What is Virtualization? Virtualization is a general and ambiguous term that typically means to run multiple instances of something inside something that was intended to only run a single instance. How do we get virtualization? Well there is no. of options available for this, but VMware, Citrix and Microsoft are front runners in domain. Here are the products from above for the same. 1. VMware ESX and VMware server 2. Citrix Xen 3. Microsoft Hyper-V VMware Server: VMware Server is a free virtualization product for Microsoft Windows and Linux servers. It enables you to quickly provision new server capacity or server consolidation by partitioning a Physical server into multiple virtual machines. It is meant for those businesses who want to optimize use of their technology assets using virtualization. Technology behind VMware Server: • Hypervisor – 2 (Hosted Architecture) What is Hosted Architecture? Hosted architecture is where your virtualization software is installed as an application onto the pre-existing host operating system. This means that your virtualization layer relies on your host operating system for device support and physical resource management. VMware Server is a good example of a hosted architecture.
Archive of entire development environments for major projects 2. Virtual Machines for software testing: 1. It can provide following options to the business resources. A common environment matching in both configuration and tools for your entire team 2. Two-way Virtual SMP 4. Intel Virtualization Technology (Intel VT) 5. Platform Testing with Snapshots 2. 1. and other operating systems and applications without Software conflicts. 1. Virtual Machines for Post-release and Application-Maintenance. Platform Testing with Persistent and Non-persistent Disks 3. and other guest operating systems. It can create base image for you development environment 2. Web-Based Interface Use VMware Infrastructure Web Access (VI Web Access) to perform host and virtual machine configuration for VMware Server 2. Features of VMware Server: 1. Including 64-bit operating systems 3. Solaris. 5. Any standard x86 compatible or x-86-64compatible personal computer 2. Rapid platform availability for quick support tasks and bug investigation 4. Add and remove virtual machines from the inventory
. and delete virtual machines 2. Quick rollout of new environments and tools 3.com
Hardware and Software support: 1.arjkhanna@gmail. Create. Run Windows. Move virtual machines from one physical host to another without having to Reconfigure them. A wide variety of Windows. AMD-Virtualization (AMT-V) Where VMware Server does fits for your environment? VMware server suits the requirements and demands of small and medium scale business with non-mission critical processes. Linux.0. 1. Archive of the development team’s virtual machines used during the development phase 3. Virtual Machines for software development: 1. Linux. configure.
reset. You can run VMware Remote Console on the host or a remote client system. Memory Support The maximum amount of memory that can be allocated per virtual machine is 8GB. 4. stop. The amount of memory that can be used by all virtual machines combined is limited only by the amount of memory on the host computer. Generate a VMware Remote Console desktop shortcut that allows virtual machine users to interact directly with the guest operating system outside of a Web browser 7. Number of Network Adapters Supported It can support total of 10 network adapters for a virtual machine. Monitor the operation of virtual machines 5.arjkhanna@gmail. 3. Perform power operations (start. you can enable the VMware VSS Writer. Configure host-wide VMware Server settings 2. Generate a Web shortcut to customize the VI Web Access user interface for users.com 3. with the option to limit their view to the console or a single virtual machine 6. Quiesced Backups of Virtual Machines on Windows On Windows hosts. suspend.
. VMware Remote Console can run independently from VIWeb Access. 5. After you install it as a Web browser add-on from VIWeb Access. which uses snapshots to maintain the data integrity of applications running inside the virtual machine when you take backups. VMware Remote Console VMware Remote Console enables you to interact with the guest operating system running in a virtual machine. VMware Remote Console also allows you to connect and disconnect client CD/DVD and floppy devices. and resume) on
virtual Machines 4.
6. next-generation printers and scanners. DVD-RW drives. such as speakers. Virtual Machine overload: Application that are low I/O intensive and low utilization are best candidates for virtualization but need to put restriction on no. 4. Support for High-Speed USB 2. It puts more of your client's eggs in one basket.0 Devices If the guest operating system has the appropriate USB 2. several virtual servers will go down. of virtual machines that can be handled with ease on physical server. If the host machine breaks or needs to be taken offline. MP3 players. fast storage devices. 2.0 device drivers. 3. Besides above there are few more such as • Additional host operating system support • Additional guest operating system support • improved 64 bit guest support • 64 bit sound driver • Native 64 bit support on linux • Improved VIX-API • VMCI socket interface Bottlenecks: 1. you can use peripherals that require high-speed performance. and high-capacity CD-ROM jukeboxes. Time-sensitive applications like Voice over IP (VoIP) may also be poor candidates for virtualization. The prevailing wisdom is that databases should still run on dedicated physical servers. VMware Server at a glance: Architecture OS Requirements Typical Use Cases Dedicated Server Required Centralized Management Option Ease of Use Performance ESX Server Hosted Windows or Linux Test & Dev. Applications like databases that require a lot of disk activity.arjkhanna@gmail. Production No No High Good
Most end users purchase VMware ESX Server with some set of optional features in a package called VMware Infrastructure. ESX Server is managed by the VMware Infrastructure Client. ESX Server has many optional features like VMotion and VMHA and some built-in features like the VMFS file system. Its centralized management platform is called Virtual Center. It comes in two versions – ESX Server and ESXi Server where the latter has no service console and is the thinnest version available.
Figure 1: ESX server in Enterprise (Virtual infrastructure)
What is the need of ESX Server?
ESX Server is VMware’s flagship enterprise server virtualization platform.arjkhanna@gmail.
it best suits for large enterprises with enormous resources.
Technology behind ESX: • Hypervisor – 1 (Bare Metal) Bare Metal means no OS is required because it has its own kernel derived from linux withit provides greater resources for the virtual machines.
Where ESX server does fit for your environment? As ESX is enterprise wide solution for virtualization to adopt effective hardware abstraction. It possesses best approaches to adopt the hardware abstraction and most effective usage of your resources through vast available tools and services so that you can maximize your infrastructure efficiency. decreased cost of licensing and increased utilization of servers.com
If you are an idealist then ESX is just for you.
.arjkhanna@gmail. reducing operational cost by providing cost effective business continuity.
simplifying and speeding deployment of virtualization. to centralize virtual machine file storage for greater manageability.arjkhanna@gmail. VMware ESX uses intelligent process scheduling and load balancing across available processors to manage the execution of virtual machine processing. Small Footprint: VMware ESXi’s 32MB disk footprint is a fraction of
the size of a general purpose operating system. Bare-metal architecture: VMware ESX inserts a robust virtualization layer directly on the server hardware for near-native virtual machine performance. • Virtual disk files: Add or delete a VMware ESX server from a VMFS volume without pausing or halting the processing of other instances of VMware ESX • VMFS cluster file system: Leverage high performance shared storage to centralize virtual machine file storage for greater manageability. Storage in ESX Server: Leverage high performance shared storage
. reliability and scalability.
Fig: Hypervisor (Baremetal)
2. hardware as an embedded component. flexibility and availability. Server Integration: VMware ESXi is available built into server
4. reducing complexity and providing unmatched security and reliability.com
Hardware and Software support with Features for ESX: Architecture: 1. map SAN LUNs directly to a virtual machine in order to enable application clustering and array-based snapshot technology while profiting from the manageability benefits of VMFS
3. CPU virtualization: Increase server utilization without the risk of
critical services being starved for CPU resources. flexibility and availability • Logical volume manager: Manage the interaction between the physical storage arrays and VMFS with flexibility and reliability • Raw device mapping: Optionally.
Boot from SAN: Run VMware ESX installations on diskless configurations of blade and rack mount servers by booting from SAN.arjkhanna@gmail. and VMFS is the default storage management interface for these files on physical SCSI disks and partitions.
Fig: VMFS allows sharing of storage for multiple ESX servers Features of VMFS: The technical features of VMFS that make it suitable for use in a virtual environment include: 1. Dynamic datastore expansion by spanning multiple storage extents 5. Each virtual machine is encapsulated in a small set of files. Clustered file system with journal logging for fast recovery 6. Lock management and distributed logical volume management 4.com • •
Fiber Channel HBA consolidation: Share expensive storage network components across many virtual machines while maintaining hardware fault tolerance Write-through I/O: Ensure precise recovery of virtual machines in the event of server failure. Encapsulation of the entire virtual machine state in a single directory Benefits of VMFS:
. Optimization for virtual machines in a clustered environment 3. Write-through I/O enables virtual machines to have the same recovery characteristics as a physical system running the same operating system. Simplify backups and disaster recovery by eliminating the need to separately backup local attached server disks
VMFS: (Virtual Machine File System) VMware Virtual Machine File System is a high performance cluster file system which provides storage virtualization that is optimized for virtual machines. Automated file system with hierarchical directory structure 2.
VMFS is a cluster file system that leverages shared storage to allow multiple instances of ESX Server concurrent read and write access to the same storage resources. In contrast. Networking in ESX Server: Network virtual machines like physical
machines. Its distributed locking methods forge the link between the VM and the underlying storage resources in a manner that no other CFS or CVM can equal. Simplifies Disaster Recovery VMFS V/S other file systems: Conventional file systems allow only one server to have readwrite access to the same file at a given time. Build complex networks within a single VMware ESX server or across multiple installations of VMware ESX for production deployments or development and testing purposes. allowing the virtual machine to be restarted on other physical servers. Automated Cluster File System Capability 2. Enables HA with Lower Management Overhead 9. Intelligent Cluster Volume Management 8.arjkhanna@gmail. VMFS also has distributed journaling to allow fast and resilient recovery across these multi-server resource pools. • Virtual NICs: Configure each virtual machine with one or more virtual NICs. if a server fails the on-disk lock for each virtual machine is released. Optimizes VM Access 3. Simplifies Provisioning and Administration of VMs 5. On-disk locking in VMFS ensures that a virtual machine is not powered on by multiple installations of ESX Server at the same time.com
6. Each of those network interfaces can have its own IP address and even its own MAC address. The unique capabilities of VMFS allow VMs to join a cluster seamlessly. with no management overhead. With VMware HA enabled. VMFS does not have every feature found today in other CFS and CVM systems. virtual machines are indistinguishable from physical machines from a networking standpoint
. Encapsulates the Entire VM State in a Single Directory 4. VMFS provides the VM snapshot capabilities so necessary for disaster recovery. and is the interface which VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB) leverages to provide proxy backup of virtual environments. Moreover. Facilitates Dynamic Growth 7. As a result. Provides Distributed Infrastructure Services for Multi-ESX Servers 6. However there is no other CFS/CVM that provides the capabilities of VMFS.
With VMware ESX. reducing the network load of broadcast packets on other switches and network segments. Modify network configurations without having to change actual cabling and switch setups. Run higher levels of performance through virtualization-aware operating systems 2. VMware ESX VLANs are compatible with standard VLAN implementations from other vendors. ERP and CRM can be virtualized. The configuration object specifies all information needed to enable a port: NIC teaming policy (now per port instead of per virtual switch). VLAN tagging.21 onwards). VLAN: Overlay a logical LAN on top of physical LANs to isolate network traffic for security and load segregation purposes. 1. even the most resource intensive production applications such as databases. Performance improvements have been achieved through: • Networking performance optimization: Reduce the CPU overhead associated with processing network i/ • Support for hardware nested page tables: Optimize memory translation time between guest operating systems and physical memory • Support for large memory pages: Improve memory access efficiency for guest operating systems and the Hypervisor • Support for Para virtualized Linux guest operating systems (Linux kernel 2. Enhanced virtual machine performance: Benefit from better virtual machine performance in VMware ESX. and traffic shaping. Advanced memory management: • RAM over-commitment: Increase memory utilization by configuring virtual machine memory that safely exceeds the physical server memory.6.arjkhanna@gmail. Expanded port configuration policies: Simplify port configuration by utilizing a single configuration object across large groups of ports. VLANs keep broadcast traffic limited to the VLAN. For example. Layer 2 security.
Performance and Scalability: VMware ESX delivers unparalleled performance and scalability.com • •
Virtual switches: Create a simulated network within a VMware ESX server with virtual switches that connect virtual machines. the sum of the memory of all virtual machines running on a server with 8GB physical memory can be 16GB • Transparent page sharing: Utilize available memory more efficiently by storing memory pages identical across multiple
Virtual switches can be created with any number of ports from 8 to 1016. 4-Way Virtual SMP(Symmetric multiple processor): Enable a
single virtual machine to use up to four physical processors simultaneously. storage. of very large server systems with up to 32 logical CPUs and 256GB RAM for large scale server consolidation and DR projects. rigorously tested and certified across the complete IT stack of servers. For example. they will have many identical memory pages. With 4-way Virtual SMP even the most processor intensive software applications like databases and messaging servers can be virtualized. if several virtual machines are running Windows Server 2003. Flexible virtual switches: Scale up to handle more virtual
machines. 3. • Memory ballooning: Shift memory dynamically from idle virtual machines to active ones.
4. and up to 248 virtual switches are supported per host. VMware ESX extends this unique feature from two to four processors. Wake-on LAN: Enable higher consolidation ratios by allowing virtual
machines to go on stand-by mode when not used.
8. Transparent page sharing consolidates those identical pages into a single memory location. 64GB RAM for virtual machines: Run the most memory-intensive
5.arjkhanna@gmail. Support for up to 128 powered-on virtual machines: Take
advantage of very large server systems for enterprise-class server consolidation and containment with support for up to 128 powered on virtual machines on a single server. workloads in virtual machines with a memory limit extended to 64GB. Memory ballooning artificially induces memory pressure within idle virtual machines. Improved power management: Lower the data center utility bill with improved power management.com
virtual machines only once. operating
. forcing them to use their own paging areas and release memory for active virtual machines.
9. VMware ESX enters a low power “halt” state when a CPU is not scheduled. Support for powerful physical server systems: Take advantage
Interoperability: VMware ESX is the only virtualization platform optimized.
Storage: VMware ESX is certified with a wide range of storage
3. Networking: Use high performance networking such as 10 Gig E and
4.5 and VMware ESXi 3.com
systems. and Symantec® LiveState Recovery virtual machines in VMware ESX. Operating systems: Run any software application in VMware virtual
5. and software applications allowing for enterprise-wide standardization.
1. EqualLogic. Dell. Software applications with third party systems management
products through Web services APIs provided by the VMware Infrastructure SDK. Hardware: VMware ESX has been certified with industry-leading
rack.5 for the most network intensive workloads machines.arjkhanna@gmail. Support for other virtual machine formats: VMware ESX can run
virtual machines created in non-VMware formats. EMC. HP. IBM. VMware ESXi is integrated into server hardware guaranteeing that virtualization works out of the box. NEC. Network Appliance. • Local SATA storage support: Use select servers with local SATA storage to further lower total cost of ownership while consolidating workloads Infiniband with VMware ESX 3. VMware ESX further reduces total cost of ownership of IT environments.
. • 64-bit guest operating system suppor • Solaris 10 operating system suppor • Windows Vista operating system support • Ubuntu guest operating system support
2. tower and blade servers from Dell. NEC. IBM. • Heterogeneous storage arrays: Utilize a wide variety of heterogeneous storage devices in the same VMFS volume • NAS and iSCSI SAN support: By supporting lower-cost. HP. Sun Microsystems and Unisys as well as servers that conform to Intel white-box standard specifications.
6. systems from. Hitachi Data Systems. Fujitsu Siemens. Fujitsu Siemens. Sun Microsystems and 3PAR and many other vendors. Advanced VMware Infrastructure features like VMotion and VMware HA are fully supported with NAS and iSCSI environments • 4GB Fibre Channel SAN support: Centralize management and configuration of all VMware ESX servers in VirtualCenter. Fujitsu. Using the free VMware Virtual Machine Importer users can run Microsoft® Virtual Server and Virtual PC. StorageTek. more easily managed shared storage.
ESX enables management of entire virtualized IT environment.
6. SMI-S-Compliant Management Interfaces: Monitor virtual storage
using any standard SMI-S-aware storage management tool. Virtual Infrastructure Client: Manage VMware ESX. Virtual machine shortcuts: Enable self-help for end users with direct 7.
5. Remote devices: Install software in a virtual machine running on a
server from the CD-ROM of a desktop without leaving your desk. Fig: ESX-Virtual Center
. and (optionally) VMware vCenter Server with a common user interface. virtual
machines. Advanced manageability and usability features: VMware 3.
8.arjkhanna@gmail. Remote Command Line Interface. Manage VMware ESXi through a
remote execution environment that can run VMware ESX command scripts. Virtual Infrastructure Web Access: Manage VMware ESX with
simple Web interface (formerly known as the Management User Interface.
2. access to virtual machines through a Web browser. or MUI). Agent-less Hardware Management with CIM: The Common
Information Model (CIM) provides a protocol for monitoring hardware health and status through VirtualCenter or CIM-compatible 3rd party tools.com
2. Storage I/O traffic prioritization: Ensure that critical virtual
machines receive priority access to storage devices. Compatibility with SAN security practices: Enforce security
policies with LUN zoning and LUN masking. maximum. Disallow promiscuous mode sniffing of network traffic. Layer 2 network security policies: Enforce security for virtual
machines at the Ethernet layer. and proportional resource shares for CPU.
. disk and network bandwidth. Establish minimum.com
Resource Optimization: It defines advanced resource allocation policies for virtual machines to improve service levels to software applications. Resource Pool: Aggregate collections of hardware resources
1. CPU capacity prioritization: CPU capacity is assigned to virtual
machines on a “fair share” basis and CPU resource controls also allow an absolute minimum level of CPU capacity to be provided to critical virtual machines
2. Resource pools increase flexibility and hardware utilization. memory.arjkhanna@gmail. MAC address changes. Network Traffic Shaper manages virtual machine network traffic to meet peak bandwidth. Modify allocations while virtual machines are running. VLAN tagging: Enhance network security by tagging and filtering
network traffic on VLANs. average bandwidth and burst size constraints.
1. and forged source MAC transmits. Network traffic from virtual machines can be prioritized on a “fair share” basis. I/O traffic from virtual machines to disk can be prioritized on a “fair share” basis.
3. virtualized by VMware ESX into unified logical resources that can be allocated to virtual machines on-demand.
3. Enable applications to dynamically acquire more resources to accommodate peak performance. Network Traffic Shaper: Ensure that critical virtual machines
receive priority access to network bandwidth. Limit the scope of broadcast domains.
installed on a Windows system. What is required is a shared SAN storage system between the ESX Servers and a VMotion license.
. you can perform file level or image level backups and restores of the VM guests. that has SAN connectivity to the ESX Server VMFS file system.arjkhanna@gmail. FFf
Fig: ESX-VCB ESX-Vmotion: VM guests are able to move from one ESX Server to another with no downtime for the users.com
ESX VCB(VMware Consolidated backup): VCB is a group of Windows command line utilities. With VCB. back to the VCB server.
2GHz dualcore processors and then ran VMmark on VMware Server using a similar HP DL585 with four 2.4 GHz dual-core processors. The result is as below:
Fig: ESX-Vmotion ESX at a glance: Architecture OS Requirements Typical Use Cases Dedicated Server Required Centralized Management Option Ease of Use Performance Hypervisor None Production. Test & Dev Yes Yes High Best
Comparison between VMware ESX Server and VMware Server using V-Mark: Running VMmark using ESX Server on an HP DL585 with four 2.
These results show that ESX Server not only achieves higher throughput than VMware Server for a single VMmark tile (6 workload VMs) but also exhibits better scalability when a second tile is added