE PSEUDONYM
In Greek mythology, Eunomia was the goddess of law and legislation, of good order and lawful conduct. She was associated with the internal stability of a state, including the enactment of good laws and the maintenance of civil order. In present day Greek language, the word “eunomia” developed a meaning associated with the goddess’ virtues and high moral standards and the word was adopted to mean “good order, governance according to good laws”. The present legal system of Greece designates the Ombudsman to intervene in controversies involving individuals or legal entities against the public administration. The mediation process serves to protect the rights of the former and to ensure the compliance of the latter to the rule of law, operating as a measure to triumph over maladministration. To demonstrate the significance of good laws and civil order in the Greek culture, the Ombudsman’s current international activities include a “Eunomia” project, an action plan tasked to establish Ombudsman-type of mediation institutions in Southeast Europe, run under the auspices of the Council.
REFERENCES : http://www.greekembassy.nl/press http://en.wikipedia.orgwiki/Horae
The rule of law is of great consequence to national development because the Constitution and the system of codes, laws and rules define the legal framework and the government structure within which socio-economic and political activities that lead to national development can take place. A treatment of the rule of law and its role in national development is covered in the succeeding pages in the context of its operation within a governmental framework. The function of the rule of law within a structural process flows from the sovereign power, through a set of laws, over a network of institutions, directed at the growth forces of development and on to the subjects who are expected to act and perform in accordance with defined rules. The function of the rule of law is reliant on the balance of two “powers”: the degree of good governance as administered by the sovereign power and the degree of citizen participation, termed as “citizenry power”. These are the two active powers that will determine the respect for rule of law in a country. Thus, in this aspect, rule of law comprises the system of laws by which the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government contribute to the prevention of the arbitrary exercise of their respective powers upon the citizens, through the preservation of citizens’ rights in order to advance compliance, sustainability and predictability of laws for the purpose of generating a well-ordered society that shall be susceptible to growth forces that create and influence the conditions for national development.
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XI. IX. V.iii - . VIII. VI. 1 3 4 6 7 9 The Basis of Rule of Law The Philippines as a Democratic Government The Concept of National Development Framework of Laws & National Development 10 Role of the Legislative Power Role of the Executive Power Role of the Judiciary Summary Conclusion References 13 16 18 21 25 . II. X. VII. III. XII.TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Prelude The Practical Concepts of “Rule of Law” The Philosophical and Legalistic Concepts of “Rule of Law” IV.
A STRUCTURAL APPROACH TO THE RULE OF LAW AS A TOOL TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT The Constitution defines who shall make the law . . an economy to grow and a peace to win. who shall interpret the law . the Presidential Spokesman issued the following statement: “We hope and pray that the rule of law will prevail. . who shall interpret the law . 2001. Meantime. . . . The office of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo appealed before the public and declared: "Let the rule of law prevail. after a decision was handed down by the Sandiganbayan anti-graft court finding the former President guilty of the crime of plunder. . 2007. . . The rule of law to prevail requires good country management with a well-governed economy where laws are sound and stable and where the legal interpretation and enforcement of contractual and statutory obligations are reliable. .” -1- . who shall execute the law . These require effective collaboration of who shall make the law ." Six years later. PRELUDE On May 1. attempting to dethrone the sitting President in order to restore the deposed President. . who shall execute the law . on September 12. we have a country to run. thousands of supporters of deposed President Joseph Ejercito Estrada amassed before the Presidential Palace to protest his incarceration. . . I.
The newspaper and tabloid headlines scream and the average man in society “gets excited” when a controversial figure like Jalosjos gets embroiled in a rape scandal. He identifies rule of law with “law and order” and ultimately associates the same with the competence and effectiveness of the law enforcers. THE PRACTICAL CONCEPT OF “RULE OF LAW” A man-on-the-street’s perception of the rule of law operates within a narrow context that the rule of law is a regime that is not governed by the “law of the jungle”. it is undeniable that the integrity of the judicial process is itself put to judgment by the “law of public opinion” and the “law of the streets”. the concept became a buzzword and gave birth to different perceptions. Out on the streets. Broadly conceived. peacemakers or even the courts. the concept of the rule of law was rather obscure in Philippine politics." The above state of affairs imparted a limited application of the concept of rule of law in three separate but related historical episodes. I did not resort to influence. II.After the verdict was read. Estrada proclaimed before members of media: I submitted myself to the rule of law when I allowed the impeachment proceedings against me to take its course. congressional arguments and media communications. or the “law of the streets” or the “rule of the mob”. barbershop scuttlebutt and neighborhood chatter. when a political fugitive like Gringo Honasan is able to elude the authorities under the guise of a woman or when Trillanes fails in his attempt to lead a pseudo “Pied Piper” march from the Makati RTC to the famed Peninsula Hotel. When political or highly controversial figures are made to stand before the law. that the rule of law is a concept equated with the “rule of the many” or the “rule of the popular will”. little is understood and. Prior to these almost exclusive historic events. Mr. often than not. The concept is now heavily used in official and diplomatic addresses. in coffee shop politics. much is said. under the rule of law .no -2- . From these momentous occurrences. the term is misconstrued.
Numerous works of jurists describe the rule of law as a power regulator. with the law having dominion on both sectors. the rule of law is a system that attempts to protect the rights of citizens from arbitrary and abusive use of government power. public official or private citizen . What is the Rule of Law? -3- . independently adjudicated. The relationships between the government and the citizens are bound by a set of rules. equally enforced.no one stands above or beyond the control of the law. University of Iowa. stable. while the World Bank definition centers on the protection of citizens against abusive government power. public and private institutions and entities. The United Nations’ definition focuses on accountability before the law. Both the citizenry and the government are mandated to submit to its supremacy. including the State itself. Yu. with the key element that disputes arising therefrom are decided in accordance with laws that are known.politician. III. norms and standards. This is a simple and practical workable understanding of the rule of law. In the most basic sense.”2 A careful reading of both definitions finds a parallel ground lying between two sectors. We have the government in the exercise of its powers and the citizens in the exercise of their rights. are accountable to laws that are publicly promulgated.1 A World Bank definition of rule of law is that it is a “legal-political regime under which the law restrains the government by promoting certain liberties and creating order and predictability regarding how a country functions. THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND LEGALISTIC CONCEPTS OF “RULE OF LAW” The United Nations’ definition of rule of law refers to a principle of governance in which all persons. Helen and Alison Guernsey. and with equal application to all. and which are consistent with international human rights. where the government in all its actions is 1 2 The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice. Report of the Secretary-General. 23 August 2004.
Lying in its core is the principle that good laws make good governance which. the practical and philosophical concepts of rule of law meet at a common point: the rule of law prevails when a government is limited by law for the benefit of its citizens. The concept of rule of law is not rulemaking nor law-making. THE BASIS OF RULE OF LAW One aspect of rule of law is the requirement of an existing set of good laws. in turn. uses the rule of law as one of its arms in reaching out to the citizenry as a key ingredient towards national development. The rule of law is therefore a system by which it serves as a power regulator on the government and a controlling power on the citizens. ultimately delivering efficient service to the public according to constitutional and statutory mandates. The influence and power of rule of law is initiated by the enactment of good laws by Congress. Such functions should be carried out in a manner that is strong enough to stimulate citizen participation. IV. Equally. transparency and security apply horizontally to the three government powers and which devolve vertically to the commissions. functioning in defined areas of responsibility through independent institutions and agencies. THE PHILIPPINES AS A DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT The Executive.bound by rules which are known and fixed. Legislative and Judicial branches of the government. the public is informed of the authority’s coercive powers so that citizens may act on the basis of this knowledge. the cabinet consisting of departments. effective execution of such laws by the various institutions and the equitable interpretation of those laws by the courts. draw their legal and political powers from the Constitution. V. bureaus and other institutions. which is drawn up -4- . Rule of law and good governance require an effective institutional infrastructure where the factors of accountability. Within the context of democratic governance as that prevailing in our country.
National development entails more than a single action. The rule of law varies in different countries as it derives its powers from the states’ respective Constitutions. both created by the people. the Government and the Constitution. alleviate poverty. The Philippines’ population of more than 80 million inhabitants sets the greatest incentive to induce social reforms and implement economic diversification to target the progress -5- . health. When we say that the rule of law has prevailed. VI. By virtue of our democratic government. It requires fresh inputs and reforms into its natural resources in order to preserve its environment. Its objectives are primarily set at providing an overall enrichment to the lives of the people and delivering to them a higher quality of life. customs and traditions. laws. It needs social reforms to enhance quality education. Hence. initiative and referendum and recall election as devices allowing citizen participation in the system of checks and balance. Respect for the principle of democracy is an aspect of the rule of law. exercised by the people over the government in what we may term ‘citizenry power’. housing. Thus we have the electoral process. THE CONCEPT OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT National development involves a forward change in the different sectors of a country. there is a direct corelationship between law and constitutionalism.by the people and sets the limits and defines the framework within which the branches can properly function. exist to serve the people. It needs economic reforms to attract foreign investments and remove trade barriers. the legal mechanisms of checks and balances constricting the powers of the three branches are also shared by the citizenry. As such. quality education. preserve human dignity and equality to the highest standards and protection against administrative and high-level corruption. basically carried out through socio-economic and political reforms. it virtually means that the constitution has been upheld and its directives espoused in accordance with its principles and state policies. provide security against terrorism and extrajudicial killings.
Bureau of Lands. all with the end in view towards sustainability. The environment system requires control over the conditions and resources of the country’s natural environment where laws need to be passed for protection against environmental degeneration. security. It also establishes conditions that influence and smooth the progress of revenue-generating activities needed to improve the quality of life of the citizenry and ultimately attain national development. liberalization of -6- . optimization of agro-ecological conditions and management and control of the spatial aspects in the interactions between humans and natural resources. human rights. VII. farming and land use. agrarian reform. Bureau of Fisheries and Bureau of Mines. Applied to our society. The development dimension is horizontal thus addressed to the actions of the three branches of government. FRAMEWORK OF LAWS & NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Laws alone do not create national development. property rights. The socio-economic system includes the development of the country’s human resources. laws that stimulate and develop human and capital productivity.and development of human resources as the single most powerful component required for national development. infrastructure and the private sector. fishing.e. human capital. tourism. Laws should advance economic freedom by removing barriers that allow trade to flourish and open the economy to the beneficial forces of globalization while preventing excesses. this includes controls affecting mining. This includes acceleration of educational and skills training.. with responsibilities shared by the Bureau of Forestry. Laws are instruments that could be utilized to create an enabling environment for the establishment of communal order. Congress should assess conditions existing in each system as to their access and susceptibility to development and the degree to which they can be expanded to attain national growth. In the passage of laws. The three principal drivers for growth are: (1) the environment system (2) the socio-economic system and (3) the political system. trade and industry. all of which fall under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. among others. i.
treaties. The second level consists of the institutions. overseas development assistance. Public Works. National development cannot be attained without the influence of forces derived from external sources lying beyond our territorial boundaries. socio-economic and political and legal institutions. At the top-most level. to name a few. The third level depicts the system of law and rules and regulations to be enforced. Agrarian Reform and Foreign Affairs. falling under the shared responsibilities of the Departments of Education.foreign investments. The political and legal systems oversee and regulate the activities of the two aforementioned systems through political institutions and public administration. -7- . and on to the subject citizenry for their ultimate benefit. execute and defend a system of laws and rules. Summarily. socio-economic and political and legal forces develops a growth mosaic which forms the essential parts of national development. protection for overseas foreign workers. within their respective jurisdictions. This system of rules. National Defense.composed of a network of environment. Labor and Employment. implemented and interpreted. Trade and Industry. the conceptual framework is headed by the three powers of government which enact. Tourism. and foreign technology including the inputs of development and financial organizations and our partners in development such as the United Nations. These come in the form of foreign investments. in form of departments and bureaus. The court structure and its institutions safeguard civil and political liberties. when applied on the fourth level of the growth system . the structural process describes the flow of government authority through a system of laws over a network of institutions. including the foreign forces operating thereon. representing the foreign forces that evolve a reciprocal exchange with our national market forces. World Bank. to which powers devolve for enforcement. Asian Development Bank and the ASEAN. Thus the framework essentially includes the fifth level. eradication of corruption and elimination of terrorism. applied to a growth system of environment.
as the law-making body of the government. Designed to address social. they negate economic development. laws should build capacity to address any situation that must be reformed and integrated with an ideal guarantee for compliance. and stimulate growth and create civil order.VIII. When laws are relevant and responsive to the requirements of the intended beneficiaries. Retail Trade Liberalization Act. Reforms that cause resistance aggravate corruption. 9372 Human Security Act which fueled domestic opposition and international concern on allegations that its vague language invites the misuse of such law. BuildOperate-Transfer Law and the concurrence to the World Trade Organization Treaty are acts of legislation on reforms that spur economic development and respond to global demands that bring to life the constitutional mandate to develop a self-reliant and independent national economy. A policy of stability will attract and stimulate investments and provide the continuity and time horizons that investors need in planning out project forecasts. -8- . ROLE OF THE LEGISLATIVE POWER The legislative branch. address the demands of the economy. they effectively connect people to the government and good governance results as a consequence. Ineffective laws are detrimental to good governance and consequently undermine respect for the rule of law. The Labor Code. Ultimately. should enact laws articulating citizen interests and public need. A. The Foreign Investment Act. Resistance is demonstrated in the recently enacted antiterror law under R. Special Zone Act. the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act and the proposal to negotiate for bilateral labor agreements with countries hosting Filipino workers are pieces of legislation that serve the constitutional mandate to protect rights of workers and promote their welfare. Omnibus Investments Code. terrorism and abuse of power in their implementation. economic and political needs.
former Secretary General of the United Nations. When these conditions exist. rules. The need to amend the Government Procurement Reform Act under Senate Bill No.There are several proposed amendments to existing laws and bills relating to the Tourism Act. enforced and executed through various institutions. 1793 for better policies on full public disclosure of all government transactions involving public interest demonstrates legislative response to demands for transparency and accountability. and mediate their differences”. They establish an order that provides the smooth interaction of the forces of man. and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels. in turn. through policies and implementing rules and regulations. it consists of departments which are created by the legislature to exercise legally defined regulatory powers and which. Kofi Annan. and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests. Being a large bureaucracy. processes. the rule of law is said to prevail. political. -9- . These legislative mechanisms regulate and control the environment. form several institutions which execute the laws in accordance with the mandate of Congress. ROLE OF THE EXECUTIVE The Executive power includes the implementation of the acts of Congress. It comprises mechanisms. meet their obligations. quality affordable medicines. the intellectual property code and human rights. Good governance is an extension of the principle of the rule of law." Good governance is best described by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and defines it as “the exercise of economic. They comply with constitutional mandates while inducing individual growth and national development. had declared that "Good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development. programs and capital. IX. exercise their legal rights.
Foreign policies must be designed to promote national growth. and enhance human capital. the creation of the barangay justice system and the mediation system at the Departments of Agrarian Reform and Environment and Natural Resources to resolve controversies closer to the grass roots . establish social order. defended by an independent judiciary. 15. pp. Guillermo A. and accountability will the responsiveness of government to the interests and needs of the greatest number of citizens be achieved. tax reforms. Journal of Democracy – Vol. in accordance with defined rules. 4. equality.3 3 O’Donnell. open our markets to more investments.The definition imparts the structural process describing the flow of government authority over a network of institutions and on to the subjects who act and operate. X. Investors are attracted to economies where there are proper functioning institutions that promote stability and legal certainty. election reforms. A capacity for law enforcement must be developed. October 2004. Such a system can only exist where rule of law prevails. based on legislative mandates. Investors prefer to go where governance is good. They go where the rules are stable and where laws do not change overnight and wipe out a business by a mere change of legislation.10 - . A secure and prosperous environment for public order must be created. special economic zones.. No. Only when the rule of law bolsters the democratic dimensions of rights.these are but few cases where executive acts. rights are not safe and the equality and dignity of all citizens are at risk. Why the Rule of Law Matters. The creation of the Presidential Anti-Graft Commission to strengthen institutionalized measures against graft and corruption. Due process must be implemented and respect for human rights must be enhanced. THE ROLE OF THE JUDICIARY “Without a vigorous rule of law. 32-46 .
applying them equally to all its citizens and consistently over time. R. By declaring the Mining Law under R. 1 December 2004. R. The concept of rule of law puts the weight of its effectiveness on how the legal system sustains the laws in resolving conflicts. G. G. 118295. 127882. The primary role of the judiciary is the administration of justice. A. 171396. The Supreme Court defended the people’s rights when it struck down the “calibrated pre-emptive response” 6 embodied in Presidential Proclamation No. 1017 which was used as basis for violent dispersals of peaceful assemblies. Tanada vs Angara. G. The Court upheld the Senate’s concurrence to the WTO5 membership by recognizing the free market espoused by the WTO and its status as the only viable structure for multilateral trading.Sound laws protect the citizens from consequences of their infringement and serve as a shield against abuses of the authorities.11 - . 79424 as constitutional. 2 May 1997 6 David vs Arroyo. which was the goal of this legislation. A significant test of the force of the rule of law in the Philippines took place when the Supreme Court upheld the constitutional power of a co-equal branch to conduct legislative inquiries in aid of legislation and invalidated an act of another 4 5 La Bugal vs Ramos. 3 May 2006 . in accordance with laws enacted by legislature and to safeguard civil liberty by defending these laws. R. the Supreme Court participated in the advancement of economic development through increased mining activities that translated to billions worth of investments and created more job opportunities. No. A strong and independent judiciary is vital to the economic and social development of the nation since a strong legal system and adherence to the rule of law are components of national development. Several recent judgments have demonstrated the sensitivity of the courts to promoting the rule of law in the pursuit of national development.
the primacy of such laws and the adherence of society to such laws. Compliance to laws is respect for the rule of law. 4647 as unconstitutional. which is a precondition to achieve national development. 20 April 2006 .co-equal branch when it declared certain provisions of Executive Order No. articulating citizen preference and public need.12 - . sound and strong laws. facilitate the management of national economy and protect people and investments. Congress determines the laws that go into the system and bears the responsibility to formulate good. The rule of law contributes to national development. G. Laws are good when they create rights. contain no infirmities. It upheld the right of lawmakers to compel the appearance of officials of the executive branch in legislative inquires so as not to frustrate legislative investigations and serve the people’s right to take part in government affairs. To be operative. stimulate opportunities for growth. SUMMARY All three powers of government utilize laws and rules as mechanisms to achieve good governance. Good laws stimulate compliance. but not stagnant. R. 169777. are consistent with international standards and are predictable and enduring. and can break down trade barriers to allow foreign investments to come in. No. it mandates a set of laws. The above cases. The Executive bears the responsibility to enforce the law. through its bureaucracy. Effective laws are good laws. They are sound when they involve legal certainty. The force of rule of law commands civil order and requires such order as a condition for rule of law to prevail. brought to the Supreme Court for resolution. They are strong when they are stable. XI. by way of orders. proclamations and implementing rules and regulations in accordance with the spirit intended by Congress and is mandated to bring out the effect of 7 Senate vs Ermita. which are the basic precepts of the principle of rule of law. are manifestations of its mandate to uphold the supremacy of the law and maintain equality before the law.
judicial reach covers not only civil society but extends even over their co-equal branches through judicial reviews in order to determine whether or not legislative and executive acts lie within the bounds of the Constitution.13 - . In an age of globalization. where laws are observed and where laws are upheld. Investors go where the legal system provides recourse when their rights are denied by private parties or by public administration. Without compliance. lack of foreign capital will impede national development. generate or to charge. . The onus of law enforcement is addressing laws to their intended beneficiaries. a point in fact is that the heaviest burden of upholding the principle is loaded on the shoulders of the Judiciary as the guardian of the rule of law. to which pronouncements Congress and the President must defer.such laws pursuant to the objectives they were set out for. Proper use of laws on the appropriate subjects will induce obedience to laws and regulations. Legal systems that provide strong legal protection for offended parties and investors will allow the implementation of reforms and marketoriented programs executed and protected under legal basis. While a system of checks and balances aligns and delineates the respective jurisdictions of the three powers. with a duty to close gaps between legal pronouncements and enforcement while infusing transparency and accountability into the enforcement process. Building capacity and developing an attitude for ensuring compliance to laws is an order for the Executive. laws and regulations are inconsequential. Good law enforcement optimizes the pieces of legislation as instruments to license. While the Legislative and the Executive participate indispensably in establishing the force of rule of law upon society. Disregard of the law undermines the rule of law. balancing the various interests in society in order to form the synergy required for progressive-oriented actions. thus making risks predictable and calculable. protect. Rule of law prevails where laws exist. The absence of the rule of law is absence of public order and closes the doors to foreign investments. regulate.
Whether the exertions to reach the goal are evenly balanced or not. Where there is order. He gives no importance if we can attain our 7% economic growth target for 2007. These are his economic indicators. The expressions of a prosperous economy. does not probably think of national development. . if he is secure in his home and his neighbor does not steal his chickens. He will not monitor the country’s economic indicators. if the cost of his LPG stays constant from one purchase to the other. if he can provide his children a better education and give them a better life than what he had. With priority over all other resources. industries build economies.00 apiece. We must admit that the common man on the street. To him the government is doing well if he himself receives a regular salary increase. the rule of law as a tool to national development may be summarized in the following conceptual structural framework. Where the law is supreme. it does not matter which horse had brought the carriage to the finish line. When all these happen. Claims for one million jobs are irrelevant to him if he is employed. these are abstract ideologies to his mind and too complicated for him to appreciate. This for the most part involves reforms and programs that intensify the ability to subject the people’s attitudes (referring to mental facilities) and behavior (referring to physical actions) under the supremacy of laws. What then is relevant to him? The average Filipino rates the government in accordance with the improvement of his standard of living on a day-to-day basis. there is national development. the Philippines should invest more in its most potent asset. civil order builds industries. . the horses that pull the carriage will reach their target destination all at the same time. economies build a nation. . human capital. investors find their way in the markets with facility because all forces take their own course. Laws build civil order. rule of law prevails. Where the economy is market-oriented. there is order. CONCLUSION The reins of the government are held by the Legislative. the guarantee of his civil liberty . if his electricity bill does not fluctuate significantly. Following the wisdom of an aphorism.14 - . if he still has money left to put aside for savings. that is.XII. most important. Executive and the Judiciary. He is happy if the price of “pandesal” can be maintained at P2. He even complains of a strong peso because the overseas remittance he receives from the Middle East had become less. the average Filipino belonging to the majority of the population below the poverty line. All said.
Civ Cod il e .Im entingRules plem &Reg ulations .Policies .Code of Com erc m e .Prote ction &Enfo em rc ent of Constitutional Rights S o c io -E c o n o m i c GROWTH SYSTEM E n v iro n m en t P o lit ic a l L eg a l & International Treaties World Bank FOREIGN FORCES Foreign Investments ASEAN UN Overseas Development Assistance NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CITIZENRY .Conceptual Structural Framework POWERS L E G IS L A T IV E E X E C U T IV E J U D IC IA R Y C o m m i t te e s : SC D A R D epEd D B M D SW D D TI D oE D FA D oH D oS T D IL G DO LE D oJ D oT D PW H C A RT C M eTC M TC SB SD C M C T C SC C C TA INSTITUTIONS B lu e R i b b o n E c o n o m i c A ff a i rs E th ic s F in an c e F o r e ig n R e la t io n s E d u c a tio n E n erg y J u s ti c e R u le s W ay s & M ea n s O th e r s D N D D oTC NE D A LAW & RULES .Other issuances Rules .Other Legislations .Ex ecutive O rs rde .Prac e tic .15 - .Pleadings .Constitution .Le Profession gal .Proc edure .Proclam ns atio .Revised Penal Code .
org/divs/ dsgd/papers/dsgdp30.gov/journalsites0303/ijee/dobriansky. Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs. NEDA. Helen and Alison Guernsey. 1. located at http://www. Senate.ifpri. The rule of law is of great consequence to national development because the Constitution and the system of codes.Thus. we can sufficiently conclude that the operation of the rule of law is effective when it follows an orderly structural process which recognizes authorities and symbiotic relationships existing in all levels of government that adequately influence the creation of conditions susceptible to national development. Danielle and Birner.oycf.A.state.htm. U. What is the Rule of Law?. laws and rules define the legal framework and the government structure within which socio-economic and political activities that lead to national development can take place.edu/ifdebook/faq/ Rule_of_Law. . 5.uiowa. What is Rule of Law?.16 - .shtml Websites of Malacanang. Yu.org/Perspectives/5_043000/what_is_ rule_of_law. Supreme Court. No. Resnick. we may revisit the message embodied in the “Prologue” of this piece of writing which had attributed a structural approach to the rule of law as a tool in national development. Paula.htm Bo Li. Principles of Good Governance. REFERENCES Dobriansky.pdf World Bank. located at http://www. Vol. Perspectives. Regina.usinfo. located at http://www.S. Conformably. Does Good Governance Contribute to Pro-Poor Growth? located at http://www.
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