Eurocodes – Background and Applications

Eurocode example: Actions on a six storey building

18-20 February 2008

Prepared by: Kirstine Bak-Kristensen Svend Ole Hansen

.....................................................2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1..... 8 Characteristic snow loads (S) ............................... 15 Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .......................................... 12 Dimensioning combination of actions ............................ 3.....................................EQU ......................... 4 Characteristic imposed loads (I)................................................................. 7........ 8................................... Introduction .............................................................................. 4............ 5...........................................................STR ............. 6....... 11 Combination of actions ............................................................................................................... 2.. 14 Loss of static equilibrium ........................................ 5 Characteristic wind actions (W) ................................. 3 Characteristic permanent actions (G) .................

2(A) and A. The characteristic actions and design actions on a six storey building are determined.10a: γ Gj . This indicates that medium Consequence Class CC2 may be assumed. Figure 1. The following recommended partial safety factors for permanent actions are applied.inf =1.1. • • • EQU: γ Gj .1.1. STR 6. The K FI factor of 1.1 is applied to the partial safety factors of the unfavourable actions. see B3. Permanent actions only in 6.1 illustrate two points.35 and γ Gj .15 and γ Gj .sup =1. imposed loads.3 in EN 1990:2002. STR 6.3 1. The points A and B shown in figure 1.10b: ξγ Gj .sup =1. see table A1. The reliability class RC3 with K FI =1. These cover permanent actions. Introduction The present example illustrates the Eurocode actions on a six storey building.10 and γ Gj . The support reactions are calculated for the actions considered.2(A) and A.1 is assumed.1 .10a.2(B) in EN 1990:2002.1 in EN 1990:2002.2(B) in EN 1990:2002. see table A1.00.5 is applied for all variable actions. The building includes residential and office areas as shown in figure 1.sup =1.inf =1. The recommended partial safety factor of 1. The building is indefinitely long and supported per 10 m along the building in the points A and B.00. wind actions and snow loads. for which the support reactions are calculated.inf =0.90. see B3.Six storey building Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .

1 .1 .4 2.4 kN/m Figure 2.4 kN/m2 The characteristic permanent actions are assumed as follows: Distributed loads: Line loads: G facade = 2. Table 2. Characteristic permanent actions (G) g roof = 1.1.6 kN/m2 g floor = 2.Characteristic permanent action The above-mentioned permanent actions give the characteristic permanent support reactions specified in table 2.Support reactions from characteristic permanent actions Vertical support reactions RA [kN] RB [kN] [kN] 652 2356 Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .4 kN/m and 8.0 kN/m Gwall = 2.

71 1.0 kN/m2 ψ 0.0 m². and A is the loaded area.0 A in which ψ 0 is the above-mentioned load combination factor.off = 2 + ( 4 − 2) ⋅ 0.85 4 2 + ( 2 − 2) ⋅ 0. Characteristic imposed loads (I) The characteristic imposed uniformly distributed loads q and the load combination factors ψ 0 for residential areas and office areas are as follows: qres = 2.7 qoff = 3.00 The recommended multi storey reduction factor α n is calculated by: αn = 2 + ( n − 2 ) ⋅ψ 0 n in which n is the number of storeys.571 0. res = 0. off = 0.0 2 Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .7 = 0.667 α A qres 1.625 0.res = α 2 .1 – Reduced imposed loads Case no.0 kN/m2 ψ 0. 1 2 3 αA 0.88 2. the area A0 =10.14 1.1 below.7 The recommended floor reduction factor α A is calculated by: αA = ψ0 + 5 7 A0 ≤ 1. For the three cases shown below.5 3.33 α A qoff 1.25 1. the reduced imposed loads are given in table 3.7 = 1. Table 3. Inserting the number of storeys gives: α 4 .

Support reactions from reduced imposed loads for office areas. The load on the two middle storeys are reduced by ψ 0.1 – Distribution of imposed loads Table 3. This gives the relevant load cases shown in figure 3.3. and the support reactions are given in tables 3.2.2 illustrates the reduction for multi storey in case 1. loaded from several storeys.2 .6 The imposed loads shall be classified as variable free actions. The loads on the rest of the storey are unchanged. res . Figure 3. This specification has not been applied in the present example. the total imposed loads on the floor of each storey should be assumed to be distributed uniformly”. see 2.3 . see table 3. 6.2 and 3. Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .Support reactions from reduced imposed loads for residential areas. The average reduction of the loads are expressed by α n . see table 3.1 Support reactions RA [kN] RB [kN] Case 1 60 420 Case 2 150 150 Case 3 -90 330 Figure 3.1.2 (1)P in EN 1991-11:2002.2 (1) in EN 1991-1-1:2002 specifies: “For the design of columns or walls.1 Support reactions RA [kN] RB [kN] Case 1 80 560 Case 2 200 200 Case 3 -120 440 Table 3.

2 – Distribution of imposed loads with reduction for multi storey. case 1 Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .7 Figure 3.

The recommended turbulence factor of k I =1. the pressure coefficients for wind loads on the facades become 0.1.1698 Pressure coefficients.2 in EN 1991-1-4:2005 The fundamental value of the basic wind velocity is assumed to be vb.53) = −0.80 = 0.5 in EN 1991-1-4:2005 The pressure coefficients for the wind action are given in figure 4. Wind direction Wind from west Wind from east Directional factor 2 squared c dir 1.0 =24 m/s.810 0.2 (3).8.8 4. Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .01 m.01 kr qp [kN/m2] 0.30 0.2 in EN 1991-1-4:2005 For westerly and easterly winds the upstream terrains are assumed to be a suburban terrain with a roughness length of z 0 =0. For westerly and easterly winds perpendicular to the long facades.46 .8 Terrain category III I z0 [m] 0. respectively.939 0. Basic values.87.0 has been applied.87 ⋅ (− 0. see 4.5 in EN 1991-1-4:2005 The characteristic peak velocity pressures at building height 22. Terrain roughness.87 ⋅ 0. Table 4.2 and 7. see 7. giving a reduction factor of 0.70 and 0.3. respectively. see 4.4-4.1 assuming flat terrain.1 – The characteristic peak velocity pressure qp. Thus. respectively. see the note of 7. Wind turbulence and peak velocity pressure.2.2. Characteristic wind actions (W) The indefinitely long facades of the building are assumed to be orientated north-south.2154 0.0 0.0 m above terrain are given in table 4.30 m and a lake with a roughness length of z 0 =0.2.0 and c dir =0.The lack of correlation of wind pressures between the windward and leeward side has been taken into account by the recommended procedure. see 4. the directional factor 2 2 squared has been assumed to be c dir =1.

1 – Pressure coefficients for wind actions. Westerly winds.9 Figure 4. Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .

in extension of the above-mentioned correction factor of 0.87. The reactions from characteristic wind actions in table 4. is balanced out by the load increasing effect from inertial forces originating from structural vibrations. it is assumed that the load reducing effect of lack of correlation. Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .2 – Support reactions from characteristic wind loads Westerly winds Reactions Vertical RA [kN] Vertical RB [kN] Horizontal RV [kN] 1 -217 250 -188 2 -244 252 -202 3 -174 152 -157 4 -201 154 -171 5 261 -222 218 Easterly winds 6 285 -275 235 7 195 -220 182 8 219 -273 198 The recommended reduction factor of ψ 0. see table A1. Table 4.w =0.2 – Pressure coefficients for wind actions.10 Figure 4. Thus.2 are determined for a structural factor of 1.6 is applied.1 in EN 1990:2002. Easterly winds.

The shape coefficient for the snow load are given in figure 5 and the reactions for the characteristic snow load are given in table 5.1 . Table 5. for sites located at altitude H ≤ 1000 m a. Characteristic snow loads (S) The characteristic value of snow load on the ground is assumed to be sk = 0.” is assumed. i.11 5.50.Support reactions from characteristic snow loads Support reactions RA [kN] RB [kN] Case 1 13 88 Case 2 -2 77 Case 3 20 55 Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 . ψ 0 . Figure 5.e.1 .1.l.S =0.s.9 kN/m².Snow load shape coefficients The recommended load combination factor for ”remainder of CEN Member States.

5 ⋅ψ 0.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1. see 3. off I off + 1.5 ⋅ψ 0.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1. wW + 1.0 ⋅ G + 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ W + 1.10b-7: 1.1 ⋅ 1.0 ⋅ G + 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ W STR load combinations for smallest RB (permanent action favourable) STR 6.10b-9: 1.15 ⋅ G + 1.3.0 ⋅ G + 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ α res I res + 1.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.10b-4: 1.15 ⋅ G + 1.15 ⋅ G + 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ψ 0.1 ⋅ 1.1.10a: 1.5 ⋅ W + 1.1 ⋅ 1. see the load combinations STR (6.5 ⋅ α off I off + 1. res I res + 1.35 ⋅ G STR load combinations for smallest RA (permanent action favourable) STR 6.2 (2)P in EN 1991-11:2002. see 3.5 ⋅ψ 0.5 ⋅ψ 0.10b-5: 1.1 (2)P in EN 1991-1-1: 2002. s S STR 6. the load combination factor ψ 0 is applied and not the multi storey reduction factor α n . S S STR 6.1 ⋅ 1. off I off + 1.1 ⋅ 1.3.W W STR 6.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ α res I res + 1. S S STR 6. res I res STR 6.5 ⋅ α off I off + 1. res I res + 1.5 ⋅ψ 0.10b-2: 1.5 ⋅ α off I off + 1. • • STR load combinations for largest RA and largest RB STR 6.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.12 6. S S STR 6.0 ⋅ G + 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ψ 0.W W STR 6.5 ⋅ψ 0.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ψ 0.5 ⋅ψ 0.5 ⋅ψ 0.5 ⋅ψ 0.10b)-4 and STR (6.5 ⋅ψ 0. one of the imposed load categories is dominating and the other is accompanying.5 ⋅ W Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .1 ⋅ 1. off I off + 1. off I off + 1.5 ⋅ψ 0. res I res + 1. res I res + 1.5 ⋅ψ 0.10b-3: 1. off I off STR 6.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.10b-8: 1.15 ⋅ G + 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ψ 0.10b-10: 1.10b-6: 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ α res I res + 1. When the imposed loads are the only variable action present. the total imposed loads considered in the load case shall be considered as a single action. The following comments may clarify some of the load combinations: • When the imposed load is an accompanying action.15 ⋅ G + 1. Combination of actions Examples of possible load combinations are listed in table 6.5 ⋅ S + 1.1 ⋅ 1.W W + 1.1 ⋅ 1.10b-1: 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ S + 1.10b)-5.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.0 ⋅ G + 1.5 ⋅ψ 0.1 ⋅ 1. When the imposed loads act simultaneously with the other variable actions due to wind and / or snow.5 ⋅ψ 0.1 ⋅ 1.

1 ⋅ 1.10b) – 1.10b)-5 STR (6.1 ⋅ 1.10b)-8 STR (6.35 1.6 0 0 1.5 0 1.15 1.5 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 0.0 1.10b)-8 STR (6.5 1.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 0.5 ⋅ 0.1 ⋅ 1.0 1.7 gives the smallest reaction in point A of 6 kN. STR (6. The dimensioning support reactions are shown bold in table 6.5 ⋅ 0. respectively.2.5 ⋅ 0.5 0 0 - The design support reactions are given in table 6.6 1.6 1.10a) 1.7 0 0 1.1 ⋅ 1.10b)-9 STR (6.10b)-9 STR (6.10b) .5 1.7 I res I off I W S W 1.10b)-6 STR (6.5 ⋅ 0.10b)-4 STR (6.5 1.1 ⋅ 1.15 1.7 1.10b)-2 STR (6.1 ⋅ 1.10b)-1 STR (6.0 1.1 ⋅ 1.10b)-3 STR (6.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.0 1.5 ⋅ 0.10b)-4 STR (6.5 ⋅ 0.7 1.13 Table 6. Thus.0 1.7 1.5 ⋅ 0.1 ⋅ 1.7 1. Table 6.7 0 0 1.7 1.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 0.7 1.STR RA [kN] STR (6.5 ⋅ 0.5 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.10b)-7 STR (6.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.85 1.2 and STR (6.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 I W S 1.5 1.2.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 0.85 1.10b)-7 STR (6.0 1.5 ⋅ 1.85 1.1 – Design combination factors G I res I off W S Dominating variable action STR (6.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 0.5 ⋅ 0.2 – Design support reactions .1 ⋅ 1. The largest upward pointing reactions in points A and B occur for STR (6.5 ⋅ 0.5 0 0 1.0 1.10b) .1 ⋅ 1.15 1.10b)-5 STR (6.10b)-2 STR (6.5 ⋅ 0.5 ⋅ 0.6 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 1.15 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 0.7 1.5 ⋅ 0.5 ⋅ 0.1 ⋅ 1.10b)-3 STR (6.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.10a) 1652 1716 RB [kN] 4780 4600 4507 4250 4319 1902 3499 1545 1279 1303 92 6 165 250 968 Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .10b)-6 STR (6.1 ⋅ 1. an anchor in point A is not needed according to STR.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.15 1.5 ⋅ 0.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.10b)-1 STR (6.1 ⋅ 1.

5 ⋅ψ 0 .1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ W "+" 1.5 ⋅ψ 0.15 ⋅ G "+" 1.5 ⋅ W "+" 1.5 ⋅ψ 0. I ⋅ I "+" 1.10b)-2) 1.5 ⋅ψ 0. s ⋅ S Smallest RA: (STR (6.1 ⋅ 1. Dimensioning combination of actions . w ⋅ W Largest RA: (STR (6.1 ⋅ 1. I ⋅ I "+" 1. s ⋅ S "+" 1.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.15 ⋅ G "+" 1.1 ⋅ 1.14 7.STR Largest RB: (STR (6.5 ⋅ψ 0.5 ⋅ α n ⋅ I "+" 1.10b)-1) 1.1 ⋅ 1.0 ⋅ G "+" 1.10b)-7) 1.1 ⋅ 1.1 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ψ 0 . s ⋅ S 18-20 February 2008 Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building .

1 ⋅ 1.1.5 ⋅ψ 0. how should the anchor be designed? Give STR alone sufficient safety if an anchor is chosen in the first place? Eurocode example – actions on a six storey building 18-20 February 2008 .1 ⋅ 1.1 – Design support reaction . s ⋅ S 6.5 ⋅ψ 0.15 8.5 ⋅ W "+" 1. Table 8.i ⋅ I "+" 1.1 (1)P in EN 1990:2002 specifies: “EQU : Loss of static equilibrium of the structure or any part of it considered as a rigid body.9 ⋅ Ginf "+" 1.EQU RA [kN] EQU -153 RB [kN] - 1.1 ⋅ 1. Loss of static equilibrium .4.10 ⋅ Gsup + 0. where: • • minor variations in the value or the spatial distribution of actions from a single source are significant. and the strengths of construction materials or ground are generally not governing” Is EQU relevant in the present example? If yes.EQU The design support reaction in EQU is given in table 8.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful