P. 1
Process Var

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11/28/2013

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# Processes and Process Variables

Chapter 2

Mass and Volume
 Density
 mass/unit  g/cm3

volume

 Specific
 cm3/g

Volume
unit mass

 volume/

 Specific

Gravity

 Dimensionless

000 g/cm3  1000 .Specific Gravity  Ratio of the density of a substance to a reference substance at a specific condition  SG= ref  The reference is often the density of water at 4 0C kg/m3  62.43 lb/ft3  1.

What Does this mean? SG 20 0 .6 0 4 0 .

American Petroleum Institute .

[kg/L] b) flow rate [kgmol/min] . =1.Example Ex 2.5 L/min 41. gr.5/ p.2% drug sp. 54 Given: Volumetric flow rate = 10.024 MW drug = 192 Required: a) conc.

Flow Rate rate at which material is transported in a pipe per unit time  Mass flow rate flow rate  Mass/time  Volumetric  Volume/time m V m V .

Flow Rate Measurement  Flowmeter  Rotameter  Orifice Meter .

57 Given: HC fuel F = 40 gal/min sp. 1/ p.91 mass = 40. gr. = 0.Example Prob.000 lb Required: time to fill up .

Moles and Molecular Weight  Atomic Weight  Molecular Weight  gram-mole  lb-mole .

46 Given: 2.00 lbmass of NaOH Determine a) lbmole of NaOH b) gmole of NaOH .Example Ex 2.2/ p.

Mass and Mole Fraction  Mass fraction xA  Mole mass of A total mass fraction yA moles of A total moles .

5 kg mass NaOH = 6.57 Given: solution: mass H2O = 7.5 kg Required: mass fraction.6/p. 2. mole fraction .Example Ex.

Air ( 79% N2 and 21% O2) MWave = 28.Multicomponent Solutions mixtures – assume %mass  Gas mixtures – assume %n = %vol  Liquid/Solid Ex.89 g/mol .

61 Given mixture n-C4H10 n-C5H12 n-C6H14 Required: a) mass fraction b) mole fraction %m 50 30 20 c) % mole d) MWave .Example Prob 3/p.

Concentration  Mass  Molar concentration  Mass/volume concentration volume of the mixture  Moles/unit  Molarity  Molar concentration in gram moles per liter of solution  ppm and ppb .

.Temperature  The degree of heat as an inherent quality of objects expressed as hotness of coldness relative to something else.

TYPES OF TEMPERATURE SCALES  Relative  Degree Scale Fahrenheit (0F)  Degree Celsius (0C)  Absolute  Degree Scale Rankine (0R)  Kelvin (K) .

TEMPERATURE SCALES .

Temperature Conversion .

.

.PRESSURE  The normal (perpendicular) force per unit area.

PRESSURE Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + barometer pressure  Gauge pressure (relative pressure) is zero referenced against ambient air pressure  Absolute pressure is zero referenced against a perfect vacuum .

Atmospheric Pressure  Absolute pressure  Gauge pressure Pabsolute = Pgauge + Patmospheric .

PRESSURE  Measured  Head  Height in psi.9 ft of water  1 atm = a head of 760 mm of Hg . bars of a column of water or mercury  1 atm = a head of 33. pascals.

Pressure Measurement  Bourdon Gauge  Manometer  Barometer .

696 psi (lbf/in2)= 760 mmHg =10.3 kPa = 14.92 inHg = 1013 mbar = 1. 1 atm = 1.33 mH2O = 760 torr = 29.696 psi.In imperial units the Standard Atmospheric Pressure is 14.90 ftH2O .01325 bar = 101.0332 kgf/cm2 = 33.

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